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Sample records for stress coping styles

  1. Stress and neurobiology of coping styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod V. Nemets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In stressful environment, animal can use different coping strategies. Passive animals manifest freezing behaviour at predator attacks, active ones are trying to have an impact on a stressful situation. Each coping style is presupposed to have a neurobiological basis and it helps animals to survive in aggressive and mutable environment. Being under a long lasting stress, leaders can be affected by cardiovascular and ulcer diseases, but a short term impact can cheer them up, improve neuroendocrine stress response more than passive coping style in animals. This paper analyzes animal pattern of coping behaviour, their inheritance based on gender, social status and age. The research shows how anxiety affects social behaviour of people individuals and typological reactions were compared. These patterns can be used by people in a situation of uncontrolled stress to prevent diseases and depressive disorders through altering one’s type of behavior to the one which is more effective. In addition, knowledge of behavioural types can assist teachers in implementing the learning process as in stress situations (e.g. taking exams, working on course papers, doing tests not all students are able to effectively perceive and present the resulting material. On the other hand, active students could encourage short-term rather than long-term stressor irritation. It is necessary to pay special attention to students with low social economic status who display active response to stress. According to statistics, problem students often become aggressors and commit antisocial and sometimes criminal acts. The coping styles mentioned here above are not polar, there are no clear boundaries of personality. In addition, behaving according to the active / non-active type is identified by customary and inherited behaviour patterns.

  2. The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in the first year of medical education at a Nigerian University. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... used included socio demographic, sources of stress, the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Maslachfs burnout inventory (MBI), and Brief COPE. Data were ...

  3. [Occupational stress, coping styles and eating habits among Polish employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Mościcka, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze potential relations between occupational stress, coping styles and ing habits. Questionnaires administered to 160 public administration employees allowed for assessing eating habits, occupational stress and coping styles. The eating habits correlated with work stress (ro-Spearman's = 0.17-0.29). More unhealthy eating patterns were observed in employees characterized by a higher level of stress. Such stressors as overload, lack of control over work and inappropriate work organization were especially related to poorer eating habits. Among the analyzed coping styles, focusing on emotions (ro-S = 0.19) and searching for emotional support most significantly correlated with poorer eating behaviors (ro-S = 0.16). There were statistically significant differences in eating habits, depending on the level of job stress (U = 1583.50, p stress had a stronger tendency to habitual and emotional eating more than those with a medium level of job stress. The relationship between subjective assessment of job stress, coping and eating habits has been confirmed. Taking into account the role of stress and coping, as the potential determinants of eating patterns in humans, more attention should be paid to education and promotion of knowledge about the relationship between stress and human eating behaviors to prevent obesity and eating disorders.

  4. Coping with acute stress in the military : The influence of coping style, coping self-efficacy and appraisal emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van

    2017-01-01

    It is of utmost importance to better understand how professionals in high-risk organizations, such as the military and police, appraise and cope with acute stress situations. The goal of this two-wave study was to investigate the role of two individual characteristics, coping style and coping

  5. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison between Couple Attachment Styles, Stress Coping Styles and Self-Esteem Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Akbas, Turan; Uslu, Sevcan Karabulut

    2017-01-01

    Data were acquired from a total of 422 university students with 216 female and 206 male students via Couple Attachment Scale, Stress Coping Styles Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Positive and statistically significant relationships were determined between self-confident approach, optimistic approach and social support approach…

  7. Conforming and nonconforming personality and stress coping styles in combat athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernacka Ryszarda Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the personality dimension of conformism/nonconformism was a predictor of stress coping styles in athletes training combat sports, and to present the characteristics of this personality dimension in the context of the competitors’ adaptive/innovative sport performance. Scores of 346 males practising combat sports such as kick boxing, MMA, thai boxing, boxing and wrestling were analyzed. The participants completed the Creative Behaviour Questionnaire (KANH III measuring the conformity/nonconformity personality dimension and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS measuring stress coping styles. The comparative analyses were conducted only for the groups of conformists and nonconformists. Differences in stress coping styles between conformists and nonconformists training combat sports were found as nonconformists tended to prefer the task-oriented coping style. Conclusively, a higher rate of nonconformity was associated with increasingly frequent occurrence of task-oriented coping and decreasingly frequent emotion-oriented coping.

  8. The Relationship between Stress, Coping Style, and Academic Satisfaction: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge-Windover, Sheila T.

    2017-01-01

    College students experience a great deal of stress, which is associated with poor health and poor levels of academic satisfaction which can lead to low retention. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate how stress and coping style predict academic satisfaction and understand how and if coping style moderates the…

  9. Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Stress and Coping in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…

  10. Differences between Australian and Japanese Students in Decisional Self-Esteem, Decisional Stress, and Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Mark H. B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines effects of culture on decisional self-esteem, decisional stress, and self-reported decision coping style for 743 Japanese and 309 Australian college students. Findings on coping styles in decision making are related to cross-cultural differences between the individualistic culture of Australia and the collectivistic culture of Japan. (SLD)

  11. Perfectionism in school teachers: Relations with stress appraisal, coping styles,and burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Rennert, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Many school teachers suffer from stress and burnout, and perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been associated with increased stress, maladaptive coping, and burnout. Recent findings, however, show that perfectionism has both positive and negative facets. To investigate how these facets are related to stress, coping, and burnout in teachers, a sample of 118 secondary school teachers completed multidimensional measures of perfectionism, stress appraisals, coping styles, and bu...

  12. Coping styles and its association with sources of stress in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkil, Sandhya; Gardens, Seby J; Soman, Deepak Kuttikatt

    2013-10-01

    The two ubiquitous factors that have been identified in medical courses to underlie mental health are stress and different coping styles adopted to combat stress. To find the association between coping styles and stress in undergraduate medical students. A medical college in Central Kerala. A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Source and Severity of Stress Scale, Medical Student Version, was used to assess the source and nature of stress. Brief Cope was used to find out the coping styles adopted. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 and SAS. Chi-square analysis was used to find the association between coping styles and stress domains and with the overall stress score. There is a significant positive association between overall stress score and coping styles (P=0.001) of 'Negative cope', 'Blame', and 'Humor'. 'Positive cope' and 'Religion' has significant positive association with 'Academics' (P=0.047) and 'self Expectations' (P=0.009). 'Blame' (Pmanagement techniques in the medical school.

  13. Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels.

  14. An Investigation of the Correlation among Sources of Stress, Perceived Stress, and Coping styles in High School Students

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    Farhadh Asghari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coping with stress is an important issue, especially in regard to source of stress and perceived stress in adolescence period. In this research, the correlation among stress sources, perceived stress, and coping styles was investigated in high school students. Methods: The present research was a descriptive correlational study. The research sample consisted of 575 high school students from the families of personnel of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences in education year 2014-15 who were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. Stress source scale, perceived stress scale and Tehran coping styles scale, were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using statistical methods, including Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis. Results: In this study, 50% of students had perceived stress higher than cut-off point. Stress sources of students were related to school and maturity. There was a positive correlation between problem-oriented coping style and perceived stress, and there was a negative and inverse correlation between problem-oriented coping style and stress related to school and maturity. There was a positive correlation between positive emotion-oriented coping style and perceived stress, but there was a negative and inverse correlation between problem-oriented coping style and stress related to school and maturity. There was no significant correlation between emotion-oriented coping style and stress related to school, maturity, family, and peers. There was a positive correlation between negative emotion-oriented coping style and stress related to school, maturity, and peers. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the level of correlation was not significant and no significant relationship could be found between the variables with this level of correlation. Therefore, it is suggested that more extensive researches be conducted on the relationship between

  15. The role of cognitive style in the stress and coping of black South African adolescents.

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    van Rooyen, Melinda; Naude, Luzelle; Nel, Lindi; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2014-12-01

    Although stress is a common phenomenon in all phases of life, it can be said that adolescence is a particularly stressful life stage. In South Africa, black adolescents are faced with many stressors and challenges which are placing demands on their emotional and cognitive resources. The aim of this study was to determine whether black South African adolescents with different cognitive styles (i.e. rational or experiential) differ in their levels of stress and coping. Furthermore, the common stressors that black adolescents experience and the coping styles predominantly used by black adolescents could be determined. One hundred and eighty-seven participants (88 males and 99 females) completed the Rational Experiential, the Coping Reponses and the Adolescent Stress Inventory. Adolescents operating from an experiential cognitive style experienced more stress regarding school performance, school attendance, financial pressure and emerging adult responsibility than adolescents operating from a rational cognitive style. Adolescents employing a rational style sought more alternative rewards as a coping strategy, whereas adolescents employing an experiential style relied more on emotional discharge. The findings of this study concur with previous research, but provide a unique perspective on adolescents' stress and coping in this South African context.

  16. Parents' reactions to children's stuttering and style of coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeniuk, Ewa; Tarkowski, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine: (a) how parents react to their child's stuttering, (b) what stress coping strategies they utilise, as well as (c) whether stress coping style depends on parents' reaction to their child's stuttering. The research involved 23 mothers and 23 fathers of children who stutter (CWS) at the age of three to six years old. The Reaction to Speech Disfluency Scale (RSDS), developed by the authors, was used in the research. To determine the parents' coping the Coping Inventory in Stressful Situations (CISS) by N.S. Endler and D.A Parker was applied. The strongest reactions are observed on the cognitive level. Stronger cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions are observed in the mothers towards their disfluently speaking sons and in the fathers towards their daughters. Having analysed the profiles of coping styles, it can be noticed that the task-oriented coping is most frequently adapted by the fathers. The mothers most often use the avoidance-oriented coping. No relevant correlation was observed between the fathers' coping style and their reactions to the child's disfluent speech. As far as the mothers are concerned, it has been proved that an increase in behavioural reactions correlates with the avoidance-oriented coping. The cognitive reactions of the parents' towards their child's stuttering were most frequent, while the emotional ones were the least frequent. Confronted with a stressful situation, the fathers most often adapt the task-oriented coping, whereas the mothers use the avoidance-oriented coping. the reader will be able to (1) learn what the key reactions of parents to their children's stuttering are, (2) describe stuttering as a stress factor for the parents, (3) describe the factors which influence parents' reactions to their child's stuttering and their coping style. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Silva, P.I.M.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered...... and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers...... and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains...

  18. Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Background Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. Methods The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. Results The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Conclusion Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels. PMID:28381931

  19. The Comparison of Hardiness and Coping Styles with Psychological Stress in Addicted and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Molazadeh, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the hardiness and coping styles with stress in addicted and normal people in the city of Rasht. Method: The method of this study was causal comparative research. In sampling one hundred addicts were selected by multistage cluster sampling and one hundred normal ones selected by available sampling, then the Kobasa personal views survey and Moos and Billings coping styles questionnaires were administered among both groups. The Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean scores of hardiness and emotion focused coping style in addicted and normal people, but there was no significant difference on problem focused coping style. Regression analysis also showed that hardiness can be a significant predictor for emotion focused coping style. Conclusion: The findings of this research show the important role of some of the personality characteristics such as hardiness and coping styles with stress that may correlate with the tendency to addiction and substance abuse in people.

  20. Coping styles adopted in stressful situations by self-harming adolescents

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    Karolina Jabłkowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of stress and styles of coping with stress constitute an important component of life of every human being, particularly during adolescence. Effective coping mechanisms enable reduction of severity of stress experienced, while inability to manage stressful situations results in alterations in emotional and physiological domains, disturbances of mental well-being, somatic health and social functioning. Since a few years, we are witnessing a significant aggravation of the phenomenon of auto-aggression among children and adolescents, particularly in populations already undergoing psychiatric treatment. Such behaviours fulfil several functions: they may represent a way to express emotions, a means of adaptation or a style of coping with difficulties encountered in everyday life and emotional tension associated therewith. The aim of this study was to analyse predominating styles of coping with stressful situations, adopted by adolescen patients performing self-harm. The study population encompassed 35 patients, aged 16.60±0.18 years, there of 27 girls and 8 boys, hospitalised at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry of the Medical University in Łódź, who had a history of deliberate self-harm (DSH. Control group included 32 healthy volunteers aged 16.91±0.16 years, thereof 23 girls and 9 boys. In view of the size of study population, it was subdivided into subgroups depending on whether episodes of DSH were sporadic or repetitive. Data were collected using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS. This questionnaire was designed specifically to explore styles of coping with stress. Self-harming adolescents, both girls and boys, significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style. Patients with repetitive DSH (over 4 episodes significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style and/or avoidance-oriented style, particularly in the form of seeking social contacts – social diversion, as compared with those committing

  1. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604 of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress.

  2. Comparison of Positive Character Strengths in Employees with Healthy and Unhealthy Occupational Stress Coping Styles

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    simin dokht kalani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the protective and interpersonal strengths as positive personality traits in employees with healthy (G: good health pattern, S: sparing pattern and unhealthy (A: ambitious pattern, B: burnout pattern job stress coping styles. Therefore, 146 employees of an industrial organization in Mashhad were selected by stratified random sampling and asked to respond to research tools. The instruments were the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths from Peterson & Seligman and Work-related Behavior and Experience Patterns Questionnaire from Schaarschmidt & Fischer. The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that employees with healthy coping styles had higher means of protective and interpersonal strengths than unhealthy subjects. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics. Therefore, they are valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decreasing its negative effects.

  3. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole ( Solea senegalensis ) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.

  4. Level of occupational stress of court probation officers and style of coping with stress

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    Łukasz Wirkus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The relationship between a court probation officer and their ward is a specific one and is frequently connected with enormous individuals costs. This fact is connected with the character of the job, and with the conditions determining its character. Psychosocial threats may influence both mental and somatic health, directly or indirectly, by means of the influence exerted by stress. Participants and procedure The main study was conducted at the offices of the teams of the Court Probation Service. The teams of the Court Probation Service are part of the structure of the following 9, randomly selected, district courts (DCs: DC Wrocław, DC Bydgoszcz, DC Szczecin, DC Poznań, DC Łódź, DC Lublin, DC Kraków, DC Katowice and DC Białystok. Participation in the research was voluntary and anonymous; the tools were arranged in sets, and the sequence of those sets was random. The sets of research tools were received by 1,000 individuals altogether. Results The conducted research confirmed the need to verify the significance of the feeling of occupational stress of court probation officers at the workplace and the correlations between it and a number of variables. Below, I present statistical analyses concerning various aspects of occupational stress experienced in the studied group, including correlations between the general level of occupational stress and the dimensions of it, and organizational predictors. The objective of the research was to indicate the styles of coping with stress and the correlations of them with the stress felt by court probation officers. Conclusions The research confirms a significant influence exerted by organizational determinants upon the general level of felt occupational stress. Professional court probation officers experience a higher level of felt occupational stress; what is conducive to that is high encumbrance with occupational responsibilities, and also functioning directly in structures of the court of

  5. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  6. Predicting Job Stress Based on Elements of Coping Styles in Nurses

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    Mansoureh Nezari Sedeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using coping methods can help to dominate on physical, mental, and social relationships, individual contradiction problems, and can be considered as one of effective factors in general and mental health of nurses. The objective of the present research is predicting job stress based on elements of coping styles in nurses. By correlative methodology for this research, 120 female20-45 years old nurses in Tehran city were selected by simple random sampling method based on Cochran formula. The research instrument includes job stress questionnaire and coping style questionnaire of Lazzarus & Folkman; the Pearson correlation coefficient test, and linear regression were used to test hypotheses and generalize the obtained information from tests. Findings showed that participants’ scores were near normal range and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.58 which indicated scores internal consistency. The obtained results showed that coping elements in 0.05 significant level with f-value of 12.403 significantly predicted job stress. In addition, regression coefficient among support, responsibility, and managerial solution elements was negative and positive with two other relationships including job stress and escape-avoidance. Therefore, it can be concluded that elements of support, responsibility, escape-avoidance, and managerial solution significantly predict nurses’ job stress among coping elements.

  7. Predicting coping style in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    Decades of research have established the importance of coping with stressful events. Individuals generally use the same overall coping styles across situations, and correlational studies have demonstrated a relationship between single individual characteristics and coping. However, there is a lac...

  8. Testing direct and moderating effects of coping styles on the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the direct and moderating effects of different coping styles in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal anxiety symptoms among 755 pregnant women in Chengdu. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey was carried out. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale were used to measure stress, coping and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the direct and moderating effects of coping styles in the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms. Direct effects of negative coping (NC) styles were found. Women with higher NC scores were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. Positive coping (PC) styles had moderating effects on perceived stress, whereas NC styles did not. The findings of this study highlight the direct and moderating effects of coping styles. This knowledge is important to healthcare professionals in planning health service provision. Health services should dedicate resources to teaching pregnant women how to enhance PC styles, alter NC styles and cultivate optimistic thinking to alleviate anxiety symptoms.

  9. Undirected learning styles and academic risk: Analysis of the impact of stress, strain and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimatian, Stephen; Lloyd, Sara; Berger, Jeffrey; Steiner, Lorraine; McKay, Robert; Schwengal, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Learning style inventories used in conjunction with a measure of academic achievement consistently show an association of meaning directed learning patterns with academic success, but have failed to show a clear association of undirected learning styles with academic failure. Using survey methods with anesthesia residents, this study questioned whether additional assessment of factors related to stress, strain, and coping help to better define the association between undirected learning styles and academic risk. Pearson chi squared tests. 296 subjects were enrolled from eight institutions with 142 (48%) completing the study. American Board of Anesthesiologists In Training Examinations (ITE) percentiles (ITE%) were used as a measure of academic achievement. The Vermunt Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was used to identify four learning patterns and 20 strategies, and the Osipow Stress Inventory-Revised (OSI-R) was used as a measure of six scales of occupational stress, four of personal strain, and four coping resources. Two learning patterns had significant relationship with ITE scores. As seen in previous studies, Meaning Directed Learning was beneficial for academic achievement while Undirected Learning was the least beneficial. Higher scores on Meaning Directed Learning correlated positively with higher ITE scores while higher Undirected and lower Meaning Directed patterns related negatively to ITE%. OSI-R measures of stress, strain and coping indicated that residents with Undirected learning patterns had higher scores on three scales related to stress, and 4 related to strain, while displaying lower scores on two scales related to coping. Residents with higher Meaning Directed patterns scored lower on two scales of stress and two scales of strain, with higher scores on two scales for coping resources. Low Meaning Directed and high Undirected learning patterns correlated with lower ITE percentiles, higher scores for stress and strain, and lower coping resources

  10. [Influence of social support and coping style on chronic post-traumatic stress disorder after floods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, W J; Chen, L; Tan, H Z; Lai, Z W; Hu, S M; Li, Y; Liu, A Z

    2016-02-01

    To explore the long-term prognosis and influence of social support and coping style of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after suffering from floods. Patients suffered PTSD due to Dongting lake flood in 1998 were selected through cluster random sampling. PTSD scale civilian version (PCL-C) was used to examine and diagnose the participants in this study. PTSD was then evaluated by the social support rating scale (SSRS) and the simple coping style questionnaire (SCSQ). Among all the 120 subjects, 14(11.67%) of them were diagnosed as having PTSD. Compared with the rehabilitation group, scores on subjective support, objective support, total social support and positive coping, total of coping style from the non-rehabilitation group all appeared significant low (Pfloods while disaster experience (OR=1.626, 95%CI: 1.118-2.365) appeared as a risk factor. Chronic PTSD developed after the floods called for attention. Better social support, positive coping style could significantly improve the long-term prognosis of patients with PTSD after the floods.

  11. Comparison of Positive Character Strengths in Employees with Healthy and Unhealthy Occupational Stress Coping Styles

    OpenAIRE

    simin dokht kalani; Zahra Zahra; hamidreza oreyzi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the protective and interpersonal strengths as positive personality traits in employees with healthy (G: good health pattern, S: sparing pattern) and unhealthy (A: ambitious pattern, B: burnout pattern) job stress coping styles. Therefore, 146 employees of an industrial organization in Mashhad were selected by stratified random sampling and asked to respond to research tools. The instruments were the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths from Peterson & Se...

  12. RELATION BETWEEN STRESS COPING STYLE, LARVAL DEVELOPMENT AND TIME TO EMERGANCE IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    Åberg, Madelene, Uniza Kahn, John Fleng Steffensen, Øyvind Øverli, Hans Magnus Gjoen and Erik Höglund Abstract: Proactive and reactive stress coping styles is widespread amongst animal groups. Reactive individuals are generally shy and subordinate whereas proactive individuals show the opposite b...... of emergence. Establishing territories and energy reserves are important factors for inducing social dominance, raising the question about the effect of initial social experience in shaping Salmonide behavioral profiles...

  13. Different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being among pregnant Chinese women: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Tha, Pyai Htun; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Wang, Ying; Yobas, Piyanee Klainin

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined different perceptions of stress or explored the positive aspects of well-being among pregnant Chinese women, so there is a need to explore these phenomena in order to fill the research gap. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among the different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being using a structural equation modeling approach. We examined a hypothetical model among 755 pregnant Chinese women based on the integration of theoretical models. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Trait Coping Styles Questionnaire (TCSQ), and the General Well-Being Schedule (GWB) were used to measure perceived stress, coping styles, and general well-being, respectively. A structural equation model showed that positive and negative perceptions of stress significantly influenced positive and negative coping styles, respectively. Different perceptions of stress were significantly associated with general well-being, but different coping styles had no significant effects on general well-being. The model had a good fit to the data (IFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.904, CFI = 0.910, and RMSEA = 0.038). Different perception of stress was able to predict significant differences in coping styles and general well-being.

  14. Relationship of Challenge and Hindrance Stress with Coping Style and Job Satisfaction in Chinese State-Owned Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Zhao, Dong Mei

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to categorize stresses prevalent in Chinese state-owned enterprises and to investigate the relationships among stresses, coping styles and job satisfaction. Data ( n = 549) were collected from three state-owned enterprises in Cang Zhou, He Bei Province, Mainland China. The result of a factor analysis yielded the following three factors: enterprise stress, interpersonal stress, and challenge stress. In order to test the moderator effect of problem-focused coping and emotion-fo...

  15. Analysis of coping styles of elderly women patients with stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Yu

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Elderly female patients with SUI differ in the factors that influence their coping styles; therefore, clinical and community medical staff should include a comprehensive analysis that takes these factors into consideration when working with patients with SUI to guide them in adopting a positive coping style.

  16. Moderating effects of coping styles on anxiety and depressive symptoms caused by psychological stress in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Tse, L-A; Ye, X-Q; Lin, F-Y; Chen, Y-M; Chen, W-Q

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess possible interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Three hundred and four patients with Type 2 diabetes underwent a face-to-face interview by trained research staff according to a standardized questionnaire including information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychological stress, coping styles and anxiety and depressive symptoms. The interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed by hierarchical multiple regression analyses. There were significant associations of the four domains of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms, except for the relationship between 'reduced economic condition' and depressive symptoms. 'Negative coping style' significantly increased the level of both anxiety and depressive symptoms; whereas, 'active coping style' and 'avoidant coping style' decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The interactions of 'negative coping style' with 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' and 'reduced economic condition' significantly increased the risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and the interaction of 'social/family crisis caused by the disease' with 'avoidance coping style' and 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' with 'active coping style' significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The results of this study suggest that certain coping styles might moderate the association of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  17. Burnout and posttraumatic stress in paediatric critical care personnel: Prediction from resilience and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Rocío; Palacios, Alba; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Pérez, Elena; Álvarez, Elena; Coca, Ana; Mencía, Santiago; Marcos, Ana; Mayordomo-Colunga, Juan; Fernández, Francisco; Gómez, Fernando; Cruz, Jaime; Ordóñez, Olga; Llorente, Ana

    2018-03-28

    Our aims were (1) to explore the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BOS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of Spanish staff working in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and compare these rates with a sample of general paediatric staff and (2) to explore how resilience, coping strategies, and professional and demographic variables influence BOS and PTSD. This is a multicentre, cross-sectional study. Data were collected in the PICU and in other paediatric wards of nine hospitals. Participants consisted of 298 PICU staff members (57 physicians, 177 nurses, and 64 nursing assistants) and 189 professionals working in non-critical paediatric units (53 physicians, 104 nurses, and 32 nursing assistants). They completed the Brief Resilience Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire for healthcare providers, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Trauma Screening Questionnaire. Fifty-six percent of PICU working staff reported burnout in at least one dimension (36.20% scored over the cut-off for emotional exhaustion, 27.20% for depersonalisation, and 20.10% for low personal accomplishment), and 20.1% reported PTSD. There were no differences in burnout and PTSD scores between PICU and non-PICU staff members, either among physicians, nurses, or nursing assistants. Higher burnout and PTSD rates emerged after the death of a child and/or conflicts with patients/families or colleagues. Around 30% of the variance in BOS and PTSD is predicted by a frequent usage of the emotion-focused coping style and an infrequent usage of the problem-focused coping style. Interventions to prevent and treat distress among paediatric staff members are needed and should be focused on: (i) promoting active emotional processing of traumatic events and encouraging positive thinking; (ii) developing a sense of detached concern; (iii) improving the ability to solve interpersonal conflicts, and (iv) providing adequate training in end-of-life care. Copyright © 2018 Australian

  18. Parenting Stress and Coping Styles in Mothers and Fathers of Pre-School Children with Autism and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, A.; Pisula, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The study examined the profile of stress in mothers and fathers of preschool children with autism, Down syndrome and typically developing children. A further aim was to assess the association between parenting stress and coping style. Methods: A total of 162 parents were examined using Holroyd's 66-item short form of Questionnaire of…

  19. The Roles of Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Perceived Social Support on the Alcohol Consumption among American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The intention of this study was to better understand how certain aspects in a college student's life (i.e., perceived stress, styles of coping, and social support) or how combinations of these variables may contribute to higher levels of alcohol consumption. The present study examined the relationship between perceived stress, functional coping…

  20. Appraisal of and Coping with a Real-Life Stressful Situation: The Contribution of Attachment Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Florian, Victor

    1995-01-01

    Assessed ways attachment styles affect young adults' reactions to stressors associated with four-month combat training. Results show that, compared with secure trainees, ambivalent trainees reported more emotion-focused coping, appraised the training in more threatening terms, and considered themselves less capable of coping with the training.…

  1. Examining coping style and the relationship between stress and subjective well-being in Australia's 'sandwich generation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jade E; Crisp, Dimity A

    2017-09-01

    The sandwich generation represents adults, often in midlife, who care for both children and ageing parents/relatives. While the stress they experience has received some attention, little research has investigated the subjective well-being (SWB) of this population. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and SWB and the moderating effect of coping style. Ninety-three participants (80 women), aged 23-63 years, completed an online survey measuring perceived stress, coping strategies, life satisfaction and positive and negative affect. Stress was negatively associated with SWB. While emotion- and problem-focused coping were directly associated with SWB outcomes, the only moderating effect found was for avoidance-focused coping (AFC). Specifically, AFC was associated with higher positive affect for those reporting lower stress. This study highlights the need to recognise the distinct circumstances that exist for the sandwich generation. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  2. The Effect of Stress Management Training Program on Stress Coping Styles among the Adolescents in Prison in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Özlem; Ocakçı, Ayşe F

    2017-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of a stress management training program that was administered to adolescents in prison. This was a semi-experimental study that used pretests and posttests in controlled groups; it was performed between June 2012 and March 2013 in a closed prison for children and adolescents. The study was completed with the participation of 73 adolescents (36 in the experimental group and 37 in the control group). Adolescent Lifestyle Profile scale and the Stress Coping Styles Scale were used as the data collection tools. The Stress Management Training Program was developed by the researchers and carried out for 2 weeks, a total of 10 sessions of 40 min each. The scales were administered before the program was implemented, immediately after the program and 1 month following the program. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the mean Stress Coping Styles Scale scores of the experimental and control groups before the intervention (p > 0.05), a statistically significant difference was found after the intervention and at re-test (p management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Coupling between stress coping style and time of emergence from spawning nests in salmonid fishes: Evidence from selected rainbow trout strains (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Khan, Uniza Wahid; Øverli, Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Correlations between behavioral and physiological traits, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been demonstrated in numerous animal groups. Such trait variations often cluster in two contrasting styles, with animals characterized as either proactive or reactive. In natural populations....../shyness, dominance, and metabolic rate; resembling those of proactive and reactive stress coping styles. In farmed fish populations, however the relation between emergence and stress coping styles seems to be absent, an effect which has been related to lack of selection pressure during emergence. In the present...... study two rainbow trout strains genetically selected as LR (low-responsive) and HR (high-responsive) trout, characterized with proactive (LR) and reactive (HR) stress coping traits, was used to further investigate the relationship between the time of emergence and stress coping style in salmonid fishes...

  4. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Social Stress, and Coping Styles as Predictors of HIV/STD Risk Behaviors in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…

  5. The Relationship between the Styles of Coping with Stress and the Levels of Hopelessness of Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Fatma Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine the relationship between the styles of coping with stress and the levels of hopelessness of preschool teachers. Relational survey method was used in this research. The research sample consists of 108 preschool teachers working in preschool education institutions in Küçükçekmece district of Istanbul in…

  6. Relationship of Psychological Well-Being with Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Social Support amongst University Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji

    The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…

  7. Anxiety and styles of coping with occupational stress resulting from work with 'dangerous' prisoners in prison service officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Pęczkowski, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    Prisoners categorised as 'dangerous' are a category of prisoners that require and/or force into using special measures of caution, protection and security. The aim of the study was to examine the intensity of anxiety (as a state and as a trait) experienced by officers working with 'dangerous' prisoners and styles of coping with stress they adopt. A total of 40 officers working with 'dangerous' prisoners (the study group, SG) and 60 officers of the security department not working with 'dangerous' prisoners (the reference group, RG) were studied. The intensity of anxiety was assessed applying the Polish version of 'State-Trait Anxiety Inventory' (STAI); styles of coping with stress were explored employing the Polish version of 'Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations' (CISS) and the author's own questionnaire. Data were analysed using the mean, standard deviation, difference testing (the Mann-Whitney U test), correlation-regression procedure (Kendall's tau, τ correlation coefficient and forward stepwise multiple regression). Officers in the SG faced verbal and physical aggression; nevertheless, scores of officers in both the groups were within the interval of mean scores for all the studied STAI and CISS variables. Officers in the SG achieved significantly higher scores on the state-anxiety scale and the Emotion-Oriented Style (EOS), and lower scores on the Task-Oriented Style (TOS) and Social Diversion (SD). The correlation-regression procedure indicated that there were relationships between anxiety and styles of coping with stress but they differed slightly between the groups. Officers in the SG feel state anxiety stronger and display a stronger preference for the EOS than officers in the RG. Officers in the RG more strongly prefer the TOS and SD. State anxiety is a variable negatively explaining the TOS in the SG, whereas anxiety as a trait is a variable explaining the EOS in both the groups. The coping styles of warders dealing with dangerous prisoners are

  8. Emotional control, styles of coping with stress and acceptance of illness among patients suffering from chronic somatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Konrad; Kurpas, Donata; Kusz, Joanna; Mroczek, Bożena; Jedynak, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations of emotional control with sociodemographic and clinical variables in a sample of patients with a range of chronic somatic diseases. The relationships between emotional control, coping styles and adjustment to the disease were investigated. The sample consisted of 300 patients with the mean age of 54.60 ± 17.57 years. Courtauld Emotional Control Scale was used to measure the patients' tendency to suppress negative emotions, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was used to measure coping styles and Acceptance of Illness Scale was applied to determine adjustment to the disease. Patients with neurological conditions showed significantly lower suppression of anger. Levels of emotional control were found to be related to gender, age and educational level but not to the place of residence. Task-oriented style of coping with stress correlated positively with suppression of depression and anxiety, whereas acceptance of illness correlated negatively with suppression of anger. Levels of emotional control are only weakly related to the type of diagnosis; however, some clinical samples may show lower suppression of anger. Suppression of negative emotions is weakly related to adjustment indicators such as certain coping styles and acceptance of illness. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. On the Role of Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity in the Evolution of Animal Personalities and Stress Coping Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overli, Oyvind; Sorensen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    and neurogenesis have received recent attention. This work reveals that brain cell proliferation and neurogenesis are associated with heritable variation in stress coping style, and they are also differentially affected by short- and long-term stress in a biphasic manner. Routine-dependent and inflexible behavior...... are conserved throughout the vertebrate subphylum, including factors affecting perception, learning, and memory of stimuli and events. Here we review conserved aspects of the contribution of neurogenesis and other aspects of neural plasticity to stress coping. In teleost fish, brain cell proliferation...

  10. Consistent boldness behaviour in early emerging fry of domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Decoupling of behavioural and physiological traits of the proactive stress coping style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz-Serrano, J.; Ruiz-Gomez, M. L.; Gjøen, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    style seem to be coupled to the time to emerge of fry from spawning redds in natural populations of salmonid fishes. In the present study, behavioural and physiological traits of stress coping styles were compared two and five months after emergence in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using......Individual variation in the way animals cope with stressors has been documented in a number of animal groups. In general, two distinct sets of behavioural and physiological responses to stress have been described: the proactive and the reactive coping styles. Some characteristics of stress coping...... hunger, in the present study. This observation was repeated five months after emergence, demonstrating behavioural consistency over time in this trait. However, in other traits of proactive and reactive stress coping styles, such as social status, resting metabolism or post stress cortisol concentrations...

  11. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  12. Coping Styles: A Better Understanding of Stress and Anxiety in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Conditions Through Sport and Exercise Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an understanding of the coping mechanisms and coping styles adopted by individuals on the Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC by looking to draw parallels with sports performance psychology and how different sources of stress and anxiety can lead to the adoption of different coping styles. Firstly, an overview of current understanding of what constitute a stressor and how this can affect an individual is presented from sport and exercise psychology literature. Secondly, a model of coping styles is illustrated with the aim to shed light at how different perceptions of levels of stress and anxiety are managed both on an individual and group level. Thirdly, within the context of this understanding, some examples about how to support individuals on the ASC will be illustrated. Finally, implications for future research and reflection will be presented by highlighting the importance of teaching and learning coping and tolerance skills as part of a comprehensive and holistic psycho-educational program.

  13. Predicting coping styles in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research have established the importance of coping when dealing with a stressful or traumatic event. Individuals tend to use the same overall coping styles across situations, and correlational studies have demonstrated a relationship between individual characteristics and coping. However...... was killed. Combined, the variables accounted for 19% of the variance in problem-focused coping, 21% of the variance in avoidant coping, and 49% of the variance in emotion-focused coping. The fact that the independent variables could account for a substantially larger amount of the variance in emotion...... exclusively on correlational research. The results suggest that personality traits and attachment can account for some of the variance in coping styles, but that a large amount of the variance remains to be accounted for. A combination of individual and situation-specific characteristics is likely...

  14. Children with food refusal: an assessment of parental eating attitudes and their styles of coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seda; Yilmaz, Ayse Esra; Karabel, Musemma; Kara, Semra; Aldemir, Seçil; Karabel, Duran

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the eating attitudes and stress coping styles of parents whose children presented to the clinic complaining of food refusal. The parents of 31 children aged ≥3 years, presented to the clinic with the complaint of food refusal. The control group consisted of 30 healthy children with no prior history of food refusal, and their parents. In both groups, birth features, body mass indexes (BMIs), eating attitudes and stress coping styles of the parents were assessed. The parents of both groups were studied, in part utilizing the eating attitudes test (EAT), and the coping styles of stress scale (CSSS). Our study found that body weights and BMI values of the fathers in the study group were significantly lower than fathers in the control group. There was no significant difference in EAT scores between the two groups; however, where the children's body weight and height for age percentile was under 25%, the parents had significantly lower EAT scores. When CSSS scores were assessed, the optimistic approach score of the mother and the self-confident score of the father were found to be significantly high in both groups. The parental perception and definition of eating problems does not necessarily indicate the presence of an eating disorder in a child. In fact, the eating attitudes of the fathers were related to the low percentile weight and height values of the children, and a child's food refusal was not dependent on the stress coping style used by the parent. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The relationship between general health and coping style with the perceived stress in primigravida healthy pregnant women: using the PATH model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsaei, Farshid; Maleki, Azam; Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Soltani, Farzaneh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2018-02-05

    The aim of this study was to analyze relationships among general health, coping style, and perceived stress in healthy primigravida pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at public health clinics in Hamadan city, Iran between July and December 2015. In total, 380 pregnant women were selected through stratified random sampling. Data were collected using the Revised Prenatal Coping Inventory and General Health Questionnaire. Perceived stress was assessed through an interview comprised of open-ended questions. The final PATH model fit well; general health (β = 0.02) as well as anxiety and sleep disorders (β = 0.03) were slightly directly associated with perceived stress, and only planning-preparation was related to perceived stress through general health (β = 0.09). The findings enhance the knowledge gained from previous perinatal stress research. General health status was directly related to stress, and coping style was indirectly related to stress. Coping styles may mediate the relationship between general health status and perceived stress, suggesting that midwives should attempt to improve the general health of women to reduce stress and its consequences during pregnancy by teaching patients appropriate coping styles. Further studies on the effect of coping style interventions on stress are warranted.

  16. A Comparison of American and Chinese Students' Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Health Promotion Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.; Yin, Xiaoqin; Chen, William

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey utilized the Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE, and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II to ascertain similarities and differences between American (n=319) and Chinese (n=335) college students and between higher and lower stressed students in both samples. The results suggested the existence of a country difference in…

  17. Self-esteem and styles of coping with stress versus strategies of planning in people with psychopathic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Kaźmierczak, Maria; Błażek, Magdalena

    2012-02-01

    Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 describes types of behaviour indicating impulsiveness, lack of stability and antisocial lifestyle. The aim of the research was to verify a hypothesis that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. The group of participants included 30 people at the age of 22-36 convicted with a legally binding sentence. Methods were: 1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R); 2. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ); 3. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); 4. Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). The participants were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R), and more specifically - as primary psychopaths (APQ). They revealed a grandiose sense of self-worth, increased self-control, impulsive style of functioning, perceived high self-efficacy (which might be considered as a defence mechanism). Psychopaths prefer a coping style focused on emotions and avoidance. The hypothesis was confirmed, that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress.

  18. The Big Five personality and temperamental traits and its correlation with styles of coping with stress in the fire brigade officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szrajda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Selecting specific professional activities (e.g. a brigade officer and methods for coping with difficult situations may result from personal predispositions of a given person. Personality is founded on the innate temperament. The way of dealing with stress depends on personality traits whose influence is manifested, amongst other things, in the selection of specific coping styles. The current study aim to examine the level of correlation between personality and temperamental traits with manifested coping styles. The study covered 58 volunteers – male fire brigade officers. The following tools were used: Personality Inventory, NEO-FFI, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour: Temperament Inventory – Revised Version, FCZ-KT (R and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, CISS. Emotion-focused coping style for stressful situations correlates with the following traits: positively, with perseveration (r=0.5115 and with emotional reactivity (r=0.4927, and negatively, with briskness (r=-0.3926 and endurance (r=-0.5408. The task-oriented coping style for stressful situations correlates positively with extraversion (r=0.3236 and conscientiousness (r=0.3088, and negatively with neuroticism (r=-0.3368 in the NEO-FFI. The emotion-focused coping style for stressful situations is positively correlated with neuroticism (NEO-FFI (r=0.4150. In fire brigade officers, As far as personality traits were concerned, fire brigade officers scored relatively high in extraversion, conscientiousness and low in neuroticism and were likely to demonstrate the task-oriented coping style for stressful situations. Lower level of perseveration and high level of briskness and endurance were associated with emotion-focused coping style for stressful situations. Similarly, the tendency to focus on emotions experienced in stressful situations were associated with high level of neuroticism in the study group.

  19. Adolescent Coping Style and Behaviors: Conceptualization and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews individual coping theory and family stress theory to provide a theoretical foundation for assessing adolescent coping. Presents development and testing of an adolescent self-report coping inventory, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences. Gender differences in coping styles are discussed. (Author/NB)

  20. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha; Schmeltzer, Michael; Scott, Karen; Scheurink, Antonius; Tamashiro, Kelli; Sakai, Randall

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual

  1. Stress and Coping Styles Are Associated with Severe Fatigue in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Mizuno, Kei; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among medical students and researchers consider it to be related to poor academic outcomes. The authors' goal in the present study was to determine whether stress and coping strategies were associated with fatigue in medical students. The study group consisted of 73 second-year healthy students attending the Osaka…

  2. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...

  3. Dealing with man-made trauma: the relationship between coping style, posttraumatic stress, and quality of life in resettled, traumatized refugees in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, I.; Kleijn, W.C.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Noordhof, A.; Smith, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between coping style, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and quality of life in traumatized refugees (N = 335). Participants had resettled in the Netherlands on average 13 years prior and were referred to a Dutch clinic for the treatment of

  4. Behavioural responses to hypoxia provide a non-invasive method for distinguishing between stress coping styles in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Olsén, Hanna L.; Ruiz-Gomez, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    . These individual differences may result in suboptimal production and compromised welfare in aquaculture. An approach to overcome these problems could be to sort fish and optimise rearing conditions according to coping style. It has been previously demonstrated that the proactive and reactive coping styles in fish......, these fish provided an opportunity for verifying a method for sorting fish with respect to coping style by exposure to hypoxia. Groups consisting of 24 individually tagged fish, 12 HR and 12 LR were exposed to hypoxia in a two choice system. The system consisted of a “home” tank provided with cover connected...... to a second brightly “illuminated” tank via a closable doorway. During the experiment, the doorway between the two tanks was opened and hypoxic conditions were gradually induced in the “home” tank by bubbling with nitrogen. The latency time to move away from hypoxic conditions to normoxic conditions...

  5. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  6. Stress, depression and immunity: the role of defense and coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, M.

    1999-01-01

    It is by now widely recognized that acute and chronic stress have an impact on the immune system. Acute stress may have a stimulating effect on the immune system, while in the case of chronic stress--and in particular in depression--the immune system may be down-regulated. However, there is

  7. Stress, depression and immunity : the role of defense and coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, M

    1999-01-01

    It is by now widely recognized that acute and chronic stress have an impact on the immune system. Acute stress may have a stimulating effect on the immune system, while in the case of chronic stress - and in particular in depression - the immune system may be down-regulated. However, there is

  8. Locus of control and styles of coping with stress in students educated at Polish music and visual art schools – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogaj Anna Antonina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on identifying differences in the locus of control and styles of coping with stress among young students who are artistically gifted within the fields of music and visual arts. The research group includes Polish students (n = 354 of both music and visual art schools who develop their artistic talents in schools placing particular emphasis on professional training of their artistic abilities and competences within the field of music or visual arts respectively. We make an assumption that different types of difficult situations experienced by youth educated at music and visual art schools may generate differences in dominating personal traits as well as in their sphere of emotions. The results of crosssectional research in 2013 confirm the assumption regarding differences among music and visual art school students both with regard to the source of the locus of control, understood as the personality variable, and dominating styles of coping with stress. Moreover, a positive correlation between the tendency towards internal locus of control and a task-oriented style of coping with stress in difficult situations has been observed in music school students.

  9. Coping Styles and Psychological Distress among Hong Kong University Students: Validation of the Collectivist Coping Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Angela F. Y.; Chang, Jian Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Collectivist Coping Style inventory (Heppner "et al." "Journal of Counseling Psychology" 53:107-125, 2006) and investigated how the effects of stress-related events on psychological distress are mediated through coping strategies. Three hundred and five Hong Kong university…

  10. Role of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles, and neuroticism in online game addiction among college students: a moderated mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huanhuan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Online game addiction (OGA is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs, and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young’s eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS, Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC, Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire (CCSQ, and Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8% were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed.

  11. Role of Stressful Life Events, Avoidant Coping Styles, and Neuroticism in Online Game Addiction among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young's eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed.

  12. Role of Stressful Life Events, Avoidant Coping Styles, and Neuroticism in Online Game Addiction among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young’s eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27920734

  13. [Mediator effect analysis of the trait coping style on job stress and fatigue of the military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Jia, J M; Tao, N; Song, Z X; Ge, H; Jiang, Y; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Tang, J H; Liu, J W

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the fatigue status of military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region, and to analyze the mediator effect of trait coping style on job stress and fatigue. Methods: In October 2010, with the method of cluster random sampling survey, 531 military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region were chosen as subject. The fatigue status were evaluated by the Chinese version multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) , job stress were evaluated by the Job Stress Survey (JSS) , and trait coping style were evaluated by the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) . Results: According to the information of different population characteristics, mean rank of physical fatigue about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group ( Z =-2.200, P fatigue scores about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group ( Z =-3.026, P fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-4.045, P fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-2.879, P fatigue scores about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-3.647, P fatigue scores were significant statistical difference among the military officers, sergeancy and soldier group ( F =14.711, P fatigue ( r (s)=0.129) , reduced activity ( r (s)=0.123) , reduced motivation ( r (s)=0.149) and general fatigue ( r (s)=0.174) respectively, the score of organizational support lack strength were positively correlated with the score of physical fatigue ( r (s)=0.090) , reduced activity ( r (s)=0.098) , reduced motivation ( r (s)=0.099) and general fatigue ( r (s)=0.130) respectively. The mediator effect of negative coping style on the job stress and fatigue was 0.013 ( P fatigue statuses of the urban (town) group and the up or equal 20-years old age group are poor, and the negative coping style

  14. Emotional state and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Toshiko; Murata, Hinako; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sakata, Yu; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Aso, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in emotional state and the relationship between emotional state and demographic/clinical factors and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery. Using the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), 90 patients (benign disease: 32, malignancy: 58) were examined on three occasions: before surgery, before discharge, and 3 months after discharge. They were also examined using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) on one occasion before discharge. The scores for the subscales depression, anger, and confusion were the highest after discharge while those for anxiety were the highest before surgery. The average scores of the POMS subscales for all subjects were within the normal range. With regard to the relationship between these emotional states and other factors, multiple regressions showed that the principal determinants of anxiety before surgery were religious belief, psychological symptoms during hospitalization and emotion-oriented (E) coping style; further, it was found that depression after discharge could be explained by chemotherapy, duration of hospitalization, and E coping style. The principal determinants of anger after discharge and vigor before surgery were length of education and E coping style, and severity of disease, chemotherapy, E coping style and task-oriented coping style, respectively. Those of post-discharge fatigue and confusion were length of education, psychological symptoms, and E coping style. In summary it is suggested that the following should be taken into account in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery: anxiety before surgery, depression, anger, and confusion after surgery, including coping styles.

  15. Mindfulness, Stress, and Coping among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Angele; Rodger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…

  16. The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in the first year of medical education at a Nigerian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussuf, A D; Issa, B A; Ajiboye, P O; Buhari, O I

    2013-05-01

    This study was prompted by the heightened concerns about the stress inherent in medical education evident from the incessant requests for suspension of studies due to psychological problems. The objectives of the study were to: (i) survey the students for possible psychological problems at admission, and follow them up till exit for possible changes in morbidity, and (ii) ascertain possible risk factors, and coping strategies. This is a preliminary 2-stage cross-sectional report, which is part of a longitudinal survey. It involves first year medical students of the College of Health Sciences of University of Ilorin between March and April, 2011. Questionnaires used included socio demographic, sources of stress, the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Maslach's burnout inventory (MBI), and Brief COPE. Data were analysed using SPSS version 15 at 5% significance level. Chi-square, frequency distributions, Pearson's correlation, Odd ratios, and Confidence Intervals were calculated to determine the levels of risk. 79 students returned completed questionnaires. 12 (15.2%) were ghq-12 cases (i.e., scored ≥ 3). Students who had morbidity were 9 times at risk of being stressed consequent upon 'competing with their peers' and 4 times at risk due to 'inadequate learning materials'. Morbidity was significantly more likely to engender use of 'religion', 4 times less likely to engender use of 'positive reframing' with a trend in the use of 'self blame' as coping strategies. Aside from psychosocial/personal issues in this cohort, academic demand was an additional source of psychological problems thereby causing those who had morbidity to utilize 'religion' and 'positive reframing' to cope. There is therefore an apparent need to incorporate the principle of mental health promotion in medical education.

  17. Divergent stress responses and coping styles in psychogenetically selected Roman high-(RHA) and low-(RLA) avoidance rats: behavioural, neuroendocrine and developmental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimer, Thierry; Driscoll, Peter

    2003-06-01

    The Swiss sublines of Roman high-(RHA/Verh) and low-(RLA/Verh) avoidance rats have been genetically selected for good vs. poor performance in two-way active avoidance since 1972. RLA/Verh rats show increased stress responses (e.g. freezing behaviour, ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin secretion) and adopt a more passive (or reactive) coping style when confronted with a novel environment. In the open field, elevated plus-maze, black/white box test, and in a new light/dark open field test, RLA/Verh rats appear to be more anxious than their RHA/Verh counterparts. Anxiety may result from their particular psychophysiological profile, i.e. increased emotionality combined with a passive coping style. In contrast, RHA/Verh rats are less responsive to stress, they show little anxiety in novel situations and tend to be impulsive and novelty (sensation) seekers. Some behavioural differences are already noticeable shortly after birth, but the full pattern appears to stabilize only after puberty. Gene-environment interactions are critical in establishing this pattern. The data reviewed indicate that the differences between RHA/Verh and RLA/Verh rats probably result from a complex interaction among divergent anxiety/emotionality characteristics, differences in locomotor activity and novelty/reward seeking, as well as active vs. passive coping styles. It is proposed further that these divergent personality types are to be found not only in other selective breeding programs but in the form of individual differences in most populations of rats used for this type of research.

  18. COPING WITH AND MANAGING STRESS STYLES OF FRESHMEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS AT THE PE FACULTY IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Pirsl

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is frequently viewed as an enemy. This is a misconception. Stress is often neither positive nor negative. Selye referred to stress judged as "good" as eustress. Distress, on the other hand, is stress that results in negative responses. Unchecked negative stress can interfere with the physiological and psychological functioning of the body and may ultimately result in disease or disability. A stressor is any physical, psychological or environmental event, or condition that initiates the stress. The body responds with the same threestage process. This series of changes is known as the general adaptation syndrome (GAS. The three phases are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. It is interesting to note that PE students form their own stress copying styles in the mental, emotional and physical areas. Results are enhanced activities, sense of control and high energy level. Both male and female students show similar patterns of behaviour in stressful situations but female students show more interest in sporting activities when in stress-related situation

  19. Stress, Coping and Suicide Ideation in Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Haiping; Xia, Yan; Liu, Xiaohong; Jung, Eunju

    2012-01-01

    The study was to examine 1) whether stress and coping styles could significantly predict the probability of suicide ideation; 2) and whether coping styles were mediators or moderators on the association between life stress and suicide ideation. The survey was conducted in a sample of 671 Chinese college students. Approximately twenty percent…

  20. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.

  1. Coping style development: The role of learning goal orientation and metacognitive awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van

    2016-01-01

    Professionals in high-risk organizations, such as the military, need to develop effective coping styles in order to deal with dangerous and stressful situations. Although most of these organizations already offer programs and interventions aimed at improving employees' coping styles, there is still

  2. Emotional intelligence and coping styles: An intervention in geriatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia-Cobo, Carmen María; Suárez, Soraya González; Menéndez Crispín, Ernesto J; Sarabia Cobo, A Belén; Pérez, Victoria; de Lorena, Pablo; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Cristina; Sanlúcar Gross, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Current research indicates a relationship between EI, stress, coping strategies, well-being and mental health. Emotional intelligence skills and knowledge, and coping strategies can be increased with training. The aims of this study were to use a controlled design to test the impact of theoretically based training on the different components of EI and coping styles in a sample of nurses working with older adults. A group of 92 professionals (RN and CAN) who attended a workshop on EI were included in the study. They completed a self-reported measure of EI and coping styles on three occasions: pre- and post-workshop and at one year follow-up. The EI workshop consisted of four 4-h sessions conducted over a four-week period. Each session was held at the one-week interval. This interval allowed participants to apply what was taught during the session to their daily life. The instruments to measure the EI and coping were the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the CAE test. There were significant differences between the pre- and post-workshop measures both at the end of the workshop and up to one year for both the Trait Meta-Mood Scale scores and the CAE test. There was a significant increase in the EI and coping styles after the workshop and one year thereafter. The workshop was useful for developing EI in the professionals. The immediate impact of the emotional consciousness of individuals was particularly significant for all participants. The long-term impact was notable for the significant increase in EI and most coping styles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A pilot study on peritraumatic dissociation and coping styles as risk factors for posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression in parents after their child's unexpected admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, Madelon B.; Kayser, Anne-Marie; Knoester, Hendrika; Bos, Albert P.; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Aim: To study the prevalence of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression in parents three months after pediatric intensive care treatment of their child and examine if peritraumatic dissocation and coping styles are related to these mental health problems. METHODS: This is a

  4. Latin-American and Chinese students coping with acculturation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M Lykova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the research of coping styles of Latin-American and Chinese students from Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in conditions of acculturation stress, in comparison with coping styles of Chinese students who study in their homeland.

  5. Coping with Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques

    is to provide insights into the ecological role of soil microbes living in a community and its capabilities to cope with short- and long-term stresses. In the introduction, the problem of using RNA based approaches in soil ecology is presented in parallel with the importance of soil microbes for the ecosystem...... research directions is presented. This PhD-thesis resulted in four draft-manuscripts where RNA sequencing techniques were used to answer different research questions related to the response of soil microorganisms to different types of stress: MANUSCRIPT 1 explores the effect of soil sieving...... towards microwaving-heat were detected and corresponded to traits conserved at high taxonomical level. Moreover, using the detected tolerance ranges, it was possible to point nitrification as “at risk” in systems exposed to rapid heat stress, even though some functional redundancy may have occurred...

  6. Burnout in emergency department healthcare professionals is associated with coping style: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, M; Doody, K; Murray, J; LeBlanc-Duchin, D; Fraser, J; Atkinson, P R

    2015-09-01

    Ineffective coping may lead to impaired job performance and burnout, with adverse consequences to staff well-being and patient outcomes. We examined the relationship between coping styles and burnout in emergency physicians, nurses and support staff at seven small, medium and large emergency departments (ED) in a Canadian health region (population 500,000). Linear regression with the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to evaluate the effect of coping style on levels of burnout in a cross-sectional survey of 616 ED staff members. CISS measures coping style in three categories: task-oriented, emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping; MBI, in use for 30 years, assesses the level of burnout in healthcare workers. Task-oriented coping was associated with decreased risk of burnout, while emotion-oriented coping was associated with increased risk of burnout. Specific coping styles are associated with varied risk of burnout in ED staff across several different types of hospitals in a regional network. Coping style intervention may reduce burnout, while leading to improvement in staff well-being and patient outcomes. Further studies should focus on building and sustaining task-oriented coping, along with alternatives to emotion-oriented coping. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    OpenAIRE

    A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  8. Stress among UK academics : identifying who copes best?

    OpenAIRE

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined the levels of stress and coping strategies among UK academics. Adopting a positive psychology approach, the influence of the character strengths of hope, optimism, gratitude and self-efficacy, on stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and mental health (GHQ) was examined in 216 academics in a UK university. The study explored the relationship between coping styles and work-coping variables of sense of coherence and work locus of control and stress. No significant differences...

  9. Psychological status and coping styles of caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Anuja S; Ramesh, Sonali

    2018-06-27

    The psychological status of caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability and psychiatric illness (PI) is important for effective management. The aim of this study was to examine the psychological status and its relationship with coping styles among these caregivers. Caregivers (N = 80) of individuals with intellectual disability (n = 40) and PI (n = 40) were administered a socio-demographic questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale and COPE Inventory. Caregivers experienced depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. These symptoms were found to be significantly higher among caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability than those with PI. The most common coping style used was religious coping. Use of positive reinterpretation and growth was associated with lower levels of depression and stress symptoms. Caregivers' mental health plays an important role in the quality of care delivery and outcome. Use of appropriate coping styles can reduce the impact of these symptoms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Stress and Coping with Stress in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the many developmental changes in adolescence, young people are exposed to greater likelihood of experiencing stress. On the other hand, this period is critical for developing effective and constructive coping strategies. In the contribution, we summarize part of what is known about stress, stress responses and coping. Throughout, we focus on common stressful events among adolescents and emphasize the importance of dealing successfully with stressors in their daily lives. Finally, we highlight the most frequently used instruments to measure coping behaviour in youth and present an overview of the research findings on differences in coping among adolescents according to age and gender.

  11. Correlations between coping styles and symptom expectation for whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S

    2010-11-01

    In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level, and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that Canadians have a high expectation for chronic pain following whiplash injury. Expectation of recovery has been shown to predict recovery in whiplash victims. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for whiplash injury in injury-naive subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced whiplash injury were given a vignette concerning a neck sprain (whiplash injury) in a motor vehicle collision and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviors indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectation questionnaires regarding whiplash injury. Subjects (57%) held an expectation of chronic pain after whiplash injury. The mean active coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.62, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.48. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of whiplash injury in whiplash victims. Further studies of coping style as an etiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.

  12. Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM

    Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts

  13. The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style upon Adolescent Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…

  14. Stress, Coping, and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, Sybil A.

    1990-01-01

    Adult educators can help students cope with stress by (1) designing programs that are responsive to stress factors; (2) including information on stress effects in orientation sessions; (3) developing individualized programs of study; (4) integrating education into students' work and other life roles; (5) providing personal attention, advising, and…

  15. Relationship of sleep quality with coping and life styles in female Moroccan immigrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Tuin, Inka

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in Western societies show poorer sleep quality in women compared with men. Socioeconomic and stress-related psychological variables have been shown to influence sleep, but not much is known about sociological and psychological influences on the sleep of women in general and non-Western women in particular. The present study reports on sociodemographic and coping variables in relation to sleep quality in female Moroccan immigrants living in Germany. Participants took part in a structured personal interview on Pittsburg Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) sleep quality, coping style preferences, and information related to the degree of identification with Western life style. Sleep quality was poor (PSQI > 6) in 39% of women. Surprisingly, women who had identified with a more Western lifestyle had poorer sleep quality than women who had retained their traditional Moroccan life style. An unusually large proportion of women preferred monitoring (i.e., information-seeking coping style) and adaptive coping (48% and 19%, respectively), regardless of sleep quality. Monitoring was more frequent in women who were less integrated into German culture. Results on sleep quality suggest that for Moroccan immigrant women in Germany, adopting a Western life style may be more stressful than retaining their native life style. The high preference for an information seeking approach in coping may reflect the desire for information rather than actual coping behavior.

  16. Quality of Life, Coping Styles, Stress Levels, and Time Use in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Comparing Single versus Coupled Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Tomomi; Cordier, Reinie; Vaz, Sharmila; Thomas, Yvonne; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of differences in household status on the parental stress, coping, time use and quality of life (QoL) among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Forty-three single and 164 coupled mothers completed the survey. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. We found that single…

  17. Correlates of Coping Styles in an Adolescent Trauma Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    the combined effect of personality traits, attachment, locus of control, and social support on rational (problem-focused), avoidant, and emotion-focused coping in 320 trauma-exposed adolescents. The combined variables only explained 20-23 % of the vari- ance in avoidant and rational coping, and 49...... % of the variance in emotion-focused coping. The largest contributing variable for emotion-focused coping was neuroticism, possibly due to a confounding of emotion-focused coping with distress. Thus, other variables are needed to fully account for coping style choice....

  18. Coping style and ecstasy use motives as predictors of current mood symptoms in ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rebecca M; Hides, Leanne; Allen, J Sabura; Lubman, Dan I

    2013-10-01

    Elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms during childhood and adolescence have been associated with greater risk of later ecstasy use. Ecstasy users have reported using ecstasy to reduce depression or worry, or to escape. While these findings suggest that some people use ecstasy as a form of self-medication, limited research has been conducted examining the relationship between affective symptoms, coping styles and drug use motives in ecstasy users. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine if coping style and/or ecstasy use motives are associated with current mood symptoms in ecstasy users. A community sample (n=184) of 18-35 year olds who had taken ecstasy at least once in the past 12 months completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, ecstasy use motives and coping styles. Timeline follow back methods were used to collect information on lifetime ecstasy, recent drug use and life stress. Trauma exposure was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Trauma List. Coping motives for ecstasy use and an emotion-focused coping style were significantly associated with current depressive and anxiety symptoms. Emotion-focused coping mediated the relationship between a history of trauma and current anxiety symptoms and moderated the relationship between recent stressful life events and current depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of interventions targeting motives for ecstasy use, and providing coping skills training for managing stressful life events among people with co-occurring depressive/anxiety symptoms and ecstasy use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coping with Stress in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Signs and sources of stress among approximately 220 special educators were identified, the most prevalent being feelings of exhaustion, frustration, disturbed sleep, and withdrawal. Coping resources included personal, interpersonal, organizational, and community approaches. Conclusions stressed the need for more administrative support, counseling,…

  20. Coping Styles and Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Building on research that links gender to differences in well-being and differences in stress exposure and vulnerability, the current study examines how coping styles are gendered in ways that may contribute to sex differences in depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior. The study disaggregates stress measures to reflect gender differences in…

  1. Behavioral plasticity in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) with divergent coping styles: When doves become hawks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Gomez, M.de Lourdes; Kittilsen, S.; Höglund, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and heritable individual differences in reaction to challenges, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been extensively documented invertebrates. In fish, selection for divergent post-stress plasma Cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded a low (LR) a...

  2. Resilience As A Mediator Between Affect, Coping Styles, Support and Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Kelle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As humans, we are always targets of many positive and negative life events in which we would show differences in dealing with those events. In this study, the aim was to investigate how individuals react to stressful situations through the concept of resilience. Therefore it was aimed to test the role of individual characteristics of affect and coping styles in addition to receiving support from family and social environment on resilience. The role of resilience in life satisfaction was also investigated. A survey was used including demographic questions, ego resilience scale, positive and negative affect scale, stress coping styles inventory, and satisfaction with life scale. Target of the study was individuals who were over 18 years of age and 403 participants were reached through snowball sampling. Seventy six percent of the participants were female (n=310 and 24% of them were male (n=93. Hypothesized model was tested by using path analysis. Study results showed that positive affect, optimistic coping style and confident coping style were significant predictors of resilience as individual characteristics in addition to receiving social support. Resilience was found as a significant predictor of life satisfaction. Moreover, resilience was also found as a significant mediator of the relationships between positive affect, optimistic coping, confident coping styles, receiving social support and life satisfaction. Importance of the study in the field of psychology and suggestions for future research were also discussed with relevant literature.

  3. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between repressive coping style and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 112 cancer patients recently diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. ASD was assessed by the Stanford Acute Stress...... Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients...... classified as "non-repressors". However, further investigations revealed that the lower incidence of ASD in repressors apparently was caused by a low score on anxiety and not by an interaction effect between anxiety and defensiveness. Future studies have to investigate whether different psychological...

  4. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rezaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a report of a study of The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Iran. Hemodialysis patients face with multiple physical and psychological stressful factors; they use coping styles in order to cope with the challenges. A descriptive-correlation study was conducted based on the data collected from patients undergoing hemodialysis by census method in the city of Kerman using the Endler and Parker coping style, Self-esteem and demographic information questionnaires. The mean age of patients was 56.21 ± 1.45 years and 58.5% were male. The statistically positive relationship between self-esteem and problem-oriented coping style (p=0.05 and inverse relationship between self-esteem and emotion-oriented style (p<0.001. The patients with higher and lower self-esteem used problem-oriented and emotion-oriented styles, respectively. According to the results, it is necessary for nurses to enhance their role in promoting self-esteem and help patients undergoing hemodialysis while using problem-oriented style.

  5. Differential relationship of coping styles with well-being and ill-being of professional firemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsec Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we were interested in how coping styles relate to different indicators of well- and ill-being. We assumed that coping styles are differently related to well- and ill-being indicators because they are theoretically and empirically independent from each other. To examine this assumption we asked 139 professional firemen to fill in measures of coping styles (COPE, EAS, well-being (PANAS, SWLS and ill-being (IES-R, PANAS. The results confirmed the overall importance of non-constructive coping for illbeing and well-being, whereas constructive coping predicted only positive emotionality. The prototypical masculine working environment characteristic for our sample could be the cause that socially/emotionally oriented coping is the weakest predictor of well-being, although other studies report the adaptive role of conscientious dealing with individual’s own emotions as a coping style. Both well- and ill-being measures should be used to get an insight into a complex area of individual’s adaptation to stress.

  6. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  7. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088

  8. Coping Styles as Mediators of Teachers' Classroom Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Romi, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the relationships between coping styles of Australian teachers and the classroom based classroom management techniques they use to cope with student misbehaviour. There is great interest internationally in improving educational systems by upgrading the quality of teachers' classroom management. However, the relationship between…

  9. Coping With Stress of Teacher Trainees With Different Levels of Computer Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether levels and styles of coping with the stress of teacher trainees having low and high levels of computer anxiety across a number of variables. This research was carried out with 800 teacher trainees. Data were collected using the Computer Anxiety Scale, Coping With Stress Scale, and an Information Form. The results of the study indicate that the computer anxiety levels of teacher trainees differentiate levels and styles of coping with stress. It was f...

  10. Patterns of depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Place and Duration of study: Study was carried out at University of the Punjab, Lahore from 17 February to 31st August 2010. Methods: A purposive sample of 600 students (boys=300; girls=300) was divided into two age groups; early adolescents (13-15 years) and late adolescents (16-18 years). Participants were administered beck anxiety inventory, beck depression inventory-II and coping strategies questionnaire. Data was analyzed on SPSS14 version using independent sample t test. Results: The overall results of the study indicated that early adolescents exhibit more depression and anxiety symptoms as compared to the late adolescents. Moreover, early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways as active practical coping styles were more utilized by late adolescents. On the other hand, religious focused and avoidance focused coping styles were mostly used by the early adolescents. Besides, there was no significant group difference on active distractive coping styles. Conclusion: The current study revealed that significant changes during adolescence may affect adaptive processes and have implications for intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of stress during this period. The findings also suggest early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways that become more diverse and adaptive with development through the adolescent years. (author)

  11. Changes in Stress Perception and Coping during Adolescence: The Role of Situational and Personal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the interplay between developmental changes in stress and coping during early and late adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, stress perception and coping styles of 200 adolescents in 7 different stressful situations were investigated. Multilevel piecewise latent growth curve models showed that stress perception…

  12. Chinese teachers' use of humour in coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joseph; Chan, Raymond M C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mentality of Chinese teachers regarding their use of humour in coping with stress. Specifically, the study investigated their frequency of use of humour in coping with stress as compared to other coping styles and their perceptions about the relationship of humour with other coping styles. Data were collected from a sample of 789 Chinese teachers holding teaching posts at local Hong Kong secondary schools. Based on responses made to the COPE questionnaire, there was evidence that Chinese teachers had a lower frequency of use of humour as compared to other coping styles. As suggested by the results of a factor analysis, there was a perception among Chinese teachers that the use of humour was related more closely to escaping and/or avoidance as coping strategies, but more differentiable from problem-focused/task-oriented and emotional/social coping. It is interesting to find that the results of our study echoed those of a previous crosscultural comparison between Chinese and Canadian university students, in which the Chinese university students reported less use of humour in coping with stress than did their Canadian counterparts. These results have provided some empirical support for the notion that "humor has been traditionally given little respect in Chinese culture mainly due to the Confucian emphasis on keeping proper manners in social interactions" (Yue, 2010, p. 403). As teachers in Chinese societies are regarded as persons who are full of wisdom and capable of problem-solving, it is expected that they should act as role models to their students. These social expectations on Chinese teachers could further mould their perceptions on the use of humour in coping with stress.

  13. Southeast Asian Parents Raising a Child with Autism: A Qualitative Investigation of Coping Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, June; Yoder, Marian K.; Canham, Daryl

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability increasing in incidence over the past decade. Parents of children with autism experience prolonged levels of stress and isolation. Using qualitative research design, nine parents of children with autism participated in this study that focused on the effect of autism on the family, coping styles, and support…

  14. Coping styles as mediator of sexual orientation-related health differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2009-01-01

    The higher prevalence of health problems in homosexual compared to heterosexual populations is usually understood as a consequence of minority stress. We hypothesized that differential rates of health problems also could result from sexual orientation-related differences in coping styles. We

  15. Coping styles in farmed fish: consequences for aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Conceição, Luís E.C.; Millot, Sandie

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences in physiological and behavioural responses to stressors are increasingly recognised as adaptive variation and thus raw material for evolution and fish farming improvements including selective breeding. Such individual variation has been evolutionarily conserved and is present...... in all vertebrate taxa including fish. In farmed animals, the interest in consistent trait associations, that is coping styles, has increased dramatically over the last years because many studies have demonstrated links to performance traits, health and disease susceptibility and welfare. This study...... will review (i) the main behavioural, neuroendocrine, cognitive and emotional differences between reactive and proactive coping styles in farmed fish; (ii) the methodological approaches used to identify coping styles in farmed fish, including individual (group) mass-screening tests; and (iii) how knowledge...

  16. Internet addiction: Coping Styles, Expectancies, and Treatment Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eBrand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of Internet addiction, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users showed that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations increased the risk for generalized Internet addiction. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of generalized Internet addiction and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  17. An Investigation on the Role of Personality Style Vulnerability, Spouse Violence, and Coping Responses in Prediction of Post Partum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حمیده قاسمی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the role of the vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses in prediction of post-partum depression. A sample of 140 pregnant women were recruited. Data collection included two phases. In third trimester of pregnancy, demographic information, vulnerable personality style, spouse violence and coping responses were collected. The second phase was carried out after 2 weeks to 6 months after parturition that the post-partum depression questionnaire was completed. The results demonstrated that 49% of post-partum depression variances can be shown by vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses. It seems that one of the most important factors for depression after parturition is vulnerability of personality style. Women with this personality style perceive higher levels of stress and use maladaptive coping responses. So they are more disposed to post-partum depression.

  18. The role of locus of control and coping style in predicting longitudinal PTSD-trajectories after combat exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, K. I.; Armour, C.; Elklit, A.

    2015-01-01

    Israeli soldiers with or without combat stress reaction (CSR) from the Lebanon war were assessed 1, 2, and 20 years after the war. Combat exposure, LOC, and coping style were then investigated as covariates of the trajectories of resilience, recovery, delayed onset, and chronicity. Symptomatic...... trajectories in the CSR and the non-CSR group were significantly associated to varying degrees with perceived life threat during combat (ORs: 1.76-2.53), internal LOC (0.77-0.87), emotional coping style (0.28-0.34), and low use of problem-focused coping (2.12-3.11). In conclusion, assessment of LOC and coping...

  19. Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping style on susceptibility to the common cold. GA Struwig, M Papaikonomou, P Kruger. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 369-383. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  20. Coping Styles of Failing Brunei Vocational Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Salleh, Sallimah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of two types of underachieving students (n = 246) (active failing (AF) and passive failing (PF)) in Brunei vocational and technical education (VTE) institutions and their patterns of coping. Design/methodology/approach: The field survey method was used to directly reach many…

  1. A pilot study on peritraumatic dissociation and coping styles as risk factors for posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression in parents after their child's unexpected admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Bob F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To study the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety and depression in parents three months after pediatric intensive care treatment of their child and examine if peritraumatic dissocation and coping styles are related to these mental health problems. Methods This is a prospective cohort study and included parents of children unexpectedly admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU from January 2006 to March 2007. At three months follow-up parents completed PTSD (n = 115, anxiety and depression (n = 128 questionnaires. Immediately after discharge, parents completed peritraumatic dissocation and coping questionnaires. Linear regression models with generalized estimating equations examined risk factors for mental health problems. Results Over 10% of the parents were likely to meet criteria for PTSD and almost one quarter for subclinical PTSD. Respectively 15% to 23% of the parents reported clinically significant levels of depression and anxiety. Peritraumatic dissocation was most strongly associated with PTSD, anxiety as well as depression. Avoidance coping was primarily associated with PTSD. Conclusion A significant number of parents have mental health problems three months after unexpected PICU treatment of their child. Improving detection and raise awareness of mental health problems is important to minimize the negative effect of these problems on parents' well-being.

  2. Coping styles relate to health and work environment of Norwegian and Dutch hospital nurses : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Mageroy, Nils; Pallesen, Stale; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Moen, Bente E.

    2012-01-01

    Nurses exposed to high nursing stress report no health complaints as long as they have high coping abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate coping styles in relation to the health status and work environment of Norwegian and Dutch hospital nurses. This comparative study included a

  3. Preservice Teachers' Coping Styles and Their Responses to Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Jones, Jayme L.; Wieland, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The literature suggests that teacher responses to bullying are a function of the type of aggression (overt vs. relational), the gender of the children involved, and characteristics of the teacher. We extended the literature by examining teachers' dispositional coping styles as a predictor of their responses to bullying. Preservice teachers (N =…

  4. Recovery from acute whiplash - The role of coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J; Spanjer, J; Fidler, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Victims of car accidents who initiated compensation claim procedures at a Dutch insurance company and presented themselves with neck complaints were sent a questionnaire containing neck-related questions and questions regarding the coping styles used shortly

  5. Parenting Styles, Coping Strategies, and the Expression of Homesickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with…

  6. Adolescent Coping Styles and Perceptions of Parental Child Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jerome B.; Danko, Maribeth

    1994-01-01

    A study of 107 15- and 17-year olds examined the relationship between adolescents' general coping styles (problem focused, emotion focused, or cognitive) and their perceptions of parental child-rearing practices (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). Findings were consistent with the view that parents' child-rearing techniques…

  7. Are coping styles consistent in the teleost fish Sparus aurata through sexual maturation and sex reversal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Martínez Páramo, Sonia; Figueiredo, F; Cerqueira, Marco; Millot, Sandie; Oliveira, Catarina C V; Martins, Catarina I M; Conceição, Luís E C

    2016-10-01

    Individual differences in behaviour and physiological responses to stress are associated with evolutionary adaptive variation and thus raw material for evolution. In farmed animals, the interest in consistent trait associations, i.e. coping styles, has increased dramatically over the last years. However, one of limitations of the available knowledge, regarding the temporal consistency, is that it refers always to short-term consistency (usually few weeks). The present study used an escape response during a net restraining test, previously shown to be an indicative of coping styles in seabream, to investigate long-term consistency of coping styles both over time and during different life history stages. Results showed both short-term (14 days) consistency and long-term (8 months) consistency of escape response. However, we did not found consistency in the same behaviour after sexual maturation when the restraining test was repeated 16, 22 and 23 months after the first test was performed. In conclusion, this study showed consistent behaviour traits in seabream when juveniles, and a loss of this behavioural traits when adults. Therefore, these results underline that adding a life story approach to data interpretation as an essential step forward towards coping styles foreground. Furthermore, a fine-tuning of aquaculture rearing strategies to adapt to different coping strategies may need to be adjusted differently at early stages of development and adults to improve the welfare of farmed fish.

  8. Emotional Intelligence, Physical Activity and Coping with Stress in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aziz Dawood A L S U D A N I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in physical activity seems to be connected with better coping with stress and higher level emotional intelligence. The aim of the study is to check if there are any significant correlations between emotional intelligence, physical activity and style focused on the task in coping with stress. The sample was made by 90 adolesc ents, aged from 19 - 21 from Psychology department at University of Szczecin. To check the level of emotional inteligence was used polish version of Emotional Intelligence Questionaire. To check te level of physical activity was used s hort form of Internati onal Physical Activity Questionaire. To find out what kind of style is used by adolescents with coping with stress was used Polish version of Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. There were signifficant correlations between physical activity an d task oriented coping, avoidance, social diversion, emotional intelligence (p<0.05. Regression analyses showed that task oriented coping and social diversion are predictors of physical activity. Results of one way Anova showed that the task - oriented copi ng, social diversion, walking, moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity, physical actrivity (in MET/min, emotional intelligence, identifying emotions and using emotions in practice of the high PA group were significantly higher (p<0.05 than in t he low PA group.

  9. Association of coping styles with quality of life in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shakeri

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The results suggested that focusing on a patient's coping style, predominantly on an emotion-focused coping style, is essential to improve patient's QOL, and that patients possibly to employ a more emotion-oriented coping style should receive enough notice, particularly before discharge.

  10. Help your teen cope with stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress ... Common sources of stress in teens include: Worrying about schoolwork or grades Juggling responsibilities, such as school and work or sports Having problems ...

  11. The Comparison of Relationship between Family Communication Patterns and Self Concept with Coping Styles in Male and Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Taheri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Since people have different coping styles, the purpose of the present research was to compare the relationship between family communication patterns and self-concept with coping styles among male and female students of Eram Higher Education Institution in Shiraz. Methods: In the present correlation study conducted in 2011 at Eram Higher Education Institution in Shiraz, 229 participants (91 males &119 females were selected by simple random sampling method. Data was collected by using the revised version of family communication patterns questionnaire (RFCP, Koerner & Fitz patrik (2002, Beck's Self-concept Test (CST (1990 and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS Endler & Parker (1990. Data was analyzed using correlation matrix & independent t-test analysis. Results: According to the result, there was significant correlation between family communication patterns and self-concept with coping styles among male and female students. In the female group, task oriented coping and avoidance oriented coping with conversation orientation and emotion oriented coping with conforming orientation showed positive significant correlation. In male group avoidance orientation coping with conversation orientation and emotion oriented coping with conforming orientation showed positive significant correlation. Also, related to self concept variable, results showed female students task oriented coping and avoidance oriented coping had significant correlation with the self concept variable, but the male students avoidance oriented coping had significant correlation with the self concept variable(P<0/05. Also, the result showed significant difference between two male and female students, in emotion oriented coping, so the female group, emotion oriented coping with (51/48 was more than the orientation within the male group with (48/18, (p<0.05. Conclusion: Family communication patterns and the concept are effective on coping styles. Therefore

  12. Association of coping style and psychological well-being in hospital nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing jobs are among the occupations experiencing high levels of stress. Level of psychological well-being and coping style with stressful situations among nurses has large impact on their job performance. Limited information exists about the relationship between coping styles and psychological well-being among nurses, so the present study examined the way of coping and the level of psychological well-being as well as their relationships among nurses. Methods: In this correlational study, 100 nurses from Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2012. Lazarus and Folkman's coping styles and Ryff's psychological well-being Questionnaires were completed by self-report method. Collected data were entered software SPSS ver. 13 and then analyzed using Pearson correlation test. Results: The results showed EFCSwere more used but PFCSstyle was less used with a little difference by mean (SD of 87.91 (10.76 vs. 73.12 (12.15. Between EFCSand some psychological well-being dimensions such as purpose in life (P=0.01, r= - 0.28 and personal development (P= 0.03, r= - 0.024, a significant negative association and between PFCSstyle and purpose in life, a significant positive relationship was found (P=0.006, r= 0.31. Conclusion: Considering that PFCSstyle is more effective in solving problems and job stress, as well as, the increased use of EFCSis associated with adverse health consequences, improvement of nurses' coping strategies to cope better with stressful events by skill training and promotion of nurses' psychological well-being level is recommended.

  13. Parenting styles, coping strategies, and the expression of homesickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Karin S; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with the experience of homesickness, contrary to students with authoritative parents who are less likely to have feelings of homesickness; (2) students with authoritarian, permissive or uninvolved parents show their homesickness by internalizing and externalizing problems; and (3) students raised by authoritative or permissive parents use more effective coping strategies to deal with homesickness. Results indicated that students raised by authoritative and permissive parents experienced more homesickness with stronger feelings of homesickness than students raised by authoritarian or uninvolved parents. However, they hardly express homesickness by internalizing or externalizing problems when they use effective ways of coping, namely support-seeking and/or problem-solving. Students with parents endorsing an authoritarian or uninvolved parenting style, on the other hand, showed more internalizing and externalizing problems in reaction to feelings of homesickness. They also use less effective coping strategies. The results revealed the importance of a loving and accepting home environment for the development and expression of homesickness, as well as the importance of the way in which students learn to cope with their problems.

  14. Relationships among Perceived Stress, Coping, and Grade Point Average in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewallal, Rajendra David

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among perceived stress, coping style, and academic performance in 210 students from a mid-sized public university and a small private college. Study participants were asked to complete the Perceived Stress Scale, the Brief COPE Questionnaire, and a demographic survey asking about their age, gender, grade point…

  15. Coping styles in farmed fish: consequences for aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Conceicao, Luis E. C.; Millot, Sandie; Rey, Sonia; Begout, Marie-laure; Damsgard, Borge; Kristiansen, Tore; Hoglund, Erik; Overli, Oyvind; Martins, Catarina I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences in physiological and behavioural responses to stressors are increasingly recognised as adaptive variation and thus raw material for evolution and fish farming improvements including selective breeding. Such individual variation has been evolutionarily conserved and is present in all vertebrate taxa including fish. In farmed animals, the interest in consistent trait associations, that is coping styles, has increased dramatically over the last years because many studies h...

  16. Typology of Army Families. Coping Styles of Successful, Career Army Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    to deal with environment induced stress tend to become non- * productive and dysfunctional. This is a qualitative study of the coping styles of 18...and can only guess at the number, either through surveys or through Non- Combatant Evacuation Operation (NEO) sign-up exercises . NEO is the Army plan...headaches, stomach upsets, amenorrhea , a~id sleep difficulties. There was also a significant increase in weight change problems. Perceptions of

  17. Coping Styles as Mediator of Sexual Orientation-Related Health Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.C.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2009-01-01

    The higher prevalence of health problems in homosexual compared to heterosexual populations is usually understood as a consequence of minority stress. We hypothesized that differential rates of health problems also could result from sexual orientation-related differences in coping styles. We explored this using data collected in a general population-based study (N = 9684) via face-to-face interviews. A higher prevalence of both mental and physical health problems, as assessed with individual ...

  18. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  19. Occupational stress, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K V; Smith, A P

    2016-08-01

    Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  20. Family Stress and Coping From Hospitalization of Clients With Severe Alcohol Use Disorder in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyu-Hee; Choi, Yun-Jung

    The rate of relapse and involuntary hospitalization among clients with alcohol use disorder exceeds 40% in South Korea. As a result, family members of clients experience considerable stress and require the assistance of professional services. This empirical study investigates levels of perceived stress and stress coping styles among family members of clients with severe alcohol use disorder and examines the correlations among these variables. Data were collected from three inpatient alcohol rehabilitation centers and five psychiatric hospitals in South Korea. Family stress levels and stress coping styles for 133 respondents were evaluated using the Hospital Stress Rating Scale for Family Members and the Stress Coping Style Checklist. There were significant differences in stress levels according to whether participants had attended a family educational program in the past or were doing so presently. Furthermore, significant differences in stress were observed among participants who were using the stress coping style of easing strained emotions during the client's hospitalization but who had never attended an educational program. Among the subcategories, stress levels had especially strong relationships with easing strained emotions, seeking advice, and solving problems. The results showed that families with severe alcohol use disorder experience stress from the client's hospitalization and seek advice from neighbors to deal with worries, privacy concerns, and economic problems. Family interventions are needed to provide family members with strategies to cope with stress, which can support recovery of clients with severe alcohol use disorder.

  1. Stress and coping strategies among nursing students: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Edet, Olaide B; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Leocadio, Michael C; Colet, Paolo; Kleisiaris, Christos F; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Rosales, Rheajane A; Vera Santos-Lucas, Katherine; Velacaria, Pearl Irish T

    2017-12-20

    Mounting literature on stress and coping in nursing students are available; however, most of the findings are confined to a single cultural group. This study was conducted to determine the level of stress, its sources and coping strategies among nursing students from three countries: Greece, the Philippines and Nigeria. Using a descriptive, comparative research design, 547 nursing students (161 Greek nursing students, 153 Filipino nursing students, 233 Nigerian nursing students) participated in the study from August 2015 to April 2016. Two standardized instruments were used, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Coping Behavior Inventory (CBI). Findings revealed that the degree of stress and the type of stressors and coping styles utilized by nursing students differ according to the country of origin. The year of study predicted overall stress (β = -0.149, p stress and lessen its impact such as stress management counseling, counseling programs, establishing peer and family support systems, and formulating hospital policies that will support nursing students.

  2. Stress and coping: An economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wälde, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Stress is ubiquitous in society. In our model, stressors translate into subjective stress via an appraisal process. Stress reduces instantaneous utility of an individual directly and via a cognitive load argument. Coping can be functional and under the control of the individual or more automatic with dysfunctional features. We predict the occurrence and frequency of uncontrolled coping - emotional outbursts - as a function of an individual´s personality and environment. Outbursts cannot alway...

  3. A survey of role stress, coping and health in Australian and New Zealand hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Esther M L; Bidewell, John W; Huntington, Annette D; Daly, John; Johnson, Amanda; Wilson, Helen; Lambert, Vicki A; Lambert, Clinton E

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has identified international and cultural differences in nurses' workplace stress and coping responses. We hypothesised an association between problem-focused coping and improved health, emotion-focused coping with reduced health, and more frequent workplace stress with reduced health. Test the above hypotheses with Australian and New Zealand nurses, and compare Australian and New Zealand nurses' experience of workplace stress, coping and health status. Three hundred and twenty-eight New South Wales (NSW) and 190 New Zealand (NZ) volunteer acute care hospital nurses (response rate 41%) from randomly sampled nurses. Postal survey consisting of a demographic questionnaire, the Nursing Stress Scale, the WAYS of Coping Questionnaire and the SF-36 Health Survey Version 2. Consistent with hypotheses, more frequent workplace stress predicted lower physical and mental health. Problem-focused coping was associated with better mental health. Emotion-focused coping was associated with reduced mental health. Contrary to hypotheses, coping styles did not predict physical health. NSW and NZ scored effectively the same on sources of workplace stress, stress coping methods, and physical and mental health when controlling for relevant variables. Results suggest mental health benefits for nurses who use problem-solving to cope with stress by addressing the external source of the stress, rather than emotion-focused coping in which nurses try to control or manage their internal response to stress. Cultural similarities and similar hospital environments could account for equivalent findings for NSW and NZ.

  4. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

  5. Cognitive coping style (monitoring and blunting) and the need for information, information satisfaction and shared decision making among patients with haematological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood, J.A.J.; van Zuuren, F.J.; Stam, F.; van der Ploeg, T.; Huijgens, P.C.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A haematological malignancy is a serious, life-altering disease and may be characterised as an uncontrollable and unpredictable stress situation. In dealing with potentially threatening information, individuals generally utilise two main cognitive coping styles: monitoring (the tendency

  6. Exposure to bullying behaviors at work and subsequent symptoms of anxiety: the moderating role of individual coping style

    Science.gov (United States)

    REKNES, Iselin; EINARSEN, Ståle; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; MOEN, Bente Elisabeth; MAGERØY, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if bullied nurses have a more negative coping style when facing stressful events than do non-bullied nurses, and to determine if coping style moderates the well-established bullying-anxiety relationship. Cohort data were gathered in 2008/2009 and 2010 with a time lag of approximately one year for all respondents. At T1 2059 Norwegian nurses participated, whereof 1582 also responded at T2. A t-test and a hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to obtain results for the hypothesized relationships. The results show that bullied nurses use an active goal-oriented coping style less often compared to non-bullied nurses. Furthermore, active goal-oriented coping seems beneficial only when exposure to bullying behaviors is very low. This effect diminishes however as the bullying behavior intensifies. Hence, victims of bullying seem to cope more negatively with stressful events than do others. On the other hand, high exposure to bullying behaviors has negative consequences for the subsequent level of anxiety for those affected, regardless of their general coping style. PMID:27151548

  7. Action-Emotion Style, Learning Approach and Coping Strategies, in Undergraduate University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de la Fuente

    Full Text Available Action-Emotion Style (AES is an affective-motivational construct that describes the achievement motivation that is characteristic of students in their interaction with stressful situations. Using elements from the Type-A Behavior Pattern (TABP, characteristics of competitiveness and overwork occur in different combinations with emotions of impatience and hostility, leading to a classification containing five categories of action-emotion style (Type B, Impatient-hostile type, Medium type, Competitive-Overworking type and Type A. The objective of the present research is to establish how characteristics of action-emotion style relate to learning approach (deep and surface approaches and to coping strategies (emotion-focused and problem-focused. The sample was composed of 225 students from the Psychology degree program. Pearson correlation analyses, ANOVAs and MANOVAs were used. Results showed that competitiveness-overwork characteristics have a significant positive association with the deep approach and with problem-focused strategies, while impatience-hostility is thus related to surface approach and emotion-focused strategies. The level of action-emotion style had a significant main effect. The results verified our hypotheses with reference to the relationships between action-emotion style, learning approaches and coping strategies.

  8. Coping with stress in adults with speech fluency disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pietraszek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Stuttering is a developmental speech disorder that affects the fluency of speech. Persons who stutter perceive speaking situations and social interactions as threatening. Participants and procedure Nineteen (47.50% adults with speech fluency disorders (SFD and 21 (52.50% without participated in the study. All participants completed the following measures individually: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, and an informational survey. Results Our study confirmed that persons with SFD experience more stressful situations in life and feel greater anxiety, both as a trait and as a state, which influences their daily life. The negative affect experienced contributed to their preferred use of Emotion-Oriented Coping strategies, at the expense of more proactive Task-Oriented Coping. Experienced stress and anxiety influenced and consolidated their habitual stress coping styles, devoted mainly to dealing with negative emotions. Conclusions Stuttering affects daily activities, interpersonal relationships, and the quality of life. Therefore, professional support should include adaptive, task-oriented coping.

  9. [Psychological femininity and masculinity, self-appeal, attachment styles, coping styles and strategies of self-presentation among women with suicide attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Eugenia; Zalewska, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to diagnose particular personality characteristics of women with suicide attempts: psychological femininity and masculinity, self-appeal, attachment styles, self-presentation strategies and coping styles. A group of 35 adult women who attempted suicide and the control group (35 women) were submitted to a research. The following measures were used: Inventory of Gender Identity (IPP), Strategies of Self-presentation Questionnaire (KSA), Attachment Style Test, Sense of Self-Appeal Scale (SPWA), Coping Inventory of Stressful Situations (CISS). Female suicide-attempters had a lower index of psychological masculinity and a lower sense of self-appeal than women in the control group. They were characterised by an avoidant attachment style, used a strategy of self-depreciation in self-presentation and an emotion-oriented style of coping. The predictors of risk of suicide behaviours that mainly showed: avoidant-attachment style and strategy of self-depreciation in self-presentation. Parasuicides were characterised by lower self-esteem and weak interpersonal skills, which reduced their ways of coping in difficult situations.

  10. Coping with stress and quality of life in women with stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Adamczuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI involves uncontrolled leakage of urine through the urethra as a result of damage to its sphincter muscle and a disturbed function of the urogenital diaphragm within the pelvis minor. The symptoms of UI radically impair psychological, somatic, and social functioning. The aim of each disease stress coping process is to reduce the impact of harmful agents as well as the acquisition of necessary preventive measures in order to combat the disorder. Aim of the study was to assess the relationship between coping styles used when dealing with stress associated with disease and the quality of life. Material and methods: The study was carried out at an outpatients’ clinic located in the Lublin Province (eastern Poland, covering 150 women with diagnosed stress urinary incontinence, aged between 32 and 79. The following methods were used: (a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler, Parker to assess coping styles, (b CASP-19 scale (Higgins, Hyde, Wiggins, Blade to measure the overall quality of life, and (c Urinary Incontinence Life Quality Scale (Szymona-Pałkowska, Kraczkowski. Results : The preferred style in the studied group of women was Task-Oriented Coping. This style is associated with a low score on the Independence from Symptoms scale and low Control, being simultaneously correlated with Autonomy and Self-Realisation. Emotion-Oriented Coping is associated with low psychological, physical and social well-being, as well as with little independence from the disease symptoms, little pleasure and self-realisation, but it gives a sense of internal control. Avoidance-Oriented Coping does not significantly correlate with any of the Overall Quality of Life dimensions. Conclusions : Women suffering from UI tend to try to solve their problem by means of cognitive transformation. In their situation, clinging to the problem turns out to be a depressing factor and entails a lower quality of their life.

  11. An examination of coping styles and expectations for whiplash injury in Germany: comparison with Canadian data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Pieschl, Stephanie

    2011-09-01

    Cross-sectional cohort study: to examine concurrent expectations and coping style for whiplash injury in injury-naive subjects in Germany. Studies suggest the recovery rate from whiplash injury may be faster in Germany than in Canada. Canadians have a high expectation for chronic pain following whiplash injury and Germans do not. Expectation of recovery not only predicts recovery in whiplash victims but is also known to correlate with coping style. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students and staff in Germany. Subjects who had not yet experienced whiplash injury were given a vignette concerning a neck sprain (whiplash injury) in a motor vehicle collision and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviours indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectation questionnaires regarding whiplash injury. Sixteen percent of subjects held an expectation of chronic neck or back pain after whiplash injury. The mean active coping style score was 27.4±3.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 27.0±6.3 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Coping style scores and patterns were not different from those previously observed in Canadian studies, but there was no correlation between expectations and coping style among German subjects, a finding that differs from Canadian studies. Although expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of whiplash injury in Canadian whiplash victims, in Germany, despite having similar coping styles to Canadians, the lack of expectation for chronic pain may be protective from the effect of passive coping styles. Further studies of coping style as an aetiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.

  12. Investigation on trait coping style among parents of children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ze-shu NING; Li-ming YANG; Zhi JIANG; Bo CHEN; Jie ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of trait coping style and mental health status in parents of children with epilepsy, so as to provide a theoretical basis for psychological and behavioral interventions. Methods A total of 225 parents of children with epilepsy were assessed with Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and their characteristics of trait coping style were analyzed. Results Compared between different genders, different working pressures and between previously diagnosed and ...

  13. Hostage (crisis) negotiation: the potential role of negotiator personality, decision-making style, coping style and emotional intelligence on negotiator success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy; Brown, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of hostage negotiator characteristics and the impact of psychological constructs on negotiator success. It explores the role of Personality, Decision-Making Style, Coping Style, Cognitive Coping Style and Emotion Regulation and Emotional Intelligence within high stress environments and occupations. The findings suggest that certain individual traits and characteristics may play a role in negotiator success, via the mediation of specific styles, which are conducive to effective crisis negotiation skills. It is proposed that these findings have application within the field of hostage/crisis negotiation in the format of guidance regarding the recruitment and selection of hostage negotiators and the identification of potential training needs within individual negotiators in order to maximize their efficacy within the field. In line with this, it is argued that a psychometric tool that assesses these constructs is developed in order to aid the process of hostage negotiation selection.

  14. Stress, Adaptive Coping, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Juleen K.; Kearney, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between stress, adaptive coping, and life satisfaction among college students who reported having a friend or family member with eating disorder symptomatology. A hierarchical regression confirmed the study's hypotheses. Higher stress was linked with less life satisfaction. After stress was controlled, plan…

  15. Oncology staff: burnout, job satisfaction and coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guveli, Hulya; Anuk, Dilek; Oflaz, Serap; Guveli, Murat Emin; Yildirim, Nazmiye Kocaman; Ozkan, Mine; Ozkan, Sedat

    2015-08-01

    The oncology staff is at high risk for developing psychological disorders and burnout. In this study, we aimed to evaluate their burnout levels, job satisfaction, psychological statement and ways of coping with stress and the relationship between these variables and their sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. Among all health workers at the Istanbul University Institute, of Oncology, 159 were included in the study. A sociodemographic data form, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Styles of Coping Inventory-Short Form were used to evaluate burnout and its contributing factors. High levels of 'emotional exhaustion', 'depersonalization' and 'low sense of personal accomplishment' were determined in 30.2%, 8.2% and 44% of all participants, respectively. The variables that affected emotional exhaustion were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, the ratio of emotional exhaustion was approximately 10 times higher in those for whom job stress was the most important stress factor compared with those who indicated nonjob stress for each one point increase on the GHQ and depersonalization scores, which were other predictors, with odds ratio (OR) : 1.23, p = 0.006 and OR : 1.67, p burnout,' and a positive correlation was found between maladaptive coping strategies and exhaustion. It is necessary to monitor the psychological status of employees in oncology units with scanning tools such as GHQ to understand their job stress perceptions and to help them develop adaptive coping methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Associations of Coping and Appraisal Styles with Emotion Regulation during Preadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based…

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Coping Style across Various Problems: Omani Adolescents' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…

  18. Coping style and quality of life in Dutch intensive care unit survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela S.; de Graaff, Aafke E.; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; van der Schaaf, Marike

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore coping styles among intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and investigate the association between coping style and quality of life (QOL). In this cross-sectional multicenter study, 150 adult patients who were mechanically ventilated in an ICU for ≥2 days and

  19. The Role of Coping Styles in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Quality of Life of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Hejazi Taghanaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS show different reactions to the disease according to their personality traits, which can affect their quality of life. In this research, the mediator role of coping styles was investigated in the relationship between personality traits and quality of life in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Of all individuals with MS, who were member of MS Society of Qom province, 170 persons were selected using probability convenient sampling. All the patients were investigated using a general questionnaire in addition to 3 international approved standard tools (including Stress Coping Styles, Quality of life, and Personality Traits questionnaires. Data analysis was performed by descriptive-analytical statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The significance level was considered as p<0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients was in the range of 18-59 years, 32.34±8.71, of whom 138 subjects (83.2% were female. In this research, there was a significant correlation between coping styles and quality of life and its dimensions in MS patients. The correlation between coping styles and personality traits, was significant. There was a significant correlation between personality traits and quality of life and its dimensions in MS patients. In this study, path analysis results proved the mediator role of coping styles in the relationship between variables of quality of life and personality traits. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there is a significant correlation between personality traits of the individuals with MS and type of the used coping styles, which can affect the quality of life in these patients.

  20. Effect of social defeat in a territorial bird (Parus major) selected for different coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carere, C; Welink, D; Drent, P J; Koolhaas, J M; Groothuis, T G

    2001-06-01

    We addressed the questions (i) whether a social defeat triggers similar autonomic and behavioral responses in birds as is known from mammals and (ii) whether individuals that differ in coping style differ in their reaction to a social defeat. Adult captive male great tits (Parus major) from either of two different selection lines for coping style were used to test the effect of social defeat by an aggressive resident male conspecific on subsequent social and nonsocial behaviour, body temperature, breath rate and body mass. These parameters were measured 1 day before (baseline), immediately after and at Days 1 to 3 and 6 after the social interaction took place (Day 0). Social defeat decreased social exploration and increased body temperature substantially for at least 1 day in all birds. Breath rate and body mass were not affected. Birds belonging to the more aggressive and bolder line showed impairment in activity immediately after the social defeat. This is to our knowledge the first report showing that psychosocial stress in birds can have a similar impact as in rodents, but with a shorter recovery time. This might be due to species-specific differences in sensitivity to social stress, or to differences in the way social stress was induced.

  1. The Associations among Psychological Distress, Coping Style, and Health Habits in Japanese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.

  2. The role of locus of control and coping style in predicting longitudinal PTSD-trajectories after combat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Solomon, Zahava

    2015-05-01

    While longitudinal posttraumatic stress responses are known to be heterogeneous, little is known about predictors of those responses. We investigated if locus of control (LOC) and coping style are associated with long-term PTSD-trajectories after exposure to combat. Six hundred and seventy five Israeli soldiers with or without combat stress reaction (CSR) from the Lebanon war were assessed 1, 2, and 20 years after the war. Combat exposure, LOC, and coping style were then investigated as covariates of the trajectories of resilience, recovery, delayed onset, and chronicity. Symptomatic trajectories in the CSR and the non-CSR group were significantly associated to varying degrees with perceived life threat during combat (ORs: 1.76-2.53), internal LOC (0.77-0.87), emotional coping style (0.28-0.34), and low use of problem-focused coping (2.12-3.11). In conclusion, assessment of LOC and coping can aid prediction of chronic PTSD outcomes of combat exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of depression and styles of coping in male and female GA members and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, H A; Watson, J; Frisch, G R

    2000-01-01

    Depression and maladaptive coping styles are important components of theories of pathological gambling and are frequently foci of treatment with individuals with gambling problems. The present study aimed to improve understanding and treatment of pathological gambling by comparing levels of depression and styles of coping in male and female members of Gamblers Anonymous (GA) to a group of non-pathological gambling controls matched according to gender, age, education, and income. Pathological gambling was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Scale, depression by the Beck Depression Inventory, and coping styles by the Problem-Focused Styles of Coping inventory. Results showed that GA members reported significantly higher levels of depression and more maladaptive styles of coping than controls. Pathological gamblers' greater use of maladaptive coping was evident even when variance attributable to depression was removed, suggesting that their coping deficits may be pervasive. Female subjects reported significantly greater levels of depression and maladaptive coping than their male counterparts. Implications for treating depression and coping styles in pathological gamblers are discussed.

  4. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBerjot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  5. Coping with Stress. Research Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1995-01-01

    Research related to the impact of exercise on stress indicates that a regular aerobic exercise program is important to control the negative effects of stress. It was also reported that those who are physically fit have higher levels of self-esteem. Implications for camp staff involve starting a regular exercise program to offset job-related…

  6. [The relationship between cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of type A personality pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisli Sahin, Nesrin; Güler, Murat; Basim, H Nejat

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationships between cognitive and emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of Type A personality pattern. The Raven Progressive Matrices, Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Inventory, Stress Symptoms Scale, and Type A Personality Scale were administered to 271 university students. Two groups, Type As and Type Bs were created according to the Type A Personality Scale scores and were compared in terms of their scores on the other scales that were administered. Our analyses showed that stress symptoms were negatively correlated with effective coping, stress management, and general mood dimensions of the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. They were also positively correlated with ineffective coping and Type A behaviors. Being female also significantly predicted stress symptoms. When the participants were grouped according to Type A Personality Scale scores as Type As and Type Bs, the regression analysis showed that the stress symptoms of Type As were significantly predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles and deficiencies in the general mood component of emotional intelligence, whereas the stress symptoms of Type Bs were predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles, overuse of ineffective coping styles, and increase in the intrapersonal abilities component of emotional intelligence. Stress symptoms can be related to the variables associated with personality styles. It is suggested that stress management programs for Type As should include exercises that increase emotional intelligence, especially the components of drawing pleasure from their life situation, being more positive, hopeful and optimistic.

  7. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Kin-ya; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Chen, Huayue

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing) is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans.

  8. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-ya Kubo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans.

  9. Prenatal stress perception and coping strategies: Insights from a longitudinal prospective pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, J; Kocalevent, R-D; Hansen, G; Rose, M; Becher, H; Hecher, K; Arck, P C; Diemert, A

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal distress has been linked to pregnancy complications and poor offspring's health, despite the fact that longitudinal assessments of various stress dimensions are still lacking. Hence, we aimed to assess perceived stress over the course of pregnancy. Moreover, we examined whether social support and coping styles are linked to prenatal stress trajectories. Data from 543 women participating in the PRINCE (Prenatal Identification of Children Health) study, a prospective population-based cohort study, was used for the present analyses. Once per trimester the women completed questionnaires regarding different psychometric measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Linear mixed regression models were used to examine perceived stress development longitudinally and to relate social support and coping styles to stress trajectories during pregnancy. A significant decrease of perceived stress was observed over the course of pregnancy. Stratifying the study sample according to parity, women delivering their first child had continuously lower perceived stress scores compared to women having already one or more children, and a significant decrease during pregnancy was exclusively observed in primiparous women. Both, positive coping strategies and higher perceived and received social support were independently associated with lower perceived stress, while evasive coping strategies were associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Our study reveals stress perception trajectories during pregnancies in primi- and multiparous women. Our findings underscore the need for intervention strategies aiming to improve social support and positive coping strategies especially in multiparous women in order to reduce the risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Cancer related fatigue in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy and coping style].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pinglan; Wang, Shuhong; Jiang, Dongmei; Yu, Lingli

    2011-04-01

    To study the relevance between cancer related fatigue and coping styles in breast cancer patients after chemotherapy. A survey was conducted in 396 patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy on cancer related fatigue scale and Jalowiec coping scale, and the relation was analyzed. The rate of overall fatigue in breast cancer patients was 96.97%, mostly moderate fatigue. The rate of fatigue dimensions from high to low was physical fatigue, feeling fatigue and cognitive fatigue, respectively. The score of coping styles in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy from high to low was optimistic coping, facing bravely, support seeking, self-reliance, emotional catharsis, avoidance, fatalism, and conservation. The most widely used coping style was optimistic coping style, and the least was emotional catharisis. There was a positive correlation between coping style of emotional catharsis and cancer related fatigue of all dimensions (Pself-reliance, or conservation (P<0.05). There was also a negative correlation between physical fatigue and optimistic or support seeking (P<0.05), but there was a positive correlation between avoidance or fatalism and the dimensions of general fatigue, physical fatigue, and cognitive fatigue (P<0.05). There is prevalent cancer related fatigue in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy. We should guide the patients to more active coping styles, to enhance the ability of psychological adaption in patients, reduce cancer related fatigue, and improve the quality of life.

  11. Burnout in early course psychosis caregivers: the role of illness beliefs and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwumere, Juliana; Lotey, Gursharan; Schulz, Joerg; James, Gareth; Afsharzadegan, Roya; Harvey, Raythe; Chu Man, Lai; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Raune, David

    2017-06-01

    In occupational settings, burnout is a common response to chronic exposure stressors and has been frequently documented in formal caregivers (i.e. paid psychiatric staff). However, the literature is limited on reports of burnout among informal caregivers and particularly within early psychosis groups. The current study sought to investigate reports of burnout in carers of young adults treated within a specialist early psychosis service and links with key appraisals reported about the illness and coping. Seventy-two carers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory along with self-report measures of coping styles and illness beliefs. Seventy-eight per cent of carers reported high burnout in at least one of the three key burnout markers (i.e. emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or low personal accomplishment). Seven per cent of carers met full criteria for high burnout across all the three domains. A carer's belief about the negative consequences of the illness for themselves was a significant predictor of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Low personal accomplishment was linked to a carer's less optimistic beliefs about the illness timeline and fewer reports of adaptive coping. The results provide preliminary support for the importance of asking carers in the early illness phase about their experiences of caregiving. Targeted assessment may serve as a helpful tool to identify and intervene with carers in need of additional support with stress management, use of adaptive coping strategies, and balanced recovery focused information about psychosis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. College Students Coping with Interpersonal Stress: Examining a Control-Based Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…

  13. Coping With Pain: Studies in Stress Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    The stress-inoculation paradigm for helping clients deal with pain consists of education about the psychological dimensions of pain, training in a number of coping skills relevant to each dimension, and practice in applying these skills to the noxious stimulus. Presented are two studies, the first of which represents a component analysis of stress…

  14. Personality and methods of coping with stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Cieślik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Good health and well-being are the natural desires of every human being. However, people have to cope with various kinds of stress in everyday life. Most people are under stress due to: the situation in the world, unemployment, traffic jam, their manager’s opinion, illness, divorce, etc. The level of stress increases particularly in situ ations when people sense danger of physical, social or psychological risks. This phenomenon is very common, and many people have come to think that this is something normal in modern life. Stress can cause depression and frustration, and it does not help in achieving goals and being successful. Ordinary people have a negative concept of stress, but stress response also helps one to rise to meet challenges. Some level of stress is recommended because it helps people to solve problems. While under stress one can function better and work faster, it sharpens concentration and increases brain efficiency. At the beginning of the third millennium, stress has become the people’s enemy, so they should learn how to cope with it. It is common knowledge that one cannot avoid stress, so it is important to learn how to control and deal with it.

  15. Cognitive mediational deficits and the role of coping styles in pedophile and ephebophile Roman Catholic clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Getting a Good Night's Sleep in Adolescence: Do Strategies for Coping With Stress Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica H; Cousins, Jennifer; Lee, Laisze

    2016-01-01

    Getting a good night's sleep is challenging for adolescents because of early school start times and adolescents' substantial social and physical changes. We tested whether key indices of sleep health are associated with usual styles of coping with stress and interpersonal conflict in healthy black and white adolescents. Two hundred forty-two (57% female, 56% black) high school students completed daily sleep diaries, questionnaires, and actigraphy across a school week. Linear regression models tested associations, independent of race, gender, and other covariates. Students who reported using disengagement coping exhibited poor sleep health. They had shorter sleep duration, more fragmented sleep, delayed sleep, and increased daytime sleepiness. Unexpectedly, positive engagement coping was related to daytime sleepiness and delayed sleep, although not in models that included disengagement coping. Coping strategies may be an important influence on adolescent sleep. Future research should evaluate the antecedent-consequent relationships among coping, sleep, and stress.

  17. Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies of Nurses at ... explore the factors contributing to nurses' stress and related coping strategies used ... of staff and materials, facing death and dying, dissatisfaction with the work ...

  18. Occupational stress and coping strategies among emergency department nurses of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Ning; Hong, Su; Fan, Yu-ying; Kong, Fan-ying; Li, Qiu-jie

    2015-08-01

    Emergency department(ED) nurses work in a rapidly changing environment with patients that have wide variety of conditions. Occupational stress in emergency department nurses is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between coping strategies and occupational stress among ED nurses in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was adopted. Two questionnaires were given to a random sample of 127 ED nurses registered at the Heilongjiang Nurses' Association. Data were collected from the nurses that worked in the ED of five general hospitals in Harbin China. Occupational stress and coping strategies were measured by two questionnaires. A multiple regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between stress and coping strategies. The stressors of ED nurses mainly come from the ED specialty of nursing (2.97±0.55), workload and time distribution (2.97±0.58). The mean score of positive coping strategies was 2.19±0.35, higher than the norm (1.78±0.52). The mean score of negative coping strategies was 1.20±0.61, lower than the norm (1.59±0.66), both had significant statistical difference (Pwork, criticism, instrument equipment shortage, night shift, rank of professional were the influence factors about occupational stress to positive coping styles. Too much documents work, and medical insurance for ED nurses were the influential factors on occupational stress to negative coping styles. This study identified several factors associated with occupational stress in ED nurses. These results could be used to guide nurse managers of ED nurses to reduce work stress. The managers could pay more attention to the ED nurse's coping strategies which can further influence their health state and quality of nursing care. Reducing occupational stress and enhancing coping strategies are vital not only for encouraging nurses but also for the future of nursing development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Coping Style and Quality of Life in Elderly Patients with Vision Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aims at evaluating coping style and quality of life in patients with glaucoma and cataract. Methods. The participants were patients (N=237, 130F; mean age: M = 67,8; SD = 9,5 with low vision caused by cataract (N=188 and glaucoma (N=49 who answered the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOLQ by Schalock and Keith. The participants were divided by means of cluster analysis (k-means according to coping styles measured by CISS (Endler and Parker into three groups: (1 high mobilization for coping, (2 task-oriented coping, and (3 low mobilization for coping. Results. In all the group, a general quality of life was moderately lowered; however, in task-oriented group it was relatively high. Moreover, task-oriented group had significantly lower level of anxiety (STAI, hopelessness (HS, and loneliness (UCLA LS-R and higher level of self-esteem (SES in comparison to the patients from high mobilization and low mobilization for coping. Conclusions. In an old age, adaptive coping with vision disturbances does not necessarily mean flexibility in combining all coping styles, but rather task-oriented coping and an ability to use social support. Extreme mobilization for coping seems not adaptive similarly like low mobilization for coping because it violates balance between environmental requirements and personal resources.

  20. The Study of Relationship Religious Orientation and Disposition Critical Thinking with Coping Strategies with Stress in Girl Students of Faculty of Humanity of Yazd University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Alavi Langroody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction :the enjoyment of the religious belief and the idea of mental disorders and important role in reducing stress. So this study investigated the relationship between religious orientation and inclination to think critically and Coping with Stress in the Faculty of Humanities graduate students of Yazd University was conducted. Method: statistical community research includes 1617 students graduate from the University of Yazd, which according to Morgan- Krejci Table  the number of 300 students of faculty of humanity for example, chosen with equally classification random sampling method. to measure the research variables we used Allport religious oriented questionnaire, Ricketts questionnaire of disposition critical thinking and the coping Inventory for Stressful Situations of Andler and Parker. Data analysis using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis . Results: first between internal religious orientation and second between external religious orientation with problem focused coping style and also observed a positive and medium correlation between disposition critical thinking and problem-focused coping style in students. Among the factors of disposition critical thinking, there was a significant and positive correlation between innovation and mental maturity factors with problem-focused ciping style, and mental occupation factor first with problem-focused coping style and then with avoidant coping style and in reverse there was a significant negative correlation between mental factor with avoidant and emotional coping styles. among five anticipant variables, respectively, there was a direct relationship between mental occupation, internal and external religious orientations in anticipation of problem-focused coping style, a reverse relationship between internal religious orientations and mental maturity in anticipation of emotional coping style, a direct relationship between external religious

  1. Stress, Coping and Coffee Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    who had more personal influence over how their work day was designed. This is consistent with a model proposed by Karasek , Russell, and Theorell ... Theorell , 1982; Karasek , Baker, Marxer, Ahlbom, & Theorell , 1981). Controllability of stressors may not only affect appraisal of stress and...Bulletin, 92. 367-381. Alfredsson, L. , Karasek , R. , & Theorell , T. (1982). Myocardial infarction risk and psychosocial work environment: An analysis of

  2. Dental family stress and coping patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, R S; Sampson, V M

    1986-10-01

    This exploratory study of 28 married male dentists and their families was designed to gain an understanding about the stressors that dentists and their spouses experience, the life events and family strains they incur, the behavioral coping patterns they utilize, and their psychosocial characteristics. The study found that although stable dental families did encounter a significant number of stressors arising from both the dental practice and the family, they maintained their sense of balance through strong family coping skills and family resources. The effect of the dentist's office-related stress was directly felt in the family, especially by the spouse. Strong coping patterns resulted when dentists and spouses maintained a balance of time and responsibility, satisfaction in work and family activity, regular communication, sharing of decision making, good physical health, and the inclusion of an active exercise program within multiple demands on their time.

  3. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Family caregiving in bipolar disorder: caregiver consequences, caregiver coping styles, and caregiver distress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.J.J.; Wijngaarden, B. van; Knoppert-van der Klein, E.A.M.; Achterberg, T. van

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study investigated the consequences caregivers of outpatients with bipolar disorder are confronted with, the distress they experience and their coping styles. METHODS: Caregivers (n = 115) were asked to complete the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ) to measure caregivers'

  5. Coping, stress, and personality in Spanish nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Core Self-Evaluation and Burnout among Nurses: The Mediating Role of Coping Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaofei; Guan, Lili; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE), and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), was completed by a...

  7. Big five personality and adolescent Internet addiction: The mediating role of coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yueyue; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the unique associations between big five personality traits and adolescent Internet addiction (IA), as well as the mediating role of coping style underlying these relations. Our theoretical model was tested with 998 adolescents. Participants provided self-report data on demographic variables, big five personality traits, coping style, and IA. After controlling for demographic variables, it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with IA, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were positively associated with IA. Mediation analyses further indicated that conscientiousness had an indirect impact on adolescent IA through decreased emotion-focused coping, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience had indirect impacts on adolescent IA through increased emotion-focused coping. In contrast, problem-focused coping had no mediating role. These findings suggest that emotion-focused coping may, in part, account for the association between big five personality and adolescent IA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coping Styles as Moderating the Relationships between Terrorist Attacks and Well-Being Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verleye, Gino; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore use of coping strategies among adolescents and their relationships with well being in the context of ongoing terrorism. Furthermore, we aim to explore to what extent coping styles in addition to exposure variables explain well being of adolescents facing ongoing terror. During September 2003, after three years of ongoing…

  9. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  10. Religious Coping Styles, General Health, and Psychological Well-Being Among Mothers of Mentally Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nikmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The results of the current study suggest that the religious coping styles affect the general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. This study also indicated that paying attention to the type of religious coping used by these mothers is essential.

  11. Effects of stress and coping on binge eating in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L; Dempsey, Jack; Dempsey, Allison G

    2011-08-01

    Limited research exists on the association between stress, coping, and binge eating. To address this paucity, this study explores these associations in a sample of 147 female college students, an at-risk population for binge eating. We hypothesized that emotional and avoidant coping would be positively associated with stress and binge eating. Conversely, we expected that rational and detached coping would be negatively related to stress and binge eating. Furthermore, we expected these coping styles to mediate the relationship between stress and binge eating. As predicted, emotion-focused and avoidant coping were positively associated with stress and binge eating. Additionally, emotion-focused coping partially mediated the relationship between stress and binge eating. However, no association was found between stress, rational or detached coping, and binge eating. These results are discussed within the context of a negative reinforcement model of binge eating. Lastly, the importance of providing evidence-based treatment for individuals with binge eating symptomology is discussed in light of our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Age-Related Decrease in Stress Responsiveness and Proactive Coping in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hee-Jin; Song, Minah; Kim, Young Ki; Bae, Jae Ryong; Cha, Seung-Yun; Bae, Ji Young; Kim, Yeongmin; You, Minsu; Lee, Younpyo; Shim, Jieun; Maeng, Sungho

    2018-01-01

    Coping is a strategic approach to dealing with stressful situations. Those who use proactive coping strategies tend to accept changes and act before changes are expected. In contrast, those who use reactive coping are less flexible and more likely to act in response to changes. However, little research has assessed how coping style changes with age. This study investigated age-related changes in coping strategies and stress responsiveness and the influence of age on the processing of conditioned fear memory in 2-, 12- and 23-month-old male mice. Coping strategy was measured by comparing the escape latency in an active avoidance test and by comparing responses to a shock prod. The results showed that proactivity in coping response gradually decreased with age. Stress responsiveness, measured by stress-induced concentration of corticosterone, was also highest in 2-month-old mice and decreased with age. Consolidation of fear memory was highest in 12-month-old mice and was negatively correlated with the degree of stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping. Fear extinction did not differ among age groups and was not correlated with stress responsiveness or the proactivity of coping. However, the maintenance of extinct fear memory, which was best in 2-month-old mice and worst in 12-month-old mice, was negatively correlated with stress responsiveness but not with coping style. Age-dependent changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and its regulatory co-chaperones, which are accepted mechanisms for stress hormone stimulation, were measured in the hippocampus. The expression of GR was increased at 12 months compared to other age groups. There were no differences in Hsp70 and BAG1 expression by age. These results can be summarized as follows: (1) stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping decreased with age class; (2) consolidation of fear memory was negatively correlated with both stress responsiveness and proactivity; however, maintenance of

  13. Core Self-Evaluation and Burnout among Nurses: The Mediating Role of Coping Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Guan, Lili; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE), and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), was completed by a total of 1,559 nurses. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and the Sobel test were performed to determine the mediating role of coping styles on the relationship between CSE and burnout. Results Nurses who had higher self-evaluation characteristics, reported less emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and higher professional efficacy. Coping style had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between CSE and the burnout syndrome among nurses. Conclusions Core self-evaluation had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediating factor in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Therefore, the improvement of coping strategies may be helpful in the prevention of burnout among nurses, thus enhancing professional performance. PMID:25541990

  14. Core self-evaluation and burnout among Nurses: the mediating role of coping styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE, and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ, was completed by a total of 1,559 nurses. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and the Sobel test were performed to determine the mediating role of coping styles on the relationship between CSE and burnout. RESULTS: Nurses who had higher self-evaluation characteristics, reported less emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and higher professional efficacy. Coping style had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between CSE and the burnout syndrome among nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Core self-evaluation had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediating factor in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Therefore, the improvement of coping strategies may be helpful in the prevention of burnout among nurses, thus enhancing professional performance.

  15. Core self-evaluation and burnout among Nurses: the mediating role of coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Guan, Lili; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE), and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), was completed by a total of 1,559 nurses. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and the Sobel test were performed to determine the mediating role of coping styles on the relationship between CSE and burnout. Nurses who had higher self-evaluation characteristics, reported less emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and higher professional efficacy. Coping style had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between CSE and the burnout syndrome among nurses. Core self-evaluation had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediating factor in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Therefore, the improvement of coping strategies may be helpful in the prevention of burnout among nurses, thus enhancing professional performance.

  16. Coping Styles, Aggression and Interpersonal Conflicts among Depressed and Non-Depressed People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Amber; Mohsin, Humaira

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared people with depressive symptoms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts. A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls)was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggression Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression. The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimensions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches.

  17. Coping Styles, Aggression and Interpersonal Conflicts among Depressed and Non-Depressed People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Nazir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compared people with depressive symp¬toms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts.Methods: A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggres¬sion Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression.Results: The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. Conclusion: The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimen-sions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches.

  18. Life events, coping, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among Chinese adolescents exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Zheng

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. METHODS: A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake.

  19. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  20. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…

  1. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  2. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inonge Reimert

    Full Text Available Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total. A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  3. Cognitive coping style (monitoring and blunting) and the need for information, information satisfaction and shared decision making among patients with haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Janneke A J; Van Zuuren, Florence J; Stam, Frank; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Huijgens, Peter C; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2015-05-01

    A haematological malignancy is a serious, life-altering disease and may be characterised as an uncontrollable and unpredictable stress situation. In dealing with potentially threatening information, individuals generally utilise two main cognitive coping styles: monitoring (the tendency to seek threat-relevant information) and blunting (avoiding threatening information and seeking distraction). The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the association between cognitive coping style and (a) need for information, (b) satisfaction with information, (c) involvement in decision making, and (d) quality of life (QoL). In this cross-sectional study, coping style was assessed among adult patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy, using an adapted version of the Threatening Medical Situations Inventory. Information need, information satisfaction, decision-making preference and QoL were measured with validated questionnaires. In total, 458 patients returned the questionnaire (66%). A monitoring coping style was positively related to need for both general and specific information. Blunting was positively and QoL was negatively related to need for information. Monitoring was positively related to involvement in decision-making and negatively to information satisfaction. Using multivariate analysis, this relation between monitoring and information satisfaction disappeared, and for blunting, we found a negatively significant relation. QoL was not related to coping style. Among patients with haematological malignancies, coping style is related to a need for information, information satisfaction, and involvement in treatment decision-making. Therefore, it is important for health care professionals to be aware of individual differences in cognitive coping style. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Coping styles used by sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles

  5. Examining stress perceptions and coping strategies among Saudi nursing students: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; De Los Santos, Janet Alexis A; Edet, Olaide B

    2018-06-01

    Stress is a perennial problem in nursing education and Saudi student nurses are not immune. Despite the growing literature examining stress in Saudi student nurses, a broader perspective on this concept has not been explored. This paper is a report of a review systematically appraising and synthesizing existing scientific articles reporting stress perceptions and coping styles in Saudi student nurses. A systematic review method guided this review. Four (SCOPUS, CINAHL, PubMed, Ovid) bibliographic databases were searched to locate relevant articles. An electronic database search was performed in August 2017 to locate studies published from 2010 onwards. The search words included: "stress" OR "psychological stress", "coping" OR "psychological adaptation", "Saudi Arabia", "student", and "nurse". Eleven (11) articles met the inclusion criteria. Review of the findings showed moderate to high stress levels in Saudi student nurses that originated mainly from heavy workloads and taking care of patients. However, when the students' demographic characteristics were taken into account, inconclusive results were found, although some evidence showed higher stress levels in higher level students. Both active and passive coping styles were used by nursing students when dealing with stress. Consistent with international studies, Saudi student nurses experience a considerable levels of stress from various sources. Findings may provide a direction for nursing faculty in formulating stress interventions that are empirically tested and culturally appropriate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Academic Stress and Coping Strategies among Students with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the level of academic stress among university students with disabilities and the nature of coping strategies they used to deal with stress. It also examined if there existed significant differences in stress and coping strategies among students with different disabilities and between students with and without ...

  7. Stress coping strategies in hearing-impaired students

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman Akbari; Zohreh Teymori; Shahnam Abolghasemi; Hamidreza Khorshidiyan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: The majority of people experience problems and stressors, such as job layoffs and illnesses during their lives. However, the way people cope with stress varies. According to previous research, use of effective coping strategies can significantly reduce stress and tension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of stress coping strategies on hearing-impaired students.Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control...

  8. Work-Related Stress and Coping Strategies of Professional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bonita C.

    1988-01-01

    Interviewed 20 professional women on their work-related stress and coping processes to identify those who were good and poor at coping. Found that more effective copers seemed to have used problem-focused coping such as seeking information or advice or taking problem-solving action, whereas less effective copers seemed to have used strategies such…

  9. Predicting the Happiness of Adolescents Based on Coping Styles and Religious Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariddanesh, Marjan; Rezaei, Ali Mohammad

    2017-10-11

    The study aimed to predict the happiness of adolescents based on coping styles and religious attitudes. To this end, the correlational research methodology was used. In total, 381 subjects were selected from adolescents of Semnan (Eastern province of Iran), using multistage clustering sampling method. Research tools were Ways of Coping Questionnaire by Lazarus, Golriz and Barahani's Religious Attitude Questionnaire, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results of Pearson's correlation demonstrated a significant positive relationship between happiness of adolescents and variables of problem-focused coping styles (r = 0.31, P happiness (r = -0.184, P happiness in totality. According to the results, it is recommended that use of problem-focused styles be emphasized in addition to strengthening of religious attitudes to increase the happiness of adolescents.

  10. The effects of perceived stress and ways of coping in a sample of Portuguese health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Carlos A

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify the association between perceived stress in work and the types of coping strategies used by Portuguese nurses. The healthcare work environment as a source of overwork and stress has been implicated in today's nursing shortage. Staff nurses play a pivotal role in creating work environments, but little is known about the nature of Portuguese nurses' work. A descriptive correlational design and a cross-sectional approach were used for this study. A total of 102 registered nurses, in three Portuguese hospitals, were selected. The Perceived Stress Scale and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire were used to measure job stress and coping strategies, respectively. High levels of stress were reported by 52·2% of respondents. The results showed that the main stressful factors for nurses are patient death and dying (32·8%), followed by emergency situations (22·8%) and low supportive relationships (18·0%). The most frequently used coping strategy was self-controlling, followed by planful problem-solving and seeking social support. Pearson's correlation tests indicated that the total score of the Perceived Stress Scale significantly negatively correlated with the subscales of the use of coping strategies of seeking social support, self-controlling, planful problem-solving, distancing and escape-avoidance, indicating that those who were more distressed showed lower levels in mentioned coping subscales. Stress in nursing can be best reduced through the application of the control cycle approach and risk assessment/risk management techniques. Stress management of nurses may improve their productivity and quality of life. A change in leadership styles from the managerial level and reallocation of personnel may help reduce job stress. It is important for clinical practitioners to understand theoretical research concerning human stress responses, appraisal and coping to apply knowledge in practice when dealing with a client who has experienced a

  11. Coping with organizational stress among hospital nurses in Southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Paul D; Pongruengphant, Rana; Aggarwal, Bela

    2002-05-01

    Government cutbacks and anticipated staff reductions were hypothesized to be a unique source of organizational stress. The study focused on how nurses coped with stress and whether any strategy effectively reduced occupational stress. A sample of 107 nurses were asked to rate their occupational stress, job satisfaction, and coping strategies. Avoidance and social support were found to be significantly correlated with stress, but neither of these coping strategies appeared to reduce nurses' level of organizational stress. However, an interaction between problem solving and job satisfaction was found to be highly significant and it added 42% to predicting stress levels. Supporting the stress-buffering hypothesis, nurses with lower intrinsic job satisfaction seemed to benefit from employing problem solving as a coping strategy whereas dissatisfied nurses who infrequently use problem solving reported the highest levels of organizational stress. Paradoxically, intrinsically satisfied nurses who most frequently utilize problem solving experienced heightened organizational stress.

  12. Coping style and performance status in a group of oncological inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Chau Pérez-Aranibar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The associations between coping styles, measured by COPE Test, dispositional version (Carver,Scheier and Weintraub, 1989, and Health Status inferred through a performance status, measured by Karnofsky's Index of Behavioral Performance are examined. The study focuses upon 28 oncological in patients. Positive moderate Pearson's correlations were found between these two variables in this correlational-descriptive study. These were interpreted in the following sense: the larger use of the style, the less health status among the scales suppression of competent activities, procrastination of coping, instrumental social support, focusing and releasing of emotions and behavioral disengagement. The active coping scale presented a negative correlationwith regard to Performance Status as a health measure.

  13. Coping strategies as mediator variables between explanatory styles and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sanjuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze the relationships among explanatory styles, coping strategies and depressive symptoms. Path analyses conducted with data of 234 individuals showed that Negative Explanatory Style (tendency to explain negative outcomes through internal, stable, and global causes had both a positive direct effect on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect on them through the use of avoidant strategies. On the contrary, Enhancing Explanatory Style (tendency to explain positive outcomes through internal, stable, and global causes had negative direct and indirect effects on these symptoms, but in this case, the indirect effect occurs through the use of problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring coping and the non-use of avoidant strategies. As a whole, the results suggest that to prevent the onset of depressive symptoms or to reduce them once they appear, enhancing explanatory style and problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring strategies should be promoted.

  14. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in job stress and coping skills among caregivers after dementia care practitioner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Takeya; Takahashi, Megumi; Takai, Michiko; Ikeda, Taichiro; Miyaoka, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Dementia care practitioner training is essential for professional caregivers to acquire medical knowledge and care skills for dementia patients. We investigated the significance of training in stress management by evaluating caregivers' job stress and coping style before and after they have completed training. The subjects included 134 professional caregivers (41 men, 93 women) recruited from participants in training programmes held in Kanagawa Prefecture from August 2008 to March 2010. A survey using a brief job stress questionnaire and a coping scale was carried out before and after they completed their training. A t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of the training. After the training, the scores of modifiers on the job stress scale and of the coping scale increased, whereas the scores of stress reactions on the job stress scale decreased. However, there were no changes in participants' subjective cognition concerning their workplace environment. Furthermore, the change in stress reaction score tended to correlate with the change in consultation score in all participants and with the change in problem-solving and consultation in male participants. Among female participants, the change in stress reaction score tended to correlate with change in support from superiors and colleagues as modifiers. The factors that correlated to the change in stress reaction score differed between genders. The findings suggest that training caregivers improves their stress reaction and coping skills. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  16. The influence of coping styles on long-term employment in multiple sclerosis: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Nina; Skår, Anne Br; Aarseth, Jan Harald; Assmus, Jorg; Farbu, Elisabeth; Lode, Kirsten; Nyland, Harald I; Smedal, Tori; Myhr, Kjell Morten

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate predictive values of coping styles, clinical and demographic factors on time to unemployment in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) during 1998-2002 in Norway. All patients ( N = 108) diagnosed with MS 1998-2002 in Hordaland and Rogaland counties, Western Norway, were invited to participate in the long-term follow-up study in 2002. Baseline recordings included disability scoring (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)), depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)), and questionnaire assessing coping (the Dispositional Coping Styles Scale (COPE)). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with unemployed at baseline, and Cox regression analysis to identify factors at baseline associated with time to unemployment during follow-up. In all, 41 (44%) were employed at baseline. After 13 years follow-up in 2015, mean disease duration of 22 years, 16 (17%) were still employed. Median time from baseline to unemployment was 6 years (±5). Older age at diagnosis, female gender, and depression were associated with patients being unemployed at baseline. Female gender, long disease duration, and denial as avoidant coping strategy at baseline predicted shorter time to unemployment. Avoidant coping style, female gender, and longer disease duration were associated with shorter time to unemployment. These factors should be considered when advising patients on MS and future employment.

  17. Maternal Stress and Coping Strategies in Developmental Dyslexia: An Italian Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Marco; Messina, Antonietta; Monda, Vincenzo; Precenzano, Francesco; Iacono, Diego; Verrotti, Alberto; Piccorossi, Alessandra; Gallai, Beatrice; Roccella, Michele; Parisi, Lucia; Maltese, Agata; Lavano, Francesco; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Lanzara, Valentina; Ferrentino, Roberta Ida; Pisano, Simone; Salerno, Margherita; Valenzano, Anna; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Polito, Anna N; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni; Ruberto, Maria; Esposito, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the impact of developmental dyslexia (DD) on parenting are scarce. Our investigation aimed to assess maternal stress levels and mothers' copying styles in a population of dyslexic children. A total of 874 children (500 boys, 374 girls; mean age 8.32 ± 2.33 years) affected by DD was included in the study. A total of 1,421 typically developing children (789 boys, 632 girls; mean age 8.25 ± 3.19 years) were recruited from local schools of participating Italian Regions (Abruzzo, Calabria, Campania, Puglia, Umbria, Sicily) and used as control-children group. All mothers (of both DD and typically developing children) filled out an evaluation for parental stress (Parenting Stress Index-Short Form) and coping strategies [Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS)]. No statistical differences for mean age ( p  = 0.456) and gender ( p  = 0.577) were found between DD and control children. Mothers of children affected by DD showed an higher rate of all parental stress indexes (Parental Distress domain p  Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction p  styles than mothers of typical developing children. On the other hand, a lower representation of task-oriented coping style was found in mothers of DD children ( p  importance to assess parents, particularly mothers, to improve family compliance and clinical management of this disorder.

  18. Stress-coping morbidity among family members of addiction patients in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kae Meng Thomas; Manning, Victoria; Teoh, Hui Chin; Winslow, Munidasa; Lee, Arthur; Subramaniam, Mythily; Guo, Song; Wong, Kim Eng

    2011-07-01

    INTRODUCTIONS AND AIMS: Research from western countries indicates that family members of addiction patients report heightened stress and psychological morbidity. This current study aimed to examine stress, coping behaviours, related morbidity and subsequent resource utilisation among family members of patients attending a national treatment program in Singapore. The study used a matched case-control design. One hundred family members of addiction patients attending treatment and 100 matched controls completed a semi-structured interview with a researcher. This included the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Short-Form Health Survey-36, General Health Questionnaire-28, Perceived Stress Scale, Family Member Impact Scale and Coping Questionnaire, and also assessed service utilisation. T-tests revealed significantly greater depression, stress and psychiatric morbidity and poorer overall well-being (Short-Form Health Survey-36) among family members compared with controls. Despite the apparent negative impact on mental health, their physical morbidity did not differ from controls and services utilisation was low. Tolerant-inactive coping was found to be most strongly correlated with psychological well-being. Multivariate analysis indicated that perceived stress was the strongest predictor of overall strain (General Health Questionnaire), but this was not moderated by coping style. Subjective appraisal of stress and coping responses are essential factors affecting the morbidity of family members. Family members demonstrated a need and willingness to engage in formal treatment/counselling for their own problems that were attributed to living with an addiction patient. This provides an opportunity for stress management and brief interventions to modify coping styles, thereby minimizing the potential negative mental health impact on family members. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  20. Functional status in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms : Coping styles and their relationship with depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sempértegui, Gabriela A; Karreman, A.; van Hout, G.C.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how coping styles are related to functional status in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms and to what extent depression and anxiety account for this relationship. In 90 Dutch adult patients presenting medically unexplained physical symptoms, coping styles,

  1. Coping Styles of Adolescents Experiencing Multiple Forms of Discrimination and Bullying: Evidence from a Sample of Ethnically Diverse Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Bernice R.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Williams, David R.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Background: We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to characterize coping styles of urban youth and examined if coping styles moderated the association between experiencing discrimination and bullying and depressive symptoms. Methods: The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, where students were asked to select 2 behaviors they do most often…

  2. Stress coping strategies among agricultural extension agents in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress coping strategies among agricultural extension agents in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or ... Employees should have control over work flow to reduce work stress and increase work efficiency.

  3. Health Education Strategies for Coping with Academic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the significance of health education strategies for coping with academic stress. Comprehensive health education strategies for coping with academic stress can help students obtain the greatest benefits from education and become healthy and productive adults .One child out of four has an emotional, social,…

  4. An Evaluation Of Academic Stress And Coping Mechanism Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed and evaluated academic stress coping mechanisms adopted by married female students in Nigerian tertiary institutions. This was with the aim of exploring the influence of academic stress on married female students‟ academic performance and their coping strategies used to enhance their academic ...

  5. Strategies for Coping with Stress and Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Genevieve Rogge

    This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal…

  6. Perceptions of schizophrenia and coping styles in caregivers: comparison between India and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhaj, S; Jose, A E; Golay, P; Favrod, J

    2016-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Negative perceptions of illnesses can increase caregivers' use of ineffective coping strategies, which may increase their burdens and distress. Scientific and theoretical framework showed that culture and health organization system influence perception of illnesses and thus also has an impact on the coping strategies used. There is a lack of data on comparative perceptions of illnesses and coping styles between India and Switzerland and that is why this hypothesis needs to be confirmed. The comparison between two countries with large cultural and socioeconomics differences will provide a more significant impact. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This cultural comparative study explores the associations between representations of illness and three forms of coping styles (i.e. problem-focused, emotion-focused and social support-focused coping) among caregivers of people diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Mangalore, India, and in French-speaking Switzerland. Results showed significant differences between Swiss and Indian caregivers practically in all illness' perceptions and coping styles, which is in accord with the theoretical framework. However, two results showed also similarities: the perception that schizophrenia can have cyclical episodes and that it can have negative consequences for caregivers. These differences and similarities allow to confirm the hypothesis that culture and health organization system influence illness' perception which impact the used coping styles. However, to develop specific nursing interventions for each culture, more research is needed to specify qualitatively the content of these differences and similarities. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Knowledge of how culture influences perceptions and coping styles is essential to develop quality interventions. Nurses should evaluate caregivers' perceptions and the causes they attribute to illnesses to help them maintain or

  7. Coping Styles with Student Misbehavior as Mediators of Teachers' Classroom Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Dat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to identify how teachers' use of various coping styles with student misbehavior, and the extent to which these relate to their classroom management techniques -- punishment, recognition and reward, hinting, discussion, and aggression. It examines data from 397 junior high school teachers in Vietnam. The results…

  8. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; van Beusekom, G.; Sandfort, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from

  9. Psychological distress and styles of coping in parents of children awaiting elective cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utens, E. M.; Versluis-den Bieman, H. J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Witsenburg, M.; Bogers, A. J.; Hess, J.

    2000-01-01

    We sought to assess the level of psychological distress, and the styles of coping of, parents of children with congenital heart disease. The study was based on questionnaires, which were completed, on average, four weeks, with a range from 0.1 to 22.1 weeks, prior to elective cardiac surgery or

  10. Social Support and Coping Styles in Predicting Suicide Probability among Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Önder, Fulya

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the perceived social support and coping styles are predictors of suicide probability by gender. The study was conducted with 445 high schools students, 227 girls, and 218 boys. The participants were aged between 14 and 18, and their average age was 15.90. Data were collected through the "Multidimensional…

  11. Forced and voluntary exercise counteract insulin resistance in rats : The role of coping style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Barf, R. Paulien; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    There are large individual differences in the success rates of exercise intervention programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that differences in coping style may impact the success rates of these intervention

  12. Effect of social defeat in a territorial bird (Parus major) selected for different coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C.; Welink, D.; Drent, P.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2001-01-01

    We addressed the questions (i) whether a social defeat triggers similar autonomic and behavioral responses in birds as is known from mammals and (ii) whether individuals that differ in coping style differ in their reaction to a social defeat. Adult captive male great tits (Parus major) from either

  13. Effect of social defeat in a territorial bird (Parus major) selected for different coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C; Welink, D; Drent, Piet J.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    We addressed the questions (i) whether a social defeat triggers similar autonomic and behavioral responses in birds as is known from mammals and (ii) whether individuals that differ in coping style differ in their reaction to a social defeat. Adult captive male great tits (Parus major) from either

  14. Coping Strategies in the Workplace: Relationships with Attributional Style and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Jennifer L.; Eggerth, Donald; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Sanchez, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    This paper examined the relationships between workplace coping strategies, occupational attributional style, and job satisfaction among a sample of 190 nurses employed with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. As an occupational group, nurses experience high levels of chronic workplace stressors. Participants completed a questionnaire packet…

  15. The Role of Perceived Social Support and Coping Styles in Predicting Adolescents' Positivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, Gülsen Büyüksahin; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali

    2017-01-01

    The current research aims to examine the perceived social support and coping styles predicting positivity. Research participants included 268 adolescents, attending high school, with 147 females (54.9%) and 121 males (45.1%). Adolescents participating in the research were 14 to 18 years old and their average age was 16.12 with SD = 1.01. Research…

  16. Contrasting coping styles meet the wall: A dopamine driven dichotomy in behavior and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Erik; Silva, Patricia Isabel da Mota E.; Vindas, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    Individual variation in the ability to modify previously learned behavior is an important dimension of trait correlations referred to as coping styles, behavioral syndromes or personality. These trait clusters have been shaped by natural selection, and underlying control mechanisms are often cons...

  17. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care for Minor Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…

  18. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  19. Similar serotonin-2A receptor binding in rats with different coping styles or levels of aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek Kd; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders Bue

    2015-01-01

    is not an important molecular marker for coping style. Since neither an antagonist nor an agonist tracer showed any binding differences, it is unlikely that the affinity state of the 5-HT2A R is co-varying with levels of aggression or active avoidance in WTG, RHA and RLA. This article is protected by copyright. All...

  20. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma Hubertine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the helplessness and acceptance subscales of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire. Coping styles were assessed using the Coping Inventory Stressful Situations (CISS21) and societal participation was assessed using the Impact on Participation and Autonomy. A multiple mediator model was developed and tested by structural equation modeling on cross-sectional data. We corrected for confounding by disease-related factors. Mediation was determined using a product-of-coefficients approach. A significant relationship existed between appraisal and participation (β = 0.21, 95 % CI 0.04-0.39). The pathways via coping styles were not significant. In patients with severe MS-related fatigue, appraisal and societal participation show a positive relationship that is not mediated by coping styles.

  1. Failure to upregulate Agrp and Orexin in response to activity based anorexia in weight loss vulnerable rats characterized by passive stress coping and prenatal stress experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Liang, Nu-Chu; Lee, Richard S; Albertz, Jennifer D; Kastelein, Anneke; Moody, Laura A; Aryal, Shivani; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that anorexia nervosa (AN) poses a physiological stress. Therefore, the way an individual copes with stress may affect AN vulnerability. Since prenatal stress (PNS) exposure alters stress responsivity in offspring this may increase their risk of developing AN. We tested this hypothesis using the activity based anorexia (ABA) rat model in control and PNS rats that were characterized by either proactive or passive stress-coping behavior. We found that PNS passively coping rats ate less and lost more weight during the ABA paradigm. Exposure to ABA resulted in higher baseline corticosterone and lower insulin levels in all groups. However, leptin levels were only decreased in rats with a proactive stress-coping style. Similarly, ghrelin levels were increased only in proactively coping ABA rats. Neuropeptide Y (Npy) expression was increased and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression was decreased in all rats exposed to ABA. In contrast, agouti-related peptide (Agrp) and orexin (Hctr) expression were increased in all but the PNS passively coping ABA rats. Furthermore, DNA methylation of the orexin gene was increased after ABA in proactive coping rats and not in passive coping rats. Overall our study suggests that passive PNS rats have innate impairments in leptin and ghrelin in responses to starvation combined with prenatal stress associated impairments in Agrp and orexin expression in response to starvation. These impairments may underlie decreased food intake and associated heightened body weight loss during ABA in the passively coping PNS rats. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Homophobic Violence, Coping Styles, Visibility Management, and Mental Health: A Survey of Flemish Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haese, Lies; Dewaele, Alexis; Houtte, Mieke Van

    2016-09-01

    The understanding of how lesbians, gays, and bisexuals cope with homophobic violence is limited. Therefore, on the one hand, this study focuses on avoidance, problem-oriented, and emotion-oriented coping as general coping styles. On the other hand, special attention is paid to visibility management as a coping strategy that can be applied in a heteronormative context. Moreover, the moderating role of general coping styles and visibility management in the relationship between homophobic violence and negative mental health outcomes is studied. Data were collected from 1,402 Flemish lesbians, gays, and bisexuals. Stepwise regression analyses shows that coping styles and visibility management have a direct effect on mental health; however, no evidence for a moderating effect is found. Additionally, visibility management and emotion-oriented coping are found to exert a combined effect on mental health.

  3. Comparing two self-report measures of coping--the Sense of Coherence Scale and the Defense Style Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammallahti, P R; Holi, M J; Komulainen, E J; Aalberg, V A

    1996-09-01

    Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and Bond's Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) were compared in a sample of 334 community controls and 122 psychiatric outpatients. The major question was, whether the two coping inventories with different theoretical backgrounds-stress research vs. psycho-analysis-tap similar phenomena. The affinity of the two coping measures was evident: in multiple regression analysis defenses explained 68% of the variance in sense of coherence. Not surprisingly, the SOC scale-emerging out of the salutogenic orientation-showed more expertise in measuring how people manage when they do well, whereas the DSQ-with its theoretical roots deep in psychopathology-was most sensitive to how people manage when they do rather poorly.

  4. Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2008-07-01

    A limitation of the sport psychology coping literature is the amount of time between a stressful episode and the recall of the coping strategies used in the stressful event (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a technique to measure acute stress and coping during performance. Five high-performance adolescent golfers took part in Level 2 verbalization think aloud trials (Ericsson & Simon, 1993), which involved participants verbalizing their thoughts, over six holes of golf. Verbal reports were audio-recorded during each performance, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). The results also revealed information regarding the sequential patterning of stress and coping, suggesting that the golfers experienced up to five stressors before reporting a coping strategy. Think aloud appears a suitable method to collect concurrent stress and coping data.

  5. Terrorism, post-traumatic stress, coping strategies, and spiritual outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenhelder, Janice Bell; Marcum, John P

    2009-03-01

    This mail survey measured post-traumatic stress symptoms, spiritual and non-spiritual coping strategies, and positive spiritual outcomes following the tragedies of 9/11/01 in a national, random sample of 1,056 Presbyterians. Respondents reported mild to moderate degrees of re-experiencing and hyper-arousal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, unrelated to location or knowing someone involved. People experiencing high stress used greater frequency and variety of both spiritual and non-spiritual types of coping strategies. Positive spiritual outcomes were remarkably related to positive spiritual coping strategies, in contrast to no association with negative coping. This study illustrates the significant degree of post-traumatic stress experienced with vicarious exposure and a wide spectrum of coping strategies used following the major terrorist attacks.

  6. Predicting behavior during interracial interactions: a stress and coping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawalter, Sophie; Richeson, Jennifer A; Shelton, J Nicole

    2009-11-01

    The social psychological literature maintains unequivocally that interracial contact is stressful. Yet research and theory have rarely considered how stress may shape behavior during interracial interactions. To address this empirical and theoretical gap, the authors propose a framework for understanding and predicting behavior during interracial interactions rooted in the stress and coping literature. Specifically, they propose that individuals often appraise interracial interactions as a threat, experience stress, and therefore cope-they antagonize, avoid, freeze, or engage. In other words, the behavioral dynamics of interracial interactions can be understood as initial stress reactions and subsequent coping responses. After articulating the framework and its predictions for behavior during interracial interactions, the authors examine its ability to organize the extant literature on behavioral dynamics during interracial compared with same-race contact. They conclude with a discussion of the implications of the stress and coping framework for improving research and fostering more positive interracial contact.

  7. Occupational Stress and Coping Resources of K-12 Probationary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure what factors impact the stress levels of probationary teachers who may or may not be new to the field of education, to determine what demographic characteristics are related to higher levels of stress, to determine what coping resources were successful in reducing stress, and to compare the stress levels and…

  8. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.

  9. Psychosocial mediation of religious coping styles: a study of short-term psychological distress following cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Park, Crystal L; Huang, Bu; Rodgers, Willard; Tice, Terrence N

    2007-06-01

    Although religiousness and religious coping styles are well-documented predictors of well-being, research on the mechanisms through which religious coping styles operate is sparse. This prospective study examined religious coping styles, hope, and social support as pathways of the influence of general religiousness (religious importance and involvement) on the reduced postoperative psychological distress of 309 cardiac patients. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that controlling for preoperative distress, gender, and education, religiousness contributed to positive religious coping, which in turn was associated with less distress via a path fully mediated by the secular factors of social support and hope. Furthermore, negative religious coping styles, although correlated at the bivariate level with preoperative distress but not with religiousness, were associated both directly and indirectly with greater post-operative distress via the same mediators.

  10. [The assessment of the level of coping style and health locus of control in patients with coronary heart disease and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opuchlik, Katarzyna; Wrzesińska, Magdalena; Kocur, Józef

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of the level of coping style and health locus of control in patients with coronary heart disease and hypertension. The sample studied consisted of 112 patients (81 M, 31 F) at the age of 35-65 years. Two groups participated in the study; first with coronary heart disease and hypertension and second with hypertension without other diseases. The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale were used in the study. Two groups of patients used the most frequent task-oriented coping style. The significant differences were seen between groups in the external health locus of control (t = 2.113; p locus of control. Patients with coronary heart disease and hypertension declare for external locus of control.

  11. Comparing Personality Traits , Coping Strategies, and Attributional Styles of Opioid-Dependent Patients and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Moradi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is carried on to compare personality traits, coping strategies, and attributional styles of opiate-dependent patients and healthy people. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sctional and comparative research, three scales Eysenk Personality Questionaire RS (EPQ-RS, Coping Response Inventory (CRI, and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ are used to measure the mentioned variables on 158 people (78 opiate-dependent patient and 80 healthy people selected by accessible sampling method. Research data were examined on the basis of T-test for independent groups and logistic regression. Results: Results of T-test showed that there were significant differences between healthy and patient group in Coping Response Inventory and Personality Traits Subscale(except Lying subscale and attribution styles for negative events (P<0.001. Logistic regression results showed that all of these variables which entered in model, are able to predict distinction one group from other patient group and healthy one in a meaningful way(P<0.001. Conclusion: opiate-dependent patients when they face problems significantly use problem-solving strategies, social support seeking, and cognitive evaluation significantly less than healthy group and use physical inhibition and emotional inhibition significantly more than the healthy group. Also, drug-dependent patients in terms of tendency to Neuroticism, psychoticism and introversion were significantly higher than the healthy group, and they had more pessimistic attributional style towards negative events. On the other hand it became apparent that some aspects of personality characteristics, coping strategies, and attributional style considerably were able to distinguish healthy people from opiate-dependent patients.

  12. Differences in change in coping styles between good responders, moderate responders and non-responders to pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilkova-Hartmann, Ana; Janssen, Daisy J A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise tolerance and health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data on the effects of PR on coping styles are limited. Aim of the present study was to compare changes in coping styles between patients who had a good, moderate and no improvement in either exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Coping styles of 439 COPD patients undergoing PR were assessed by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL) at baseline and after PR. Patients' pulmonary function, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D) were recorded. Good, moderate and non-responders were defined on the basis of minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for SGRQ total score and/or 6MWD. Overall, 54.0% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for good responders, while 22.1% were moderate responders. Change in passive reaction pattern coping style differed significantly between good responders and non-responders following PR (p styles after PR occurred among the good responders, whereas the majority of moderate responders' and non-responders' coping styles were not significantly influenced by PR. Good responders decreased their passive reaction pattern coping style in contrast to non-responders after PR. In general, PR did not change the coping among moderate and non-responders. Further research is warranted to determine whether including interventions targeting coping styles may modify coping behaviour of COPD patients, as well as improvement in exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparison of Coping Styles and Quality of Life in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Salehi omran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the medical world one of the most interaction between body and mind are related to coronary heart disease and it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. For this reason, identifying psychological risk factors in this context is necessary. In this regard, this study was performed with aimed to coping styles and quality of life in CHD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional performed on 100 patients with coronary heart disease and 100 healthy subjects. Data was collected through Lazarus and Folkman coping styles questionnaires that included four problematic coping and  four emotion-focused coping style and quality of life of the World Health Organization in four aspects of  physical, psychological, environmental and social relationship with demographic characteristics were collected and compared. FINDINGS: The mean of direct confrontive coping style in patients (8.75±2.81 were significantly more than healthy individuals (7.95±2.86 (p=0.036, the mean of escape-avoidance coping style in patients (9.80±4.59 were significantly more than healthy individuals (8.38±4.25 (p=0.045, and was not found significant difference between two groups in Problem-focused coping style, Also there was a significant difference in quality of life between two groups, in the physical health domain (p=0.000, psychological domain(p=0.001, social relationship domain (p=0.007 and environmental domain (p=0.003. CONCLUSION: Result showed that the quality of life in CHD patients were lower than healthy individuals and CHD patients used direct confrontive coping style and escape-avoidance coping style, more than healthy individuals. Therefore this two styles can be considered as risk factors for CHD.

  14. Relationship between job stress level and coping strategies used by Hong Kong nurses working in an acute surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenru; Kong, Amelia Wai Man; Chair, Sek Ying

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between job stress and coping strategies of Hong Kong nurses working in an acute surgical unit. This is a descriptive correlational study. Data were collected from 98 Hong Kong surgical nurses using the Nursing Stress Scale and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. Results showed that workload (M = 15.36), lack of support (M = 13.32), and inadequate preparation (M = 12.33) are the most common stressors for Hong Kong surgical nurses. The most frequent strategies used by nurses to cope with stress can be characterized as evasive (M = 19.23), confrontive (M = 17.46), and optimistic (M = 15.81), all of which are also rated as the most effective strategies in reducing stress levels. Only the confrontive, optimistic, supportant, and emotive coping strategies reveal significant correlations (p stress levels of nurses, whereas the evasive, fatalistic, palliative, and self-reliant strategies showed no significant correlation with stress levels (p > .05). Recognizing the impacts of job-related stress and making use of effective coping methods play a vital role in reducing nurse's stress. A change in leadership styles from the managerial level and reallocation of manpower may help reduce job stress. The use of confrontive and optimistic coping strategies in reducing job-related stress for surgical nurses should be advocated and promoted in their daily work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationships among symptom severity, coping styles, and quality of life in community-dwelling women with urinary incontinence: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongjuan; Liu, Nana; Qu, Haili; Chen, Liqin; Wang, Kefang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships among symptom severity, coping styles, and quality of life (QOL) in community-dwelling women with urinary incontinence (UI). A total of 592 women with UI participated in this cross-sectional study. Bivariate Pearson's correlation was used to examine the correlations between symptom severity, coping styles, and QOL. Multivariate regression models and Sobel tests were used to test the mediating effect of coping styles. Additionally, a multiple mediator model was used to examine the mediating role of coping styles collectively. All regression models were adjusted for age, education, marital status, income, duration of UI, and type of UI. Participants tended to use avoidant and palliative coping styles and not use instrumental coping style. Avoidant and palliative coping styles were associated with poor QOL, and partially mediated the association between symptom severity and QOL. Nearly 73% of the adverse effect of symptom severity on QOL was mediated by avoidant and palliative coping styles. The use of avoidant and palliative coping styles was higher with more severe urine leakage, and QOL tended to be poorer. Coping styles should be addressed in UI management. It may be of particular value to look closely at negative coping styles and implement education and training of patients in improving their coping skills related to managing UI, which will in turn improve their QOL.

  16. Stress and ways of coping among nurse managers: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Leocadio, Michael C; Van Bogaert, Peter; Cummings, Greta G

    2018-04-01

    To appraise and synthesise empirical studies examining sources of occupational stress and ways of coping utilised by nurse managers when dealing with stress. The Nurse Manager's role is challenging yet draining and stressful and has adverse consequences on an individual's overall health and well-being, patients' outcomes and organisational productivity. Considerable research has been carried out; however, an updated and broader perspective on this critical organisational issue has not been performed. An integrative review. Five databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS, PubMed, PsychINFO and MEDLINE) were searched to identify relevant articles. Search terms and MeSH terms included: "charge nurse," "coping," "coping strategy," "coping style," "psychological adaptation," "psychological stress," "stressors," "nurse manager" and "unit manager." Twenty-two articles were included in this review. Reporting followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guidelines. Four themes were identified: moderate stress levels, common sources of stress, ways of coping and the impact of nurses' characteristics on stress. Nurse managers experienced moderate levels of stress mainly from heavy workloads, lack of resources and financial responsibilities. Enhancing social support and promoting job control were seen as important in reducing work stress and its related consequences. Additional studies using a more rigorous method and a larger sample size preferably in multicultural settings would shed more light on this topic. Hospital and nurse administrators play an important role in promoting supportive structures for daily professional practice for nurse managers through staffing, organisational resources, support services, leadership and stress management training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Stress Coping Strategies among Agricultural Extension Agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Therefore, managing job stress with various coping strategies in an organization such as Oyo ... level of relationship between job stressors and coping strategies. ..... Behavior. 2nd(Ed). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. pp295-31. ... Lietal, Y. X., Yang, X., &Shen, J. L. (2007). The relationship between teachers'.

  18. Effects of a Risk and Resilience Course on Stress, Coping Skills, and Cognitive Strategies in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, Jess P.; Diamond, Ursula; Zhao, Yihong; DiMeglio, John; Chodaczek, Michaela; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the impact of the skills-building component of a two-semester risk and resilience (R&R) course on the stress, coping skills, and cognitive style of 36 undergraduates compared to 62 students enrolled in a child and adolescent psychopathology course. In the fall, students learned about risk taking and decision-making as well as…

  19. Stress and coping mechanisms of nursing students during clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... Stress impacts negatively and positively depending on how effectively the ... in the clinical area and used coping strategies that were mainly relationship-based. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Physical activity and stress coping in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Andréa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the value of a physical activity program on stress coping of the elderly. Methods: Intervention study with a group of 18 elderly people referred by the Geriatric Service of Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo, who attended a supervised exercise program, evaluated by the human activity profile and the coping questionnaire. Results: In the coping and functional performance scales, increased stress coping capacity and improvement of daily activities were found after exposure to a physical activity program. Conclusions: The practice of supervised and regular physical activity, combining aerobic, resistance, stretching, and respiratory exercises, yields positive effects in the coping capacity and in the accomplishment of the daily activities.

  1. Coping Style Modifies General and Affective Autonomic Reactions of Domestic Pigs in Different Behavioral Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Krause

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on individual adaptive strategies (coping, animals may react differently to environmental challenges in terms of behavior and physiology according to their emotional perception. Emotional valence as well as arousal may be derived by measuring vagal and sympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. We investigated the situation-dependent autonomic response of 16 domestic pigs with either a reactive or a proactive coping style, previously selected according to the backtest which is accepted in piglets to assess escape behavior. At 11 weeks of age, the pigs were equipped with an implantable telemetric device, and heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP and their respective variabilities (HRV, BPV were recorded for 1 h daily over a time period of 10 days and analyzed in four behavioral contexts (resting, feeding, idling, handling. Additionally, the first minute of feeding and handling was used for a short-term analysis of these parameters in 10-s intervals. Data from day 1–3 (period 1 and day 8–10 (period 2 were grouped into two separate periods. Our results revealed general differences between the coping styles during feeding, resting and handling, with proactive pigs showing higher HR compared to reactive pigs. This elevated HR was based on either lower vagal (resting or elevated sympathetic activation (feeding, handling. The short-term analysis of the autonomic activation during feeding revealed a physiological anticipation reaction in proactive pigs in period 1, whereas reactive pigs showed this reaction only in period 2. Food intake was characterized by sympathetic arousal with concurrent vagal withdrawal, which was more pronounced in proactive pigs. In contrast, neither coping style resulted in an anticipation reaction to handling. Vagal activation increased in reactive pigs during handling, while proactive pigs showed an increase in sympathetically driven arousal in period 2. Our findings confirm significant context

  2. Attachment Styles To The Father and Coping Strategies Among Early Adolescents In Banda Aceh City

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmawati, Fatmawati; Muhammad Alwi Zainuddin, Nuzsep Almigo Bin

    2014-01-01

    This present study sought to investigate the relationship between attachment styles to the father and coping strategies among early adolescents. The population that has been studied was the seventh grade students ofin one of junior high school in Banda Aceh city that meet the established criteria, specifically at least 12 years old and still have father. The sampling technique applied was universal sampling because the number of eligible population was only 81 students. Total of samples taken...

  3. Coping Flexibility: Influencing Appraisals of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-25

    organism was exposed to fear- inducing stimuli (Cannon and de la Paz, 1911 ). The substance Wsympathin", later to be named epinephrine, was identified...coping repertoire must playa role in this process. Rigid application of problem-focused coping across controllable and uncontrollable situations may...cabbage :e a splice C a steak D a paper box .::. a fish 3. To stop severe bleeding A a razor blade B a lima bean C a light bulb D a shoe E

  4. Effects of systematic mental intervention on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-zhen WANG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effects of systematic mental intervention, with combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits, and explore an optimal intervention model for recruits' mental health. Methods  Two thousand and sixteen recruits in one unit were involved in the present study, among them 1064 were allocated to study group, and the remaining 952 to control group. Recruits in study group received centralized teaching with battalion as a unit, and received group interview in squad or platoon as a unit, and meanwhile individual interview was conducted. Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ were filled one month after they were enlisted in the army and 3 days before the training ended. Recruits in control group undertook the same tests mentioned above only 3 days before the training ended. Results  The total score and factor scores except hostility in SCL-90 test were significantly lower after than before systematic mental intervention (P0.05. The total score and factor scores except paranoia in SCL-90 test were significantly lower in study group than in control group after intervention (P0.05, the score of active coping was significantly higher (P<0.001, and of negative coping was significantly lower (P<0.001 after than before intervention. The ratio of the score over 2 and above declined obviously (P<0.05 in neurosis, SCL-90 abnormality, SCL-90 total scores, number of positive items, somatization, obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, paranoid, and psychotic factor after than before intervention in recruits. Conclusion  Systematic mental intervention, which consisted of combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, may promote the mental health, personality and coping style in recruits.

  5. Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eMagara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.

  6. Psychotherapeutic Methods of Coping with Stress in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol TURAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an inevitable part of life. Knowing the ways of coping with stress are necessary to preserve our mental and physical health and to maintain good social and/or occupational functioning in daily life activities. Different ways of coping with stress have been developed throughout history. Various type of therapies offer quite effective remedies for coping with stress in everyday life. Among psychotherapeutic treatments cognitive behavioral therapy which involves teaching stressful individuals to develop coping strategies have yielded very promising results. It is helpful to determine first whether stress source can be changed, several therapeutic approaches may then be used. Lazarus and Folkman have identified two major approaches for coping with stress so-called "problem-focused" and "emotion-focused". In "problem-focused" approaches targets are acquiring time management, self-monitoring, problem-solving skills, while in "emotion-focused" approaches, through ways of accepting or rejecting of stress associated negative emotions, or reconciling with these emotions, the target is learning how to keep emotions under control. "Problem-focused" and "emotion-focused" approaches may independently be used effectively in appropriate cases, their simultaneous practice may increase chances of successful treatment. Apart from this methods, psychodynamic therapy may be indicated in some cases. [JCBPR 2015; 4(3.000: 133-140

  7. How coping styles, cognitive distortions, and attachment predict problem gambling among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Recent research suggests that youth problem gambling is associated with several factors, but little is known how these factors might influence or interact each other in predicting this behavior. Consequently, this is the first study to examine the mediation effect of coping styles in the relationship between attachment to parental figures and problem gambling. Methods A total of 988 adolescents and emerging adults were recruited to participate. The first set of analyses tested the adequacy of a model comprising biological, cognitive, and family variables in predicting youth problem gambling. The second set of analyses explored the relationship between family and individual variables in problem gambling behavior. Results The results of the first set of analyses demonstrated that the individual factors of gender, cognitive distortions, and coping styles showed a significant predictive effect on youth problematic gambling, and the family factors of attachment and family structure did not reveal a significant influence on this behavior. The results of the second set of analyses demonstrated that the attachment dimension of angry distress exerted a more indirect influence on problematic gambling, through emotion-focused coping style. Discussion This study revealed that some family variables can have a more indirect effect on youth gambling behavior and provided some insights in how some factors interact in predicting problem gambling. Conclusion These findings suggest that youth gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and that the indirect effects of family variables are important in estimating the complex social forces that might influence adolescent decisions to gamble.

  8. Coping in Parkinson's disease: an examination of the coping inventory for stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C S; Thomas, B A; Burn, D J; Hindle, J V; Landau, S; Samuel, M; Wilson, K C M; Brown, R G

    2011-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) brings with it a range of stresses and challenges with which a patient must cope. The type of coping strategies employed can impact upon well-being, although findings from coping studies in PD remain inconsistent. The variety of coping scales used without validation in PD has been cited as a possible cause of this inconsistency. The present study sought to examine the validity of the coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS) in a sample of patients with PD. Five hundred and twenty-five patients with PD were recruited as part of a longitudinal investigation of mood states in PD. Four hundred and seventy-one participants completed the CISS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the structural validity of the scale. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity were assessed using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlations and Pearson's correlations. Both three and four factor solutions were examined. The four factor model was found to provide a better fit of the data than the three factor model. The internal reliability, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the CISS scales were shown to be good. Use of emotion-focused coping was associated with greater depression and anxiety whilst, task-oriented coping was associated with better psychological well-being. The results provide support for the validity and reliability of the CISS as a measure of coping in patients with PD. Further research into the relationship between coping and well-being is warranted. The identification of helpful and unhelpful coping strategies may guide the development of evidence-based therapies to improve well-being in patients with PD. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Relationships of Personality, Affect, Emotional Intelligence and Coping with Student Stress and Academic Success: Different Patterns of Association for Stress and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklofske, Donald H.; Austin, Elizabeth J.; Mastoras, Sarah M.; Beaton, Laura; Osborne, Shona E.

    2012-01-01

    The associations of personality, affect, trait emotional intelligence (EI) and coping style measured at the start of the academic year with later academic performance were examined in a group of undergraduate students at the University of Edinburgh. The associations of the dispositional and affect measures with concurrent stress and life…

  10. Occupational stress, mental health and coping among information technology professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jakkula V; Chandraiah, K

    2012-01-01

    Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employees collected from Nuclear Fuel Complex of Hyderabad City. A well developed sub-scales of Occupational Stress indicator like Mental Health, and Coping behavior were used in the present study. The shop floor workers experiencing more job stress and lower mental health. But these two groups did not differ in their coping behaviour. The executives are better with work home balance.

  11. The relationship between clinical indicators, coping styles, perceived support and diabetes-related distress among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Bjørg; Oftedal, Bjørg; Bru, Edvin

    2012-02-01

    This article is a report of a cross-sectional study examining the degree to which clinical indicators, coping styles and perceived support from healthcare professionals and family are related to diabetes-related distress. Many people with type 2 diabetes experience high levels of distress stemming from concerns and worries associated with their disease. Diabetes-related distress has predominantly been studied in relation to diabetes management and metabolic control, and to some extent in relation to coping styles and perceived social support. To date, little is known about the relative contribution of clinical indicators, coping styles and perceptions of social support to perceived distress among people with type 2 diabetes. A sample comprising 425 Norwegian adults, aged 30-70, with type 2 diabetes, completed questionnaires assessing coping styles, perceived social support from health professionals and family and diabetes-related distress assessed by the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale. Demographical and clinical data were collected by self-report. Data were collected in October 2008.   Results from the regression analyses showed a greater variance in emotional distress accounted for by coping styles (21·3%) and perceived support (19·7%) than by clinical indicators (5·8%). FINDINGS may indicate that healthcare providers should pay more attention to non-clinical factors such as coping styles and social support, when addressing diabetes-related distress. They should also be aware that interventions based on psychosocial approaches may primarily influence distress, and not necessarily metabolic control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasempour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  13. Stress in Professional Classes: Causes, Manifestations, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Fred F.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates whether students in professional journalism and mass communication classes experience class-related stress, what factors contribute to the stress, and whether that stress changes over time. Finds that students perceive stress in their professional course work, and reveals general stress patterns over the 15-week semester. (SR)

  14. How nurses cope with occupational stress outside their workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Dwyer, Trudy; Caperchione, Cristina M; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Burke, Karena J

    2013-01-01

    Nursing is acknowledged as a stressful occupation, and the negative impact of high stress levels have been widely researched. Less attention has been paid to methods for coping with stress. The researchers conducted a study to explore and identify how nurses cope with work-related stress away from their work environments. Six focus groups were conducted with 38 nurses, including nursing directors, nurse unit managers, and ward nurses from a wide range of clinical areas. From the interview material, 11 coping strategies were identified: drinking alcohol, smoking, using the staff social club, using social networking websites, exercising, family activities, home-based activities, outdoor activities, avoiding people, displacement, and sleep. Although several adaptive strategies appear in this list (e.g., exercising, home-based activities), some nurses were using unhealthy behaviours to cope with work-related stress (e.g., drinking alcohol, smoking, displacement). This study clearly demonstrates the value of using qualitative approaches to understanding how nurses cope with stress. Knowledge produced locally, such as that generated for the hospital in this study, should serve as the foundation for organisational strategies to enhance the health of nurses.

  15. Active coping with stress suppresses glucose metabolism in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yumie; Lin, Hsiao-Chun; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Chen, Hui-Hsing; Yang, Pai-Feng; Lai, Wen-Sung; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Onozuka, Minoru; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2012-03-01

    We used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose small-animal positron-emission tomography to determine whether different styles of coping with stress are associated with different patterns of neuronal activity in the hypothalamus. Adult rats were subjected to immobilization (IMO)-stress or to a non-immobilized condition for 30 min, in random order on separate days, each of which was followed by brain-scanning. Some rats in the immobilized condition were allowed to actively cope with the stress by chewing a wooden stick during IMO, while the other immobilized rats were given nothing to chew on. Voxel-based statistical analysis of the brain imaging data shows that chewing counteracted the stress-induced increased glucose uptake in the hypothalamus to the level of the non-immobilized condition. Region-of-interest analysis of the glucose uptake values further showed that chewing significantly suppressed stress-induced increased glucose uptake in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and the anterior hypothalamic area but not in the lateral hypothalamus. Together with the finding that the mean plasma corticosterone concentration at the termination of the IMO was also significantly suppressed when rats had an opportunity to chew a wooden stick, our results showed that active coping by chewing inhibited the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to reduce the endocrine stress response.

  16. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  17. Methods of Coping with Stress: A Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    techniques and meditational exercises: breath control, progressive relaxation, autogenic training, transcendental medita- tion and others. REFERENCE: Norfolk...Relaxation/ Meditation : A category including any one of several techniques whose major purpose is to offset or diffuse the normal but negative...of Chicago Press. 5 APPENDIX A SELECTED COPING METHODS: SOURCES AND BRIEF DEFINITIONS A-0 #:I NAME: MEDITATION DEFINITION: Anything that redirects

  18. Self-esteem, coping styles, and quality of life in polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Lukowska, Ewa; Fudalej, Piotr S

    2014-05-01

    Objectives : To evaluate self-esteem, coping styles, and health-related quality of life and their relationships in Polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and related sex differences. Design and Participants : Self-report questionnaires measuring self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory), coping styles (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were completed by 48 participants with cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 31 males, 17 females) and 48 controls without cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 28 males, 20 females) matched for age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results : Regarding self-esteem, individuals with cleft lip and palate scored higher on body functioning (P self-esteem and coping styles, and quality of life (P young adults with and without cleft lip and palate differed little in terms of psychological adjustment measures. The higher scores in defensive self-enhancement of individuals with cleft lip and palate suggest the need for instruments measuring social approval in psychosocial adjustment research involving this group.

  19. Stress, Coping, and Internet Use of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, Scott; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Aksoz, Idil

    2014-01-01

    College students experience stressful life events and little research exists on the role the Internet may play in students' coping. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among perceived stress, time spent on the Internet, underlying motives for utilizing the Internet, problematic Internet use, and traditional…

  20. Coping strategies for managing occupational stress for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational stress is receiving increasing concern as killer of workers and productivity deterrent. This paper assessed its management and some coping strategies, with a view to improving productivity among workers. The paper adopted literature review approach to x-ray the concept of occupational stress, symptoms of ...

  1. Stress among UK Academics: Identifying Who Copes Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This article examined levels of stress and associated coping strategies among UK academics. Adopting a positive psychology approach, the influence of the character strengths of hope, optimism, gratitude and self-efficacy on stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and mental health was examined in 216 academics in a UK university. The study explored…

  2. Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Muslim and Christian female doctors encounter with sexual harassment. It was also found that sexual harassment cut across all age groups. The findings of these study indicated that stress coping techniques is an effective method in the reduction of stress posed by sexual harassment on female doctors from their patients.

  3. Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

  4. The influence of active coping and perceived stress on health disparities in a multi-ethnic low income sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar Scott L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has shown that ethnic health disparities are prevalent and many psychological and social factors influence health disparities. Understanding what factors influence health disparities and how to eliminate health disparities has become a major research objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of coping style, stress, socioeconomic status (SES, and discrimination on health disparities in a large urban multi-ethnic sample. Methods Data from 894 participants were collected via telephone interviews. Independent variables included: coping style, SES, sex, perceived stress, and perceived discrimination. Dependent variables included self-rated general and oral health status. Data analysis included multiple linear regression modeling. Results Coping style was related to oral health for Blacks (B = .23, p Conclusion Our results indicate that perceived stress is a critical component in understanding health outcomes for all ethnoracial groups. While SES related significantly to general health for Whites and Hispanics, this relationship was mediated by perceived stress. Active coping was associated only with oral health.

  5. Stress Management and Coping Strategies among Nurses : A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Iyi, Obiora

    2015-01-01

    There is obvious need to have the safest working environments and the best quality of health care delivery to patients by nurses working in the hospitals. Effective stress management and coping strategies is one very important step towards this goal. This research aims to identify the major stressors for nurses and the most effective management and coping strategies as contained in literature. This involved excellent review of relevant articles in addition to deductive content analysis of the...

  6. Sintomas de estresse e estratégias de coping em idosos saudáveis Síntomas de estrés y estrategias de coping en ancianos saludables Stress symptoms and coping strategies in healthy elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nery de Souza Talarico

    2009-12-01

    enfocado en la emoción están asociados a niveles semejantes de estrés.Elderly subjects may present stress symptoms due to physical, psychological and social changes during aging process. The aim of this study was to identify stress symptoms in elderly subjects and the coping strategies they used, verifying the relationship between these variables. The Stress Symptoms List (SSL and the Jalowiec Coping Scale were administered to 41 healthy elderly subjects. Elderly subjects presented stress symptoms with a mean score of 42.8. Although problem-focused coping was predominantly observed, no significant difference was observed between mean SSL scores among elderly subjects who used problem-focused or emotion-focused coping. Although elderly subjects mainly elected problem-focused coping, stress intensity was independent of the coping style, showing that both problem- and emotion-focused coping are associated with similar stress levels.

  7. What′s the role of perceived social support and coping styles in depression and anxiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Roohafza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the excessive and pathologic effects of depression and anxiety, it is important to identify the role of protective factors, such as effective coping and social support. This study examined the associations between perceived social support and coping styles with depression and anxiety levels. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was part of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project. A total 4658 individuals aged ≥20 years was selected by cluster random sampling. Subjects completed questionnaires, which were used to describe perceived social support, coping styles, depression and anxiety. t-test, Chi-square test, pearson′s correlation and Logistic regression analysis were used in data analyses. Results: The results of Logistic regression analysis showed after adjusting demographic characteristics for odd ratio of anxiety, active copings such as positive re-interpretation and growth with odds ratios; 95% confidence interval: 0.82 (0.76, 0.89, problem engagement (0.92 [0.87, 0.97], acceptance (0.82 [0.74, 0.92] and also among perceived social supports, family (0.77 [0.71, 0.84] and others (0.84 [0.76, 0.91] were protective. In addition to, for odd ratio of depression, active copings such as positive re-interpretation and growth (0.74 [0.69, 0.79], problem engagement (0.89 [0.86, 0.93], and support seeking (0.96 [0.93, 0.99] and all of social support types (family [0.75 (0.70, 0.80], friends [0.90 (0.85, 0.95] and others [0.80 (0.75, 0.86] were protective. Avoidance was risk factor for both of anxiety (1.19 [1.12, 1.27] and depression (1.22 [1.16, 1.29]. Conclusion: This study shows active coping styles and perceived social supports particularly positive re-interpretation and family social support are protective factors for depression and anxiety.

  8. Occupational stress, anxiety and coping strategies in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro Maran, D; Varetto, A; Zedda, M; Ieraci, V

    2015-08-01

    Studies on occupational stress have shown that police officers are exposed to stressful events more often than other workers and this can result in impaired psychosocial well-being and physical health. To measure the level of stress experienced, the consequences in terms of anxiety and the coping strategies adopted in a sample of police officers working in a large city in northern Italy. We used the Police Stress Questionnaire and the Distress Thermometer to measure occupational stress, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to measure anxiety and the Brief COPE questionnaire to measure coping strategies. Six hundred seventeen police officers completed the questionnaire, a response rate of 34%. Differences between genders, sectors and roles emerged, but overall the study population generally demonstrated good use of positive coping strategies. Women in all operational service roles were more vulnerable to both organizational and operational stressors than men (P occupational stress should take into account gender, role and type of work. Tailored training courses and support programmes could be useful and effective tools for preventing stress before it becomes chronic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Selected Factors Determining a Way of Coping with Stress in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beata Sobol-Pacyniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to examine factors which determine stress coping styles in type 2 diabetic (T2D patients, with regard to selected demographic variables, clinical diabetes-related variables and selected psychical variables (anxiety level and assessment of depressive disorders. Methods. 50 T2D patients, aged 59.9 ± 10.2 years were assessed by Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. In the statistical analysis simple and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Results. Variables significantly increasing the selection risk of stress coping style different from preferred task-oriented strategy in a simple logistic regression model are: hypoglycemia within three months prior to the research: odds ratio (OR = 6.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.25–37.61, taking antidepressants or neuroleptics: OR =15.42 (95% CI 2.42–98.33, severe depression in Beck’s scale: OR = 84.00 (95% CI 6.51–1083.65, high state-anxiety level: OR = 9.60 (95% CI 1.08–85.16, and high trait-anxiety level: OR = 18.40 (95%CI 2.96–114.31, but in a multivariable model, diagnosed depression is the strongest factor: OR = 32.38 (95% CI 4.94–212.13. Conclusions. In T2D patients, the strategy to cope with stress appears to be mostly influenced by psychical predisposition.

  10. Stress and coping in Singaporean nurses: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joanne; Bogossian, Fiona; Ahern, Kathy

    2010-06-01

    Stress is ubiquitous in the nursing profession and is also prevalent in Asian countries, particularly the "four tigers of Asia": Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea. Based on the theoretical framework of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), the present review of the nursing literature aims to identify sources and effects of stress in Singaporean nurses and the coping strategies they use. Nurses reported major stressors including shortage of staff, high work demands and conflict at work. Common coping strategies included problem orientation, social support and relaxation techniques. Several studies reported nurses' intent to leave the profession. Recommendations to minimize the impact of stress include in-service programs to facilitate a problem-solving approach to resolving work-related issues such as conflict. Relaxation therapy and debriefing sessions may also help in reducing negative effects of work stressors. Finally, nurses' emotional coping can be enhanced by strengthening sources of social support, particularly from family.

  11. Occupational stress, mental health and coping among information technology professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Jakkula V.; Chandraiah, K.

    2012-01-01

    Backround: Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. Materials and Methods : The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employee...

  12. Occupational Stress and Coping Behaviours Among Dentists in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Pouradeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recognising causes of stress can help prevent associated adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate causes of occupational stress and coping behaviours among general dentists in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from April to December 2014. A modified version of the Occupational Stress Indicator questionnaire was used to assess causes of stress and coping behaviours among 142 general dentists in Kerman, Iran. Results: A total of 93 dentists participated in the study (response rate: 65.5%. Of these, 58.9% reported often being stressed. The mean general stress score was 63.33 ± 19.99. The most common causes of stress were maintaining high levels of concentration while working (65.6%, time pressures (64.5%, concern over their ability to deliver dental services in future (60.2% and rising costs (59.1%. No significant relationships between stress and gender, age, workplace or working hours per week were noted (P >0.05. However, there was a significant correlation between general stress scores and years of job experience (P = 0.05 and number of patients treated daily (P = 0.03. The most common methods for coping with stress were resting (71.0%, sports (45.2% and entertainment (43.0%. Most dentists felt that stress management courses could help to reduce stress (89.7%. Conclusion: General dentists in Kerman were subject to many sources of stress in their workplaces, with significant relationships between stress scores and years of work experience and number of patients treated daily. Dentists should be encouraged to participate in stress management courses to help alleviate stress.

  13. An Investigation of Coping Styles and Gender Differences with Farmers in Career Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, P. Paul; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined how male (n=44) and female (n=35) farmers reacted to stressors of farm crisis. Depressive symptomatology for men was correlated with lack of confidence in problem-solving ability and emotion-focused coping, whereas women's stress and depressive symptoms were most strongly correlated with lack of vocational identity and perception of…

  14. Personality, coping style and well-being of parents rearing children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, L M; Billings, F J; Jobe, B M

    2006-12-01

    Parents with children with developmental disabilities (DD) encounter a variety of stressors associated with rearing their children and must develop effective coping mechanisms in order to adapt successfully to these challenges. Previous research has failed to establish the role of parental individual differences in the reported use of different coping strategies. The current study explores parental personality and whether children with DD were adopted or born into the families and their influence on the coping strategies used by mothers and fathers. A total of 97 mother-father dyads rearing at least one child with DD were participants. They narrated stressful situations related to their child and completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire twice. Data were also collected with regard to personality, depression and subjective well-being (SWB). Both adoptive and birth mothers and fathers used more problem-focused than emotion-focused strategies. Personality factors, Neuroticism especially, were predictive of coping strategy use. Higher levels of Positive Reappraisal were associated with higher levels of SWB, whereas higher levels of Escape-Avoidance were associated with lower levels of SWB, but only for mothers. Results were consistent with a dispositional model of strategy use in that frequency of use was associated with personality characteristics, was consistent over time, and for different children in the same families. Future research should focus on the persistence of the associations between strategy use and well-being and whether they hold true at different stages of the lifespan when coping contexts may change quite dramatically.

  15. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Teaching Styles and Occupational Stress among Chinese University Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this research is to investigate the predictive power of occupational stress for teaching style among university faculty members. A sample of 144 faculty members from a large university in the People's Republic of China rated themselves on three ability scales and responded to the Thinking Styles in Teaching Inventory and to four…

  17. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  18. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout Among Refugee Resettlement Workers: The Role of Coping and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Espinosa, Adriana; Chu, Tracy; Hallock, Ryan

    2018-04-01

    To promote a better understanding of the impact of refugee resettlement work on refugee resettlement workers, this study examined the prevalence rates of deleterious mental health and occupational outcomes, such as secondary traumatic stress and burnout, among a sample of 210 refugee resettlement workers at six refugee resettlement agencies in the United States. The study also explored coping mechanisms used by service providers to manage work-related stress and the influence of such strategies and emotional intelligence on secondary traumatic stress and burnout. Our findings show that certain coping strategies, including self-distraction, humor, venting, substance use, behavioral disengagement, and self-blame, were strongly related to deleterious outcomes, βs = .18 to .38, ps = .023 to < .001. Emotional intelligence was a negative correlate for all outcomes, βs = -.25 to -.30, ps < .001, above and beyond the effects of trauma, coping styles, job, and demographic characteristics. These findings have potential implications for clinical training and organizational policy regarding refugee mental health. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. Employee stress management: An examination of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies on employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don

    2015-01-01

    Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also a consequence of coping resources. Thereby increasing the

  20. The analysis of stress reactions ana coping patterns of cancer patients who perceived stress by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Dong Han; Kim, Jin Su; Park, Gil Yong; Son, Mi Suk

    2001-01-01

    This study is performed to encourage cancer patients to identify, relieve and effectively overcome the stress caused by radiotherapy, by analyzing stress reactions and coping patterns of cancer patients who perceived stress due to radiotherapy. The study group was composed of 85 cancer patients of the age 20 or higher who were undergoing radiotherapy in four hospitals located in Seoul and Kyonggi-do. The survey questionnaire was used, which had 161 questions inquiring respondents of general status, perceived stress, stress reactions and coping patterns. The surveyed data were analyzed by a SAS program, which employed descriptive statistics. Pearson Correlation Coefficient, t-test, ANOVA and Stepwised Multiple Regression. The stress perception and reaction rates were low in cancer patients comparing to patients of the other study. In the coping patterns. the problem-focused coping patterns were significantly higher than emotion-focused coping patterns. The statistically meaningful differences were observed in the stress perception and reactions depending on the time of diagnosis and perceived health level. As for the problem-focused coping patterns, significant differences were found depending on age, marital status, education, income and the number of family members as well as perceived health level of patients. The level of perceived stress and that of stress reactions was found to have positively significant correlation(r=.764, p<.001) while the perceived stress and the problem-focused coping patterns was correlated negatively (r=-.288, p<.01). The stress reactions and the problem-focused coping patterns was found to have negatively significant correlation(r=-.289, p<.01). The problem-focused coping behavior, which cooperated with doctors, technologists, nurses and families of cancer patients, is advisable for the cancer patients to overcome uncertainty and uneasiness by effectively release the stress.

  1. The analysis of stress reactions ana coping patterns of cancer patients who perceived stress by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Dong Han; Kim, Jin Su; Park, Gil Yong; Son, Mi Suk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    This study is performed to encourage cancer patients to identify, relieve and effectively overcome the stress caused by radiotherapy, by analyzing stress reactions and coping patterns of cancer patients who perceived stress due to radiotherapy. The study group was composed of 85 cancer patients of the age 20 or higher who were undergoing radiotherapy in four hospitals located in Seoul and Kyonggi-do. The survey questionnaire was used, which had 161 questions inquiring respondents of general status, perceived stress, stress reactions and coping patterns. The surveyed data were analyzed by a SAS program, which employed descriptive statistics. Pearson Correlation Coefficient, t-test, ANOVA and Stepwised Multiple Regression. The stress perception and reaction rates were low in cancer patients comparing to patients of the other study. In the coping patterns. the problem-focused coping patterns were significantly higher than emotion-focused coping patterns. The statistically meaningful differences were observed in the stress perception and reactions depending on the time of diagnosis and perceived health level. As for the problem-focused coping patterns, significant differences were found depending on age, marital status, education, income and the number of family members as well as perceived health level of patients. The level of perceived stress and that of stress reactions was found to have positively significant correlation(r=.764, p<.001) while the perceived stress and the problem-focused coping patterns was correlated negatively (r=-.288, p<.01). The stress reactions and the problem-focused coping patterns was found to have negatively significant correlation(r=-.289, p<.01). The problem-focused coping behavior, which cooperated with doctors, technologists, nurses and families of cancer patients, is advisable for the cancer patients to overcome uncertainty and uneasiness by effectively release the stress.

  2. Adolescent survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the mediating role of attachment style and coping in psychological and interpersonal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D L; Levendosky, A A

    1999-11-01

    To examine attachment style and coping strategies as potential mediating variables between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychological and interpersonal functioning in an attempt to explain variability in extent of disorder and level of functioning. Eighty adolescent females, aged 14-16 years, answered questions regarding abuse history, attachment style, coping with an interpersonal stressor, depression and trauma symptomatology, and conflict with a best friend. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that attachment style mediates the effects of CSA and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. Avoidant and cognitive coping strategies also served as mediators in the models, accounting for most of the effects of the other variables on interpersonal conflict. The findings indicate that attachment style and coping strategies influence psychological and interpersonal functioning, mediating the direct effects of CSA and other types of child abuse and neglect. These results have implications for therapeutic intervention with children and adolescents who have experienced child abuse.

  3. Maternal Stress and Coping Strategies in Developmental Dyslexia: An Italian Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carotenuto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStudies about the impact of developmental dyslexia (DD on parenting are scarce. Our investigation aimed to assess maternal stress levels and mothers’ copying styles in a population of dyslexic children.MethodsA total of 874 children (500 boys, 374 girls; mean age 8.32 ± 2.33 years affected by DD was included in the study. A total of 1,421 typically developing children (789 boys, 632 girls; mean age 8.25 ± 3.19 years were recruited from local schools of participating Italian Regions (Abruzzo, Calabria, Campania, Puglia, Umbria, Sicily and used as control-children group. All mothers (of both DD and typically developing children filled out an evaluation for parental stress (Parenting Stress Index—Short Form and coping strategies [Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS].ResultsNo statistical differences for mean age (p = 0.456 and gender (p = 0.577 were found between DD and control children. Mothers of children affected by DD showed an higher rate of all parental stress indexes (Parental Distress domain p < 0.001, Difficult Child p < 0.001, Parent–Child Dysfunctional Interaction p < 0.001, and Total Stress subscale score p < 0.001 than controls mothers. According to the CISS evaluation, mothers of DD children reported a significantly higher rate of emotion-oriented (p < 0.001 and avoidance-oriented (p < 0.001 coping styles than mothers of typical developing children. On the other hand, a lower representation of task-oriented coping style was found in mothers of DD children (p < 0.001 in comparison to mothers of control-children.ConclusionOur study shows the clinical relevance of the burden carried by the mothers of children affected by DD and suggests the importance to assess parents, particularly mothers, to improve family compliance and clinical management of this disorder.

  4. Disease acceptance and the ways of coping with stress inpatients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kurowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A chronic disease changes the patients functioning in many different areas of their lives. Most of them cannot accept the disease and rarely make an effort to change their current health situation. Aim of the study: To define the level of acceptance of the disease as well as the preferred ways of coping with stress in patients on dial‑ ysis, suffering from chronic renal disease. Material and methods: Ninety-four patients on dialysis, with chronic renal failure, were examined. The study was conducted in two dialysis units: Dialyses Centre Fresenius Nephrocare III in Bydgoszcz and NZOZ Avitum, Dialysis Unit in Nakło. Adjustment to the disease was assessed using the Accep‑ tance of Illness Scale (AIS adapted by Juczyński, the way of dealing with stressful situations was tested using CISS questionnaire by Endler and Parker, in Polish adaptation by Szczepanik, Strelau and Wrześniewski. Results: The examined group reached the average level of the disease acceptance. Men, people aged up to 59 years and those living in towns exhibit a higher level of disease acceptance. The higher the education level, the higher the patient’s ability to adjust to the disease. The most common style of coping with stress was the task-oriented style which was followed by the emotion-oriented style and the avoidance-oriented style. The  level of  the disease acceptance decreased with increasing emotion-oriented style. Conclusions: The obtained results will help to understand people with chronic renal failure, assist them in finding new ways of coping with stress, and thereby increase the acceptance of the disease. They will also allow to plan a better care for dialysis patients.

  5. Emotional coping response to hassles and stress experienced in wilderness settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy M. Schuster; W. E. Hammitt

    2003-01-01

    Stress/coping theory was used to understand recreationists' appraisal of stressful situations, coping processes, and the outcomes of the process. Specifically, stress was conceptualized as hassles in recreation settings. Specifically, the objective of this paper was to discuss the emotion focused coping response of visitors to stress encountered while on a...

  6. Coping style and depression influence the healing of diabetic foot ulcers: observational and mechanistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedhara, K; Miles, J N V; Wetherell, M A; Dawe, K; Searle, A; Tallon, D; Cullum, N; Day, A; Dayan, C; Drake, N; Price, P; Tarlton, J; Weinman, J; Campbell, R

    2010-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the healing of diabetic foot ulcers is affected by psychosocial factors such as distress. We examined this proposal in a prospective study, in which we considered the role of psychological distress and coping style in the healing of diabetic foot ulcers over a 24 week period. We also explored the role of salivary cortisol and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as potential mechanisms. For this prospective observational study we recruited 93 (68 men; mean age 60 years) patients with neuropathic or neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcers from specialist podiatry clinics in secondary care. Clinical and demographic determinants of healing, psychological distress, coping, salivary cortisol and both MMP2 and MMP9 were assessed at baseline. Ulcers were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-baseline. The primary outcome was ulcer status at 24 weeks, i.e. healed vs not healed. After controlling for clinical and demographic determinants of healing, ulcer healing at 24 weeks was predicted by confrontation coping, but not by depression or anxiety. Patients with unhealed ulcers exhibited greater confrontation coping (model including depression: OR 0.809, 95% CI 0.704-0.929, p = 0.003; model including anxiety: OR 0.810, 95% CI 0.704-0.930, p = 0.003). However, change in ulcer size over the observation period was associated with depression only (p = 0.04, d = 0.31). Healed ulcers by 24 weeks were also associated with lower evening cortisol, higher precursor MMP2 and a greater cortisol awakening response. Confrontation coping and depression predict ulcer healing. Our preliminary enquiry into biological mechanisms suggests that cortisol and precursor MMP2 may underlie these relationships.

  7. Stress coping strategies in hearing-impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Akbari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The majority of people experience problems and stressors, such as job layoffs and illnesses during their lives. However, the way people cope with stress varies. According to previous research, use of effective coping strategies can significantly reduce stress and tension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of stress coping strategies on hearing-impaired students.Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control group. The sample consisted of 40 hearing-impaired male students of guidance and high schools of the city of Sari, Iran, in the years 2010 and 2011. They were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental and control groups (n=20. The data collection tool was the General Health Questionnaire-28. The experimental group was administered eight sessions of stress coping strategies based on cognitive-behavioral techniques two hours weekly. Data were analyzed using statistical indices including mean, standard deviation, and two-way analysis of variance.Results: There was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in the subscales of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, depression, and social function (p<0.05. Moreover, after the eight sessions the rate of general health of the experimental group was higher than the control group.Conclusion: Stress coping strategies based on cognitive-behavioral techniques increased the general health of hearing-impaired people. Therefore, stress management training should be developed and expanded as an appropriate intervention.

  8. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  9. Stress and Coping Mechanisms Among Breast Cancer Patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    the leading cause of cancer mortality, representing. 14.1%. In Zambia ... focused on coping with breast cancer, 5 on stress and adaptation to .... relying on prayer, avoiding negative people, ... responses among women from three ethnic groups; ... common strategy among African Americans. .... Global Cancer Statistics, 2002.

  10. Coping Strategies for Managing Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effects of specific coping strategies on managing acculturative stress and acculturation of Asian international students, based on a sample of 220 Asian international students in the U.S. The data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression using Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediation procedure. The results supported…

  11. On Everyday Stress and Coping Strategies among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school students are confronted with a variety of everyday challenges ranging from comprehension obstacles to interpersonal conflict. Learning to cope effectively with moments of tension is an important part of a child's education because adaptation to stress is likely to influence academic and developmental success. However,…

  12. Anxiety, Stress and Coping Patterns in Children in Dental Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadica Pop-Jordanova

    2018-04-01

    CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that moderate stress level and anxiety are present in both groups of patients (orthodontic and dental. Obtained scores are depending on gender and age. As more used coping patterns in both groups are developing self-reliance and optimism; avoiding problems and engaging in demanding activity. Some strategies for managing this problem are discussed.

  13. Coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of a college of education. Lecturers were stratified into different strata of schools in the college i.e School of Education, Science, Arts and Social Sciences, Vocational Technology and Languages, after which a simple random sampling ...

  14. Assessing the influence of stress, work and age on coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of stress, age and work on the coping behaviour of breast-feeding mothers. A total of three hundred breast-feeding mothers with age ranged between 17-40 years, mean age 23.6 years and SD 11.2 were randomly selected from five different maternity clinics in Ekpoma metropolis and its ...

  15. The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles.

  16. Coping With Stress as an LGBTQ+ Health Care Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J; Streed, Carl; Henne, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual/gender minority (LGBTQ+) health care providers face both general work-related stresses and working in heteronormative settings with ill-informed or hostile coworkers and patients, yet there has been little study of whether the coping strategies are specific to LGBTQ+ stress. We analyzed qualitative data from 277 health care professionals. Sources of stress included religiously and politically conservative coworkers, coworker/patient lack of knowledge, stresses of being closeted, and concerns about being out to patients. Consequences of being out as LGBTQ+ included lack of promotions, gossip, refusals of tenure, and anti-LGBTQ+ comments and behaviors in the workplace. Respondents showed mostly positive coping strategies to deal with stress, including becoming educators/advocates and self-care activities. Self-care options were common in rural areas with few LGBTQ+ social resources. Negative coping strategies were reported by 18% of respondents. The study highlights the extra burden of stress on LGBTQ+ health care providers.

  17. Parenting styles and coping strategies among patients with early detected and treated congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Campos, María L; Musso, Mariel; Keselman, Ana; Gruñeiro, Laura; Bergadá, Ignacio; Chiesa, Ana

    2018-04-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH), as any chronic disease, has an impact on the parent-child relationship and on the child's resources to cope with conflicting situations. To describe parenting styles according to the perception of children with CH and their coping strategies. Children aged 9-10 years who had CH detected by newborn screening and had received adequate treatment and a group without CH (control group). The Argentine Coping Questionnaire, the Argentine Scale for the Perception of Parent Relations, and the comprehension subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC III) were used. Results were compared using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Sixty children with CH were included; they perceived that their mothers exercised a strict control and that their fathers showed more acceptance. They sought more support and became paralyzed more often in conflicting situations than the 60 children without CH. These findings may be associated with a higher level of dependence. They should be taken into consideration in CH care. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  18. Stress with Parents and Peers: How Adolescents from Six Nations Cope with Relationship Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…

  19. Human Service Employees Coping with Job Stress, Family Stress and Work-Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Dominic J.

    The intersection of work and family life has always been a popular topic of discussion among family theorists. This study examined human service employees in direct service positions coping with work stress, family stress, and work-family conflict. The effects of work stress, family stress and work-family conflict on depression were examined.…

  20. Anxiety, Stress and Coping Patterns in Children in Dental Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nadica; Sarakinova, Olivera; Pop-Stefanova-Trposka, Maja; Zabokova-Bilbilova, Efka; Kostadinovska, Emilija

    2018-04-15

    Fear of the dentist and dental treatment is a common problem. It can cause treatment difficulties for the practitioner, as well as severe consequences for the patient. As is known, the level of stress can be evaluated thought electrodermal activity, cortisol measure in saliva, or indirectly by psychometric tests. The present study examined the psychological influence of dental interventions on the child as well as coping patterns used for stress diminution. We examined two matched groups of patients: a) children with orthodontic problems (anomalies in shape, position and function of dentomaxillofacial structures) (N = 31, mean age 10.3 ± 2.02) years; and b) children with ordinary dental problems (N = 31, mean age 10.3 ± 2.4 years). As psychometric instruments, we used: 45 items Sarason's scale for anxiety, 20 items simple Stress - test adapted for children, as well as A - cope test for evaluation coping patterns. Obtained scores confirmed the presence of moderate anxiety in both groups as well as moderate stress level. For Sarason's test obtained scores for the group with dental problems are 20.63 ± 8.37 (from max 45); and for Stress test 7.63 ± 3.45 (from max 20); for the orthodontic group obtained scores are 18.66 ± 6.85 for Sarason's test, while for the Stress test were 7.76 ± 3.78. One way ANOVA confirmed a significant difference in values of obtained scores related to the age and gender. Calculated Student t - test shows non-significant differences in obtained test results for both groups of examinees. Coping mechanisms evaluated by A - cope test shows that in both groups the most important patterns used for stress relief are: developing self-reliance and optimism; avoiding problems and engaging in demanding activity. This study confirmed that moderate stress level and anxiety are present in both groups of patients (orthodontic and dental). Obtained scores are depending on gender and age. As more used coping patterns in both groups are developing self

  1. Coping Patterns and Stress in Women Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, J. G.

    Popular opinion suggests that teaching is a stressful profession. A dissenting view is supported in this investigation of women teachers in five Canadian provinces. Self-report attitudinal questionnaires containing 26 items were mailed to a sample of 940 elementary and secondary school principals in eight Western and Eastern Canadian provinces.…

  2. Infant Coping with Everyday Stressful Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Mothers of 6 cohorts of infants at ages 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months were interviewed to determine their children's responses to potentially stressful daily events. Found older infants and temperamentally more difficult infants experienced more events and reacted with distress to a greater proportion of the events than did younger infants and…

  3. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Having trouble thinking clearly and concentrating ƒ ƒ Having difficulty making decisions Know How To Relieve Stress You can manage ... feelings to loved ones and friends often. PAY ATTENTION TO YOUR BODY, FEELINGS, ... how your own past experiences affect your way of thinking and feeling about this ...

  4. Comparison of Personality Trait, Negative Experienced Emotions and Coping Styles Between Healthy Women and Those Suffering From Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hamzeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of cancer as one of the main causes of mortality in the world and the role of various factors, including psychological ones in its onset. In this study we compared some of these factors such as personality traits, negative experienced emotions and coping styles in healthy women and those with cancer. Methods: In this study, 83 women with cancer(referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran in a one- month period and 85 healthy subjects(selected by using available sampling method and matched with the first group. Then Personality inventory of Eysenck and inventory type D(DS14 and Folkman and Lazarus coping styles on were studied in both groups. Data analysis was performed by T Hoteling test and multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA. Results: Two groups of women(cancer- healthy were significantly different for personality trait of extraversion, negative emotion experiences and emotional-oriented coping and problem-oriented coping. Conclusion: Women with cancer compared to healthy women experienced more negative emotions and had lower score in extraversion and used more emotion-oriented coping styles and less problem-oriented styles

  5. Cognitive Coping Style and the Effectiveness of Distraction or Sensation-Focused Instructions in Chronic Pain Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fox

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate whether cognitive coping strategies that match participants' preferred coping style effectively reduce pain intensity and situational anxiety in a population of people with chronic pain.Chronic pain patients (N = 43 completed questionnaires on coping style, pain intensity, self-efficacy, and situational/trait anxiety. Participants were classified as Monitors (n = 16 or Blunters (n = 19 based on their Miller Behavioural Style Scale score. Participants were then provided with an audiotaped intervention in which they were instructed to focus on pain sensations or to engage in a distraction task and then to rate the pain intensity and their anxiety during and after the attentional focus and distraction conditions. The two interventions were each completed by all participants, having been presented in counterbalanced order.Findings revealed that Monitors' level of anxiety decreased following a congruent (i.e., sensation-focused intervention. No effects were obtained in terms of perceived pain. For blunters, however, their perceived levels of anxiety and pain did not attenuate following a congruent, distraction-focused intervention.Among persons experiencing chronic pain, tailoring coping strategies to match an individual's preferred coping style--in particular, those with a high level of monitoring--may enhance the benefit of psychological approaches to management of anxiety.

  6. Mediating effect of coping styles on the association between psychological capital and psychological distress among Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few

  7. The Impact of Perceived Stress and Coping Adequacy on the Health of Nurses: A Pilot Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Wiblishauser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Stress and coping abilities influence the health and work performance of nurses. However, little is known about the combined influence of stress perception and perceived coping adequacy and its impact on the health of nurses. This study examined the relationship between stress, coping, and the combined influences of perceived stress and coping abilities on health and work performance. A valid and reliable questionnaire was completed by 120 nurses in a Midwestern hospital in the USA. In genera...

  8. Stress and coping among elderly African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt-Hill, Shirley Ann

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive correlation was to examine the relationship between the amount of psychological stress experienced and the methods of coping with stress among elderly African-Americans. Demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, education, and occupation), personal resources (health, religion, and social support), and the effects of perception of racial discrimination were included to determine the relationship among the variables and to predict the perceived amount ofpsychological stress and the methods of coping. Subjects were males and females, who were community dwellers, between 65 to 88 years of age. Each subject completed four questionnaires: a Demographic Personal Data Questionnaire, the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, the Stokes/Gordon Stress Scale, and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by computing measures of central tendency, frequency, percentile, and measures of variability. Correlation and stepwise regression were used for predictions and to test null hypotheses. The findings indicated that elderly African-Americans experienced psychologically stressful events in their lives such as concerns for the world, slowing down, physical limitation, financial concerns, and not enough time with their children and grandchildren.

  9. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibe Doosje

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection. Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI. Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS. Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions. Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations. Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.

  10. Predictors of responses to stress among families coping with poverty-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica Moran; Wadsworth, Martha E; Raviv, Tali

    2012-05-01

    This study tested how poverty-related stress (PRS), psychological distress, and responses to stress predicted future effortful coping and involuntary stress responses one year later. In addition, we explored age, sex, ethnicity, and parental influences on responses to stress over time. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses conducted with 98 low-income families (300 family members: 136 adults, 82 school-aged children, 82 adolescents) revealed that primary control coping, secondary control coping, disengagement, involuntary engagement, and involuntary disengagement each significantly predicted future use of that response. Primary and secondary control coping also predicted less maladaptive future responses to stress, while involuntary responses to stress undermined the development of adaptive responding. Age, sex, and interactions among PRS and prior coping were also found to predict certain responses to stress. In addition, child subgroup analyses demonstrate the importance of parental modeling of coping and involuntary stress responses, and warmth/nurturance and monitoring practices. Results are discussed with regard to the implications for preventive interventions with families in poverty.

  11. Stress resiliency, psychological empowerment and conflict management styles among baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Norgan, Gary H; Cook, Jennifer D; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a Neuman Systems Model-guided correlational study of the relations of stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, selected demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, semester in school) and conflict management styles. Emerging evidence suggests that stress resiliency and psychological empowerment can strengthen student nurses in academic achievement and coping with stress. Little is known about conflict management styles of students and the relationship to empowerment, resiliency and the implications for managing workplace conflict. A correlational study was conducted in Spring 2010 with 166 baccalaureate students. Most participants were female, single, Hispanic and 25 years old. The data collection instruments included the Stress Resiliency Profile, the Psychological Empowerment Instrument, the Conflict Mode Instrument and a demographic inventory. Descriptive and inferential correlational statistics were used to analyse the data. Students scored in the high range for focusing on their deficiencies in conflict situations; they scored above the 60th percentile for avoiding and accommodating behaviours and were less likely to use competing or collaborating strategies to manage conflict. Empowerment scores were significantly correlated with stress resiliency scores. Students with high scores on empowerment had high scores on the skill recognition subscale of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting more resilience; high scores on empowerment were related to high necessitating subscale scores of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting a predisposition to stress. Neuman Systems Model may provide guidance for educators to strengthen student nurses' management of stressors in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings.

  13. Coping with stress and types of burnout: explanatory power of different coping strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Montero-Marin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of 'overload', 'lack of development' and 'neglect', belonging to the 'frenetic', 'under-challenged' and 'worn-out' subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of university employees, stratified by occupation (n = 429. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the 'Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire', with its three dimensions -overload, lack of development and neglect- as dependent variables, and the 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences', with its fifteen dimensions, as independent variables. Adjusted multiple determination coefficients and beta coefficients were calculated to evaluate and compare the explanatory capacity of the different coping strategies. RESULTS: The 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences' subscales together explained 15% of the 'overload' (p<0.001, 9% of the 'lack of development' (p<0.001, and 21% of the 'neglect' (p<0.001. 'Overload' was mainly explained by 'venting of emotions' (Beta = 0.34; p<0.001; 'lack of development' by 'cognitive avoidance' (Beta = 0.21; p<0.001; and 'neglect' by 'behavioural disengagement' (Beta = 0.40; p<0.001. Other interesting associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings further our understanding of the way in which the effectiveness of interventions for burnout may be improved, by influencing new treatments and preventive programmes using features of the strategies for handling stress in the workplace.

  14. Coping and endothelial dysfunction : the SABPA study / Jacobus De Wet Scheepers

    OpenAIRE

    Scheepers, Jacobus De Wet

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: It has been shown that the coping styles used to cope with psychosocial stress are related to the development of cardiovascular disease, with each coping style having a different physiological effect on the cardiovascular system. A defensive Active Coping (AC) style has a more negative impact on cardiovascular health than an avoidance style in urban black South Africans (hereafter referred to as Africans), owing to the enhanced α-adrenergic response of urban Black Africans. Howeve...

  15. Relationship between stress coping and burnout in Japanese hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Megumi; Kitaoka-Higashiguchi, Kazuyo; Morikawa, Yuko; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stress coping and burnout in Japanese hospital nurses. Findings on effective stress management training are required in order to reduce nurse's stress and prevent it from becoming chronic. The study included 1291 nurses who completed the General Coping Questionnaire and the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling. In women, a frequent use of cognitive reinterpretation predicted low exhaustion and cynicism and high professional efficacy. In men, a frequent use of problem solving predicted low cynicism and high professional efficacy. Although for women, a frequent use of problem solving predicted high professional efficacy that was similar to men, there was also a concurrent high exhaustion. These findings suggested that enhancement of cognitive coping skills for women and problem-solving skills for men could contribute to a reduction of burnout in nurses. Our findings suggested that effective intervention strategies in order to prevent hospital nurse's stress from becoming chronic might be different between men and women. This difference should be taken into account in nursing management.

  16. Sexual Minority Stress, Coping, and Physical Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenar, Delphia J; Tucker, Carolyn M; Williams, Jaime L

    2017-12-01

    Sexual minorities experience higher rates of several physical health problems compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The present study uses Meyer's Minority Stress Model (Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674-697, 2003) to examine physical health indicators among 250 adults who identified as sexual minorities. Study hypotheses include that sexual minority stress is predictive of two physical health indicators (i.e., engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle and number of physical health problems) and that planning (i.e., problem-focused) and social support coping will partially mediate the relationship between sexual minority stress and each physical health indicator. Results showed that as level of sexual minority stress increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle decreased and the number of physical health problems increased. Planning and social support coping did not mediate these relationships; however, as levels of coping increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle increased. These findings have implications for researchers and healthcare professionals in their efforts to promote the physical health of sexual minorities.

  17. Cognitive impact of social stress and coping strategy throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kevin P; Barry, Mark; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-01-01

    Stress experience during adolescence has been linked to the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood, many of which are associated with impairments in prefrontal cortex function. The current study was designed to determine the immediate and enduring effects of repeated social stress on a prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive task. Early adolescent (P28), mid-adolescent (P42), and adult (P70) rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress for 5 days and tested in an operant strategy-shifting task (OSST) during the following week or several weeks later during adulthood. Engagement of prefrontal cortical neurons during the task was assessed by expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos. Social stress during adolescence had no immediate effects on task performance, but impaired strategy-shifting in adulthood, whereas social stress that occurred during adulthood had no effect. The cognitive impairment produced by adolescent social stress was most pronounced in rats with a passive coping strategy. Notably, strategy-shifting performance was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical c-fos in adulthood but not in adolescence, suggesting that the task engages different brain regions in adolescents compared to adults. Adolescent social stress produces a protracted impairment in prefrontal cortex-mediated cognition that is related to coping strategy. This impairment may be selectively expressed in adulthood because prefrontal cortical activity is integral to task performance at this age but not during adolescence.

  18. Coping with traumatic stress in journalism: a critical ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marla; Keats, Patrice

    2011-04-01

    Journalists who witness trauma and disaster events are at risk for physical, emotional, and psychological injury. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a critical ethnographic study among 31 Canadian journalists and photojournalists with regard to coping strategies used to buffer the effects of being exposed to trauma and disaster events and work-related stress. The findings are the result of in-depth individual interviews and six workplace observations with journalists across Canada. The most commonly reported coping strategies were: avoidance strategies at work, use of black humor, controlling one's emotions and memories, exercise and other physical activities, focusing on the technical aspects, and using substances. Recommendations for addressing the effects of work-related stress within this population are provided.

  19. The Mediation Effect of Coping Style on the Relations between Personality and Life Satisfaction in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Mou, Xiaohong; Wang, Jia; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Previous findings showed the associations between each of the Big Five personality trait and adolescents’ life satisfaction were different. Some traits (extraversion and neuroticism) correlated with adolescents’ life satisfaction, while other traits did not have the same associations with adolescents’ life satisfaction. In order to explain why the Big Five traits differed in their associations with adolescents’ life satisfaction, the present study verified the relations between each of the Big Five personality traits and life satisfaction, and demonstrated the mediating effects of coping style on the relations between these personality traits and life satisfaction in a sample of 2,357 Chinese adolescents. The results demonstrated that four of the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism) had significant associations with life satisfaction. Further, coping style partially mediated the relations between these four traits and life satisfaction, whereas coping style fully mediated the relation between openness to new experience and life satisfaction. The results implied a plausible explanation for why the Big Five traits differed in their associations with life satisfaction found among the previous literature: that there might be some partial or full mediation variables (such as coping style in this study) left unexamined. Theoretical and practical implications of this study on further research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:28706496

  20. Coping styles and locus of control as predictors for psychological adjustment of adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    This study examines the way coping styles and locus of control contribute to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment in adolescents with a chronic illness. Psychosocial adjustment of 84 adolescents aged 13-16 years with a chronic illness was assessed with measures of social adjustment. global

  1. Appraisals and Cognitive Coping Styles Associated with Chronic Post-Traumatic Symptoms in Child Road Traffic Accident Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Smith, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comparatively little is known about the cognitive appraisals and coping styles of child road traffic accident (RTA) survivors that are associated with chronic post-traumatic reactions. Methods: Seventy-five children and young people aged 7-18 who were involved in a road traffic accident and attended an accident and emergency department…

  2. The influence of coping styles and perceived control on emotional distress in persons at risk for a hereditary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, Ehy; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Van Tintelen, J. Peter

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the influence of two coping styles (monitoring and blunting) and perceived control (health loci-is of control and mastery) on emotional distress in persons at risk of a hereditary cardiac disease. Emotional distress in people at risk for a hereditary cardiac

  3. Coping Styles, Social Support, Relational Self-Construal, and Resilience in Predicting Students' Adjustment to University Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, Enes; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how well coping styles, social support, relational self-construal, and resilience characteristics predict first year university students' ability to adjust to university life. Participants consisted of 527 at-risk students attending a state university in Turkey. The Personal Information Form, Risk…

  4. Gender and Age Differences in How Children Cope with Daily Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…

  5. Hope and Life Satisfaction in Black College Students Coping with Race-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Prelow, Hazel M.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effects of hope and coping with race-related stress on life satisfaction in Black college students. Findings indicated that students with high hope had greater coping efficacy and used more problem-focused coping than students with low hope. Neither coping nor hope had a direct effect on life satisfaction.…

  6. The influence of humor styles in coping strategies in Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Roberto Lillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003 which is centered in adaptive strengths such as optimism, faith, courage, as well as humor (Martin 2003, quoted in Martin et al., 2003. Sense of humor has been considered as an unidimensional construct (Omar, 1995 and the consequencies has been some errors in the assesment, as a result of a problem of validity. The present study seeks to introduce certain aspects that have not been considered in the past, so much the potential beneficial effects, as the deleterious forms of the sense of humor as for the psychological well-being. Four dimensions of the sense of humor were assesed (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003, version Lillo, 2006 relating to the uses or functions in everyday life and the ways of people cope (Fridenberg and Lewis, 1991, version Richaud de Minzi. 2003. They were also significant relationships among styles of humor and ways of coping that could explain the importance of the construct sense of humor, as an important resource to be used. Although it is necessary to highlight that it is not sought to embrace all the components of the sense of humor, but rather it is focused in the interpersonal functions and intrapsíquicas that adolescents use in daily life. These functions are considered most relevant to the well-being. Measuring these aspects of the humor, it is expected that they can explain a greater proportion of the variance as for the ways of people cope

  7. The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Ventilation rates indicate stress-coping styles in Nile tilapia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increase and act in an active (e.g. high-level aggression or avoidance) manner in ... hand, VR can be linked to metabolic rates (Alvarenga and. Volpato 1995). ... dry pellets (22% protein, Purina® Ltd, Campinas, SP, Brazil). Leftover food was ... food offered, but this technique guaranteed fish were able to eat until satiation.

  9. The Bodenmann Couples Coping Enhancement Training (CCET): A New Approach to Prevention of Marital Distress Based upon Stress and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Shantinath, S. D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a distress prevention training program for couples and three empirical studies that support its effectiveness. The program, Couples Coping Enhancement Training (CCET), is based both upon stress and coping theory and research on couples. In addition to traditional elements of couples programs (e.g., communication and problem-solving…

  10. Children’s coping after psychological stress: choices among food, physical activity, and television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...

  11. Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas

    2010-04-01

    Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Management Styles, Mediating Variables, and Stress among HRD Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Susan L.; Otte, Fred L.

    1994-01-01

    Data from 355 valid responses from 1,000 human resource professionals showed that specific variables predicted stress according to the management style of respondents' managers (authoritative, benevolent, consultative, participative). Self-esteem, locus of control, and Type A behavior were consistent predictors. (SK)

  13. The Effectiveness of Interventions based on Positive Psychotherapy on Improving Coping Styles, Relapse Prevention in Individuals with Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam kadivar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions based on positive psychotherapy on improving coping styles, relapse prevention in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder. The research design was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest, a month Follow-up and control group. Thirty-one individuals with substance use disorder, who were admitted to addiction treatment centers in Zahedan city, were selected through purposeful sampling method and were randomly assigned to an experimental (14 persons and control (17 persons groups. Both groups were asked to respond to Coping Styles Questionnaire by Billings and Mouse, at the pretest stage. In later stages of research, the experimental group received an intervention based on positive psychotherapy for ten sessions each session60 minutes. Data was analyzed using covariance and chi-square test. The results showed that intervention based on positive psychotherapy improved the coping styles and relapse prevention in the experimental group and the effect of the intervention was significant in post-test and follow-up stages. The result also showed that interventions based on positive psychotherapy could be used as an efficient technique to improve coping skills and relapse prevention in patients with substance use disorder.

  14. Epidemiological evidence for a relationship between life events, coping style, and personality factors in the development of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, P N; Hiller, J E; Price, M A; Thackway, S V; Kricker, A; Tennant, C C

    2000-09-01

    Review empirical evidence for a relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer development. Standardised quality assessment criteria were utilised to assess the evidence of psychosocial predictors of breast cancer development in the following domains: (a) stressful life events, (b) coping style, (c) social support, and (d) emotional and personality factors. Few well-designed studies report any association between life events and breast cancer, the exception being two small studies using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) reporting an association between severely threatening events and breast cancer risk. Seven studies show anger repression or alexithymia are predictors, the strongest evidence suggesting younger women are at increased risk. There is no evidence that social support, chronic anxiety, or depression affects breast cancer development. With the exception of rationality/anti-emotionality, personality factors do not predict breast cancer risk. The evidence for a relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer is weak. The strongest predictors are emotional repression and severe life events. Future research would benefit from theoretical grounding and greater methodological rigour. Recommendations are given.

  15. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping…

  16. Monitoring coping style moderates emotional reactions to genetic testing for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, S; Koehly, L; Jenkins, J; Martin, J; Hadley, D

    2008-08-01

    The emotional effects of genetic testing for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) provided within a counseling program were assessed among 253 individuals. Assessments were scheduled at baseline before testing, and again after 6 and 12 months post-test. Negative emotional reactions were evaluated using the Revised Impact of Event Scale and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Monitoring coping style was assessed at baseline using the Miller Behavioral Style Scale. Mean reductions were indicated in distress and depression levels within the first 6 months after counseling and testing. High monitors were generally more distressed than low monitors, specifically if they had indeterminate or positive results. Genetic counseling and testing for HNPCC do not result in long-term distress for most people. Of the variables investigated, only time and coping style have main effects on emotional reactions, and the impacts of mutation status are moderated by coping style. Psychological interventions, aimed to alleviate adverse emotional effects, were suggested for certain participants, i.e. recipients of positive or indeterminate results who are high monitors.

  17. Relationship between stress coping and personality in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, T; Sakado, K; Sakado, M; Sato, T; Someya, T

    1999-01-01

    Stress coping is defined as a behavioral or cognitive response of an individual to uncomfortable or difficult situations. It has been suggested that coping, like personality, is related to the pathology and course of mental disorders. Accordingly, we here used a clinical sample to investigate the relationships between coping strategies and personality traits. Subjects were 60 outpatients who were in remission from major depressive disorder and who completed the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Munich Personality Test (MPT). Task-oriented coping showed a positive correlation with extraversion and frustration tolerance. Emotion-oriented coping was closely associated with neuroticism, esoteric tendencies and isolation tendency. Avoidance-oriented coping was related to extraversion. Principal component analysis indicated three corresponding factors between coping and personality; one was related to psychopathology (loading from the neuroticism, esoteric tendencies and isolation tendency scales of the MPT, and from the emotion-oriented coping scale of the CISS), a second was a social-adaptive ability component (loading from the frustration tolerance and extraversion scales of the MPT, and from the task-oriented coping and avoidance-oriented coping scales of the CISS), and a third was a passive-avoidance coping component (loaded from the emotion-oriented coping and avoidance-oriented coping scales of the CISS only). Some personality traits such as extraversion and frustration tolerance are significantly related to task-oriented coping, and psychopathological personality traits such as neuroticism are associated with emotional-oriented coping in major depressive disorder.

  18. Stress and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Recurrence: Moderation or Mediation of Coping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae-Chung; Brothers, Brittany M.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Purpose Diagnosis with breast cancer recurrence often brings high levels of stress. Successful coping to alleviate stress could improve patients' quality of life (QoL). The intervening role coping plays between stress and QoL may depend on the types of stress encountered and the types of coping strategies used. The present study investigates the longitudinal relationships between stress, coping, and mental health QoL. Methods Breast cancer patients recently diagnosed with recurrence (N=65) were assessed shortly after the diagnosis and 4 months later. Four moderation and four mediation models were tested using hierarchical multiple regressions and path analyses. In the models, either traumatic stress or symptom-related stress at recurrence diagnosis was a predictor of mental health QoL at follow-up. Both engagement and disengagement coping strategies were tested as moderators or mediators between stress and QoL. Results Engagement coping moderated the effect of symptom stress on mental health QoL, whereas disengagement coping mediated the effects of both traumatic stress and symptom stress on mental health QoL. Conclusion The findings imply that interventions teaching engagement coping strategies would be important for patients experiencing high symptom stress, while discouraging the use of disengagement coping strategies would be important for all patients. PMID:18347897

  19. The relationship between gambling attitudes, involvement, and problems in adolescence: Examining the moderating role of coping strategies and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Ramsay W; Youssef, George J; Hasking, Penelope; Yücel, Murat; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A

    2016-07-01

    Several factors are associated with an increased risk of adolescent problem gambling, including positive gambling attitudes, higher levels of gambling involvement, ineffective coping strategies and unhelpful parenting practices. It is less clear, however, how these factors interact or influence each other in the development of problem gambling behavior during adolescence. The aim of the current study was to simultaneously explore these predictors, with a particular focus on the extent to which coping skills and parenting styles may moderate the expected association between gambling involvement and gambling problems. Participants were 612 high school students. The data were analyzed using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model, controlling for gender. Although several variables predicted the number of symptoms associated with problem gambling, none of them predicted the probability of displaying any problem gambling. Gambling involvement fully mediated the relationship between positive gambling attitudes and gambling problem severity. There was a significant relationship between gambling involvement and problems at any level of problem focused coping, reference to others and inconsistent discipline. However, adaptive coping styles employed by adolescents and consistent disciplinary practices by parents were buffers of gambling problems at low levels of adolescent gambling involvement, but failed to protect adolescents when their gambling involvement was high. These findings indicate that research exploring the development of gambling problems is required and imply that coping and parenting interventions may have particular utility for adolescents who are at risk of development gambling problems but who are not gambling frequently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coping with stress and by stress: Russian men and women talking about transition, stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Rytkönen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have claimed stress to be a major reason for poor public health in Russia and referred to significant social changes as a reason for the high level of perceived stress among Russians. This article aims to examine how stress and its relation to health are interpreted in the context of everyday life in Russian men's and women's interview talk with a focus on descriptions of recent social changes. The research material consists of 29 thematic interviews of men and women from St. Petersburg aged 15-81. In the analysis of contextual constructions of stress, we found that stress was used not only within a context of an individual's own life as an expression of a strained psycho-physiological state but also denoted larger societal processes and changes. In addition to individual experiences, the whole of Russian society was described as suffering from stress. Throughout the material, most interviewees, whilst outspokenly blaming stress for deteriorating physical health, met difficulties in making concrete these negative influences. Based on analysis, we interpret our interviewees' accounts of stress as a part of the cultural discourse wherein 'stress' serves as a conceptual tool in making interpretations about both the people and their social environment. Stress, as a concept, has emerged in a wide range of different institutional sites, such as the media and public health policy and has become a discursive entity of contemporary social life in Russia. We claim that it has simultaneously become an intermediary concept articulating a shared, cultural experience of the changes in Russian society and their effects on individuals' everyday life and health. Thus, the concept of stress helps people to articulate, make sensible, and cope with the impacts of transition on their individual lives.

  1. Attachment and coping of dementia care staff: The role of staff attachment style, geriatric nursing self-efficacy, and approaches to dementia in burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Taru-Maija; Cheston, Richard I L; Dallos, Rudi; Smart, Cordet A

    2014-07-01

    Past research suggests that dementia care staff are vulnerable to the development of burnout, which has implications for staff well-being and hence the quality of care for people with dementia. Studying personal vulnerability factors in burnout is important as it can guide staff training and support. Attachment theory suggests that adult attachment styles affect caregiving relationships and individuals' responses to stress, providing a framework for understanding caregivers' styles of coping. This cross-sectional survey study examined relationships between staff attachment styles, geriatric nursing self-efficacy, and approaches to dementia in burnout. Seventy-seven members of dementia care staff working on inpatient wards for older people completed self-report questionnaires. Insecure attachment, lower levels of self-efficacy, and more optimistic attitudes in staff were related to higher levels of burnout. Staff training on the role of attachment in dementia care is recommended. Further research is required to explore mediating factors between adult attachment styles and burnout. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Stress, Burnout and Coping Strategies in Preclinical Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Jawad; Al Tabosh, Hayat; Saadeddin, Zein; El Mouhayyar, Christopher; Aridi, Hussam

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged that physicians do not seek the same expert aid for themselves as they would offer their patients. In their preclinical years, medical students appear to espouse comparable behavior. To many, medicine is described as a never-ending path that places the student under heavy stress and burnout from the beginning, leaving him/her vulnerable and with insufficient coping methods. Hence, the objective of this study is to 1) explore the prevalence of stress and burnout among preclinical medical students, and 2) propose solutions to decrease stress and burnout and improve medical education in the preclinical years. A detailed scholarly research strategy using Google Scholar, Scopus, Embase, MEDLINE and PubMed was implemented to highlight key themes that are relevant to preclinical medical students’ stress and burnout. Stress varied among different samples of medical students and ranged between 20.9% and 90%. Conversely, burnout ranged between 27% and 75%. Methods that help in reducing the incidence of stress and burnout by promoting strategies that focus on personal engagement, extracurricular activities, positive reinterpretation and expression of emotion, student-led mentorship programs, evaluation systems, career counseling and life coaching should be adopted. PMID:27042604

  3. Stress, Burnout and Coping Strategies in Preclinical Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Jawad; Al Tabosh, Hayat; Saadeddin, Zein; El Mouhayyar, Christopher; Aridi, Hussam

    2016-02-01

    It is acknowledged that physicians do not seek the same expert aid for themselves as they would offer their patients. In their preclinical years, medical students appear to espouse comparable behavior. To many, medicine is described as a never-ending path that places the student under heavy stress and burnout from the beginning, leaving him/her vulnerable and with insufficient coping methods. Hence, the objective of this study is to 1) explore the prevalence of stress and burnout among preclinical medical students, and 2) propose solutions to decrease stress and burnout and improve medical education in the preclinical years. A detailed scholarly research strategy using Google Scholar, Scopus, Embase, MEDLINE and PubMed was implemented to highlight key themes that are relevant to preclinical medical students' stress and burnout. Stress varied among different samples of medical students and ranged between 20.9% and 90%. Conversely, burnout ranged between 27% and 75%. Methods that help in reducing the incidence of stress and burnout by promoting strategies that focus on personal engagement, extracurricular activities, positive reinterpretation and expression of emotion, student-led mentorship programs, evaluation systems, career counseling and life coaching should be adopted.

  4. Christian Educators' Use of Prayer to Cope with Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarbera, Robin; Hetzel, June

    2016-08-01

    Teachers experience significant work-related stress, and research asserts that they show greater mental health symptoms associated with this stress as compared to many other professions. Psychological distress among educators has been reported in the literature to be twice that of the general population. In other lines of research examining religious practices such as prayer, researchers have documented the overall positive impact of prayer on one's mental health. This study identified sources of stress for an international sample of 916 Christian educators, and the use of religious practices such as prayer, to determine whether prayer served as a coping strategy for their work-related stress. A mixed methods approach was used to measure three key variables: sources of stress, spiritual practices, and job satisfaction. Qualitative findings were used to analyze participants' sources of stress, and quantitative findings were used to measure their practice of spiritual disciplines and job satisfaction. A statistically significant relationship was found between frequency of prayer and job satisfaction, providing support for the initial hypothesis.

  5. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Aoki, Shuntaro; Yoneda, Kenichiro; Sawaguchi, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors). Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts), emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement), cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively), and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem). Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset) or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset). This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1) a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2) a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. The participants were 30 male and 94 female undergraduate and graduate students (mean age =20.4 years). Stress mindset, coping, and psychological stress responses were measured using self-report questionnaires. Six mediation analyses were performed with stress-is-enhancing mindset or stress-is-debilitating mindset as the independent variable, one of the psychological stress responses as the dependent variable, and the four coping strategies as mediators. Emotional expression partially mediated the relationship between a strong stress-is-debilitating mindset and higher irritability

  6. Relationships of alcohol use, stress, avoidance coping, and other factors with mental health in a highly educated workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Cheryl; Wanat, Stanley F; Whitsell, Shelly; Westrup, Darrah; Matano, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    The relationships of drinking, stress, life satisfaction, coping style, and antidepressant use to mental health were examined in a highly educated workforce. This study used a one-time mail-out, mail-back cross-sectional survey design to examine the relationships of mental health with three kinds of stress (life events, work stress, home stress); two kinds of life satisfaction (work and home); use of avoidance coping; and antidepressant use. This study was conducted at a large worksite in northern California in which the workforce was comprised of predominantly highly educated employees. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 10% of 8567 employees, and 504 were completed and returned by participants (59%). Complete data were provided by 460 participants (53%). Respondents completed the Mental Health Index, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and measures of coping style, work and home stress and satisfaction, stressful life events, and antidepressant use. Mean Mental Health Index scores were at the 32nd percentile of the U.S. population-based norms, with low percentile values associated with worse mental health. Using multiple regression analysis, the factors examined in this study were significantly related to Mental Health Index scores as the dependent variable [F(16, 443) = 27.41, p stress at work (p home (p work (p home life (p = .01); engaging in avoidance coping (p stress, home satisfaction and work stress, home satisfaction and avoidance coping, and home satisfaction and use of antidepressants. Mental health status was poorer on average in a highly educated workforce compared with general U.S. norms. Most of the factors that were found to be associated with poorer mental health were ones that are potentially modifiable, such as experiencing more stress and less satisfaction in work and home life and engaging in current hazardous or harmful drinking. The findings that mental health is worse among individual employees who exhibit

  7. Genetic parameter and breeding value estimation of donkeys' problem-focused coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas González, Francisco Javier; Jordana Vidal, Jordi; León Jurado, José Manuel; Arando Arbulu, Ander; McLean, Amy Katherine; Delgado Bermejo, Juan Vicente

    2018-05-12

    Donkeys are recognized therapy or leisure-riding animals. Anecdotal evidence has suggested that more reactive donkeys or those more easily engaging flight mechanisms tend to be easier to train compared to those displaying the natural donkey behaviour of fight. This context brings together the need to quantify such traits and to genetically select donkeys displaying a neutral reaction during training, because of its implication with handler/rider safety and trainability. We analysed the scores for coping style traits from 300 Andalusian donkeys from 2013 to 2015. Three scales were applied to describe donkeys' response to 12 stimuli. Genetic parameters were estimated using multivariate models with year, sex, husbandry system and stimulus as fixed effects and age as a linear and quadratic covariable. Heritabilities were moderate, 0.18 ± 0.020 to 0.21 ± 0.021. Phenotypic correlations between intensity and mood/emotion or response type were negative and moderate (-0.21 and -0.25, respectively). Genetic correlations between the same variables were negative and moderately high (-0.46 and -0.53, respectively). Phenotypic and genetic correlations between mood/emotion and response type were positive and high (0.92 and 0.95, respectively). Breeding values enable selection methods that could lead to endangered breed preservation and genetically selecting donkeys for the uses that they may be most suitable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Locus of Control and Attributional Style in Coping Strategies and Quality of Life among Iranian Breast Cancer and Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Goli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influence of various psychological factors and coping mechanisms on quality of life (QOL in cancer patients has been well established. We evaluated locus of control and attributional styles, and their association with coping styles and quality of life (QOL among Iranian cancer patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with breast cancer and patients with colorectal cancer in stage I to III. Patients were assessed for demographic and disease characteristics, cancer-related symptoms, locus of control, attributional styles, coping styles, and QOL. Results: From 140 invited patients, 100 patients participated in the study. Data of 55 patients with breast cancer and 22 patients with colorectal cancer were appropriate and included for analysis (mean age of 47.5 ± 7.9 years, 89.6% female. Factors positively associated with QOL included educational level, internal locus of control, overall hopefulness, and confrontive, optimistic, and self-reliant coping styles (r = 0.228 to 0.426. Factors negatively associated with QOL included age, symptoms severity, overall hopelessness, and fatalistic and emotive coping styles (r = -0.221 to -0.674. Internal locus of control and hopefulness were associated with confrontive/adaptive coping styles (r = 0.226 to 0.381, while external locus of control and hopelessness were associated with evasive/maladaptive coping styles (r = 0.208 to 0.381. Conclusion: These results indicate that internal locus of control, hopefulness, and positive attributional styles are associated with more adaptive/confrontive coping strategies and better QOL in Iranian cancer patients. Further studies with more comprehensive psychosocial evaluation in a larger sample of cancer patients are warranted.

  9. Depression and Self-Concept: Personality Traits or Coping Styles in Reaction to School Retention of Hispanic Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Robles-Piña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether depression and self-concept could be construed as personality characteristics and/or coping styles in reaction to school retention or being held back a grade. The participants in this study were 156 urban Hispanic adolescents, ages 12–18, and of these, 51 or 33% had been retained in school. Students who had been retained reported a lower self-concept score, higher GPA, and higher rates of depression, and they were more likely to be male than students who had not been retained. The findings of this study indicated that self-concept was a personality characteristic that, due to its malleability, is also a coping style in regards to retention with this Hispanic adolescent population.

  10. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  11. Coping With Job Stress in the Banking Sector: A Study of Guaranty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job stress has adverse effects on both organizations and employees. Previous studies examining the causes of job stress paid little attention to stress management and coping strategies, especially in the banking sector. This study therefore aimed to determine the various ways employees in the banking sector could cope ...

  12. Hubungan Efikasi Diri dengan Coping Stress pada Mahasiswa Angkatan 2012 Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Riau

    OpenAIRE

    Rizky, Elsavina; ", Zulharman

    2014-01-01

    Student in education life will face many obstacles where good self adapted and readiness is needed. Coping stress is a good principal for students to face their problems. Coping stress can be influenced by internal factors and external factors, one of internal factor is self efficacy. This research conducted to discover correlation between self efficacy and coping stress on medical students of Riau University on year 2012. This is an analytic correlation study with cross sectional approachmen...

  13. Health at work and coping with stress of prison officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit–Kowalkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to assess the state of mental and physical health and the expressed strategies for coping with stress of prison officers which are a group that is relatively unknown and seldom subjected to the tests. Among the coping strategies, the authors also identified those that were predictors of mental and physical well-being at work men working professionally in penitentiary institutions. Material and Methods The sample consisted of 90 prison officers working in the security department who are in direct contact with inmates. The control group consisted of 85 men working in services and trade in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship (Poland, chosen by the authors as a result of intentional selection. The study used the following tools: "Psychosocial Working Conditions" Questionnaire by R. Cieślak, M. Widerszal – Bazyl, Mini-COPE Questionnaire by C.S. Carver, adapted to Poland by Z. Juczyński and N. Ogińska-Bulik. Socio-demographic data were also collected. The results were compared with a group of men working outside the uniformed services. Results In the group of prison officers, longer seniority was associated with a statistically significant deterioration of mental and physical well-being. Based on higher level of seeking support in stressful situations as well as a lower level of helplessness, one could predict a higher general level of physical and mental well-being. Conclusions Due to the character of the work and the risk of negative phenomena is important broad-based health promotion in this occupational group.

  14. Coping with workplace minority stress: Associations between dyadic coping and anxiety among women in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ashley K; Totenhagen, Casey J; Walsh, Kelsey J; Adams, Caroline; Tao, Chun

    2017-01-02

    Sexual minorities are exposed to stressors in the workplace (workplace minority stress), which can be detrimental for well-being (e.g., levels of anxiety). The present study examined whether a particular set of relationship processes, dyadic coping, served to moderate the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Using a dyadic sample of 64 female same-sex couples, we found that partner problem-focused supportive dyadic coping (DC) and emotion-focused supportive DC (marginally) buffered, whereas partner delegated DC and negative DC did not moderate, the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health practitioners are discussed.

  15. Job stress, coping and health perceptions of Hong Kong primary care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph K L

    2003-04-01

    Few empirical studies have investigated job stress, coping and health perceptions of nurses working in primary care settings. One thousand self-report questionnaires, which consisted of the modified Nursing Stress Scale, Coping with Work Stress Checklist and Health Perceptions Questionnaire, were distributed randomly to a group of Hong Kong nurses working in primary care settings, to examine issues related to job stress. Three hundred and sixty-two nurses responded. Findings indicated that nurses in these settings experienced low-to-moderate frequency of stress, adopted direct coping strategies, and perceived themselves as rather healthy. There were also statistically significant links between job stress, coping and perceived health status. The findings of this study suggest that job stress, coping and health perception of nurses working in primary care settings were distinct from their colleagues working in acute care settings.

  16. 特质应对与展现规则对情绪劳动的影响%Effects of Trait Coping Styles and Emotional Display Rules on Emotional Labor Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林川; 黄敏儿

    2011-01-01

    采用2×3组间设计,检测特质应对(积极与消极)与展现规则(积极、消极、无规则)对情绪劳动的影响.结果表明,积极应对引起更多深层动作;积极规则下出现较少表层扮演(与消极应对比).积极和消极规则都引起较多深层和表层动作.积极应对在积极规则下表层扮演较少(与消极规则比);消极应对在积极规则下表层扮演较多(与消极规则比).研究提示,特质情绪性可能是调节展现规则与情绪劳动关系的重要因为.%Emotional labor is likely to occur when one's feeling differed from situational demands in service working setting. Two basic emotional labor strategies (e.g., surface acting and deep acting)have been intensely investigated and demonstrated on diverse implications for personnel mental health. Deep acting would activate more cognitive and emotional energy than surface acting so as to have a contribution on better self-authentic feeling and less emotional exhausted. However, literatures demonstrate that emotional display rules have different effects on emotional labor straregies but conclusions are inconsistent. The present study aimed to explore how Trait Coping Styles which reflect the coping aspects of personality in responding to stressful situations interact wiih Emotional Display Rules from professional & organizational demands and then affect strategies of emotional labor in some degree. The study was conducted by a 2×3 design experiment. The subjects were selected by Trait Coping Styles Scale (Jiang. 1999) and grouped as Trait Positive Coping Style (n=54) and Trait Negative Coping Style (n=51). Each group was further randomly divided into 3 subgroups, namely positive display rule, negative display rule and control condition (no display rule). Emotional display rules were manipulated by instructions before an emotional work task (a public speech). The experiment arranged a memory task to elicit tense mood before the experiment to facilitate

  17. How Do the Nurses Cope with Job Stress? A Study with Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Eslami Akbar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the adverse effects of job stress on health of nurses and the importance of coping process of nurses in management of job stress, the present study was carried out with the aim of exploring the experiences of the nurses in order to reveal the original coping process of the nurses in the case of encountering occupational stress. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with grounded theory approach. Research participants were 15 clinical nurses and four directors of nursing. Sampling method of study were purposive and theoretical sampling. Data collection done with unstructured interviews and field notes and continued until data saturation. Data analysis was performed using the Strauss and Corbin 1998 constant comparative method. Results: The results of the analysis led to four axial concepts: "feeling stress at nursing work", "situational coping", "and the effect of personal and environmental factors in coping with job stress" and "Grey outcome of coping". The core variable in the nurse’s process of coping with job stress was "comprehensive effort to calm stressed condition". Conclusion: Explaining the basic and original psychosocial process of nurses to cope with job stress, revealed context-based nature of the coping processes that nurses adopt, which that can help in taking appropriate measures to lighten up the grey consequences of coping of nurses.

  18. [Influences of life event and coping style on left-behind middle school student mental health in a three-gorge area county].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Li, Jianqiao; Liu, Qin; Wang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    To study the effects of life event and coping style on left-behind middle school student mental health. 1405 left-behind middle school students were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling method and investigated with Middle School Student Mental Health Scale (MSSMHS), Multidimensional Life Events Rating Questionnaire for Middle School Students (MLERQ) and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ). The mental health detection rate of left-behind middle school students was 26.33%. Life event have significant influence on mental health (F = 447.624, P = 0.000). The main effect for negative coping style on mental health was significant (F = 263.669, P = 0.000). Positive coping style have effect on mental health but the main effect was not significant (F = 2.436, P = 0.119). The interaction effect of life event and negative coping style was significant (F = 23.173, P = 0.000). Life event and coping style has a certain effect on left-behind middle school student mental health, but its mechanism is complicated and still uncertain.

  19. [Coping strategy and its effect on occupational stress among rail freight dispatchers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gui-zhen; Yu, Shan-fa; Li, Kui-rong; Jiang, Kai-you

    2010-08-01

    To analyse the relationship between coping strategy and occupational stress in rail freight dispatchers. 115 rail freight dispatchers were investigated by using group sampling method, investigation contents included coping strategies, occupational stressors, strains and personalities. The proportion of using coping strategy in rail freight dispatchers is lower. The scores of job future ambiguity, type A behavior and work locus of control in workers with insufficient coping strategy were higher than those in workers with sufficient strategy (P family balance, job involvement coping factors of coping strategy were remarkable significant (P 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that risk of being job dissatisfaction and daily life stress in workers with insufficient social support coping was three or four times than those with sufficient coping (OR = 3.06 or 4.38, respectively), risk of being daily life stress in workers with insufficient job involvement coping was three times than those with sufficient coping (OR = 3.26). The proportion of using coping strategy in rail freight dispatchers is lower. Coping strategy has influence on the individual's perception of occuaptional stressors, strains and personalities.

  20. Stressed Out: How Stress Develops and How to Cope with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortillaro Marcello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Our experience of stress depends on how we evaluate the circumstances impacting our individual well-being. In principle, any event can be a stressor. Certain events can produce complex emotional states, such as a mixture of anger and worry. If such states are prolonged, they can lead to stress. Stress can be identified by means of such expressive components as facial expression and signs of stress in the voice. Indeed, the voice is particularly sensitive to stress and is frequently used to measure stress levels. Coping strategies differ from person to person and are not mutually exclusive. Often, people use multiple strategies at the same time. Not all of these strategies are good for individual well-being or favor a cooperation-based work culture. To avoid employee burnout, companies should keep an eye on the stress load of their employees and develop trainings to increase emotional competences and improve constructive stress management.

  1. Self-serving episodic memory biases: Findings in the repressive coping style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L Alston

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a repressive coping style self-report low anxiety, but show high defensiveness and high physiological arousal. Repressors have impoverished negative autobiographical memories and are better able to suppress memory for negatively valenced and self-related laboratory materials when asked to do so. Research on spontaneous forgetting of negative information in repressors suggests that they show significant forgetting of negative items, but only after a delay. Unknown is whether increased forgetting after a delay is potentiated by self-relevance. Here we asked in three experiments whether repressors would show reduced episodic memories for negative self-relevant information when tested immediately versus after a 2-day delay. We predicted that repressors would show an exaggerated reduction in recall of negative self-relevant memories after a delay, at least without anew priming of this information. We tested a total of 300 participants (experiment 1: N= 95, experiment 2: N=106; experiment 3: N=99 of four types: repressors, high anxious, low anxious, and defensive high anxious individuals. Participants judged positive and negative adjectives with regard to self-descriptiveness, serving as incidental encoding. Surprise free recall was conducted immediately after encoding (experiment 1, after a 2-day delay (experiment 2 or after a 2-day delay following priming via a lexical decision task (experiment 3. In experiment 1, repressors showed a bias against negative self-relevant words in immediate recall. Such a bias was neither observed in delayed recall without priming nor in delayed recall with priming. Thus, counter to our hypothesis, negative information that was initially judged as self-relevant was not forgotten at a higher rate after a delay in repressors. We suggest that repressors may reinterpret initially negative information in a more positive light after a delay, and therefore no longer experience the need to bias their recall

  2. Long-term psychological distress, and styles of coping, in parents of children and adolescents who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerboer, Alinda W.; Helbing, Willem A.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the level of psychological distress and styles of coping in both mothers and fathers of children who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease at least 7 years and 6 months ago. The General Health Questionnaire and the Utrecht Coping List were completed by parents of

  3. Cyberbullying in Australian Primary Schools: How Victims Differ in Attachment, Locus of Control, Self-Esteem, and Coping Styles Compared to Non-Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Rachel D.; Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa Z.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored cyberbullying, coping resources and coping styles in a sample of 107 10- to 12-year-old Australian primary school students. Approximately 13% of participants reported experiencing single episodes of cyberbullying victimisation, while almost half of the participants (48.6%) reported being repeatedly cyberbullied. Technological…

  4. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, J T; Gibbs, J J

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14-19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions.

  5. STRESS, COPING AND SOCIAL SUPPORTS IN THE ADOLESCENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Hashimah Mohd. Hashim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from a study that was conducted on 209 Form Fourstudents from two schools in Penang. In this study, a semi-structuredinterview covering questions on demographics, a 12-item measure ofself-esteem, and a 20-item measure of well-being was conducted.Students were also asked to report their Penilaian Menengah Rendah(PMR results as an indicator of their academic performance. To assess stress, coping and social supports, respondents were given a list of possible stressors (e.g., problems with relationships at home and school and were asked to indicate whether or not they were bothered by these stressors, the type of coping that they had used in dealing with these stressors, and the type of social supports that they had received in relation to these stressors. A higher proportion of respondents (77% identified issues related to academics and lessons as a problem compared to other issues (relationships at home, 34%, and relationships at school, 31%. The number of stressors related to everyday life was significantly related to well-being, but not to self-esteem or academic performance. Respondents reported a variety of problem-specificcoping. Supports received were also problem-specific in nature. Thefindings have both applied and theoretical implications.

  6. Social support, coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms in young refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Østergård Kjær, Kamilla; Lasgaard, Mathias; Palic, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Young refugees from the former Yugoslavia commonly testify to having been exposed to multiple, traumatic experiences, which may contribute to the development of serious mental health problems such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Using selfreport scales the present study investigated the prevalence of PTSD as well as factors associated with PTSD in a group of 119 Bosnian refugee youths (mean age 18.5). The group was special in that they had no right to seek asylum in the host country for the first couple of years of their stay. It is suspected that this circumstance had an effect on their wellbeing. Between 35-43% of the youth were found to be in the clinical range for a PTSD diagnosis. Female gender, problem-focused, and avoidant coping strategies, were significant predictors of PTSD. The protective effects of social support were, however, not observed for this group. There is a need for more studies, which address the factors that mediate and moderate effects of social support and effectiveness of different coping strategies in refugee youth dealing with different circumstances of the refugee experience.

  7. Stigma Resistance in Stable Schizophrenia: The Relative Contributions of Stereotype Endorsement, Self-Reflection, Self-Esteem, and Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Lien, Yin-Ju; Chang, Hsin-An; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Stigma resistance (SR) has recently emerged as a prominent aspect of research on recovery from schizophrenia, partly because studies have suggested that the development of stigma-resisting beliefs may help individuals lead a fulfilling life and recover from their mental illness. The present study assessed the relationship between personal SR ability and prediction variables such as self-stigma, self-esteem, self-reflection, coping styles, and psychotic symptomatology. We performed an exploratory cross-sectional study of 170 community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia. Self-stigma, self-esteem, self-reflection, coping skills, and SR were assessed through self-report. Psychotic symptom severity was rated by the interviewers. Factors showing significant association in univariate analyses were included in a stepwise backward regression model. Stepwise regressions revealed that acceptance of stereotypes of mental illness, self-esteem, self-reflection, and only 2 adaptive coping strategies (positive reinterpretation and religious coping) were significant predictors of SR. The prediction model accounted for 27.1% of the variance in the SR subscale score in our sample. Greater reflective capacity, greater self-esteem, greater preferences for positive reinterpretation and religious coping, and fewer endorsements of the stereotypes of mental illness may be key factors that relate to higher levels of SR. These factors are potentially modifiable in tailored interventions, and such modification may produce considerable improvements in the SR of the investigated population. This study has implications for psychosocial rehabilitation and emerging views of recovery from mental illness.

  8. Selective breeding for infant rat separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations: developmental precursors of passive and active coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A

    2007-09-04

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation.

  9. Coping Strategies for Stress Adopted by Undergraduate Students of Private Universities in Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bishwas Acharya; Gokul Pathak; Hoshiar Singh Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress affects the health and academic career of students. Students adopt different coping methods and strategies to deal with stress. Objective: To assess the coping strategies adopted by the undergraduate students of private universities in Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 422 undergraduate students of two selected private universities in Himachal Pradesh in March-April using self administered questionnaire. Brief cope...

  10. Perceived stress and coping skills of university student–athletes and the relationship with life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    J. Surujlal; Y. Van Zyl; V.T. Nolan

    2013-01-01

    Student-athletes are expected to cope with their studies and participation in sport simultaneously as well as to satisfy the expectations of coaches, teammates, friends, and family. Once student-athletes perceive a situation as stressful and struggle to cope with the anticipation thereof, their satisfaction with life will be negatively influenced. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between perceived stress and coping skills with satisfaction with life of university student...

  11. A longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and its relationship with coping skill and locus of control in adolescents after an earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqing; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Xiaolian; Wu, Dongmei; Tian, Yali

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common psychological maladaptation among adolescents after undergoing an earthquake. Knowledge about the prevalence and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and the changes of its predictors over time can help medical providers assist adolescent survivors with mitigating long-term impacts. This study examined the changes in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and its relationship with coping skill and locus of control among adolescent earthquake survivors in China. The study used an observational longitudinal design. A total of 1420 adolescents were evaluated twice after the earthquake by using the Post-traumatic stress disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, The Internality, Powerful others and Chance scale and the Coping Styles Scale. The results indicated that the mean scores of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were decreased significantly and the positive rates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms also declined remarkably at 17 months compared to the 3 months post-earthquake. Internality locus of control and problem solving coping skill were effective resilient factors for the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, while chance locus of control was a powerful risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as well as being female, being injured and property loss. Continuous screening is recommended to identify adolescent earthquake survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. More attention should be paid to adolescent survivors who are prone to adopt passive coping strategies responding to trauma events and who own external causal attribution.

  12. The influence of the social environment context in stress and coping in sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco

    2016-01-01

    Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted

  13. The Relationship between Supervisee Stress, Coping Resources, the Working Alliance, and the Supervisory Working Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Dew, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of perceived stress, specific types of coping resources, the working alliance, and the supervisory working alliance among 232 counselor supervisees. The working alliance and the supervisory working alliance were negatively related to perceived stress and positively related to multiple coping resources. Two…

  14. Job Satisfaction, Stress and Coping Strategies among Moroccan High School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, Naima

    1998-01-01

    Studied job stress, job satisfaction, and coping strategies through self-report measures from 153 Moroccan high school teachers. Results show that 45% of the teachers were satisfied with their jobs, but over half reported high levels of stress, negatively correlated with job satisfaction. Factor analysis of 16 coping strategies produced four…

  15. Voices of Children, Parents and Teachers: How Children Cope with Stress during School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…

  16. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Relations among Perceived Stress, Coping, and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem as a moderator of the influence of perceived stress and coping on symptoms of depression in a sample of 713 college students. The results suggest that self-esteem may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms in college students through interactions with perceived stress and coping. If an…

  17. Coping with Overload and Stress: Men and Women in Dual-Earner Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…

  18. The Impact of Perceived Stress and Coping Adequacy on the Health of Nurses: A Pilot Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress and coping abilities influence the health and work performance of nurses. However, little is known about the combined influence of stress perception and perceived coping adequacy and its impact on the health of nurses. This study examined the relationship between stress, coping, and the combined influences of perceived stress and coping abilities on health and work performance. A valid and reliable questionnaire was completed by 120 nurses in a Midwestern hospital in the USA. In general, the nurses were not healthy: 92% had moderate-to-very high stress levels; 78% slept less than 8 hours of sleep per night; 69% did not exercise regularly; 63% consumed less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day; and 22% were classified as binge drinkers. When confronted with workplace stress, 70% of nurses reported that they consumed more junk food and 63% reported that they consumed more food than usual as a way of coping. Nurses in the “high stress/poor coping” group had the poorest health outcomes and highest health risk behaviors compared to those in other groups. The combined variables of perceived stress and perceived coping adequacy influenced the health of nurses. Therefore, worksite health promotion programs for nurses should focus equally on stress reduction, stress management, and the development of healthy coping skills.

  19. A study of occupational therapy students' stress coping in the term of clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    立石, 恵子; 立石, 修康; タテイシ, ケイコ; タテイシ, ノブヤス; Keiko, TATEISHI; Nobuyasu, TATEISHI

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate students' stress coping in the term of clinical practice. We ded questionnaire to 30 students after clinical practice. The result shows forty-six stress situations were observed. Most of the students felt the stress that the supervisor advied about general manners or behaviors. Such as communication with patients and clinical staffs, students personality, speaking volume. We categorized the stress coping strategies into two types. The result indicat...

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Management: The Moderating Role of Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeghian, Zeinab; Hassanabadi, Hamidreza; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Amiri, Parisa; Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the efficacy of existing psychological interventions for self-management in diabetes is limited. The current study aimed at assessing the effects of group-based ACT on self-management of patients with T2DM, considering the moderating role of coping styles. One hundred and six patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned either to the education alone (n = 53) or to a combination of education and group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (n = 53) over a period of 10 sessions. In each group, 50 participants completed a 3 month follow-up assessment. After 3 months, compared to patients who received education alone, those in the group-based acceptance and commitment therapy condition were more likely to use effective coping strategies, reported better diabetes self-care, and optimum glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in the target range. Consideration of the role of coping style for a more accurate evaluation of the effects of acceptance and commitment therapy may be a useful addition to services provided for patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. The relationship between personality and coping style according to the mediating role of resilience in patients with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Esmaeili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: This study tries to explain the role of mediator between personality characteristics and coping styles is resiliency. Material & Methods: The study population consisted of all patients is a member of the MS Society of Shiraz who were selected by convenience sampling. 3 tests were used to collect data: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, NEO Five-Factor personality inventory questionnaire Folkman and Lazarus coping strategies. Analysis of data obtained using SPSS (version 21 software and using Pearson correlation and regression analysis was performed. Results: High neuroticism in MS patients reduce resiliency (r=-0.279. Also people with MS deal with emotional problems just behave. Emotional coping style (p=0.023 & b=0.429 and the personality trait of neuroticism (p=0.046 & b=0.388 are able to predict Resiliency. Conclusion: Based on these findings, in addition to informing the people affected by psychological training, effective in reducing neuroticism, anxiety and consequently raise the level of resiliency.

  2. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Horiuchi,1 Akira Tsuda,2 Shuntaro Aoki,3,4 Kenichiro Yoneda,5 Yusuke Sawaguchi6 1Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 2Department of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 4Graduate School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, 5Graduate School of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 6Graduate School of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, Japan Background: Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors. Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts, emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement, cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively, and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem. Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset. This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1 a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2 a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. Materials and methods: The participants were 30 male and

  3. A Study on Relationship among Depression Coping Styles and Personality in Major Depression%抑郁症患者抑郁症状、应付方式与人格关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭瑛; 郭文斌; 王国强

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation among depression, coping styles and personality in major depression. Methods:87 major depression patients and 90 normal controls were assessed by Self- Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results: The patients were found with higher scores in Neuroticism and Psychoti-cism, and lower in Extrovision and positive coping styles than normal controls. Significant relationship was found among depres-sion, extrovision, psychoticism and positive coping styles. The last three accounted for 36.8 % of the variance of depression in major depression. Conclusion: The patients scored high in neuroticism and psychoticism, and low in extorvision and positive cop-ing styles. The application of little positive coping styles may be a part of extrovision and/or psychoticism in major depression.

  4. Coping Styles and Strategies: A Comparison of Adolescent Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola; Greaves, Daryl; Frydenberg, Erica

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the results of a coping measure completed by 98 seventh through ninth grade students who were assessed as having learning disabilities with published means from the general Australian student population. The "Adolescent Coping Scale" was the measure used. The results suggested higher use by students…

  5. Characteristics of stress-coping behaviors in patients with bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunsoo; Chang, Jae Seung; Choi, Sungwon; Ha, Tae Hyon; Cha, Boseok; Cho, Hyun Sang; Park, Je Min; Lee, Byung Dae; Lee, Young Min; Choi, Yoonmi; Ha, Kyooseob

    2014-08-15

    Appropriate stress-coping strategies are needed to improve the outcome in the treatment of bipolar disorders, as stressful life events may aggravate the course of the illness. The aim of this study was to compare stress-coping behaviors between bipolar patients and healthy controls. A total of 206 participants comprising 103 bipolar patients fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Axis I disorder fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for bipolar I and II disorders and controls matched by age and sex were included in this study. Stress-coping behaviors were assessed using a 53-item survey on a newly-designed behavioral checklist. The characteristics of stress-coping behaviors between the two groups were compared by using t-test and factor analysis. Social stress-coping behaviors such as 'journey', 'socializing with friends', and 'talking something over' were significantly less frequent in bipolar patients than controls. On the other hand, pleasurable-seeking behaviors such as 'smoking', 'masturbation', and 'stealing' were significantly more frequent in bipolar patients than controls. These results suggest that bipolar patients may have more maladaptive stress-coping strategies than normal controls. It is recommended to develop and apply psychosocial programs to reduce maladaptive stress-coping behaviors of bipolar patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hardiness and the response to stressful situations: Investigating mediating processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Dam, K. van

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated mediating processes that explain how hardiness influences the way people respond to a stressful situation. Coping style and coping self-efficacy were investigated as mediating variables. Using a longitudinal design, hardiness, coping style and coping self-efficacy, and

  7. Personality, stress and coping in intensive care nurses: a descriptive exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Lorraine; Irvine, Fiona; Wallymahmed, Akhtar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, perception of workplace stress and coping among intensive care unit (ICU) nurses. Research has indicated that ICUs are stressful environments. There is a tendency for research studies to investigate causes of stress and ways of coping, but few studies, particularly in recent years, have considered the personality traits of the staff who thrive in this challenging environment, the work stress they perceive and the coping strategies they use. A convenience sample of critical care nurses (n = 46) completed three standardised questionnaires during September 2007: the revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R); the nurses stress scale (NSI) and the Brief Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE) scale. ICU nurses did not perceive their workplaces to be stressful. Certain personality traits, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, were associated with problem-solving coping strategies such as active planning and reframing. Openness and extraversion were associated with less perceived stress from the 'patients and relatives' dimension of the NSI; there were also negative correlations between conscientiousness and the 'workload stress' and stress from lack of 'confidence and competence' dimensions of the NSI. Certain personality traits may have a buffering effect on workplace stress. Pre-employment screening to identify staff that exhibit personality and coping traits associated with low perceived stress may be considered as part of the recruitment strategy to address problems relating to stress, sickness and retention. The retention and recruitment of staff who have lower perceived workplace stress and who utilise problem-focused coping may result in less reported absences and fewer critical incidents and errors.

  8. [The relationship between stress and life-style of students at the Faculty of Medicine of Oporto].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Elizabete; McIntyre, Teresa; Mota-Cardoso, Rui; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2008-01-01

    Different studies have demonstrated that there are significant changes in the health and habits/life-style of university students, and it seems that Medical students also reveal a significant vulnerability to the adoption of health risk behaviours. The present study aims to (1) characterize the main sources of academic stress of the Medical School students of the University of Porto as well as the intensity with which they are experienced, (2) investigate the variations in academic stress and psychosocial variables, due to gender, year of course and displacement from home and (3) contribute, for the first time, to the understanding of stress and life-style of medical students in Portugal. The empirical study included a sample of 251 students from all 6 years of the course (160 females and 91 males), evaluated by the following instruments: (1) The Inventory of Sources of Academic Stress in Medical Education (ISASME), and the Portuguese versions of (2) the Brief Personal Survey (BPS), (3) the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), and (4) the Interpersonal Behaviour Survey-Brief (ICIBrief). In terms of overall levels of stress (GHQ-12), a prevalence of 58.2% of clinically significant stress symptoms was found, with the students from the basic cycle and those who are living away from home, presenting higher levels of stress. In terms of life-style, 47% of the students revealed health risk behaviours, with eating habits, physical exercise, alcohol and drug consumption, and body image being the main problem areas. Gender and year of course seem to have a significant influence on the variables studied, being the female students those who present higher levels of academic stress, stress responses (pressure/overload, physical distress, anxiety, anger/frustration, inefficiency, depression and loss of control), and low levels of coping confidence; the students of the basic cycle reveal higher levels of stress in managing their life-style (academic stress), general stress

  9. Children's coping after psychological stress. Choices among food, physical activity, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Roemmich, James N

    2012-10-01

    Children's stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if other behavioral alternatives are available. The purpose was to determine individual difference factors that moderate the duration of stress coping choices and to determine if stress-induced eating in youth persists when other stress coping behaviors are available. Thirty children (8-12 years) completed a speech stressor on one day and read magazines on another day. They completed a free-choice period with access to food, TV, and physical activity on both days. Dietary restraint moderated changes in time spent eating and energy consumed from the control to stress day. Children high in restraint increased their energy intake on the stress day. Changes in the time spent watching TV were moderated by usual TV time, as children higher in usual TV increased their TV time after stress. Thus, dietary restrained children eat more when stressed when other common stress coping behaviors are freely available. These results extend the external validity of laboratory studies of stress-induced eating. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The Relationship Between Stress and Coping in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurimay Dora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive competitive anxiety intensity and coping strategies in table tennis players. One hundred and two (102 US competitive table tennis players of age range from 10 to 60 filled out a Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R, Cox et al., 2003 at least 30 minutes before the start of their tournament match and a Modified Cope questionnaire (MCOPE; Crocker and Graham, 1995 15 minutes after they finished their match. Our study found significant differences between low and high cognitive competitive anxiety groups with regard to the use of coping strategies. The high cognitive competitive anxiety intensity group used significantly more behavioral disengagement (avoidance coping, p ≤ 0.05, denial coping strategies (emotion focused coping, p ≤ 0.01 compared to the low cognitive anxiety intensity group. Our results suggest that there is some connection between anxiety intensity and coping strategies. If the cognitive anxiety intensity (for example, intensity from worrying is very high, an athlete might be more likely to use avoidance coping (such as behavioral disengagement and emotion-focused coping (such as denial and venting of emotions compared to athletes who have low cognitive competitive anxiety. Furthermore, gender differences in cognitive anxiety and direction were found. Confidence management techniques such as positive self-talk, breathing techniques and visualization should be taught to athletes to assist them in coping with their competitive anxiety better and to enhance their performance.

  11. Stress and Coping Strategies of Students in a Medical Faculty in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Stress may affect students’ health and their academic performance. Coping strategies are specific efforts that individuals employ to manage stress. This study aimed to assess the perception of stress among medical students and their coping strategies. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 376 medical and medical sciences undergraduates in Management and Science University in Malaysia. Stress was assessed by a global rating of stress. Sources of stress were assessed using a 17-item questionnaire. The validated Brief COPE inventory was used to assess coping strategies. Results: The majority of respondents were females (64.4%), aged 21 years or older (63.0%), and were Malays (68.9%). Forty-six percent felt stress. The most common stressor was worries of the future (71.0%), followed by financial difficulties (68.6%). Significant predictors of stress were smoking (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.3–6.8, P = 0.009), worries of the future (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4, P = 0.005), self-blame (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.5, P = 0.001), lack of emotional support (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.9, P = 0.017), and lack of acceptance (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.6–0.9, P = 0.010). Students used active coping, religious coping reframing, planning, and acceptance to cope with stress. Conclusion: Stressors reported by the students were mainly financial and academic issues. Students adopted active coping strategies rather than avoidance. Students should receive consultation on how to manage and cope with stress. PMID:22135602

  12. [Coping with everyday stress in different problem areas- comparison of clinically referred and healthy adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Fabian; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-09-01

    Studies are lacking that analyze how clinically referred adolescents and healthy adolescents cope with everyday stressors. Clinically referred adolescents from three problematic domains (diverse disorders including delinquency, drug abuse, and depression) were compared to healthy adolescents using the Coping Across Situations Questionnaire (Seiffge-Krenke, 1995) and a short version of the Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991). The different clinical groups (n = 469) showed unique patterns concerning their coping styles. The group of depressed youth altogether showed lower coping activities. The youth from institutions for drug abusive youth used more dysfunctional coping. The adolescents from youth welfare services (diverse disorders including delinquency) were more active in both dysfunctional and functional coping than the other two clinically referred groups. The control group showed more functional and less dysfunctional coping. The clinically referred adolescents did not differentiate in their coping behavior, depending on the type of stressor. Gender effects were apparent, albeit negligible. Clinically referred youth are unable to adapt their coping behavior according to the given situation.

  13. A study on work stress, stress coping strategies and health promoting lifestyle among district hospital nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Shieunt-Han; Tsai, Chao-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    To determine work stress, and stress-coping strategies, and to analyze their the relationships in order to improve health-promoting lifestyle of nurses in Taiwan. Three hundred eighty-five nurses who had work experience for more than 6 mo, were selected from four district hospitals in Kaohsiung and Ping Tung. We used a stratified cluster random sampling method for the selection. The nurses answered a self-report questionnaire, which was categorized into four sections: personal background data, work stress, stress-coping strategies, and health-promoting lifestyle. The findings indicate work stress and the health promoting lifestyle of nurses are at a higher level, with stress-coping strategies being at a medium level. Work stress and stress-coping strategies were significantly and positively correlated. Professional relationships, managerial role, personal responsibility, and recognition of work stress and the responsibilities of a health-promoting lifestyle were negatively correlated. Managerial role, personal responsibility, and organizational atmosphere of work stress as well as realization, an item of health-promoting lifestyle, were negatively correlated. Recognition of work stress and stress management, items of health-promoting lifestyle, were negatively correlated. Health responsibility, and self-actualization, items of health-promoting lifestyle, as well as stress-coping strategies were negatively correlated. Nutrition, an item of health-promoting lifestyle, and the support stress-coping strategy was negatively correlated. Nurses have greater work pressure and better work stress-coping strategies, but worse health responsibility and realization of a health-promoting lifestyle. We suggest hospitals build good relationships and appropriately increase employment of nurses through a good work atmosphere to achieve nurses' realization of a health-promoting lifestyle.

  14. Stress and coping strategies among Arab medical students: towards a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzubeir, M A; Elzubeir, K E; Magzoub, M E

    2010-04-01

    Research conducted in the past ten years in the area of stress and coping among Arab medical students has identified some important issues, but other significant aspects have not yet been explored. To provide a systematic review of studies reporting on stress, anxiety and coping among Arab medical students and to identify implications for future research. PubMed was searched to identify peer-reviewed English-language studies published between January 1998 and October 2009 reporting on stress and coping among undergraduate Arab medical students. Search strategy used combinations of the terms: Arab medical student, stress, PBL, psychological distress, depression, anxiety and coping strategies. Demographic information on respondents, instruments used, prevalence data and statistically significant associations were abstracted. The search identified 8 articles that met the specified inclusion criteria. Within the limited range of Arab medical students studied, studies suggest these students have a high prevalence of perceived stress, depression and anxiety, with levels of perceived psychological stress as high as those reported in the international literature for medical students of other regions of the world. Limited data were available regarding coping strategies, the impact of stress on academic performance and attrition among Arab students. No data were available regarding the impact of problem-based learning on stress and coping. The existing literature confirms that stress, depression and anxiety are common among Arab medical students, as for students elsewhere. Little is known about the contribution of different curricula approaches to perceived stress and what coping strategies institutions and students apply to help alleviate stress. Large, prospective, multicentre, multi-method studies are needed to identify personal and curricula features that influence stress, depression, anxiety and coping strategies among Arab students.

  15. Military Experience and Levels of Stress and Coping in Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2013-01-01

    Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-me...

  16. The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzer, Claudia; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities): (1) character strengths correlate with coping and (2) buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175]) filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.

  17. The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eHarzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities: (1 Character strengths correlate with coping and (2 buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175] filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.

  18. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress

  19. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  20. Stress and Coping of Critical Care Nurses After Unsuccessful Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeekin, Dawn E; Hickman, Ronald L; Douglas, Sara L; Kelley, Carol G

    2017-03-01

    Participation by a critical care nurse in an unsuccessful resuscitation can create a unique heightened level of psychological stress referred to as postcode stress, activation of coping behaviors, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To explore the relationships among postcode stress, coping behaviors, and PTSD symptom severity in critical care nurses after experiencing unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitations and to see whether institutional support attenuates these repeated psychological traumas. A national sample of 490 critical care nurses was recruited from the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses' eNewsline and social media. Participants completed the Post-Code Stress Scale, the Brief COPE (abbreviated), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, which were administered through an online survey. Postcode stress and PTSD symptom severity were weakly associated ( r = 0.20, P = .01). No significant associations between coping behaviors and postcode stress were found. Four coping behaviors (denial, self-distraction, self-blame, and behavioral disengagement) were significant predictors of PTSD symptom severity. Severity of postcode stress and PTSD symptoms varied with the availability of institutional support. Critical care nurses show moderate levels of postcode stress and PTSD symptoms when asked to recall an unsuccessful resuscitation and the coping behaviors used. Identifying the critical care nurses most at risk for PTSD will inform the development of interventional research to promote critical care nurses' psychological well-being and reduce their attrition from the profession. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. High self-perceived stress and poor coping in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-08-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population) completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Adults with autism spectrum disorder reported significantly higher subjective stress and poorer ability to cope with stress in everyday life, as compared to typical adults. Autistic traits were associated with both subjective stress/distress and coping in this cross-sectional series. The long-term consequences of chronic stress in everyday life, as well as treatment intervention focusing on stress and coping, should be addressed in future research as well as in the clinical management of intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. [Examination of work-related stress and coping strategies among ambulance- and air-ambulance workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiszler, Bence; Karamánné Pakai, Annamária; Szabó, Zoltán; Raposa, László Bence; Pónusz, Róbert; Radnai, Balázs; Endrei, Dóra

    2016-11-01

    Among Hungary's health sector workers the presence of a high level of stress is known, which can affect the individual. The aim of the authors was to uncover major risk factors causing work-related stress, as well as its extent, and positive and negative coping strategies among ground and aerial rescue workers. From June until October 2015, a national survey was conducted among Hungarian rescue workers. An own questionnaire and Rahe Stress and coping validated short questionnaire online form were used. A total of 141 persons took part in the survey. As compared to air-ambulance workers, ground rescue workers were exposed to higher work-related stress effects (pStress and Coping Index effective coping mechanisms were observed among air rescue workers (pstress reduction. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(45), 1802-1808.

  3. Stress appraisal, coping, and work engagement among police recruits: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiseler, Mariana; Queirós, Cristina; Passos, Fernando; Sousa, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of stress appraisal and coping on work engagement levels (Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication) of police recruits. Participants were 387 men, ages 20 to 33 yr. (M = 24.1, SD = 2.4), in their last month of academy training before becoming police officers. Partially in support of predictions, work engagement was associated with Stressor control perceived, but not Stress intensity experienced over a self-selected stressor. Although the three dimensions of work engagement were explained by Stressor control and coping, Absorption was the dimension better explained by these variables. Police recruits reporting higher Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication reported using more Active coping and less Behavioural disengagement. Results showed that stress appraisal and coping are important variables influencing work engagement among police recruits. Findings suggested that future applied interventions fostering work engagement among police recruits should reinforce perceptions of control over a stressor as well as Active coping strategies.

  4. The relationships among self-esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Penckofer, Sue; Gulanick, Meg; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Bryant, Fred B

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight is significant, almost 25% in some minorities, and often is associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological and psychosocial factors as well as poor coping skills have been correlated with unhealthy eating and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-esteem, stress, social support, and coping; and to test a model of their effects on eating behavior and depressive mood in a sample of 102 high school students (87% minority). Results indicate that (a) stress and low self-esteem were related to avoidant coping and depressive mood, and that (b) low self-esteem and avoidant coping were related to unhealthy eating behavior. Results suggest that teaching adolescents skills to reduce stress, build self-esteem, and use more positive approaches to coping may prevent unhealthy eating and subsequent obesity, and lower risk of depressive symptoms. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [A study on the resources coping with occupational stress in teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Lan, Y; Wang, M

    2001-11-01

    To explore the status of the resources coping with occupational stress in teachers. Occupational stress inventory revised edition (OSI-R) was used to measure their occupational stress, strain and psychological coping resources for 1,460 teachers in primary and secondary schools and 319 non-teacher intellectuals. Analyses were focused on coping resources of teachers. The higher the level of coping resource of teachers, the lower the personal strain in them, with an inverse correlationship. Coping resource in the teacher group was significantly higher than that in the non-teacher group, with scores of (130.4 +/- 18.2) and (126.9 +/- 19.1), respectively. Coping resource in teachers decreased with the increase of age, with the scores from (134.1 +/- 18.1) in the group aged less than 30 to (128.5 +/- 17.5) in the group aged 50. Coping resource in the female teachers was significantly higher than that in the male teachers, with scores of (131.4 +/- 18.3) and (129.4 +/- 18.1), respectively. Coping resource in the primary school teachers was significantly higher than that in the secondary school teachers, with scores of (132.7 +/- 18.1) and (128.5 +/- 18.1), respectively. It is important to enhance teacher's coping resource, especially for the male teachers in the secondary schools, for improving their teaching efficiency.

  6. Coping, perceived stress, and job satisfaction among medical interns: The mediating effect of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vinothkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Past research studies on the exploration of attributes to the stress of doctors/medical interns were reported more often than the types of coping strategies, healthy practices to strengthen their internal resources to deal effectively with the stressful situations. Objectives: The present study was conducted to find such internal resource – “mindfulness” as a mediator of coping, perceived stress, and job satisfaction among medical interns. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study comprised 120 medical interns forms from various medical colleges in Mangalore were recruited and completed the assessment on mindfulness, cognitive-emotive regulation, coping strategies, perceived stress, and job satisfaction from doctoral interns were collected. Results: Initial correlation analysis results indicate that adaptive coping strategies significantly associate with greater mindfulness and less perceived stress. In turn, mindfulness is negatively correlated with nonadaptive coping strategies and perceived. Job satisfaction showed no significant relationship with any of the other variables. Mediational models indicate that the relationship between adaptive coping strategies and perceived stress was significantly mediated by mindfulness. Furthermore, partial mediation between nonadaptive strategies and perceived stress through mindfulness indicates that respondents reported a high level of nonadaptive strategy experience and a lower level of mindfulness can be counterproductive as they encourage the ineffective way to deal with the stresses. Conclusion: The implication of the results were discussed with suggesting a possible intervention to improve the adaptive strategies and mindfulness among the medical interns.

  7. Coping, perceived stress, and job satisfaction among medical interns: The mediating effect of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinothkumar, M; Arathi, A; Joseph, Merin; Nayana, Prasad; Jishma, E Joshy; Sahana, U

    2016-01-01

    Past research studies on the exploration of attributes to the stress of doctors/medical interns were reported more often than the types of coping strategies, healthy practices to strengthen their internal resources to deal effectively with the stressful situations. The present study was conducted to find such internal resource - "mindfulness" as a mediator of coping, perceived stress, and job satisfaction among medical interns. A cross-sectional descriptive study comprised 120 medical interns forms from various medical colleges in Mangalore were recruited and completed the assessment on mindfulness, cognitive-emotive regulation, coping strategies, perceived stress, and job satisfaction from doctoral interns were collected. Initial correlation analysis results indicate that adaptive coping strategies significantly associate with greater mindfulness and less perceived stress. In turn, mindfulness is negatively correlated with nonadaptive coping strategies and perceived. Job satisfaction showed no significant relationship with any of the other variables. Mediational models indicate that the relationship between adaptive coping strategies and perceived stress was significantly mediated by mindfulness. Furthermore, partial mediation between nonadaptive strategies and perceived stress through mindfulness indicates that respondents reported a high level of nonadaptive strategy experience and a lower level of mindfulness can be counterproductive as they encourage the ineffective way to deal with the stresses. The implication of the results were discussed with suggesting a possible intervention to improve the adaptive strategies and mindfulness among the medical interns.

  8. EXPLORATORY STUDY: STRESS, COPING AND SUPPORT AMONG PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri NOLCHEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Each year more families are confronted with unique challenges related to raising a child with ASD. Parenting stress is a significant aspect of fulfilling the role as a parent, and having a child with ASD greatly influences the experienced stress. The literature review indicates that parenting stress is inversely proportional to family support and coping mechanisms. Aim:Appraising the stress level among parents of children with ASD, the coping mechanisms and the level of family support, in comparison with parents of children diagnosed with ID. Method:A group of parents of children with ASD (N=35 and a second group of children with ID (N=35 completed four questionnnaires: PSI-SF, Brief COPE, FSS and demographic questionnaire. The data was analyzed using t-test for comparison, Chi-square test for comparing frequency distributions and Pearson coefficient for correlation, with pstress did not differ between the two groups. The coping mechanisms used by the parents of children with ASD showed that increased usage of distraction (r=0.469 and disengagement (r=0.567 increased the level of parenting stress. Family support (r=-0.415 is a key buffer and coping mechanism for managing the stress in parents of children with ASD. Conclusion:There are no differences in the level of stress, coping mechanisms and the level of support comparing parents of children with ASD and ID.

  9. Impact of Social Support and Coping on Acculturation and Acculturative Stress of East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of social support and coping on acculturation and acculturative stress of international students. The authors used hierarchical multiple regression analysis to study a sample of 232 East Asian international students. The results indicate that social support and coping were partial mediators…

  10. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M; Morrissey, Rebecca A

    2013-10-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers' adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11-13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reverse direction of effects was examined, revealing that the relation between parenting stress and avoidant coping was unidirectional, while the relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms was bidirectional. Our results suggest that during early adolescence, mothers who experience more stress in the parenting role are more likely to engage in higher levels of avoidant coping when faced with parenting problems. In turn, a mother's long-term avoidant reactions to parenting problems may predict increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, our findings of a bidirectional relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms suggest that prior levels of depression might serve as a barrier to efficient and effective coping. The present study may inform preventive intervention efforts aimed at decreasing the use of avoidance in response to parenting stressors by increasing adaptive parental coping with stressors, and providing appropriate support and resources for parents.

  11. Perceived stress and coping skills of university student-athletes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student-athletes are expected to cope with their studies and participation in sport simultaneously as well as to satisfy the expectations of coaches, teammates, friends, and family. Once student-athletes perceive a situation as stressful and struggle to cope with the anticipation thereof, their satisfaction with life will be ...

  12. Job Stress, Coping Strategies, and Burnout among Abuse-Specific Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sam Loc; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether effective coping strategies play an important role to reduce burnout levels among sexual or substance abuse counselors. The authors examined whether coping strategies mediated or moderated relations between job stress and burnout in a sample of 232 abuse-specific counselors. Results indicated…

  13. Personal characteristics and forms of religiosity involved in coping with stress. Empirical studies of policeman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Franczak

    2012-12-01

    associations with the methods of coping with stress measured by Folkman and Lazarus WCQ Questionnaire. However, in the case of how to deal with difficult situations diagnosed by Questionnaire WCQ religious dimensions play a role only in three cases: the confrontation, avoidance and positive revaluation. This ways of coping are supported by prayer and worship.

  14. Stress Management in Physical Education Class: An Experiential Approach to Improve Coping Skills and Reduce Stress Perceptions in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christin; Feldmeth, Anna Karina; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In most physical education (PE) syllabuses, promoting life skills constitutes an important educational objective. The aim of this study was to implement a coping training program (EPHECT) within regular PE and to evaluate its effects on coping and stress among vocational students. Eight classes from a vocational school were selected for study;…

  15. Coping strategies and styles of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness: a mixed methods analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kartalova-O'Doherty, Yulia

    2008-03-01

    A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.

  16. Comparison of exposure to stress and analysis of ways of coping with stress among freight transport and public transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Urbańska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast progress in a lot of economic sectors has greatly contributed to a growing role of road transportation systems, including freight transport and passenger transport. The job of professional drivers is regarded as extremely hard and dangerous, it is associated with high risk of health loss and even life loss. This profession is also associated with mental burden, the main cause of the absence at work and alarming number of road accidents. The aim of study was to compare exposure to stress, check the level of stress and ways to cope with stress in 2 groups of drivers (N = 187. Material and Methods: The study was carried out among public transport drivers and freight transport drivers. The authors’ own questionnaire and 2 psychological tests: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE were used as the study tools. Results: The level of stress is high in both groups, mostly due to a similar type of work. Both groups practice similar ways to cope with stress, but active ways predominate. Conclusions: The work of a professional driver is considered as extremely stressful. The level of stress among professional drivers should be under continuous control. Employers should introduce preventive programs and educate employees about some professional ways to cope with stress. Med Pr 2016;67(4:455–466

  17. An online survey to study the relationship between patients’ health literacy and coping style and their preferences for self-management-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vosbergen S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Vosbergen,1 Niels Peek,1 Johanna MR Mulder-Wiggers,1 Hareld MC Kemps,1,2 Roderik A Kraaijenhagen,3 Monique WM Jaspers,1,4 Joyca PW Lacroix51Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2Department of Cardiology, Máxima Medical Centre, Veldhoven, the Netherlands, 3NIPED Research Foundation, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 4Center for Human Factors Engineering of Health Information Technology (HIT Lab, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 5Department of Brain, Body and Behavior, Philips Research, Eindhoven, the NetherlandsObjective: To evaluate patients’ preferences for message features and assess their relationships with health literacy, monitor–blunter coping style, and other patient-dependent characteristics.Methods: Patients with coronary heart disease completed an internet-based survey, which assessed health literacy and monitor–blunter coping style, as well as various other patient characteristics such as sociodemographics, disease history, and explicit information preferences. To assess preferences for message features, nine text sets differing in one of nine message features were composed, and participants were asked to state their preferences.Results: The survey was completed by 213 patients. For three of the nine text sets, a ­relationship was found between patient preference and health literacy or monitor–blunter coping style. Patients with low health literacy preferred the text based on patient experience. Patients with a monitoring coping style preferred information on short-term effects of their treatment and mentioning of explicit risks. Various other patient characteristics such as marital status, social support, disease history, and age also showed a strong association.Conclusion: Individual differences exist in patients’ preferences for message features, and these preferences relate to patient characteristics such as health literacy and monitor

  18. Association of stress coping strategies with Internet addiction in college students: The moderating effect of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Po; Ko, Chih-Hung; Kaufman, Erin A; Crowell, Sheila E; Hsiao, Ray C; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Jin-Jia; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the association between stress-related coping strategies and Internet addiction and the moderating effect of depression in a sample of Taiwanese college students. A total of 500 college students (238 men and 262 women) participated in this study. Internet addiction was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Participants' stress coping strategies and depressive symptoms were measured using the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, respectively. We used t and chi-square tests to examine differences in demographic characteristics, depression, and stress coping strategies between participants with and without Internet addiction. Significant variables were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between stress coping strategies and Internet addiction and the moderating effect of depression on the association. Results indicated that use of restraint coping was negatively associated with Internet addiction (odds ratio [OR]=0.886, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.802-0.977), whereas denial (OR=1.177, 95% CI: 1.029-1.346) and mental disengagement (OR=2.673, 95% CI: 1.499-4.767) were positively associated with Internet addiction. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between denial and Internet addiction (OR=0.701, 95% CI: 0.530-0.927). Stress coping strategies and depression are important factors to evaluate when developing intervention programs targeting college undergraduate students with Internet addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Daily Stress, Coping, and Negative and Positive Affect in Depression: Complex Trigger and Maintenance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Lewkowski, Maxim; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Foley, J Elizabeth; Myhr, Gail; Westreich, Ruta

    2017-05-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by emotional dysfunction, but mood states in daily life are not well understood. This study examined complex explanatory models of daily stress and coping mechanisms that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (lower) positive affect in depression. Sixty-three depressed patients completed perfectionism measures, and then completed daily questionnaires of stress appraisals, coping, and affect for 7 consecutive days. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) demonstrated that, across many stressors, when the typical individual with depression perceives more criticism than usual, he/she uses more avoidant coping and experiences higher event stress than usual, and this is connected to daily increases in negative affect as well as decreases in positive affect. In parallel, results showed that perceived control, less avoidant coping, and problem-focused coping commonly operate together when daily positive affect increases. MSEM also showed that avoidant coping tendencies and ongoing stress, in combination, explain why people with depression and higher self-critical perfectionism maintain daily negative affect and lower positive affect. These findings advance a richer and more detailed understanding of specific stress and coping patterns to target in order to more effectively accomplish the two predominant therapy goals of decreasing patients' distress and strengthening resilience. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Inpatient schema therapy for nonresponsive patients with personality pathology: Changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes, coping styles, experienced parenting styles, and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Grietje M; Chakhssi, Farid; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2016-12-01

    This study provides an evaluation of group schema therapy (ST) for inpatient treatment of patients with personality pathology who did not respond to previous psychotherapeutic interventions. Forty-two patients were assessed pre- and posttreatment, and 35 patients were evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The results showed a dropout rate of 35%. Those who dropped out did not differ from those who completed treatment with regard to demographic and clinical variables; the only exception was that those who dropped out showed a lower prevalence of mood disorders. Furthermore, intention-to-treat analyses showed a significant improvement in maladaptive schemas, schema modes, maladaptive coping styles, mental well-being, and psychological distress after treatment, and these improvements were maintained at follow-up. On the other hand, there was no significant change in experienced parenting style as self-reported by patients. Changes in schemas and schema modes measured from pre- to posttreatment were predictive of general psychological distress at follow-up. Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that positive treatment results can be obtained with group ST-based inpatient treatment for patients who did not respond to previous psychotherapeutic interventions. Moreover, these findings are comparable with treatment results for patients without such a nonresponsive treatment history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Nursing students' perceived stress and coping behaviors in clinical training in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H; Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2017-06-01

    Clinical training has been recognized as a stressful experience for nursing students. The aims of this study were to identify levels and types of stressors among nursing students during their clinical training and their coping behaviors. Data were collected using a purposive sampling method from 100 nursing students using a self-reported questionnaire composed of Perceived Stress Scale and Coping Behavior Inventory. Results showed that "assignments and workload" as well as "teachers and nursing staff" were the highest sources of stress in clinical training. The most common coping behaviors used were "problem-solving" and "staying optimistic". There was a significant difference in perceived stress among students in regard to the way of choosing nursing. There were significant differences in coping behaviors in regard to the presence of relatives in nursing, living status and mothers' educational level. The predictors of perceived stress were self-choosing for nursing and the presence of relatives in nursing, while the predictors for coping behaviors were stress from peers and daily life as well as mothers' educational level. Nursing teachers and staff are encouraged to develop strategies that decrease level of stress and promote adaptive coping behaviors among nursing students during their clinical training.

  2. Stress, coping and adherence to immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplantation: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Sampaio de Brito

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE : Adherence to medication is a key issue relating to outcomes from transplantation and it is influenced by several factors, such as stress and coping strategies. However, these factors have been poorly explored. We aimed to compare stress and coping strategies between adherent and nonadherent renal transplant recipients who were receiving immunosuppression. DESIGN AND SETTING : We conducted a comparative, cross-sectional and observational study at a university-based transplantation clinic in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. METHODS :Fifty patients were recruited and classified as adherent or nonadherent following administration of the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale. Stress was evaluated using the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults and coping strategies were assessed using the Ways of Coping Scale. RESULTS : The study included 25 nonadherent patients and 25 controls with a mean age of 44.1 ± 12.8 years and median post-transplantation time of 71.8 months. Stress was present in 50% of the patients. Through simple logistic regression, nonadherence was correlated with palliative coping (OR 3.4; CI: 1.02-11.47; P < 0.05 and had a marginal trend toward significance with more advanced phases of stress (OR 4.7; CI: 0.99-22.51; P = 0.053. CONCLUSION :Stress and coping strategies may have implications for understanding and managing nonadherent behavior among transplantation patients and should be considered among the strategies for reducing nonadherence.

  3. Stress and coping of Hong Kong Chinese family members during a critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Winter Y-Y; Chan, Sally W-C

    2007-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the stress and coping strategies of Hong Kong Chinese families during a critical illness and to examine the relationships between stress and coping. Admissions to intensive care unit are usually an unanticipated event, which imposes stress on the family. Family's wellness is one of the significant factors affecting patient's well-beings. Much work has been conducted in Western societies. Stress and coping in Chinese families of critically ill patients have rarely been discussed. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted, using the Impact of Events Scale and the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales. A convenience sample of 133 participants was recruited from a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Many were patients' children with age between 30 and 49. A total of 39.1% (n = 52) of the participants were males and 60.9% (n = 81) were females. The participants experienced high level of stress (mean = 25.1, SD = 8.3). Higher level of stress were experienced by female (t = -4.6; d.f. = 1, 131; P = 0.00), those with lower educational attainment (F = 3.0; d.f. = 2, 130; P = 0.05) and those whose relatives were admitted to the intensive care unit unexpectedly (t = -2.2; d.f. = 1; P = 0.03). Patients' length of stay in the unit was significantly correlated with levels of stress (r = 0.5, P stress had significant correlation with coping strategies utilization (r = 0.5, P stress-coping pattern 'fatalistic voluntarism'. This study contributes to the understanding of Hong Kong Chinese families' stress and coping during a critical illness. Comprehensive assessments of family members' psychosocial needs are important to plan appropriate interventions to alleviate their stress and strengthen their coping skills. The findings will serve as guidance for nurses in delivering culturally sensitive and competent interventions.

  4. Stress and coping skills of teachers with a learner with Down's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lynette

    stressors in the work environment and the role of coping skills have to ..... balanced by an increase in feelings of professional competency. Lack .... Stress, burnout and workload in teachers of children with .... dignity in the life of an individual.

  5. Associations between academic stressors, reaction to stress, coping strategies and musculoskeletal disorders among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Aribo, Ekpe O

    2013-07-01

    The adverse health effects of stress are enormous, and vary among people, probably because of differences in how stress is appraised and the strategies individuals use to cope with it. This study assessed the association between academic stress and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among 1365 undergraduates. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a Nigerian university at the beginning of the 2010/2011 academic session with the same group of participants. The Life Stress Assessment Inventory, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment were administered as tools of data gathering. Students' stress level and associated MSDs were higher during the examination period than the pre-examination periods. Stressors were significantly associated with increased risk of MSDs in both sexes were those related to changes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, p = 0.002) and pressures (OR = 2.09, p = 0.001). Emotional and physiological reactions to stress were significantly associated with MSDs in both sexes, with higher odds for MSDs in females, whereas cognitive and behavioral reactions showed higher odds (though non-significant) in males. The risk of MSDs was higher in respondents who adopted avoidance and religious coping strategies compared with those who adopted active practical and distracting coping strategies. Stress among students could be significantly associated with MSDs depending on individuals' demographics, stressors, reactions to stress, and coping methods. Interventions to reduce stress-induced MSDs among students should consider these factors among others.

  6. Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Nguyen, Danh T; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2014-01-01

    Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed.

  7. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers’ adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11–13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reve...

  8. The relationship between spiritual well-being and stress coping strategies in hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Taheri-Kharameh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Spiritual well-being has been recognized as an important resource to cope with illness and life stresses. The aim of this study is to determine the Spiritual well-being status as well as stress coping strategies in hemodialysis patients. Methods: This descriptive-analysis study included 95 randomly selected patients undergoing treatments with hemodialysis in hemodialysis centers of Qom hospitals. Data collection instruments were the Spiritual Well-Being Scale an...

  9. A Short Stress Coping Intervention in Female Collegate Student-Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Steadman, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a stress coping based intervention in the lives of female student-athletes. Sixteen female student-athletes attending Utah State University participated in a 60 minute intervention teaching skills such as progressive muscle relaxation, stressor identification, and stress coping. Participants completed the Inventory of College Students’ Recent Life Experiences before and after the intervention. The scores collected from the inventory were used to determine ...

  10. Alcohol craving in relation to coping with stress and satisfaction with life in the addicted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gąsior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed at finding any relation between alcohol craving and strategies of coping with stress and satisfaction with life in the addicted. Until now, studies have shown that generalized deficits in coping with stress, and the dominance of avoidance strategies, are significantly related to the increase of the risk of addiction and the course of this disease. This relation, which could link strategies of coping with stress and quality of life with experiencing alcohol craving, has only been explained to a small extent. Also, the role of gender in explaining these relations is ambiguous. Participants and procedure The study was conducted in a group of 550 addicted subjects in out-patient or in-patient treatment (396 men and 114 women. In the present study the following instruments were used: the Craving Typology Questionnaire by Marinotti et al., the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale by Modell et al., the Mini-Cope by Carver et al., SADD by Reistrick et al., and the Satisfaction with Life Scale by Diener et al. Statistical correlational analysis and structural equations were applied, namely partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM. Results There are two types of links between craving and strategies of coping with stress among the addicted. The first dominating type is pointing at casual link between ineffective strategies of coping with stress and craving. The other weaker type indicates the diminishing influence of effective strategies of coping with stress on alcohol craving. Life satisfaction lowers alcohol craving. Conclusions Effective strategies of reacting to stress, together with life satisfaction, protect against increase of alcohol craving. Severity of dependence is an important factor which moderates the influence of strategies of coping with stress on alcohol craving.

  11. Managing Perceived Stress among College Students: The Roles of Social Support and Dysfunctional Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the conditions (i.e., social support and dysfunctional coping) under which perceived stress predicted psychological well-being in 459 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant 2-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social Support) and a significant 3-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social…

  12. Coping with Stress: Supporting the Needs of Military Families and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Theresa J.; Fallon, Moira A.

    2015-01-01

    Family dynamics and the individual differences of each family member can impact their stress. For families in the military, stress occurs regularly due to factors such a reassignments, deployments, and the frequency of changes. For some families, the stress that occurs over time helps family members to develop resiliency. Learning to cope with…

  13. Job Satisfaction, Stress and Coping Strategies in the Teaching Profession-What Do Teachers Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored job satisfaction, work-related stress, consequences of stress, and coping strategies among Norwegian teachers. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 30 working teachers and four retired teachers. The respondents reported high job satisfaction but also severe stress and exhaustion. Teachers of different ages or at…

  14. Adult Literacy Education Program Administrators' Perceptions of Occupational Stress and Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Job performance may be adversely affected by stress. Job stress is a primary contributor to serious physical and emotional health consequences. This quantitative study examined adult literacy program administrator perceptions of occupational stress and coping mechanisms related to job satisfaction, job efficacy, career longevity, and overall…

  15. Resilience and active coping style: Effects on the self-reported quality of life in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Velea, Ovidiu; Diaconescu, Liliana; Jidveian Popescu, Mara; Truţescu, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association between resilience, active coping styles and the self-perceived quality of life in cancer patients. Additionally, we evaluated the contribution brought to quality of life by demographic variables (age, gender, occupational status) and medical ones (tumour, node and metastasis [TNM] stage, time from diagnosis, number of treatment lines). Methods The study design was cross-sectional. One hundred and seventy-eight patients (94 males, 84 females; mean age 56.20, SD = 7.81) consecutively admitted to two specialty hospitals in Bucharest and displaying TNM cancer stages II-IV were administered the Brief COPE Questionnaire, the RS-14 Resilience Scale and the Rotterdam symptom checklist. Hierarchical regression was used to analyze the relationship between the study variables and the quality of life components (physical distress, psychological distress, and the ability to remain active). Results The quality of life scores were within the average limits, despite 87.6% of patients being in an advanced cancer stage. Both resilience and active coping scores were in the higher range (resilience mean = 78.10, SD = 13.31, 95%CI = 76.14-80.06; active coping mean = 18.33, SD = 4.39, 95%CI = 17.68-18.98). Resilience correlated significantly with all quality of life components (global: p quality of life components, and TNM stage to all. Conclusions This study points out the importance of resilience in influencing the self-perception of quality of life in cancer patients. Considering that resilience can be improved through psychological intervention, our findings may be useful for the design, adjustment, and implementation of future psychotherapeutic protocols.

  16. Coping profiles, perceived stress and health-related behaviors: a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Trouillet, Raphael; Maneveau, Anaïs; Ninot, Grégory; Neveu, Dorine

    2015-03-01

    Using cluster analytical procedure, this study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of coping profiles (or unique combinations of coping strategies); and (ii) to examine the relationships between these profiles and perceived stress and health-related behaviors. A sample of 578 French students (345 females, 233 males; M(age)= 21.78, SD(age)= 2.21) completed the Perceived Stress Scale-14 ( Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2002), the Brief COPE ( Muller and Spitz, 2003) and a series of items measuring health-related behaviors. A two-phased cluster analytic procedure (i.e. hierarchical and non-hierarchical-k-means) was employed to derive clusters of coping strategy profiles. The results yielded four distinctive coping profiles: High Copers, Adaptive Copers, Avoidant Copers and Low Copers. The results showed that clusters differed significantly in perceived stress and health-related behaviors. High Copers and Avoidant Copers displayed higher levels of perceived stress and engaged more in unhealthy behavior, compared with Adaptive Copers and Low Copers who reported lower levels of stress and engaged more in healthy behaviors. These findings suggested that individuals' relative reliance on some strategies and de-emphasis on others may be a more advantageous way of understanding the manner in which individuals cope with stress. Therefore, cluster analysis approach may provide an advantage over more traditional statistical techniques by identifying distinct coping profiles that might best benefit from interventions. Future research should consider coping profiles to provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between coping strategies and health outcomes and to identify risk groups. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Buddhism-as-a-meaning-system for coping with late-life stress: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianbin

    2018-01-01

    Religion is increasingly conceptualized as a meaning system for adjustment and coping. Most of the conceptualizations are grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition. They may thus not be applicable to Buddhism, which provides a distinct tenor of meaning for coping. This article seeks to construct a conceptual framework of Buddhism-as-a-meaning-system for coping with late-life stress. Literature review and conceptualization were employed. Under this framework, Buddhism functions as a meaning system involving existential meaning, cognitive meaning, and behavioral meaning. There is reason to believe that this framework promises to offer a holistic conceptual map of Buddhist coping in late life. Thus, it could serve as a guide for further empirical and theoretical exploration in the uncharted terrains of Buddhist coping in old age. In addition, gerontological practitioners could use this framework as a frame of reference when working with elderly Buddhist clients who are in stressful circumstances.

  18. Stress and coping among surgical unit nurses of a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura de Azevedo Guido

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the stressors, the level of stress and coping strategies used by nurses in a surgical clinic of a university hospital. It is a cross-sectional study whose population consisted of nine nurses. Data were collected, between May and June 2005, through the Survey Form for Daily Activities and Coping Strategies Inventory. It was verified that activities related to personnel management were valued as the most stressful. Indicating a nurse in a state of alert for high levels of stress was valued like three medium levels and five with low level of stress. It was observed that solving problems was the most commonly used factor to face stress. Knowledge of the stressors and the ways of coping with them can help assist in the development of possible solutions to minimize their effects and become the most productive and less stressful aspect of the daily life.

  19. Hong Kong baccalaureate nursing students' stress and their coping strategies in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine K L; So, Winnie K W; Fong, Daniel Y T

    2009-01-01

    This study examined Hong Kong baccalaureate nursing students' stress and their coping strategies in clinical practice. Two hundred five nursing students completed a self-administrative survey including demographics, Perceived Stress Scale, and Coping Behavior Inventory. Results showed that students perceived a moderate level of stress (M = 2.10, SD =0.44). The most common stressor was lack of professional knowledge and skills. Among the four types of coping strategies (transference, stay optimistic, problem solving, and avoidance), transference was the most frequently used. Furthermore, senior students who perceived a higher level of stress from taking care of patients were more likely to choose problem-solving strategies. Senior students who had no religious belief and perceived a higher level of stress from teachers and nursing staff were more likely to use avoidance strategies. The results provided valuable information for clinical educators in identifying students' needs, facilitating their learning in the clinical setting, and developing effective interventions to reduce stress.

  20. The Effect of Marital Violence on Maternal Parenting Style and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Cindy S.

    A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…

  1. Infertility Stress: The Role of Coping Strategies, Personality Trait, and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Rashidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.

  2. Forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The Stress and Coping Responses of Certified Graduate Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sources of stress and coping responses of certified graduate athletic training students. Design and Setting: We interviewed certified graduate athletic training students 3 times over a 9-month period. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Subjects: Three male and 3 female certified graduate athletic training students from a postcertification graduate athletic training program volunteered to participate in this investigation. The participants were full-time graduate students, with a mean age of 23 years, who had worked an average of 1.5 years as certified athletic trainers at the time of the first interview. Measurements: We used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Results: A total of 6 general sources of stress and 11 coping dimensions were revealed. The stress dimensions were labeled athletic training duties, comparing job duties, responsibilities as student, time management, social evaluation, and future concerns. The coping responses were planning, instrumental social support, adjusting to job responsibilities, positive evaluations, emotional social support, humor, wishful thinking, religion, mental or behavioral disengagement, activities outside the profession, and other outcomes. Conclusions: Certified graduate athletic training students should be encouraged to use problem-focused (eg, seeking advice, planning) and emotion-focused (eg, positive evaluations, humor) forms of coping with stress. PMID:15173872

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Demographics, Temperament and Coping Scales (DTCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Lazarus & Folkman , 1984; Lee & Scragg, 2001). The importance of coping styles is highlighted by the transactional stress-moderation model, which posits...air attacks. Psychological Medicine, 35, 659-663. Lazarus , R.S., & Folkman , S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, & Coping. New York: Springer-Verlag...Easthope, Y ., Werrett, J., & Farmer, S. (2005). A multiple-indicator multiple-cause model of posttraumatic stress reactions: Personality, coping, and

  5. Relationship between stress coping and sleep disorders among the general Japanese population: a nationwide representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Itani, Osamu; Nakagome, Sachi; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    To clarify the prevalence of stress, and examine the relationship between sleep disorders and stress coping strategies among highly stressed individuals in the general Japanese population. A cross-sectional nationwide survey was undertaken in November 2007. Men and women were randomly selected from 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7671 (3532 men (average age 53.5 ± 17.0 years) and 4139 women (average age 53.9 ± 17.7 years)) were analyzed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on stress, sleep disorders, and stress coping strategies in the previous month. Highly stressed individuals comprised 16.6% (95% confidence interval 15.8-17.5%) of the total sample, and most were aged 20-49 years. In multiple logistic regression, symptoms of insomnia (ie, difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening), excessive daytime sleepiness, nightmares, daytime malfunction, and lack of rest due to sleep deprivation were more prone to occur in highly stressed individuals. In addition, logistic regression analysis controlling for other adjustment factors revealed that stress coping strategies such as 'giving up on problem-solving', 'enduring problems patiently', 'smoking' and 'drinking alcohol' were positively associated with the above-mentioned sleep disorders. On the other hand, stress coping strategies such as 'exercising', 'enjoying hobbies', and 'sharing worries' were inversely associated with the above-mentioned sleep disorders. Distraction-based stress coping (eg, hobbies, exercise, and optimistic thinking) was found to be preferable to problem-based stress coping in a highly stressed Japanese general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of demographic factors on usage of stress coping strategies chosen by elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Lembas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Old age is a particular time in which people experience plenty of changes – both progressive and regressive. Their social and economic position is changing, and human beings are confronted with a lot of difficult situations, such as the death of a spouse, illness, retirement – which particularly require them to apply a proper strategy of coping with stress. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the demographic factors and strategies of coping with stress used by elderly people. Material and methods . The study was carried out on a group of 296 residents of Szczecin who are over 60 years old. It was conducted by means of a diagnostic survey with the use of the Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress – Mini-COPE, as well as an original questionnaire form. The statistical analysis was conducted by means of SPSS Statistics 21.0 (p ≤ 0.05. Results . The results have proven the existence of a relationship between the strategies of coping with stress used by individuals over 60 and factors such as gender, level of education, economic status and financial situation. Conclusions . When coping with stress, men and women apply different strategies. In case of individuals over 60, the higher level of education and financial status they declare, the more eager they are to use active strategies of coping with stress. Seniors with a lower level of education and lower economic status have more trouble adapting to difficult situations. They have problems with taking the initiative and actively dealing with stressful events. They also more often use psychoactive substances as part of their coping mechanism.

  7. [Formula: see text]Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3-5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child's daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness.

  8. Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047

  9. Negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and life stress: integrating vulnerabilities to depression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Alloy, Lauren B; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2013-01-01

    Negative inferential style and deficits in emotional clarity have been identified as vulnerability factors for depression in adolescence, particularly when individuals experience high levels of life stress. However, previous research has not integrated these characteristics when evaluating vulnerability to depression. In the present study, a racially diverse community sample of 256 early adolescents (ages 12 and 13) completed a baseline visit and a follow-up visit 9 months later. Inferential style, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and intervening life events and depressive symptoms were assessed at follow-up. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that there was a significant three-way interaction between adolescents' weakest-link negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and intervening life stress predicting depressive symptoms at follow-up, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Adolescents with low emotional clarity and high negative inferential styles experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms following life stress. Emotional clarity buffered against the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with negative inferential styles. Similarly, negative inferential styles exacerbated the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with low emotional clarity. These results provide evidence of the utility of integrating inferential style and emotional clarity as constructs of vulnerability in combination with life stress in the identification of adolescents at risk for depression. They also suggest the enhancement of emotional clarity as a potential intervention technique to protect against the effects of negative inferential styles and life stress on depression in early adolescence.

  10. Occupational stress, sense of coherence, coping, burnout and work engagement of registered nurses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna J. van der Colff

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the occupational stress, sense of coherence, coping, burnout and work engagement of registered nurses in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population consisted of 818 registered nurses. The Nursing Stress Inventory, the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, the COPE, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were administered. The results show that the experience of depletion of emotional resources and feelings of depersonalisation by registered nurses were associated with stress due to job demands and a lack of organisational support, focus on and ventilation of emotions as a coping strategy, and a weak sense of coherence. Work engagement was predicted by a strong sense of coherence and approach-coping strategies.

  11. Predicting Performance Under Acute Stress : The Role of Individual Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study examined how differences in coping style, coping self-efficacy, and metacognitive awareness influence coping behavior and performance during a realistic acute stressful exercise in 2 military samples (n = 122 and n = 132). Results showed that coping self-efficacy and coping

  12. In response to community violence: coping strategies and involuntary stress responses among Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Maurizi, Laura K; Bregman, Allyson; Ceballo, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Among poor, urban adolescents, high rates of community violence are a pressing public health concern. This study relies on a contextual framework of stress and coping to investigate how coping strategies and involuntary stress responses may both mediate and moderate the relation between exposure to community violence and psychological well-being. Our sample consists of 223 ninth grade Latino adolescents from poor, urban families. In response to community violence, these adolescents reported using an array of coping strategies as well as experiencing a number of involuntary stress responses; the most frequent coping responses were turning to religion and seeking social support. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that involuntary stress responses mediated the relations between both witnessing or being victimized by violence and poorer psychological functioning, while coping strategies moderated these relations. These findings suggest that the negative psychological effects of exposure to community violence may, in part, be explained by involuntary stress responses, while religious-based coping may serve as a protective factor.

  13. The Influence of the Social Environment Context in Stress and Coping in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco

    2016-01-01

    Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted of two separate studies in which a total of 12 team athletes participated. First, six field hockey players (two males, four females) aged 18-29 years (M = 23.0 years) participated in a diary study. Second, six team athletes of different sports (two males, four females) aged 24-29 years (M = 25.8 years) were interviewed. The results showed that in particular teammates are important for the appraisal of stress and coping in team sports. For over half (i.e., 51.5%) of the reported stressors in the diary study the participants felt that others were of influence on their coping. Team athletes experienced the highest stress intensity during competition, or when they appraised the situation as a threat. When others were of influence the team athletes were most likely to appraise the situation as a challenge and use problem- or emotion-focused coping strategies. These finding might provide a new portal for intervention to enhance coping with stress in sport and enhance performance and satisfaction.

  14. Associations of self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs and coping style with depression in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Yan; Zu, Si; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wang, Na; Guo, Zhi-Hua; Kilbourne, Amy M; Brabban, Alison; Kingdon, David; Li, Zhan-Jiang

    2013-10-30

    Psychological models of depression in schizophrenia have proposed that cognitive structures (e.g., self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs) may have a role in the development and maintenance of depression. However, it has not been clear what the characteristics of these cognitive structures were in people with schizophrenia and whether they have an independent association with depression, especially in those from a Chinese cultural background. The present investigation examined 133 people with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls and indicated that compared to the controls people with schizophrenia showed lower self-esteem, higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs and negative coping styles. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only low frustration tolerance, problem solving and self-blame were found to be the independent correlates of depression in schizophrenia. Results are discussed with the view of clinical implications of cognitive formulation and therapy for schizophrenia in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational stress, coping strategies, and psychological-related outcomes of nurses working in psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abd Alhadi; Elsayed, Sonia; Tumah, Hussein

    2018-02-25

    Psychiatric nurses experience a wide range of stressful events, evolving from the care of violent, aggressive patients, recurrent relapse, and poor prognosis of mental disorders. The aim of the study was to assess workplace stress, coping strategies, and levels of depression among psychiatric nurses. A descriptive correlation design was conducted on psychiatric nurses working in mental health settings Port-Said, Egypt. Data were collected from 70 nurses at a mental health hospital. The results revealed that psychiatric nurses had moderate levels of work-related stress and depression, and exhibiting different coping strategies. Stress and depression are prevalent among psychiatric nurses. Implementing programs aimed at teaching them how to deal with stress at work and improving their coping strategies and problem-solving skills are recommended. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Posttraumatic stress, difficulties in emotion regulation, and coping-oriented marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Vujanovic, Anka A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Gross, James J

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to better understand factors that may explain prior findings of a positive relation between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and coping-oriented marijuana use motivation, the present study tested whether the association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and marijuana use coping motives is mediated by difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants were 79 (39 women; M(age) = 22.29 years, SD = 6.99) community-recruited adults who reported (1) lifetime exposure to at least one posttraumatic stress disorder Criterion A traumatic event and (2) marijuana use in the past 30 days. Results indicated that difficulties in emotion regulation, as indexed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004), fully mediated the association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and marijuana use coping motives. Implications for the treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress and marijuana use are discussed.

  17. An investigation of coping strategies associated with job stress in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J; Steptoe, A; Cropley, M

    1999-12-01

    School teaching is regarded as a stressful occupation, but the perception of the job as stressful may be influenced by coping responses and social support. To assess the associations between teacher stress, psychological coping responses and social support, taking into account the plaintive set engendered by negative affectivity. Questionnaire survey of 780 primary and secondary school teachers (53.5% response rate). In stepwise multiple regression, social support at work and the coping responses behavioural disengagement and suppression of competing activities predicted job stress independently of age, gender, class size, occupational grade and negative affectivity. High job stress was associated with low social support at work and greater use of coping by disengagement and suppression of competing activities. It is suggested that behavioural disengagement and suppression of competing activities are maladaptive responses in a teaching environment and may actually contribute to job stress. Coping and social support not only moderate the impact of stressors on well-being but influence the appraisal of environmental demands as stressful.

  18. Chronic stress and coping among cardiac surgeons: a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Spiliopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiac surgeons stress may impair their quality of life and professional practice. Objective: To assess perceived chronic stress and coping strategies among cardiac surgeons. Methods: Twenty-two cardiac surgeons answered two self-assessment questionnaires, the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress and the German SGV for coping strategies. Results: Participants mean age was 40±14.1 years and 13 were male; eight were senior physicians and 14 were residents. Mean values for the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress were within the normal range. Unexperienced physicians had significantly higher levels of dissatisfaction at work, lack of social recognition, and isolation (P<0.05. Coping strategies such as play down, distraction from situation, and substitutional satisfaction were also significantly more frequent among unexperienced surgeons. "Negative" stress-coping strategies occur more often in experienced than in younger colleagues (P=0.029. Female surgeons felt more exposed to overwork (P=0.04 and social stress (P=0.03. Conclusion: Cardiac surgeons show a tendency to high perception of chronic stress phenomena and vulnerability for negative coping strategies.

  19. 自我效能感、应付方式和犯罪青少年抑郁的相关研究%Depression and Its Relation to General Self-efficacy and Coping Styles in Delinquent Teenagers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王才康

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristic of depression and its relationship with general self-efficacy and coping styles in delinquent teenagers. Methods: 228 delinquent teenagers in jail completed a battery of questionnaires consisted of General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Short Coping Style Scale (SCSS), and Center for Epidemiological, Depression Scale (CES-D).Results: Mean scores of depression of delinquent teenagers were found to be highly elevated. A total of 52.6% of the subjects showed depression. Depression as assessed by CES-D was found to correlate with General self-efficacy (r=-0.162) and Negative Coping Styles (r=0.177). No significant relationship was found between Positive Coping Styles and depression. Conclusion: Depression of delinquent teenagers was related to low self-efficacy and negative coping styles.

  20. Type D personality, stress, coping and performance on a novel sport task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Borkoles

    Full Text Available We investigated (1 the relationship between Type D personality, stress intensity appraisal of a self-selected stressor, coping, and perceived coping effectiveness and (2 the relationship between Type D personality and performance. In study one, 482 athletes completed the Type D personality questionnaire (DS14, stress thermometer and MCOPE in relation to a recently experienced sport stressor. Type D was associated with increased levels of perceived stress and selection of coping strategies (more emotion and avoidance coping as well as perceptions of their effectiveness. In study two, 32 participants completed a rugby league circuit task and were assessed on pre-performance anxiety, post-performance affect and coping. Type D was associated with poorer performance (reduced distance; more errors, decreases in pre-performance self-confidence and more use of maladaptive resignation/withdrawal coping. Findings suggest that Type D is associated with maladaptive coping and reduced performance. Type D individuals would benefit from interventions related to mood modification or enhancing interpersonal functioning.

  1. Effects of occupational stress and coping mechanisms adopted by radiographers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashong, G.G.N.A.; Rogers, H.; Botwe, B.O.; Anim-Sampong, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that population of radiography staff within various hospitals in Ghana decreased by 30% in the last decade due to several reasons. One of such reasons understood to be related to stress and job satisfaction which affect work output. Purpose: To investigate the effects of occupational stress and the coping mechanisms adopted by radiographers in Ghana. Method: A descriptive survey using a five-point Likert-scale questionnaire with pre-coded responses was administered via email to respondents. Purposive sampling method was used to select 190 radiographers who work in hospitals in Ghana. Descriptive statistics was mainly used to analyse the data using SPSS Version 20. Results: Of a total 190 questionnaires sent, 122 were completed and returned giving a 64.3% response rate. Majority 78 (64%) of respondents were males and the predominant area of work was conventional radiography. Most radiographers revealed they were stressed with 63% indicating high/very high levels of stress. The consequent effects of stress on radiographers were sick absence, depression and job dissatisfaction. Most of the radiographers used primary interventions to cope with stress. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that most radiographers in Ghana are stressed. However, they cope well with problem-solving mechanisms. This suggests that the decrease in number of radiographers within various facilities in Ghana by 30% may not necessarily be caused by stress but other factors which need to be investigated. Nevertheless, occupational stress has an effect on radiographers' quality of working life and may directly impact on their behaviour during service delivery. - Highlights: • There is high level of occupational stress among Ghanaian Radiographers. • Some sources and causes of occupational stress among Ghanaian Radiographers were workload, poor pay and shortage of staff. • Job dissatisfaction, depression and sick absence were effects of occupational

  2. Self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: can coping styles and social support have a buffering role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeghian, Zeinab; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Parisa; Parvin, Mahmoud; Gillani, Kobra Roohi; Hassanabadi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes self-care is a key element in the overall management of diabetes. However, the importance of psychosocial factors for successful disease management is under investigated. This study aimed at exploring the role of coping styles and social support in the relationship between self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes. One hundred adults (60% female, aged 40-70 years) with type 2 diabetes completed questionnaires assessing self-care activities, coping styles and social support. In addition, a blood test was performed to obtain glycated haemoglobin levels. Result showed significant relationships of glycated haemoglobin with self-care activities, coping styles and social support. Regression analysis indicated that social support had a moderating role on the relationship between self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin, such that, at very high levels of social support the association, between Self-Care and HbA1c disappears. Findings indicate that health care providers, within the context of the Iranian social and cultural situation, should pay more attention to psychosocial factors when addressing self-care activities. Delineation of the role of coping styles and social support might be useful for identifying patients in need of particular counselling and support for improving self-care activities and HbA1c levels.

  3. Differential effects of mental and physical health and coping style on work ability: a 1-year follow-up study among aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijfeijke, H. van de; Leijten, F.R.; Ybema, J.F.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Robroek, S.J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Burdorf, A.; Taris, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether mental and physical health relate differently to work ability and whether these associations vary with coping style. METHODS: A 1-year longitudinal study was conducted among 8842 employees aged 45 to 64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability

  4. Coping Styles Mediate the Relationship Between Self-esteem, Health Locus of Control, and Health-Promoting Behavior in Chinese Patients With Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huijing; Tian, Qian; Chen, Yuxia; Cheng, Cheng; Fan, Xiuzhen

    Health-promoting behavior plays an important role in reducing the burden of coronary heart disease. Self-esteem and health locus of control may contribute to health-promoting behavior, and coping styles may mediate these associations. The aims of our study were to examine whether self-esteem and health locus of control are associated with health-promoting behavior and examine the possible mediating effect of coping styles in patients with coronary heart disease. Health-promoting behavior, self-esteem, health locus of control, and coping styles were assessed in 272 hospitalized patients (60 ± 12 years, 61% male) with coronary heart disease. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to analyze the relationships between health-promoting behavior and other variables. Mediation effect was examined according to the methods of Baron and Kenny. The mean score for health-promoting behavior was 2.57 ± 0.51; 38.2% of patients (n = 104) scored lower than 2.5. Self-esteem (β = .139, P locus of control and health-promoting behavior. Confrontation plays a mediating role in the association among self-esteem, internal health locus of control, and health-promoting behavior. Strategies should be undertaken to encourage the use of confrontation coping style, which will facilitate health-promoting behavior.

  5. Self-esteem, coping styles, and quality of life in polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisula, E.; Lukowska, E.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : To evaluate self-esteem, coping styles, and health-related quality of life and their relationships in Polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and related sex differences. Design and Participants : Self-report questionnaires measuring self-esteem

  6. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, L.E. van den; Beckerman, H.; Collette, E.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Dekker, J.; Knoop, H.; Groot, V. de; Jong, B.A. de; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and

  7. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis : a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma Hubertine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent; TREFAMS-ACE study group, study group; de Groot, V.; Beckerman, H.; Malekzadeh, A.; van den Akker, L. E.; Looijmans, M.; Sanches, S. A.; Dekker, J.; Collette, E. H.; van Oosten, B. W.; Teunissen, C. E.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Eijssen, I. C J M; Rietberg, M.; Heine, M.; Verschuren, O.; Kwakkel, G.; Visser-Meily, J. M A; van de Port, I. G L; Lindeman, E.; Blikman, L. J M; van Meeteren, J.; Bussmann, J. B J; Stam, H. J.; Hintzen, R. Q.; Hacking, H. G A; Hoogervorst, E. L.; Frequin, S. T F M; Knoop, H.; de Jong, B. A.; de Laat, F. A J; Verhulsdonck, M. C.; van Munster, E. T H; Oosterwijk, C. J.; Aarts, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and

  8. Stress, coping, and disturbed eating attitudes in teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, S; Waller, G; Kroese, B S

    1997-12-01

    This study explored the relationship between stressors and disturbed eating attitudes among adolescent females, assessing the moderating role of coping and the mediating influence of poor self-esteem. Two hundred eighty-six teenage girls were recruited from local schools, and completed standardized measures of stressors, coping, self-esteem, perfectionism, and disturbed eating attitudes. Regression analyses were used to test for moderating and mediating effects. Stressors and emotion-focused coping were found to be associated with low self-esteem, which in turn was strongly associated with disturbed eating attitudes. Stressors were also directly related to disturbed eating attitudes. The findings provide partial support for existing models of the etiology and maintenance of eating psychopathology, but have wider implications for our understanding of the eating disorders and their treatment.

  9. Coping with information style and family burden: Possible roles of self-stigma and hope among parents of children in a psychiatric inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, I; Pijnenborg, G H M; Ben-Pazi, A; Taitel, S; Goldzweig, G

    2017-05-01

    Parents of children who are hospitalized in inpatient psychiatric units must cope with significant challenges. One of these challenges relates to the way in which they cope with illness-related information. The current study examined the relationship between two such coping styles - monitoring and blunting - and family burden among parents of children in a psychiatric inpatient unit. Moreover, the possible moderating roles played by hope and self-stigma in these associations were also examined. Questionnaires regarding coping with information style, self-stigma, hope and family burden were administered to 70 parents. A main positive effect of hope and a main negative effect of self-stigma were uncovered. An interaction between self-stigma and monitoring was also revealed, suggesting that for parents with high self-stigma, compared to those with low self-stigma, more monitoring was related to more burden. Tailoring family interventions according to coping style and self-stigma is highly recommended as a mean to reduce the family burden of parents whose child is hospitalized in a psychiatric inpatient unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery accentuate the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Meghan E; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2018-03-01

    When exposed to stressful life events, a significant number of adolescents will experience depressive symptoms. One model of depression suggests that individuals with a negative cognitive style are most vulnerable to depression following life stress. Alternatively, altered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may explain vulnerability to depression following life stress. Each of these models plausibly explains the emergence of depressive symptoms during adolescence and have been investigated largely independently. The current study recruited a sample of urban adolescents (N = 179) to evaluate whether cortisol response to a laboratory stress induction and negative cognitive style are related and whether they independently interact with exposure to stressful life events to predict symptoms of depression. Negative cognitive style was not associated with cortisol response to the laboratory stressor. Rather, negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery independently interacted with stressful life events to predict current symptoms of depression. Results support a heterogeneous etiology of depression.

  11. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, G; Bruffaerts, R; Nock, M K; Van de Ven, M; Witteman, C; Mortier, P; Demyttenaere, K; Claes, L

    2015-09-01

    This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perceived stress and coping. A total of 946 Flemish (46%) and Dutch (54%) non-institutionalized adolescents (Mean age=15.52; SD=1.34, 44% females) were surveyed. Measures included the NSSI subscale of the Self-Harm-Inventory, the Dutch Quick Big Five Personality questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents. Examination of zero-order correlations was used to reveal associations, and hierarchical regression analysis was used to reveal potential mediators which were further examined within parallel mediation models by using a bootstrapping-corrected procedure. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 24.31%. Neuroticism; perceived stress; and distractive, avoidant, depressive, and emotional coping were positively associated with NSSI engagement, whereas Agreeableness, Conscientiousness; and active, social, and optimistic coping were negatively associated with NSSI engagement. Observed relationships between personality traits and NSSI engagement were consistently explained by perceived stress and depressive coping. A higher versatility of NSSI was not associated with any Big Five personality trait, but was associated with higher scores on perceived stress and depressive coping and with lower scores on active and optimistic coping. Our study suggests that a specific personality constellation is associated with NSSI engagement via high stress levels and a typical depressive reaction pattern to handle stressful life events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of lifestyle, coping, and job stress on blood pressure in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, T L; Beilin, L J; Knuiman, M W

    1997-01-01

    We designed this study to clarify the role of work stress on long-term blood pressure control and in particular to investigate whether perceived work stress directly affected resting blood pressure levels or whether there were indirect effects mediated by coping mechanisms and lifestyle. Men (n = 337) and women (n = 317) working in a government tax office completed questionnaires for assessment of work-related stress, coping strategies, and lifestyle. Seven resting blood pressure measurements were recorded serially on each of two occasions a week apart. Men had higher blood pressures (119.6/68.6 versus 110.9/65.6 mm Hg) than women; they used more "maladaptive" coping strategies, drank more alcohol, and ate less healthily but exercised more than women. There were no direct associations between measures of work stress and blood pressure. In univariate and regression analyses, both body mass index and lifestyle factors in the form of alcohol consumption, exercise, and diet were related to blood pressure in men and women. Various "adaptive" or "maladaptive" coping mechanisms were identified and independently related to both job stress and blood pressure levels. Women were more likely to use "healthier" or adaptive coping mechanisms than men. Thus, work stress per se had no direct effect on blood pressure, but the ways that individuals reported coping with stress were significantly related to blood pressure, with blood pressure elevation effects appearing to be mediated largely by dietary and drinking habits and physical inactivity. The results point to the need to target individual coping strategies and lifestyle as much as the working environment in workplace cardiovascular health promotion programs.

  13. Gambaran Strategi Coping Stress Siswa Kelas XII Sman 42 Jakarta dalam Menghadapi Ujian Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Nanang Suprayogi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to know the description of stress coping strategies of 12th grade students of Jakarta 42 State Senior High School in facing National Exam. This study stems from the interest of researchers towards the number of cases of high school students who do not pass the National Exam. Researchers seek to impart knowledge to students on how to cope with their stress effectively and to the school and parents for providing the proper approach for students to face the National Exam. This study is a quantitative study using questionnaires as a measurement to know the description of stress coping strategies of Jakarta 42 State Senior High School students. Research instruments are compiled based on the theory developed by Lahey. In this research, obtained results that the class XII students of SMAN 42 Jakarta have a more predominant use of effective coping to cope with their stress in facing the National Exam. The most widely used strategy is removing stress and managing stress reaction  

  14. Stress Management Coping Strategies of Academic Leaders in an Institution of Higher Learning in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurnam Kaur Sidhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s demanding academic environment, academic leaders need to be well equipped with stress management coping strategies as they often find themselves in challenging situations and responsibilities. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to investigate the stress management coping strategies used by academic leaders in an institution of higher learning located in Selangor, Malaysia. A mixed-methods research design was employed and the sample population involved 46 academic leaders from a public university. Data were collected using a questionnaire and semistructured interviews. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using SPSS while the qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The findings showed that a majority of the academic leaders opted towards positive problem-focused engagement strategies such as cognitive restructuring and problem solving strategies followed by emotion-focused engagement which included expressing emotion and social support strategies. Besides that, academic leaders did confess that they sometimes do use disengagement strategies such as wishful thinking, problem avoidance and self-criticism coping strategies but they stressed that they faced problems and stress in a positive and constructive manner. The findings of this study imply that academic leaders in this study are engaged and well informed of stress coping strategies. However, it is recommended that top management in institutions of higher learning take the initiatives in providing necessary support to academic leaders by educating them on stress management coping strategies.

  15. Moderators and Mediators of the Relationship Between Stress and Insomnia: Stressor Chronicity, Cognitive Intrusion, and Coping

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    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Mullins, Heather M.; Drake, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess moderators, such as stressor chronicity, and mediators, including stress response in the form of cognitive intrusion and coping behavior, of the prospective association between naturalistic stress and incident insomnia. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Epidemiological. Participants: A community-based sample of good sleepers (n = 2,892) with no lifetime history of insomnia. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Participants reported the number of stressful events they had encountered at baseline, as well as the perceived severity and chronicity of each event. Similarly, volitional stress responses such as coping, as well as more involuntary responses such as cognitive intrusion were assayed for each stressor. Follow-up assessment 1 y hence revealed an insomnia incidence rate of 9.1%. Stress exposure was a significant predictor of insomnia onset, such that the odds of developing insomnia increased by 19% for every additional stressor. Chronicity significantly moderated this relationship, such that the likelihood of developing insomnia as a result of stress exposure increased as a function of chronicity. Cognitive intrusion significantly mediated the association between stress exposure and insomnia. Finally, three specific coping behaviors also acted as mediators: behavioral disengagement, distraction, and substance use. Conclusions: Most studies characterize the relationship between stress exposure and insomnia as a simple dose-response phenomenon. However, our data suggest that certain stressor characteristics significantly moderate this association. Stress response in the form of cognitive intrusion and specific maladaptive coping behaviors mediate the effects of stress exposure. These findings highlight the need for a multidimensional approach to stress assessment in future research and clinical practice. Citation: Pillai V, Roth T, Mullins HM, Drake CL. Moderators and mediators of the relationship between stress and insomnia

  16. Role of basal stress hormones and amygdala dimensions in stress coping strategies of male rhesus monkeys in response to a hazard-reward conflict

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    Elaheh Tekieh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In the present study the effect of stress on monkeys that had learned to retrieve food from a five-chamber receptacle, as well as the relationship between their behavior and the serum cortisol and epinephrine levels and relative size of the amygdala was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Six male rhesus monkeys were individually given access to the food reward orderly. They could easily retrieve the rewards from all chambers except for the chamber 4, which a brief, mild electric shock (3 V was delivered to them upon touching the chamber’s interior. The coping behaviors were video-recorded and analyzed offline. Baseline serum cortisol and epinephrine levels were measured before the experiments using monkey enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. One week after the behavioral experiment, the monkeys’ brains were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging under general anesthesia. The cross-sectional area of the left amygdala in sagittal plane relative to the area of the whole brain in the same slice was evaluated by the planimetric method using ImageJ software. Results: Exposure to the distressing condition caused different behavioral responses. Monkeys with higher baseline levels of serum cortisol and epinephrine and larger amygdala behaved more violently in the face of stress, indicating adopting emotion-focused stress-coping strategies. Conversely, those with low plasma epinephrine, moderate cortisol, and smaller amygdala showed perseverative behavior, indicating a problem-focused coping style. Conclusion: In dealing with the same stress, different responses might be observed from nonhuman primates according to their cortisol and epinephrine levels as well as their amygdala dimensions.

  17. A Comparative Study of Stressful Life Events and Stress Coping Strategies in Coronary Heart Disease Patients and Non-Patients

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    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD. The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were studied and compared with regard to psychosocial life events and stress coping strategies through coping response inventory (Moos, 1993 , scaling of life Events (paykel , 1971 and researcher made questionnaire. Results: The result established that myocardial infarction patients experienced more stress than the control group during one year before heart- attack and they used more inadequate stress coping strategies comparing with the control individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that stress and inadequate coping strategies are important variables for the development of coronary heart diseases. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:33-38

  18. Stress in parents of children born very preterm is predicted by child externalising behaviour and parent coping at age 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Mark A; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-06-01

    To examine factors which predict parenting stress in a longitudinal cohort of children born very preterm, and seen at age 7 years. We recruited 100 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestational age) child-parent dyads and a control group of 50 term-born dyads born between 2001 and 2004 with follow-up at 7 years. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Child Behavior Check List, Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Child IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-IV. After controlling for maternal education, parents of preterm children (95% CI 111.1 to 121.4) scored higher (p=0.027) on the Parenting Stress Index than term-born controls (95% CI 97.8 to 113.2). Regression analyses showed that child externalising behaviour, sex and parent escape/avoidance coping style, predicted higher parenting stress in the preterm group. Parents of preterm girls expressed higher levels of stress than those of boys. Maladaptive coping strategies contribute to greater stress in parents of very preterm children. Our findings suggest that these parents need support for many years after birth of a very preterm infant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Estrés académico y afrontamiento en estudiantes de Medicina Academic stress and coping in medical students

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    Yanet Díaz Martín

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de afrontamiento al estrés son consideradas factores protectores de la salud. El afrontamiento positivo promueve un estilo de vida salutogénico favoreciendo la salud mental y la calidad de vida. Desde esta perspectiva se caracteriza al estrés académico y los estilos de afrontamiento de estudiantes de Medicina. Durante el curso 2007-2008 se realizó un estudio descriptivo con una muestra de 42 estudiantes del primer año de Medicina del Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas de Camagüey, a los que se les aplicaron exámenes y encuestas. Los resultados mostraron que los factores más significativos dentro del contexto académico son: la realización de un examen, la sobrecarga académica y la falta de tiempo para cumplir las tareas docentes. En cuanto los estilos de afrontamiento, predominaron las estrategias enfocadas en la solución del problema como el afrontamiento activo, la reinterpretación positiva, el crecimiento a partir de la elaboración de un plan de acción, el afrontamiento de la situación y el aprendizaje de la experiencia. Hay un bajo predominio del afrontamiento pasivo centrado en la emoción. Se concluye que toda la muestra es vulnerable al estrés.Stress coping strategies are considered as health protective factors. Positive coping supports a healthy life style and favors both mental health and quality of life. From this viewpoint, medical students´ academic stress and coping styles are characterized. With a sample of 42 second-year medical students from the Medical School of Camagüey, a descriptive study was carried out during academic course 2007-2008. Tests and surveys were applied. Results showed that the most important factors within the academic context are: taking exams, academic overload, and lack of time to complete school tasks. Concerning coping styles, strategies focused on solving problems were predominant, such as: active coping, positive reinterpretation, development after elaborating an

  20. Mindfulness Correlates with Stress and Coping in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Pierdomenico, Emily-Ann; Kadziolka, Marta; Miller, Carlin J.

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness has received significant attention in the empirical literature during the past decade, but few studies have focused on mindfulness in university students and how it may influence problematic behaviours. This study examined the relationships among mindfulness, coping, and physiological reactivity in a sample of university students.…