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Sample records for stress disorder adjusted

  1. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

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    ... disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness ...

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Parenting, and Marital Adjustment among a Civilian Population

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    Michal Hershkowitz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While psychopathology in general is linked to poorer marital and parental satisfaction, there is a paucity of data regarding these interactions in parents with Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The current study addresses this issue among a civilian population. Two hundred trauma-exposed parents, mean age of 37.2, 62% mothers, were assessed using self-report questionnaires, for background variables, PTSD symptoms using the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI, marital satisfaction (Dyadic Adjustment Scale, DAS-7, parenting behavior (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, APQ-9, and parenting satisfaction (Parenting Satisfaction Questionnaire. We hypothesized that positive parenting behavior and parenting satisfaction would be negatively correlated with PTSD symptom levels, and that this relationship would be mediated by marital satisfaction; the independent effects of depression on marital and parenting functioning were also examined. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM. Results indicated that PTSD was related to poorer parenting behavior (B = 0.089, p = 0.033, depression had a negative impact on parenting satisfaction (B = 0.983, p = 0.003, and marital satisfaction (B = −0.672, p = 0.004, and marital satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between depression and parenting. The findings demonstrated that the effects of PTSD can cast a pall not only over the individual but over the entire family. Interventions are needed to address these issues.

  3. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

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    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  4. Association of mitochondrial DNA in peripheral blood with depression, anxiety and stress- and adjustment disorders in primary health care patients.

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    Wang, Xiao; Sundquist, Kristina; Rastkhani, Hamideh; Palmér, Karolina; Memon, Ashfaque A; Sundquist, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction may result in a variety of diseases. The objectives here were to examine possible differences in mtDNA copy number between healthy controls and patients with depression, anxiety or stress- and adjustment disorders; the association between mtDNA copy number and disease severity at baseline; and the association between mtDNA copy number and response after an 8-week treatment (mindfulness, cognitive based therapy). A total of 179 patients in primary health care (age 20-64 years) with depression, anxiety and stress- and adjustment disorders, and 320 healthy controls (aged 19-70 years) were included in the study. Relative mtDNA copy number was measured using quantitative real-time PCR on peripheral blood samples. We found that the mean mtDNA copy number was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (84.9 vs 75.9, pAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) and PHQ-9 scores (ß=1.00, p=0.03 and ß=0.65, p=0.04, respectively), after controlling for baseline scores, age, sex, BMI, smoking status, alcohol drinking and medication. Our findings show that mtDNA copy number is associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress- and adjustment disorders and treatment response in these disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. What kind of diagnosis in a case of mobbing: post-traumatic stress disorder or adjustment disorder?

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    Signorelli, Maria Salvina; Costanzo, Maria Cristina; Cinconze, Maria; Concerto, Carmen

    2013-06-11

    Over the last decade a consistent increase in stress-related psychological consequences at the workplace, usually called 'mobbing', has been seen. It claimed physical, psychical and social distress as its victims, leading to an increased incidence of many illnesses, such as psychosomatic disorders (ache, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue and insomnia) and psychiatric disturbances (high level of anxiety, depression and suicidal attempts). It was recently demonstrated that mobbing is significantly widespread among healthcare workers, especially among female nurses. In this report, we illustrate the case of a nurse who, after a brilliant career, underwent mobbing at the workplace, showing depression, anxiety and sleep disorders that required hospitalisation and a substantial intervention.

  6. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

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    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  7. Comparison of Memory Function and MMPI-2 Profile between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Adjustment Disorder after a Traffic Accident

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    Bae, Sung-Man; Hyun, Myoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective Differential diagnosis between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD) is rather difficult, but very important to the assignment of appropriate treatment and prognosis. This study investigated methods to differentiate PTSD and AD. Methods Twenty-five people with PTSD and 24 people with AD were recruited. Memory tests, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2), and Beck's Depression Inventory were administered. Results There were significant decreases in immediate verbal recall and delayed verbal recognition in the participants with PTSD. The reduced memory functions of participants with PTSD were significantly influenced by depressive symptoms. Hypochondriasis, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, paranoia, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder scale of MMPI-2 classified significantly PTSD and AD group. Conclusion Our results suggest that verbal memory assessments and the MMPI-2 could be useful for discriminating between PTSD and AD. PMID:24851120

  8. Psycho-trauma, psychosocial adjustment and symptomatic Post-traumatic stress disorder among internally displaced persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

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    Taiwo Lateef Sheikh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment.MethodsCross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose symptomatic PTSD, composite international diagnostic interview for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Results Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2% had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1% had poor living conditions, and only12 (4.7% had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%, been evacuated from their town (96% and witnessing violence (88%. More than half (58% of IDPs had experienced 11 – 15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were, having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR]3.5, 95% CI 1.7 – 7.5; p= 0.001 and witnessing death of a family member ( 3.7, 1.2 – 11.5; p=0.0259.ConclusionWe concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.Key words Post traumatic stress disorder, psychosocial adjustment

  9. Psycho-Trauma, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Symptomatic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Internally Displaced Persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria.

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    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Agunbiade, Samuel; Ike, Joseph; Ebiti, William N; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose "symptomatic PTSD," composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2%) had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1%) had poor living conditions, and only 12 (4.7%) had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%), been evacuated from their town (96%) and witnessing violence (88%). More than half (58%) of IDPs had experienced 11-15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (adjusted odds ratios 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7-7.5; p = 0.001) and witnessing death of a family member (3.7, 1.2-11.5; p = 0.0259). We concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.

  10. [Adjustment disorder and DSM-5: A review].

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    Appart, A; Lange, A-K; Sievert, I; Bihain, F; Tordeurs, D

    2017-02-01

    higher than for the adjustment disorder. According to their relevance and their content, we have split the articles into seven subcategories: 1. General description: most scientific articles generally describe the adjustment disorder as being a transition diagnosis, which is ambiguous, marginal and difficult to detect. The findings claim that only a few studies have been conducted on the adjustment disorder despite a high prevalence in the general population and in the clinical field. 2. the DSM-5 defined the adjustment disorder as a set of different outcomes and syndromes induced by stress after a difficult life event. While the link to other disorders has not been mentioned, the diagnosis of this disorder is no longer excluded or perceived as a secondary diagnosis. The DSM-5 faced criticism from three points of view: the operationalization of the concept of stress, the differential diagnosis and the description. 3. Prevalence: different samples have shown a significantly high prevalence of the adjustment disorder within the population. In addition to the psychiatric pain induced by difficult life events we need to emphasize the fact that 12.5 to 19.4 percent of the patients faced heavy and severe pathologies and depended on clinical care and treatment. 4. Etiology, comorbidity or associated symptomatology: the literature identified the tendency to commit suicide and stressful life events as being two fundamental characteristics of adjustment disorder. The third one is the personality profile. 5. that motivates researchers to focus on the adjustment disorder: the differentiation approach as to the major depression. Indeed, the aetiology, the symptomatology and the treatment differ from the adjustment disorder. 6. very recently, Dutch researchers have developed and validated the Diagnostic Interview Adjustment Disorder (DIAD). 7. in 2014, no data or meta-analysis recommended drug treatment in addition to therapy. In fact, several authors have demonstrated the

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

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    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) KidsHealth / For Parents / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( ... My Child? Looking Ahead Print What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Someone who is the victim of ( ...

  12. The impact of coping and emotional intelligence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder from past trauma, adjustment difficulty, and psychological distress following divorce.

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    Slanbekova, Gulnara; Chung, Man Cheung; Abildina, Saltanat; Sabirova, Raikhan; Kapbasova, Gulzada; Karipbaev, Baizhol

    2017-08-01

    Focusing on a group of Kazakh divorcees, this study examined the inter-relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from past trauma, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, adjustment difficulties, and psychiatric symptom severity following divorce. One hundred and twenty divorcees participated in the research and completed the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Brief COPE, and Fisher's Divorce Adjustment Scale Results: About 29% reported no trauma; 53%, 21%, and 26% met the criteria for no-PTSD, partial-PTSD, and full-PTSD respectively. Emotion-focused coping and managing emotions predicted adjustment difficulties. Controlling for gender, PTSD, problem-focused coping, and managing emotions predicted psychiatric symptom severity. Problem-focused coping mediated the direct effect of the path between PTSD and psychiatric symptom severity with its mediational effect being moderated by the effect of managing emotions. Following divorce, people can experience psychological distress which is influenced by the effects of PTSD from past trauma, and whether they used problem-focused coping and were able to manage their emotions.

  13. Efficacy of Seren@ctif, a Computer-Based Stress Management Program for Patients With Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety: Protocol for a Controlled Trial.

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    Servant, Dominique; Leterme, Anne-Claire; Barasino, Olivia; Rougegrez, Laure; Duhamel, Alain; Vaiva, Guillaume

    2017-10-02

    Adjustment disorder with anxiety (ADA) is the most frequent and best characterized stress-related psychiatric disorder. The rationale for prescription of benzodiazepine monotherapy is a public health issue. Cognitive behavioral stress management programs have been studied in many countries. Several reports have shown beyond reasonable doubt their efficiency at reducing perceived stress and anxiety symptoms and improving patient quality of life. Considering the number of people who could benefit from such programs but are unable to access them, self-help programs have been offered. First presented as books, these programs became enriched with computer-based and digital supports. Regrettably, programs for stress management based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), both face-to-face and digital support, have been only minimally evaluated in France. To our knowledge, the Seren@ctif program is the first French language self-help program for stress management using digital supports. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a 5-week standardized stress management program for reducing anxiety conducted via eLearning (iCBT) or through face-to-face interviews (CBT) with patients suffering from ADA compared with a wait list control group (WLC). These patients seek treatment in a psychiatric unit for anxiety disorders at a university hospital. The primary outcome is change in the State Trait Anxiety Inventory scale trait subscale (STAI-T) between baseline and 2-month visit. This is a multicenter, prospective, open label, randomized controlled study in 3 parallel groups with balanced randomization (1:1:1): computer-based stress management with minimal contact (not fully automated) (group 1), stress management with face-to-face interviews (group 2), and a WLC group that receives usual health care from a general practitioner (group 3). Programs are based on standard CBT principles and include 5 modules in 5 weekly sessions that include the following topics

  14. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

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    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  15. Stress and adjustment in diabetes mellitus.

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    Parveen, S; Singh, S B

    1999-01-01

    Stress and adjustment in diabetics is studied in order to know the influence of maladjustment and stress in the causation of the disease. The sample of study consists of 100 diabetics patients, 100 nonpsychosomatic and 100 normal person. Results obtained are discussed in detail. It is concluded that maladjustment and stress are important contributing factors in' diabetes mellitus.

  16. Should adjustment disorder be conceptualized as transitional disorder? In pursuit of adjustment disorders definition.

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    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2012-12-01

    The DSM classification of an adjustment disorder is frequently criticized for not being well differentiated from other disorders. A possible reason for this is the vague definition of the term adjustment in social science literature. Hence, the current paper discusses the definition of adjustment and its implications for understanding maladjustment. Differential definitions of the terms adjustment, adaptation, socialization and coping are outlined, leading to the proposition that each one of them represents a different type of demand that is imposed on an individual who encounters a transitional event. Moreover, the four types of demands might be the possible sources of maladjustment. Helping people in transition requires an identification of the source, or combination of sources, that have led to the adjustment problem first, followed by the implementation of an adequate helping approach.

  17. Trauma exposure is associated with increased context-dependent adjustments of cognitive control in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls.

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    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Weber, Fanny; Hoyer, Jürgen; Plessow, Franziska

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with alterations in prefrontal-cortex-dependent cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, cognitive control). However, it remains unclear whether these cognitive dysfunctions are related to PTSD symptomatology or trauma exposure. Furthermore, regarding cognitive control, research has only focused on the integrity of selected control functions, but not their dynamic regulation in response to changing environmental demands. Therefore, the present study investigated dynamic variations in interference control, in addition to overall interference susceptibility and working memory (WM) performance in matched groups of 24 PTSD patients and 26 traumatized and 30 nontraumatized healthy controls. The Simon task was used to measure overall interference susceptibility and the flexible adjustment of cognitive control, on the basis of the occurrence of response conflicts (conflict adaptation effect). WM performance was assessed with the forward and backward digit span tasks. Since we have previously shown that trauma exposure per se is associated with reduced hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), we further explored whether PTSD/trauma-related cognitive alterations are related to HCC in proximal 3-cm hair segments. The results revealed that PTSD patients and traumatized controls showed significantly more pronounced conflict adaptation effects than nontraumatized controls. Moreover, the conflict adaptation effect was positively related to the number of lifetime traumatic events and the frequency of traumatization. The groups did not differ in overall interference susceptibility or WM performance. Exploratory analyses revealed no association between HCC and the observed cognitive differences. These results suggest that context-driven control adjustments constitute a sensitive correlate of trauma exposure, irrespective of PTSD.

  18. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults

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    Jojić Boris R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Autogenic training is a widely recognised psychotherapy technique. The British School of Autogenic Training cites a large list of disorders, states, and changes, where autogenic training may prove to be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults. Our sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 35 individuals, with an average age of 39.3±1.6 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. Aim. The aim of our study was to research the effectiveness of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults, by checking the influence of autogenic training on the biophysical and biochemical indicators of adjustment disorder. Method. We measured the indicators of adjustment disorder and their changes in three phases: before the beginning, immediately after the beginning, and six months after the completion, of a practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rate as well as the levels of cortisol in plasma, of cholesterol in blood, and of glucose. During that period, autogenic training functioned as the sole therapy. Results. The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed demonstrated that arterial blood pressure, pulse rate, concentration of cholesterol and cortisol, after the application of autogenic training among the subjects suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower in comparison to the initial values. These values remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. Conclusion. Autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and helps adults to cope with stress, facilitating their recuperation.

  19. [Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults].

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    Jojić, Boris R; Leposavić, Ljubica M

    2005-01-01

    Autogenic training is a widely recognised psychotherapy technique. The British School of Autogenic Training cites a large list of disorders, states, and changes, where autogenic training may prove to be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults. Our sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 35 individuals, with an average age of 39.3 +/- 1.6 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. The aim of our study was to research the effectiveness of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults, by checking the influence of autogenic training on the biophysical and biochemical indicators of adjustment disorder. We measured the indicators of adjustment disorder and their changes in three phases: before the beginning, immediately after the beginning, and six months after the completion, of a practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rate as well as the levels of cortisol in plasma, of cholesterol in blood, and of glucose. During that period, autogenic training functioned as the sole therapy. The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed demonstrated that arterial blood pressure, pulse rate, concentration of cholesterol and cortisol, after the application of autogenic training among the subjects suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower in comparison to the initial values. These values remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. Autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and helps adults to cope with stress, facilitating their recuperation.

  20. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojić Boris R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Autogenic training is a widespread technique used in psychotherapy. The British school of autogenic training cites a large list of diseases, health states, and life changes, in which autogenic training can be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 31 individuals, with an average age of 17.3±0.2 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. OBJECTIVE The aim of our work was to figure out the influence of autogenic training on adjustment disorder, through biophysical and biochemical indicators, and to research the efficacy of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. METHOD We observed adjustment disorder indicators and their changes in three phases, using initial, final, and control values, which we measured immediately before the beginning, immediately after the completion, and six months after the completion, of the practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rates, cortisol levels in plasma, cholesterol levels in blood, as well as glucose concentrations. During that period, autogenic training was employed as the sole therapy. RESULTS The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed showed that arterial blood pressure, pulse rates, cholesterol and cortisol concentrations, after the application of autogenic training among adolescents suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower than the initial values. They remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. CONCLUSION We concluded that autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and eases the adaptation of

  1. [Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojić, Boris R; Leposavić, Ljubica M

    2005-01-01

    Autogenic training is a widespread technique used in psychotherapy. The British school of autogenic training cites a large list of diseases, health states, and life changes, in which autogenic training can be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 31 individuals, with an average age of 17.3 +/- 0.2 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. The aim of our work was to figure out the influence of autogenic training on adjustment disorder, through biophysical and biochemical indicators, and to research the efficiacy of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. We observed adjustment disorder indicators and their changes in three phases, using initial, final, and control values, which we measured immediately before the beginning, immediately after the completion, and six months after the completion, of the practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rates, cortisol levels in plasma, cholesterol levels in blood, as well as glucose concentrations. During that period, autogenic training was employed as the sole therapy. The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed showed that arterial blood pressure, pulse rates, cholesterol and cortisol concentrations, after the application of autogenic training among adolescents suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower than the initial values. They remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. We concluded that autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and eases the adaptation of adolescents to stress, helping with recovery.

  2. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  3. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

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    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  4. "Subthreshold" depression: is the distinction between depressive disorder not otherwise specified and adjustment disorder valid?

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    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2013-05-01

    Patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression who do not meet the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder are considered to have subthreshold depression. According to DSM-IV, such patients should be diagnosed with depressive disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) if the development of the symptoms is not attributable to a stressful event or with adjustment disorder if the symptoms follow a stressor. Research on the treatment of subthreshold depression rarely addresses the distinction between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we examined the validity of this distinction. From December 1995 to June 2011, 3,400 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. Slightly less than 10% (n = 300) of the 3,400 patients were diagnosed with depressive disorder NOS or adjustment disorder with depressed mood. The patients with depressive disorder NOS were significantly more often diagnosed with social phobia (P depressive disorder NOS reported more anhedonia, increased appetite, increased sleep, and indecisiveness, whereas the patients with adjustment disorder reported more weight loss, reduced appetite, and insomnia. There was no significant difference between the groups in overall level of severity of depression or impaired functioning. The patients with depressive disorder NOS had a nonsignificantly elevated morbid risk of depression in their first-degree relatives. Clinically significant subthreshold depression was common in psychiatric outpatients, and the present results support the validity of distinguishing between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Future studies of the treatment of subthreshold depression

  5. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is among the most prevalentanxiety disorders, both in terms of lifetime and 12-month prevalencerates documented in epidemiological studies worldwide.

  6. Attachment insecurity and psychological resources associated with adjustment disorders.

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    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  7. Suicidal Tendency Among Adolescents With Adjustment Disorder.

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    Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with adjustment disorder (AD) are at risk of presenting suicidal symptoms. Certain personality traits are linked to suicidal tendencies. There is a lack of information about the link between suicide and personality patterns in adolescents with AD. To identify the personality characteristics that predispose to or prevent the development of suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescents with AD. We recruited 108 adolescents with AD at a public mental health center near Barcelona (Spain). They were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (IRIS) to assess suicidal symptoms, as well as the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (16PF-APQ) to appraise personality features. Doleful personality emerged as the principal risk for suicidal symptoms. The conforming personality pattern exerted a protective effect, and emotional stability was associated with low levels of suicidal tendencies. Among the Big Five factors, anxiety had the highest explanatory power for suicidal tendencies. Certain personality characteristics are associated with heightened or reduced risk of suicidal tendencies in adolescents with AD. Their identification is important for clinicians designing treatment programs for these patients.

  8. Is the distinction between adjustment disorder with depressed mood and adjustment disorder with mixed anxious and depressed mood valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer H; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2013-11-01

    In the DSM-IV, adjustment disorder is subtyped according to the predominant presenting feature. The different diagnostic code numbers assigned to each subtype suggest their significance in DSM-IV. However, little research has examined the validity of these subtypes. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared the demographic and clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder subtypes to determine whether there was enough empirical evidence supporting the retention of multiple adjustment disorder subtypes in future versions of the DSM. A total of 3,400 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. Approximately 7% (224 of 3,400) of patients were diagnosed with current adjustment disorder. Adjustment disorder with depressed mood and with mixed anxious and depressed mood were the most common subtypes, accounting for 80% of the patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder. There was no significant difference between these 2 groups with regard to demographic variables, current comorbid Axis I or Axis II disorders, lifetime history of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders, psychosocial morbidity, or family history of psychiatric disorders. The only difference between the groups was lifetime history of drug use, which was significantly higher in the patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder with depressed mood. There is no evidence supporting the retention of both of these adjustment disorder subtypes, and DSM-IV previously set a precedent for eliminating adjustment disorder subtypes in the absence of any data. Therefore, in the spirit of nosologic parsimony, consideration should be given to collapsing the 2 disorders into 1: adjustment disorder with depressed mood.

  9. Yoga--A Boon to the Adjustment Problems and Behavioural Disorders of Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilselvi, B.; Mala, V.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence period is the most important stage of a human being and it is the stage between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence is a time of storm and stress. They cannot adjust to their new role in life. They can have mental, emotional, adjustment, and behavioural problems known as "disorders". Behavioural patterns that emerge in…

  10. The Perils of "Adjustment Disorder" as a Diagnostic Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, John

    2009-01-01

    "Adjustment disorder" occupies a peculiar position in the diagnostic system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) straddling the boundary between normal and abnormal psychology. A more human-centered approach in counseling offers a defense of "normal" adjustment as…

  11. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress (PTS) is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but not as severe. Patients have a ... PTS) are a lot like symptoms of other stress-related disorders. PTS has many of the same symptoms as ...

  13. Parenting Stress, Mental Health, Dyadic Adjustment: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rollè

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the 1st year of the post-partum period, parenting stress, mental health, and dyadic adjustment are important for the wellbeing of both parents and the child. However, there are few studies that analyze the relationship among these three dimensions. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between parenting stress, mental health (depressive and anxiety symptoms, and dyadic adjustment among first-time parents.Method: We studied 268 parents (134 couples of healthy babies. At 12 months post-partum, both parents filled out, in a counterbalanced order, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the potential mediating effects of mental health on the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment.Results: Results showed the full mediation effect of mental health between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment. A multi-group analysis further found that the paths did not differ across mothers and fathers.Discussion: The results suggest that mental health is an important dimension that mediates the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment in the transition to parenthood.

  14. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jojić Boris R.; Leposavić Ljubica M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Autogenic training is a widely recognised psychotherapy technique. The British School of Autogenic Training cites a large list of disorders, states, and changes, where autogenic training may prove to be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults. Our sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 35 individuals, with an average age of 39.3±1.6 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accord...

  15. Parental Adjustment to Disability, Stress Indicators and the Influence of Social Support

    OpenAIRE

    Felizardo, Sara; Ribeiro, Esperança; Amante, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Research into families of children and young people with disability maintain that parents or caregivers seem to experience higher levels of global stress than parents of children without disabilities, thereby presenting a high risk of developing disorders in their health and quality of life. The aim of this study is to understand the differences in parental stress and social support among groups of parents whose children have different disabilities in the context of parental adjustment to dis...

  16. Subthreshold Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ozten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder is a very broad category among mental disorders. Since its inclusion in DSM-III, the diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder has undergone a number of changes. The diagnosis and treatment of people who have some symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder without meeting full criteria still remains controversial. Although subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder has been debated since it was first defined, the presence of subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms has found to raise the risk for suicidal ideation significantly. This article overviews the definitions of trauma related disorders in history of psychiatry and highlights the need to define subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms that were reported to be associated with impairment, comorbidity, and suicidal ideation. Clinical differences between subthreshold and full post-traumatic stress disorder will also be discussed.

  17. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jojić Boris R.; Leposavić Ljubica M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Autogenic training is a widespread technique used in psychotherapy. The British school of autogenic training cites a large list of diseases, health states, and life changes, in which autogenic training can be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 31 individuals, with an average age of 17.3±0.2 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2,...

  18. Imaging Neuroinflammation in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a complex...several central nervous system conditions including post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Microglia represent over...trials. We have subsequently identified a better agent for interrogating TSPO in post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) subjects, 18-F PBR111, a

  19. Serum levels of carbonylated and nitrosylated proteins in mobbing victims with workplace adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, A E; Gangemi, S; Cristani, M; Fenga, C; Saitta, S; Abenavoli, E; Imbesi, S; Speciale, A; Minciullo, P L; Spatari, G; Abbate, S; Saija, A; Cimino, F

    2009-12-01

    Today the most important problem in the work place is psychological abuse, which may affect the health because of high levels of stress and anxiety. There is evidence that most psychiatric disorders are associated with increased oxidative stress but nothing is reported about the presence of oxidative stress in mobbing victims. This study has been carried out in a group of 19 patients affected by workplace mobbing-due adjustment disorders, in comparison with 38 healthy subjects, to evaluate whether oxidative stress may be induced by mobbing. Serum levels of protein carbonyl groups and of nitrosylated proteins, biological markers of oxidative stress conditions, were higher than those measured in healthy subjects. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the redox homeostasis dysregulation occurring in victims of workplace mobbing.

  20. Insights Into Aspects Behind Internet-Related Disorders in Adolescents: The Interplay of Personality and Symptoms of Adjustment Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai W; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Stark, Birgit; Quiring, Oliver; Aufenanger, Stefan; Schemer, Christian; Weber, Mathias; Reinecke, Leonard

    2018-02-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) that has recently been referred to as Internet-related disorder is a growing health concern. Yet, it is unclear why some adolescents are developing problematic use, whereas others sustain control. Based on previous research, we hypothesize that personality traits (low conscientiousness and high neuroticism) act as predispositions for PIU. We further hypothesize that PIU can be understood as a maladaptive reaction toward critical life events and that these maladaptive reactions are exacerbated by dysfunctional personality traits. The study investigates the prevalence of distinct subtypes of PIU among a sample of adolescents (n = 1,489; 10-17 years). Personality traits (Big Five Inventory-10 [BFI-10]), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale 4 [PSS-4]), and their relations to PIU (Scale for the Assessment of Internet and Computer Game Addiction [AICA-S]) were examined. As novel research questions, associations between PIU and adjustment disorders (Adjustment Disorder-New Module [ADNM]-6) and the mediating role of personality were investigated. The prevalence of PIU was 2.5%; girls (3.0%) were more often affected than boys (1.9%). Social networking sites in girls and online games in boys were most often associated with PIU. Low conscientiousness and high neuroticism generally predicted PIU. Significantly more adolescents with PIU (70%) reported critical life events compared with those without PIU (42%). PIU was related to heightened stress and higher adjustment disorder symptoms. These associations were exacerbated by conscientiousness and neuroticism. Although the overall prevalence for PIU is in line with previous studies, it appeared unexpectedly that girls were affected more often than boys. Adjustment disorders and stress showed strong associations with PIU. This bears implications for adapting etiopathological assumptions and early intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  1. Marital Adjustment, Stress and Depression among Working and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship between marital adjustment, stress and depression. Sample of the study consisted of 150 working and non-working married women (working married women = 75, non-working married women = 75). Their age ranged between 18 to 50 years. Their education was at ...

  2. Association among depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation in Taiwanese adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Shun; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Sun, Wen-Jung; Lin, Chieh-Nan; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Che; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Cheng, Hui-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association among depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation in Taiwanese adolescent. We recruited 607 students (grades 5-9) to fill out the investigation of basic data and sleep disturbance. Psychiatrists then used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Kid to interview these students to assess their suicidal ideation and psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression with forward conditionals was used to find the risk factors for multivariate analysis. Female, age, depressive disorder, adjustment disorder, and poor sleep all contributed to adolescent suicidal ideation in univariate analysis. However, poor sleep became non-significant under the control of depressive disorder and adjustment disorder. We found that both depressive disorder and adjustment disorder play important roles in sleep and adolescent suicidal ideation. After controlling both depressive disorder and adjustment disorder, sleep disturbance was no longer a risk of adolescent suicidal ideation. We also confirm the indirect influence of sleep on suicidal ideation in adolescent. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  4. Association of Oxidative Stress with Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.

  5. Response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Abass; Bakhshian, Fereshteh; Narimani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals. This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

  6. Response Inhibition and Cognitive Appraisal in Clients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Abolghasemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals .Method:This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results:Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms .Conclusion:The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder

  7. Some Haematological Parameters in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional disorder which occurs as a result of a life threatening experience. Individuals with PTSD are more likely to develop medical conditions related to stress and research has shown that they may have altered neuro endocrine and immune system abnormalities.2 Diagnosis of ...

  8. Family adjustment across cultural groups in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobar, Sandra L

    2014-01-01

    This pilot ethnomethodological study examined perceptions of parents/caregivers of children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders concerning actions, norms, understandings, and assumptions related to adjustment to this chronic illness. The sample included 14 caregivers (75% Hispanic of various ethnic groups). Maximum variation sampling was used to compare participants on variables that were inductively derived via constant comparative methods of analysis. The following action categories emerged: "Seeking Diagnosis," "Engaging in Routines to Control behavior," "Finding Therapies (Types of Therapies)," "Finding School Accommodations," "Educating Others," "Rising to Challenges," and "Finding the Role of Spiritual and Religious Belief."

  9. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack, being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events. PTSD can be categorized into two types of acute and chronic PTSD: if symptoms persist for less than three months, it is termed “acute PTSD,” otherwise, it is called “chronic PTSD.” 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women would experience at least one potentially traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is significantly higher in women than men. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD varies from 0.3% in China to 6.1% in New Zealand. The prevalence of PTSD in crime victims are between 19% and 75%; rates as high as 80% have been reported following rape. The prevalence of PTSD among direct victims of disasters was reported to be 30%–40%; the rate in rescue workers was 10%–20%. The prevalence of PTSD among police, fire, and emergency service workers ranged from 6%–32%. An overall prevalence rate of 4% for the general population, the rate in rescue/recovery occupations ranged from 5% to 32%, with the highest rate reported in search and rescue personnel (25%, firefighters (21%, and workers with no prior training for facing disaster. War is one of the most intense stressors known to man. Armed forces have a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse and PTSD. High-risk children who have been abused or experienced natural disasters may have an even higher prevalence of PTSD than adults. Female gender, previous psychiatric problem, intensity and nature of exposure to the traumatic event, and lack of social support are known risk factors for

  10. Major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder in Korean subway drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Jo, Sun-Jin; Choi, Bongkyoo; Jeong, Seung Hee; Lee, Kang Sook; Park, Jong-Ik; Chang, Sung Man

    2013-05-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate the prevalence of major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Korean subway drivers, and find the association between these disorders and the drivers' person-under-train (PUT) experiences. A total of 826 subway drivers who participated in a cross-sectional work and health survey were included for this study. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was applied to assess major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and PTSD. The date of PUT, whether victim died, and how many PUTs the drivers experienced were asked using a structured questionnaire. The standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for lifetime prevalence of panic disorder and PTSD in subway drivers were 13.3 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 6.6-22.4) and 2.1 (95 % CI 1.1-3.4), respectively. In lifetime prevalence, after adjusting for age, education, income, and working career, the drivers who experienced PUT had significantly higher risks for panic disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2, 95 % CI 1.2-16.6) and PTSD (OR = 4.4, 95 % CI 1.3-16.4). In 1-year prevalence, the drivers who experienced PUT had a significantly higher risk for PTSD (OR = 11.7, 95 % CI 1.9-225.8). There was no significant value of SPR and OR in major depressive disorder. This study suggests that Korean subway drivers are at higher risk for panic disorder and PTSD compared to the general population, and PUT experience is associated with panic disorder and PTSD. Drivers who have experienced PUT should be treated quickly, sympathetically, and sensitively by a psychological professional and their colleagues, so they can return to work soon.

  11. Catecholamines in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0327 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...emotionally arousing experiences are typically vivid and persistent. The recurrent, intrusive memories of traumatic events in post - traumatic stress disorder ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0327 TITLE: Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress

  12. Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder- a systematic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent ... j (n:J:J Medical Research Council Unit on Anxiety and Stress Disorders, .... of the drugs used. ...... in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse in women.

  13. STRESS AND MENTAL DISORDERS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH AKOOCHEKIAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic renal failure and dialysis are complicated situations that affect on somatic and mental status of patients. In this study, relation between stress, renal diseas, dialysis and mental disorders was determined. Methods. In a case control study in Noor hospital"s dialysis ward (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services the mental status of 30 end stage renal disease (ESRD patients were compaired with well matched control group by MMPI. Results. Hypochondriasis (Hs, depression (D, hysteria (Hy psychastenia (Pt and schizophrenia (Sc were observed in ESRD patients more than controls (P < 0.05. Means of sociopathy (Pd, paranoia (Pa and hypomania (Ma had no difference between groups (P > 0.05. Realy sadness and dysphoria, rumintion with illness, obsession, anxiety, compulsion, impaired process of thinking, isolation tendency and odd sensation in patients were more than control group (P < 0.05. Discussion. Chronic diseases have psychological complication and as a stress must cope and adjust with it. So, these patients and their families must be educated about coping mechanism. When the patients and their families have good coping mechanism, they would be able tolerate these streses.

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among National Guard Soldiers Deployed to Iraq: Associations with Parenting Behaviors and Couple Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Polusny, Melissa A.; DeGarmo, David S.; Khaylis, Anna; Erbes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we report findings from a 1-year longitudinal study examining the impact of change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following combat deployment on National Guard soldiers' perceived parenting and couple adjustment 1 year following return from Iraq. Method: Participants were 468 Army National Guard…

  15. Stress and disorders of the stress system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrousos, George P

    2009-07-01

    All organisms must maintain a complex dynamic equilibrium, or homeostasis, which is constantly challenged by internal or external adverse forces termed stressors. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened or perceived to be so; homeostasis is re-established by various physiological and behavioral adaptive responses. Neuroendocrine hormones have major roles in the regulation of both basal homeostasis and responses to threats, and are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by dyshomeostasis or cacostasis. The stress response is mediated by the stress system, partly located in the central nervous system and partly in peripheral organs. The central, greatly interconnected effectors of this system include the hypothalamic hormones arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides, and the locus ceruleus and autonomic norepinephrine centers in the brainstem. Targets of these effectors include the executive and/or cognitive, reward and fear systems, the wake-sleep centers of the brain, the growth, reproductive and thyroid hormone axes, and the gastrointestinal, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and immune systems. Optimal basal activity and responsiveness of the stress system is essential for a sense of well-being, successful performance of tasks, and appropriate social interactions. By contrast, excessive or inadequate basal activity and responsiveness of this system might impair development, growth and body composition, and lead to a host of behavioral and somatic pathological conditions.

  16. Self-esteem, social adjustment and suicidality in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, E G; Dikeos, D G; Papadimitriou, G N; Souery, D; Blairy, S; Massat, I; Mendlewicz, J; Stefanis, C N

    2002-09-01

    Self-esteem (SE) and social adjustment (SA) are often impaired during the course of affective disorders; this impairment is associated with suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate SE and SA in unipolar or bipolar patients in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, especially the presence of suicidality (ideation and/or attempt). Forty-four patients, 28 bipolar and 16 unipolar, in remission for at least 3 months, and 50 healthy individuals were examined through a structured clinical interview. SE and SA were assessed by the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the social adjustment scale, respectively. The results have shown that bipolar patients did not differ from controls in terms of SE, while unipolar patients had lower SE than bipolars and controls. No significant differences in the mean SA scores were found between the three groups. Suicidality during depression was associated only in bipolar patients with lower SE at remission; similar but not as pronounced was the association of suicidality with SA. It is concluded that low SE lasting into remission seems to be related to the expression of suicidality during depressive episodes of bipolar patients, while no similar pattern is evident in unipolar patients.

  17. Stress Related Oral Disorders - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Nagabhushana

    2004-01-01

    However, relatively few studies have been carried out on the relationship of emotional factors to diseases of the oral mucosa. So, here is an article which tries to briefly review the psychosomatic (stress related disorders related to the oral cavity.

  18. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, Arnold R

    2015-11-01

    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Imagery Rescripting in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of methods of working with imagery to change meanings and ameliorate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It opens with a description of phenomenology in this disorder, usually characterized by a small number of recurrent images of the trauma, each representing a moment that warned of a threat to the physical or…

  20. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Draijer, Nel; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the higher risk of this disorder in women. Explanations reviewed within a psychobiological model of PTSD suggest that women's higher PTSD risk may be due to the type of trauma they experience, their

  1. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    1998-01-01

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  2. Brief Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic methods for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders. Compared trauma desensitization, hypnotherapy, psychodynamic therapy and control condition for 112 persons suffering from serious disorders resulting from traumatic events in the past 5 years. Results indicated that treated cases were…

  3. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  6. Maternal PTSD and Children's Adjustment: Parenting Stress and Emotional Availability as Proposed Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Kristin W; Wilson, Christina K; Padrón, Elena; Lee, Suellen; Gavron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for negative child adjustment, but it is unclear whether this association is direct (e.g., a mother's PTSD symptoms are observed, learned, and internalized by children which results in behavioral and emotional problems) or indirect, through parent-child relationship difficulties or parenting stress. We hypothesized that parenting stress and maternal emotional availability would exhibit indirect effects on relationships between maternal PTSD and children's functioning. Participants were 52 trauma-exposed mothers and their children (aged 7-12 years). Mothers completed measures of PTSD and parenting stress and reported on their children's functioning. Emotional availability was assessed through observer-rated mother-child interactions. Emotional availability was not related to PTSD or child outcomes. Parenting stress had a substantial indirect effect on the relationships between maternal PTSD and child emotion regulation, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. Results highlight the need to target parenting stress in interventions with trauma-exposed families. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and Health study. ... Although stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with psychopathology, the ... life stress and sociodemographic predictors of 12-month and lifetime disorder.

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the event Feeling like you have no future 3. Hyperarousal Always scanning your surroundings for signs ... disorders in medical practice. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  9. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  10. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Mind and Body Approaches for Health Problems Facing Military Personnel and Veterans Research Spotlights Acupuncture May Help ... Clinical Digest: Mind and Body Approaches for Health Problems in Military Personnel and Veterans Clinical Digest: Stress and Relaxation ...

  11. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo

  12. Individual and crossover effects of stress on adjustment in medical student marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J; Monnier, J; Libet, J; Shaw, D; Beach, S R

    2000-07-01

    High-stress individuals may benefit from social support, although their support providers may be adversely affected via stress crossover effects. Individual and crossover effects of perceived stress within medical student marriages (n = 30) were investigated. Perceived spousal support was positively associated with individuals' own marital and emotional adjustment, attenuating stress effects. With regard to crossover effects, medical students' perceived stress was significantly associated with their spouses' emotional adjustment. Further, medical students' own emotional adjustment fully mediated this crossover effect. Results suggest that the contagion of negative affect may serve as a key mechanism through which stress crossover effects operate in marriage.

  13. Anxiety, stress and perfectionism in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Frankland, Andrew; Wright, Adam; Lau, Phoebe; Loo, Colleen; Breakspear, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have highlighted perfectionism and related cognitive styles as a psychological risk factor for stress and anxiety symptoms as well as for the development of bipolar disorder symptoms. The anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder but the mechanisms that underpin this comorbidity are yet to be determined. Measures of depressive, (hypo)manic, anxiety and stress symptoms and perfectionistic cognitive style were completed by a sample of 142 patients with bipolar disorder. Mediation models were used to explore the hypotheses that anxiety and stress symptoms would mediate relationships between perfectionistic cognitive styles, and bipolar disorder symptoms. Stress and anxiety both significantly mediated the relationship between both self-critical perfectionism and goal attainment values and bipolar depressive symptoms. Goal attainment values were not significantly related to hypomanic symptoms. Stress and anxiety symptoms did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-critical perfectionism and (hypo)manic symptoms. 1. These data are cross-sectional; hence the causality implied in the mediation models can only be inferred. 2. The clinic patients were less likely to present with (hypo)manic symptoms and therefore the reduced variability in the data may have contributed to the null findings for the mediation models with (hypo) manic symptoms. 3. Those patients who were experiencing current (hypo)manic symptoms may have answered the cognitive styles questionnaires differently than when euthymic. These findings highlight a plausible mechanism to understand the relationship between bipolar disorder and the anxiety disorders. Targeting self-critical perfectionism in the psychological treatment of bipolar disorder when there is anxiety comorbidity may result in more parsimonious treatments. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder by Gender and Veteran Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Katon, Jodie G; Chen, Jessica A; Fortney, John C; Simpson, Tracy L

    2018-01-01

    Population-based data on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment utilization of post-traumatic stress disorder by gender and veteran status are limited. With changes in post-traumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria in 2013, current information from a uniform data source is needed. This was a secondary analysis of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, which consisted of in-person interviews that were conducted with a representative sample of U.S. adults. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version was used to assess past-year and lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder among veterans (n=3,119) and civilians (n=32,982). Data were analyzed from January to March 2017. Adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, women veterans reported the highest rates of lifetime and past-year post-traumatic stress disorder (13.4%, 95% CI=8.8%, 17.9%, and 11.7%, 95% CI=7.1%, 16.4%) compared with women civilians (8.0%, 95% CI=7.4%, 8.6%, and 6.0%, 95% CI=5.5%, 6.6%); men veterans (7.7%, 95% CI=6.5%, 8.8%, and 6.7%, 95% CI=5.7%, 7.8%); and men civilians (3.4%, 95% CI=3.0%, 3.9%, and 2.6%, 95% CI=2.2%, 2.9%). Traumatic event exposure, correlates of lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment seeking varied across subgroups. Men and women veterans were more likely than civilians to use a variety of treatment sources, with men civilians being least likely to seek treatment and men veterans exhibiting the longest delay in seeking treatment. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common mental health disorder that varies by gender and veteran status. Women veterans' high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder highlight a critical target for prevention and intervention, whereas understanding treatment barriers for men veterans and civilians is necessary. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Post traumatic stress disorder: undiagnosed cases in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop after a ... with other mood- and anxiety disorders, we postulated that this disorder may be under- diagnosed in therapeutic wards ..... disorder and major depression with greater risk for suicidal.

  16. Mindfulness for the treatment of stress disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Dahlgaard, Jesper; Fjorback, Lone

    2015-01-01

    expression to pathological changes. We finally discuss the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on these changes. Can the damage be reversed? Stress-induced modulation of physiological processes may account for a group of poorly understood “functional” disorders, commonly labeled as “Medically...... Unexplained Symptoms”, “Functional Somatic Syndromes”, or “Bodily Distress Syndrome”. In our research clinic, we use Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction to treat patients with these disorders. The beneficial effects of the treatment have received increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate...... that mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction in clinical treatment....

  17. Mindfulness for the treatment of stress disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Dahlgaard, Jesper Ovesen; Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2016-01-01

    track from epigenetic influences via altered gene expression to pathological changes. We finally discuss the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on these changes. Can the damage be reversed? Stress-induced modulation of physiological processes may account for a group of poorly understood...... “functional” disorders, commonly labeled as “Medically Unexplained Symptoms”, “Functional Somatic Syndromes”, or “Bodily Distress Syndrome”. In our research clinic, we use Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction to treat patients with these disorders. The beneficial effects of the treatment have received...... increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate that mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction in clinical treatment. Keywords...

  18. Role of stress areas, stress severity, and stressful life events on the onset of depressive disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueboonthavatchai, Peeraphon

    2009-09-01

    predictor of depressive disorder (adjusted OR = 5.26, 95% CI = 1.85-14.92, p Stress areas, stress severity, and stressful life events had the impact on the onset of depressive disorder in Thai depressed patients. The important stressful life events in Thai depressed patients included severe medical illness, job loss, financial distress, and relationship problems.

  19. Multimodal Approach to Identifying Malingered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Alam, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to aid clinicians in differentiating true posttraumatic stress disorder from malingered posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder and malingering are defined, and prevalence rates are explored. Similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are described for posttraumatic stress disorder. Possible motivations for malingering posttraumati...

  20. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have a significant impact on the development of obesity. Yet, while a reciprocal relationship has been found between obesity and depression, the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity is usually thought of as uni...

  2. Multimodal approach to identifying malingered posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Alam, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to aid clinicians in differentiating true posttraumatic stress disorder from malingered posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder and malingering are defined, and prevalence rates are explored. Similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are described for posttraumatic stress disorder. Possible motivations for malingering posttraumatic stress disorder are discussed, and common characteristics of malingered posttraumatic stress disorder are described. A multimodal approach is described for evaluating posttraumatic stress disorder, including interview techniques, collection of collateral data, and psychometric and physiologic testing, that should allow clinicians to distinguish between those patients who are truly suffering from posttraumatic disorder and those who are malingering the illness.

  3. the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) develops ... like child sexual abuse can develop post-traumatic stress disorder ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... abuse and development of behavior problem ranging.

  4. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  5. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Post Partum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, W.; Marth, C.; Bergant, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic birth experiences may lead to serious psychological impairment. Recent studies show that a considerable number of women can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in some cases in a subsyndromal form. Until now, the possibility that postpartum psychological symptoms might be a continuum of a pre-existing disorder in pregnancy has rarely been considered. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of women who develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. Materials and Methods: 56 multiparous women were recruited for the study. The diagnosis of PTSD was made according to the criteria for psychological disorders in the DSM-IV (Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). The data were collected in structured interviews in the 30th to 38th week of gestation and in the 6th week post partum. Results: Of the 56 women participating, 52 (93 %) completed the survey. Uncontrolled results showed that 21.15 % of the multiparous women met the full diagnostic PTSD criteria in the 6th week post partum. After the exclusion of all cases already characterised by all criteria or a subsyndromal form of PTSD caused by previous traumatisation, the PTSD rate was below 8 % at 6 weeks postpartum (= incidence rate of PTSD post partum). Conclusions: The present study is the first prospective longitudinal study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD in multiparous women as a result of childbirth after having excluded pre-existing PTSD. The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of PTSD during pregnancy. A number of women report all aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. PMID:25253905

  6. Systems Biology Approach to Understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a psychological disorder a???ecting individuals that have experienced life-changing... post - traumatic stress disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-10-2-0111 & USAMRMC 09284002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...challenges As stated in the Introduction, post - traumatic stress disorder is the only psychological disorder for which the onset of the

  7. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  8. The Honolulu posttraumatic stress disorder stimulus set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, C M; Roitblat, H L; Hamada, R S; Carlson, J G; Muraoka, M Y; Bauer, G B

    1997-04-01

    We present word and picture stimuli constituting a validated stimulus set appropriate for cognitive investigations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Combat related and neutral words and pictures were rated by Vietnam veterans with PTSD and by three comparison groups along four dimensions: unpleasantness, Vietnam relevance, stressfulness, and memorability. There were distinctive patterns of responses by the PTSD group which efficiently discriminated the individuals in this group from those in the control groups. These stimuli have the potential to be developed as a diagnostic instrument.

  9. Internet-Based Self-Help Intervention for ICD-11 Adjustment Disorder: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimontas, Jonas; Rimsaite, Zivile; Gegieckaite, Goda; Zelviene, Paulina; Kazlauskas, Evaldas

    2018-06-01

    Adjustment disorder is one of the most diagnosed mental disorders. However, there is a lack of studies of specialized internet-based psychosocial interventions for adjustment disorder. We aimed to analyze the outcomes of an internet-based unguided self-help psychosocial intervention BADI for adjustment disorder in a two armed randomized controlled trial with a waiting list control group. In total 284 adult participants were randomized in this study. We measured adjustment disorder as a primary outcome, and psychological well-being as a secondary outcome at pre-intervention (T1) and one month after the intervention (T2). We found medium effect size of the intervention for the completer sample on adjustment disorder symptoms. Intervention was effective for those participants who used it at least one time in 30-day period. Our results revealed the potential of unguided internet-based self-help intervention for adjustment disorder. However, high dropout rates in the study limits the generalization of the outcomes of the intervention only to completers.

  10. Developmental Origins of Stress and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Francesca L; Guest, Paul C

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few decades, evidence has emerged that the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia can involve perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and other neuroendocrine systems. Variations in the manifestation of these effects could be related to differences in clinical symptoms between affected individuals and to differences in treatment response. Such effects can also arise from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Here, we review the effects of maternal stress on abnormalities in HPA axis regulation and the development of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Studies in this area may prove critical for increasing our understanding of the multidimensional nature of mental disorders and could lead to the development of improved diagnostics and novel therapeutic approaches for treating individuals who suffer from these conditions.

  11. Stress transmission in planar disordered solid foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Stress transmission in planar open-cell cellular solids is analysed using a recent theory developed for marginally rigid granular assemblies. This is made possible by constructing a one-to-one mapping between the two systems. General trivalent networks are mapped onto assemblies of rough grains, while networks where Plateau rules are observed, are mapped onto assemblies of smooth grains. The constitutive part of the stress transmission equations couples the stress directly to the local rotational disorder of the cellular structure via a new fabric tensor. An intriguing consequence of the analysis is that the stress field can be determined in terms of the microstructure alone independent of stress-strain information. This redefines the problem of structure-property relationship in these materials and poses questions on the relations between this formalism and elasticity theory. The deviation of the stress transmission equations from those of conventional solids has been interpreted in the context of granular assemblies as a new state of solid matter and the relevance of this interpretation to the state of matter of cellular solids is discussed

  12. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence—a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible ‘new and improved mode of treatment’ for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  13. Diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid adjustment: comparison of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorder with psychotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Sarah I; Brown, Leslie H; Haas, Gretchen L

    2012-10-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have significant deficits in premorbid social and academic adjustment compared to individuals with non-psychotic diagnoses. However, it is unclear how severity and developmental trajectory of premorbid maladjustment compare across psychotic disorders. This study examined the association between premorbid functioning (in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) and psychotic disorder diagnosis in a first-episode sample of 105 individuals: schizophrenia (n=68), schizoaffective disorder (n=22), and mood disorder with psychotic features (n=15). Social and academic maladjustment was assessed using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Worse social functioning in late adolescence was associated with higher odds of schizophrenia compared to odds of either schizoaffective disorder or mood disorder with psychotic features, independently of child and early adolescent maladjustment. Greater social dysfunction in childhood was associated with higher odds of schizoaffective disorder compared to odds of schizophrenia. Premorbid decline in academic adjustment was observed for all groups, but did not predict diagnosis at any stage of development. Results suggest that social functioning is disrupted in the premorbid phase of both schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but remains fairly stable in mood disorders with psychotic features. Disparities in the onset and time course of social dysfunction suggest important developmental differences between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Mehta, Manju; Sagar, Rajesh; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4) years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores.

  15. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. Results: The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4 years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Conclusions: Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores.

  16. Acculturative Stress and Adjustment Experiences of Greek International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakis, Mixalis; Dike, Craig A.; Massa, Amber C.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated eight Greek international college students' experiences of acculturation and acculturative stress at a mid-western university in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and Consensual Qualitative Research methodology was utilized for data analysis to identify contextual themes and…

  17. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J Yn; Lai, K Yc

    2016-12-01

    Findings about the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been inconsistent in western literature and little is known among non-western societies. This study explored the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder in Hong Kong. A total of 116 families with siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders co-morbid with learning disability were included in the study. Parents completed questionnaires about sibling emotional and behavioural adjustment, and their own mental well-being, quality of life, and family functioning. Siblings completed a questionnaire on their relationship with the autistic proband. Parent ratings did not reveal any significant negative impact on the emotional and behavioural adjustment of the typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder, but there were concerns about their peer relationships and weak prosocial behaviours. When cut-off scores were used to screen for risk of mental health problems, a quarter of the siblings warranted further assessment. Parents' quality of life and family functioning were significant predictors of sibling adjustment. In managing children with autism spectrum disorder, it is necessary to bear in mind the adjustment of their siblings, especially their peer relationships and prosocial behaviour. Adopting a holistic approach to address the psychosocial needs of the parents can facilitate sibling adjustment.

  18. The association between adjustment disorder diagnosed at psychiatric treatment facilities and completed suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Qin, Ping; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2010-01-01

    Adjustment disorder is a diagnosis given following a significant psychosocial stressor from which an individual has difficulty recovering. The individual's reaction to this event must exceed what would be observed among similar people experiencing the same stressor. Adjustment disorder is associa...... regression analyses revealed that those diagnosed with adjustment disorder had 12 times the rate of suicide as those without an adjustment disorder diagnosis, after controlling for history of depression diagnosis, marital status, income, and the matched factors....... is associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. However the association between adjustment disorder and completed suicide has yet to be examined. The current study is a population-based case control study examining this association in the population of Denmark aged 15 to 90 years. All suicides...... in Denmark from 1994 to 2006 were included, resulting in 9,612 cases. For each case, up to 30 controls were matched on gender, exact date of birth, and calendar time, yielding 199,306 controls. Adjustment disorder diagnosis was found in 7.6% of suicide cases and 0.52% of controls. Conditional logistic...

  19. Factors Influencing Adjustment in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katherine A.; Ingersoll, Brooke; Hambrick, David Z.

    2011-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be at an increased risk of adjustment problems. To examine possible predictors of adjustment difficulties in siblings, 70 mothers with at least one child with ASD and one typical child completed surveys of symptom severity in the child with ASD, impact of the child with ASD on the…

  20. The stress-buffering effects of hope on changes in adjustment to caregiving in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Sindia; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the direct and stress-buffering effects of global hope and its components (agency and pathways) on changes in adjustment to multiple sclerosis caregiving over 12 months. A total of 140 carers and their care-recipients completed questionnaires at Time 1 and 12 months later, Time 2. Focal predictors were stress, hope, agency and pathways, and the adjustment outcomes were anxiety, depression, positive affect, positive states of mind and life satisfaction. Results showed that as predicted, greater hope was associated with better adjustment after controlling for the effects of initial adjustment and caregiving and care-recipient illness variables. No stress-buffering effects of hope emerged. Regarding hope components, only the agency dimension emerged as a significant predictor of adjustment. Findings highlight hope as an important protective resource for coping with multiple sclerosis caregiving and underscore the role of agency thinking in this process. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Does acute stress disorder predict posttraumatic stress disorder following bank robbery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies...... following nonsexual assault. The present study investigated the predictive power of different aspects of the ASD diagnosis and symptom severity on PTSD prevalence and symptom severity in 132 bank employees. The PTSD diagnosis, based on the three core symptom clusters, was best identified using cutoff scores...... on the Acute Stress Disorder scale. ASD severity accounted for 40% and the inclusion of other risk factors accounted for 50% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, results indicated that ASD appears to predict PTSD differently following nonsexual assault than other trauma types. ASD severity...

  2. Marital Adjustment, Stress and Depression among Working and Non-Working Married Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Maryam Khurshid; Ms. Hina Ahmed Hashmi; Dr. Ishtiaq Hassan

    2007-01-01

    The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship between marital adjustment, stress and depression. Sample of the study consisted of 150 working and non-working married women (working married women = 75, non-working married women = 75). Their age ranged between 18 to 50 years. Their education was at least gradation and above. They belong to middle and high socio-economic status. Urdu Translation of Dyadic Adjustment Scale (2000), Beck Depression Inventory (1996) and Stress Scale (1991...

  3. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  4. Adjustment to College in Nonresidential First-Year Students: The Roles of Stress, Family, and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Dalia R.; Fish, Marian C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors related to college adjustment in nonresidential first-year students. It was hypothesized that stress, family functioning, and coping strategies would predict academic, personal-emotional, and social adjustment in addition to institutional attachment. The sample comprised 167 first-year college students (ages 18-23)…

  5. Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Adjustments among Malaysian Gifted Learners: Implication towards School Counseling Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Abu Yazid; Ishak, Noriah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Gifted learners have special characteristics which make them unique individuals. However, just like their normative group, gifted learners experience some psychological issues that hinder their ability to adjust in new environments. This study aims to examine levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and adjustments (psychological, social and…

  6. Enduring somatic threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Laura; Alcántara, Carmela; Sumner, Jennifer A; Swan, Brendan; Chang, Bernard P; Edmondson, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder due to acute cardiovascular events may be uniquely defined by enduring perceptions of somatic threat. We tested whether post-traumatic stress disorder at 1 month post-acute coronary syndrome indeed required both high peritraumatic threat during the acute coronary syndrome and ongoing cardiac threat perceptions. We assessed peritraumatic threat during emergency department enrollment of 284 patients with a provisional acute coronary syndrome diagnosis and cardiac threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms 1 month post-discharge. In a multiple regression model with adjustment for important covariates, emergency department threat perceptions were associated with higher 1 month post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms only among those with high levels of ongoing cardiac threat.

  7. DSM-5 PTSD and posttraumatic stress spectrum in Italian emergency personnel: correlations with work and social adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmassi C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Carmassi,1 Camilla Gesi,1 Marly Simoncini,1 Luca Favilla,1 Gabriele Massimetti,1 Maria Cristina Olivieri,1 Ciro Conversano,2 Massimo Santini,2 Liliana Dell’Osso1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (AOUP, Pisa, Italy Abstract: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5 has recently recognized a particular risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among first responders (criterion A4, acknowledging emergency units as stressful places of employment. Little data is yet available on DSM-5 among emergency health operators. The aim of this study was to assess DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD and posttraumatic stress spectrum, as well as their impact on work and social functioning, in the emergency staff of a major university hospital in Italy. One hundred and ten subjects (doctors, nurses, and health-care assistants were recruited at the Emergency Unit of the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (Italy and assessed by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS. A 15.7% DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD prevalence rate was found. Nongraduated persons reported significantly higher TALS-SR Domain IV (reaction to loss or traumatic events scores and a significantly higher proportion of individuals presenting at least one maladaptive behavior (TALS-SR Domain VII, with respect to graduate ones. Women reported significantly higher WSAS scores. Significant correlations emerged between PTSD symptoms and WSAS total scores among health-care assistants, nongraduates and women. Our results showed emergency workers to be at risk for posttraumatic stress spectrum and related work and social impairment, particularly among women and nongraduated subjects. Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, emergency, emergency

  8. Biological Studies of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Roger K.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Shin, Lisa M.; Orr, Scott P.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Preface Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known, viz., an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular, and molecular levels. The present review attempts to present the current state of this understanding, based upon psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, endocrinological, genetic, and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models. PMID:23047775

  9. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between repressive coping style and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 112 cancer patients recently diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. ASD was assessed by the Stanford Acute Stress...... Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients...... classified as "non-repressors". However, further investigations revealed that the lower incidence of ASD in repressors apparently was caused by a low score on anxiety and not by an interaction effect between anxiety and defensiveness. Future studies have to investigate whether different psychological...

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week...

  11. Epigenetic Aspects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of psychiatric diseases such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD invokes, as with most complex diseases, both genetic and environmental factors. The era of genome-wide high throughput technologies has sparked the initiation of genotype screenings in large cohorts of diseased and control individuals, but had limited success in identification of disease causing genetic variants. It has become evident that these efforts at the genomic level need to be complemented with endeavours in elucidating the proteome, transcriptome and epigenetic profiles. Epigenetics is attractive in particular because there is accumulating evidence that the lasting impact of adverse life events is reflected in certain covalent modifications of the chromatin.

  12. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder, complex posttraumatic stress disorder, and borderline personality disorder from a network analytical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knefel, Matthias; Tran, Ulrich S; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share etiological risk factors and an overlapping set of associated symptoms. Since the ICD-11 proposal for trauma-related disorders, the relationship of these disorders has to be clarified. A novel approach to psychopathology, network analysis, allows for a detailed analysis of comorbidity on symptom level. Symptoms were assessed in adult survivors of childhood abuse (N=219) using the newly developed ICD-11 Trauma-Questionnaire and the SCID-II. The psychopathological network was analyzed using the network approach. PTSD and Complex PTSD symptoms were strongly connected within disorders and to a lesser degree between disorders. Symptoms of BPD were weakly connected to others. Re-experiencing and dissociation were the most central symptoms. Mental disorders are no discrete entities, clear boundaries are unlikely to be found. The psychopathological network revealed central symptoms that might be important targets for specific first interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alfalfa root role in osmotic adjustment under salt stress (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibriz, M.; Ghorri, M.; Alami, T.; El Guilli, M.; El- Moidaoui, M.; Benbella, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the sodium chloride on the morpho physiological characteristics of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The characteristics taken into consideration dry matter production of shoot and root (DMS, DMR), root volume (RV), proline content (PS, PR), included total soluble sugar (SSS; SSR) and chlorophyll a, band (a+b). Salt tolerance of the six genotypes was characterised by capacity to growth in salt environment, buildup of osmoregulating compounds (proline and solubles sugar) and a less inhibition of photosynthesis process (decrease of chlorophyll pigment content). Important genotypes differences were observed for each parameter, which make possible a better understanding of the Alfalfa adaptation mechanisms. The results show that the salt stress has a significant influence on the growth of this plants by decreasing the production of dry matter and :)f the root volume. The most important decreases were clear at the 12 g/l concentration mainly upon the Australian variety (Siriver).Thus the most tolerant to salt stress was the Demnate genotype (Dem04) which presented the lowest decrease percentage. The salt effect upon the plant physiological characteristics causes a decrease of the relative water content and chlorophyll a, b and (a+b) content. It also causes an increase of the relative loss of water, the total soluble sugars (SSS; SSR) and the proline contents (PS, PR). Thus, we found a high correlation between the proline and sugar contents of shoot and root and also between these substances and shoot and root dry matter production. (author)

  14. Acculturative Stress, Parental and Professor Attachment, and College Adjustment in Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Pistole, M. Carole; Caldwell, Jarred M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parental and professor attachment as buffers against acculturative stress and as predictors of college adjustment of 210 Asian international students (AISs). Moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed that acculturative stress negatively and secure parental and professor attachment positively predicted academic…

  15. Socioeconomic Stress and Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents: The Protective Role of Family Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…

  16. Quality of life, psychological characteristics, and adjustment in parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Emilie; Bolduc, Mélanie; Rougé, Marie-Caroline; Saiag, Marie-Claude; Delorme, Richard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated quality of life and adjustment mechanisms in parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Ninety parents of children with ADHD completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and self-assessment scales to measure their perceived stress, social support, sense of control, coping strategies and quality of life. ADHD in children negatively affected parents' quality of life, especially their psychological well-being and personal fulfillment. Family and couple relationships, as well as daily life activities, were also affected. The severity of the disorder, perceiving the situation as a threat or a loss, feeling guilty and holding on to irrational beliefs were related to emotion-focused coping strategies and to a poorer quality of life. Furthermore, hyperactivity index and stress ratings relative to perceiving the situation as a threat or a loss, and adopting emotion-focused coping strategies, predicted poorer quality of life. In contrast, perceiving the situation as challenging was related to a greater sense of control and personal fulfillment. Moreover, perceiving the situation as challenging and adopting problem-focused coping strategies predicted better quality of life. The findings highlight the negative effects of ADHD on parent psychological adjustment and underline the need to recommend training programs that improve parenting skills, parents' perceptions concerning their child's behavior disorder and parental functioning.

  17. Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Diez, Cristina; Miguel, Verónica; Mennerich, Daniela; Kietzmann, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia; Cadenas, Susana; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Interrelations of stress, optimism and control in older people's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.

  19. Biomarkers of Risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ),” Principal Investigator, 4/07-4/10, $276,422. 12. R01 MH0687670-01 “DEX/CRH Response... Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Audrey R. Tyrka, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Butler Hospital... Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0269 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Audrey R.

  20. Glutamatergic system abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the glutamatergic system in the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have demonstrated an association between glutamatergic system abnormalities and PTSD diagnosis or severity. We aimed to examine whether abnormalities in serum glutamate and in the glutamine/glutamate ratio were associated with PTSD diagnosis and severity in severely injured patients at risk for PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a nested case-control study in TPOP (Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid) trial. Diagnosis and severity of PTSD were assessed 3 months after the accidents using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The associations of glutamate levels and the glutamine/glutamate ratio with diagnosis and severity of PTSD and MDD were investigated by univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Ninety-seven of 110 participants (88 %) completed assessments at 3 months. Serum glutamate levels were significantly higher for participants with full or partial PTSD than for participants without PTSD (p = 0.049) and for participants with MDD than for participants without MDD (p = 0.048). Multiple linear regression analyses showed serum glutamate levels were significantly positively associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.02) and MDD severity (p = 0.03). The glutamine/glutamate ratio was also significantly inversely associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.03), but not with MDD severity (p = 0.07). These findings suggest that the glutamatergic system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PTSD and the need for new treatments targeting the glutamatergic system to be developed for PTSD.

  1. Parenting stress and external stressors as predictors of maternal ratings of child adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Monica; Hagekull, Berit

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to disentangle the effects of different kinds of stress on maternal ratings of child externalizing and internalizing problems, social inhibition, and social competence, with a primary focus on parenting stress. The relations were explored in a sample consisting of mothers of 436 children (Mage  = 7 years) in Sweden. Half the sample had had early clinical contacts during infancy due to child regulation problems, and the rest were mothers without known such early contacts. Demographic factors, family stressors, and parenting stress were examined in stress - adjustment models. Family stressors were clinical contact during infancy, current child and parent health problems, recent negative life events, and insufficient social support. Parenting stress as a mediator of the effect of other stressors on rated child adjustment was tested as was social support as a moderator of the effect of parenting stress on adjustment. The results showed that a higher parenting stress level was associated with maternal ratings of more externalizing and internalizing behaviors, more social inhibition, and lower social competence. Other family stressors and background variables were also found to be of importance, mainly for externalizing and internalizing problems and to some extent for social competence. Social inhibition had a unique relation to parenting stress only. Parenting stress mediated effects of other stressors in twelve models, whereas social support had no moderating effect on the link between parenting stress and child adjustment. Thus, parenting stress seems to be an important overarching construct. Clinical implications are proposed. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. Occupational imbalance and the role of perceived stress in predicting stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Carita; Ahlborg, Gunnar

    2017-03-02

    Stress-related disorders are the main reason for sick leave in many European countries. The aim of the present study was to explore whether perceived occupational imbalance predicts stress-related disorders, potential gender differences, and to explore the mediating role of perceived stress. Longitudinal data on 2223 employees in a public organization in Sweden were collected by surveys, and analyzed by logistic regression. Occupational imbalance predicted stress-related disorders among both women and men. However, what aspects of occupational imbalance which predicted stress-related disorders differ by gender. Perceived stress was not a mediator in these associations. How women and men perceived their occupational balance affected the risk of stress-related disorders. The results may be used to develop effective strategies to decrease stress-related disorders.

  3. Is the Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Parenting Stress Mediated or Moderated by Parenting Alliance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Camisasca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating and moderating effects of parenting alliance on the relationship between marital adjustment, as represented by the dimensions dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction, dyadic cohesion, and affectional expression, and maternal and paternal stress. Self-report data were gathered from 236 Italian families (236 mothers: M = 40.9; SD = 4.4 and 236 fathers: M = 42.9; SD = 4.8 of children aged 6–11 years (M = 8.6; SD = 1.7. A set of regression analyses were conducted to examine whether parenting alliance mediates or moderates the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. Regression analyses were consistent with a model of coparenting as a mediator but not as a moderator of the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. In the case of mothers, parenting alliance mediates the relationships between two dimensions of marital adjustment (dyadic consensus and dyadic cohesion on parenting stress; in the case of fathers, parenting alliance serves as a mediator of the relationship between the marital adjustment (in terms of dyadic satisfaction and parenting stress. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  4. The Many Presentations of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Hickling

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD has been a controversial diagnosis, with concerns including the sheer number of possible minimal diagnostic combinations (1,750, increasing to >10,000 theoretical possibilities in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. proposals. This study examined whether the theoretical combinations postulated actually occur in a large sample of military personnel. The design of the study was a retrospective examination of PTSD checklists from 3,810 participants who, based on scores, endorsed symptoms consistent with probable PTSD. Combinations of PTSD Checklist–Civilian Version (PCL-C symptom clusters were identified using data from active-duty military personnel who completed the 2005 and the 2008 Department of Defense (DoD Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel Survey. The study examined (a occurrence of combinations, (b unique minimum combinations, (c most frequent combinations, and (d replication of symptom combinations and clusters. The PCL-C scores showed 1,837 unique scoring combinations, 83.5% (1,533/1,837 of the observed unique scoring combinations occurred just once. The most frequently occurring combination (17/17 endorsed accounted for 955 participants (25.1%, the second most frequent (16/17 endorsed accounted for 75 participants (2.0%. PTSD most often presented as a unique constellation of symptom clusters, either capturing symptoms while allowing for considerable variability in its presentation, reflecting different severities of the disorder, or raising concerns about the classification itself, and any future classification that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-V might develop.

  5. Recent Advances in the Study of Sleep in the Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M; Ross, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently associated with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of the sleep disturbances in these disorders and discusses the implications for developing improved treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Sleep Disorders in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Solh, Ali A; Riaz, Usman; Roberts, Jasmine

    2018-04-20

    A growing body of evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances. Fragmented sleep induced by sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, and nightmares impacts recovery and treatment outcomes and worsens PTSD symptoms. Despite recent attention, management of these disorders has been unrewarding in the setting of PTSD. This review summarizes the evidence for empirically supported treatments of these sleep ailments as it relates to PTSD including psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions. Recent advances in positive airway pressure technology have made treatment of OSA more acceptable however adherence to CPAP represents a significant challenge. The presence of concomitant insomnia, which engenders psychiatric and medical conditions including depression, suicide, alcohol and substance abuse, can be managed with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Hypnotic agents are considered an alternative therapy but concerns about adverse events and lack of high level evidence supporting their efficacy in PTSD have limited their use to resistant cases or as adjunct to behavioral therapy when the response is less than desirable. Intrusion of nightmares can complicate PTSD treatment and exert serious strain on social, occupational and marital relations. Image rehearsal therapy has shown significant reduction in nightmares intensity and frequency. The success of noradrenergic blocking agents has not been consistent among studies with half reporting treatment failure. An integrated stepped care approach that includes components of both behavioral and pharmacologic interventions customized to patients sleep maladaptive behaviors may offer a solution to delivering accessible, effective, and efficient services for individuals with PTSD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Marital Adjustment, Stress and Depression among Working and Non-Working Married Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Maryam Khurshid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship between marital adjustment, stress and depression. Sample of the study consisted of 150 working and non-working married women (working married women = 75, non-working married women = 75. Their age ranged between 18 to 50 years. Their education was at least gradation and above. They belong to middle and high socio-economic status. Urdu Translation of Dyadic Adjustment Scale (2000, Beck Depression Inventory (1996 and Stress Scale (1991 were used. Results indicated highly significant relationship between marital adjustment, depression and stress. The findings of the results also show that working married women have to face more problems in their married life as compared to non-working married women. The results further show that highly educated working and non-working married women can perform well in their married life and they are free from depression as compared to educated working and non-working married women.

  8. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce.

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder among black Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I M

    1986-01-01

    Because of racism in the military and racial and social upheaval in the United States during the Vietnam War years, as well as limited opportunities for blacks in the postwar period, black veterans of the Vietnam War often harbor conflicting feelings about their wartime experiences and have difficulty rationalizing brutality against the Vietnamese. As a result, black veterans suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a higher rate than white veterans. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in black veterans is complicated by the tendency to misdiagnose black patients, by the varied manifestations of PTSD, and by patients' frequent alcohol and drug abuse and medical, legal, personality, and vocational problems. The author presents his and others' recommendations about ways to treat black veterans with PTSD.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Orofacial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Prica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic orofacial pain occurs frequently in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and at the same time any pathological process involving orofacial area can be reflected in emotional interpretation of pain and can trigger a series of reactions associated with the PTSD group of symptoms in patients with PTSD. Painful stimuli caused in this way may occur after the primary cause ceased, and because of convergence can cause referred pain outside of the anatomical site where the primary injury occurred. Chronic orofacial pain and PTSD are diagnosed on the basis of subjective testimony and this regularly occurs in the context of social interaction between patients, doctors, medical staff or researchers making it difficult to standardize the results and introduces many cultural phenomena.

  11. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2014-08-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: A narrative review of conceptual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is highly prevalent among individuals who suffer from opioid use disorder. Compared to individuals with opioid use disorder alone, those with post-traumatic stress disorder have a worse course of illness, occupational functioning, and physical health. The neurobiological pathways underlying each disorder overlap substantially, and there are multiple pathways through which these disorders may interact. This narrative review explores evidence underpinning 3 explanatory perspectives on comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: The opioid susceptibility model (a.k.a.: the Self-Medication Hypothesis), the post-traumatic stress disorder susceptibility model, and the common factors model. Diagnostic implications, treatment implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Adjustment disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder: Case report | Nyamai | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following exposure to a major traumatic event like the August seventh 1998 Nairobi bomb blast various reactions occur, some of which result in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We have described one such case, and used it to illustrate the salient features of posttraumatic stress disorder. We have outlined the diagnostic ...

  15. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains--behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement--and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a…

  16. Psychogenetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rady

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Rady, Adel Elsheshai, Osama Elkholy, Heba Abou el WafaDepartment of Psychiatry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is a commonly overlooked psychiatric disorder due to the heterogeneity of symptoms that may simulate many other psychiatric disorders. Such heterogeneity of manifestations may be explained by the multifaceted nature of the different neurotransmitters, endocrinologic axis, and their genetic basis, that are implicated in the etiology. Although this disorder has been studied from many different perspectives, its etiology is still enigmatic. This minireview demonstrates, in brief, that different susceptibility genes are associated with post traumatic stress disorder.Keywords: trauma, post traumatic stress disorder, psychogenetic, stress response, neurobiology

  17. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Novakovic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that develops following trauma and often includes perceptual, cognitive, affective, physiological, and psychological features. PTSD is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive thoughts, exaggerated startle response, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbances, emotional numbness, and persistent avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli. The efficacy of available treatments for PTSD may result in part from relief of associated depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in addition to treatment of core symptoms that derive from reexperiencing, numbing, and hyperarousal. Diverse, heterogeneous mechanisms of action and the ability to act broadly or very locally may enable brain stimulation devices to address PTSD core symptoms in more targeted ways. To achieve this goal, specific theoretical bases derived from novel, well-designed research protocols will be necessary. Brain stimulation devices include both long-used and new electrical and magnetic devices. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES have both been in use for decades; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, magnetic seizure therapy (MST, deep brain stimulation (DBS, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS, and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS have been developed recently, over approximately the past twenty years. The efficacy of brain stimulation has been demonstrated as a treatment for psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety (CES, depression (ECT, CES, rTMS, VNS, DBS, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD (DBS, essential tremor, dystonia (DBS, epilepsy (DBS, VNS, Parkinson Disease (DBS, pain (CES, and insomnia (CES. To date, limited data on brain stimulation for PTSD offer only modest guidance. ECT has shown some efficacy in reducing comorbid depression in PTSD patients but has not been demonstrated to improve most core PTSD symptoms. CES and VNS have shown some efficacy in

  18. Marital adjustment between mothers and fathers of patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The association between marital adjustment and psychological disorders has been well described. The aim of this work was to analyse that adjustment between mothers and fathers of patients with Eating Disorders (ED and its relationship with some eatingand aesthetic body shape model-related variables. Method: A total of 104 mothers and fathers of ED patients were included in the study. They fulfilled some marital adjustment-, irrational food beliefs- and aesthetic body shape model (CIMEC-related questionnaires. Results: With respect to marital adjustment and areas of CIMEC, no significant correlations between mothers and fathers were found. A significant and positive correlation was found in the case of the irrational food beliefs subscale. Mothers showed higher scores on this subscale than fathers did. In addition, mothers scored higher on concerns of being thin, influence of friends, interpersonal influences, body anxiety, influence of advertisements and global CIMEC. The degree of marital adjustment was in the range obtained in clinical populations. Conclusions: The marital adjustment among parents of ED patients is moderate, similar to the described in clinical populations, worse than the found in non-clinical populations and no specific. The more presence of irrational food beliefs in the case of mothers along with a greater influence of the current aesthetic body shape model and the distress caused by the marital maladjustment could be a negative factor to bear in mind during the therapeutic process in ED, especially when working with parents as co-therapists.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Life stress and mental disorders in the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adversities to mood, anxiety, substance use and impulse control disorders in South Africa. Methods. Data were analysed from the South African. Stress and Health study, a population-based study of mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of. 4 351 adults. Psychiatric disorders were assessed with the.

  20. Sexual violence, post-traumatic stress disorder and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, J R; Severson, K

    1997-01-01

    Little is known of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in older people. No literature exists on this disorder in older women exposed to sexual assault. A case of apparent PTSD in a demented woman raises questions of the anatomy and phenomenology of this disorder. Difficulties in diagnosis in a demented population may cloud the issues or prevent a proper therapeutic outcome.

  1. Post traumatic stress disorder: undiagnosed cases in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that may occur after exposure to a severely traumatic event. Since it occurs commonly as a comorbid diagnosis with other mood- and anxiety disorders, we postulated that this ...

  2. "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) in Sexually Abused Children: An Exloratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Darlene Kordich

    1999-01-01

    Compares three groups of young sexually abused children on seven "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) indices. As cumulative number of types of trauma increased, the number of CP/DES symptoms rose. Results suggest that CP/DES also characterizes sexually abused children, especially those who have…

  3. Validating the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist with Soldiers Returning from Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliese, Paul D.; Wright, Kathleen M.; Adler, Amy B.; Cabrera, Oscar; Castro, Carl A.; Hoge, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) as clinical screening tools for active duty soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. A secondary goal was to examine the item-level characteristics…

  4. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59) of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage. PMID:22074416

  5. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hullmann Stephanie E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59 of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage.

  6. The stress-buffering effects of hope on adjustment to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Sindia; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2014-12-01

    Hope is an important resource for coping with chronic illness; however, the role of hope in adjusting to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been neglected, and the mechanisms by which hope exerts beneficial impacts are not well understood. This study aims to examine the direct and stress-moderating effects of dispositional hope and its components (agency and pathways) on adjustment to MS. A total of 296 people with MS completed questionnaires at time 1 at 12 months later and time 2. Focal predictors were stress, hope, agency and pathways, and the adjustment outcomes were anxiety, depression, positive affect, positive states of mind and life satisfaction. Results of regression analyses showed that as predicted, greater hope was associated with better adjustment after controlling for the effects of time 1 adjustment and relevant demographics and illness variables. However, these direct effects of hope were subsumed by stress-buffering effects. Regarding the hope components, the beneficial impacts of agency emerged via a direct effects mechanism, whereas the effects of pathways were evidenced via a moderating mechanism. Findings highlight hope as an important protective coping resource for coping with MS and accentuate the roles of both agency and pathways thinking and their different modes of influence in this process.

  7. Epigenetic mechanisms of alcoholism and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Martina; Pandey, Subhash C

    2017-05-01

    Stress-related disorders, such as anxiety, early life stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder appear to be important factors in promoting alcoholism, as alcohol consumption can temporarily attenuate the negative affective symptoms of these disorders. Several molecules involved in signaling pathways may contribute to the neuroadaptation induced during alcohol dependence and stress disorders, and among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and opioid peptides (i.e., nociceptin and dynorphin) are involved in the interaction of stress and alcohol. In fact, alterations in the expression and function of these molecules have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. In recent years, various studies have focused on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate chromatin architecture, thereby modifying gene expression. Interestingly, epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions have been shown to be associated with the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism and stress. In particular, the enzymes responsible for chromatin remodeling (i.e., histone deacetylases and methyltransferases, DNA methyltransferases) have been identified as common molecular mechanisms for the interaction of stress and alcohol and have become promising therapeutic targets to treat or prevent alcoholism and associated emotional disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  9. Family-Level Coparenting Processes and Child Gender as Moderators of Family Stress and Toddler Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Amy M.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this multi-method study was to examine how child gender and coparenting processes influence associations between family stress and toddlers' social adjustment. The participants, 104 dual-earner couples and their 2-year-old children, were videotaped in their home during a freeplay activity. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires…

  10. Battered Women: The Relationship of Stress, Support and Coping to Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roger E.; Hodson, Christine A.

    Recent research on domestic violence has sought to provide insight into the psychological consequences of such violence. A conceptual framework, which suggests that both situational and person-centered factors contribute to adjustment to violence and affect a woman's personal and social resources, was formulated to examine the impact of stress,…

  11. CRISP-Psychometric Assessment of Postdivorce Stress/Adjustment in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, David M.; Baum, Steven K.

    A new psychometric instrument for measuring the impact of divorce on elementary school age children was developed: the Child's Report of the Impact of Separation by Parents (CRISP). This structured projective test was specifically designed to assess children's postdivorce stress/adjustment. An initial version of the CRISP was administered to 99…

  12. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  13. Socioeconomic stress and academic adjustment among Asian American adolescents: the protective role of family obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and interactive effects at two time points in the same sample of Asian American adolescents-early high school (N = 180 9th-10th graders; 60 % female) and 2 years later in late high school (N = 156 11th-12th graders; 87% of original sample). Results suggest that socioeconomic stress is indeed associated with poor academic adjustment, measured broadly through self-reported GPA, importance of academic success, and educational aspirations and expectations. Family obligation was positively related to adjustment, and also was found to buffer the negative effects of socioeconomic stress, but only during adolescents' later high school years. Adolescents reporting more family obligation experienced less of the negative effects of financial stress on academic outcomes than those reporting lower obligation. Cultural and developmental implications are discussed in light of these direct and moderating effects.

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder and community collective efficacy following the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; McKibben, Jodi B A; Reissman, Dori B; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Sampson, Robert J; Fullerton, Carol S

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research investigating the relationship of community-level characteristics such as collective efficacy and posttraumatic stress following disasters. We examine the association of collective efficacy with probable posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity in Florida public health workers (n = 2249) exposed to the 2004 hurricane season using a multilevel approach. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed electronically to all Florida Department of Health personnel nine months after the 2004 hurricane season. The collected data were used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder and collective efficacy measured at both the individual and zip code levels. The majority of participants were female (80.42%), and ages ranged from 20 to 78 years (median = 49 years); 73.91% were European American, 13.25% were African American, and 8.65% were Hispanic. Using multi-level analysis, our data indicate that higher community-level and individual-level collective efficacy were associated with a lower likelihood of having posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.93, CI = 0.88-0.98; and OR = 0.94, CI = 0.92-0.97, respectively), even after adjusting for individual sociodemographic variables, community socioeconomic characteristic variables, individual injury/damage, and community storm damage. Higher levels of community-level collective efficacy and individual-level collective efficacy were also associated with significantly lower posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity (b = -0.22, pposttraumatic stress disorder are associated with communities with higher collective efficacy. Programs enhancing community collective efficacy may be an important part of prevention practices and possibly lead to a reduction in the rate of posttraumatic stress disorder post-disaster.

  15. Alexithymia and posttraumatic stress disorder following asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Wall, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following asthma attack (post-asthma attack PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among college students. It also investigated the association between these variables and alexithymia. One hundred and six college students participated in the study and completed an on-line survey comprising the Asthma Symptom Checklist, PTSD Checklist, General Health Questionnaire-28 and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Ninety-one students without asthma and major illness formed the control group. 2 % met the diagnostic criteria for full-PTSD, while 42 and 56 % met the partial and no-PTSD criteria respectively. Compared with the control, the asthma group reported significantly more somatic problems, social dysfunction and depression and was five times more likely to have an elevated risk of developing a general psychiatric disorder. After adjusting age, marital status, asthma experience and symptoms, alexithymia did not predict PTSD, while difficulty identifying feelings predicted psychiatric co-morbidity. Mediational analyses showed that asthma symptoms partially mediated the link between difficulty identifying feelings and psychiatric co-morbidity. People can develop PTSD symptoms and other psychological difficulties following asthma attack. Alexithymia influenced general psychological difficulties independently of PTSD symptoms.

  16. Birth order and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily C

    2014-01-01

    To compare the birth order of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD) with population norms. 83 PTSD patients and 104 AD control patients from a psychiatric trauma clinic were diagnosed according to DCR-10 guidelines. A family history was taken as to number of siblings, and their birth order. We compared the distribution of birth order for each patient group against birth order distributions expected by chance for the same years of birth using UK population-level birth order from the Office for National Statistics. Psychiatric patients with PTSD were more likely to be from a large family, specifically to be the fifth child or later (OR 4.78, p birth order between AD patients and the general population. People with PTSD are more likely to be the youngest children from large families than expected from a random sample of people born in the same years. This association with birth order was not found for another psychiatric diagnosis AD from the same clinic. We discuss possible psychosocial and biological causes, and implications for further research.

  17. At the crossroads: the intersection of substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruglass, Lesia M; Lopez-Castro, Teresa; Cheref, Soumia; Papini, Santiago; Hien, Denise A

    2014-11-01

    The co-occurrence of substance use disorders with anxiety disorders and/or posttraumatic stress disorder has been widely documented and when compared to each disorder alone, consistently linked to increased risk for a host of negative outcomes including greater impairment, poorer treatment response, and higher rates of symptom relapse. This article focuses on recent advances in the understanding and effective treatment of this common and highly complex comorbidity. Prevalence and epidemiological data are introduced, followed by a review of contemporary models of etiology and associative pathways. Conceptualizations of effective treatment approaches are discussed alongside evidence from the past decade of clinical research trials. Highlighted are ongoing questions regarding the benefit of sequential, parallel, and integrated approaches and the necessity of further investigation into the mechanisms underlying treatment efficacy. Lastly, recent contributions from neuroscience research are offered as a promising bridge for the development and testing of novel, interdisciplinary treatment approaches.

  18. Relationship between stress coping and sleep disorders among the general Japanese population: a nationwide representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Itani, Osamu; Nakagome, Sachi; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    To clarify the prevalence of stress, and examine the relationship between sleep disorders and stress coping strategies among highly stressed individuals in the general Japanese population. A cross-sectional nationwide survey was undertaken in November 2007. Men and women were randomly selected from 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7671 (3532 men (average age 53.5 ± 17.0 years) and 4139 women (average age 53.9 ± 17.7 years)) were analyzed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on stress, sleep disorders, and stress coping strategies in the previous month. Highly stressed individuals comprised 16.6% (95% confidence interval 15.8-17.5%) of the total sample, and most were aged 20-49 years. In multiple logistic regression, symptoms of insomnia (ie, difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening), excessive daytime sleepiness, nightmares, daytime malfunction, and lack of rest due to sleep deprivation were more prone to occur in highly stressed individuals. In addition, logistic regression analysis controlling for other adjustment factors revealed that stress coping strategies such as 'giving up on problem-solving', 'enduring problems patiently', 'smoking' and 'drinking alcohol' were positively associated with the above-mentioned sleep disorders. On the other hand, stress coping strategies such as 'exercising', 'enjoying hobbies', and 'sharing worries' were inversely associated with the above-mentioned sleep disorders. Distraction-based stress coping (eg, hobbies, exercise, and optimistic thinking) was found to be preferable to problem-based stress coping in a highly stressed Japanese general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender....... CONCLUSIONS Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital...... relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL....

  20. Prostitution, violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, M; Barkan, H

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and thirty people working as prostitutes in San Francisco were interviewed regarding the extent of violence in their lives and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-seven percent reported that they had been sexually assaulted as children and 49% reported that they had been physically assaulted as children. As adults in prostitution, 82% had been physically assaulted; 83% had been threatened with a weapon; 68% had been raped while working as prostitutes; and 84% reported current or past homelessness. We differentiated the types of lifetime violence as childhood sexual assault; childhood physical abuse; rape in prostitution; and other (non-rape) physical assault in prostitution. PTSD severity was significantly associated with the total number of types of lifetime violence (r = .21, p = .02); with childhood physical abuse (t = 2.97, p = .004); rape in adult prostitution (Student's t = 2.77, p = .01); and the total number of times raped in prostitution (Kruskal-Wallace chi square = 13.51, p = .01). Of the 130 people interviewed, 68% met DSM III-R criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD. Eighty-eight percent of these respondents stated that they wanted to leave prostitution, and described what they needed in order to escape.

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder and anesthesia emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovestrand, Donnamarie; Phipps, Steven; Lovestrand, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Emergence agitation or delirium is a known phenomenon in the postanesthesia period. The underlying cause is not definitively understood. In a U.S. Army hospital's postanesthesia care unit, combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can complicate interventions. Scant evidence-based research exists on the issue. By presenting case studies of 2 patients who underwent different surgical procedures, the authors argue that traditional modalities to reorient and calm patients experiencing emergence agitation who have PTSD are not shown to be effective. The first procedure demonstrates outcomes in a situation handled through traditional interventions. The second procedure demonstrates outcomes after incorporation of evidence-driven interventions. The authors conclude that best practice includes a proper identification of patients at risk of emergence agitation, a minimally stimulating environment, intraoperative sympatholytic therapy, and patient and staff education. Although the case studies presented support these principles, research is needed to provide stronger evidence. Military medical and research personnel can take the lead on this issue and be a source for improved outcomes and high-quality patient care.

  2. Executive function in cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Guo, Juncheng; Jiang, Xiangling

    2017-03-01

    Background Cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder can lead to their noncompliant behaviors. However, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of posttraumatic stress disorder in general cancer types or patient populations. The current study attempted to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and their relationships with executive function in individuals with cancer. Methods A total of 285 cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and 150 healthy individuals were recruited for the present study. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were administered to all participants. Results Significant differences in the score of Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were observed between the posttraumatic stress disorder group and the healthy control group ( p posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and executive function. Conclusions These findings suggest that individuals with cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder exhibit more severe impairment in executive function than healthy controls do.

  3. Parenting stress among parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Operto, Francesca Felicia; De Giacomo, Andrea; Margari, Lucia; Frolli, Alessandro; Conson, Massimiliano; Ivagnes, Sara; Monaco, Marianna; Margari, Francesco

    2016-08-30

    In recent years, studies have shown that parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs) experience more parenting stress than parents of typically developing children, but the relation between the type of disorders and parenting stress is far from clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 239 children with Specific Learning Disorders (SpLD), Language Disorders (LD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Parents of children with NDDs experience more parenting stress than those of children who have TD. Although, parents of children with ASD or ADHD report the most high scores of parenting stress, also the parents of children with SpLD or LD report higher parental stress compared with parent of children without NDDs. Another interesting finding was that IQ level or emotional and behavioral problems are associated with the higher levels of parenting stress. This study suggest that parent, both mothers and fathers, of children with different type of NDDs should be provided with interventions and resources to empower them with the knowledge and skills to reduce their stress and to enhance their quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder in critical illness survivors: a metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ann M; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Raparla, Sandeep; Schneck, Kyle W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Needham, Dale M

    2015-05-01

    To conduct a systematic review and metaanalysis of the prevalence, risk factors, and prevention/treatment strategies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in critical illness survivors. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from inception through March 5, 2014. Eligible studies met the following criteria: 1) adult general/nonspecialty ICU, 2) validated posttraumatic stress disorder instrument greater than or equal to 1 month post-ICU, and 3) sample size greater than or equal to 10 patients. Duplicate independent review and data abstraction from all eligible titles/abstracts/full-text articles. The search identified 2,817 titles/abstracts, with 40 eligible articles on 36 unique cohorts (n = 4,260 patients). The Impact of Event Scale was the most common posttraumatic stress disorder instrument. Between 1 and 6 months post-ICU (six studies; n = 456), the pooled mean (95% CI) Impact of Event Scale score was 20 (17-24), and the pooled prevalences of clinically important posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (95% CI) were 25% (18-34%) and 44% (36-52%) using Impact of Event Scale thresholds greater than or equal to 35 and greater than or equal to 20, respectively. Between 7 and 12 months post-ICU (five studies; n = 698), the pooled mean Impact of Event Scale score was 17 (9-24), and pooled prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were 17% (10-26%) and 34% (22-50%), respectively. ICU risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms included benzodiazepine administration and post-ICU memories of frightening ICU experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with worse quality of life. In European-based studies: 1) an ICU diary was associated with a significant reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 2) a self-help rehabilitation manual was associated with significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptom reduction at 2 months, but not 6 months; and 3) a nurse-led ICU follow-up clinic did not reduce

  5. Emotional and Meta-Emotional Intelligence as Predictors of Adjustment Problems in Students with Specific Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Antonella; Guastaferro, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse adjustment problems in a group of adolescents with a Specific Learning Disorder (SLD), examining to what extent they depend on the severity level of the learning disorder and/or on the individual's level of emotional intelligence. Adjustment problems,, perceived severity levels of SLD, and emotional and…

  6. Effect of coping with stress training on the social adjustment of students with learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifolah Khodadadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning disability includes wide range of educational problems which treating these problems need child's social, emotional and behavior treatment. As prevalence of learning disabilities among children and their difficulties, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of coping with stress training on social adjustment of students with learning disabilities. The statistical population consists of all boy student with learning disabilities in learning disabilities center, in which 34 students were selected by convenience sampling. The social adjustment questionnaire was used. The experimental group had coping strategies training in 9 sessions for 90 minutes every week. Covariance analysis was used to compare the scores. The results showed that there was significant difference in pretest and posttest of experimental group. The findings also indicated that coping strategies training increased social adjustment, affective and educational adjustments of experimental group in comparison of control group. Appropriate strategies can be used for dealing with stress in students with learning disabilities. Coping training can be used as supplemental program in schools and centers of learning disabilities to improve the adjustment problems of these students.

  7. Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rikinkumar S; Elmaadawi, Ahmed; Nasr, Suhayl; Haskin, John

    2017-09-03

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is predominant amongst individuals addicted to opioids and obscures the course of illness and the treatment outcome. We report the case of a patient with major depressive disorder and opioid dependence, who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms during a recent visit to the inpatient unit. The similarity of symptoms between post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence is so high that, sometimes, it is a challenge to differentiate between these conditions. Since opioid withdrawal symptoms mimic hyper vigilance, this results in an exaggeration of the response of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. This comorbidity is associated with worse health outcomes, as its pathophysiology involves a common neurobiological circuit. Opioid substitution therapy and psychotherapeutic medications in combination with evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy devised for individuals with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence may improve treatment outcomes in this population. Therefore, we conclude that the screening for post-traumatic stress disorder in the opioid-abusing population is crucial. To understand the underlying mechanisms for this comorbidity and to improve the treatment response, further research should be encouraged.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of stress disorders following two earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kang Chuan; Ruo Yao, Zhao; Zhen Yu, Shi; Xu Dong, Zhao; Jian Zhong, Yang; Edwards, Jason Glen; Edwards, Glen David

    2013-09-01

    Studies about stress disorders following a disaster have mainly been based on single-event trauma with little emphasis on multiple traumas. This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of stress disorders following two earthquakes in China. Subjects were randomly sampled from 11 villages in rural China. A total of 624 subjects were administered with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Symptom Checklist -90-R (SCL-90-R), Coping Style Scale and Social Support Rating Scale. This was followed by a structural clinical interview using the Chinese translation of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV-TR axis 1 disorders (SCID-I-P) for acute stress disorder (ASD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The prevalence of ASD and PTSD was 15% and 29%, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that high intensity of trauma exposure, lower educational level, subjective feeling of economic status and psychological stress after the first earthquake significantly predicted the outcome of PTSD. The study suggested that the prevalence of stress disorders in two earthquakes were higher than that experienced in a single disaster. The intensity of trauma exposure, low educational level, bad subjective feeling of economic status, and psychological stress after the first earthquake could be used to identify survivors at risk of developing PTSD in two earthquakes.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder due to childbirth: the aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2004-01-01

    Childbirth qualifies as an extreme traumatic stressor that can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. The reported prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth ranges from 1.5% to 6%. The aim of this phenomenologic study was to describe the essence of mothers' experiences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. The qualitative research design used for this study was descriptive phenomenology. The main recruitment approach was via the Internet through the help of Trauma and Birth Stress, a charitable trust in New Zealand. Purposive sampling was used and resulted in 38 mothers participating from the countries of New Zealand, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. The participants were asked to describe their experiences with post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Their stories were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of data analysis. Mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth struggle to survive each day while battling terrifying nightmares and flashbacks of the birth, anger, anxiety, depression, and painful isolation from the world of motherhood. This glimpse into the lives of mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth provides an impetus to increase research efforts in this neglected area.

  10. Interactions between disordered sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrey, Ryan; Babson, Kimberly A; Herrmann, Evan S; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-04-01

    Disordered sleep is associated with a number of adverse health consequences and is an integral component of many psychiatric disorders. Rates of substance use disorders (SUDs) are markedly higher among individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and this relationship may be partly mediated by disturbed sleep. Sleep disturbances (e.g. insomnia, daytime sleepiness, vivid nightmares) are hallmark features of PTSD and there is evidence that individuals with PTSD engage in substance use as a means of coping with these symptoms. However, prolonged substance use can lead to more severe sleep disturbances due to the development of tolerance and withdrawal. Behavioural or pharmacological treatment of disordered sleep is associated with improved daytime symptoms and psychosocial functioning among individuals who have developed PTSD. Initial research also suggests that improving sleep could be similarly beneficial in reducing coping oriented substance use and preventing relapse among those seeking treatment for SUDs. Together, these findings suggest that ameliorating sleep disturbance among at-risk individuals would be a viable target for the prevention and treatment of PTSD and associated SUDs, but prospective research is needed to examine this hypothesis. Enhanced understanding of the interrelation between sleep, PTSD, and SUDs may yield novel prevention and intervention approaches for these costly, prevalent and frequently co-occurring disorders.

  11. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains-- behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement—and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a range of theoretical perspectives in an effort to illuminate the mechanisms underlying sibling relationship experiences and their adjustment implications. Our review suggests new directions for research to test theoretically-grounded hypotheses about how sibling relationships develop and are linked to individual adjustment. In addition, we consider how identifying underlying bio-psycho-social processes can aid in the development of interventions to promote warm and involved sibling relationships and positive youth development. PMID:26476737

  12. Electrocardiographic features of patients with earthquake related posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan, Erkan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Biteker, Murat; Karabulut, Evindar; Işıklı, Serhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze electrocardiographic features of patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the Van-Erciş earthquake, with a shock measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale that took place in Turkey in October 2011.

  13. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder and exposure to violence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was investigated in the second place, as well as the question whether a difference existed between the two ethnic groups in respect of this relationship. The participants were comprised of 186 Venda and ...

  15. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  16. post traumatic stress disorder among motor vehicle accident

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-07

    Jul 7, 2004 ... of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi and Director, Africa Mental Health ..... meeting of the Asssociation for Advancement of Behaviour ... and post traumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996.

  17. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children: Suggested Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews literature-based techniques of intervention with posttraumatic stress disorder in children, including such techniques as crisis intervention, in vitro flooding, communication training, physical mastery, perspective taking, elimination of self-blame, and self-calming. (JDD)

  18. Intranasal Oxytocin Normalizes Amygdala Functional Connectivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Saskia B. J.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been suggested as a promising pharmacological agent for medication-enhanced psychotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of its anxiolytic and prosocial properties. We therefore investigated the behavioral and neurobiological effects of a single

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for PTSD (Department of Veterans Affairs) Statistics and Research How Common Is PTSD? (National Center for PTSD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (National Institute of Mental Health) Clinical ...

  20. Predicting the Transition From Acute Stress Disorder to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children With Severe Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C; Nugent, Nicole R; Hawn, Sage E; Koenen, Karestan C; Miller, Alisa; Amstadter, Ananda B; Saxe, Glenn

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of risk for and the transition between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a longitudinal sample of youth with severe injuries admitted to the hospital. These data would assist with treatment and discharge planning. Youth were assessed for ASD during the initial hospital stay and were followed-up over an 18-month period for PTSD (n = 151). Youth were classified into four groups, including Resilient (ASD-, PTSD-), ASD Only (ASD+, PTSD-), PTSD Only (ASD-, PTSD+), and Chronic (ASD+, PTSD+). Demographic, psychiatric, social context, and injury-related factors were examined as predictors of diagnostic transition. The results of multivariate analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons found that peritraumatic dissociation, gender, and socioeconomic status were significant predictors after controlling for multiple testing. Results suggest that both within-child and contextual factors contribute to the longitudinal response to trauma in children. Clinicians should consider early screening and discharge planning, particularly for children most at risk. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful sit...

  2. Effects of Estradiol on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Directed By: T. John Wu, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex...Preventing post-traumatic stress disorder after mass exposure to violence . Biosecur Bioterror 2005;3:154-63; discussion 64-5. 16. Baker DG...John Wu* Affiliations: *Program in Neuroscience and § Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Uniformed

  3. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL; Selçuk ASLAN

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related ...

  4. Gender and stress : is gender role stress? A reexamination of the relationship between feminine gender role stress and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Boselie, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was, first, aimed at examining the relationship between eating disorders, feminine gender role stress and other types of stress. In addition, we investigated whether eating disordered women compared to non-clinical controls use depressogenic coping more often. We hypothesized that

  5. Stress Transmission and Failure in Disordered Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubie, Hadrien; Radjai, Farhang; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2017-08-01

    By means of extensive lattice-element simulations, we investigate stress transmission and its relation with failure properties in increasingly disordered porous systems. We observe a non-Gaussian broadening of stress probability density functions under tensile loading with increasing porosity and disorder, revealing a gradual transition from a state governed by single-pore stress concentration to a state controlled by multipore interactions and metric disorder. This effect is captured by the excess kurtosis of stress distributions and shown to be nicely correlated with the second moment of local porosity fluctuations, which appears thus as a (dis)order parameter for the system. By generating statistical ensembles of porous textures with varying porosity and disorder, we derive a general expression for the fracture stress as a decreasing function of porosity and disorder. Focusing on critical sites where the local stress is above the global fracture threshold, we also analyze the transition to failure in terms of a coarse-graining length. These findings provide a general framework which can also be more generally applied to multiphase and structural heterogeneous materials.

  6. Trauma memory characteristics and the development of acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, A; Brewer, N; Meiser-Stedman, R; Nixon, R D V

    2017-03-01

    The present study addresses gaps in knowledge regarding the association between trauma memory processes and posttraumatic stress responses in youth. Our primary goal was to explore the relative contribution of perceptions of trauma memory quality versus narrative trauma memory characteristics to explain overall adjustment. Children (N = 67) were interviewed within four weeks (T1) of an injury leading to hospital treatment and then again eight weeks later (T2). In each interview, the child told a trauma narrative (which were later coded), and answered the Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire (Meiser-Stedman, Smith, Yule, & Dalgleish, 2007a), a self-report measure indexing the sensory, fragmented, and disorganised characteristics of trauma memory. They then completed measures of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T1 and measures of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T2. Self-reported trauma memory characteristics predicted ASD symptoms cross-sectionally at T1 and PTS symptoms prospectively over time. At both time points, self-reported trauma memory characteristics accounted for all of the unique variance in symptoms initially explained by narrative characteristics. A reduction in self-report ratings, but not the hypothesised narrative features (e.g., disorganised or lexical elements of the narrative), significantly predicted a reduction in PTS symptoms over time. The small sample size and the absence of a within-subjects narrative control were the main limitations of the study. These findings underscore the importance of self-reported trauma memory characteristics to the aetiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Work-related stress disorders: variability in clinical expression and pitfalls in psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselli, Rodolfo; Veltri, Antonello; Baldanzi, Sigrid; Bozzi, Silvia; Marino, Riccardo; Chiumiento, Martina; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Cristaudo, Alfonso

    2016-03-24

    Putative occupational stress-related psychiatric disorders are Adjustment Disorders (AD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Mood Disorders (MD) are not excluded but are unlikely to be identified as occupational diseases. The differential diagnosis between AD and MD is not easy and is based on strict categorical criteria. The aim of this study  was to explore differences in personality and mood spectrum symptoms among workers investigated for occupational stress suffering from AD or MD. Sixty-two patients with AD and 43 with MD were recruited and evaluated by means of rating scales for psychosocial occupational risk and work-related stress (WHS, CDL, OSQ), for sleep disturbances (PSQI), for personality disorders (SCID-II) and for mood spectrum symptoms (MOODS-SR). The diagnostic groups did not differ for WHS, OSQ and PSQI scores. The duration of exposure to stressful/adversative work situations was significantly higher in the MD group (p=0.03). Positive family psychiatric history (p=0.005), personality disorders (p=0.009) and pathological personality traits (p<0.0001) were significantly more frequent in the MD group. The MOODS-SR questionnaire total score (p=0.019) and the manic component score (p=0.001) but not the depressive score were significantly higher in the MD group. The present study suggests that  positive family psychiatric history, pathological personality traits and  spectrum manic symptoms represent markers of vulnerability and low resilience for workers exposed to occupational stress. These characteristics could weaken the etiological relationship between work-related stress and an initial  major depressive episode when it is under investigation as a possible occupational disease.

  8. Adjustment disorder with anxiety in old age: comparing prevalence and clinical management in primary care and mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbus, C; Hergueta, T; Duburcq, A; Saleh, A; Le Guern, M-E; Robert, P; Camus, V

    2014-05-01

    Adjustment disorder with anxiety (AjD-A) is a common cause of severe anxiety symptoms, but little is known about its prevalence in old age. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of AjD-A in outpatients over the age of 60 who consecutively consulted 34 general practitioners and 22 psychiatrists during a 2-week period. The diagnosis of AjD-A was obtained using the optional module for diagnostic of adjustment disorder of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The study procedure also explored comorbid psychiatric conditions and documented recent past stressful life events, as well as social disability and current pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. Overall, 3651 consecutive subjects were screened (2937 in primary care and 714 in mental health care). The prevalence rate of AjD-A was 3.7% (n=136). Up to 39% (n=53) of AjD-A subjects had a comorbid psychiatric condition, mostly of the anxious type. The most frequently stressful life event reported to be associated with the onset of AjD-A was personal illness or health problem (29%). More than 50% of the AjD-A patients were markedly to extremely disabled by their symptoms. Compared to patients who consulted psychiatrists, patients who were seen by primary care physicians were older, had obtained lower scores at the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, benefited less frequently from non-pharmacological management and received benzodiazepines more frequently. AjD-A appears to be a significantly disabling cause of anxiety symptoms in community dwelling elderly persons, in particular those presenting personal health related problems. Improvement of early diagnosis and non-pharmacological management of AjD-A would contribute to limit risks of benzodiazepine overuse, particularly in primary care settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…

  10. Gender-specific predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donbaek, Dagmar Feddern; Elklit, Ask

    2015-01-01

    Gender is an important risk factor for both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents; however, little is known about the influence of gender when considering their common co-occurrence. This study examined whether problematic substance use, attachment...

  11. The management of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic and also carry a higher burden of early childhood trauma, other life traumas (e.g. rape and partner violence) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).1,2 Yet PTSD and other common psychiatric disorders (e.g. depression, alcohol abuse) are commonly ...

  12. Neuropsychological Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Matthew R.; Obrzut, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can affect people of all ages but the literature is lacking on children and adolescents who experience PTSD. The consequences of this disorder extend beyond the basic symptoms by which it is defined. Neuroanatomically, the brains of children with PTSD have been found to be abnormally symmetrical in several…

  13. A Virtual Agent for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielman, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder with a high impact on quality of life, and despite the existence of treatment, barriers still stop many people from receiving the care they need. An e-mental health system for home use might remove some of these barriers, as it provides a

  14. ADJUSTABLE TRANSOBTURATOR SLING FOR TREATING PATIENTS WITH COMPLICATED STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Shkarupa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The optimal tension of suburethral tape is an important component of effectiveness and safety of the surgery. By now, there is no common standardized guidance on the tensioning of the sling. There is a limited number of publications, devoted to adjustable systems with the ability to correct tape tension in postoperative period. To evaluate the effectiveness of this method, the long-term results of postoperative adjustment of the sling are necessary.Aim. To evaluate the results of complicated stress urinary incontinence (SUI surgical treatment using a transobturator adjustable sling Urosling (Lintex.Materials and methods. The study included 89 women with complicated SUI. All patients underwent the transobturator adjustable midurethral tape placement. The tension adjustment was performed during 3 days after surgery. Postoperative evaluation included vaginal examination, cough stress test, 1-h Pad-test, uroflowmetry, bladder ultrasound and post-void residual (PVR urine measurement, validated questionnaires (UDI-6, UIQ-7, ICIQ-SF, PICQ-12 and visual analogue scale (VAS.Results. Mean operative time was 15.74±7.49 min. The tension adjustment was performed in 45.0% (40/89 patients the next day after surgery. On the second day tension re-adjustment was required in 14,6% (13/89 patients. In 3.4% (3/89 women the tension was also tuned on the 3 day. The loosening of the sling was needed in 13.5% (12/89 patients. After adjustment, all patients were continent without any signs of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. Mean follow-up was 14.3±2.1 months. The objective cure rate was 92.9%. There was no statistically significant difference in the urodynamic parameters. Assessment of patient satisfaction showed that 95.2% (80/84 of the patients were «very» or «very» satisfied.Conclusion. The adjustable transobturator suburethral tape Urosling allows to achieve high effectiveness of treatment in female patients with complicated SUI and to reduce the

  15. Long-term trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) identify long-term trajectories of combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over a 20-year period from 1983 to 2002 in veterans with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) and (2) identify social predictors of these trajectories. METHOD: A latent growth...

  16. Conduct disorder, war zone stress, and war-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in American Indian Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Denise; Jacobsen, Clemma; Ramsey, Scott; Manson, Spero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether conduct disorder (CD) was associated with war zone stress and war-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in American Indian (AI) Vietnam veterans. Cross-sectional lay-interview data was analyzed for 591 male participants from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project. Logistic regression evaluated the association of CD with odds of high war zone stress and linear regression evaluated the association of CD and PTSD symptom severity. Childhood CD was not associated with increased odds of high war zone stress. Conduct disorder was associated with elevated war-related PTSD symptoms among male AI Vietnam Veterans independent of war zone stress level and other mediators. Future efforts should examine reasons for this association and if the association exists in other AI populations.

  17. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tonello Lucio; Cocchi Massimo; Tsaluchidu Sofia; Puri Basant K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categ...

  18. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder, and distress (the Danish IBBIS trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Rie; Fisker, Jonas; Hoff, Andreas; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2017-12-02

    Common mental disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease and cause negative effects on both the individual and society. Stress-related disorders influence the individual's workability and cause early retirement pensions in Denmark. There is no clear evidence that mental health care alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery for this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the Danish IBBIS (Integreret Behandlings- og BeskæftigelsesIndsats til Sygemeldte) study is to examine the efficacy of (1) a stepped mental health care intervention with individual stress coaching and/or group-based MBSR and (2) an integrated stepped mental health care with individual stress coaching and/or group-based MBSR and vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder or distress in Denmark. This three-armed, parallel-group, randomized superiority trial is set up to investigate the effectiveness of a stepped mental health care intervention and an integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder or distress in Denmark. The trial has an investigator-initiated multicenter design. Six hundred and three patients will be recruited from Danish vocational rehabilitation centers in four municipalities and randomly assigned into three groups: (1) IBBIS mental health care integrated with IBBIS vocational rehabilitation, (2) IBBIS mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation, and (3) standard mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation. The primary outcome is register-based return to work at 12 months. The secondary outcome measures are self-assessed level of depression (BDI), anxiety (BAI), distress symptoms (4DSQ), work- and social functioning (WSAS), and

  19. The Assessment of Family Functions, Dyadic Adjustment, and Parental Attitude in Adolescents with Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngel Atar, Ayça; Yalçin, Özhan; Uygun, Ersin; Çiftçi Demirci, Arzu; Erdoğan, Ayten

    2016-03-01

    Family structure and family attitudes have been reported to be important factors in the development of substance use disorders. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between substance use and family functions, parental attitude, and parental dyadic adjustment of adolescents with substance use disorder. The study was conducted on 50 patients, comprising 9 female and 41 male adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years, treated at Bakırköy Mental Health Hospital, Substance Abuse Research, Treatment and Education Center for Children Adolescents (ÇEMATEM), Turkey, with the diagnosis of substance use disorder according to DSM-5 and their parents and a control group comprising 50 healthy adolescents without any psychopathology or substance use disorder and their parents. The study was designed as a matched case-control study for age and gender. Sociodemographic Data Form (SDF), Parental Attitude Scale (PAS), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and Family Assessment Device (FAD) were applied to both groups. When the study and control groups were compared with regard to the PAS, the study group scores determined for "involvement-acceptance," "psychological autonomy," and "control-supervision" dimensions were significantly lower than the control group scores. Compared with the control group, dyadic adjustment was lower in terms of "dyadic cohesion," "dyadic consensus," and "affectional expression." Living with biological parents and the togetherness of parents were lower in the study group. "Problem solving," "communication," "roles," "affective responsiveness," "affective involvement," "behavior control," and "general functioning" dimension scores according to FAD were also significantly higher in the study group. Compared with togetherness of the controls, the dyadic adjustment of their parents was lower and family functions as perceived by the parents and adolescents were unhealthier in the adolescents using substances. These findings indicate that the

  20. Anxiety, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Prakash; Acharya, Lumeshor; Bhatta, Bhup Dev; Paneru, Suman Bhatta; Khattri, Jai Bahadur; Chakraborty, Prashant Kumar; Sharma, Rajasee

    2018-03-13

    Prevalence of anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder is high after earthquake. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence and comorbidity of commonly occurring psychological symptoms in people exposed to Nepal mega earthquake in 2015 after a year of the event. A community based, cross sectional, descriptive study was carried out in Bhumlichaur area of Gorkha district, Nepal after around 14 months of the first major earthquake. We used self-reporting questionnaire 20, Post-traumatic stress disorder 8 and hospital anxiety and depression scale to screen for presence of symptoms of anxiety and depression or post-traumatic stress disorder in this population. The risk of having these disorders according to different socio-demographic variable was assessed by calculating odds ratio. All calculations were done using predictive and analytical software (PASW) version 16.0. A total of 198 participants were included in the final data analysis. The mean age of study participants was 35.13 years (SD=18.04). Borderline anxiety symptoms were found in 104 (52.5%) while significant anxiety symptoms were found in 40 (20%) of respondents. Borderline depressive symptoms were seen in 40 (20%) while significant depressive symptoms were seen in 16 (8%) of subjects. Around 27% (n= 53) of respondents were classified as having post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder seems to be high even after one year in people exposed to earthquake.

  1. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.

  2. Serum Lipid Concentrations in Croatian Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Comorbid with Major Depressive Disorder, or Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Karlovi?, Dalibor; Buljan, Danijel; Martinac, Marko; Mar?inko, Darko

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eventual differences in serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio between veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) only or comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD), veterans with combat experiences with MDD, and healthy control group. PTSD and/ or MDD were diagnose according to structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV crite...

  3. Predictive factors for acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder after motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşan, Aziz; Guzel, Aslan; Tamam, Yusuf; Ozkan, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Since traffic accidents are more common in developing countries than in developed countries, we aimed to investigate the association of several factors with the development and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traffic accidents. In the study,95 participants with injuries from traffic accidents were evaluated at 4 different times: in the beginning, and after 3, 6 and 12 months. During the first evaluation, 41.1% (39) of our participants had acute stress disorder (ASD). It was found that lower perceived social support (OR = 0.0908, 95% CI = 0.834-0.989, p = 0.027) and higher peritraumatic dissociative experience scores (OR = 1.332, 95% CI = 1.170-1.516, p accident, we found PTSD affected 29.8, 23.1 and 17.9% of the participants, respectively. Although limitations at work and in social life after a traffic accident were not related to PTSD at 3 months (OR = 122.43, 95% CI = 0.000, p = 0.999) or at 6 months (OR = 63.438, 95% CI = 0.529-76.059, p = 0.089), limitations at work and in social life were predictors of PTSD at 12 months (OR = 155.514, 95% CI = 2.321-104.22, p = 0.019). The persistence of PTSD at the 12-month evaluation is related to ASD, limitations in work and social life, and lower social support scores. In developing countries like Turkey, long-term PTSD is commonly seen after traffic accidents. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. depressive and post- traumatic stress disorder symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alcohol disorder can both serve to initiate the other. ... (unlike that previously identified), and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and ..... O'Donnell K, Wardle J, Dantzer C, Steptoe A. Alcohol.

  5. BEHAVIOURAL, EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT IN SIBLINGS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER. A THEORETICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ruiz Aparicio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD have unique characteristics and very little is known about how these characteristics may influence the family and the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of their siblings. The purpose of the current study is to focus on the siblings and to review the literature related to the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of siblings of individuals with ASD. We have identified and analysed 24 articles to find the relevant results that may help us to understand the needs of these siblings. The findings suggest mixed results but they also bring to light a number of risk factors that could have an impact on the entire family and particularly on the siblings of children with ASD.

  6. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; von Känel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a first in a Series of two, we look at the evidence for an association of post-traumatic stress disorder with incident cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms that might cause this association, as well as the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to cardiovascular disease events and its associated prognostic risk. We discuss research done after the publication of previous relevant systematic reviews, and survey currently funded research from the two most active funders in the field: the National Institutes of Health and the US Veterans Administration. We conclude that post-traumatic stress disorder is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease, and a common psychiatric consequence of cardiovascular disease events that might worsen the prognosis of the cardiovascular disease. There are many candidate mechanisms for the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease, and several ongoing studies could soon point to the most important behavioural and physiological mechanisms to target in early phase intervention development. Similarly, targets are emerging for individual and environmental interventions that might offset the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiovascular disease events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a history and a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Nancy C

    2010-10-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is sometimes considered to be a relatively new diagnosis, as the name first appeared in 1980, the concept of the disorder has a very long history. That history has often been linked to the history of war, but the disorder has also been frequently described in civilian settings involving natural disasters, mass catastrophes, and serious accidental injuries. The diagnosis first appeared in the official nomenclature when Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-I was published in 1952 under the name gross stress reaction. It was omitted, however, in the next edition in 1968, after a long period of relative peace. When DSM-III was developed in the mid-1980s the recent occurrence of the Vietnam War provoked a more thorough examination of the disorder. PTSD was defined as a stress disorder that is a final common pathway occurring as a consequence of many different types of stressors, including both combat and civilian stress. The definition of PTSD has filled an important niche in clinical psychiatry. Its definition continues to raise important questions about the relationship between a stressor, the individual experiencing it, and the characteristic symptoms. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  9. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 98-104

  10. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇİGİL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies.

  11. Genetic approaches to understanding post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almli, Lynn M.; Fani, Negar; Smith, Alicia K.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly recognized as both a disorder of enormous mental health and societal burden, but also as an anxiety disorder that may be particularly understandable from a scientific perspective. Specifically, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder of fear and stress dysregulation, and the neural circuitry underlying these pathways in both animals and humans are becoming increasingly well understood. Furthermore, PTSD is the only disorder in psychiatry in which the initiating factor, the trauma exposure, can be identified. Thus, the pathophysiology of the fear and stress response underlying PTSD can be examined and potentially interrupted. Twin studies have shown that the development of PTSD following a trauma is heritable, and that genetic risk factors may account for up to 30–40% of this heritability. A current goal is to understand the gene pathways that are associated with PTSD, and how those genes act on the fear/stress circuitry to mediate risk vs. resilience for PTSD. This review will examine gene pathways that have recently been analysed, primarily through candidate gene studies (including neuroimaging studies of candidate genes), in addition to genome-wide associations and the epigenetic regulation of PTSD. Future and on-going studies are utilizing larger and collaborative cohorts to identify novel gene candidates through genome-wide association and other powerful genomic approaches. Identification of PTSD biological pathways strengthens the hope of progress in the mechanistic understanding of a model psychiatric disorder and allows for the development of targeted treatments and interventions. PMID:24103155

  12. Genetic approaches to understanding post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almli, Lynn M; Fani, Negar; Smith, Alicia K; Ressler, Kerry J

    2014-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly recognized as both a disorder of enormous mental health and societal burden, but also as an anxiety disorder that may be particularly understandable from a scientific perspective. Specifically, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder of fear and stress dysregulation, and the neural circuitry underlying these pathways in both animals and humans are becoming increasingly well understood. Furthermore, PTSD is the only disorder in psychiatry in which the initiating factor, the trauma exposure, can be identified. Thus, the pathophysiology of the fear and stress response underlying PTSD can be examined and potentially interrupted. Twin studies have shown that the development of PTSD following a trauma is heritable, and that genetic risk factors may account for up to 30-40% of this heritability. A current goal is to understand the gene pathways that are associated with PTSD, and how those genes act on the fear/stress circuitry to mediate risk vs. resilience for PTSD. This review will examine gene pathways that have recently been analysed, primarily through candidate gene studies (including neuroimaging studies of candidate genes), in addition to genome-wide associations and the epigenetic regulation of PTSD. Future and on-going studies are utilizing larger and collaborative cohorts to identify novel gene candidates through genome-wide association and other powerful genomic approaches. Identification of PTSD biological pathways strengthens the hope of progress in the mechanistic understanding of a model psychiatric disorder and allows for the development of targeted treatments and interventions.

  13. Hubungan Phantom Vibration Syndrome Terhadap Sleep Disorder dan Kondisi Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Yeni Setianingrum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Phantom vibration syndrome is a condition where a person would feel the sensation of vibration of a cell phone as if there were incoming notification but the fact is not. This research investigated the relationship between phantom vibration syndromes, sleep disorder and stress condition. Questionnaires were distributed to 120 participants with age range 18 to 23 years old. Data of participants showed that all of participants using a smart mobile phone and 24% of them have more than one cell phone. Time usage of cell phone is at least 1 hour. 23% of participants using a cell phone for social media activity, followed by 21% related to entertainment (music, video and games. The results showed a positive relationship between phantom vibration syndrome, sleep disorder and stress condition. Insomnia contributed a greater influence on stress condition. However, the phantom vibration syndrome is more directly affecting the sleep apnea compared to insomnia and stress condition. Therefore, the phantom vibration syndrome more affects stress condition indirectly, through sleep disorder (sleep apnea and insomnia. Consequently, phantom vibration syndrome has a strong relationship with stress condition at the time of the phantom vibration syndrome can cause sleep disorder.

  14. VA Health Care: VA Spends Millions on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Research and Incorporates Research Outcomes into Guidelines and Policy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) and...Veterans Affairs (VA) Intramural Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) Research Funding and VA’s Medical and Prosthetic Research Appropriation...Table 6: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Research Centers and Programs That Conduct or Support Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) Research

  15. Gender adjustment or stratification in discerning upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Barbara; Fan, Z Joyce; Smith, Caroline K; Bao, Stephen; Howard, Ninica; Spielholz, Peregrin; Bonauto, David; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to explore whether "adjustment" for gender masks important exposure differences between men and women in a study of rotator cuff syndrome (RCS) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and work exposures. This cross-sectional study of 733 subjects in 12 health care and manufacturing workplaces used detailed individual health and work exposure assessment methods. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to compare gender stratified and adjusted models. Prevalence of RCS and CTS among women was 7.1% and 11.3% respectively, and among men 7.8% and 6.4%. In adjusted (gender, age, body mass index) multivariate analyses of RCS and CTS, gender was not statistically significantly different. For RCS, upper arm flexion >/=45 degrees and forceful pinch increased the odds in the gender-adjusted model (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.26-5.59) but primarily among women in the stratified analysis (OR 6.68, 95% CI 1.81-24.66 versus OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.53-4.00). For CTS, wrist radial/ulnar deviation >/=4% time and lifting >/=4.5kg >3% time, the adjusted OR was higher for women (OR 4.85, 95% CI 2.12-11.11) and in the gender stratified analyses, the odds were increased for both genders (women OR 5.18, 95% CI 1.70-15.81 and men OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.08-12.18). Gender differences in response to physical work exposures may reflect gender segregation in work and potential differences in pinch and lifting capacity. Reduction in these exposures may reduce prevalence of upper extremity disorders for all workers.

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and stress-related biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, S W N; Bijlenga, D; Verduijn, J; Bron, T I; Beekman, A T F; Kooij, J J S; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-05-01

    The current study examined whether (a) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms were associated with dysregulation of stress-related mechanisms, and (b) whether ADHD symptoms interact with affective disorders in their association with dysregulated stress-related mechanisms. Data were obtained from 2307 subjects participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Stress-related mechanisms were reflected by the following biomarkers: (1) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening curve, evening cortisol, cortisol suppression after a 0.5mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST)); (2) autonomic nervous system measures (heart rate, pre-ejection period, respiratory sinus arrhythmia); (3) inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha); (4) brain-derived neurotrophic factor. ADHD symptoms were measured using Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale and used both dichotomous (High ADHD symptoms (yes/no)) and continuous (Inattentive symptoms, Hyperactive/Impulsive symptoms, and the ADHD index). Regression analyses showed associations between High ADHD symptoms, Inattentive symptoms, the ADHD index and a higher cortisol awakening curve, between Hyperactive/Impulsive symptoms and less cortisol suppression after DST, and between Inattentive symptoms and a longer pre-ejection period. However, the associations with the cortisol awakening curve disappeared after adjustment for depressive and anxiety disorders. No associations were observed between ADHD symptoms and inflammatory markers or BDNF. ADHD symptoms did not interact with affective disorders in dysregulation of stress-related mechanisms. Some associations were observed between ADHD symptoms, the HPA-axis, and the pre-ejection period, but these were mostly driven by depressive and anxiety disorders. This study found no evidence that ADHD symptomatology was associated with dysregulations in inflammatory markers and BDNF. Consequently

  17. A review of the dissociative disorders: from multiple personality disorder to the posttraumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto J. Romero-López

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the idea of dissociation, dissociative disorders and their relationship with the processes of consciousness. We will deal specifically with multiple personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Both polarize the discussion of diagnostic categories with dissociative symptoms. This review compares the initial ideas (one century old with the current scenario and emerging trends in research, which are relating cognitive processes and dissociative phenomena and disorders from a neuroscientific approach. We discuss the ideas on dissociation, hypnosis and suicide associated with these disorders. There seems to be a lack of consensus as to the nature of dissociation with theoretical, empirical and clinical implications.

  18. Stress and psychiatric disorder in healthcare professionals and hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, A; Creed, F

    2000-02-12

    Previous studies of stress in healthcare staff have indicated a probable high prevalence of distress. Whether this distress can be attributed to the stressful nature of the work situation is not clear. No previous study has used a detailed interview method to ascertain the link between stress in and outside of work and anxiety and depressive disorders. Doctors, nurses, and administrative and ancillary staff were screened using the general health questionnaire (GHQ). High scorers (GHQ>4) and matched individuals with low GHQ scores were interviewed by means of the clinical interview schedule to ascertain definite anxiety and depressive disorders (cases). Cases and controls, matched for age, sex, and occupational group were interviewed with the life events and difficulties schedule classification and an objective measure of work stress to find out the amount of stress at work and outside of work. Sociodemographic and stress variables were entered into a logistic-regression analysis to find out the variables associated with anxiety and depressive disorders. 64 cases and 64 controls were matched. Cases and controls did not differ on demographic variables but cases were less likely to have a confidant (odds ratio 0.09 [95% CI 0.01-0.79]) and more likely to have had a previous episode of psychiatric disorder (3.07 [1.10-8.57]). Cases and controls worked similar hours and had similar responsibility but cases had a greater number of objective stressful situations both in and out of work (severe event or substantial difficulty in and out of work-45 cases vs 18 controls 6.05 [2.81-13.00], pcontrols (median 6 vs 4, z=3.81, pstress outside of work had been taken into account, stressful situations at work contributed to anxiety and depressive disorders. Both stress at work and outside of work contribute to the anxiety and depressive disorders experienced by healthcare staff. Our findings suggest that the best way to decrease the prevalence of these disorders is individual

  19. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  20. Anticonvulsants to treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2014-09-01

    We reviewed the existing literature on the efficacy of anticonvulsants in treating post-traumatic stress disorder. We performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane database on 30 September 2013. Randomized,controlled studies that investigated the efficacy of anticonvulsants for post-traumatic stress disorder were included in this review. Studies with retrospective designs, case reports and case series were excluded. A total of seven studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Three studies used topiramate with negative findings regarding its efficacy. Two studies used divalproex, both of which failed to show superiority over placebo. One study used lamotrigine, with favourable results, and one study used tiagabine, with negative results. Future long-term studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate the clinical utility of anticonvulsants for posttraumatic stress disorder treatment.

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiuby, Andrea Vannini Santesso; Andreoli, Paola Bruno de Araújo; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2010-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been detected in patients after treatment in intensive care unit. The main goal of this study is to review the psychological aspects and therapeutic interventions on those patients after their treatment on intensive care unit. Thirty eight articles have been included. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder has varied from 17% up to 30% and the incidence from 14% to 24%. The risk factors were: previous anxiety historic, depression or panic, having delusional traumatic memories (derived from psychic formations as dreams and delirium), belief effects, depressive behavior, stressing experiences and mechanical ventilation. High doses of opiates, symptoms caused by sedation or analgesia reduction and the use of lorazepam were related with the increase of delirium and delusional memory. The disorder sintomatology can be reduced with hydrocortisone administration, with daily sedation interruption. No other effectiveness psychological intervention study was found.

  2. Clinical outcomes associated with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder among patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Ives C; Jansen, Karen; Cardoso, Taiane de A; Colpo, Gabriela D; Zeni, Cristian P; Quevedo, Joao; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Zunta-Soares, Giovanna; Soares, Jair C; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    To assess clinical outcomes associated with the presence of a lifetime history of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder in subjects with bipolar disorder. This cross-sectional study of 284 subjects with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV) assessed the association between lifetime comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV) and clinical characteristics. Participants were included from January 2006 to June 2009. We assessed age at onset, number of mood episodes, presence of rapid cycling, first drug use, suicide attempts, hospitalizations, functional impairment, and quality of life. Diagnostic, clinical, and functional assessments were carried out using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, patient edition (SCID-I/P), the Functioning Assessment Short Test, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale. The number of manic episodes as assessed by SCID-I/P was the primary outcome. The prevalence of lifetime comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder was 19.7% (56 subjects). Subjects with bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder had an accelerated course of illness, with a lower age at onset of manic/hypomanic episodes (P = .009) and earlier initiation of illicit drug use (P = .008). In addition, they were more likely to be younger when they received the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (P = .036) and had a higher number of manic/hypomanic episodes (P = .01). Quality of life was worse in all domains among subjects who presented the comorbidity, and rates of functional impairment were higher. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with increased morbidity and accelerated illness progression among subjects with bipolar disorder. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Individuals with Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtar, Mohamad; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2011-01-01

    Although children and adolescents with developmental disabilities are said to have higher risks of abuse than those without, trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are little examined in those diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Our study aims to assess trauma types, prevalence, risk factors and symptoms; and PTSD in…

  5. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  6. Behavioral Activation in the Treatment of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 10-weeks of Behavioral Activation (BA) in the treatment of comorbid Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in four adults using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. All participants met full "DSM-IV" criteria for both MDD and PTSD at the…

  7. Objective evidence of myocardial ischemia in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jesse H; Neylan, Thomas C; Schiller, Nelson B; Li, Yongmei; Cohen, Beth E

    2013-12-01

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but few studies have included objective measures of CVD and how PTSD causes CVD remains unknown. We sought to determine the association between PTSD and objectively assessed CVD and examine potential underlying mechanisms. Outpatients from two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers were enrolled from 2008 to 2010. Posttraumatic stress disorder was identified using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, and standardized exercise treadmill tests were performed to detect myocardial ischemia. Of the 663 participants with complete data, ischemia was present in 17% of patients with PTSD versus 10% of patients without PTSD (p = .006). The association between PTSD and ischemia remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, prior CVD) and mediators (traditional cardiac risk factors, C-reactive protein, obesity, alcohol use, sleep quality, social support, and depression), adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39 to 4.22, p = .002. Findings remained significant when those with prior CVD were excluded (fully adjusted OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.20-4.18, p = .01) and when continuous PTSD symptom score was used as the predictor (fully adjusted OR per 10-point change in Clinician Administered PTSD Scale score 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.22, p = .01). Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with ischemic changes on exercise treadmill tests independent of traditional cardiac risk factors, C-reactive protein, and several health behaviors and psychosocial risk factors, suggesting additional mechanisms linking PTSD and ischemia should be explored. The association of PTSD and ischemia among patients without known CVD highlights an opportunity for early interventions to prevent progression of cardiovascular disease. Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  8. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Elise M; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H; Leenders, Arnold G E; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders. The search yielded 946 articles, of which 8 were included with data from 654 children with functional constipation and 1931 children with (constipation-associated) fecal incontinence (FI). Overall, children with functional defecation disorders had been significantly more exposed to stressful life events than healthy children, with prevalence rates ranging from 1.6% to 90.9%. Being bullied, being a relational victim, interruption of toilet training, punishment by parents during toilet training, and hospitalization were significantly related to FI, whereas separation from the best friend, failure in an examination, severe illness in a close family member, loss of job by a parent, frequent punishment, and living in a war-affected area were significantly related to constipation. Only 1 study measured the prevalence of child abuse, which reported a significantly higher prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with FI compared with controls. The prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse is significantly higher in children with functional defecation disorders compared with healthy children. To gain more insight into the true prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders, more studies are clearly needed.

  9. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  10. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeng Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC/norepinephrine (NE system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty. The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear, but also for fight (anger. Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder--best practice GP guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Wolfgang, Bronwyn; Cooper, John; Creamer, Mark; Barton, David

    2009-03-01

    Approximately 50-65% of Australians are exposed to a traumatic event during their lifetime. Approximately 250 000 Australians suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at any given time, making it one of the most common anxiety disorders. In May 2007, the Australian guidelines for the treatment of adults with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder was published. In order to facilitate translation of evidence regarding PTSD into busy clinical practice, and particularly for general practitioners, a more succinct version of the guidelines has been developed. This article describes a brief algorithm based on the Australian guidelines and outlines key recommendations. General practitioners are often the first point of contact with the health care system for someone who has experienced a traumatic event. Patients experiencing trauma within the past 2 weeks require psychological first aid, and monitoring and assessment for the development of acute stress disorder and symptoms of PTSD. If the patient wishes to talk about the event with you, support them in doing so. However, it is important not to push those who prefer not to talk about the event. Trauma focused psychological treatment is the first line of treatment for PTSD, although antidepressant medication may have an adjuvant role in some patients or in those with comorbidities.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the wake of heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that patients after a cardiac event may be at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article reviews studies looking at PTSD as a sequel of heart disease with a focus on prevalence, risk factors, and future research directions.......There is increasing recognition that patients after a cardiac event may be at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article reviews studies looking at PTSD as a sequel of heart disease with a focus on prevalence, risk factors, and future research directions....

  13. DBS in Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Lavano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating psychiatric condition for which pharmacological therapy is not always solvable. Various treatments have been suggested and deep brain stimulation (DBS is currently under investigation for patients affected by PTSD. We review the neurocircuitry and up-to-date clinical concepts which are behind the use of DBS in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The role of DBS in treatment-refractory PTSD patients has been investigated relying on both preclinical and clinical studies. DBS for PTSD is in its preliminary phases and likely to provide hope for patients with medical refractory PTSD following the results of randomized controlled studies.

  14. Irrational Beliefs in Employees with an Adjustment, a Depressive, or an Anxiety Disorder: a Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Verbeek, Jos H. A. M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2010-01-01

    It remains unclear if patients with different types of common mental disorders, such as adjustment, anxiety and depressive disorders, have the same irrational ideas. The aim of this prospective cohort study (n = 190) is to investigate differences in level and type of irrational beliefs among these

  15. Irrational beliefs in employees with an adjustment, a depressive, or an anxiety disorder: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2010-01-01

    It remains unclear if patients with different types of common mental disorders, such as adjustment, anxiety and depressive disorders, have the same irrational ideas. The aim of this prospective cohort study (n = 190) is to investigate differences in level and type of irrational beliefs among these

  16. Written Disclosure Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Substance Use Disorder Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, Rodney A.; Lombardo, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive exposure-based approaches to treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are effective, but they are time intensive and not widely used because of factors such as client noncompliance and fears of iatrogenic effects. Exposure by writing disclosure (WD), modeled after Pennebaker's brief stress-reduction procedure, may circumvent…

  17. Stress, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and tobacco smoking: The i-Share study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galéra, C; Salla, J; Montagni, I; Hanne-Poujade, S; Salamon, R; Grondin, O; Guichard, E; Bouvard, M P; Tzourio, C; Michel, G

    2017-09-01

    The contribution of mental health to the risk of smoking is increasingly acknowledged but still insufficiently studied during the key period of student life. In particular, the simultaneous action of stress and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the risk of smoking remains poorly understood. To assess the effects of stress and ADHD symptoms on tobacco smoking. Multivariate modeling was conducted on the French i-Share study (n=8110, median age 20.3 years, 74.8% females, 32.9% regular/occasional smokers) to evaluate the associations between stress, ADHD symptoms and tobacco smoking, adjusting for potential family/socio-demographic confounders. Students with high levels of stress were more likely to smoke>10 cigarettes/day (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12-1.96) than those with low levels of stress. Students with high levels of ADHD symptoms were more likely to smoke>10 cigarettes/day (aOR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.58-2.75) than those with low levels of ADHD symptoms. Stress and ADHD contribute independently to the risk of smoking. Interventions targeting each condition are likely to reduce the burden of tobacco use in students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. The Genetics of Stress-Related Disorders: PTSD, Depression, and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoller, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    Research into the causes of psychopathology has largely focused on two broad etiologic factors: genetic vulnerability and environmental stressors. An important role for familial/heritable factors in the etiology of a broad range of psychiatric disorders was established well before the modern era of genomic research. This review focuses on the genetic basis of three disorder categories—posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and the anxiety disorders—for which environmental stressors and stress responses are understood to be central to pathogenesis. Each of these disorders aggregates in families and is moderately heritable. More recently, molecular genetic approaches, including genome-wide studies of genetic variation, have been applied to identify specific risk variants. In this review, I summarize evidence for genetic contributions to PTSD, MDD, and the anxiety disorders including genetic epidemiology, the role of common genetic variation, the role of rare and structural variation, and the role of gene–environment interaction. Available data suggest that stress-related disorders are highly complex and polygenic and, despite substantial progress in other areas of psychiatric genetics, few risk loci have been identified for these disorders. Progress in this area will likely require analysis of much larger sample sizes than have been reported to date. The phenotypic complexity and genetic overlap among these disorders present further challenges. The review concludes with a discussion of prospects for clinical translation of genetic findings and future directions for research. PMID:26321314

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Mudassir; Quadri, Syed A; Suriya, Sajid S; Khan, Muhammad Adnan; Ovais, Muhammad; Sohail, Zohaib; Shoaib, Samra; Tohid, Hassaan; Hassan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD. A search for literature was conducted on major databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in neurology and psychiatry journals, and many other medical journals. Terms used for electronic searches included, but were not limited to, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake, and natural disaster. The relevant information was then utilized to determine the relationships between earthquakes and posttraumatic stress symptoms. It was found that PTSD is the most commonly occurring mental health condition among earthquake survivors. Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias were also listed. The PTSD prevalence rate varied widely. It was dependent on multiple risk factors in target populations and also on the interval of time that had elapsed between the exposure to the deadly incident and measurement. Females seemed to be the most widely-affected group, while elderly people and young children exhibit considerable psychosocial impact.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassir Farooqui

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD Method A search for literature was conducted on major databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in neurology and psychiatry journals, and many other medical journals. Terms used for electronic searches included, but were not limited to, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake, and natural disaster. The relevant information was then utilized to determine the relationships between earthquakes and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results It was found that PTSD is the most commonly occurring mental health condition among earthquake survivors. Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias were also listed. Conclusion The PTSD prevalence rate varied widely. It was dependent on multiple risk factors in target populations and also on the interval of time that had elapsed between the exposure to the deadly incident and measurement. Females seemed to be the most widely-affected group, while elderly people and young children exhibit considerable psychosocial impact.

  1. Social stress response in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D; Goldstein, Tina R; Gratzmiller, Sarah M; Franzen, Peter L

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical models posit that stressors contribute to the onset and maintenance of bipolar disorder in adolescence through disruptions in stress physiology, but physiological response to stressors has not been evaluated in adolescents with bipolar illness. The present study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with bipolar disorder will have greater reactivity to a laboratory social stress task than healthy adolescents. Adolescents with bipolar illness (n = 27) and healthy adolescents (n = 28) completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Task. Stress response was assessed using high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), salivary cortisol, and subjective stress. Multilevel models were used to test for group differences in resting-state physiology, and stress reactivity and recovery. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had greater reactivity in HF-HRV (z = 3.32), but blunted reactivity in MAP (z = -3.08) and cortisol (z = -2.60), during the stressor compared to healthy adolescents. They also had lower resting HF-HRV (z = -3.49) and cortisol (z = -2.86), and higher resting HR (z = 3.56), than healthy adolescents. These results indicate that bipolar disorder is associated with disruptions in autonomic and endocrine response to stress during adolescence, including greater HF-HRV reactivity. Further research should evaluate whether these individual differences in stress physiology precede and predict the onset of mood episodes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SPECT Imaging to Evaluate Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Verbeem, and D.M. Kuhn, Gene expression profile of activated microglia under conditions associated with dopamine neuronal damage. FASEB J., 2005: p. 05...specific. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1995. 50(4): p. 551. 39. Drugan, R.C., P.V. Holmes, and A.P. Stringer, Sexual dimorphism of stress...childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 2003. 160(5): p. 924-32. 22 48. Sapolsky, R.M., Atrophy of the hippocampus

  3. Germ Cell Origins of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Risk: The Transgenerational Impact of Parental Stress Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure impacting stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A memory-based model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Johansen, Marlene Klindt

    2008-01-01

    In the mnemonic model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current memory of a negative event, not the event itself, determines symptoms. The model is an alternative to the current event-based etiology of PTSD represented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed......., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The model accounts for important and reliable findings that are often inconsistent with the current diagnostic view and that have been neglected by theoretical accounts of the disorder, including the following observations. The diagnosis needs...

  5. Comorbidity in illness-induced posttraumatic stress disorder versus posttraumatic stress disorder due to external events in a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jordana L; Mota, Natalie; Edmondson, Donald; El-Gabalawy, Renée

    2018-05-10

    The current study compared physical and mental health characteristics and quality of life of illness-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus those with PTSD due to external traumatic events in a population-based sample. PTSD was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5) using DSM-5 criteria in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Participants with past-year PTSD (n = 1779) were categorized into two groups: illness-induced (6.5%) and other trauma-induced PTSD (92.9%) based on index trauma. Group differences in physical health, mental health, and quality of life were estimated using multiple logistic and linear regressions with adjustment for demographics and medical morbidity. Compared to PTSD due to external events, illness-induced PTSD had higher rates of life-threatening illness in the past year. Illness-induced PTSD compared to PTSD due to external events was associated with reduced odds of depressive/bipolar disorders and antisocial personality disorder, but increased odds of cannabis use disorder. The groups did not differ on quality of life after accounting for medical morbidity. Illness-induced PTSD is common among American adults and has a similar impact on quality of life as PTSD due to external events, but may have distinct mental health correlates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Are oxidative stress markers useful to distinguish schizoaffective disorder from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Feridun; Virit, Osman; Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulut, Mahmut; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Celik, Hakim; Savas, Haluk A

    2014-04-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is a disease with both affective and psychotic symptoms. In this study, we aimed to compare oxidative metabolism markers of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we also aimed to investigate whether schizoaffective disorder could be differentiated from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in terms of oxidative metabolism. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in the blood samples that were collected from schizoaffective patients (n = 30), bipolar disorder patients (n = 30) and schizophrenic patients (n = 30). Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by dividing TOS by TAS. TOS and OSI were found to be higher in patients with schizoaffective disorder compared with those in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. TAS was not significantly different between the groups. Schizoaffective disorder was found to be different from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in terms of oxidative parameters. This result may indicate that schizoaffective disorder could differ from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in terms of biochemical parameters. Increased TOS levels observed in schizoaffective disorder may suggest poor clinical course and may be an indicator of poor prognosis.

  7. Associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jodie B; Ameringer, Katherine J; Trujillo, Michael A; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Brightman, Molly; Pitts, Stephanie R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cigarette smoking has been difficult because of PTSD's symptomatic heterogeneity. This study examined common and unique lifetime cross-sectional relationships between PTSD symptom clusters [Re-experiencing (intrusive thoughts and nightmares about the trauma), Avoidance (avoidance of trauma-associated memories or stimuli), Emotional Numbing (loss of interest, interpersonal detachment, restricted positive affect), and Hyperarousal (irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, insomnia)] and three indicators of smoking behavior: (1) smoking status; (2) cigarettes per day; and (3) nicotine dependence. Participants were adult respondents in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions with a trauma history (n = 23,635). All four symptom clusters associated with each smoking outcome in single-predictor models (ps Emotional Numbing was the only cluster to retain a significant association with lifetime smoking over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.30, p dependence in multivariate models, these relations fell below significance after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity. No clusters uniquely associated with cigarettes per day. Hyperarousal uniquely related with nicotine dependence over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.51, p < .001). These results suggest the following: (a) common variance across PTSD symptom clusters contribute to PTSD's linkage with smoking in the American population; and (b) certain PTSD symptom clusters may uniquely associate with particular indicators of smoking behavior. These findings may clarify the underpinnings of PTSD-smoking comorbidity and inform smoking interventions for trauma-exposed individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis and management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinage, Bradley D

    2003-12-15

    Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating anxiety disorder that may cause significant distress and increased use of health resources, the condition often goes undiagnosed. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD in the United States is 8 to 9 percent, and approximately 25 to 30 percent of victims of significant trauma develop PTSD. The emotional and physical symptoms of PTSD occur in three clusters: re-experiencing the trauma, marked avoidance of usual activities, and increased symptoms of arousal. Before a diagnosis of PTSD can be made, the patient's symptoms must significantly disrupt normal activities and last for more than one month. Approximately 80 percent of patients with PTSD have at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common comorbid disorders include depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and other anxiety disorders. Treatment relies on a multidimensional approach, including supportive patient education, cognitive behavior therapy, and psychopharmacology. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment.

  9. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients' personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior - including suicide - and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  10. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Bourvis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  11. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD. PMID:29250007

  12. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Adjustment in Therapists Who Work with Sexual Violence Survivors: The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samios, Christina; Rodzik, Amber K.; Abel, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Due to their secondary exposure to the traumatic events disclosed by clients, therapists who work with sexual violence survivors are at risk of experiencing secondary traumatic stress. We examined whether the negative effects of secondary traumatic stress on therapist adjustment would be buffered by posttraumatic growth. Sixty-one therapists who…

  13. Cognitive Moderators of Children's Adjustment to Stressful Divorce Events: The Role of Negative Cognitive Errors and Positive Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Virdin, Lynn; Sandler, Irwin N.; West, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Examined whether children's cognitive biases moderated impact of stressful divorce-related events on adjustment in 9- to 12-year olds. Found that endorsing negative cognitive errors for hypothetical divorce events moderated relations between stressful divorce events and self- and maternal-reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms for…

  14. The effects of mental health parity on spending and utilization for bipolar, major depression, and adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alisa B; Yoon, Frank; Barry, Colleen L; Azzone, Vanessa; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Goldman, Howard H; Huskamp, Haiden A

    2013-02-01

    The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act requires insurance parity for mental health/substance use disorder and general medical services. Previous research found that parity did not increase mental health/substance use disorder spending and lowered out-of-pocket spending. Whether parity's effects differ by diagnosis is unknown. The authors examined this question in the context of parity implementation in the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program. The authors compared mental health/substance use disorder treatment use and spending before and after parity (2000 and 2002, respectively) for two groups: FEHB enrollees diagnosed in 1999 with bipolar disorder, major depression, or adjustment disorder (N=19,094) and privately insured enrollees unaffected by the policy in a comparison national sample (N=10,521). Separate models were fitted for each diagnostic group. A difference-in-difference design was used to control for secular time trends and to better reflect the specific impact of parity on spending and utilization. Total spending was unchanged among enrollees with bipolar disorder and major depression but decreased for those with adjustment disorder (-$62, 99.2% CI=-$133, -$11). Out-of-pocket spending decreased for all three groups (bipolar disorder: -$148, 99.2% CI=-$217, -$85; major depression: -$100, 99.2% CI=-$123, -$77; adjustment disorder: -$68, 99.2% CI=-$84, -$54). Total annual utilization (e.g., medication management visits, psychotropic prescriptions, and mental health/substance use disorder hospitalization bed days) remained unchanged across all diagnoses. Annual psychotherapy visits decreased significantly only for individuals with adjustment disorders (-12%, 99.2% CI=-19%, -4%). Parity implemented under managed care improved financial protection and differentially affected spending and psychotherapy utilization across groups. There was some evidence that resources were preferentially preserved for diagnoses that are typically more

  15. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annalisa Anastasia,1 Chiara Colletti,1 Valentina Cuoco,1 Adele Quartini,1 Stefania Urso,2 Raffaella Rinaldi,2 Giuseppe Bersani1 1Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 2Department of Anatomical, Istological, Forensic and Locomotor System Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Introduction: Although adjustment disorder (AD is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD.Methods: A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy, was performed.Results: The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females, aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%, a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%, was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%, family problems (23.70%, and/or somatic disease (22.60% with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records.Conclusion: Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results

  16. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  17. Diagnosing and treating post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Cæcilie Böck; Andersen, Henrik Steen

    2017-01-01

    The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis has undergone large developments. With the changes in DSM-5 and the proposed changes in ICD-11, the two systems move in different directions. Treatment for PTSD is developing, but the evidence for the effect is lacking behind. Trauma...

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Bereaved Relatives of Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Reinholt, N.; Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of PTSD in individuals who experienced the loss of a close relative to cancer. A total of 251 bereaved relatives ages 14 to 76 (M = 41.3, SD = 16.8) were recruited at a counseling service for cancer patients...

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents following infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2017-01-01

    Parents who have lost an infant prior to, during, or following birth often interpret the event as highly traumatic. The present systematic review included 46 articles based on 31 different studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents bereaved by infant death. The PTSD prevalence...

  20. 75 FR 41092 - Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN32 Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correction In rule document 2010-16885 beginning on page 39843 in the issue of Tuesday, July 13, 2010 make the following corrections: 1. On page 39843, in the first column, under the...

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children: What Elementary Teachers Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not limited to the men and women who have been exposed to the horrors of war through military service. Children who are exposed to traumatic and life-threatening events, such as school shootings, physical and sexual abuse, and community violence, also can suffer from PTSD. This article explores the causes,…

  2. Occurrence of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Breinegaard, Nina; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops according to consensus criteria within the first 1-6 months after a horrifying traumatic event, but it is alleged that PTSD may develop later. The objective was to review the evidence addressing occurrence of PTSD with onset >6 months after a traumatic...

  3. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, J.E.; van der Velden, P.G.; Grievink, Linda; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-reported as well as physicianrecorded physical health in a sample of survivors (n 896) of a man-made disaster, using a longitudinal design that included predisaster health data. Most studies on the

  4. Children and adolescents treated for post-traumatic stress disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children and adolescents can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a range of traumatic events, including domestic, political or community ... isolation (39%), fear or anxiety (37%), problematic family relationships (29%), emotional (27%) and physical (23%) abuse, and lack of social support (23%).

  5. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among road traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychological responses to traumatic events vary widely across different cultures but studies in the developing countries are scant. The objective of this study is to determine prevalence of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among patients involved in road traffic accident (RTA) compared with ...

  6. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common consequence of traumatic experiences. The North Central Nigeria to which Plateau State belongs has witnessed many ethno‑religious crises. While previous studies suggested a high prevalence of PTSD among students, to the best of our knowledge, ...

  7. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a diagnostic category used to describe symptoms arising from emotionally traumatic experience(s). Research suggests that PTSD may be under- diagnosed when trauma is not the presenting problem or when not the focus of clinical intervention. There is a dearth of South ...

  8. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review of the literature identified eight relevant studies that put current estimates of the prevalence of HIV-related PTSD between 4.2% and 40%. Even the ...

  9. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: CASE REPORT C. M. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-04-04

    Apr 4, 2000 ... poor mental health when examined at six months and at one year ... the reader the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder .... interpersonal and social problems related to PTSD. ... of phobic avoidance and withdrawal associated with ... Cairns E. and Wilson R. The impact of political violence on mild.

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children exposed to violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress disorder (PTSD), whether the symptom profile is typical or atypical, and .... primary and a high school in an informal settlement area of. Khayelitsha ..... detention: A preliminary South African Stl.ldy of caregiver·s repons_ J Child. Psychof ...

  11. Multifunctional aspects of allopregnanolone in stress and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-01-03

    Allopregnanolone (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one) is a major cholesterol-derived neurosteroid in the central nervous system and is synthesized from progesterone by steroidogenic enzymes, 5α-reductase (the rate-limiting enzyme) and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The pathophysiological role of allopregnanolone in neuropsychiatric disorders has been highlighted in several investigations. The changes in neuroactive steroid levels are detected in stress and stress-related disorders including anxiety, panic and depression. The changes in allopregnanolone in response to acute stressor tend to restore the homeostasis by dampening the hyper-activated HPA axis. However, long standing stressors leading to development of neuropsychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety are associated with decrease in the allopregnanolone levels. GABAA receptor complex has been considered as the primary target of allopregnanolone and majority of its inhibitory actions are mediated through GABA potentiation or direct activation of GABA currents. The role of progesterone receptors in producing the late actions of allopregnanolone particularly in lordosis facilitation has also been described. Moreover, recent studies have also described the involvement of other multiple targets including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glutamate, dopamine, opioids, oxytocin, and calcium channels. The present review discusses the various aspects of allopregnanolone in stress and stress-related disorders including anxiety, depression and panic. © 2013.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the dermatology patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Jarosz, Patricia; Gupta, Aditya K

    Dermatologic symptoms can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in several situations: (1) as features of some core PTSD symptoms, such as intrusion symptoms manifesting as cutaneous sensory flashbacks, as autonomic arousal manifesting as night sweats and idiopathic urticaria, and as dissociation manifesting as numbness and dermatitis artefacta; (2) the cutaneous psychosomatic effects of emotional and physical neglect and sexual abuse (eg, infantile eczema, cutaneous self-injury, and body-focused repetitive behaviors such as trichotillomania and skin picking disorder) and eating disorders, which can have dermatologic effects; (3) the direct effect of physical or sexual abuse or catastrophic life events (eg, earthquakes) on the skin; and (4) as a result of significant alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which can affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, and can lead to exacerbations of stress-reactive inflammatory dermatoses such as psoriasis, chronic urticaria, and atopic dermatitis. Elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers and impaired epidermal barrier function have been reported in situations involving sustained psychologic stress and sleep deprivation. Some PTSD patients show hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyporesponsiveness and higher circulating T lymphocytes, which can exacerbate immune-mediated dermatologic disorders. PTSD should be considered an underlying factor in the chronic, recurrent, or treatment-resistant stress-reactive dermatoses and in patients with self-induced dermatoses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, Elise M.; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Leenders, Arnold G. E.; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the

  14. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Velden, P.G. van der; Grievink, L.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-reported as well as physician-recorded physical health in a sample of survivors (n = 896) of a man-made disaster, using a longitudinal design that included predisaster health data. Most studies on the

  15. Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Road Traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Road Traffic. Accident Victims ... that is more in line with a case–control model. For example, instead of ... Asuquo et al. in light of the first (of the above two proposals).

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosavljevic, Maja; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Olivera; Miljevic, Cedo; Peljto, Amir; Kostic, Milutin; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was

  17. Harm expectancy violation during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleine, R.A. de; Hendriks, L.; Becker, E.S.; Broekman, T.G.; Minnen, A. van

    2017-01-01

    Exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional processing theory proposes that fear habituation is a central mechanism in symptom reduction, but the empirical evidence supporting this is mixed. Recently it has been proposed that violation of

  18. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

  19. The relationship of parental overprotection, perceived vulnerability, and parenting stress to behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Page, Melanie C; McNall-Knapp, René Y; Meyer, William H; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2008-08-01

    To examine the relationship of self-reported parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to parent-reported behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment of children currently on treatment for cancer. Parents of 62 children (34 boys, 28 girls) currently on treatment for cancer were recruited from an outpatient pediatric cancer clinic. Children ranged in age from 2 to 12 years; age at diagnosis ranged from 1.33 to 11.83 years. Higher levels of parenting stress, but not parental overprotection or perceived child vulnerability, were associated with poorer behavioral and social adjustment. Higher levels of perceived child vulnerability and parenting stress, but not parental overprotection, were independently associated with poorer emotional adjustment. Specific parenting variables appear to be related to specific adjustment outcomes in children with cancer. Longitudinal follow-up of these children is necessary to determine the developmental trajectory of parent variables and long-term child outcomes.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd and co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeta Ličanin

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD very often occurs accompanied with other psychiatric disorders such as: Alcohol and Drug abuse, Personality Disorder, General Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Schizophrenia etc. Sometimes it might be a problem for clinicians to differ PTSD symptoms from symptoms of coexisting psychic disorders. The aim of this study was to present the most common PTSD coexisting psycho-disorders. This research was conducted during the period from April 1998 to October 1999. Participants were divided in two groups each containing 30 examinees. The first group consisted of 30 participants with symptoms of PTSD only while the second group included participants who suffered from both PTSD and other psychic disorders (co-morbidity. Both groups were quite similar regarding participants gender and age. The scientific tools used in the research were: Standard Psychiatric Interview, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Drug and Alcohol Abuse Checklist. Our research results are indicating that PTSDsymptoms are most common in middle-aged persons, regardless of their gender and age. We have found following coexisting psychic disorders: personality disorder 46.6% (from which 13.3% is permanent personality disorder after the traumatic experience; depression 29.9% (depression without psychotic symptoms 23.3% and depression with coexisting psychotic symptoms 6.6%; drug abuse 13.3; alcohol abuse 6.7% and dissociative (conversion disorder 3.3%. The results of our work are suggesting that co-morbid psychic symptoms have significant regressive influence on PTSD course and prognosis.

  1. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal expe...

  2. Psychological stress associated with aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, A.; Hassan, S.H.; Khan, D.A.; Chaudhary, M.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of stress as an etiological factor for aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi, from Oct 2015 to May 2016. Material and Methods: Two groups of patients were selected. Group I included 119 patients presenting with Aphthous Ulcers while group II had 64 subjects with complaints of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). After a thorough history, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess stress in the patients. AHADS-A score of 7 was taken as significant anxiety while a HADS-D score of 7 depicted significant depression. Both groups were then subjected to laboratory examinations. Serum cortisol levels were assessed for both groups while Serum Folate, Ferritin and Vitamin B12 level for group I only. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 to calculate descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviations as well as frequencies and percentages. Relationship between HADS score and serum cortisol levels was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: For TMDs, 53 (82.8%) patients were found positive for stress while for aphthous ulcers, 61 (51.3%) were positive for stress. The correlation between HADS score and serum cortisol levels was found significant for both groups at a p=<0.001. Conclusions: Patients showed a high prevalence of stress as an etiological factor for aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders in a local setting. (author)

  3. Suicidal tendency in a sample of adolescent outpatients with adjustment disorder: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Although Adjustment Disorder (AD) is a prevalent diagnosis in adolescent mental health services and linked to suicidal tendency in adolescence, little research exists examining prevalence and gender differences of suicidal symptoms among AD patients using standardized instruments. The present study aims to assess the presence of suicidal tendency in a clinical sample of Spanish adolescents with AD analyzing gender differences. Ninety-seven adolescents with AD were recruited at a public mental health center and included in the AD sample; they were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (Suicide Risk Inventory for Adolescents-IRIS) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Ninety-nine community adolescents were recruited and administered the IRIS inventory. The community sample works as a contrast group. Girls with AD show higher levels of suicidal symptoms than boys on both the IRIS Suicidal Ideation and Intention scale (t=8.15, p<.001) and the MACI Suicidal Tendency scale (t=6.6, p<.001). Girls with AD scored significantly higher than girls from the community contrast group sample in the IRIS Suicidal Ideation and Intention scale, but boys with AD presented no differences with regard to boys form the community contrast group sample. Compared with normative clinical samples of the MACI, no differences in the Suicidal Tendency scale scores were found between AD and normative girls, but AD boys showed significantly lower mean scores than normative boys. Suicidal symptoms were presented by 27% of girls and 18% of boys, although only 6% of the girls and none of the boys presented clear suicidal tendencies. Considering suicidal tendencies in adolescents with Adjustment Disorder is important-especially in girls, who present high suicidal tendencies in relation both to boys and to community peers and the normative clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between work stress and mental disorders in men and women: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J L; Lesage, A; Schmitz, N; Drapeau, A

    2008-01-01

    [corrected] This analysis estimated the gender-specific associations between work stress, major depression, anxiety disorders and any mental disorder, adjusting for the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, psychological and clinical variables. Data from the Canadian national mental health survey were used to examine the gender-specific relationships between work stress dimensions and mental disorders in the working population (n = 24,277). Mental disorders were assessed using a modified version of the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In multivariate analysis, male workers who reported high demand and low control in the workplace were more likely to have had major depression (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.69) and any depressive or anxiety disorders (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.04) in the past 12 months. In women, high demand and low control was only associated with having any depressive or anxiety disorder (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.84). Job insecurity was positively associated with major depression in men but not in women. Imbalance between work and family life was the strongest factor associated with having mental disorders, regardless of gender. Policies improving the work environment may have positive effects on workers' mental health status. Imbalance between work and family life may be a stronger risk factor than work stress for mental disorders. Longitudinal studies incorporating important workplace health research models are needed to delineate causal relationships between work characteristics and mental disorders.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lisa S; Maguen, Shira; Epel, Elissa S; Metzler, Thomas J; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional eating in a sample of medically healthy and medication-free adults. Participants with PTSD (n = 44) and control participants free of lifetime psychiatric history (n = 49) completed a measure of emotional eating. Emotional eating is the tendency to eat or overeat in response to negative emotions. PTSD participants exhibited greater emotional eating than control participants (η(2)  = .20) and emotional eating increased with higher PTSD symptom severity (R(2)  = .11). Results supported the stress-eating-obesity model whereby emotional eating is a maladaptive response to stressors. Over time, this could lead to weight gain, particularly abdominal stores, and contribute to higher risk for comorbid medical disorders. Findings suggest the importance of future longitudinal research to understand whether emotional eating contributes to the high rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in PTSD. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR). Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain a-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. In conclusion, by focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding.

  7. Compression of Cognitive Flexibility and Adjustment of Students with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and Typically Developing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sadeghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research is to compare cognitive flexibility and adjustment between two groups of students with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and typically developing students. Methods: For this purpose, 50 students with DCD and 50 typically developing students were chosen among 12 primary schools. The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q, Adjustment Inventory for School Students (AISS and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST were used to measure the research variables. Results: The results of the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed that the mean score of cognitive flexibility and emotional, educational and social adjustment is significantly higher in the students with developmental coordination disorder (P<0.001. The results of multivariate regression analysis also showed that a 25% variance percentage of cognitive flexibility and adjustment can explain the variance of developmental coordination disorder in people with such a disorder (P<0.001. Discussion: The result of the present study provides further evidence based on low cognitive flexibility and Adjustment in students with DCD.

  8. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Annalisa; Colletti, Chiara; Cuoco, Valentina; Quartini, Adele; Urso, Stefania; Rinaldi, Raffaella; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Although adjustment disorder (AD) is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing) often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD. A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry "A. Fiorini" Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy), was performed. The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females), aged between 26 and 85, with medium-high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%), a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%), was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%), family problems (23.70%), and/or somatic disease (22.60%) with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records. Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results suggest that AD may have a distinct profile in demographic and clinical terms. Increased scientific attention is hoped, particularly focused on addressing a better definition of diagnostic criteria, whose correctness and accuracy are critical, especially in situations with medicolegal implications.

  9. Somatic comorbidity among migrants with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolk, Mette; Byberg, Stine; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a cohort of migrants in Denmark, we compared somatic disease incidence among migrants diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. METHODS: The study builds on a unique cohort of migrants who obtained...... for the implementation of the project (No 2012-41-0065). RESULTS: Our results showed that migrants diagnosed with PTSD and depression had significantly higher rates of somatic diseases compared with migrants without diagnosed psychiatric disorders - especially, infectious disease (IRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.48; p ... with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. The rates were especially high for infectious, neurological and pulmonary diseases. Our results further suggest difference in the rates of somatic comorbidity according to region of. Preventive and treatment services should pay special attention to improve...

  10. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y. Holgate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.

  11. Impact of left ventricular assist device speed adjustment on exercise tolerance and markers of wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Christopher S; Salamonsen, Robert; Keogh, Anne M; Woodard, John; Ayre, Peter; Prichard, Roslyn; Kotlyar, Eugene; Macdonald, Peter S; Jansz, Paul; Spratt, Phillip

    2015-09-01

    Left ventricular assist devices are crucial in rehabilitation of patients with end-stage heart failure. Whether cardiopulmonary function is enhanced with higher pump output is unknown. 10 patients (aged 39±16 years, mean±SD) underwent monitored adjustment of pump speed to determine minimum safe low speed and maximum safe high speed at rest. Patients were then randomized to these speed settings and underwent three 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) and symptom-limited cardiopulmonary stress tests (CPX) on separate days. Pump speed settings (low, normal and high) resulted in significantly different resting pump flows of 4.43±0.6, 5.03±0.94, and 5.72±1.2 l/min (Pexercise (Pexercise time (p=.27). Maximum workload achieved and peak oxygen consumption were significantly different comparing low to high pump speed settings only (Prelease was significantly reduced at higher pump speed with exercise (Prelease consistent with lower myocardial wall stress. This did not, however, improve exercise tolerance.

  12. Review of somatic symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A

    2013-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both (1) 'ill-defined' or 'medically unexplained' somatic syndromes, e.g. unexplained dizziness, tinnitus and blurry vision, and syndromes that can be classified as somatoform disorders (DSM-IV-TR); and (2) a range of medical conditions, with a preponderance of cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, and gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, chronic pain, sleep disorders and other immune-mediated disorders in various studies. Frequently reported medical co-morbidities with PTSD across various studies include cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension, and immune-mediated disorders. PTSD is associated with limbic instability and alterations in both the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, have central nervous system effects resulting in pseudo-neurological symptoms and disorders of sleep-wake regulation, and result in autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Hypervigilance, a central feature of PTSD, can lead to 'local sleep' or regional arousal states, when the patient is partially asleep and partially awake, and manifests as complex motor and/or verbal behaviours in a partially conscious state. The few studies of the effects of standard PTSD treatments (medications, CBT) on PTSD-associated somatic syndromes report a reduction in the severity of ill-defined and autonomically mediated somatic symptoms, self-reported physical health problems, and some chronic pain syndromes.

  13. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  14. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  15. Longitudinal Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain in Military Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    ksmitche@bu.edu). Initially submitted July 14, 2015; accepted for publication October 15, 2015. Obesity is a major health problem in the United States...and a growing concern among members of the military. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with overweight and obesity and may...disordered eating symptoms. The asso- ciation between PTSDandweight gain resulting from compensatory behaviors (vomiting, laxative use, fasting , over

  16. Postanesthesia emergence in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umholtz, Matthew; Cilnyk, John; Wang, Christopher K; Porhomayon, Jahan; Pourafkari, Leili; Nader, Nader D

    2016-11-01

    Recovery from anesthesia may be complicated with development of severe panic symptoms and anxiety. Preexisting anxiety disorder has been reported as a risk factor for development of these symptoms. We aimed to examine the frequency of emergence delirium (EDL) among veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Retrospective cohort. Postoperative recovery area. Perioperative information of 1763 consecutive patients who underwent a surgical procedure requiring general anesthesia were collected. The patients were grouped on the basis of previous diagnosis of PTSD. A total of 317 patients were identified with a positive history of PTSD and were compared to 1446 patients without such a history for the occurrence of EDL in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) as the primary endpoint. Duration of stay in PACU in minutes and the frequency of hospital admission were the secondary endpoints. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of EDL among the veteran population. Emergence delirium was reported in 37 cases (2.1%) after general anesthesia. Fifteen (4.7%) of 317 patients with PTSD and 22 (1.5%) of 1446 patients without history of PTSD demonstrated symptoms related to EDL in the PACU (P=.002). After propensity matching, there were 8 patients with EDL in the PTSD group whereas there were only 2 patients with EDL among controls. Posttraumatic stress disorder was also an independent predictor of EDL in multivariate analysis with an odds ratio of 6.66 and a 95% confidence interval of 2.04 to 21.72 (P=.002). Posttraumatic stress disorder independently predicted the frequency of EDL even after correcting for preexisting depression and anxiety disorders. A relatively longer duration of PACU stay in PTSD patients may reflect raised awareness of the health care workers about this debilitating mental disorder. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Deployment-Related Injury and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in US Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder ( PTSD ), an anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to a traumatic event, is a frequent psychological...wounded Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry 1989;146:667–9. 17. Helzer JE, Robins LN, McEvoy L. Post - traumatic stress disorder in the general...Meyer C. Post - traumatic stress disorder : the role of trauma, pre-existing psychiatric disorders , and gender. European Archives of Psychiatry

  18. College Adjustment as a Mediator Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Work Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Clarissa Tochetto de; Hauck-Filho,Nelson; Dias,Ana Cristina Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies have addressed features of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in higher education, but the potential relationships between ADHD symptoms, dimensions of college adjustment and students' work self-efficacy remain scarcely explored. The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model in which the dimensions of college adjustment mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and work self-efficacy. Participants were 509 college students from two Brazilian public u...

  19. Oxidative stress in major depressive and anxiety disorders, and the association with antidepressant use; results from a large adult cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, C N; Bot, M; Scheffer, P G; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders and may be influenced by antidepressant use. This study investigated the association of oxidative stress, measured by plasma levels of F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) reflecting oxidative lipid and DNA damage respectively, with MDD, anxiety disorders and antidepressant use in a large cohort. Data was derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including patients with current (N = 1619) or remitted (N = 610) MDD and/or anxiety disorder(s) (of which N = 704 antidepressant users) and 612 controls. Diagnoses were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Plasma 8-OHdG and F2-isoprostanes were measured using LC-MS/MS. ANCOVA was performed adjusted for sampling, sociodemographic, health and lifestyle variables. F2-isoprostanes did not differ between controls and patients, or by antidepressant use. Patients with current disorders had lower 8-OHdG (mean 42.1 pmol/l, 95% CI 40.4-43.8) compared to controls (45.0 pmol/l, 95% CI 42.9-47.2; p anxiety disorders), and all antidepressant types (SSRIs, TCAs, other antidepressants). Contrary to previous findings this large-scale study found no increased oxidative stress in MDD and anxiety disorders. Antidepressant use was associated with lower oxidative DNA damage, suggesting antidepressants may have antioxidant effects.

  20. An internet-based intervention for adjustment disorder (TAO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachyla, Iryna; Pérez-Ara, Marian; Molés, Mar; Campos, Daniel; Mira, Adriana; Botella, Cristina; Quero, Soledad

    2018-05-31

    Adjustment Disorder (AjD) is a common and disabling mental health problem. The lack of research on this disorder has led to the absence of evidence-based interventions for its treatment. Moreover, because the available data indicate that a high percentage of people with mental illness are not treated, it is necessary to develop new ways to provide psychological assistance. The present study describes a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) aimed at assessing the effectiveness and acceptance of a linear internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) intervention for AjD. A two-armed RCT was designed to compare an intervention group to a waiting list control group. Participants from the intervention group will receive TAO, an internet-based program for AjD composed of seven modules. TAO combines CBT and Positive Psychology strategies in order to provide patients with complete support, reducing their clinical symptoms and enhancing their capacity to overcome everyday adversity. Participants will also receive short weekly telephone support. Participants in the control group will be assessed before and after a seven-week waiting period, and then they will be offered the same intervention. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of the 2 groups. Measurements will be taken at five different moments: baseline, post-intervention, and three follow-up periods (3-, 6- and 12-month). BDI-II and BAI will be used as primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes will be symptoms of AjD, posttraumatic growth, positive and negative affect, and quality of life. The development of ICBT programs like TAO responds to a need for evidence-based interventions that can reach most of the people who need them, reducing the burden and cost of mental disorders. More specifically, TAO targets AjD and will entail a step forward in the treatment of this prevalent but under-researched disorder. Finally, it should be noted that this is the first RCT focusing on an internet

  1. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in temporary settlement residents 1 year after the Sichuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Ma, Ning; Yang, Lei; Agho, Kingsley; Stevens, Garry; Raphael, Beverley; Cui, Lijun; Liu, Yongqiao; Yan, Baoping; Ma, Hong; Yu, Xin

    2015-03-01

    The authors sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors living in temporary accommodation in the Yongxing settlement in Mianyang city 1 year after the Sichuan earthquake for further interventions. They interviewed 182 residents, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and a self-report questionnaire. The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder and PTSD were 48.9% and 39.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that bereaved survivors were 5.51 times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.14-14.22) more likely to report PTSD and 2.42 times (AOR = 2.42; 95%CI =1.00-5.48) more likely to report depressive disorder than nonbereaved survivors. Older age and receipt of government financial support were significantly associated with 12-month PTSD. Depressive disorder 12 months after the earthquake was associated with receipt of government financial support, pre-earthquake physical illness, single marital status, being currently employed, and Han ethnicity. © 2013 APJPH.

  2. Towards semi-automated assistance for the treatment of stress disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Frans; van den Broek, Egon; Dijkstra, Ton; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2010-01-01

    People who suffer from a stress disorder have a severe handicap in daily life. In addition, stress disorders are complex and consequently, hard to define and hard to treat. Semi-automatic assistance was envisioned that helps in the treatment of a stress disorder. Speech was considered to provide an

  3. Combat Blast Injuries: Injury Severity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interaction on Career Outcomes in Male Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    post - traumatic stress disorder . INTRODUCTION Blasts are the most...Metzler TJ, Golding JM, Stewart A, Schlenger WE, Wells KB. Post - traumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally...proportions were higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) than in those without PTSD . There was a significant interaction between PTSD

  4. The Effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder on Military Leadership: An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) on military leadership. For over twenty years, the United States Army has used the Be...Introduction Multiple deployment cycles to Iraq and Afghanistan combat zones and the increase in Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) have resulted...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited The Effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder on Military Leadership: An

  5. Association Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active-Duty Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) has been difficult to determine because of the prevalence of...Qualification Test; CAPS, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; PTSD , posttraumatic stress disorder ; TBI, traumatic brain injury. a For the zeromodel, base...New onset and persistent symptoms of post - traumatic stress disorder self reported after deployment and combat exposures. BMJ.

  6. Reintegration of National Guard Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current wars in Iraq...veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current...returning veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). These veterans’ coping skills have

  7. Postdeployment Symptom Changes and Traumatic Brain Injury and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Post - Deployment Health Assessment, according to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ...Key words: blasts, deployment, males, military, odds ratio, percent change, Post -Deployment Health Assessment, post - traumatic stress disorder ...Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen, PDHA = Post -Deployment Health Assessment, PDHRA = Post - Deployment Health Reassessment, PTSD =

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder and beyond: an overview of rodent stress models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöner, Johanna; Heinz, Andreas; Endres, Matthias; Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo

    2017-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder of high prevalence and major socioeconomic impact. Patients suffering from PTSD typically present intrusion and avoidance symptoms and alterations in arousal, mood and cognition that last for more than 1 month. Animal models are an indispensable tool to investigate underlying pathophysiological pathways and, in particular, the complex interplay of neuroendocrine, genetic and environmental factors that may be responsible for PTSD induction. Since the 1960s, numerous stress paradigms in rodents have been developed, based largely on Seligman's seminal formulation of 'learned helplessness' in canines. Rodent stress models make use of physiological or psychological stressors such as foot shock, underwater trauma, social defeat, early life stress or predator-based stress. Apart from the brief exposure to an acute stressor, chronic stress models combining a succession of different stressors for a period of several weeks have also been developed. Chronic stress models in rats and mice may elicit characteristic PTSD-like symptoms alongside, more broadly, depressive-like behaviours. In this review, the major existing rodent models of PTSD are reviewed in terms of validity, advantages and limitations; moreover, significant results and implications for future research-such as the role of FKBP5, a mediator of the glucocorticoid stress response and promising target for therapeutic interventions-are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. Prevalence and predictors of post-stroke mood disorders: A meta-analysis and meta-regression of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alex J; Sheth, Bhavisha; Gill, John; Yadegarfar, Motahare; Stubbs, Brendon; Yadegarfar, Mohammad; Meader, Nick

    2017-07-01

    To ascertain the prevalence and predictors of mood disorders, determined by structured clinical interviews (ICD or DSM criteria) in people after stroke. Major electronic databases were searched from inception to June 2016 for studies involving major depression (MDD), minor depression (MnD), dysthymia, adjustment disorder, any depressive disorder (any depressive disorder) and anxiety disorders. Studies were combined using both random and fixed effects meta-analysis and results were stratified as appropriate. Depression was examined on 147 occasions from 2days to 7years after stroke (mean 6.87months, N=33 in acute, N=43 in rehabilitation and N=69 in the community/outpatients). Across 128 analyses involving 15,573 patients assessed for major depressive disorder (MDD), the point prevalence of depression was 17.7% (95% CI=15.6% to 20.0%) 0.65 analyses involving 9720 patients determined MnD was present in 13.1% in all settings (95% CI=10.9% to 15.8%). Dysthymia was present in 3.1% (95% CI=2.1% to 5.3%), adjustment disorder in 6.9% (95% CI=4.6 to 9.7%) and anxiety in 9.8% (95% CI=5.9% to 14.8%). Any depressive disorder was present in 33.5% (95% CI=30.3% to 36.8%). The relative risk of any depressive disorder was higher following left (dominant) hemisphere stroke, aphasia, and among people with a family history and past history of mood disorders. Depression, adjustment disorder and anxiety are common after stroke. Risk factors are aphasia, dominant hemispheric lesions and past personal/family history of depression but not time since stroke. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.129 Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is...

  11. Depressive disorder and social stress in Pakistan compared to people of Pakistani origin in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Tomenson, Barbara; Jackson, Judy; Gater, Richard; Creed, Francis

    2011-11-01

    Depressive disorder is more common in low to middle than high-income countries, but the reasons for this have not been explicitly defined. We compared the results of two population-based studies of people of Pakistani origin: one living in rural Pakistan and one in UK. Both samples were screened with the self-reporting questionnaire followed by research interview to determine depressive disorders and social stress. Logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence of depressive disorder in the two countries after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and social stress. The estimated prevalence of depression for men was 35.8% (95% CI 16.1-55.5) in Pakistan and 9% (5.0-13.0) in Manchester (pstress (both sexes). 35% of women in Pakistan and 71% of those in UK had received 8 years or more of education. Extremely poor housing and marked poverty were experienced by 36.1% of women in Pakistan and 0.6% of those in Manchester. In Pakistan, housing and poverty predominated as correlates of depression, whereas in Manchester it was marked difficulties in physical health and close relationships. The results suggest that the higher rate of depressive disorder amongst women in Pakistan compared to UK can be attributed to less education and frequent severe social difficulties. These differences have implications for treatment.

  12. Early intervention for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A

    2007-02-01

    The potentially debilitating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created much interest in early intervention strategies that can reduce PTSD. This review critiques the evidence for psychological debriefing approaches and alternate early intervention strategies. The review critiques the randomized controlled trials of psychological debriefing, and early provision of cognitive behavior therapy. The latter approach involves therapy attention on acutely traumatized individuals who are high risk for PTSD development, and particularly in people with acute stress disorder (ASD). Psychological debriefing does not prevent PTSD. Cognitive behaviour therapy strategies have proven efficacy in reducing subsequent PTSD in ASD populations. Despite the promising evidence for early provision of CBT, many people do not benefit from CBT. This review concludes with consideration of major challenges facing early intervention approaches in the context of terrorist attacks and mass disasters.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, S; Stein, M B

    2001-08-01

    This article provides an update on recent findings in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with reference to pertinent epidemiologic, etiologic, diagnostic, and treatment advances in the past year. New studies serve to confirm high prevalence rates in the general population (7% to 12%), and high rates of secondary mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Recent substantive evidence has highlighted 1) the unique pattern of biological alteration in PTSD that distinguishes it from the normative stress response, and 2) the role of constitutional risk factors and trauma-related factors in determining disease expression after trauma exposure. The emergence of consistent data suggesting that medications (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and psychotherapies (cognitive-behavior therapy) are effective in reducing core symptoms and improving quality of life, has reinforced optimism and more widespread use of these interventions in patients with PTSD.

  14. Examining the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and social participation among Veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etingen, Bella; Locatelli, Sara M; Miskevics, Scott; LaVela, Sherri L

    2017-07-26

    The objectives of this study were to examine differences in social participation among Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders with and without post-traumatic stress disorder, and determine if lower social participation was independently associated with having post-traumatic stress disorder. A cross-sectional mailed national survey was sent to a national sample of Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders who received prior-year Veterans Affairs healthcare. Surveys provided data on: demographics, health conditions, injury characteristics, and social participation. Analyses included bivariate comparisons, and multivariate logistic regression to determine if lower social participation was independently associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Veterans with (vs. without) post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 896) reported lower social participation (40.2 vs. 43.9, p stress disorder, while a greater number of health conditions (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.25-1.64, p stress disorder (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98, p = 0.003). Results indicate post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower social participation in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders, independent of other factors that may impact participation. Efforts to screen for and treat post-traumatic stress disorder among persons with spinal cord injuries/disorders, regardless of injury-specific factors, are needed to improve participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Individuals with spinal cord injuries/disorders often have post-traumatic stress disorder; in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders this may be compounded by trauma incurred through military experiences. Social participation, an important aspect of rehabilitation and community integration following spinal cord injury or disorder, may be hindered by symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Our data show that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower social participation in Veterans

  15. Diagnosing and treating post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Cæcilie Böck; Andersen, Henrik Steen

    2017-01-01

    The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis has undergone large developments. With the changes in DSM-5 and the proposed changes in ICD-11, the two systems move in different directions. Treatment for PTSD is developing, but the evidence for the effect is lacking behind. Trauma-focused cog......-focused cognitive behavioural therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing remain first choice. Pharmacotherapy is secondary. There is evidence for the effect of paroxetine, venlafaxine and fluoxetine and less so for sertraline....

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqui, Mudassir; Quadri, Syed A.; Suriya, Sajid S.; Khan, Muhammad Adnan; Ovais, Muhammad; Sohail, Zohaib; Shoaib, Samra; Tohid, Hassaan; Hassan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide reader...

  17. Post traumatic stress disorder and resilience in veterans who served ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    current PTSD from 2.2% to 15.2%.5,11,12,13-15 Data from the Gulf and Iraqi Wars, found a PTSD prevalence between 2 and. 12%16-21,22 while combat veterans of the Yom Kippur War of. 1973 in ..... (p.330) The protective role of social support for both prisoners of .... Posttraumatic stress disorder and among U.S. army.

  18. Information Processing Bias in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Darren L

    2008-01-01

    This review considers theory and evidence for abnormal information processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive studies have indicated sensitivity in PTSD for traumatic information, more so than general emotional information. These findings were supported by neuroimaging studies that identify increased brain activity during traumatic cognition, especially in affective networks (including the amygdala, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex). In theory, it is proposed th...

  19. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırımlı, Gamze; Tosun, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that r...

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Milosavljevic; Dusica Lecic Tosevski; Ivan Soldatovic; Olivera Vukovic; Cedo Miljevic; Amir Peljto; Milutin Kostic; Miranda Olff

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women we...

  1. Neural mechanisms of impaired fear inhibition in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja eJovanovic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD can develop in some individuals who are exposed to an event that causes extreme fear, horror, or helplessness (APA, 1994. PTSD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, which is often co-morbid with depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders such as panic or social phobia. Given this complexity, progress in the field can be greatly enhanced by focusing on phenotypes that are more proximal to the neurobiology of the disorder. Such neurobiological intermediate phenotypes can provide investigative tools to increase our understanding of the roots of the disorder and develop better prevention or intervention programs. In the present paper, we argue that the inhibition of fear responses is an intermediate phenotype that is related to both the neurocircuitry associated with the disorder, and is linked to its clinical symptoms. An advantage of focusing on fear inhibition is that the neurobiology of fear has been well investigated in animal models providing the necessary groundwork in understanding alterations. Furthermore, because many paradigms can be tested across species, fear inhibition is an ideal translational tool. Here we review both the behavioral tests and measures of fear inhibition and the related neurocircuitry in neuroimaging studies with both healthy and clinical samples.

  2. The Association of Panic Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Major Depression With Smoking in American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero M; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-03-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking are disproportionately high among American Indian populations, although regional differences exist in smoking prevalence. Previous research has noted that anxiety and depression are associated with higher rates of cigarette use. We asked whether lifetime panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression were related to lifetime cigarette smoking in two geographically distinct American Indian tribes. Data were collected in 1997-1999 from 1506 Northern Plains and 1268 Southwest tribal members; data were analyzed in 2009. Regression analyses examined the association between lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders and odds of lifetime smoking status after controlling for sociodemographic variables and alcohol use disorders. Institutional and tribal approvals were obtained for all study procedures, and all participants provided informed consent. Odds of smoking were two times higher in Southwest participants with panic disorder and major depression, and 1.7 times higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. After accounting for alcohol use disorders, only major depression remained significantly associated with smoking. In the Northern Plains, psychiatric disorders were not associated with smoking. Increasing psychiatric comorbidity was significantly linked to increased smoking odds in both tribes, especially in the Southwest. This study is the first to examine the association between psychiatric conditions and lifetime smoking in two large, geographically diverse community samples of American Indians. While the direction of the relationship between nicotine use and psychiatric disorders cannot be determined, understanding unique social, environmental, and cultural differences that contribute to the tobacco-psychiatric disorder relationship may help guide tribe-specific commercial tobacco control strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  3. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  4. MicroRNAs in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Clara; de Nijs, Laurence; Baker, Dewleen G; Hauger, Richard L; van den Hove, Daniel; Kenis, Gunter; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Boks, Marco P; Vermetten, Eric; Gage, Fred H; Rutten, Bart P F

    2017-10-21

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can develop following exposure to or witnessing of a (potentially) threatening event. A critical issue is to pinpoint the (neuro)biological mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to stress-related disorder such as PTSD, which develops in the minority of ~15% of individuals exposed to trauma. Over the last few years, a first wave of epigenetic studies has been performed in an attempt to identify the molecular underpinnings of the long-lasting behavioral and mental effects of trauma exposure. The potential roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) in moderating or mediating the impact of severe stress and trauma are increasingly gaining attention. To date, most studies focusing on the roles of miRNAs in PTSD have, however, been completed in animals, using cross-sectional study designs and focusing almost exclusively on subjects with susceptible phenotypes. Therefore, there is a strong need for new research comprising translational and cross-species approaches that use longitudinal designs for studying trajectories of change contrasting susceptible and resilient subjects. The present review offers a comprehensive overview of available studies of miRNAs in PTSD and discusses the current challenges, pitfalls, and future perspectives of this field.

  5. Trends in Opioid Use Disorder Diagnoses and Medication Treatment Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiner, Brian; Leonard Westgate, Christine; Bernardy, Nancy C; Schnurr, Paula P; Watts, Bradley V

    2017-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid use disorder comorbidity, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of opioid use disorder in patients with PTSD. Therefore, there is limited understanding of the use of medications for opioid use disorder in this population. We determined the prevalence of diagnosed opioid use disorder and use of medications for opioid use disorder in a large cohort of patients with PTSD. We obtained administrative and pharmacy data for veterans who initiated PTSD treatment in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between 2004 and 2013 (N = 731,520). We identified those with a comorbid opioid use disorder diagnosis (2.7%; n = 19,998) and determined whether they received a medication for opioid use disorder in the year following their initial clinical PTSD diagnosis (29.6%; n = 5,913). Using logistic regression, we determined the predictors of receipt of opioid use disorder medications. Comorbid opioid use disorder diagnoses increased from 2.5% in 2004 to 3.4% in 2013. Patients with comorbid opioid use disorder used more health services and had more comorbidities than other patients with PTSD. Among patients with PTSD and comorbid opioid use disorder, use of medications for opioid use disorder increased from 22.6% to 35.1% during the same time period. Growth in the use of buprenorphine (2.0% to 22.7%) was accompanied by relative decline in use of methadone (19.3% to 12.7%). Patients who received buprenorphine were younger and more likely to be rural, White, and married. Patients who received methadone were older, urban, unmarried, from racial and ethnic minorities, and more likely to see substance abuse specialists. While use of naltrexone increased (2.8% to 8.6%), most (87%) patients who received naltrexone also had an alcohol use disorder. Controlling for patient factors, there was a substantial increase in the use of buprenorphine, a substantial decrease in the use of methadone, and no change

  6. The Adjustable Transobturator Male System in Stress Urinary Incontinence After Transurethral Resection of the Prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Alexander; Schneeweiss, Jenifer; Stangl, Kathrin; Mühlstädt, Sandra; Zachoval, Roman; Hruby, Stephan; Gründler, Therese; Kivaranovic, Danijel; Fornara, Paolo; Lusuardi, Lukas; Brössner, Clemens

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of the Adjustable Transobturator Male System (ATOMS) in men with stress urinary incontinence after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). From a large international prospectively administrated ATOMS register, we identified 49 patients with an ATOMS device as a result of persistent stress urinary incontinence after TURP. For evaluation, the men were divided into standard transurethral resection of the prostate (sTURP) and palliative transurethral resection of the prostate (pTURP) in radiated patients. Baseline and follow-up measurements included continence parameters, urodynamics, quality-of-life surveys (Patient Global Impression-Improvement and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form), and pain ratings. The dry rate (0-1 security pad/vs 10%, P = .0171) and infection was the most common side effect (50%) observed. Neither intraoperative nor Clavien-Dindo 4 and 5 adverse events were recorded. In sTURP and pTURP, the median daily pad count and the pad test improved significantly (all P <.001), and quality-of-life parameters shifted to a high satisfaction level (P <.001 and P = .001). Urodynamics remained unchanged and postoperative pain was not an issue. The ATOMS device shows promising treatment outcomes in patients after TURP and a similar efficacy as in postprostatectomy incontinence. There is no difference in continence outcome between sTURP and pTURP; however, a higher removal rate was found after pTURP, which may be important for patient counseling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales in the Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Disorders

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    Wolf, Erika J.; Miller, Mark W.; Orazem, Robert J.; Weierich, Mariann R.; Castillo, Diane T.; Milford, Jaime; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Keane, Terence M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Restructured Clinical Scales (RCSs) in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) receiving clinical services at Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Study 1 included 1,098 men who completed the MMPI-2 and were…

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder: medicine and politics.

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    Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Iversen, Amy; Wessely, Simon

    2007-01-13

    Regrettably, exposure to trauma is common worldwide, and can have serious adverse psychological results. The introduction of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder has led to increasing medicalisation of the problem. This awareness has helped popular acceptance of the reality of post-traumatic psychiatric sequelae, which has boosted research into the pathogenesis of the disorder, leading to improved pharmacological and psychological management. The subjective experience of trauma and subsequent expression of symptoms vary considerably over space and time, and we emphasise that not all psychological distress or psychiatric disorders after trauma should be termed post-traumatic stress disorder. There are limits to the medicalisation of distress and there is value in focusing on adaptive coping during and after traumas. Striking a balance between a focus on heroism and resilience versus victimhood and pathological change is a crucial and constant issue after trauma for both clinicians and society. In this Review we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of medicalising trauma response, using examples from South Africa, the Armed Services, and post-disaster, to draw attention to our argument.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Disturbs Coronary Tone and Its Regulatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuko, Svetlana S; Kuzhel, Olga P; Belyaeva, Lyudmila E; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Fred Downey, H; Tseilikman, Olga B; Komelkova, Maria V; Tseilikman, Vadim E

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with myocardial injury, but changes in coronary regulatory mechanisms in PTSD have not been investigated. This study evaluated the effect of PTSD-inducing stress on coronary tone and its regulation by nitric oxide (NO) and voltage-gated K + channels. PTSD was induced by exposing rats to predator stress, 15 min daily for 10 days, followed by 14 stress-free days. Presence of PTSD was confirmed by the elevated plus-maze test. Coronary tone was evaluated from changes in coronary perfusion pressure of Langendorff isolated hearts. Predator stress induced significant decreases in coronary tone of isolated hearts and in blood pressure of intact rats. L-NAME, a non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, but not S-MT, a selective iNOS inhibitor, and increased coronary tone of control rats. In PTSD rats, both L-NAME and S-MT increased coronary tone. Therefore, the stress-induced coronary vasodilation resulted from NO overproduction by both iNOS and eNOS. NOS induction was apparently due to systemic inflammation as evidenced by increased serum interleukin-1β and C-reactive protein in PTSD rats. Decreased corticosterone in PTSD rats may have contributed to inflammation and its effect on coronary tone. PTSD was also associated with voltage-gated K + channel dysfunction, which would have also reduced coronary tone.

  10. Coping with stress in adults with speech fluency disorders

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    Magdalena Pietraszek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Stuttering is a developmental speech disorder that affects the fluency of speech. Persons who stutter perceive speaking situations and social interactions as threatening. Participants and procedure Nineteen (47.50% adults with speech fluency disorders (SFD and 21 (52.50% without participated in the study. All participants completed the following measures individually: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, and an informational survey. Results Our study confirmed that persons with SFD experience more stressful situations in life and feel greater anxiety, both as a trait and as a state, which influences their daily life. The negative affect experienced contributed to their preferred use of Emotion-Oriented Coping strategies, at the expense of more proactive Task-Oriented Coping. Experienced stress and anxiety influenced and consolidated their habitual stress coping styles, devoted mainly to dealing with negative emotions. Conclusions Stuttering affects daily activities, interpersonal relationships, and the quality of life. Therefore, professional support should include adaptive, task-oriented coping.

  11. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

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    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  12. Adjustment Difficulties and Caregiving Burdens Faced by College Students with a Parent with Bipolar or Depressive Disorders

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    Crandall, Erin K.; Ruggero, Camilo J.; Bain, Kathleen; Kilmer, Jared

    2014-01-01

    College campuses often host students who come from families where one or more parent has been affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder. The present study sought to determine whether these students face unique challenges in college, including increased adjustment difficulties as well as greater caregiving burden associated with their…

  13. The Impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Preadolescent Adjustment May Be Greater for Girls than for Boys

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    Elkins, Irene J.; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Whether gender differences exist in the impairment associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still largely unknown, because most samples have few affected girls or include only one sex. The current study evaluated whether ADHD affects adjustment differently for girls than boys in a population-based cohort of 11-year-olds…

  14. Short sleep duration, complaints of vital exhaustion and perceived stress are prevalent among pregnant women with mood and anxiety disorders

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    Qiu Chunfang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders have been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints and disorders among pregnant women with psychiatric disorders. Methods A cohort of 1,332 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained psychiatric diagnosis status and collect information about sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Approximately 5.1% of the cohort (n=68 reported having a physician-diagnosis of mood or anxiety disorder before interview. Compared with women without a psychiatric diagnosis, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI for short sleep duration in early pregnancy (≤6 hours were 1.95 (1.03-3.69. The corresponding OR (95%CI for long sleep duration (≥9 hours during early pregnancy was 1.13 (0.63-2.03. Women with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk of vital exhaustion (OR=2.41; 95%CI 1.46-4.00 and elevated perceived stress (OR=3.33; 95%CI 1.89-5.88. Observed associations were more pronounced among overweight/obese women. Conclusions Women with a psychiatric disorder were more likely to report short sleep durations, vital exhaustion and elevated perceived stress. Prospective studies are needed to more thoroughly explore factors that mediate the apparent mood/anxiety-sleep comorbidity among pregnant women.

  15. Emotional and meta-emotional intelligence as predictors of adjustment problems in students with Specific Learning Disorders

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    Antonella D’Amico

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse adjustment problems in a group of adolescents with a Specific Learning Disorder (SLD, examining to what extent they depend on the severity level of the learning disorder and/or on the individual‟s level of emotional intelligence. Adjustment problems,, perceived severity levels of SLD, and emotional and meta-emotional intelligence were examined in 34 adolescents with SLD. Results demonstrated that emotional beliefs, emotional self-concept and emotional intelligence are very important factors in the psychological adjustment of adolescents with SLD. These results provide evidence for the importance of considering meta-emotional intelligence in both diagnostic and intervention protocols, as well as in the inclusive education of students with SLD.

  16. Traumatic Stress Interacts With Bipolar Disorder Genetic Risk to Increase Risk for Suicide Attempts.

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    Wilcox, Holly C; Fullerton, Janice M; Glowinski, Anne L; Benke, Kelly; Kamali, Masoud; Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Stapp, Emma K; Edenberg, Howard J; Roberts, Gloria M P; Ghaziuddin, Neera; Fisher, Carrie; Brucksch, Christine; Frankland, Andrew; Toma, Claudio; Shaw, Alex D; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Miller, Leslie; McInnis, Melvin G; Mitchell, Philip B; Nurnberger, John I

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions and is associated with high suicide risk. To explore the reasons for this link, this study examined the interaction between traumatic stress and BD polygenic risk score in relation to suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent and young adult offspring and relatives of persons with BD (BD-relatives) compared with adolescent and young adult offspring of individuals without psychiatric disorders (controls). Data were collected from 4 sites in the United States and 1 site in Australia from 2006 through 2012. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare rates of ideation, attempts, and NSSI between BD-relatives (n = 307) and controls (n = 166) and to determine the contribution of demographic factors, traumatic stress exposure, lifetime mood or substance (alcohol/drug) use disorders, and BD polygenic risk score. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and mood and substance use disorders, BD-relatives were at increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts but not for NSSI. Independent of BD-relative versus control status, demographic factors, or mood and substance use disorders, exposure to trauma within the past year (including bullying, sexual abuse, and domestic violence) was associated with suicide attempts (p = .014), and BD polygenic risk score was marginally associated with attempts (p = .061). Importantly, the interaction between BD polygenic risk score and traumatic event exposures was significantly associated with attempts, independent of demographics, relative versus control status, and mood and substance use disorders (p = .041). BD-relatives are at increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation, especially if they are exposed to trauma and have evidence of increased genetic vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients and Results of Violent Behavior

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    Taner Oznur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: High levels of anger and aggression in post-traumatic stress disorder lead to unfavorable social, legal, physical and economic results to family members and the other social layers as much as patients. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relation between both alcohol-cigarette consumption ratios and anger levels, characteristics of aggressive behaviors and the judicial outcome in cases diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder due to armed conflict. METHODS: 38 cases diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder were included to the study. Pre- and post-traumatic alcohol/cigarette consumption amounts and aggressive behaviors are determined. Impact of Events Scale (Revised (IES-R was used for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptom patterns and severity, Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for measuring anger and aggression levels, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rating Scale was used for evaluating the judicial outcome of aggression. RESULTS: 23 of cases (60.6% were married with children, 13 of cases (34.25 were single and 2 of cases (5.2% were divorced.18 of cases (47.4% were graduate. IES-R total score was 66,9 +/- 12,7, Buss Perry total score was 111,3 +/- 20,5, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rate was 2,5 +/- 1,0. When the pre- and post-traumatic aggressive behaviors were compared; physical violence to the partner was increased more than ten times, Physical and verbal violence to social individuals were increased more than four and seven times, respectively. And also it is observed that inflicting damage to property was increased 17 times, reckless driving was increased 11 times, and self-mutilation was increased 5 times. Alcohol consumption was determined as 0 (0 - 126 g/day for pre-trauma cases and 16.5 (0 - 294 g/day for post-trauma cases. Cigarette smoking was determined as 5 (0 and #8211; 40 cigarette/day for pre-trauma cases and 30 (0 -60 cigarette/day for post-trauma cases. CONCLUSION: Post

  18. Neurofeedback Treatment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Effectiveness of Neurofeedback on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Optimal Choice of Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Karen; Andersen, Søren Bo; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Neurofeedback is an alternative, noninvasive approach used in the treatment of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many different neurofeedback protocols and methods exist. Likewise, PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder. To review the evidence on effectiveness and preferred protocol when using neurofeedback treatment on PTSD, a systematic search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Five studies were included in this review. Neurofeedback had a statistically significant effect in three studies. Neurobiological changes were reported in three studies. Interpretation of results is, however, limited by differences between the studies and several issues regarding design. The optimistic results presented here qualify neurofeedback as probably efficacious for PTSD treatment.

  19. posttraumatic stress disorder: a theoretical model of the hyperarousal subtype

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    Charles Stewart Weston

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a frequent and distressing mental disorder, about which much remains to be learned. It is a heterogeneous disorder; the hyperarousal subtype (about 70% of occurrences and simply termed PTSD in this paper is the topic of this article, but the dissociative subtype (about 30% of occurrences and likely involving quite different brain mechanisms is outside its scope. A theoretical model is presented that integrates neuroscience data on diverse brain regions known to be involved in PTSD, and extensive psychiatric findings on the disorder. Specifically, the amygdala is a multifunctional brain region that is crucial to PTSD, and processes peritraumatic hyperarousal on grounded cognition principles to produce hyperarousal symptoms. Amygdala activity also modulates hippocampal function, which is supported by a large body of evidence, and likewise amygdala activity modulates several brainstem regions, visual cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, to produce diverse startle, visual, memory, numbing, anger, and recklessness symptoms. Additional brain regions process other aspects of peritraumatic responses to produce further symptoms. These contentions are supported by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral evidence. Collectively, the model offers an account of how responses at the time of trauma are transformed into an extensive array of the 20 PTSD symptoms that are specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. It elucidates the neural mechanisms of a specific form of psychopathology, and accords with the Research Domain Criteria framework

  20. Panicogens in patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

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    Muhtz, Christoph; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kellner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Symptom provocation has proved its worth for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases and in general for the development of new therapeutic approaches in the medical field. In the research of anxiety disorders, investigations using experimentally induced panic attacks by various agents, such as sodium lactate, carbon dioxide, cholezystokinine-tetrapetid etc., have a long tradition and allow the exploration of usually naturally occuring spontaneous psychopathological phenomena under controlled conditions. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder that can develop following exposure to an extreme traumatic event. In DSM-IV it is currently classified as an anxiety disorder and shares phenomenological similarities with panic disorder. The use of panicogenic challenge tests is also an interesting neurobiological approach to learn more about the nature of PTSD and may be a possibility to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PTSD symptoms. Not only panic anxiety, but also flashbacks and other dissociative symptoms can be provoked by several panicogens in PTSD. The purpose of this review is to evaluate studies using panicogens in PTSD. Methodological short-comings of current studies and needed directions of further research are discussed.

  1. A Dyadic Approach to Infertility Stress, Marital Adjustment, and Depression on Quality of Life in Infertile Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hee; Shin, Hye Sook; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the level of infertility stress, marital adjustment, depression, and quality of life in infertile couples and assess the actor and partner effects in these areas using the actor-partner interdependence model. Cross-sectional study. Participants were 121 infertile couples. After pilot study, data were collected from November 2012 to March 2013 using the following questionnaires: the Fertility Quality of Life, Fertility Problem Inventory, Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory. There was a gender difference in infertility stress, depression, and quality of life. Infertility stress had actor and partner effects on the quality of life. Marital adjustment had an actor effect on the quality of life for the wives. Depression had actor and partner effects on quality of life for the wives, but only an actor effect for the husbands. This study found that there were actor and partner effects of infertility stress, marital adjustment, and depression on the quality of life in infertile couples. These findings may help nurses be aware of such effects and can be used as a baseline data in the development of nursing interventions for infertile couples.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a state-of-the-science review.

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    Nemeroff, Charles B; Bremner, J Douglas; Foa, Edna B; Mayberg, Helen S; North, Carol S; Stein, Murray B

    2006-02-01

    This article reviews the state-of-the-art research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from several perspectives: (1) Sex differences: PTSD is more frequent among women, who tend to have different types of precipitating traumas and higher rates of comorbid panic disorder and agoraphobia than do men. (2) Risk and resilience: The presence of Group C symptoms after exposure to a disaster or act of terrorism may predict the development of PTSD as well as comorbid diagnoses. (3) Impact of trauma in early life: Persistent increases in CRF concentration are associated with early life trauma and PTSD, and may be reversed with paroxetine treatment. (4) Imaging studies: Intriguing findings in treated and untreated depressed patients may serve as a paradigm of failed brain adaptation to chronic emotional stress and anxiety disorders. (5) Neural circuits and memory: Hippocampal volume appears to be selectively decreased and hippocampal function impaired among PTSD patients. (6) Cognitive behavioral approaches: Prolonged exposure therapy, a readily disseminated treatment modality, is effective in modifying the negative cognitions that are frequent among PTSD patients. In the future, it would be useful to assess the validity of the PTSD construct, elucidate genetic and experiential contributing factors (and their complex interrelationships), clarify the mechanisms of action for different treatments used in PTSD, discover ways to predict which treatments (or treatment combinations) will be successful for a given individual, develop an operational definition of remission in PTSD, and explore ways to disseminate effective evidence-based treatments for this condition.

  3. Stress, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder in migrants: a comprehensive review

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    Lineth H.U. Bustamante

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is growing evidence supporting the association between migration and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Considering the growing population of migrants and the particularities of providing culturally sensitive mental health care for these persons, clinicians should be kept up to date with the latest information regarding this topic. The objective of this study was to critically review the literature regarding migration, trauma and PTSD, and mental health services. Methods: The PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, and ISI Web of Science databases were searched for articles published in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French, and indexed from inception to 2017. The following keywords were used: migration, mental health, mental health services, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and trauma. Results: Migration is associated with specific stressors, mainly related to the migratory experience and to the necessary process of acculturation occurring in adaptation to the host country. These major stressors have potential consequences in many areas, including mental health. The prevalence of PTSD among migrants is very high (47%, especially among refugees, who experience it at nearly twice the rate of migrant workers. Conclusions: Mental health professionals must be trained to recognize and provide appropriate care for posttraumatic and/or stress-related disorders among migrants.

  4. The vestibulocochlear bases for wartime posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations.

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    Tigno, T A; Armonda, R A; Bell, R S; Severson, M A

    2017-09-01

    Preliminary findings based on earlier retrospective studies of 229 wartime head injuries managed by the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC)/National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) Neurosurgery Service during the period 2003-08 detected a threefold rise in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) manifestations (10.45%) among Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) having concomitant vestibulocochlear injuries compared to 3% for the TBI group without vestibulo-cochlear damage (VCD), prompting the authors to undertake a more focused study of the vestibulo-auditory pathway in explaining the development of posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations among the mostly Blast-exposed head-injured. The subsequent historical review of PTSD pathophysiology studies, the evidence for an expanded vestibular system and of a dominant vestibular system, the vascular vulnerability of the vestibular nerves in stress states as well as the period of cortical imprinting has led to the formation of a coherent hypotheses utilizing the vestibulocochlear pathway in understanding the development of PTSD manifestations. Neuroimaging and neurophysiologic tests to further validate the vestibulocochlear concept on the development of PTSD manifestations are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder

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    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. Objective: In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Methods: Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. Results: The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. Conclusion: The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  6. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Araújo, Célia; Nery-Fernandes, Fabiana; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Taveres; Moraes, Walter André Dos Santos; Montaño, Maria Beatriz Marcondes Macedo; Rocha, Marlos; Quarantini, Lucas C; Schoedl, Aline; Pupo, Mariana; Mello, Marcelo F; Andreoli, Sergio B; Miranda-Scippa, Angela; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mari, Jair J; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2012-01-01

    New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP) and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia) were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  7. Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder.

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    Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

    2011-04-30

    Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events were assessed as predictors of concurrent vs. delayed recovery of role functioning in 4 domains (friends, family, home duties, work/school). Despite clinical recovery, a subset of patients experienced delayed functional recovery in various role domains. Moreover, delayed functional recovery was significantly associated with presence of one or more stressors in the prior 3 months, even after controlling for mood symptoms. Presence of a stressor predicted longer time to functional recovery in life domains, up to 112 days in work/school. Interventions that provide monitoring, support, and problem-solving may be needed to help prevent or mitigate the effects of stress on functional recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Title: Potassium application regulates nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) functional leaf under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Rizwan; Zhao, Wenqing; Abid, Muhammad; Dong, Haoran; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the role of potassium (K) in maintaining nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment development of cotton functional leaves to sustain growth under soil drought and rewatering conditions, the plants of two cotton cultivars Siza 3 (low-K sensitive) and Simian 3 (low-K tolerant), were grown under three different K rates (K0, K1, and K2; 0, 150, and 300kgK 2 Oha -1 , respectively) and exposed to drought stress with 40±5% soil relative water content (SRWC). The drought stress was applied at flowering stage by withholding water for eight days followed by rewatering to a well-watered level (75±5% SRWC). The results showed that drought-stressed plants of both cultivars showed a decrease in leaf relative water content (RWC) and osmotic potential in the functional leaves and developed osmotic adjustment with an increase in the contents of free amino acids, soluble sugars, inorganic K, and nitrate as compared to well-watered plants. In drought-stressed plants, nitrogen-metabolizing enzyme activities of nitrogen reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) were diminished significantly (P≤0.05) along with decreased chlorophyll content and soluble proteins. However, drought-stressed plants under K application not only exhibited higher osmotic adjustment with greater accumulation of osmolytes but also regulated nitrogen metabolism by maintaining higher enzyme activities, soluble proteins, and chlorophyll content in functional leaves as compared to the plants without K application. Siza 3 showed better stability in enzyme activities and resulted in 89% higher seed cotton yield under K2 as compared to K0 in drought-stressed plants, whereas this increase was 53% in the case of Simian 3. The results of the study suggested that K application enhances cotton plants' potential for sustaining high nitrogen-metabolizing enzyme activities and related components to supplement osmotic adjustment under soil drought conditions. Copyright © 2017

  9. Still lonely: Social adjustment of youth with and without social anxiety disorder following cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Kingery, Julie Newman; Davis, Molly; Jones, Anna; Whitehead, Monica; Jacob, Marni L

    2017-12-01

    Social experiences are an integral part of normative development for youth and social functioning difficulties are related to poor outcomes. Youth with anxiety disorders, and particularly social anxiety disorder, experience difficulties across many aspects of social functioning that may place them at risk for maladjustment. The goal of this paper was to compare social experiences of youth across anxiety diagnoses and examine whether treatment is helpful in improving social functioning. Ninety-two children (age 7-12 years; 58% male; 87.0% White) with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social anxiety disorder participated in cognitive behavioral therapy. At both pre- and post-treatment, children with social anxiety disorder self-reported greater loneliness than youth without social anxiety disorder, though levels of peer victimization and receipt of prosocial behavior were similar across groups. Parents reported greater social problems for youth with social anxiety disorder compared to those without social anxiety disorder. All youth experienced improved social functioning following treatment per child- and parent-reports. The results call for an increased focus on the social experiences of youth with anxiety disorders, and particularly loneliness, for children with social anxiety disorder. The results document ways that evidenced-based practice can improve social functioning for youth with anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Environmental Stressors and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might…

  11. Substance abuse, memory, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipps, Megan E; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-07-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates the effects of abused substances on memory. These effects differ depending on the drug, the pattern of delivery (acute or chronic), and the drug state at the time of learning or assessment. Substance use disorders involving these drugs are often comorbid with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When the cognitive effects of these drugs are considered in the context of the treatment of these disorders, it becomes clear that these drugs may play a deleterious role in the development, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. In this review, we examine the literature evaluating the cognitive effects of three commonly abused drugs: nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol. These three drugs operate through both common and distinct neurobiological mechanisms and alter learning and memory in multiple ways. We consider how the cognitive and affective effects of these drugs interact with the acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of learned fear, and we discuss the potential impediments that substance abuse creates for the treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of pre-deployment cognitive ability on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Andersen, Søren B; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2016-01-01

    (based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning) were converted to a mean of 100 and with a standard deviation of 15. Results Higher pre-deployment cognitive ability scores were associated with lower risk of PTSD symptoms as assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist......-Civilian Version (PCL-C) 2.5 years post-deployment (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.95-1.00) after adjustment for educational length, baseline PCL-C score and perceived war-zone stress. Compared to a resilient trajectory, a non-resilient relieved-worsening trajectory (high baseline mental symptoms, being symptom free during...

  13. From Soldiers to Children: Developmental Sciences Transform the Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…

  14. Ketamine as a Rapid Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive re-experiences of the traumatic events...08-1-0602 TITLE: Ketamine as a Rapid Treatment for Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dennis Charney...dissociative effects of ketamine but not have any sustained anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Forty individuals diagnosed with post - traumatic

  15. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder, and distress (the Danish IBBIS trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rie; Fisker, Jonas; Hoff, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    that mental health care alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery for this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the Danish IBBIS (Integreret Behandlings- og Beskæftigelses...... of the current organizational separation of health care interventions and vocational rehabilitation regarding the individual's process of returning to work after sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder or distress. If the effect on return to work, symptom level, and recurrent sick leave...... is different in the intervention groups, this study can contribute with new knowledge on shared care models and the potential for preventing deterioration in stress symptoms, prolonged sick leave, and recurrent sick leave. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT02885519...

  16. Stroop-interference effect in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hong; Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Shan, Moshui; Jia, Yanyan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the conflict processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, we conducted the classical Stroop task by recording event-related potentials. Although the reaction time was overall slower for PTSD patients than healthy age-matched control group, the Stroop-interference effect of reaction time did not differ between the two groups. Compared with normal controls, the interference effects of N 2 and N 450 components were larger and the interference effect of slow potential component disappeared in PTSD. These data indicated the dysfunction of conflict processing in individuals with PTSD.

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder and dementia in Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Wolfgang; Kreil, Sebastian Konstantin; Biermann, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of mental and somatic sequelae has been shown to be very high in the group of people damaged by the Holocaust. Within the context of internal research, 93 Holocaust survivors suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder have been examined. Patients suffered on average from 4.5 (standard deviation ± 1.8) somatic diagnoses as well as 1.8 (standard deviation ± 0.5) psychiatric diagnoses. A diagnosis of dementia was ascertained according to ICD-10 criteria in 14%. Vascular dementia (66%) dominated over Alzheimer's dementia (23%) and other subtypes (11%).

  18. ANIMAL MODELS OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: FACE VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONAL eGOSWAMI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic are used to examine the long-term effects of severe trauma. We emphasize models involving predator threat because they reproduce human individual differences in susceptibility to, and in the long-term consequences of, psychological trauma.

  19. BDNF function as a potential mediator of bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakofsky, JJ; Ressler, KJ; Dunlop, BW

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur among psychiatric patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) function is associated with core characteristics of both BD and PTSD. We propose a neurobiological model that underscores the role of reduced BDNF function resulting from several contributing sources, including the met variant of the BDNF val66met (rs6265) single-nucleotide polymorphism, trauma-induced epigenetic regulation and current stress, as a contributor to the onset of both illnesses within the same person. Further studies are needed to evaluate the genetic association between the val66met allele and the BD-PTSD population, along with central/peripheral BDNF levels and epigenetic patterns of BDNF gene regulation within these patients. PMID:21931317

  20. Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder with versus without dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Barker, Gareth J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttratimatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16

  1. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porcel, Jacqueline; Feigal, Christine; Poye, Laney; Postma, Ineke R.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Olowoyeye, Abiola; Tsigas, Eleni; Wilson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) encompass a spectrum of disorders that affect 6-8% of US pregnancies. We aim to determine the impact of self-reported history of HDP as a risk factor for screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which results from exposure to

  2. Heat index and adjusted temperature as surrogates for wet bulb globe temperature to screen for occupational heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas E; Iheanacho, Ivory

    2015-01-01

    Ambient temperature and relative humidity are readily ava-ilable and thus tempting metrics for heat stress assessment. Two methods of using air temperature and relative humidity to create an index are Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature. The purposes of this article are: (1) to examine how well Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature estimated the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, and (2) to suggest how Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature can be used to screen for heat stress level. Psychrometric relationships were used to estimate values of actual WBGT for conditions of air temperature, relative humidity, and radiant heat at an air speed of 0.5 m/s. A relationship between Heat Index [°F] and WBGT [°C] was described by WBGT = -0.0034 HI(2) + 0.96 HI - 34. At lower Heat Index values, the equation estimated WBGTs that were ± 2 °C-WBGT around the actual value, and to about ± 0.5 °C-WBGT for Heat Index values > 100 °F. A relationship between Adjusted Temperature [°F] and WBGT [°C] was described by WBGT = 0.45 Tadj - 16. The actual WBGT was between 1 °C-WBGT below the estimated value and 1.4 °C-WBGT above. That is, there was a slight bias toward overestimating WBGT from Adjusted Temperature. Heat stress screening tables were constructed for metabolic rates of 180, 300, and 450 W. The screening decisions were divided into four categories: (1) exposure limit at rest. The authors do not recommend using Heat Index or Adjusted Temperature instead of WBGT, but they may be used to screen for circumstances when a more detailed analysis using WBGT is appropriate. A particular weakness is accounting for radiant heat; and neither air speed nor clothing was considered.

  3. Does the stress generation hypothesis apply to eating disorders?: an examination of stress generation in eating, depressive, and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Hames, Jennifer L; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April R; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2012-12-15

    The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress. A prospective design was used to examine the influence of eating disorder symptoms on negative life stressors. Two hundred and ninety female undergraduates completed questionnaires at two time points that examined eating disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms and the presence of negative life events. Regression analyses found that while eating disorder symptoms (i.e. bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness) were independent, significant predictors of negative life events, they did not predict negative life events above and beyond symptoms of depression. Limitations include the use of self-report measures and a college-based sample, which may limit generalizability of the results. Findings suggest that if stress generation is present in individuals with symptoms of eating disorders, it is likely attributable to symptoms of depression. Thus, it may be important for clinicians to target depressive symptoms in order to reduce the frequency of negative life stressors among individuals with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Job stress and risk of menstrual duration disorder in female civilian flight attendants in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Audry Rampen

    2016-03-01

    disorder in female flight attendants.Methods: A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling was conducted on civilian female flightattendants age 19–50 years who underwent routine medical examination at Civil Aviation Medical Centerand Garuda Sentra Medika, Jakarta on May 18-29 2015. Menstrual duration disorder is menstruation morethan 8 days and/or shorter than usual perid (3-5 days. Stress was identified by usingcriteria of NationalInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire Mental Demands FormNumber 11. Relative risk was analyzed usng Cox regression.Results: Among 521 female civilian flight attendants, 393 were willing to participate in this study. Nineteensubjects were excluded, leaving 374 subjects for this analysis, and 35.8% of subjects had menstrualduration disorder. Job stress, flight type and age were dominant risk factors for menstrual duration disorder.Subjects with job stress and long haul flight within three months had higher risk for having menstrualduration disorder by 58% [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.58; confidence interval (CI = 0.96-2.62; P =0.071] and 69% (RRa = 1.69; CI = 1.17-2.43 respectively. Those between aged 30-39 years had 50% hadless risk of having menstrual duration disorder (RRa=0.50; 95% CI = 0.22-1.02; P = 0.057.Conclusion: Female civilian flight attendants with job stress, long haul flight within three months and youngerage had higher risk to be menstrual duration disorder. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:87-91Key words: menstrual duration, job stress, female civilian flight attendant, Indonesia

  5. Cognitive moderators of children's adjustment to stressful divorce events: the role of negative cognitive errors and positive illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Virdin, L; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    1999-01-01

    This study examined whether children's cognitive appraisal biases moderate the impact of stressful divorce-related events on psychological adjustment in 355 children ages 9 to 12, whose families had experienced divorce within the past 2 years. Multiple regression indicated that endorsement of negative cognitive errors for hypothetical divorce events moderates the relations between stressful divorce events and self- and maternal reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only for older children. Positive illusions buffer the effects of stressful divorce events on child-reported depression and mother-reported externalizing problems. Implications of these results for theories of stress and coping, as well as for interventions for children of divorced families, are discussed.

  6. Predicting posttraumatic stress disorder in children and parents following accidental child injury: evaluation of the Screening Tool for Early Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (STEPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijel, Els P M; Gigengack, Maj R; Verlinden, Eva; Opmeer, Brent C; Heij, Hugo A; Goslings, J Carel; Bloemers, Frank W; Luitse, Jan S K; Boer, Frits; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-05-12

    Children and their parents are at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following injury due to pediatric accidental trauma. Screening could help predict those at greatest risk and provide an opportunity for monitoring so that early intervention may be provided. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Screening Tool for Early Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (STEPP) in a mixed-trauma sample in a non-English speaking country (the Netherlands). Children aged 8-18 and one of their parents were recruited in two academic level I trauma centers. The STEPP was assessed in 161 children (mean age 13.9 years) and 156 parents within one week of the accident. Three months later, clinical diagnoses and symptoms of PTSD were assessed in 147 children and 135 parents. We used the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV - Child and Parent version, the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were performed to estimate the Areas Under the Curve as a measure of performance and to determine the optimal cut-off score in our sample. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The aim was to maximize both sensitivity and negative predictive values. PTSD was diagnosed in 12% of the children; 10% of their parents scored above the cut-off point for PTSD. At the originally recommended cut-off scores (4 for children, 3 for parents), the sensitivity in our sample was 41% for children and 54% for parents. Negative predictive values were 92% for both groups. Adjusting the cut-off scores to 2 improved sensitivity to 82% for children and 92% for parents, with negative predictive values of 92% and 96%, respectively. With adjusted cut-off scores, the STEPP performed well: 82% of the children and 92% of the parents with a subsequent positive diagnosis were identified correctly. Special attention in the screening procedure is required because of a

  7. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Monika; Baldus, Christiane; Herschelmann, Susanne; Schäfer, Ingo; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders Already in adolescence posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) often occur comorbid. SUD is usually in the focus of treatment and underlying PTSD is not always recognized. To date there is no explicit offer for the simultaneous treatment of both clinical pictures in adolescence. In the present study we tested whether the group intervention Seeking Safety, that is implemented successfully in adulthood, would also be interesting for the youth clientele. In addition we analyzed the characteristics of a target group of girls and young women between 14 and 21 years, that could be reached for such a program in a German city. In the present study we conducted 39 complete interviews that enable an estimation of the various strains and symptoms of those affected. The results clarify that female adolescents with a dual diagnosis PTSD and SUD are currently not sufficiently addressed by the supply system and could benefit from a specific treatment like Seeking Safety.

  8. Risk for Incident Hypertension Associated With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans and the Effect of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Brandt, Cynthia; Buta, Eugenia; Schwartz, Joseph; Bathulapalli, Harini; Dziura, James; Edmondson, Donald E; Haskell, Sally

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality risk. Neither the prospective relationship of PTSD to incident hypertension risk nor the effect of PTSD treatment on hypertension risk has been established. Data from a nationally representative sample of 194,319 veterans were drawn from the Veterans Administration (VA) roster of United States service men and women. This included veterans whose end of last deployment was from September 2001 to July 2010 and whose first VA medical visit was from October 1, 2001 to January 1, 2009. Incident hypertension was modeled as 3 events: (1) a new diagnosis of hypertension and/or (2) a new prescription for antihypertensive medication, and/or (3) a clinic blood pressure reading in the hypertensive range (≥140/90 mm Hg, systolic/diastolic). Posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis was the main predictor. Posttraumatic stress disorder treatment was defined as (1) at least 8 individual psychotherapy sessions of 50 minutes or longer during any consecutive 6 months and/or (2) a prescription for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication. Over a median 2.4-year follow-up, the incident hypertension risk independently associated with PTSD ranged from hazard ratio (HR), 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.17; p < .0001) to HR, 1.30 (95% CI, 1.26-1.34; p < .0001). The interaction of PTSD and treatment revealed that treatment reduced the PTSD-associated hypertension risk (e.g., from HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.38-1.50; p < .0001] for those untreated, to HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.15-1.25; p < .0001] for those treated). These results indicate that reducing the long-term health impact of PTSD and the associated costs may require very early surveillance and treatment.

  9. Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits and Parenting Stress: The Utility of Using a Physiological Measure of Parental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Reina S.; Swain, Deanna M.; Scarpa, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report greater stress due to unique parenting demands (e.g.; Estes et al. in "Brain Dev" 35(2):133-138, 2013). Stress is often studied through self-report and has not been extensively studied using physiological measures. This study compared parenting stress in mothers of…

  10. Silicon alleviates salt and drought stress of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by altering antioxidant metabolism and osmotic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjin; Xie, Zhicai; Wang, Lianhong; Li, Ming; Lang, Duoyong; Zhang, Xinhui

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine effect and mechanism of exogenous silicon (Si) on salt and drought tolerance of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by focusing on the pathways of antioxidant defense and osmotic adjustment. Seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolism, osmolytes concentration and Si content of G. uralensis seedlings were analyzed under control, salt and drought stress [100 mM NaCl with 0, 10 and 20% of PEG-6000 (Polyethylene glycol-6000)] with or without 1 mM Si. Si addition markedly affected the G. uralensis growth in a combined dose of NaCl and PEG dependent manner. In brief, Si addition improved germination rate, germination index, seedling vitality index and biomass under control and NaCl; Si also increased radicle length under control, NaCl and NaCl-10% PEG, decreased radicle length, seedling vitality index and germination parameters under NaCl-20% PEG. The salt and drought stress-induced-oxidative stress was modulated by Si application. Generally, Si application increased catalase (CAT) activity under control and NaCl-10% PEG, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments and glutathione (GSH) content under salt combined drought stress as compared with non-Si treatments, which resisted to the increase of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide caused by salt and drought stress and further decreased membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Si application also increased proline concentration under NaCl and NaCl-20% PEG, but decreased it under NaCl-10% PEG, indicating proline play an important role in G. uralensis seedling response to osmotic stress. In conclusion, Si could ameliorate adverse effects of salt and drought stress on G. uralensis likely by reducing oxidative stress and osmotic stress, and the oxidative stress was regulated through enhancing of antioxidants (mainly CAT, APX and GSH) and osmotic stress was regulated by proline.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in DSM-5 and ICD-11: Clinical and Behavioral Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Fyvie, Claire; Karatzias, Thanos

    2018-04-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization provide distinct trauma-based diagnoses in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), and the forthcoming 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), respectively. The DSM-5 conceptualizes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a single, broad diagnosis, whereas the ICD-11 proposes two "sibling" disorders: PTSD and complex PTSD (CPTSD). The objectives of the current study were to: (a) compare prevalence rates of PTSD/CPTSD based on each diagnostic system; (b) identify clinical and behavioral variables that distinguish ICD-11 CPTSD and PTSD diagnoses; and (c) examine the diagnostic associations for ICD-11 CPTSD and DSM-5 PTSD. Participants in a predominately female clinical sample (N = 106) completed self-report scales to measure ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD, DSM-5 PTSD, and depression, anxiety, borderline personality disorder, dissociation, destructive behaviors, and suicidal ideation and self-harm. Significantly more people were diagnosed with PTSD according to the DSM-5 criteria (90.4%) compared to those diagnosed with PTSD and CPTSD according to the ICD-11 guidelines (79.8%). An ICD-11 CPTSD diagnosis was distinguished from an ICD-11 PTSD diagnosis by higher levels of dissociation (d = 1.01), depression (d = 0.63), and borderline personality disorder (d = 0.55). Diagnostic associations with depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation and self-harm were higher for ICD-11 CPTSD compared to DSM-5 PTSD (by 10.7%, 4.0%, and 7.0%, respectively). These results have implications for differential diagnosis and for the development of targeted treatments for CPTSD. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. COMORBID INTERMITTENT EXPLOSIVE DISORDER AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: CLINICAL CORRELATES AND RELATIONSHIP TO SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jennifer R.; Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both aggressive and suicidal behavior. Recent research suggests that the diagnosis of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED), an impulse-control disorder characterized by repeated impulsive aggressive behavior, may help to identify individuals at risk for attempting suicide. Given the relationship between anger and PTSD, there is likely to be an increased prevalence of IED among individuals with PTSD; however, little is known about the overlap in these two disorders, including how individuals with comorbid IED and PTSD may differ from those with either disorder alone. The purpose of this study is to examine the clinical correlates of comorbid IED and PTSD and the contribution of these two disorders (among others) to lifetime suicide attempt and characteristics of suicidal behavior. Method In a large sample of community research volunteers (N=1460), we compared individuals with PTSD, IED, and comorbid PTSD and IED on measures of current mood, trait aggression, and trait impulsivity. We also examined the contributions of PTSD, IED, and other syndromal and personality disorders to the prediction of lifetime aggression and lifetime suicide attempt, and their relationship to characteristics of suicide attempts, including level of intent, use of violent versus non-violent means, and the medical seriousness of the attempt. Results Comorbid PTSD and IED was associated with significantly elevated levels of depression, anxiety, anger, aggression, and impulsivity, as well as with high rates of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. IED (β=.56, psuicide attempt in multivariate analysis (ORs: 1.6 and 1.6, pssuicide attempt (41.4% in this sample). Conclusion These findings add support to the notion that the diagnosis of IED may aid in identifying individuals at risk for aggressive and suicidal behavior. PMID:27624432

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Stressful Life Events Among Rural Women With HIV Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; MacKain, Sally; Alexander, Melissa; Reid, Paula; Jackson, Morgan Parks

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stressful life events are frequent and distressing problems for women living with HIV (WLWH). Studies have independently focused on the impact of these problems, but little work has examined the relationship between PTSD and stressful life events. Our cross-sectional study examined relationships between PTSD and recent stressful life events in WLWH. A sample of 60 women recruited through HIV community agencies in southeastern North Carolina completed the Stressful Life Events Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). PTSD prevalence was high (43.2%). Two-thirds (66%) reported three or more recent life stressors. Women who experienced a higher number of recent life stressors scored higher on the PCL-C than those with fewer life stressors (p stressful life events may accelerate PTSD symptoms. Findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues in HIV treatment settings. Implications for nursing practice are provided. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal Associations Among Pain, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Stress Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Christine A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Eisenman, David P; Meredith, Lisa S

    2016-04-01

    Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain is well documented, but the mechanisms underlying their comorbidity are not well understood. Cross-lagged regression models were estimated with 3 waves of longitudinal data to examine the reciprocal associations between PTSD symptom severity, as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and pain, as measured by a brief self-report measure of pain called the PEG (pain intensity [P], interference with enjoyment of life [E], and interference with general activity [G]). We evaluated stress appraisals as a mediator of these associations in a sample of low-income, underserved patients with PTSD (N = 355) at federally qualified health centers in a northeastern metropolitan area. Increases in PTSD symptom severity between baseline and 6-month and 6- and 12-month assessments were independently predicted by higher levels of pain (β = .14 for both lags) and appraisals of life stress as uncontrollable (β = .15 for both lags). Stress appraisals, however, did not mediate these associations, and PTSD symptom severity did not predict change in pain. Thus, the results did not support the role of stress appraisals as a mechanism underlying the associations between pain and PTSD. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. [Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Liana Furtado; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhães; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the prevalence of symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 500 schoolchildren (6-13 years old) in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro. It also investigates the association between PTSD, violence and other adverse events in the lives of these children. The multi-stage cluster sampling strategy involved three selection stages. Parents were interviewed about their children's behavior. The instrument used to screen symptoms of PTSD was the Child Behavior Checklist-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (CBCL-PTSD). Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) were applied to evaluate family violence and other scales to investigate the socioeconomic profile, familiar relationship, characteristics and adverse events in the lives of the children. Multivariate analysis was performed using a hierarchical model with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of clinical symptoms of PTSD was of 6.5%. The multivariate analysis suggested an explanation model of PTSD characterized by 18 variables, such as the child's characteristics; specific life events; family violence; and other family factors. The results reveal that it is necessary to work with the child in particularly difficult moments of his/her life in order to prevent or minimize the impact of adverse events on their mental and social functioning.

  16. Increased prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, V; Schlereth, T; Birklein, F; Maihöfner, C

    2017-03-01

    Although specific psychological disorders in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have not been identified, studies suggest that CRPS patients may have increased rates of traumatic life events. Because these events do not always lead to apparent psychological symptoms, we systematically screened CRPS patients for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine if PTSD could be a risk factor for CRPS. Consecutive CRPS patients referred to two university hospital centres (University of Erlangen, UMC Mainz) between December 2011 and April 2013 were prospectively examined using a diagnostic PTSD instrument (Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). We also tested maladaptive coping strategies (brief-COPE inventory) and the PDS severity score as predictors for CRPS. Patients with non-CRPS extremity pain and healthy individuals were used as control groups. We collected data from 152 patients with CRPS, 55 control patients and 55 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Fifty-eight CRPS patients (38%), six non-CRPS pain patients (10%) and two healthy individuals (4%) met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Initial PTSD symptom onset was prior to CRPS in 50 CRPS patients (86%) and during the course of CRPS in eight patients. Results of a logistic regression revealed that the PTSD severity score was associated with CRPS (p CRPS than it is in the general population. Research has not yet provided support for specific psychological predictors for CRPS. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  17. Harm expectancy violation during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleine, Rianne A; Hendriks, Lotte; Becker, Eni S; Broekman, Theo G; van Minnen, Agnes

    2017-06-01

    Exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional processing theory proposes that fear habituation is a central mechanism in symptom reduction, but the empirical evidence supporting this is mixed. Recently it has been proposed that violation of harm expectancies is a crucial mechanism of action in exposure therapy. But to date, changes in harm expectancies have not been examined during exposure therapy in PTSD. The goal of the current study was to examine harm expectancy violation as mechanism of change in exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients (N=50, 44 female) with a primary diagnosis of chronic PTSD received intensive exposure therapy. Harm expectancies, harm experiences and subjective units of distress (SUDs) were assessed at each imaginal exposure session, and PTSD symptoms were assessed pre- and posttreatment with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Results showed that harm expectancies were violated within and strongly declined in-between exposure therapy sessions. However, expectancy violation was not related to PTSD symptom change. Fear habituation measures were moderately related to PTSD symptom reductions. In line with theory, exposure therapy promotes expectancy violation in PTSD patients, but this is not related to exposure therapy outcome. More work is warranted to investigate mechanisms of change during exposure therapy in PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2017-05-01

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth in breast cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouli, Natalia; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer, potentially a traumatic stressor, may be accompanied by negative outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder or positive changes, such as posttraumatic growth. The authors reviewed 24 studies published from 1990 to 2010 that measured posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth in women with breast cancer, in terms of frequency rates, factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth, and their interrelationships. A relatively small percentage of women experienced posttraumatic stress disorder, while the majority of them reported posttraumatic growth. Age, education, economic status, subjective appraisal of the threat of the disease, treatment, support from significant others, and positive coping strategies were among the most frequently reported factors associated with these phenomena. Moreover, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth were not related. Future research should shed more light on posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress disorder among women with breast cancer, the parameters that influence them, and their possible relationship.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder in bosnian war veterans: Analysis of stress events and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, the characteristics of stress-related events, and the risk factors for the development of PTSD. The total patient sample consisted of 100 Bosnian war veterans. Watson’s PTSD module was used in establishing PTSD diagnosis. Patients fulfilled the following questionnaires: personal data form, Posttraumatic Symptom Scale PTSS-10 (Holen, Impact of Event Scale (Horowitz, Life Event Scale, and Eysenck Personality Inventory. PTSD was diagnosed in 30% of the examined patients. Larger number of stress-related events, particularly of those regarded as life-threatening, wounding/death of a close person, and material losses were more frequent in persons with PTSD. The risk factors for the development of PTSD in this study were: age (30-40, marital status (married, lower level of education, the front-line combat exposure, neurotic manifestations, family problems in childhood, and neuroticism.

  1. Occupations, perceived stress, and stress-related disorders among women and men in the public sector in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Carita; Ahlborg, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Stress-related disorders are a public health problem and represent a significant burden to individuals and society. It is, therefore, of importance to regard stress in a wider context and identify risk factors not only at work but in all occupations in everyday life, to prevent ill health. The aim of this study was to examine potential associations between everyday occupations, perceived stress, and stress-related disorders as well as potential gender differences. A survey was mailed to a random selection of 3481 employees in the public sector in Western Sweden. Cox regressions with constant time at risk were used, in order to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). The results showed a clear association between reporting imbalance between different everyday occupations and both perceived stress and stress-related disorders among men and women. Imbalance between different everyday occupations seems to be an important risk factor for perceived stress and stress-related disorder among both women and men. To enable people to achieve balance between different everyday occupations may be a useful way to prevent stress, stress-related disorders, and sick leave, and to promote better health and well-being.

  2. College Adjustment as a Mediator Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Work Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Tochetto de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies have addressed features of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in higher education, but the potential relationships between ADHD symptoms, dimensions of college adjustment and students' work self-efficacy remain scarcely explored. The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model in which the dimensions of college adjustment mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and work self-efficacy. Participants were 509 college students from two Brazilian public universities. Data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed using a path analysis model. The ADHD symptoms affected work self-efficacy exclusively through college adjustment problems. Improving students' well-being, social support networks, study habits, and feelings regarding their majors and the university may reduce the potential disadvantages in work self-efficacy caused by ADHD symptoms.

  3. Extinction learning in childhood anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F; Orr, Scott P; Essoe, Joey K-Y; McCracken, James T; Storch, Eric A; Piacentini, John

    2016-10-01

    Threat conditioning and extinction play an important role in anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although these conditions commonly affect children, threat conditioning and extinction have been primarily studied in adults. However, differences in phenomenology and neural architecture prohibit the generalization of adult findings to youth. A comprehensive literature search using PubMed and PsycInfo was conducted to identify studies that have used differential conditioning tasks to examine threat acquisition and extinction in youth. The information obtained from this review helps to clarify the influence of these processes on the etiology and treatment of youth with OCD, PTSD and other anxiety disorders. Thirty studies of threat conditioning and extinction were identified Expert commentary: Youth with anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD have largely comparable threat acquisition relative to unaffected controls, with some distinctions noted for youth with PTSD or youth who have suffered maltreatment. However, impaired extinction was consistently observed across youth with these disorders and appears to be consistent with deficiencies in inhibitory learning. Incorporating strategies to improve inhibitory learning may improve extinction learning within extinction-based treatments like cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Strategies to improve inhibitory learning in CBT are discussed.

  4. Evidence for smaller right amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, I.M.; Oei, N.Y.L.; van Buchem, M.A.; Spinhoven, Ph.; Elzinga, B.M.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood trauma are relatively understudied, albeit the potential importance to the disorder. Whereas some studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes, little evidence was found for abnormal amygdala volumes. Here

  5. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-09-15

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  6. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities. PMID:25206550

  7. Prevention of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Military Health Care Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Military Health Care Workers: A Systematic Review Christopher A. Orsello, MD Resident, Aerospace Medicine...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prevention of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Military Health Care Workers: A Systematic Review...analysis of risk factors for post - traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 748–66

  8. Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Marines Back from War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    et al. (2008). Risk factors for post - traumatic stress disorder amongUKArmed Forces personnel. Psychological Medicine, 38, 511–522. King, D.W., King...Slymen, D. J., Sallis, J. F., & Kritz- Silverstein, D. (2008). New onset and persistent symptoms of post - traumatic stress disorder self reported...objective of this study was to identify factors associated with possible posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ). A questionnaire was completed by 1,569

  9. The Root Cause of Post-traumatic and Developmental Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Post - traumatic and Developmental Stress Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keith A...28 Feb 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Root Cause of Post - traumatic and Developmental Stress Disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-­‐07-­‐1-­‐0244...goal of Project 1 is to describe the progression of post -deployment stress disorders ( PTSD , major depression, suicidality) in active duty troops

  10. The Unemployed Workers’ Perceptions of Stress and Employment Prospects in Macedonia: The Role of Alternative Adjustment Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski Dimitar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressed labour market conditions in Macedonia manifested by high and persistent unemployment rate, strong segmentation and prevailing long-term unemployment is considered as a heritage of more than two decades long period of transition. Unemployment has a number of negative consequences such a decreased income which is assumed to influence the subjective experience of unemployment. The negative macroeconomic shocks in Macedonia have been mitigated due to the strengthened role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms such as: employment in the informal sector, emigration and inactivity. However, their impact on the unemployed workers’ perceptions of stress and future labour market prospects is less clear-cut. In this paper we use results from a survey carried out on a sample of unemployed workers in Macedonia in order to identify the psychological implications of unemployment by assessing the perceived stress and employment prospects with particular reference to the role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms.

  11. Cerebral basis of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Zdanevich, Nataliya A

    2013-04-01

    Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following radiation emergency has psychopathological, neurocognitive, and neurophysiological peculiarities is at issue. The goal was to explore the features and cerebral basis of "radiation" PTSD in the survivors of the Chernobyl accident. Subjects and Methods The cross-sectional study included 241 people, 219 of whom have been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria, among them 115 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident (34 with acute radiation sickness), 76 evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 28 veterans of the war in Afghanistan, and 22 healthy unexposed individuals. Psychometric examinations, neurocognitive assessments, computerized electroencephalography, and cerebral vascular Doppler were used. "Radiation" PTSD includes "flashforward" phenomena and anticipating stress (projection of fear and danger to the future); somatoform disorders (depression, trait and state anxiety); and neurocognitive deficit (impaired memory and attention, auditory-verbal memory and learning, proactive and retroactive interference, cerebellar and stem symptoms, intellectual changes). The intima-media component, thickness of common carotid arteries, and common and left internal carotid arteries stenosis rates are increased in the liquidators. Changes of bioelectrical brain activity as a decrease of beta- and theta-power, together with an increase of alpha-power, were found in the Chernobyl accident survivors with PTSD. PTSD following radiation emergency is characterized by comorbidity of psychopathology, neurocognitive deficit, and cerebrovascular pathology with increased risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and stroke. The cerebral basis of this PTSD is proposed to be an abnormal communication between the pyramidal cells of the neocortex and the hippocampus, and deep brain structures. It is recommended that a system of emergency and long-term psychological

  12. Assessment of clinical depression comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder

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    Simonović Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Comorbidity of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression is often recognized in the clinical practice. The aim of the paper was to determine the severity of depression and the group of symptoms which are the most prominent in clinical depression comorbid with PTSD. Methods. Totally 60 patients were assessed and divided into the experimental and control group using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Investigator Version (SCID-I, modified (SCID for DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. The presence and the severity of the disorders were assessed by means of the following instruments: Clinician-Administrated PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS-DX, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD. The differences between groups were evaluated using Student t test and by means of the correlation analysis of the data with p < 0.05. Results. The obtained results showed that depression witch was comorbid with PTSD was of significant clinical severity with 31.20 score on HAMD and 30.43 score on MADRS in PTSD-D group. The group of the symptoms: lassitude, inability to feel, suicidal thoughts and inner tension contributed mostly to the global severity of the comorbid clinical depression on MADRS. The group of the symptoms: suicide and somatic symptoms, gastrointestinal, guilt, hypochondriasis, work and activity, anxiety psychic, agitation, and weight loss, genital symptoms and anxiety somatic contributed mostly to the global severity of comorbid clinical depression on HAMD. The average score was 16.03 and 16.97 on HAMD and MADRS, respectively in PTSD group. Conclusion. Depression which is comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder represents significant clinical entity with domination of the different groups of symptoms between the groups PTSD and PTSD-D on HAMD. Identification of aforementioned severity of illness and delineated group of symptoms lead

  13. Investigating the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder with neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, R K; Shin, L M; Rauch, S L

    2001-01-01

    Rapidly evolving brain neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are proving fruitful in exploring the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Structural abnormalities in PTSD found with MRI include nonspecific white matter lesions and decreased hippocampal volume. These abnormalities may reflect pretrauma vulnerability to develop PTSD, or they may be a consequence of traumatic exposure, PTSD, and/or PTSD sequelae. Functional neuroimaging symptom provocation and cognitive activation paradigms using PET measurement of regional cerebral blood flow have revealed greater activation of the amygdala and anterior paralimbic structures (which are known to be involved in processing negative emotions such as fear), greater deactivation of Broca's region (motor speech) and other nonlimbic cortical regions, and failure of activation of the cingulate cortex (which possibly plays an inhibitory role) in response to trauma-related stimuli in individuals with PTSD. Functional MRI research has shown the amygdala to be hyperresponsive to fear-related stimuli in this disorder. Research with PET suggests that cortical, notably hippocampal, metabolism is suppressed to a greater extent by pharmacologic stimulation of the noradrenergic system in persons with PTSD. The growth of knowledge concerning the anatomical and neurochemical basis of this important mental disorder will hopefully eventually lead to rational psychological and pharmacologic treatments.

  14. Friendship in War: Camaraderie and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevarez, Michael D; Yee, Hannah M; Waldinger, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Aspects of social support during combat deployment, such as unit cohesion, have been shown to affect later posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development among veterans. We utilized a longitudinal database to assess how relationship quality with fellow soldiers in World War II (WWII) might be linked with postwar PTSD symptoms. Data were available on 101 men who experienced combat exposure in WWII, documented through postwar assessment. Upon study entry (1939 to 1942), data were collected on the quality of participants' early childhood relationships and their emotional adjustment during college. Data on WWII experiences were collected in 1946. Relationship quality with fellow soldiers in WWII was examined as a moderator of the link between combat exposure and postwar PTSD symptoms. Prewar emotional adjustment was examined as a mediator between quality of childhood relationships and subsequent quality of relationships quality with fellow soldiers during war. Better quality relationships with fellow soldiers attenuated (i.e., moderated) the link between combat exposure severity and PTSD symptom count, explaining a significant percent of the variance, R 2 = .19, p war. These findings have implications for PTSD risk factor screening prior to deployment, and underscore the importance of interpersonal support among soldiers during deployment. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. Estrogen enhances stress-induced prefrontal cortex dysfunction: relevance to Major Depressive Disorder in women

    OpenAIRE

    Shansky, Rebecca M.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that exposure to stress can precipitate or exacerbate many mental illnesses, 1,2 including major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are twice as likely as men to develop these disorders, 3 4 as well as most anxiety disorders and phobias, 5 but the biological causes of this discrepancy are poorly understood. Interestingly, there is evidence that the increased prevalence of MDD in women occurs primarily during the childbearing years,...

  16. High self-perceived stress and poor coping in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-08-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population) completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Adults with autism spectrum disorder reported significantly higher subjective stress and poorer ability to cope with stress in everyday life, as compared to typical adults. Autistic traits were associated with both subjective stress/distress and coping in this cross-sectional series. The long-term consequences of chronic stress in everyday life, as well as treatment intervention focusing on stress and coping, should be addressed in future research as well as in the clinical management of intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. No role for benzodiazepines in posttraumatic stress disorder? A surplus of certainty despite scarce evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses some of the controversies about the role of benzodiazepines in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Benzodiazepines have been admonished in treatment guidelines for posttraumatic stress disorder, but this is based on very little solid evidence. Although benzodiazepines do not seem to be effective in the treatment of the core posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, their careful use as adjunctive agents for the symptoms such as anxiety and sleep disturbance may be useful. Future research needs to identify predictors of improved treatment outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder with use of benzodiazepines.

  18. Psychological adjustment and victim-blaming among intimate partner violence offenders: The role of social support and stressful life events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Murgui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psychological adjustment and their victim-blaming attributions. The sample consists of 314 men convictedof intimate partner violence who were referred to a community-based intervention program. Results froma structural equation model showed that social support and stressful life events were related topsychological adjustment. Psychological adjustment also was related to victim-blaming attributions amongintimate partner violence offenders. A better understanding of the relationships between psychologicaladjustment of intimate partner violence offenders and its determinants, as well as its impact on victimblamingattributions, may provide support to new intervention strategies. Implications of these results forimproving the effectiveness of intervention programs are discussed.

  19. A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Weinstock, R; Ferrari, M M

    2001-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has long been linked to violent behavior. However, the exact nature of that association remains poorly characterized due to the limitations of knowledge in the area of phenomenology, contextual factors, the biology, and the nature of the aggression involved in the disorder. A clear understanding of the genesis of violence in posttraumatic stress disorder can be helpful to those involved in assessing psychiatric-legal issues relevant to the disorder and in its therapeutic management. In this article, we review the potential psychological links between posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to combat exposure and violent behavior and suggest a tentative classification of the main psychological causes of violence in that syndrome.

  20. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  1. The Stress Response and Adolescents' Adjustment: The Impact of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily C.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents' behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents' physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income…

  2. The stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Dohrenwend, Bruce P.; Aiello, Allison; Wright, Rosalind J.; Maercker, Andreas; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The definition of the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (“Criterion A1”) is hotly debated with major revisions being considered for DSM-V. We examine whether symptoms, course, and consequences of PTSD vary predictably with the type of stressful event that precipitates symptoms. Method We used data from the 2009 PTSD diagnostic subsample (N=3,013) of the Nurses Health Study II. We asked respondents about exposure to stressful events qualifying under 1) DSM-III, 2) DSM-IV, or 3) not qualifying under DSM Criterion A1. Respondents selected the event they considered worst and reported subsequent PTSD symptoms. Among participants who met all other DSM-IV PTSD criteria, we compared distress, symptom severity, duration, impairment, receipt of professional help, and nine physical, behavioral, and psychiatric sequelae (e.g. physical functioning, unemployment, depression) by precipitating event group. Various assessment tools were used to determine fulfillment of PTSD Criteria B through F and to assess these 14 outcomes. Results Participants with PTSD from DSM-III events reported on average 1 more symptom (DSM-III mean=11.8 symptoms, DSM-IV=10.7, non-DSM=10.9) and more often reported symptoms lasted one year or longer compared to participants with PTSD from other groups. However, sequelae of PTSD did not vary systematically with precipitating event type. Conclusions Results indicate the stressor criterion as defined by the DSM may not be informative in characterizing PTSD symptoms and sequelae. In the context of ongoing DSM-V revision, these results suggest that Criterion A1 could be expanded in DSM-V without much consequence for our understanding of PTSD phenomenology. Events not considered qualifying stressors under the DSM produced PTSD as consequential as PTSD following DSM-III events, suggesting PTSD may be an aberrantly severe but nonspecific stress response syndrome. PMID:22401487

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder related to postpartum haemorrhage: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaat, Tjitske R; van Steijn, Minouk E; de Haan-Jebbink, Jiska M; Olff, Miranda; Stramrood, Claire A I; van Pampus, Mariëlle G

    2018-06-01

    In some cases childbirth leads to negative psychological responses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a common and major complication of childbirth, which occasionally requires emergency hysterectomy in severe cases. Patients often describe these complications as a traumatic experience. It is unknown whether PPH is a risk factor for developing PTSD. In this systematic review we summarize the current knowledge about the association between PPH with or without emergency hysterectomy and posttraumatic stress symptoms or PTSD. If PPH is a risk factor for PTSD, this will allow adequate preventive measures with the aim to reduce the long-term effects and socioeconomic problems associated with PTSD. To conduct this review MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases were searched for publications between January 1986 and October 2017. Manuscripts evaluating the association between PPH and peripartum emergency hysterectomy and PTSD or posttraumatic stress symptoms were included. Fifty-two articles met the criteria for full-text review. Seven articles were included in this review. Five studies focused on the association between PPH and PTSD and two studies evaluated the association between emergency hysterectomy and PTSD. Three studies found no association between PPH and PTSD. Two studies reported a higher risk of developing PTSD or posttraumatic stress symptoms after PPH. Two studies reported a higher risk of developing PTSD after emergency hysterectomy. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of these studies. Based on the results of these studies there may be an association between PPH and PTSD. Secondly, it seems likely that an association exists between emergency postpartum hysterectomy and PTSD, but the strength of this conclusion is limited by the small amount of studies included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  4. A putative causal relationship between genetically determined female body shape and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimanti, Renato; Amstadter, Ananda B; Stein, Murray B; Almli, Lynn M; Baker, Dewleen G; Bierut, Laura J; Bradley, Bekh; Farrer, Lindsay A; Johnson, Eric O; King, Anthony; Kranzler, Henry R; Maihofer, Adam X; Rice, John P; Roberts, Andrea L; Saccone, Nancy L; Zhao, Hongyu; Liberzon, Israel; Ressler, Kerry J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Koenen, Karestan C; Gelernter, Joel

    2017-11-27

    The nature and underlying mechanisms of the observed increased vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women are unclear. We investigated the genetic overlap of PTSD with anthropometric traits and reproductive behaviors and functions in women. The analysis was conducted using female-specific summary statistics from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a cohort of 3577 European American women (966 PTSD cases and 2611 trauma-exposed controls). We applied a high-resolution polygenic score approach and Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate genetic correlations and causal relationships. We observed an inverse association of PTSD with genetically determined anthropometric traits related to body shape, independent of body mass index (BMI). The top association was related to BMI-adjusted waist circumference (WC adj ; R = -0.079, P body shape and PTSD, which could be mediated by evolutionary mechanisms involved in human sexual behaviors.

  5. Anger, impulsivity, and anger control in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, C M; Hamada, R S; Roitblat, H L; Muraoka, M Y

    1994-08-01

    Empirical evidence of a relationship between combat-related PTSD and increased anger is lacking. In this study, 24 veterans of the Vietnam War with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scored significantly higher on an Anger factor comprising multiple measures of anger than did comparison groups of 23 well-adjusted Vietnam combat veterans and 12 noncombat Vietnam-era veterans with psychiatric diagnoses. In contrast, the 3 groups did not differ significantly on orthogonal factors, one of which comprised cognitive impulsivity measures and the other of which reflected motor impulsivity. Changes in heart rate in response to provocation loaded positively on the Anger factor and negatively on the 2 Impulsivity factors. Concurrent depression and trait anxiety did not have an effect on level of anger in individuals with PTSD. These empirical findings support and extend the clinical evidence regarding PTSD and anger.

  6. Couple adjustment to a stressful life event: a dyadic investigation of the roles of positive reframing and perceived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samios, Christina; Baran, Shayne

    2018-03-01

    This study examines positive reframing (a form of meaning making), perceived benefits (a form of meanings made) and adjustment in couples who experienced a stressful life event in the past year. This study tested whether couple members' scores were nonindependent and whether one's own perceived benefits was predicted by their own positive reframing (actor effect) as well as their partner's positive reframing (partner effect). Further, this study tested actor and partner effects for the link between perceived benefits and adjustment and whether positive reframing (the initial variable) works through perceived benefits (the mediator) to affect adjustment (the outcome) at the dyadic level. A standard dyadic design was used. Eighty couples completed measures of positive reframing, perceived benefits, and adjustment (depression, anxiety, positive affect, life satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction). Partners' scores on study variables were related, and although only actor effects were found for the path between positive reframing and perceived benefits, both actor and partner effects were found for the path between perceived benefits and adjustment. Mediation was found for actor-actor and actor-partner indirect effects. Results indicate that a greater focus on interpersonal factors is needed to further meaning-making theory and inform practice.

  7. Determinants of the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Marc; Vandeleur, Caroline L; Castelao, Enrique; Rothen, Stéphane; Glaus, Jennifer; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin

    2014-03-01

    To assess (1) the lifetime prevalence of exposure both to trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); (2) the risk of PTSD by type of trauma; and (3) the determinants of the development of PTSD in the community. The Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies was administered to a random sample of an urban area (N = 3,691). (1) The lifetime prevalence estimates of exposure to trauma and PTSD were 21.0 and 5.0%; respectively, with a twice as high prevalence of PTSD in women compared to men despite a similar likelihood of exposure in the two sexes; (2) Sexual abuse was the trauma involving the highest risk of PTSD; (3) The risk of PTSD was most strongly associated with sexual abuse followed by preexisting bipolar disorder, alcohol dependence, antisocial personality, childhood separation anxiety disorder, being victim of crime, witnessing violence, Neuroticism and Problem-focused coping strategies. After adjustment for these characteristics, female sex was no longer found to be significantly associated with the risk of PTSD. The risk for the development of PTSD after exposure to traumatic events is associated with several factors including the type of exposure, preexisting psychopathology, personality features and coping strategies which independently contribute to the vulnerability to PTSD.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Autobiographical Memories in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

    2017-03-01

    Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD ( N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group recorded fewer nontrauma memories, which were more overgeneral, more often from before the trauma or related to the trauma, were perceived as distant, and led to greater dwelling. Trauma memories were more vivid, recurrent, and present and led to greater suppression and dwelling. Within the PTSD group, the same features distinguished trauma and nontrauma memories. Results are discussed regarding theories of autobiographical memory and PTSD.

  9. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Soufer, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes. Future directions for clinical and implementation science concern broad PTSD and trauma screening in the context of primary care medical environments and the testing of PTSD treatments with CVD-related surrogates and endpoints.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Motor Vehicle Accident Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yuabova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle accidents (MVA have been a leading contributor to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Given the high rate of MVA incidents, it is of crucial importance to detect and diagnose PTSD in primary care. Assessing PTSD requires detecting and treating physiologic responses associated with MVA incidents. Responses such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure following an incident as well as psychological processes have been found to predict the likelihood of developing PTSD months or years after the occurrence. Screening for PTSD requires the implementation of multiple assessment tools to accurately detect the presence of PTSD. Clinicians chose assessment tools based on scales used to screen for anxiety, social dysfunction, somatic complaints and depression. Indeed, it cannot be overstated that clinicians must conduct early assessment and diagnosis of PTSD while evaluating the multiple factors that impact upon whether or not an individual will develop PTSD after a MVA.

  11. Post traumatic stress disorder and the forensic radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaysher, E.; Vallis, J.; Reeves, P.

    2016-01-01

    The term post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is used to describe the psychological issues resulting from any traumatic event. An individual's ability to function is impaired by experiencing emotional responses to a traumatic event. Forensic radiographers need to be aware of the potential debilitating effects of this condition and those writing forensic protocols must take the condition into account and build in safeguards and welfare strategies. This narrative review looks at the origins of the term PTSD and highlights those who may be at increased risk of developing the condition including, in particular, forensic radiographers involved in mass fatality work. Signs, symptoms and possible treatments are also reviewed. - Highlights: • Presents a summary of PTSD for those working in forensic radiography. • Outlines signs & symptoms of PTSD. • Discusses treatment & prognosis of PTSD. • Suggests ways of managing factors which may predispose to PTSD.

  12. Body piercings and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Personality predictors of injury-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauerbach, J A; Lawrence, J W; Schmidt, C W; Munster, A M; Costa, P T

    2000-08-01

    This longitudinal, cohort study examined the effect of personality traits on the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a recently traumatized, civilian, mixed-gender sample with significant injuries. Burn survivors (N = 70) were administered the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID) at hospital discharge and readministered the SCID 4 and 12 months later. Overall, the sample of burn survivors scored significantly higher on neuroticism and extraversion and lower on openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness relative to a normative national sample. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance revealed that PTSD symptom severity groups (i.e., single symptom, multiple symptoms, subthreshold PTSD, PTSD) were differentially related to neuroticism and extraversion. Planned comparisons indicated that neuroticism was higher and extraversion was lower in those who developed PTSD compared with those who did not develop PTSD.

  14. Undiagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M M; McFarlane, A C; Hunter, C E; Griggs, W M

    1993-10-18

    To determine the pattern of emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among motor vehicle accident victims and to examine the influence of PTSD on subsequent levels of disability. A longitudinal study of motor vehicle accident victims one month and 18 months after the accident. Twenty-four motor vehicle accident victims admitted by the trauma team at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. A 52% response rate was achieved. Post-traumatic stress disorder as diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and disability as measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. Eighteen months after their accidents, six of the 24 subjects had clinically significant PTSD and one was considered borderline. None had been previously diagnosed or treated. The group with PTSD had higher scores on all measures of psychological distress one month after the accident and were more likely to use immature psychological defences. There was no association between physical outcome (measured with the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale) at six months and subsequent diagnosis of PTSD. However, the group with PTSD had higher levels of disability on assessment with the Sickness Impact Profile, particularly in the domain of social functioning. The results suggest PTSD was associated with work-related dysfunction equal to that associated with severe physical handicap. The data from this pilot study suggest that PTSD after motor vehicle accidents is an important cause of disability, which may also become the focus for damages in litigation. Thus, there is a need for further investigation of the early patterns of distress and to design preventive programs for victims of road accidents.

  15. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine's (MDMA's) Impact on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Michael

    2014-07-01

    Review the current literature assessing the role of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). OVID MEDLINE search (1960-February 2014) using the terms MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Molly, and Ecstasy crossed with posttraumatic stress disorder with backwards citation tracking using references from procured articles. English language studies assessing MDMA in patients with PTSD. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted along with follow-up open-label and extension evaluations. In the 3 RCTs, therapy with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy is promising, with reductions in PTSD rating scale scores (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Severity of Symptoms Scale for PTSD Scale), although 2 of 3 trials did not show significant results, and all three had methodological limitations. The direction of effect for all trials was toward benefit in patients who were refractory to other PTSD therapies; the percentage reductions on rating scores ranged from 23% to 68%; and in 1 trial, the effect was sustained over a long period of time. MDMA ingestion without sustained psychotherapy over a 6- to 8-hour period is unlikely to be beneficial; trying to prolong the duration of effect with supplemental dosing is unlikely to provide additional benefits; and there are adverse effects on blood pressure and heart rate that should be appreciated. These studies used unadulterated MDMA with known and reproducible potency, which may not happen with street purchase of the product. MDMA-assisted psychotherapy may be an effective therapy in refractory PTSD but needs further evaluation to determine its place in contemporary therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Impact of post-traumatic stress disorder on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Solis, Ana Cristina; Araújo, Álvaro Cabral; Corchs, Felipe; Bernik, Marcio; Duran, Érica Panzani; Silva, Cláudio; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    The stress experienced as an intense and traumatic event can increase the odds of orofacial pain, affect the biomechanics of masticatory system and compromise the periodontal health. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on oral health. A case-control study with a convenience sample was designed. Probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing, and plaque were recorded at 6 sites per tooth. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the pain after probing. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Axis II (RDC/TMD Axis II) and Structured Clinical Interview (DSM-IV) were also applied. The final sample comprised 38 PTSD patients and 38 controls. Patients with PTSD had a higher degree of chronic pain, more depression and nonspecific physical symptoms (including and excluding pain) compared with the control group (Fisher exact test p PTSD also had more pain after periodontal probing compared with controls (Mann-Whitney, p = 0.037). The prevalence of sites with CAL or PPD ≥ 4, ≥ 5, ≥ 6 were not different between the groups. Age was associated with moderate periodontitis (multivariable logistic regression model, OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 1.03-10.75, p = 0.04). The severity of PTSD precluded an ample sample size. Patients with PTSD presented a worse RDC/TMD Axis II profile, more pain after periodontal probing, and no difference related to periodontal clinical parameters. More studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boritz, Tali; Barnhart, Ryan; McMain, Shelley F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were 180 individuals diagnosed with BPD enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that compared the clinical and cost effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and general psychiatric management (GPM). Multilevel linear models and generalized linear models were used to compare clinical outcomes of BPD patients with and without PTSD. BPD patients with comorbid PTSD reported significantly higher levels of global psychological distress at baseline and end of treatment compared to their non-PTSD counterparts. Both groups evidenced comparable rates of change on suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), global psychological distress, and BPD symptoms over the course of treatment and post-treatment follow-up. DBT and GPM were effective for BPD patients with and without PTSD across a broad range of outcomes.

  18. Acute obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Nacasch, Nitsa; Zohar, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Posttraumatic obsessions have been reported in a few studies and case series. However, as the patients described were chronic, and the onset of their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms was dated some time previously, this hampers interpretation of the temporal, biological and psychological relationship of OCD following traumatic events. In the current paper we describe the emergence of posttraumatic obsessions a short time following the exposure to a traumatic event. The emergence of posttraumatic obsessions, a few months after exposure to trauma, is described for five veterans. All the veterans participated in combat during the summer of 2006 (in the Second Lebanon War). For all cases, OCD symptoms were initially related to the trauma but later became generalized and independent. The course of the symptoms suggests a potential environmental role in the development of OCD following an exposure to a traumatic event. These observations suggest a biological linkage between exposure to trauma and OCD.

  19. A longitudinal examination of stress generation in depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliaszek, Amanda A; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G; Griffith, James W; Sutton, Jonathan M; Epstein, Alyssa; Hammen, Constance

    2012-02-01

    The current study compared two competing theories of the stress generation model of depression (stress causation vs. stress continuation) using interview-based measures of episodic life stress, as well as interpersonal and noninterpersonal chronic life stress. We also expanded on past research by examining anxiety disorders as well as depressive disorders. In addition, we examined the role of neuroticism and extraversion in these relationships. Participants were 627 adolescents enrolled in a two-site, longitudinal study of risk factors for depressive and anxiety disorders. Baseline and follow-up assessments were approximately one year apart. Results supported the stress causation theory for episodic stress generation for anxiety disorders, with neuroticism partially accounting for this relationship. The stress causation theory was also supported for depression, but only for more moderate to severe stressors; neuroticism partially accounted for this relationship as well. Finally, we found evidence for interpersonal and noninterpersonal chronic life stress continuation in both depressive and anxiety disorders. The present findings have implications regarding the specificity of the stress generation model to depressive disorders, as well as variables involved in the stress generation process. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Institutionalized World War II Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran

    1994-01-01

    Relatively little is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II (WWII) veterans, despite the significant number of studies on this problem in Vietnam veterans. The authors document the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and investigate the etiological correlates of the syndrome in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans. Sixty-two cognitively intact subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residents in a veterans' long-term care facility, were assessed for past and present psychopathology. A second investigator, blind to patients' psychiatric status, determined the degree of combat exposure and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 23%. Of those veterans with PTSD, 57% experienced chronic symptoms. The lifetime prevalence of other diagnoses was also high, including 3 7% for major depression and 53% for alcohol abuse. There was a strong correlation between the severity of the combat stressor and the development of PTSD. Significant correlations between PTSD and some pre-war variables were also found: more family histories of alcohol abuse, more deaths of close family members in early life, and less likelihood of having held a job for more than 1 year prior to the war. PTSD in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans is a common, serious problem that is often unrecognized. Copyright © 1994 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Embitterment in War Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabic, Dzevad; Sabic, Adela; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze frequency of embitterment in war veterans with Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It was analyzed 174 subjects (from Health Center Zivinice/ Mental Health Center) through a survey conducted in the period from March 2015 to June 2016, of witch 87 war veterans with PTSD and control subjects 87 war veterans without PTSD. The primary outcome measure was the Post-Traumatic Embitterment Disorder Self-Rating Scale (PTED Scale) who contains 19 items designed to assess features of embitterment reactions to negative life events. Secondary efficacy measures included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale - V (CAPS), the PTSD CheckList (PCL), the Combat Exposure Scale (CES), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale ( WHOQOL-Bref). All subjects were male. The average age of patients in the group war veterans with PTSD was 52·78 ± 5·99. In the control group average age was 51·42 ± 5·98. Statistical data were analyzed in SPSS statistical program. Comparing the results, t tests revealed significant difference between group veterans with PTSD and control group (t=-21·216, p<0·0001). War veterans group with PTSD (X= 51·41 SD= 8·91), war veterans without PTSD (X=14·39, SD=13·61). Embitterment is frequent in war veterans with PTSD.

  2. Abnormal Functional Connectivity Density in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Liu, Feng; Chen, Huafu

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in individuals who have experienced life-threatening mental traumas. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that the pathology of PTSD may be associated with the abnormal functional integration among brain regions. In the current study, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a novel voxel-wise data-driven approach based on graph theory, to explore aberrant FC through the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the PTSD. We calculated both short- and long-range FCD in PTSD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Compared with HCs, PTSD patients showed significantly increased long-range FCD in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but no abnormal short-range FCD was found in PTSD. Furthermore, seed-based FC analysis of the left DLPFC showed increased connectivity in the left superior parietal lobe and visual cortex of PTSD patients. The results suggested that PTSD patients experienced a disruption of intrinsic long-range functional connections in the fronto-parietal network and visual cortex, which are associated with attention control and visual information processing.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Maja; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Olivera; Miljevic, Cedo; Peljto, Amir; Kostic, Milutin; Olff, Miranda

    2016-06-08

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women were assessed for PTSD using the gold standard interview for PTSD, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Risk factors were assessed including sociodemographic variables, personal medical history and clinical variables. After the first month, 2.4% women had acute full PTSD and another 9.5% had clinically significant level of PTSD symptoms. Following the second and the third month, partial PTSD was found in 5.9% and 1.3% of the women, respectively, and none of participants had full PTSD. Obstetrical interventions were the only significant risk factor for the development of PTSD. Symptoms of postpartum PTSD are not rare after a traumatic delivery, and associated with specific obstetrical risk factors. Awareness of these risk factors may stimulate interventions to prevent this important and neglected postpartum disorder.

  4. Gender differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has focused primarily on Vietnam War veterans. A handful of recent studies have been conducted on samples of the general population. We sought to examine gender differences in exposure to traumatic events and in the emergence of PTSD following exposure in the general population. A representative sample of 2181 persons in the Detroit metropolitan area, ages 18-45 years. Subjects were interviewed to assess history of traumatic events and PTSD using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of PTSD was assessed in relation to a representative sample of traumas experienced in the population. Lifetime prevalence of traumatic events was slightly higher in men than in women. The risk for PTSD following traumatic experiences was twofold higher in women than in men. This gender difference was primarily due to women's greater risk of PTSD following events that involved assaultive violence. The probability of PTSD in women versus men exposed to assaultive violence was 36% versus 6%. Prior exposure to assaultive violence was associated with an increased risk of PTSD from a subsequent trauma; the gender difference in the vulnerability for PTSD is not explained by prior exposure. Duration of PTSD was longer in women than in men. The burden of PTSD in U.S. communities is greater in women than in men, chiefly due to the greater effect of assaultive violence on women.

  5. Dissociative features in posttraumatic stress disorder: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Műllerová, Jana; Hansen, Maj; Contractor, Ateka A; Elhai, Jon D; Armour, Cherie

    2016-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) characterizes the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in terms of the individual meeting the criteria for PTSD and additionally reporting symptoms of depersonalization and/or derealization. The current study aimed to examine whether a dissociative PTSD profile may include alternative features of dissociation and whether it could be differentiated from a nondissociative PTSD profile on certain psychopathologies and demographics. Data from 309 trauma-exposed participants, collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk, were subjected to latent profile analysis. Regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of latent classes. Three discrete profiles named Baseline, PTSD, and Dissociative profile were uncovered. All examined features of dissociation were significantly elevated in the Dissociative profile. Anxiety, male sex, being employed, and having a minority racial background significantly predicted the Dissociative profile relative to the PTSD profile. The study points to the importance of alternative symptoms of dissociation in the dissociative PTSD subtype beyond the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Latent Factor Structure of DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentes, Emily; Dennis, Paul A.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Kirby, Angela C.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on DSM-5 criteria in a sample of participants (N = 374) recruited for studies on trauma and health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used to compare the fit of the previous 3-factor DSM-IV model of PTSD to the 4-factor model specified in DSM-5 as well as to a competing 4-factor “dysphoria” model (Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) and a 5-factor (Elhai et al., 2011) model of PTSD. Results indicated that the Elhai 5-factor model (re-experiencing, active avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal) provided the best fit to the data, although substantial support was demonstrated for the DSM-5 4-factor model. Low factor loadings were noted for two of the symptoms in the DSM-5 model (psychogenic amnesia and reckless/self-destructive behavior), which raises questions regarding the adequacy of fit of these symptoms with other core features of the disorder. Overall, the findings from the present research suggest the DSM-5 model of PTSD is a significant improvement over the previous DSM-IV model of PTSD. PMID:26366290

  7. Structural and functional brain changes in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Malizia, Andrea L

    2004-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly disabling condition that is associated with intrusive recollections of a traumatic event, hyperarousal, avoidance of clues associated with the trauma, and psychological numbing. The field of neuroimaging has made tremendous advances in the past decade and has contributed greatly to our understanding of the physiology of fear and the pathophysiology of PTSD. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated significant neurobiologic changes in PTSD. There appear to be 3 areas of the brain that are different in patients with PTSD compared with those in control subjects: the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the medial frontal cortex. The amygdala appears to be hyperreactive to trauma-related stimuli. The hallmark symptoms of PTSD, including exaggerated startle response and flashbacks, may be related to a failure of higher brain regions (i.e., the hippocampus and the medial frontal cortex) to dampen the exaggerated symptoms of arousal and distress that are mediated through the amygdala in response to reminders of the traumatic event. The findings of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD are reviewed as they relate to our current understanding of the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  8. Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for Mental and Substance Use Disorders in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dohee; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the national burden of mental substance disorders on medical care utilization in Korea using National Health Insurance System (NHIS) data and updated disability weight, in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). For each of the 24 disorders, the incident years lived with disability (YLDs) was calculated, using NHIS data to estimate prevalence and incidence rates. The DisMod-II software program was used to model duration and remission. The years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature death were calculated from causes of death statistics. DALYs were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs, and time discounting and age weighting were applied. The year examined was 2012, and the subjects were divided into 9 groups according to age. In 2012, the Korean burden of mental and substance use disorders was 945,391 DALYs. More than 98% of DALYs were from YLDs, and the burden in females was greater than that in males, though the burden in males aged less than 19 years old was greater than that in females. Unipolar depressive disorders, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders were found to be major diseases that accounted for more than 70% of the burden, and most DALYs occurred in their 30-59. Mental and substance use disorders accounted for 6.2% of the total burden of disease and were found to be the 7th greatest burden of disease. Therefore, mental and substance use disorders need to be embraced by mainstream health care with resources commensurate with the burden.

  9. A comparison of the capacity of DSM-IV and DSM-5 acute stress disorder definitions to predict posttraumatic stress disorder and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Silove, Derrick; McFarlane, Alexander C; Forbes, David

    2015-04-01

    This study addresses the extent to which DSM-IV and DSM-5 definitions of acute stress disorder (ASD) predict subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related psychiatric disorders following trauma. Patients with randomized admissions to 5 hospitals across Australia (N = 596) were assessed in hospital and reassessed for PTSD at 3 (n = 508), 12 (n = 426), 24 (n = 439), and 72 (n = 314) months using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; DSM-IV definition of PTSD was used at each assessment, and DSM-5 definition was used at 72 months. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used at each assessment to assess anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders. Forty-five patients (8%) met DSM-IV criteria, and 80 patients (14%) met DSM-5 criteria for ASD. PTSD was diagnosed in 93 patients (9%) at 3, 82 patients (10%) at 12, 100 patients (12%) at 24, and 26 patients (8%) at 72 months; 19 patients (6%) met DSM-5 criteria for PTSD at 72 months. Comparable proportions of those diagnosed with ASD developed PTSD using DSM-IV (3 months = 46%, 12 months = 39%, 24 months = 32%, and 72 months = 25%) and DSM-5 (43%, 42%, 33%, and 24%) ASD definitions. Sensitivity was improved for DSM-5 relative to DSM-IV for depression (0.18 vs 0.30), panic disorder (0.19 vs 0.41), agoraphobia (0.14 vs 0.40), social phobia (0.12 vs 0.44), specific phobia (0.24 vs 0.58), obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.17 vs 0.47), and generalized anxiety disorder (0.20 vs 0.47). More than half of participants with DSM-5-defined ASD had a subsequent disorder. The DSM-5 criteria for ASD results in better identification of people who will subsequently develop PTSD or another psychiatric disorder relative to the DSM-IV criteria. Although prediction is modest, it suggests that the new ASD diagnosis can serve a useful function in acute trauma settings for triaging those who can benefit from either early intervention or subsequent monitoring. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arnaudova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of those psychiatric disorders that are still away from our attention, understanding, assessment and proper management. What could be the reason as by its name and diagnostic criteria an etiological fact is specified, namely a specific traumatic event. In our paper we aim to share and elicit some difficulties that we have met in consulting, diagnostic and management of people, who have suffered a traumatic event. On the base of a review of current psychiatric classifications and ongoing discussions we briefly summarize and discuss important key points. The definition of the event, associated with PTSD is different in DSM-III (introduced for the fist time in a classification of mental disorders, DSM-IV and ICD-10. DSM-IV is less restrictive and includes events that occur more frequently. In DSM-5, PTSD is placed in chapter “Trauma and Stressor-related disorders” and the accent is on the variable clinical characteristics of psychological distress. Emotional reactions to the traumatic event are no longer part of Criterion A. The clinical presentation varies and a number of intrusive psychological and physiological reactions of distress are described. Here comes a problem- the assessment of the trauma itself and the determination of the basic symptoms, when such an event happens. So, the skills to assess the trauma, to determine and competently attribute these symptoms to the specific event and cluster are of great importance. We conclude that a number of risk and prognostic factors should be considered in the process of assessment, diagnosis and management.

  11. Mechanisms of Sex Differences in Fear and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramikie, Teniel Sonya; Ressler, Kerry J

    2018-05-15

    Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability. Moreover, these studies suggest that sex-specific PTSD vulnerability is partly regulated by sex differences in fear systems. Fear, which represents a highly conserved adaptive response to threatening environmental stimuli, becomes pathological in trauma- and stress-based psychiatric syndromes, such as PTSD. Over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in understanding normal and pathological molecular and behavioral fear processes in humans and animal models. Thus, fear mechanisms represent a tractable PTSD biomarker in the study of sex differences in fear. In this review, we discuss studies that examine nonbiological and biological sex differences that contribute to normal and pathological fear behaviors in humans and animal models. This, we hope, will shed greater light on the potential mechanisms that contribute to increased PTSD vulnerability in females. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN SEXUAL ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Apriliani Saniti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences may happen anytime in our life. The more terrible the situation, the bigger chance for a person to have post traumatic psychological problem, that is the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Sexual abuse is a kind of traumatic event that caused psychological trauma/stress for the victim. In order to be able to manage patient with PTSD, physician should comprehend properties regarding PTSD, including proper treatment and management. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Bukstein, Oscar; Walter, Heather; Benson, R. Scott; Chrisman, Allan; Farchione, Tiffany R.; Hamilton, John; Keable, Helene; Kinlan, Joan; Schoettle, Ulrich; Siegel, Matthew; Stock, Saundra; Medicus, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This Practice Parameter reviews the evidence from research and clinical experience and highlights significant advances in the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder since the previous Parameter was published in 1998. It highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder, the importance of…

  15. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Civilian Version in a Representative Military Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Andersen, Søren B.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993) and to establish the most accurate cutoff for prevalence estimation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative...

  17. High Self-Perceived Stress and Poor Coping in Intellectually Able Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-01-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population)…

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in a women's headache center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Megan R; Fried, Lise E; Pineles, Suzanne L; Shipherd, Jillian C; Bernstein, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has been linked to women's ill health, including headaches. Intimate partner violence, which may result in posttraumatic stress disorder, is often reported by women with headaches. Prior studies of intimate partner violence and headache have estimated lifetime but not 12-month prevalence. The researchers in this study examined the relationship between headache and posttraumatic stress disorder in a novel population, and estimated 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of intimate partner violence. Patients were recruited from a women's headache center (n = 92) during 2006-07 and completed the Migraine Disability Assessment measure of headache severity. Posttraumatic stress disorder was measured using a modified Breslau scale. Twelve-month and lifetime physical intimate partner violence were measured with the Partner Violence Screen and the STaT ("slapped, threatened and throw") measure. Multivariable regression determined factors independently associated with headache severity. Among all participants, 28.3% screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder; 9.8% and 36.9% of women endorsed recent and lifetime intimate partner violence. Posttraumatic stress disorder was strongly associated with headache severity (β = 34.12, p = 0.01). Patients reporting lifetime intimate partner violence exhibited a trend of nine additional days of disability due to headache over 90 days. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence occur among a sizable proportion of women referred for headache. The authors' findings reaffirm that clinicians treating women with headaches must be aware of the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in such patients.

  19. A psychomotor diagnostic instrument for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emck, C.; Beek, P.J.; Cuijpers, Pim; van de Kamp, Minke

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of physical disorders as a consequence of chronic stress reactions and adverse lifestyle behaviours. In addition, various other physical signs and symptoms may be present, as well as problems with emotional awareness, such as

  20. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder: an exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS among Dutch war veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, R. A.; Carlier, I. V.; Schreuder, B. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The recently developed concept Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DES NOS) or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) is designed to encompass long-standing symptoms not present in PTSD. An exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS was performed with the Structured

  1. Screening of Current Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Substance Use Disorder Using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21): A Reliable and Convenient Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, T.; Haan, H.A. de; Meer, M. van der; Najavits, L.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several instruments have been developed and validated as screens for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Unfortunately, many of these instruments have one or several disadvantages (e.g. low specificity, low sensitivity or high costs). No

  2. Somatic syndromes, insomnia, anxiety, and stress among sleep disordered breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdo, Tshering; Hasaneen, Nadia; Gold, Morris S; Gold, Avram R

    2016-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia among sleep disordered breathing (SDB) patients is correlated with their levels of somatic arousal, the symptoms of increased sympathetic nervous system tone under conditions of stress. We administered the Body Sensation Questionnaire (BSQ; a 17-item questionnaire with increasing levels of somatic arousal scored 17-85) to 152 consecutive upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) patients and 150 consecutive obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSA/H) patients. From medical records, we characterized each patient in terms of the presence of syndromes and symptoms into three categories: somatic syndromes (six syndromes), anxiety (anxiety disorders, nightmares, use of benzodiazepines), and insomnia (sleep onset, sleep maintenance, and use of hypnotics). For the pooled sample of SDB patients, we modeled the correlation of the BSQ score with the presence of each syndrome/symptom parameter within each of the three categories, with adjustment for male vs. female. Mean BSQ scores in females were significantly higher than those in males (32.5 ± 11.1 vs. 26.9 ± 8.2; mean ± SD). Increasing BSQ scores significantly correlated with increasing prevalence rates of somatic syndromes (p insomnia (p ≤ 0.0001). In general, females had higher prevalence rates of somatic syndromes and symptoms of anxiety than males at any BSQ score while rates of insomnia were similar. In patients with SDB, there is a strong association between the level of somatic arousal and the presence of stress-related disorders like somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia.

  3. Predicting stabilizing treatment outcomes for complex posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder: an expertise-based prognostic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, E.W.; van der Hart, O.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Chu, J.A.; Glas, G.; Draaijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an expertise-based prognostic model for the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID).We developed a survey in 2 rounds: In the first round we surveyed 42 experienced therapists (22 DID and 20 complex

  4. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  5. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, S.; Vissia, E.M.; Giesen, M.E.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Draijer, N.; Cole, J.H.; Dazzan, P.; Pariante, C.M.; Madsen, S.K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Thompson, P.M.; Toga, A.W.; Veltman, D.J.; Reinders, A.A.T.S

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  6. The Stress Response and Adolescents’ Adjustment: The Impact of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents’ behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents’ physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income urban adolescents (51.8% girls). Findings suggested that heightened reactivity as indicated by cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure was associated with increased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. However, these findings were context dependent such that, for youth high in self-reported child maltreatment, heightened reactivity was associated with decreased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. Results highlight the importance of considering how context may condition the effect of stress reactivity on functioning during adolescence. PMID:22359225

  7. Unique relations between post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and patient functioning in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Juth, Vanessa; Trief, Paula; Wallston, Kenneth; Ulbrecht, Jan; Smyth, Joshua M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined reported post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who had no history of psychiatric diagnosis or treatment ( n = 184, M HbA1c  = 9.13%, standard deviation = 1.68). Participants reported moderate to severe intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms ( M = 19.17, SD = 17.58). Together, depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accounted for 10-40 percent of the variance in type 2 diabetes outcomes; post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with elevated diabetes distress and more frequent exercise and self-blood glucose testing (unique R 2  ~ 3%). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may be overlooked in type 2 diabetes among patients without formal psychiatric diagnoses, and warrant increased attention.

  8. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh

    2010-11-01

    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  9. Prognostic utility of sestamibi lung uptake does not require adjustment for stress-related variables: A retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, William D; Yogendran, Marina S; Ward, Linda M; Nour, Khaled A; Metge, Colleen J

    2006-01-01

    Increased 99m Tc-sestamibi stress lung-to-heart ratio (sLHR) has been shown to predict cardiac outcomes similar to pulmonary uptake of thallium. Peak heart rate and use of pharmacologic stress affect the interpretation of lung thallium uptake. The current study was performed to determine whether 99m Tc-sestamibi sLHR measurements are affected by stress-related variables, and whether this in turn affects prognostic utility. sLHR was determined in 718 patients undergoing 99m Tc-sestamibi SPECT stress imaging. sLHR was assessed in relation to demographics, hemodynamic variables and outcomes (mean follow up 5.6 ± 1.1 years). Mean sLHR was slightly greater in males than in females (P < 0.01) and also showed a weak negative correlation with age (P < 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), but was unrelated to stress method or heart rate at the time of injection. In patients undergoing treadmill exercise, sLHR was also positively correlated with peak workload (P < 0.05) but inversely with double product (P < 0.05). The combined explanatory effect of sex, age and hemodynamic variables on sLHR was less than 10%. The risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or death increased by a factor of 1.7–1.8 for each SD increase in unadjusted sLHR, and was unaffected by adjustment for sex, age and hemodynamic variables (hazard ratios 1.6–1.7). The area under the ROC curve for the unadjusted sLHR was 0.65 (95% CI 0.59–0.71, P < 0.0001) and was unchanged for the adjusted sLHR (0.65, 95% CI 0.61–0.72, P < 0.0001). Stress-related variables have only a weak effect on measured sLHR. Unadjusted and adjusted sLHR provide equivalent prognostic information for prediction of AMI or death

  10. Academic Competence and Social Adjustment of Boys with Learning Disabilities and Boys with Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Malka

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of 31 elementary grade boys with learning disabilities and 52 boys with behavior disorders who either did or did not also display hyperactive behavior found significant differences between groups on the Classroom Behavior Inventory in three areas: Hostility versus Consideration, Extroversion versus Introversion, and Independence versus…

  11. Adjustment, Sibling Problems and Coping Strategies of Brothers and Sisters of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Penelope; Cuskelly, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) express more problem behaviours and experience more difficulties in their relationships than do children in families where all children are developing typically. We know little about what contributes to these difficulties. Method: Mothers of a child with ASD completed the…

  12. Network characteristics, perceived social support, and psychological adjustment in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  13. ICD-11 Prevalence Rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a German Nationwide Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias; Augsburger, Mareike; Kliem, Sören

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors. One-month prevalence rates were as follows: PTSD, 1.5%; CPTSD, 0.5%; and CPTSD variant, 0.7%. For PTSD, the highest conditional prevalence was associated with kidnapping or rape, and the highest CPTSD rates were associated with sexual childhood abuse or rape. PTSD and CPTSD were best differentiated by sexual violence. Combined PTSD and CPTSD (ICD-11) rates were in the range of previously reported prevalences for unified PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; ICD-10). Evidence on differential predictors of PTSD and CPTSD is still preliminary.

  14. Dissecting long-term adjustments of photoprotective and photo-oxidative stress acclimation occurring in dynamic light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizue Matsubara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in light intensity directly affect the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus. Light energy absorbed in excess of cells’ needs leads to production of reactive oxygen species and photo-oxidative damage. Excess light in both constant and dynamic environments induces photoprotective acclimation in plants. Distinct sets of signals and regulatory mechanisms are involved in acclimatory adjustment of photoprotection and photosynthesis under constant and dynamic (fluctuating light conditions. We are still far away from drawing a comprehensive picture of acclimatory signal transduction pathways, particularly in dynamic environments. In this perspective article, we propose the use of Arabidopsis plants that produce H2O2 in chloroplasts (GO plants under atmospheric CO2 levels as a tool to study the mechanisms of long-term acclimation to photo-oxidative stress. In our opinion there are new avenues to future investigations on acclimatory adjustments and signal transduction occurring in plants under dynamic light environments.

  15. Family Stress and Coping From Hospitalization of Clients With Severe Alcohol Use Disorder in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyu-Hee; Choi, Yun-Jung

    The rate of relapse and involuntary hospitalization among clients with alcohol use disorder exceeds 40% in South Korea. As a result, family members of clients experience considerable stress and require the assistance of professional services. This empirical study investigates levels of perceived stress and stress coping styles among family members of clients with severe alcohol use disorder and examines the correlations among these variables. Data were collected from three inpatient alcohol rehabilitation centers and five psychiatric hospitals in South Korea. Family stress levels and stress coping styles for 133 respondents were evaluated using the Hospital Stress Rating Scale for Family Members and the Stress Coping Style Checklist. There were significant differences in stress levels according to whether participants had attended a family educational program in the past or were doing so presently. Furthermore, significant differences in stress were observed among participants who were using the stress coping style of easing strained emotions during the client's hospitalization but who had never attended an educational program. Among the subcategories, stress levels had especially strong relationships with easing strained emotions, seeking advice, and solving problems. The results showed that families with severe alcohol use disorder experience stress from the client's hospitalization and seek advice from neighbors to deal with worries, privacy concerns, and economic problems. Family interventions are needed to provide family members with strategies to cope with stress, which can support recovery of clients with severe alcohol use disorder.

  16. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  17. The structure of post-traumatic stress disorder and complex post-traumatic stress disorder amongst West Papuan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-05-07

    The validity of applying the construct of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across cultures has been the subject of contention. Although PTSD symptoms have been identified across multiple cultures, questions remain whether the constellation represents a coherent construct with an interpretable factor structure across diverse populations, especially those naïve to western notions of mental disorder. An important additional question is whether a constellation of Complex-PTSD (C-PTSD) can be identified and if so, whether there are distinctions between that disorder and core PTSD in patterns of antecedent traumatic events. Our study amongst West Papuan refugees in Papua New Guinea (PNG) aimed to examine the factorial structure of PTSD based on the DSM-IV, DSM-5, ICD-10 and ICD-11 definitions, and C-PTSD according to proposed ICD-11 criteria. We also investigated domains of traumatic events (TEs) and broader psychosocial effects of conflict (sense of safety and injustice) associated with the factorial structures identified. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess exposure to conflict-related traumatic events (TEs), refugees' sense of safety and justice, and symptoms of PTSD and C-PTSD amongst 230 West Papuan refugees residing in Port Morseby, PNG. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a unitary construct of both ICD-10 and ICD-11 PTSD, comprising the conventional symptom subdomains of intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal. In contrast, CFA did not identify a unitary construct underlying C-PTSD. The interaction of witnessing murders and sense of injustice was associated with both the intrusion and avoidance domains of PTSD, but not with the unique symptom clusters characterizing C-PTSD. Our findings support the ICD PTSD construct and its three-factor structure in this transcultural refugee population. Traumatic experiences of witnessing murder associated with a sense of injustice were specifically related to the intrusion and avoidance domains of

  18. Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Bahareh

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the level of posttraumatic stress disorder between adults with and without congenital heart disease, and to examine the correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (e.g., sociodemographics). Cross-sectional. Two university-affiliated heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A sample of 347 adults with congenital heart disease aged 18-64 years (52% women), and 353 adults without congenital heart disease matched by sex and age (±2 years) was recruited. The PTSD Scale: Self-report version was used to assess the diagnosis and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among each group of participants. The posttraumatic stress disorder in the patients was comparable to those of the control group, except for increased arousal (P = .027) which was scored higher among the patients. Over 52% of adults with congenital heart disease met the criteria for a likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis compared with 48% of adults without congenital heart disease. The regression analyses among patients revealed that elevated depressive symptoms (OR = 1.27) and a positive history of cardiac surgery (OR = 2.02) were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. The model could explain 29% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder. The high and comparable prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among patients and nonpatients highlight the significance of the context in which adults with congenital heart disease may face other/additional stressors than disease-related ones, an issue that clinicians need also take into account. Furthermore, the association of posttraumatic stress disorder with elevated depressive symptoms warrant a comprehensive psychological assessment and management of adults with congenital heart disease, in particular among those with a history of

  19. Thought control strategies and rumination in youth with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder following single-event trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Shepperd, Alicia; Glucksman, Ed; Dalgleish, Tim; Yule, William; Smith, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Certain thought control strategies for managing the intrusive symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are thought to play a key role in its onset and maintenance. Whereas measures exist for the empirical assessment of such thought control strategies in adults, relatively few studies have explored how children and adolescents manage posttraumatic intrusive phenomena. In a prospective longitudinal study of 10-16-year-olds with PTSD, who were survivors of road traffic collisions and assaults, a variety of thought control strategies were assessed in the acute phase. These included strategies thought to be protective (reappraisal, social support) as well as maladaptive (distraction, punishment, worry). Ruminative responses to the trauma were assessed at the follow-up assessment. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) at each assessment were associated with the use of punishment and reappraisal, whereas social support and rumination were associated with PTSS symptoms at follow-up. Distraction was unrelated to PTSS at any time point. Rumination accounted for variance in PTSS symptoms at follow-up, even when accounting for baseline PTSS, and was found to mediate the relationships between reappraisal and punishment at baseline and PTSS at the follow-up assessment. The present study found no evidence to support advocating any particular thought control strategy for managing the intrusive symptoms of PTSD in youth in the acute posttrauma phase, and raised concerns over the use of reappraisal coping strategies. The study underscores the importance of ruminative responses in the onset and maintenance of PTSD in trauma-exposed youth.

  20. Perceived work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives, and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian Li

    2006-07-01

    Occupational mental health research has been focusing on the relationship between work stress and depression. However, the impacts of work stress on anxiety disorders and of imbalance between work and family life on workers' mental health have not been well studied. This analysis investigated the association between levels of perceived work stress and of imbalance between work and family/personal lives and current mood/anxiety disorders. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS-1.2) (n=36,984). Mood and anxiety disorders were measured using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among those with a work stress score at the 75th percentile value and above was 3.6% and 4.0%. Among those who reported that their work and family/personal lives "never" balanced in the past month, the 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was 21.2% and 17.9%. In multivariate analyses, work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives were independently associated with mood and anxiety disorders. There was no evidence that perceived work stress interacted with imbalance between work and family/personal lives to increase the likelihood of having mental disorders. Gender was associated with anxiety disorders, but not with major depressive disorder and mood disorders. Work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives may be part of the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders in the working population. Community based longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the causal relationships among work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives and mental disorders.

  1. The relations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and disorder of extreme stress (not otherwise specified) symptoms following war captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2013-01-01

    War captivity is a recognized pathogenic agent for both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and disorder of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS) symptoms, also known as Complex PTSD. However, the relationship between the two disorders remains unclear. While some scholars assume that the two diagnoses are overlapping and share the same predictors, others believe that the two diagnoses are relatively independent and differ in phenomenology and functional impairment. This study aims to assess both PTSD and DESNOS symptoms and their inter-relations among ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and matched controls, 35 years after the end of the war. The sample included two groups of male Israeli veterans from the 1973 Yom Kippur War: ex-POWs (n = 176) and comparable veterans who had not been held captive (n = 118). PTSD and DESNOS symptoms, battlefield and captivity stressors, and ways of coping in captivity were assessed using self-report questionnaires in 2008. Ex-POWs reported a higher number of PTSD symptoms and higher rates of PTSD symptoms that fill criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD than controls. Furthermore, ex-POWs reported a higher number of DESNOS symptom clusters and higher rates of DESNOS symptoms that fill criteria for the diagnosis of DESNOS. Moreover, we found positive relationships between PTSD symptom clusters and DESNOS symptom clusters. Finally, weight loss and mental suffering in captivity, loss of emotional control and total number of DESNOS symptoms predicted total number of PTSD symptoms. However, only the total number of PTSD symptoms predicted the total number of DESNOS symptoms. This study demonstrated the heavy and extensive toll of war captivity, three decades after the ex-POWs' release from captivity. Importantly, approaching the publication of DSM-5, this study depicts both the high number of DESNOS symptom clusters alongside PTSD symptoms and highlights the complex relationship between the two diagnostic entities. Thus

  2. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  3. Physiological adjustments to stress measures following massage therapy: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, Albert; Pollini, Robin A; Boulanger, Karen; Brooks, Marissa Z; Teitlebaum, Lesley

    2010-12-01

    Use of massage therapy by the general public has increased substantially in recent years. In light of the popularity of massage therapy for stress reduction, a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature is important to summarize the effectiveness of this modality on stress-reactive physiological measures. On-line databases were searched for articles relevant to both massage therapy and stress. Articles were included in this review if (i) the massage therapy account consisted of manipulation of soft tissues and was conducted by a trained therapist, and (ii) a dependent measure to evaluate physiological stress was reported. Hormonal and physical parameters are reviewed. A total of 25 studies met all inclusion criteria. A majority of studies employed a 20-30 min massage administered twice-weekly over 5 weeks with evaluations conducted pre-post an individual session (single treatment) or following a series of sessions (multiple treatments). Single treatment reductions in salivary cortisol and heart rate were consistently noted. A sustained reduction for these measures was not supported in the literature, although the single-treatment effect was repeatable within a study. To date, the research data is insufficient to make definitive statements regarding the multiple treatment effect of massage therapy on urinary cortisol or catecholamines, but some evidence for a positive effect on diastolic blood pressure has been documented. While significant improvement has been demonstrated following massage therapy, the general research body on this topic lacks the necessary scientific rigor to provide a definitive understanding of the effect massage therapy has on many physiological variables associated with stress.

  4. Are the neural substrates of memory the final common pathway in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

    OpenAIRE

    Elzinga, B.M.; Bremner, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    A model for the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a disorder of memory is presented drawing both on psychological and neurobiological data. Evidence on intrusive memories and deficits in declarative memory function in PTSD-patients is reviewed in relation to three brain areas that are involved in memory functioning and the stress response: the hippocampus, amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex. Neurobiological studies have shown that the noradrenergic stress-system is involved in enhanced...

  5. Emotional intelligence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Katrin; Driessen, Martin; Behnia, Behnoush; Wingenfeld, Katja; Roepke, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Emotional intelligence as a part of social cognition has, to our knowledge, never been investigated in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), though the disorder is characterized by aspects of emotional dysfunctioning. PTSD often occurs with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as a common comorbidity. Studies about social cognition and emotional intelligence in patients with BPD propose aberrant social cognition, but produced inconsistent results regarding emotional intelligence. The present study aims to assess emotional intelligence in patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, PTSD with comorbid BPD, and BPD patients without comorbid PTSD, as well as in healthy controls. 71 patients with PTSD (41 patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, 30 patients with PTSD with comorbid BPD), 56 patients with BPD without PTSD, and 63 healthy controls filled in the Test of Emotional Intelligence (TEMINT). Patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD showed impairments in emotional intelligence compared to patients with BPD without PTSD, and compared to healthy controls. These impairments were not restricted to specific emotions. Patients with BPD did not differ significantly from healthy controls. This study provides evidence for an impaired emotional intelligence in PTSD without comorbid BPD compared to BPD and healthy controls, affecting a wide range of emotions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurobiology of comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol-use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, N. W.; Weiner, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD) are highly comorbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of comorbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on comorbid PTSD and AUD. We summarize epidemiological data documenting the prevalence of this comorbidity, review what is known about the potential neurobiological basis for the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and AUD and discuss successes and failures of past and current treatment strategies. We also review animal models that aim to examine comorbid PTSD and AUD, highlighting where the models parallel the human condition, and we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each model. We conclude by discussing key gaps in our knowledge and strategies for addressing them: in particular, we (1) highlight the need for better animal models of the comorbid condition and better clinical trial design, (2) emphasize the need for examination of subpopulation effects and individual differences and (3) urge cross-talk between basic and clinical researchers that is reflected in collaborative work with forward and reverse translational impact. PMID:27749004

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder in callers to the Anxiety Disorders Association of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ross, Jerilyn; Davidson, Jonathan R T

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed callers to the Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA) with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and subthreshold PTSD (SPTSD). Most subjects heard about ADAA through media referrals and were satisfied with the service given by the association. The most frequent requests were for written information, learning how to cope with anxiety, and access to a local support group. Among callers, rates of PTSD (n=80) and SPTSD (n=111) were 8.0% and 11.1%, respectively. PTSD or SPTSD subjects were more likely to be younger, female, and with lower income than their no-Axis I psychiatric disorder controls (NAC) who had been exposed to trauma. In addition, they presented with more history of trauma, especially violent trauma, psychiatric comorbidity, recent psychotropic use, and side effects. More medical comorbidity, increased health service use, and reduced work productivity were also found among the PTSD and SPTSD subjects. SPTSD subjects were comparable to PTSD subjects on most of the measures with a few exceptions (more likely to be married, to have less psychiatric comorbidity, less medication use for mood and social fear, and fewer sedation and sexual side effects, and to have less health service use and work impairment). In conclusion, callers to ADAA with PTSD were particularly impaired and used the health care system extensively. Although the SPTSD subjects were not as impaired as those with PTSD, they were disadvantaged in many ways. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Neurobiology of comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol-use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, N W; Weiner, J L

    2017-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD) are highly comorbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of comorbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on comorbid PTSD and AUD. We summarize epidemiological data documenting the prevalence of this comorbidity, review what is known about the potential neurobiological basis for the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and AUD and discuss successes and failures of past and current treatment strategies. We also review animal models that aim to examine comorbid PTSD and AUD, highlighting where the models parallel the human condition, and we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each model. We conclude by discussing key gaps in our knowledge and strategies for addressing them: in particular, we (1) highlight the need for better animal models of the comorbid condition and better clinical trial design, (2) emphasize the need for examination of subpopulation effects and individual differences and (3) urge cross-talk between basic and clinical researchers that is reflected in collaborative work with forward and reverse translational impact. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. Negative Affect Instability among Individuals with Comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiderer, Emily M.; Wang, Ting; Tomko, Rachel L.; Wood, Phillip K.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone & Shiffman, 1994) was utilized to examine affective instability (AI) in the daily lives of outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n=78) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A psychiatric control group (n=50) composed of outpatients with major depressive disorder/dysthymia (MDD/DYS) was employed to compare across subgroups: BPD-only, BPD+PTSD, MDD/DYS-only, and MDD/DYS+PTSD. Compared to the BPD-only group, the BPD+PTSD group had significantly greater instability of fear and sadness, but did not significantly differ in instability of hostility or aggregate negative affect. This pattern of elevated instability of fear and sadness was not present—and, in fact, was reversed—in the MDD/DYS group. Results emphasize the importance of examining AI within the context of specific comorbidities and affect types. Treatment and research addressing AI in the context of BPD-PTSD comorbidity may benefit from a focus on fear and sadness as separate from hostility or general negative affect. PMID:26904388

  10. Neurobiology of Chronic Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence from Molecular Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret T.; Holmes, Sophie E.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Esterlis, Irina

    2018-01-01

    Chronic stress accounts for billions of dollars of economic loss annually in the United States alone, and is recognized as a major source of disability and mortality worldwide. Robust evidence suggests that chronic stress plays a significant role in the onset of severe and impairing psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Application of molecular imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography in recent years has begun to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which chronic stress confers risk for these disorders. The present paper provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of all positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography imaging publications focused on the examination of molecular targets in individuals with major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or bipolar disorder to date. Critical discussion of discrepant findings and broad strengths and weaknesses of the current body of literature is provided. Recommended future directions for the field of molecular imaging to further elucidate the neurobiological substrates of chronic stress-related disorders are also discussed. This article is part of the inaugural issue for the journal focused on various aspects of chronic stress. PMID:29862379

  11. A structural model for stress, coping, and psychosocial adjustment: A multi-group analysis by stages of survivorship in Korean women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Miyoung; Kim, Jiyoung

    2018-04-01

    Prospective studies have examined factors directly affecting psychosocial adjustment during breast cancer treatment. Survivorship stage may moderate a direct effect of stress on psychosocial adjustment. This study aimed to examine relationships between stress, social support, self-efficacy, coping, and psychosocial adjustment to construct a model of the effect pathways between those factors, and determine if survivorship stage moderates those effects. Six hundred people with breast cancer completed questionnaires. Examined stages of survivorship after treatment were as follows: acute (i.e., 5 years). Stress (Perceived Stress Scale), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), self-efficacy (New General Self Efficacy Scale), coping (Ways of Coping Checklist), and psychosocial adjustment (Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report-Korean Version) were measured. Self-efficacy significantly correlated with psychosocial adjustment in the acute survival stage (γ = -0.37, P psychosocial adjustment was greater in the acute (γ = -0.42, P psychosocial adjustment was stronger in the lasting survival stage (β = 0.42, P psychosocial adjustment of female breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occlusal adjustment using the bite plate-induced occlusal position as a reference position for temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwata Ichiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers have not accepted the use of occlusal treatments for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs. However, a recent report described a discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP and the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP and discussed the relation of this discrepancy to TMD. Therefore, the treatment outcome of evidence-based occlusal adjustments using the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP as a muscular reference position should be evaluated in patients with TMD. Methods The BPOP was defined as the position at which a patient voluntarily closed his or her mouth while sitting in an upright posture after wearing an anterior flat bite plate for 5 minutes and then removing the plate. Twenty-one patients with TMDs underwent occlusal adjustment using the BPOP. The occlusal adjustments were continued until bilateral occlusal contacts were obtained in the BPOP. The treatment outcomes were evaluated using the subjective dysfunction index (SDI and the Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index (CDI before and after the occlusal adjustments; the changes in these two indices between the first examination and a one-year follow-up examination were then analyzed. In addition, the difference between the HOP and the BPOP was three-dimensionally measured before and after the treatment. Results The percentage of symptom-free patients after treatment was 86% according to the SDI and 76% according to the CDI. The changes in the two indices after treatment were significant (p 0.1. Conclusion Although the results of the present study should be confirmed in other studies, a randomized clinical trial examining occlusal adjustments using the BPOP as a reference position appears to be warranted.

  13. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Stem Reserves Remobilization, Relative Water Content and Osmotic Adjustment under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Soleimani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought one of the most important global threats against bread wheat production. In order to identify physiological traits associated with drought tolerance, 52 bread wheat varieties were cultured under two normal and drought stress condition in a randomized complete block desigen with three replications. RWC (in three independent times, leaf rolling, leaf silvering, days to flowering, days to maturity and stem reserve remobilization were investigeted. Also in a pot experiment osmotic adjustment of the varieties were measured at seedling stage. varieties Star and Bezostaya had the highest RWC (0.79 and 0.78, respectively. Osmotic adjustment in Rasol and Unknown11 were highest (0.58 and 0.56, respectively. Varieties Tipik, Unknown11 and Azar2 showed the least decrease in thousand grain weight after spraying with KI (4.8, 5.5 and 5.5, respectively. Also varieties Dez, Gaspard and MV-17 have the highest degree of leaf silvering and varieties Niknejad, Star and Kohdasht under drought stress were able than the other varieties bring their leaves to form a rolling and cope with water deficit. Under drought stress, Varieties Alborz, Zagros and Inia were observed premature than the other varieties and Gaspard and Kaslojen varieties were observed late mature than the other varieties. Altogetehr varieties Kohdasht, Star and Bezostaya can be used as genetic resources for leaf water retention under drought stress condition for imjproving other varieties. Also as Azar2 and Unknown11 had highest amount of thousand grain weight under normal condition and simoultanously showed high ability in stem reserves remobilization they can be selected as parents in crosses for improving these traits.

  15. Discriminatory experiences associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among transgender adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Mizock, Lauren; Pachankis, John

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination has been shown to disproportionately burden transgender people; however, there has been a lack of clinical attention to the mental health sequelae of discrimination, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Additionally, few studies contextualize discrimination alongside other traumatic stressors in predicting PTSD symptomatology. The current study sought to fill these gaps. A community-based sample of 412 transgender adults (mean age 33, SD=13; 63% female-to-male spectrum; 19% people of color; 88% sampled online) completed a cross-sectional self-report survey of everyday discrimination experiences and PTSD symptoms. Multivariable linear regression models examined the association between self-reported everyday discrimination experiences, number of attributed domains of discrimination, and PTSD symptoms, adjusting for prior trauma, sociodemographics, and psychosocial co-morbidity. The mean number of discrimination attributions endorsed was 4.8 (SD=2.4) and the five most frequently reported reasons for discrimination were: gender identity and/or expression (83%), masculine and feminine appearance (79%), sexual orientation (68%), sex (57%), and age (44%). Higher everyday discrimination scores (β=0.25; 95% CL=0.21–0.30) and greater number of attributed reasons for discrimination experiences (β=0.05; 95% CL=0.01–0.10) were independently associated with PTSD symptoms, even after adjusting for prior trauma experiences. Everyday discrimination experiences from multiple sources necessitate clinical consideration in treatment for PTSD symptoms in transgender people. PMID:26866637

  16. Discriminatory experiences associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among transgender adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Gamarel, Kristi E; Keuroghlian, Alex S; Mizock, Lauren; Pachankis, John E

    2016-10-01

    Discrimination has been shown to disproportionately burden transgender people; however, there has been a lack of clinical attention to the mental health sequelae of discrimination, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Additionally, few studies contextualize discrimination alongside other traumatic stressors in predicting PTSD symptomatology. The current study sought to fill these gaps. A community-based sample of 412 transgender adults (mean age 33, SD = 13; 63% female-to-male spectrum; 19% people of color; 88% sampled online) completed a cross-sectional self-report survey of everyday discrimination experiences and PTSD symptoms. Multivariable linear regression models examined the association between self-reported everyday discrimination experiences, number of attributed domains of discrimination, and PTSD symptoms, adjusting for prior trauma, sociodemographics, and psychosocial comorbidity. The mean number of discrimination attributions endorsed was 4.8 (SD = 2.4) and the 5 most frequently reported reasons for discrimination were: gender identity and/or expression (83%), masculine and feminine appearance (79%), sexual orientation (68%), sex (57%), and age (44%). Higher everyday discrimination scores (β = 0.25; 95% CL [0.21, 0.30]) and greater number of attributed reasons for discrimination experiences (β = 0.05; 95% CL [0.01, 0.10]) were independently associated with PTSD symptoms, even after adjusting for prior trauma experiences. Everyday discrimination experiences from multiple sources necessitate clinical consideration in treatment for PTSD symptoms in transgender people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, K C; Ratanatharathorn, A; Ng, L; McLaughlin, K A; Bromet, E J; Stein, D J; Karam, E G; Meron Ruscio, A; Benjet, C; Scott, K; Atwoli, L; Petukhova, M; Lim, C C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Bunting, B; Ciutan, M; de Girolamo, G; Degenhardt, L; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Huang, Y; Kawakami, N; Lee, S; Navarro-Mateu, F; Pennell, B-E; Piazza, M; Sampson, N; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Williams, D; Xavier, M; Kessler, R C

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking. Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD. Respondents were also assessed for treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age of onset distributions were examined by country income level. Associations of PTSD were examined with country income, world region, and respondent demographics. The cross-national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9% in the total sample and 5.6% among the trauma exposed. Half of respondents with PTSD reported persistent symptoms. Treatment seeking in high-income countries (53.5%) was roughly double that in low-lower middle income (22.8%) and upper-middle income (28.7%) countries. Social disadvantage, including younger age, female sex, being unmarried, being less educated, having lower household income, and being unemployed, was associated with increased risk of lifetime PTSD among the trauma exposed. PTSD is prevalent cross-nationally, with half of all global cases being persistent. Only half of those with severe PTSD report receiving any treatment and only a minority receive specialty mental health care. Striking disparities in PTSD treatment exist by country income level. Increasing access to effective treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries, remains critical for reducing the population burden of PTSD.

  18. Smoking and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology in Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T; Boggero, I A; Carlson, C R; Bertoli, E; Okeson, J P; de Leeuw, R

    2016-09-01

    To explore the impact of interactions between smoking and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pain intensity, psychological distress, and pain-related functioning in patients with orofacial pain, a retrospective review was conducted of data obtained during evaluations of 610 new patients with a temporomandibular disorder who also reported a history of a traumatic event. Pain-related outcomes included measures of pain intensity, psychological distress, and pain-related functioning. Main effects of smoking status and PTSD symptom severity on pain-related outcomes were evaluated with linear regression analyses. Further analyses tested interactions between smoking status and PTSD symptom severity on pain-related outcomes. PTSD symptom severity and smoking predicted worse pain-related outcomes. Interaction analyses between PTSD symptom severity and smoking status revealed that smoking attenuated the impact of PTSD symptom severity on affective distress, although this effect was not found at high levels of PTSD symptom severity. No other significant interactions were found, but the present results identifying smoking as an ineffective coping mechanism and the likely role of inaccurate outcome expectancies support the importance of smoking cessation efforts in patients with orofacial pain. Smoking is a maladaptive mechanism for coping with pain that carries significant health- and pain-related risks while failing to fulfill smokers' expectations of affect regulation, particularly among persons with orofacial pain who also have high levels of PTSD symptom severity. Addressing smoking cessation is a critical component of comprehensive treatment. Further research is needed to develop more effective ways to help patients with pain and/or PTSD to replace smoking with more effective coping strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  19. The role of guilt in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Konstantin; Lommen, Miriam J. J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A growing body of evidence supports the notion that the emotional profile of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be more diverse than traditional accounts presume. PTSD’s image as an anxiety-based disorder is undergoing change as the significance of other emotions in its development becomes more evident. Experimental research is needed in order to expand the understanding of underlying processes driving the development of PTSD. Objective: Experimentally test the influence of stressor-related guilt on the occurrence of PTSD symptomatology. Method: A non-clinical student sample faced an analogue trauma, a stressor in the form of a computer crash and related loss of data. We either personally blamed participants for causing the incident (blame group) or told them that it was a technical failure and therefore not their fault (no-blame group). Levels of guilt before and after the incident as well as number and associated distress of incident-related intrusions were assessed using a one-day diary and compared between groups. Results: The guilt manipulation was successful: feelings of guilt significantly increased in the blame group but not in the no-blame group. Furthermore, the blame group showed a significantly higher number of intrusions and associated distress compared to the no-blame group at one-day follow-up. Conclusions: These laboratory findings indicate that feelings of guilt may lead to increased PTSD symptomatology, supporting the view that guilt experienced in reaction to a traumatic event may be part of a causal mechanism driving the development of PTSD. PMID:29230272

  20. Maternal Stress Predicted by Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a period of two years. The level of maternal…

  1. Relationship between Self-Reported Health and Stress in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Sejunaite, Karolina; Osborne, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explore the relationship between various forms of experienced stress (general stress and parenting stress) and both health-related quality of life (QoL) and reported physical health symptoms. One hundred and twenty-two mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder responded to an online survey included questionnaires on…

  2. Salivary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels in Police Officers With and Without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijling, J. L.; van Zuiden, M.; Nawijn, L.; Koch, S. B. J.; Neumann, I. D.; Veltman, D. J.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by symptoms associated with maladaptive fear and stress responses, as well as with social detachment. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) have been associated with both regulating fear and neuroendocrine stress

  3. Maternal stress predicted by characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a

  4. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrams TE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thad E Abrams,1,2 Amy Blevins,1,3 Mark W Vander Weg1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City VA Health Care System, 3Hardin Health Sciences Library, 4Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature.Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1 determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2 identify targeted areas for further research.Methods: A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1 the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2 the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology.Results: A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD

  5. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence after prostatectomy with the adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS®) with preattached scrotal port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, C; Arance, I; Pamplona, J; Moraga, A; Dorado, J F; Angulo, J C

    2018-04-08

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a significant sequela of prostate cancer surgery. In this article, we present the surgical technique and safety and efficacy of the adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS®) with preattached scrotal port. An open prospective study was conducted at a university hospital with the main objective of changing the baseline condition after adjustment in the daily pad count and their wet weight (pad test). The secondary objectives were the quality-of-life assessment (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form [ICIQ-SF] and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 [IIQ-7], baseline and after the adjustment), patient-perceived results (Patient Global Index [PGI] and Global Response Assessment [GRA] at 1 year) and assessment of complications according to Clavien-Dindo. The numerical values are expressed in median ± IQR. We analysed 60 consecutive patients with a follow-up of 21±22 months. The baseline pad-test was 465±450mL, and the pad-count was 5+3 pads/day. The baseline SUI was mild (11.6% of patients), moderate (25%) and severe (63.3%). The operative time was 60±25min, the hospital stay was 1±0 days, and the visual analogue scale of pain on day 1 after surgery was 0±1. The total filling was 16.5±7mL, and the number of refillings was 1±2. The pad-test and pad-count after the adjustment were 0±20mL and 0±1, respectively (both pATOMS® is safe and effective in the short-term, even in patients with severe SUI. The rate of dry patients after the adjustment exceeded 80%, and the satisfaction rates exceeded 90%. The patients assessed this treatment highly positively. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment in Brazil – Perception of Parenting Style, Stressful Events and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pereira da Cruz Benetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between measures of exposure to violence, stressful events, family socialization practices, and demographic characteristics in a group of adolescents from a Southern region of Brazil. Three hundred adolescents were investigated in a case-control study. The results showed that adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems had significant higher stressful events, violence exposure, and negative parental practices, compared with controls. However, exposure to violence was the most deteriorating condition associated with the adolescents’ clinical internalization and externalization behaviors. Findings suggest the benefit of targeting actions geared to strengthen the quality of family interactions as well as to implement preventive programs to reduce community violence impact and to enhance support in the community.

  7. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Odelia; Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm 3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm 3 ] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm 3 (SD, 302.8 mm 3 ) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects ( P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches.

  8. Emotionally Responsive Wearable Technology and Stress Detection for Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Jenny

    2017-09-01

    As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21 st century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health. Here I introduce the concept of "eScent", an emotionally responsive wearable technology that picks up on your emotions and vital signs and sends a personalisable 'scent bubble' to your nose. It combines sensing and dispensing aromatics for immersive experiences and multiple health benefits. It presents an empowering, sensory intervention and resilience builder that emits mood-enhancing aromas in a controllable way, depending on biofeedback. The advantage of essential oils merged with biometric sensors and intelligent tracking devices (e.g. an Apple Watch), could lead to a new palette of scents that are bio-synchronized to an individual's emotional, mental, and/or physical state and in a real-time manner alleviate high levels of stress, thus preventing the risk of a serious mental ill health relapse. Closure of the loop with wearable scent delivery systems requires an innovative, creative and collaborative approach, crossing many disciplines in psychological related sciences, biotechnology and industrial design. Testing such hypotheses in translational human studies is a matter of future research which could not only lead to valuable "prodromal" interventions for psychiatry, but new stress management tools for people suffering from affective disorders.

  9. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Design: Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Methods: Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Results: Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm3] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm3 (SD, 302.8 mm3) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects (P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. Conclusions: The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:29264511

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder in the perinatal period: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignato, Julie; Georges, Jane M; Bush, Ruth A; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2017-12-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Prevalence of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder is rising in the USA, with 9% of the U.S. perinatal population diagnosed with the disorder and an additional 18% being at risk for the condition. Left untreated, adverse maternal-child outcomes result in increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Concept analysis via Walker and Avant's approach. The databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, Academic Search Premier and PsychINFO were searched for articles, written in English, published between 2006-2015, containing the terms perinatal and post-traumatic stress disorder. Perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder owns unique attributes, antecedents and outcomes when compared to post-traumatic stress disorder in other contexts, and may be defined as a disorder arising after a traumatic experience, diagnosed any time from conception to 6 months postpartum, lasting longer than 1 month, leading to specific negative maternal symptoms and poor maternal-infant outcomes. Attributes include a diagnostic time frame (conception to 6 months postpartum), harmful prior or current trauma and specific diagnostic symptomatology defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Antecedents were identified as trauma (perinatal complications and abuse), postpartum depression and previous psychiatric history. Consequences comprised adverse maternal-infant outcomes. Further research on perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder antecedents, attributes and outcomes in ethnically diverse populations may provide clinicians a more comprehensive framework for identifying and treating perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Nurses are encouraged to increase their awareness of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder for early assessment and intervention, and prevention of adverse maternal-infant outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley

  11. Trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Sharpe, Louise

    2008-03-01

    International studies indicate high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder within homeless populations. In Australia, studies indicate high rates of trauma among homeless adults, yet post-traumatic stress disorder has not been investigated in homeless Australian adults. The primary aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney. Further, another aim of the study was to determine whether the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the first episode of homelessness or was a consequence of homelessness. The sample consisted of 70 homeless men and women aged 18-73 years, who were randomly sampled through eight homeless services. A computer-assisted face-to-face structured clinical interview was conducted with each participant. Lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was determined via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (98%). Indeed, the mean number of traumas per person was six. The 12 month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was higher among homeless adults in Sydney in comparison to the Australian general population (41% vs 1.5%). But 79% of the sample had a lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress. In 59% of cases, the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the age of the first reported homeless episode. Homeless adults in Sydney frequently experience trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. The study found that trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder more often precede homelessness, but re-victimization is common. These findings highlight the high mental health needs among homeless people and have implications for services for homeless people.

  12. Childhood maltreatment, juvenile disorders and adult post-traumatic stress disorder: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, N; Koenen, K C; Luo, Z; Agnew-Blais, J; Swanson, S; Houts, R M; Poulton, R; Moffitt, T E

    2014-07-01

    We examine prospectively the influence of two separate but potentially inter-related factors in the etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): childhood maltreatment as conferring a susceptibility to the PTSD response to adult trauma and juvenile disorders as precursors of adult PTSD. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) is a birth cohort (n = 1037) from the general population of New Zealand's South Island, with multiple assessments up to age 38 years. DSM-IV PTSD was assessed among participants exposed to trauma at ages 26-38. Complete data were available on 928 participants. Severe maltreatment in the first decade of life, experienced by 8.5% of the sample, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD among those exposed to adult trauma [odds ratio (OR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-6.01], compared to no maltreatment. Moderate maltreatment, experienced by 27.2%, was not associated significantly with that risk (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.85-2.85). However, the two estimates did not differ significantly from one another. Juvenile disorders (ages 11-15), experienced by 35% of the sample, independent of childhood maltreatment, were associated significantly with the risk of PTSD response to adult trauma (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.32-4.18). Severe maltreatment is associated with risk of PTSD response to adult trauma, compared to no maltreatment, and juvenile disorders, independent of earlier maltreatment, are associated with that risk. The role of moderate maltreatment remains unresolved. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to assess the impact of moderate maltreatment, experienced by the majority of adult trauma victims with a history of maltreatment.

  13. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Parkinson Disease: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee-Lam E; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Pan, Tai-Long; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested a relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and neurodegenerative disorder, such as Alzheimer disease. The association between PTSD and Parkinson disease (PD), however, remains unclear. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 7,280 subjects (1,456 patients aged ≥45 years with PTSD and 5,824 age-/sex-matched individuals without PTSD) were enrolled between 2002 and 2009 and followed to the end of 2011. Subjects who developed PD during the follow-up period were identified. An increased risk of developing PD was found in patients with PTSD (Wald χ 2  = 12.061, hazard ratio [HR]: 3.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72-6.96) compared with individuals without PTSD, after adjusting for demographic data and medical and psychiatric comorbidities. The sensitivity tests after excluding the first year observation (Wald χ 2  = 7.948, HR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.40-6.46) and the first 3-year observation (Wald χ 2  = 5.099, HR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.16-8.15) were consistent. Patients with PTSD had an elevated risk of developing PD in later life. Further studies would be required to clarify the exact pathophysiology between PTSD and PD and to investigate whether the prompt intervention for PTSD may reduce this risk. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissociative subtype of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder in U.S. veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Armour, Cherie; Southwick, Steven M; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) formally introduced a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined the proportion of U.S. veterans with DSM-5 PTSD that report dissociative symptoms; and compared veterans with PTSD with and without the dissociative subtype and trauma-exposed controls on sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, and quality of life. Multivariable analyses were conducted on a nationally representative sample of 1484 veterans from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (second baseline survey conducted September-October, 2013). Of the 12.0% and 5.2% of veterans who screened positive for lifetime and past-month DSM-5 PTSD, 19.2% and 16.1% screened positive for the dissociative subtype, respectively. Among veterans with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype reported more severe PTSD symptoms, comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use problems, and hostility than those without the dissociative subtype. Adjusting for PTSD symptom severity, those with the dissociative subtype continued to report more depression and alcohol use problems. These results underscore the importance of assessing, monitoring, and treating the considerable proportion of veterans with PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Association of post-traumatic stress disorder and obesity in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Bodenlos, Jamie S; Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Ma, Yunsheng; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a possible link between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obesity risk, which would have implications for the development of obesity-related diseases in this population. The present study examined the association between PTSD and obesity and whether this association differed by sex in a representative sample of the US population. A secondary objective was to determine whether the association between PTSD and obesity was mediated by binge eating disorder (BED). Data were from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), which comprises three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys that were conducted between 2001 and 2003. Logistic regression analyses weighted to represent the general US adult population were performed. In the total sample of 20,013 participants, rates of obesity were 24.1% for persons without a lifetime history of PTSD and 32.6% among persons with PTSD in the past year. Adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, depression, substance and alcohol abuse/dependence, and psychotropic medication status, past year PTSD was associated with greater likelihood of obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18, 1.95), with no differences by gender. BED did not statistically mediate the relationship between PTSD and obesity. The present study provides support for a link between PTSD and obesity. Findings further existing literature by indicating that the association is consistent across sexes and is not statistically mediated by BED.

  16. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.

  17. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings: a meta-analysis of 94 interview-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, A. J.; Chan, M.; Bhatti, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Substantial uncertainty exists about prevalence of mood disorders in patients with cancer, including those in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings. We aimed to quantitatively summarise the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustments disorders in these settin...... between palliative-care and non-palliative-care settings. Clinicians should remain vigilant for mood complications, not just depression....

  18. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  19. Diagnostic Biomarkers for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Promising Horizons from Translational Neuroscience Research

    OpenAIRE

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Norrholm, Seth Davin; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a heterogeneous disorder that affects individuals exposed to trauma (e.g., combat, interpersonal violence, and natural disasters). Although its diagnostic features have been recently re-classified with the emergence of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the disorder remains characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive reminders of the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and negative cognition and mood. T...

  20. Does the stress response predict the ability of wild birds to adjust to short-term captivity? A study of the rock pigeon (Columbia livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Parenteau, Charline; Trouvé, Colette; Angelier, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Although the transfer of wild animals to captivity is crucial for conservation purposes, this process is often challenging because some species or individuals do not adjust well to captive conditions. Chronic stress has been identified as a major concern for animals held on long-term captivity. Surprisingly, the first hours or days of captivity have been relatively overlooked. However, they are certainly very stressful, because individuals are being transferred to a totally novel and confined environment. To ensure the success of conservation programmes, it appears crucial to better understand the proximate causes of interspecific and interindividual variability in the sensitivity to these first hours of captivity. In that respect, the study of stress hormones is relevant, because the hormonal stress response may help to assess whether specific individuals or species adjust, or not, to such captive conditions ('the stress response-adjustment to captivity hypothesis'). We tested this hypothesis in rock pigeons by measuring their corticosterone stress response and their ability to adjust to short-term captivity (body mass loss and circulating corticosterone levels after a day of captivity). We showed that an increased corticosterone stress response is associated with a lower ability to adjust to short-term captivity (i.e. higher body mass loss and circulating corticosterone levels). Our study suggests, therefore, that a low physiological sensitivity to stress may be beneficial for adjusting to captivity. Future studies should now explore whether the stress response can be useful to predict the ability of individuals from different populations or species to not only adjust to short-term but also long-term captivity.