WorldWideScience

Sample records for stress cities transport

  1. Stress from an administrative perspective in public transport drivers in Mexico City: Minibus and metrobus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lámbarry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is one of the occupational diseases that affect workers worldwide, affecting their own productivity and performance (as well as that of the organizations where they work, and even their physical and mental health. According to the International Labour Organization, Mexican workers suffer from stress the most all over the world, since theirs is one of the most stressful professions. With this in mind, the aim of this research is to study the work stress in bus rapid transit drivers and minibus in Mexico City. The method used is based on an exploratory statistical factorial analysis. It is concluded that the factors which a higher influence in the onset of stress are organizational, environmental (physical/individual, inherent to the position, extra organizational and individual. Although divergent among drivers, minibus drivers are the workers who suffer the most from stress.

  2. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  3. Stress from an administrative perspective in public transport drivers in Mexico City: Minibus and metrobus

    OpenAIRE

    Lámbarry Vichis, Fernando; Trujillo, Mara Marcela; Cumbres, Cintia Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the occupational diseases that affect workers worldwide, affecting their own productivity and performance (as well as that of the organizations where they work), and even their physical and mental health. According to the International Labour Organization, Mexican workers suffer from stress the most all over the world, since theirs is one of the most stressful professions. With this in mind, the aim of this research is to study the work stress in bus rapid transit...

  4. Stress from an administrative perspective in public transport drivers in Mexico City: Minibus and metrobus

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Lámbarry; Mara Maricela Trujillo; Cintia Guadalupe Cumbres

    2016-01-01

    El estrés es una de las enfermedades laborales que más afectan a los trabajadores en todo el mundo,perjudicando su productividad y rendimiento tanto propio como de las organizaciones donde laboran,e incluso su salud física y mental. Según la Organización Internacional del Trabajo son los trabajadoresmexicanos quienes mayormente lo padecen a nivel mundial, toda vez que una de las profesiones másestresantes es ser conductor de transporte público. Es por ello que el objetivo de esta investigació...

  5. Stress from an administrative perspective in public transport drivers in Mexico City: Minibus and metrobus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lámbarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrés es una de las enfermedades laborales que más afectan a los trabajadores en todo el mundo,perjudicando su productividad y rendimiento tanto propio como de las organizaciones donde laboran,e incluso su salud física y mental. Según la Organización Internacional del Trabajo son los trabajadoresmexicanos quienes mayormente lo padecen a nivel mundial, toda vez que una de las profesiones másestresantes es ser conductor de transporte público. Es por ello que el objetivo de esta investigación esestudiar el estrés laboral en los conductores de autobuses de tránsito rápido y microbuses de la Ciu-dad de México. El método empleado se fundamenta en el análisis estadístico factorial exploratorio. Apartir de lo anterior, se concluye que los factores que más inciden en la aparición de estrés son organi-zacionales, ambientales (físico/individual, intrínsecos del puesto, extraorganizacionales e individuales.Aunque divergentes entre los conductores, son los de minibús los que más lo padecen.

  6. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  7. Heuristic Optimization Approach to Selecting a Transport Connection in City Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kul’ka Jozef

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a heuristic optimization approach to select a suitable transport connection in the framework of a city public transport. This methodology was applied on a part of the public transport in Košice, because it is the second largest city in the Slovak Republic and its network of the public transport creates a complex transport system, which consists of three different transport modes, namely from the bus transport, tram transport and trolley-bus transport. This solution focused on examining the individual transport services and their interconnection in relevant interchange points.

  8. 3rd International Symposium for Intelligent Transportation and Smart City

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xiongyao; Sun, Jian; Ma, Limin; Chen, Yinong; ITASC

    2017-01-01

    This book presents research advances in intelligent transportation and smart cities in detail, mainly focusing on green traffic and urban utility tunnels, presented at the 3rd International Symposium for Intelligent Transportation and Smart City (ITASC) held at Tongji University, Shanghai, on May 19–20, 2017. It discusses a number of hot topics, such as the 2BMW system (Bus, Bike, Metro and Walking), transportation safety and environmental protection, urban utility design and application, as well as the application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) in city design. By connecting the theory and applications of intelligent transportation in smart cities, it enhances traffic efficiency and quality. The book gathers numerous selected papers and lectures, including contributions from respected scholars and the latest engineering advances, to provide guidance to researchers in the field of transportation and urban planning at universities and in related industries. The first conference in the ITASC series sta...

  9. City electric transport preferences and motives of the Russian students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Elena

    2017-10-01

    The share of electric transport in Russia is very small. Many cities refuse operation of urban electric passenger transportation. Basic reasons of it are high cost value and expensive operation. In Moscow the emphasis is placed on development of rail electric transport. It provides fast movement and pollutes the city environment less. The Moscow students understand that for an urban transportation ecological compatibility and safety are important but they choose buses and individual cars with the internal combustion engine for daily use. The main criteria of the choice are the speed and comfort. Ecological compatibility of the individual transport costs on one of the last places.

  10. Low carbon city: A guidebook for city planners and practitioners: Promoting low carbon transport in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, S. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Pathak, M. [CEPT University, Ahmedabad (India); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    2013-08-15

    The principal aim of the guidebook is to provide basic guidance to city level policy makers, urban planners, transport planners and consultants who are collectively referred to as ''city planners'', on: a) How to incorporate globally agreed upon climate change objectives, targets and policies in long-term city level development plans. b) How to align national development and climate change agendas with city level development plans. c) How to delineate win-win options that deliver multiple co-benefits, besides climate change benefits, such as air quality improvement, improved energy access, reduced congestion in the transport system, and improved national energy security. (LN)

  11. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF ELECTRIC RAIL TRANSPORT IMPLEMENTATION IN VILNIUS CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas BUREIKA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current problems of Vilnius city public transportation. The possible solutions (options and the technical means to improve the attractiveness of public transportation and accessibility are considered. Two main alternatives of means of electric transport (underground and tram have been singled out for Vilnius city. The suitability of these rail transport means have been substantiated. The nature and density of the work and residence places (areas of Vilnius city residents have been analysed. The scheme of tram and underground lines projected in Vilnius city are evaluated, which have been composed according to the current and forecasted flows of passengers, the nature of their changes and critical points. The technical economic indicators of the tram routes and underground lines in Vilnius city are analysed: average driving speed, average distance between the stations, the duration of the trip, the capacity of a single means of transport, the costs of line support and the size of investment. The accident rate of urban rail transportation is estimated. Comparative criteria of tram and underground lines are selected. The effectiveness of both rail means of transport in Vilnius city are compared according to three multi-criteria evaluation methods: the sum of ratings, simple additive weighting and geometrical means. The final conclusions and recommendations are provided.

  12. The Vermont transportation energy report : Vermont Clean Cities Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The mission of the Vermont Clean Cities Coalition (VCCC) is to reduce the states reliance on : fossil fuels for transportation. This annual report provides policy makers with relevant and : timely data on the status of fuel consumption, vehicle pu...

  13. Public transport traffic management systems simulation in Craiova city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    Urban transport is a comprehensive and dynamic mechanism. Therefore, all the problems for improving and reorganization of the system can be examined only in the light of a systemic approach. Currently, public passenger transport is one of the most important branches of the urban development in cities and metropolis. Public passenger transport activity and all the steps taken to improve that activity are considered to be of great social importance. In the current stage of city development, one of the main tasks is to create a public passenger transportation system that is safe, affordable, economical, reliable and environmentally friendly. The important role of passenger transport in the city's economy and achieving important social services to the population, dictates the need to introduce measures in the system that are harmonious, balanced and effective. This can only be done, in the context of current development, only after the system as a whole is tested extensively through special traffic and management software. (Author)

  14. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  15. Transportation energy in global cities: Sustainable transportation comes in from the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Peter; Kenworthy, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    The energy, environmental and social benefits of sustainable transportation, i.e, public transit, biking and walking, have long been recognized but are now mainstream in global and local transportation policy debates. However, the economic value of sustainable transportation has always been seen as secondary, unless many external costs were included. The results of a new global study show that cities with significant sustainable transportation systems have reduced costs on road construction and maintenance; better operating cost recovery and fuel-efficiency; fewer road accidents and less air pollution. In overall terms, the percentage of city funds going to transportation is reduced. The data show that cities with the most roads have the highest transportation costs and the most rail-oriented cities have the lowest. Further, the most sprawling cities have the highest direct and indirect costs for transportation. Thus, strategies to contain sprawl, to reurbanize, to build new rail systems info car-dependent suburbs with focussed sub-centers, and to facilitate biking and walking, not only will improve energy efficiency but will reduce costs to the economy of a city. Strategies that build freeways and add to sprawl will do the opposite. Trends indicate that moves toward sustainable urban patterns are beginning. The need to operationalize sustainable transportation strategies in planning and engineering practice and in the politics of infrastructure funding remains a major challenge. Some cities are showing how this can be done. (author)

  16. Structural and robustness properties of smart-city transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Gang; Ding, Zhuo; Fan, Jing-Fang; Meng, Jun; Ding, Yi-Min; Ye, Fang-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2015-09-01

    The concept of smart city gives an excellent resolution to construct and develop modern cities, and also demands infrastructure construction. How to build a safe, stable, and highly efficient public transportation system becomes an important topic in the process of city construction. In this work, we study the structural and robustness properties of transportation networks and their sub-networks. We introduce a complementary network model to study the relevance and complementarity between bus network and subway network. Our numerical results show that the mutual supplement of networks can improve the network robustness. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the construction of public traffic networks, and it also supports reasonable operation of managing smart cities. Project supported by the Major Projects of the China National Social Science Fund (Grant No. 11 & ZD154).

  17. Structural and robustness properties of smart-city transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen-Gang; Ding Zhuo; Fan Jing-Fang; Chen Xiao-Song; Meng Jun; Ye Fang-Fu; Ding Yi-Min

    2015-01-01

    The concept of smart city gives an excellent resolution to construct and develop modern cities, and also demands infrastructure construction. How to build a safe, stable, and highly efficient public transportation system becomes an important topic in the process of city construction. In this work, we study the structural and robustness properties of transportation networks and their sub-networks. We introduce a complementary network model to study the relevance and complementarity between bus network and subway network. Our numerical results show that the mutual supplement of networks can improve the network robustness. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the construction of public traffic networks, and it also supports reasonable operation of managing smart cities. (rapid communication)

  18. Optimisation of transport processes in city logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the rationalization of the flow of people and goods in urban areas is discussed in the presented paper. Due to the increasing traffic congestion, this is one of the most important problems of the effective city management, especially in line with the principles of the sustainable development. The paper presents local conditionings for urban agglomeration of Pozna?, with particular attention paid to difficulties of the distribution of goods in urban areas. The available sources for obtaining the good practice for local authorities are presented, e.g. European projects like SUGAR Project (Sustainable Urban Goods Logistics Achieved by Regional and local policies.

  19. Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Janeth Mosquera; Reis, Rodrigo S; Frank, Lawrence D; Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A; Welle, Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero, Eugenio; Mendez Paz, Fabian; Crespo, Carlos; Dujon, Veronica; Jacoby, Enrique; Dill, Jennifer; Weigand, Lynn; Padin, Carlos M

    2013-04-01

    Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America.

  20. Choosing the tariff for city passenger transportation in Kiev

    OpenAIRE

    Pilipenko, N.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with basic problems of tariff policy of city passenger transportations by busses fleets of communal pattern ownership in Kiev. Principles of perfection of method of calculation of tariffs have been offered by introduction of rout and unique tariff.

  1. City transport monitoring and routes optimal management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gargasas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of further development of geographic informational systems with traffic monitoring channel (GIS-TMC in order to present the road users with effective information about the fastest (the shortest in respect of time routes and thus to improve the use of existing city transport infrastructure. To solve this task it is suggested to create dynamic (automatically updated in real time street passing duration base, for support of which a city transport monitoring system operating in real time is necessary, consisting of a network of sensors, a data collection communications system and a data processing system. In the article it is shown that to predict the street passing duration it is enough to measure speed of transport in the characteristic points of the street. Measurements of traffic density do not significantly improve accuracy of forecasting the street passing time. Analytical formulas are presented meant to forecast the street passing time.

  2. Solutions to Improve Person Transport System in the Pitesti City by Analyzing Public Transport vs. Private Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaela, Istrate; Alexandru, Boroiu; Viorel, Nicolae; Ionel, Vieru

    2017-10-01

    One of the major problems facing the Pitesti city is the road congestion that occurs in the central area of the city during the peak hours. With all the measures taken in recent years - the widening of road arteries, increasing the number of parking spaces, the creation of overground road passages - it is obvious that the problem can only be solved by a new philosophy regarding urban mobility: it is no longer possible to continue through solutions to increase the accessibility of the central area of the city, but it is necessary, on the contrary, to promote a policy of discouraging the penetration of vehicles in the city center, coupled with a policy of improving the connection between urban public transport and county public transport. This new approach is also proposed in the new Urban Mobility Plan of Pitesti city, under development. The most convincing argument for the necessity of this new orientation in the Pitesti city mobility plan is based on the analysis of the current situation of passenger transport on the territory of Pitesti city: the analysis of “public transport versus private transport” reveals a very low occupancy rate for cars and the fact that the road surface required for a passenger (the dynamic area) is much higher in the case of private transport than in the case of public transport. Measurements of passenger flows and vehicle flows on the 6 penetration ways in the city have been made and the calculations clearly demonstrate the benefits of an urban public transport system connected by “transshipment buses” to be made at the edge of the city, to the county public transport system. In terms of inter-county transport, it will continue to be connected to the urban public transport system by existing bus Station, within the city: South Bus Station and North Bus Station. The usefulness of the paper is that it identifies the solutions for sustainable mobility in Pitesti city and proposes concrete solutions for the development of the

  3. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  4. Smart urban design to reduce transportation impact in city centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezzai, Soufiane; Mazouz, Said; Ahriz, Atef

    2018-05-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious problems facing human being; urban wastes are in first range of energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gasses. Transportation or car traffic is one of the most consumer sectors of fuel, and most pollutant. Reducing energy consumption in transportation and the emission of pollutant gasses becomes an important objective for urban designers; many solutions may be proposed to help solving this problem in future designs, but it depend on other factors in existing urban space especially in city centers characterized with high occupation density. In this paper we investigate traffic rate in the city center of the case study, looking for the causes of the high traffic using gate count method and estimating fuel consumption. We try to propose some design solutions to reduce distances so fuel consumption and emission of pollutant gasses. We use space syntax techniques to evaluate urban configuration and verify the proposed solutions.

  5. Urban development and transport disadvantage: Methodology to evaluate social transport needs in Latin American cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lizarraga, Carmen; Jaramillo, Ciro; Grindlay, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the theoretical framework for accessibility, social exclusion and provision of public transport. The socio-economic and urban characteristics of Latin American cities require the creation of specific indices to determine social needs for public transport. In the article an index of social transport needs is drawn up. It can be used to highlight a problem which is severely affecting wide groups in Latin America who suffer social exclusion aggravated by a deficient provisi...

  6. Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-07

    This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

  7. Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

  8. [Stress: diagnosis of military police personnel in a Brazilian city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcos; Júnior, Horácio Accioly; Oliveira, José; Maia, Eulália

    2007-04-01

    To diagnose the occurrence and stage of stress among military police enlisted personnel and officers in the city of Natal (the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), and to determine the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated a sample of 264 individuals from a population of 3,193 military personnel from the Natal police command. The data were collected between June 2004 and January 2005 using Lipp's Adult Stress Symptoms Inventory (Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp). The research assessed: (1) presence of stress, (2) the stage of stress (alert, resistance, near-burnout, and burnout), (3) the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms, and (4) the relationship between stress and police unit, rank, gender, drinking, smoking, educational level, marital status, age, years of police service, and salary. No stress symptoms were found in 52.6% of the sample; 47.4% had symptoms. Of the 47.4% of the police personnel with stress symptoms, they were distributed as: 3.4% in the alert stage, 39.8% in the resistance stage, 3.8% in the near-burnout stage, and 0.4% in the burnout stage. Psychological symptoms were recorded in 76.0% of the police personnel with stress, and physical symptoms in 24.0% of them. Of the variables investigated, only gender was related to stress (P = 0.0337), with the female police personnel being more likely to suffer from stress. The levels of stress and symptoms do not indicate a critical situation of fatigue. However, it is recommended that the police take preventive actions, including implementing an effective program for the diagnosis of, training on, and control of stress.

  9. Measures against heat stress in the city of Gelsenkirchen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dütemeyer, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the near-surface atmosphere, heat waves during the summer cause situations that may lead to human-biometeorological impairment. Because of their high population density, overheated cities are particularly strongly affected by heat stress. In the future, due to the effects of climate change, heat stress will increase in terms of its intensity and spatial expansion in the areas of concern. Taking the example of the city of Gelsenkirchen, Germany, this article presents a method for the identification of areas requiring adaptation or protection. A scenario of the future increase of heat stress events is presented, based on data of the German climate change model STAR II. For the identification of areas requiring adaptation and protection, spatial analyses of the urban heat island, land use and demographic aspects were performed using GIS tools. The application and assessment of adaptation measures is investigated for an urban quarter using the microscale numerical model ENVI-met. Finally adaptation measures in urban planning against heat stress are discussed. The relevant urban planning adaptation measures, which are also important in view of climate change, not only involve heat stress reduction in the residential areas already affected, but also involve the protection and optimisation of existing favourable and compensation areas.

  10. Sustainable urban transport indicators: tool for evaluating transport sustainability in the mega cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.

    2005-01-01

    Urban Transport is an important sector to accomplish the goal of sustainable development in Pakistan. This is important because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption, road crashes and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes significant in the Pakistani cities where motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Transport Policies has resulted high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution throughout the country. This situation raised the question how to achieve sustainable urban transport in the mega cities of Pakistan? Development of sustainable urban transport indicators will provide an opportunity to analyze current transport policies to assess Pakistan progress towards or away from sustainability. Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) has selected to analyze against establish sustainable urban transport indicators for Pakistan. On the basis of analysis, it has found that MWF has tried to address transport problem in a piecemeal manner, rather than adopting a holistic approach. Implementing MTDF policies on transport is not fully matched with a long term commitment to achieving sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  11. The Quest for Gender-Sensitive and Inclusive Transport Policies in Growing Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Thynell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In cities all over the world, growing numbers of women are working or studying further away from home than ever before. This article presents policies by the World Bank and recommendations by the United Nations to improve conditions for women’s mobility in cities. Although these stress different factors affecting women’s experiences of traffic and transport, they all agree about the importance of enabling women’s mobility. However, gender-sensitive policies have been largely unsuccessful. This article presents examples of conditions for women in New Delhi and other rapidly growing Asian cities that illustrate how gender norms operate. This study uses the perspectives of development research and gender studies to examine economic and political initiatives and the way women act and interact with transport in local contexts. It facilitates critical reflection upon existing transport policies and suggests ‘how’ women’s needs may be effectively addressed. More in-depth knowledge about women’s needs and the problems they face when travelling will be useful for designing of policies that address more than simply the harassments of women. More inclusive urban access would enhance conditions for women and enable them to make choices according to their needs. In this way, social science and policy will cross-pollinate one another.

  12. Transport and geographical position of the big and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Shulevskyi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There were features of the transport and geographical position of large and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region described in the article. The situation of cities in relation to the existing network of main types of transport connections like road, rail, water, aviation was analyzed. The location of cities in relation to regional centers, the regional center of Odessa, the capital of the country and the state border were characterized. The situation of cities in relation to international transport corridors and the international E-road network was examined. The cities with the most and least favorable transport and geographical location in the region were highlighted.

  13. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  14. the influence of the urban transport system in java on city fuel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nick

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... traffic jam, the use of space, environment conservation (exhaust ... road condition [9], road network patterns [4];. [10]. Data transportation system of the city and the ... cities, 4 big cities and 13 towns, not the city of. Jakarta, not ...

  15. Kansas City Transportation and Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Kansas City Transportation Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) to learn more about local community air quality in three neighborhoods in Kansas City, KS.

  16. Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption" explains how the City of Denton used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  17. Compact or spread-out cities: Urban planning, taxation, and the vulnerability to transportation shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusdorf, Francois; Hallegatte, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that cities made more compact by transportation taxation are more robust than spread-out cities to shocks in transportation costs. Such a shock, indeed, entails negative transition effects that are caused by housing infrastructure inertia and are magnified in low-density cities. Distortions due to a transportation tax, however, have in absence of shock detrimental consequences that need to be accounted for. The range of beneficial tax levels can, therefore, be identified as a function of the possible magnitude of future shocks in transportation costs. These taxation levels, which can reach significant values, reduce city vulnerability and prevent lock-ins in under-optimal situations

  18. The smart/connected city and its implications for connected transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    This white paper outlines the potential for the emerging connected transportation system to interface with smart/connected cities. Its aim is to lay the foundation for defining steps that the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) Connected Vehicl...

  19. sozialwissenInvestigating public places and impacts of heat stress in the city of Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maras, Isabell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of structure and social aspects regarding heat stress of people in urban areas requires an interdisciplinary scientific approach that connects methods from both natural sciences and social sciences. In this study, we combine three approaches to provide an interdisciplinary analysis of the structure and social components of heat stress in the city of Aachen, Germany. First, we assess the overall spatial structure of the urban heat island using spatially distributed measurements from mobile air temperature recordings on public transport units combined with spatially distributed geo-statistical data. The results indicate that the time of day matters: During the afternoon, areas with a relative low building density, like the industrial area northeast of the inner city, are the warmest, while surfaces in high-building-density areas like the inner city heat up faster during the evening. Second, we combine these measurements with place-based survey data collected in 2010 from residents aged 50 to 92 regarding their individual housing conditions, medical history and social integration to examine the match among heat-based stress of older residents, social conditions and elevated temperatures in their residential quarter. We identify disadvantaged areas for specific already-disadvantaged demographic groups in the city, pointing to a cumulation of inequalities, including heat stress among the most vulnerable. Third, we compare data of biometeorological measurements on urban public squares during the afternoon with results of the micrometeorological model ENVI-met to examine the spatial variability of the inner-city heat load. We complement the modelling results with on-site interviews to evaluate people’s heat perception at the same public places. A simulation shows that additional vegetation would increase thermal comfort at these public places, whereby the heat load assessed using the predicted mean vote (PMV value would

  20. Land use transport interaction models: Application perspectives for the city of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozoukidou Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use patterns and transport system are considered to be the two basic components of the urban development process, and as such they have been in the core of spatial planning policies for the last 4 decades. Land use transport interaction models are computer tools that could help us understand land use changes and organization of human activities in relation to existing or planned transport infrastructure. In this context this paper examines the perspectives of applying a land use transport interaction model for the city of Thessaloniki. Obtaining, preparing and validating socioeconomic data is a crucial part of the modeling process, therefore an extensive search of the required data was performed. The quest for appropriate and suitable data concluded with a detailed recording of emerged problems. In response to the inability of finding suitable data to perform the first step of the modeling process i.e. calibration, the paper concludes with some thoughts related to data availability, organization and standardization issues. Last but not least, the paper stresses out the significance of data availability for utilization of land use transport models, so as not to remain purely academic products but tools with practical value in planning.

  1. The serotonin transporter and early life stress : Translational perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Danielle J; Buwalda, Bauke; Zee, van der Eddy; de Boer, Sietse F; Olivier, Jocelien D A

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT) linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and adverse early life stressing (ELS) events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human

  2. Mitochondrial Electron Transport and Plant Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan G; Møller, Ian Max

    2011-01-01

    Due to the sessile nature of plants, it is crucial for their survival and growth that they can handle a constantly changing, and thus stressful, ambient environment by modifying their structure and metabolism. The central metabolism of plants is characterized by many alternative options...... for metabolic pathways, which allow a wide range of adjustments of metabolic processes in response to environmental variations. Many of the metabolic pathways in plants involve the processing of redox compounds and the use of adenylates. They converge at the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) where...... redox compounds from carbon degradation are used for powering ATP synthesis. The standard ETC contains three sites of energy conservation in complexes I, III, and IV, which are in common with most other eukaryotes. However, the complexity of the plant metabolic system is mirrored in the ETC. In addition...

  3. Cycling as a Smart and Green Mode of Transport in Small Touristic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Karanikola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling as a mode of transport is a low-cost, health-improving way to travel and offers environmental benefits for the cities that promote it. It is only recently, though, with concerns over climate change, pollution, congestion, and obesity among others, that have cities throughout the world have begun to implement policies to promote cycling. In Greece, however, the use of the bicycle is limited. In Preveza, a small touristic city in Northwestern Greece where the use of the bicycle is prominent when compared to other Greek cities, there are efforts to promote cycling. Through the aid of a structured questionnaire, the residents evaluated the suitability of the city for cycling, the existing infrastructure, appropriate education, and behavior of cyclists and drivers. More than half of the residents use bicycles as their transportation and stated that bicycles are an inexpensive way of transport in the city and had the opinion that the state should encourage bicycle use by supporting subvention in bicycle acquisition. Two-thirds of the residents evaluated the cycling facilities of their city as adequate, but unsafe for young cyclists who do not follow the rules of transport. Adult cyclists, in contrast, were more loyal to the code, but stated that drivers did not respect their presence on the roads. This research provides important information on the perceived shortcomings of cycling as a transport mode in Preveza that may be of interest to towns/cities with similar characteristics.

  4. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun

    2011-01-01

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  5. The Influence of the Urban Transport System in Java on City Fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system of city transportation and city typology in Central Java affects the fluctuation of fuel consumption. The population size, number of private motor vehicles, RGDP (Regional Gross Domesic Product), number of motorcycles and road length have high correlation with fuel consumption. The higher the population size, ...

  6. Impact of urban structure on personal transportation in the context of a large Danish provincial city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a detailed study of the land use ? transport connection, with special emphasis on the location of residences, in the context of a larger Danish provincial city (the city of Aalborg with approx. 120.000 inhabitants, situated in North Jutland). The study was car...

  7. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing demand in proteins to feed the ever-growing world population has necessitated the industrialization and transportation of livestock using different means of transportation across several ecological zones with different climatic conditions. The stress factors acting on animals during road transportation are ...

  8. Investigation heat stress in small enterprise in Qom city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. hajizadeh

    2014-02-01

    .Conclusion: Heat stress in almost all of the studied workplaces are higher than the recommended limits, and the outdoor workshops had the highest thermal stress, although heat stress did not show a significant correlation with the studied strains.

  9. Forecasting household transport energy demand in South African cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available in South Africa have over the recent past increased at a rate more than any other household expenditure item (StasSA, 2008). Transport energy from fuel, forms a large component of the transport costs for both private car and public transport trips... by the Constitution to plan and manage the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner. The services include water, sanitation, electricity and transport. Some of the management instruments used by local government include Integrated Development...

  10. The linkage among ambulance transports, death and climate parameters in Asahikawa City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroaki; Mochimasu, Kazumi Dokai; Katayama, Akihiko; Kanda, Kanae Oda; Sakano, Noriko; Tanaka, Keiko; Miyatake, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the linkage among climate parameters, total ambulance transports and the number of deaths in Asahikawa City in northern Japan. Monthly data on total ambulance transports and the number of deaths from January 2004 to December 2011 were obtained from Asahikawa City Fire Department and the Asahikawa City official website. Climate parameters for the required period were also obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency, Japan. To adjust for the population, we also used monthly population data on Asahikawa City. The linkage among climate parameters, total ambulance transports and the number of deaths was evaluated by ecological analysis. The mean air temperature in the Asahikawa area was 7.3 ± 10.1 °C. Total ambulance transports (/a hundred thousand people/day) and the number of deaths (/a hundred thousand people/day) were 10.0 ± 0.6 and 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively. Using quadratic curves, total ambulance transports and the number of deaths were weakly correlated with some climate parameters. The number of deaths was weakly and positively correlated with total ambulance transports. A weak linkage among climate parameters, total ambulance transports and the number of deaths was noted in Asahikawa City, Japan. However, these associations were not as high as expected.

  11. Transportation Structure Analysis Using SD-MOP in World Modern Garden City: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the “garden city” was developed theoretically to offer solutions to serious city development problems such as traffic congestion, population, and environmental pollution, among which the transportation is considered the most important. The question is how to develop balanced transportation in a garden city. Transportation is a complex system, particularly in a garden city. Therefore, we establish a new approach named the transportation multiobjective optimization system dynamics  (SD-MOP model, which firstly calculates the optimal proportion of different transport means with an MOP approach and then applies them to the dynamic transportation system to analyze the results and analyze the influence on the whole system using different transportation means variation. In this paper, we take Chengdu as an example, one of the few cities in the world declared as building a garden city, and then develop some recommendations about world modern garden city transportation system development.

  12. Comparison of exposure to stress and analysis of ways of coping with stress among freight transport and public transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Urbańska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast progress in a lot of economic sectors has greatly contributed to a growing role of road transportation systems, including freight transport and passenger transport. The job of professional drivers is regarded as extremely hard and dangerous, it is associated with high risk of health loss and even life loss. This profession is also associated with mental burden, the main cause of the absence at work and alarming number of road accidents. The aim of study was to compare exposure to stress, check the level of stress and ways to cope with stress in 2 groups of drivers (N = 187. Material and Methods: The study was carried out among public transport drivers and freight transport drivers. The authors’ own questionnaire and 2 psychological tests: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE were used as the study tools. Results: The level of stress is high in both groups, mostly due to a similar type of work. Both groups practice similar ways to cope with stress, but active ways predominate. Conclusions: The work of a professional driver is considered as extremely stressful. The level of stress among professional drivers should be under continuous control. Employers should introduce preventive programs and educate employees about some professional ways to cope with stress. Med Pr 2016;67(4:455–466

  13. Optimal decisions of sharing rate and ticket price of different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoping Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper concerns competition of different transportation modes coexist in inter-city transportation corridor. The purpose of this paper is to express the competitive relationship by building mathematical model and obtain the best sharing rate and the optimal ticket price of different transportation modes. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, analyzing influencing factors of passenger choice about transportation modes, we designed an utility function of transportation modes. Secondly, referring to the game theory and logit modle, a non-cooperative game model between railway and highway was built. Finally, the model was applied to Nanchang-Jiujiang transportation corridor in China for an empirical analysis. Findings: The results indicate that the proposed non-cooperative game model is rational and reliable, and it supplies a scientific method to determine the optimal ticket price and passenger sharing rate of different transportation modes, and can be applied to the competition study on different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to built the non-cooperative game model, which can consider the needs of different travelers, and achieve reasonable passenger divergence of different transportation modes and coordinated development of whole transport market.

  14. Anomalous Transport in Natural Fracture Networks Induced by Tectonic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, P. K.; Lei, Q.; Lee, S.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid flow and transport in fractured rock controls many natural and engineered processes in the subsurface. However, characterizing flow and transport through fractured media is challenging due to the high uncertainty and large heterogeneity associated with fractured rock properties. In addition to these "static" challenges, geologic fractures are always under significant overburden stress, and changes in the stress state can lead to changes in the fracture's ability to conduct fluids. While confining stress has been shown to impact fluid flow through fractures in a fundamental way, the impact of confining stress on transportthrough fractured rock remains poorly understood. The link between anomalous (non-Fickian) transport and confining stress has been shown, only recently, at the level of a single rough fracture [1]. Here, we investigate the impact of geologic (tectonic) stress on flow and tracer transport through natural fracture networks. We model geomechanical effects in 2D fractured rock by means of a finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM) [2], which can capture the deformation of matrix blocks, reactivation of pre-existing fractures, and propagation of new cracks, upon changes in the stress field. We apply the model to a fracture network extracted from the geological map of an actual rock outcrop to obtain the aperture field at different stress conditions. We then simulate fluid flow and particle transport through the stressed fracture networks. We observe that anomalous transport emerges in response to confining stress on the fracture network, and show that the stress state is a powerful determinant of transport behavior: (1) An anisotropic stress state induces preferential flow paths through shear dilation; (2) An increase in geologic stress increases aperture heterogeneity that induces late-time tailing of particle breakthrough curves. Finally, we develop an effective transport model that captures the anomalous transport through the stressed fracture

  15. Attitudes and Motivation to Use Public or Individual Transport: A Case Study of Two Middle-Sized Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Burian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a quantitative study in the Czech Republic to understand travellers’ attitudes towards and motivation to use different means of transport. Two Czech cities, Olomouc and Ostrava, are compared from the point of view of factors influencing spatial and temporal patterns and citizen’s selection of transport mode and transport behaviour (range and daily movements of the population, perception of the quality of public transport etc.. The data for the analysis were obtained from the survey with more than 500 respondents in each city. Spatial and temporal behaviour represented by the pattern of the movement in Olomouc and Ostrava city was identified by statistical and visual analytics methods. Based on a case study of two cities of a different size, we conclude that the size and shape of the city centre (spatial structure influence not only the distances travelled but also the average speed of public transportation (slower for a smaller city. Distances and choice of transport mode also vary with the density of urban areas but can also be influenced by the spatial structure of the city. The walking distance to a public transport stop does not influence the most frequently used mode of transport. Temporal patterns in both cities are very similar and are not dependent on city size or city spatial structure. The spatial patterns of the car and public transport flows are similar in both cities. Different patterns can be observed for walking and shopping routes.

  16. Modelling the urban air quality in Hamburg with the new city-scale chemistry transport model CityChem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Ramacher, Martin; Aulinger, Armin; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Air quality modelling plays an important role by providing guidelines for efficient air pollution abatement measures. Currently, most urban dispersion models treat air pollutants as passive tracer substances or use highly simplified chemistry when simulating air pollutant concentrations on the city-scale. The newly developed urban chemistry-transport model CityChem has the capability of modelling the photochemical transformation of multiple pollutants along with atmospheric diffusion to produce pollutant concentration fields for the entire city on a horizontal resolution of 100 m or even finer and a vertical resolution of 24 layers up to 4000 m height. CityChem is based on the Eulerian urban dispersion model EPISODE of the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). CityChem treats the complex photochemistry in cities using detailed EMEP chemistry on an Eulerian 3-D grid, while using simple photo-stationary equilibrium on a much higher resolution grid (receptor grid), i.e. close to industrial point sources and traffic sources. The CityChem model takes into account that long-range transport contributes to urban pollutant concentrations. This is done by using 3-D boundary concentrations for the city domain derived from chemistry-transport simulations with the regional air quality model CMAQ. For the study of the air quality in Hamburg, CityChem was set-up with a main grid of 30×30 grid cells of 1×1 km2 each and a receptor grid of 300×300 grid cells of 100×100 m2. The CityChem model was driven with meteorological data generated by the prognostic meteorology component of the Australian chemistry-transport model TAPM. Bottom-up inventories of emissions from traffic, industry, households were based on data of the municipality of Hamburg. Shipping emissions for the port of Hamburg were taken from the Clean North Sea Shipping project. Episodes with elevated ozone (O3) were of specific interest for this study, as these are associated with exceedances of the World

  17. From “Comprehensive Transportation Hub” to “City New Sitting Room”---Overall the design about Jinan East district comprehensive transportation hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jie; Guo, Jianmin; Li, Jin

    2017-08-01

    integrated transport hub or high-speed rail station often talked about, often known as the “city portal” and the title of “city window”, so the comprehensive transportation hub or the high-speed rail station of a city is very important to a region or a provincial. At the same time, it reflects that the managers and users of a city only focus on the comprehensive transportation hub of transportation service function and ignore her cities attributes and functions. Jinan east district comprehensive transportation hub in the beginning of design is given a feature that it has to serve both the traffic and city. We are trying to build a new center for Jinan east new town, the window to welcome people, the city hall of hospitality.

  18. Violence and stress at work in the transport sector

    OpenAIRE

    Essenberg, Bert

    2003-01-01

    Examines trends in occupational stress and violence experienced by rural and urban transport workers, railway employees, taxi drivers, road freight drivers, and air traffic controllers. Does not cover violence on board civil aircraft.

  19. Perspective on an urban transportation strategy with BRT for developing cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Nakamura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system is one of the best strategies for urban transportation, especially in developing cities, mainly because of its cost-efficiency. Starting from Curitiba, Brazil in 1974, including Bogota, Colombia in 1999, many cities in Latin American Countries have implemented a BRT system. In almost all cases, BRT systems are working as a reliable high capacity service. In some cases, BRT systems are well coordinated with an urban transportation strategy framework and/or an urban planning strategy framework, integrating other transportation modes and land uses. Alternatively, there have been very few cases of BRT systems in Southeast Asian countries. Many cities considering implementation of BRT systems do not consider other urban transportation strategies such as Transit Oriented Development (TOD. The objective of the paper is to discuss the perspective of a BRT for developing cities. First, the paper reviews the history of BRT systems followed by a field survey of the results in Curitiba, mainly from an urban transportation and planning strategy point of view. Second, multimodal and inter-modal aspects are discussed, where the relationship with city buses, a balance between private car use and parking policies are emphasized. Third a framework of urban bus planning, management and operation is discussed considering the roles of public and private sectors based on the experiences of several developed cities. Finally, in terms of an urban planning strategy, reviewing the original and applied concepts of TOD, the authors discuss how a TOD strategy could work with BRT systems. The authors address the possibilities and limitations of BRT systems, especially in developing cities. More specific implications are presented in the case of medium sized cities of Southeast Asian countries.

  20. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM; ZAHARA BATOOL

    2017-01-01

    This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in c...

  1. Perceived Satisfaction with Public Transport Service in Nine European Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fellesson, Markus; Friman, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides a transnational comparison of the perceived service satisfaction with public transport in eight European countries. Data was collected from 9,542 respondents in Stockholm, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Geneva, Helsinki, Vienna, Berlin, Manchester, and Oslo. The respondents rated their agreement with 17 attribute-related statements regarding local public transport services. Using factor analysis, this study identifies the four satisfaction dimensions of system, comfort, sta...

  2. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... transportation are numerous and the responses of the animal to them are complex, non-specific and ..... at 3 h after a 6 h journey in male Japanese goats. During ..... animals are subjected to concomitant action of transport- tation and heat stress .... those measured in moving vehicles (Warriss et al., 1993).

  3. Stress in African catfish (clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, R.; Boerrigter, J.; Roques, J.; Heul, van der J.W.; Bos, van den R.; Flik, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing

  4. Osmotic stress alters chromatin condensation and nucleocytoplasmic transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finan, John D.; Leddy, Holly A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Guilak, Farshid, E-mail: guilak@duke.edu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport increases under hyper-osmotic stress. {yields} The mechanism is a change in nuclear geometry, not a change in permeability of the nuclear envelope. {yields} Intracytoplasmic but not intranuclear diffusion is sensitive to osmotic stress. {yields} Pores in the chromatin of the nucleus enlarge under hyper-osmotic stress. -- Abstract: Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of biological function in many cell types, but its mechanism of action is only partially understood. In this study, we examined whether changes in extracellular osmolality can alter chromatin condensation and the rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as potential mechanisms by which osmotic stress can act. Transport of 10 kDa dextran was measured both within and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using two different photobleaching methods. A mathematical model was developed to describe fluorescence recovery via nucleocytoplasmic transport. As osmolality increased, the diffusion coefficient of dextran decreased in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress decreased nuclear size and increased nuclear lacunarity, indicating that while the nucleus was getting smaller, the pores and channels interdigitating the chromatin had expanded. The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport was increased under hyper-osmotic stress but was insensitive to hypo-osmotic stress, consistent with the nonlinear osmotic properties of the nucleus. The mechanism of this osmotic sensitivity appears to be a change in the size and geometry of the nucleus, resulting in a shorter effective diffusion distance for the nucleus. These results may explain physical mechanisms by which osmotic stress can influence intracellular signaling pathways that rely on nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  5. Pioneering driverless electric vehicles in Europe: the City Automated Transport System (CATS)

    OpenAIRE

    Christie , Derek; Koymans , Anne; Chanard , Thierry; Lasgouttes , Jean-Marc; Kaufmann , Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The City Automated Transport System (CATS) was a collaborative FP7 European project that lasted from 2010 to 2014. Its objective was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of driverless electric vehicles in European cities. This contribution explains how the project was implemented by 11 teams in five countries, culminating with practical trials of driverless vehicles in Strasbourg, France; Ploiesti, Romania; and Lausanne, Switzerland. The Navya vehicles used we...

  6. An Overview of Problems and Solutions for Urban Freight Transport in Brazilian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leise K. Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban freight transport is a challenge for Brazilian cities due to the lack of adequate planning for freight flow movement. Public managers also show negligence and a lack of awareness when dealing with urban logistics. Decision-support data on urban freight transport are still scarce, despite being of fundamental value to economic development. With this in mind, this paper presents problems and solutions regarding urban freight transport in Brazilian cities. Data were obtained through a survey conducted in nine cities and analysed by means of descriptive statistics and the successive intervals method. Additionally, a cluster analysis was performed to identify patterns regarding the typical characteristics of each city in order to compare and generalise the perception of retailers regarding problems and solutions at the national level. The results indicate divergent opinions among retailers from different cities, even from cities with similar socioeconomic profiles and urban dynamics. The municipalities which demonstrated the most similarities were (i Betim and Niteroi, in the Southeast of Brazil; (ii Palmas and Quixada, in the North and Northeast, respectively; and (iii Palmas and Caruaru, also in the North and Northeast. The results reinforce the importance of studying the local context and involving stakeholders in the process of planning urban logistics solutions.

  7. Cycle Transport in Cities – Best Practices versus Brno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kallabová, Eva; Navrátil, Josef; Zemanová, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2009), s. 16-27 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : cycle transport, Brno * good examples * questionnaire survey * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-70449368206&origin=resultslist&sort

  8. The City from the Wire the Aerial Cable Transport for the Urban Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban transfer by using ropeways can produce impacts and externalities which, if well-managed, can trigger processes reliever, sustainable development and promoting tourism inside the city. The article starts from the consideration of urban transport by ropeways as a viable, effective alternative to the collective transfer among different areas of the city, particularly in those cities characterized by unique morphological or hydrographic territory which are fit for being overcome by mobility systems at high altitude. These features, in many international urban contexts, also contribute to enhance the amenity and the urban appeal. The paper intends to underline how the ropeways can become an efficient urban transport system between urban sites, often placed at different heights and for which there is a less accessibility by ground, and at the same time, a fascinating way of tourist mobility that allow people to observe the city from above (moving on it, in a sort of dynamic view. This interesting functional convergence has been often highlighted in the studies conducted on this mode of transportation, ,which in the past was considered one  of the real possibilities for urban moving. Many cities are characterized by this type of mobility and within which existing systems of lifts, oblique connections between parts of the city are provided by urbansystems, lifts, cable cars, escalators, moving walkways, etc.. A focus is also provided in relation to the ropeways, currently operating in many cities around the world, highlighting the effectiveness of mobility solutions at high altitude, although not necessarily intended for the slope, taken in metropolitan contexts outside of Europe since the Seventies. Furthermore a specific attention it is payed to the plants currently disused in Turin and in Naples with a special regard to the possible recovery prospects in a new urban mobility system. For the city of Naples it is presented also a new project

  9. Allocating city space to multiple transportation modes: A new modeling approach consistent with the physics of transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Eric J.; Geroliminis, Nikolas; Cassidy, Michael J.; Daganzo, Carlos F.

    2008-01-01

    A macroscopic modeling approach is proposed for allocating a city’s road space among competing transport modes. In this approach, a city or neighborhood street network is viewed as a reservoir with aggregated traffic. Taking the number of vehicles (accumulation) in a reservoir as input, we show how one can reliably predict system performance in terms of person and vehicle hours spent in the system and person and vehicle kilometers traveled. The approach is used here to unveil two important ...

  10. Assessment of Passenger Satisfaction with Public Bus Transport Services: A Case Study of Lucknow City (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is threefold. First, it tries to assess the passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city of Lucknow in India. Second, it tries to examine the service quality attributes that influence the passenger satisfaction. Third, it tries to evaluate the relative importance of service quality attributes to find out the priority for service quality improvements to enhance passenger satisfaction. The study is based on a survey of objective as well as subjective questions conducted between May and July 2014. Five major bus stops of Lucknow were selected for the survey. Total 148 respondents were randomly selected to elicit their overall satisfaction and factors that influence their satisfaction in the use of public bus transport services in Lucknow using a self-rated questionnaire. The collected sample of responses is subjected to principal component analysis, a statistical technique for dimensionality reduction of the dataset, and descriptive analysis. The result of theses analyses shows that passengers are mostly dissatisfied with public bus transport services in Lucknow. Using principal component analysis, five underlying factors were extracted that influenced passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city. Out of these five factors, comfort and safety has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, followed by the adequacy of capacity of public bus transport services, orderly and clean environment inside buses, elegant design of buses and bus stops, and accessibility to public bus transport services in the city. The study thus provides a direction for public bus transport administration in the city to understand the gaps that exist and try to fill them to improve its services so that passenger satisfaction can be enhanced and consequently more people can be attracted towards public bus transport.

  11. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-01-01

    Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this pap...

  12. Traffic lanes for vehicles of mass public passenger transport on city streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the basic measures of regulating public mass passenger transport in a city network are the introduction and management of traffic lanes reserved for the public transportation. These traffic lanes are important for several reasons: faster moving and shorter travelling time for the vehicles, reducing operating costs, improving the safety, increasing passenger comfort, maintaining of the timetable quality, etc. In most cities, an intensive use of the public transport is concentrated in the morning and the afternoon peak period. The state of the public transport system during these periods is reflected in the crowds inside the vehicles, long vehicle queues at intersections and at bus stops, which cause congestion on the streets and result in delays of public transport vehicles. This paper provides an overview of the current situation on an example in the city of Belgrade. The capacity and the quality of service for the street surfaces reserved for the public transportation vehicles were analysed on the aforementioned example.

  13. Stress concept in transportation of live fishes – a review | Omeji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2017) > ... This paper review covers work done on various methods of transporting live fishes, factors to consider for fish transportation, the stress concept and how stress can be minimized during fish transportation ...

  14. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 20, No. 1, Summer 2016 - Tackling Transportation: Clean Cities and NPS Team Up to Steer National Parks Toward a Sustainable Future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  15. Disrupting mobility impacts of sharing economy and innovative transportation on cities

    CERN Document Server

    Shaheen, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the opportunities and challenges of the sharing economy and innovative transportation technologies with regard to urban mobility. Written by government experts, social scientists, technologists and city planners from North America, Europe and Australia, the papers in this book address the impacts of demographic, societal and economic trends and the fundamental changes arising from the increasing automation and connectivity of vehicles, smart communication technologies, multimodal transit services, and urban design. The book is based on the Disrupting Mobility Summit held in Cambridge, MA (USA) in November 2015, organized by the City Science Initiative at MIT Media Lab, the Transportation Sustainability Research Center at the University of California at Berkeley, the LSE Cities at the London School of Economics and Politics and the Innovation Center for Mobility and Societal Change in Berlin.

  16. THE NETWORK OF CITY PUBLIC TRANSPORT AS THE BASE FOR TRIP LENGTH DISTRIBUTION DETERMINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horbachov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The up-to-date methods of modelling the demand for public transport services require an objective estimation and improvement. Such an improvement can be achieved by taking into account the trip length distribution during trip matrix calculation that requires determining the reasons of regularities occurance in city population trip lengths.

  17. Urban Sustainability by Analysis of Renewable Technologies in the Public Transport of the City of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dullius

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To work sustainability issues in the urban environment is one of the great challenges in current. One of the ways to reach goals of this size is through the insertion of sustainable technologies in the public transportation sector. Examples include the use of biofuel instead of fossil fuels and the adoption of hybrid electric buses. Such replacements have been carried out in the collective transportation of the city of Curitiba, Paraná, which has been a pioneer in this type of management and has 1.7 vehicles per inhabitant. Therefore, the proposal of the article is to question the extent to which these actions contribute to the sustainability of the planet. For this purpose, emissions from the vehicles that compose the city's bus fleet were quantified over a one-year period, with evaluation of opacity tests and greenhouse gas emissions [GHG's]. In the period, the public transport sector was responsible for the emission of approximately 200,000 metric tons CO2 eq. The use of biodiesel in public transportation in Curitiba prevented the emission of approximately 10,000 metric tons of CO2. The results of the opacity tests indicated that the hybrid model operating the B100 emits about 93% less black smoke. It was verified that there is a significant contribution by the city to reduce the emission of GHG's. By economic analysis, if the entire fleet of the city of Curitiba were hybrid, with the total volume of fuel used, an economy of R $ 62,558,868.08 would be obtained, which would cover public health expenditures emissions from public transportation, for example, from the city of São Paulo, the most populous in South America.

  18. City of New York v. United States Dep't of Transportation: urban radioactive waste transportation gets another green light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainey, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines the background of this suit, which invalidated a municipal law prohibiting the transportation of large quantities of radioactive waste through city streets. The analysis focuses on two major issues: (1) whether the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act gives the Department of Transportation (DOT) the rulemaking power to preempt local law, and (2) whether DOT should have prepared an environmental impact statement before rulemaking. It concludes that DOT's action was arbitrary, and suggests some intermediate actions that would aid DOT in making a more informed decision. This could include a verification of DOT environmental assessment data and a more complete analysis of human error. The case illustrates the need for a lesser degree of judicial deference to federal agency action with respect to the volatile and unpredictable area of hazardous waste transportation

  19. Transport scenarios in two metropolitan cities in India: Delhi and Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Anjana; Parikh, Jyoti

    2004-01-01

    With rising population and increasing migration to the cities, it is expected that the urban population will increase and many more metropolitan cities will arise. Urban transport will also increase due to the high growth in population, travel demand and vehicles. In this paper, we look at the growth in vehicles and travel demand up to 2020, assuming business as usual, high GDP growth and low GDP growth scenarios for Mumbai and Delhi assuming a certain population growth. The consequent energy needs and local and global environment implications are studied. The case studies demonstrate that despite similar population and higher per capita GDP, due to the higher share of public bus transport and suburban railway system, the Mumbai transport results in 60% less energy and emissions compared to Delhi. This picture may change in the future with the introduction of metro in Delhi, but basic differences remain even in 2020, perhaps also due to the different urban design. The vehicle stock increases nearly three times in both cities in 23 years due to the increase in population, migration and economic growth. However, the vehicle ownership per 1000 persons only doubles and is far lower in 2020, even compared to the present world average ownership. Emissions, however, do not rise as much due to the introduction of more efficient vehicles and fuels, such as CNG or battery operated vehicles. The high share of public transport also helps. The effects of various policies, such as urban design, suburban railway system, transport management, control practices, etc. are very important

  20. Challenges in Governing the Digital Transportation Ecosystem in Jakarta: A Research Direction in Smart City Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Yulizar Mukti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is one of the most difficult domains of the smart city to face. In fact, most large cities in the world are still facing urban mobility problems, especially traffic congestion. Particularly, in Jakarta, Indonesia, traffic congestion is a major issue that negatively affects productivity and the overall living quality of the citizens. Along with the development of the information communication and technology (ICT, the transportation domain in Jakarta has formed a digital transportation ecosystem, shown by the emergence of innovative digital-based transportation services. In line with this current condition, this paper hopes to contribute to the improvement of urban traffic in Jakarta by proposing research directions to govern the digital transportation ecosystem within a smart city framework. The significance of the research directions is reviewed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA methodology in a systematic review of previous studies. Ultimately, the research directions proposed in this paper lead to the necessity for an architectural perspective and relevant big data analytical tools to improve the digital transportation ecosystem in Jakarta.

  1. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  2. Cycling for Transportation in Sao Paulo City: Associations with Bike Paths, Train and Subway Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Alex Antonio; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Turrell, Gavin; Barbosa, João Paulo Dos Anjos Souza; Cabral-Miranda, William; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2018-03-21

    Cities that support cycling for transportation reap many public health benefits. However, the prevalence of this mode of transportation is low in Latin American countries and the association with facilities such as bike paths and train/subway stations have not been clarified. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between bike paths, train/subway stations and cycling for transportation in adults from the city of Sao Paulo. We used data from the Sao Paulo Health Survey ( n = 3145). Cycling for transportation was evaluated by a questionnaire and bike paths and train/subway stations were geocoded using the geographic coordinates of the adults' residential addresses in 1500-m buffers. We used multilevel logistic regression, taking account of clustering by census tract and households. The prevalence of cycling for transportation was low (5.1%), and was more prevalent in males, singles, those active in leisure time, and in people with bicycle ownership in their family. Cycling for transportation was associated with bike paths up to a distance of 500 m from residences (OR (Odds Ratio) = 2.54, 95% CI (Confidence interval) 1.16-5.54) and with the presence of train/subway stations for distances >500 m from residences (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.10-3.86). These results are important to support policies to improve cycling for transportation in megacities such as Sao Paulo.

  3. New York City's healthcare transportation during a disaster: a preparedness framework for a wicked problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Ernest; Lee, George C

    2009-01-01

    During a disaster, victims with varied morbidities are located at incident sites, while healthcare facilities with varied healthcare resources are distributed elsewhere. Transportation serves an essential equilibrating role: it helps balance the patients' need for care with the supply of care. Studying the special case of New York City, this article sets out the healthcare transportation components as: (1) incident morbidity; (2) transportation assets; and (3) healthcare capacity. The relationship between these three components raises an assignment problem: the management of healthcare transportation within a dynamic and partly unpredictable incident-transportation-healthcare nexus, under urban disruption. While the routine dispatch problem can be tackled through better geographic allocation software and technical algorithms, the disaster assignment problem must be confronted through real-time, mutual adjustment between institutions. This article outlines institutional alternatives for managing the assignment problem and calls for further research on the merits of alternative institutional models.

  4. A comparative study of urban transport and city development in Copenhagen and Bogotá, 1940-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    This paper deals with the history of transportation, mobility and accessibility in two cities: Bogotá, Colombia and Copenhagen, Denmark. Throughout the second half of the 20th century both these highly concentrated cities have coped with the steady increase of car use and following that transport......This paper deals with the history of transportation, mobility and accessibility in two cities: Bogotá, Colombia and Copenhagen, Denmark. Throughout the second half of the 20th century both these highly concentrated cities have coped with the steady increase of car use and following....... In the post-war period his plan has been implemented and modified. One of the most important aspects of the modifications has been the efforts during the 1970s to suburbanize the city and provide more space for cars. Nonetheless, due to economic, political and planning reasons the city has remained a dense...

  5. Pilot Implementation of Public Transport Priority in the City of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Vujić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem with traffic congestion is particularly expressed in urban areas where possibilities for physical increment of capacity are limited or impossible. Significant in the approach to solving this problem is the usage of Public Transport (PT and the implementation of various advanced control measures that can improve the quality of overall public transport system. The main objective of this research is to explore the possibilities of implementation of adaptive traffic control on signalized intersections giving priority to public transport vehicles through urban traffic network in the city of Zagreb. The possibilities of implementing public transport priority (PTP technique in the city of Zagreb are analyzed because of specific traffic situations on defined corridors (location of stops, distance between intersections, etc.. With proper usage of PTP techniques (e.g. adequate detector positions, good estimation of PT vehicle arrival time at intersection the total tram travel time can be significantly reduced. The Level of Service at intersection may be approximately retained because cross-street traffic demand was not ignored. According to technological level of traffic control system in the city of Zagreb, global implementation of PTP is not possible. So, for each intersection the PTP algorithm was developed separately, but mutual traffic influence of all intersections on the corridor was considered. The cooperative concept application within urban traffic control is considered as well.

  6. Heat-stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas, being warmer than their surroundings, are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine a 35-year convection-permitting climate model integrations with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess heat stress in a typical densely populated mid-latitude maritime region. We show that the heat-stress increase for the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heatwaves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat-stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat-stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our novel insights exemplify the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate-change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  7. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B, bad (Group D, and minimal handling (Group C conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.

  8. Self-reported stress and risk of stroke: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Naja; Boysen, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lay people often mention stress as one of the most important risk factors for stroke. Stress might trigger a cerebrovascular event directly or could be associated with higher levels of blood pressure or an unfavorable lifestyle. To examine these possibilities, we analyzed...... the association between self-reported stress frequency and intensity and risk of stroke. METHODS: Data from the second examination, 1981 to 1983, of participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were analyzed with Cox regression after a mean of 13 years of follow-up. A total of 5604 men and 6970 women were...... included, and 929 first-ever strokes occurred, of which 207 (22%) were fatal within 28 days after onset of symptoms. The stress frequency categories were never/hardly ever, monthly, weekly, or daily. The stress intensity categories were never/hardly ever, light, moderate, or high. RESULTS: Subjects...

  9. Scanning elastic lidar observations of aerosol transport in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Dominguez, Victor; Dobryansky, Selma; Wu, Yonghua; Arend, Mark; Vladutescu, Daniela Viviana; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2018-04-01

    In this study, spatial distribution of aerosols in New York City is observed using a scanning eyesafe 532 nm elastic-backscatter micro-pulse lidar system. Observations show dynamics of the boundary layer and inhomogeneous distribution and transport of aerosols. The data acquired are complemented with simultaneous measurements of particulate matter and wind speed and direction. Furthermore, the system observations are validated by comparing them with a colocated multi-wavelength lidar.

  10. Informal public transport modes in India: A case study of five city regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The paper highlights that these systems bridge a large transport supply gap and play an important role in Indian cities. The modes may follow some illegitimate practices, but they do it to become profitable, which in turn helps them provide the much-needed mobility services. The study also shows that these systems are not as unsafe and polluting as people often perceive them to be. However, there is significant room for improvements in terms of vehicle efficiency and compliance with regulatory provisions related to public transport.

  11. Analysis of the mitigation and adaptation strategies of the transport industry in the city of Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelia Melero Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an analysis of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the transport sector in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Based on the methodology of the Programs of Action on Climate Change (PACC, we analyzed the Mexicali emissions inventory and generated a diagnosis. Once we analyzed the current situation, we studied mitigation strategies such as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT, the smog check, new importation legislation for used cars, biofuel production, the promotion of lower–emission vehicles and urban planning. On adaptation strategies vehicle recycling and the use of non–motorized transport were studied as an alternative of sustainable mobility.

  12. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence.

  13. Assessment of inter-city transport of particulate matter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xing; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Bin; Cai, Siyi; Hao, Jiming

    2018-04-01

    The regional transport of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) plays an important role in the air pollution of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China. However, previous studies on regional transport of PM2.5 mainly aim at province level, which is insufficient for the development of an optimal joint PM2.5 control strategy. In this study, we calculate PM2.5 inflows and outflows through the administrative boundaries of three major cities in the BTH region, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model)-CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) modeling system. The monthly average inflow fluxes indicate the major directions of PM2.5 transport. For Beijing, the PM2.5 inflow fluxes from Zhangjiakou (in the northwest) and Baoding (in the southwest) constitute 57 % of the total in winter, and Langfang (in the southeast) and Baoding constitute 73 % in summer. Based on the net PM2.5 fluxes and their vertical distributions, we find there are three major transport pathways in the BTH region: the northwest-southeast pathway in winter (at all levels below 1000 m), the northwest-southeast pathway in summer (at all levels below 1000 m), and the southwest-northeast pathway in both winter and in summer (mainly at 300-1000 m). In winter, even if surface wind speeds are low, the transport at above 300 m can still be strong. Among the three pathways, the southwest-northeast happens along with PM2.5 concentrations 30 and 55 % higher than the monthly average in winter and summer, respectively. Analysis of two heavy pollution episodes in January and July in Beijing show a much (8-16 times) stronger transport than the monthly average, emphasizing the joint air pollution control of the cities located on the transport pathways, especially during heavy pollution episodes.

  14. Optimization of waste transportation route at waste transfers point in Lowokwaru District, Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyani, S.; Meidiana, C.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing population led to the emergence of the urban infrastructure services issue including waste problems especially waste transportation system. Data in 2016 shows that the amount of waste in Malang was 659.21 tons / day. The amount of waste transported to landfill only reached 464.74 tons / day. This indicates that not all waste can be transported to the landfill Supiturang because Level of Service (LoS) reached 70.49%. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of waste transportation system and determine the fastest route from waste transfers point in Lowokwaru district to the landfill Supiturang. The data collection method in this research were 1) primary survey by interview officials from the Sanitation and Gardening Agency which questions related to the condition of the waste transportation system in waste transfer point, 2) Secondary survey related to data of waste transportation system in Malang City i.e the amount of waste generation in waste transfer point, number of garbage trucks and other data related to the garbage transportation system. To determine the fastest route analyzed by network analyst using ArcGIS software. The results of network analyst show that not all routes are already using the fastest route to the landfill Supiturang.

  15. ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS SOURCES AND SOLUTION PROPOSALS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zennur GÜRBÜZ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizational stress is a concept which can have negative effects for both the workers and the organizations. The purpose of this study is to determine and classify the organizational stress sources that public transportation are exposed to, and to provide suggestions for managing these stress factors. A comprehensive literature survey is made in organizational stress factors and the following classes are identified: work structure, organizational structure, organizational policy, within-company relations and physical conditions. A questionnaire is developed forAnkara EGO General Directorate; applied to 2.137 drivers in Ankara in 2016 with a meaningful return of 1.554 data sets, representing 72% of the population and results are statistically analysed. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and related validity and regional variance analyses are performed by SPSS (22.0 software. The study revealed that: drivers are exposed to mid-level stess; and most critical stress causes are “injustice and/or insufficiency of salaries”, “aggresive, violent behavior and verbal abuse of passengers towards drivers”, “fear of losing jobs or renewal of the contract”. A significant level of variation in stres levels are identified with respect to different regions of Ankara where drivers are assigned.  Suggestions are made in relation to different stres causes to lower the stress levels exposed.

  16. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  17. Municipal solid waste transportation optimisation with vehicle routing approach: case study of Pontianak City, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, M. A.; Youlla, D.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) transportation in Pontianak City becomes an issue that need to be tackled by the relevant agencies. The MSW transportation service in Pontianak City currently requires very high resources especially in vehicle usage. Increasing the number of fleets has not been able to increase service levels while garbage volume is growing every year along with population growth. In this research, vehicle routing optimization approach was used to find optimal and efficient routes of vehicle cost in transporting garbage from several Temporary Garbage Dump (TGD) to Final Garbage Dump (FGD). One of the problems of MSW transportation is that there is a TGD which exceed the the vehicle capacity and must be visited more than once. The optimal computation results suggest that the municipal authorities only use 3 vehicles from 5 vehicles provided with the total minimum cost of IDR. 778,870. The computation time to search optimal route and minimal cost is very time consuming. This problem is influenced by the number of constraints and decision variables that have are integer value.

  18. Optimization of city transportation of cargoes with use of system researches in the field of logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Павлович Кіркін

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In market working conditions, the enterprises need to maintain the competitiveness constantly. It is reached due to increase of standards of customer service and application of the latest technologies of management and production, including logistics. Over time there were following kinds of logistics: transport, warehouse, supply, production, etc. Thus, there is some parallel methodological development in the field of logistics and creation of logistic chains and systems at various stages of life cycle of goods. Thus, for city transportations, except high requirements to ecology and the impacts on the person inherent quick search of administrative decisions on effective customer service for the minimum time is. The warehouse logistics is an intermediate link between economic models by definition of stocks and parties of purchase, and transport operations which these indicators influence. Thus, system researches in the field of warehouse and transport logistic allow to coordinate transport and warehouse operations in uniform indicators, and also to expand methods of transport logistics. Planning and management of transport operations with the solution of problems of the target conflict can be used only for continuous transport sizes. First of all it is connected with impossibility of accumulation of transport works. It is necessary to notice feature of the solution of problems of the target conflict which can carry as the end result, and it can be presented by function, including function of distribution of a random variable. Therefore, the solution of a task can be used in imitating modeling. For transport operations it is necessary to consider two cases: the maximum intensity of service can't be increased and possibility of accumulation of intensity of service at the expense of additional resources

  19. Using local knowledge and sustainable transport to promote a greener city: The case of Bucharest, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niță, Mihai R; Badiu, Denisa L; Onose, Diana A; Gavrilidis, Athanasios A; Grădinaru, Simona R; Năstase, Irina I; Lafortezza, Raffaele

    2018-01-01

    Cities undergoing climate change and rapid urbanization are faced with significant transformational processes that affect the environment and society, challenging them to become more sustainable and resilient. The promotion of nature-based solutions represents an efficient approach to meet sustainability targets in cities and improve the quality of life of citizens. The association of large components of green infrastructure, such as urban parks, with physical activity can counteract the sedentary lifestyle endemic to cities and improve the overall health and well-being of individuals (Carrus et al., 2013; Scopelliti et al., 2016). By promoting a sustainable means of transport and connecting green spaces within a highly urbanized city, bicycle lanes represent an effective tool for associating physical activity with nature in cities allowing bicycle users to benefit from the positive health effects of nature-based solutions. Our study focuses on the potential of bicycle lanes to improve functional connectivity among green spaces. We administered 820 questionnaires in 34 green spaces (i.e., urban parks) in Bucharest, Romania, to identify the factors influencing the use of bicycle lanes connecting urban parks and to understand which planning criteria for bicycle lanes are considered as the most important by park visitors. We applied binary and ordinal logistic regressions and found that the factors affecting bicycle lane use are illegally parked cars and lack of accessibility to urban parks. The criteria preferred by park visitors for bicycle lane planning are determined by experience level and frequency of bicycle use. To develop a functional and integrated bicycle lane network that can make cities healthier and more sustainable, policy makers are advised to engage in a public participatory process and focus on the needs of bicycle users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ENHANCING MOBILITY OF THE ELDERLY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA CITIES THROUGH IMPROVED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Olufemi ODUFUWA

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the mobility of the elderly from the provision of public transport perspective and using mobility indicators-mean number of trips, time of travel, travel mode, accessibility and confortability of travel modes. The result shows that the available public transports in Nigeria cities are neither accessible nor convenient for the ageing population. As a result of economic hardship of the Nation for instance, most of the ageing population have no access to private means of mobility and thus they are increasingly dependent on the available public transport to meet their travel needs. Other findings reveals that the elderly makes more trips but with a selective time of travel. Nevertheless, the environmental emissions as well as exposure to traffic accident and long length of travel as a result of frequent traffic congestion have gross implications on the quality of life of the elderly.

  1. Interorganizational networks in public transport: a multicase study in different cities of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Lübeck

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes the expansion of the debate on inter-organizational networks for conducting a study of exploratory and qualitative in a group of transportation companies passenger-pole and three cities of a metropolitan region of Rio Grande do Sul The goal is understand how the passenger carriers in the cities analyzed, operate in a network. For this, we used the model proposed by Marcon and Moinet (2001, which ranks the inter-organizational relationships, and model and Balestrin Vershoore (2006, which deals with benefits in interorganizational networks. To achieve the objective of this study were collected through interviews with managers of transport companies and document analysis, using the technique of content analysis a posteriori. The results of these tests have drawn the picture of the performance of carriers in the network in the cities studied. We developed a report of cases crossed that define the possible inter-relationships as formal and horizontal, between the main benefits of network operation, there was the implementation of electronic ticketing system and gains in representation before public interaction.

  2. Comparisons of urban and rural heat stress conditions in a hot–humid tropical city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Balogun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years the developing world, much of which is located in the tropical countries, has seen dramatic growth of its urban population associated with serious degradation of environmental quality. Climate change is producing major impacts including increasing temperatures in these countries that are considered to be most vulnerable to the impact of climate change due to inadequate public health infrastructure and low income status. However, relevant information and data for informed decision making on human health and comfort are lacking in these countries. Objective: The aim of this paper is to study and compare heat stress conditions in an urban (city centre and rural (airport environments in Akure, a medium-sized tropical city in south-western Nigeria during the dry harmattan season (January–March of 2009. Materials and methods: We analysed heat stress conditions in terms of the mean hourly values of the thermohygrometric index (THI, defined by simultaneous in situ air temperature and relative humidity measurements at both sites. Results: The urban heat island (UHI exists in Akure as the city centre is warmer than the rural airport throughout the day. However, the maximum UHI intensity occurs at night between 1900 and 2200 hours local time. Hot conditions were predominant at both sites, comfortable conditions were only experienced in the morning and evenings of January at both sites, but the rural area has more pleasant morning and evenings and less of very hot and torrid conditions. January has the lowest frequency of hot and torrid conditions at both sites, while March and February has the highest at the city centre and the airport, respectively. The higher frequencies of high temperatures in the city centre suggest a significant heat stress and health risk in this hot humid environment of Akure. Conclusions: More research is needed to achieve better understanding of the seasonal variation of indoor and outdoor heat stress

  3. Towards Hybrid Urban Mobility: Kick Scooter as a Means of Individual Transport in the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewska, Małgorzata; Macikowski, Bartosz

    2017-10-01

    The characteristic feature of a contemporary city is its inconvenience and oppressiveness caused by the hitherto dominant paradigm of urban planning based on car mobility. As a result, the inhabitants have to cope with air pollution, noise, spatial barriers, sedentary lifestyle and other factors which worsen their health and quality of life. Ecological and physically activating urban mobility thus plays an increasingly important role in the process of creating a friendly and healthy city. For many years, a steadily increasing share of bicycles in urban traffic has been observed. There are also other trending forms of non-motorized transport, such as in-line skates, skateboards, kick scooters, etc. Riding each of them can be regarded as a form of recreation or sport, but also as an ecological, physically activating means of urban mobility. The paper discusses the different forms of recreational mobility in the context of the possibility of combining it with city public transport, with particular emphasis on kick scooters. Kick scooters are becoming more and more popular, not only among children and youth, but also among adults, who use it mainly as a means of the non-motorised urban transport. Numerous publications from different parts of the world show a dynamic growth of this phenomenon. The aim of the article is also to answer the question in what extent the design of public space takes into consideration the use of these new forms of transport and recreation and, consequently, what aspects and requirements should be taken into account in the planning and design process. The paper presents the conclusions of a field study carried out with a group of students in Szczecin and Berlin. The aim of the research was to evaluate the possibilities of using kick scooters in big cities as a means of hybrid mobility combined with public transport by exploring the spectrum of public spaces (streets, squares, traffic nodes and hubs, public buildings, etc.) and testing the

  4. Transporting large monolithic shafts through the interior of the city of Rome

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    Patrizio Pensabene

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the questions we have to answer when studying the process of building Rome’s huge temples is how their large monolithic shafts were moved through the city. The shafts used in some of the temples were enormous. For example, the temple of Antoninus and Faustina in the Roman Forum and the Forum of Peace were built, respectively, with shafts of cipollino and granito rosa from Aswan. They would have had to have been taken through the city centre where manoeuvring such large loads through the narrow streets would not have been an easy task. We will attempt to hypothesise not only the possible routes along which these enormous blocks were transported, but also the mechanical operations that would have been needed to overcome the frequent obstacles that would have been encountered.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AUTOMATED ROAD TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS IN MINSK AS PART OF THE INTELLECTUAL CITY TRANSPORT SYSTEM

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    D. V. Kapskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of Minsk city transport system performance. It is shown that the growth of car ownership has caused a number of problems, among which the low-speed communication, bad driving modes, the presence of elevated levels of congestion and accidents. The corresponding figures for accidents in Minsk and some cities in the world that allow to characterize the transport system of the city of Minsk, as satisfactory. To improve the system and improve the quality of traffic necessary to create intelligent transport system of the city of Minsk. Intelligent Transportation System, being a global trend, enables dramatically improve road quality. Automated traffic control system and other subsystems as part of the Intelligent Transportation Systems are tools for achieving the goals for improving the safety and comfort of road users. It is proposed as a base for its creation to choose an automated traffic control system, which has a corresponding functional, structural, organizational and institutional provisions for its development. The technological requirements for the functioning of an integrated system, which relate to the level of efficiency, including accidents on sections of the road network included in the created system. Modernization of the automated traffic control system and its transformation into an intelligent transport system will reduce emergency, economic and environmental, and social costs in the road traffic is not less than 15 % from their current level, despite the steady growth of car ownership in the city. It is planned to create a complete intelligent transportation system.

  6. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

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    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this paper is to quantify factors and identify the most important factors influencing customer satisfaction with public city transport within conditions of the Czech Republic. Two methods of analysis are applied in order to fulfil the aim. The method of factor analysis and the method Varimax were used in order to categorize variables according to their mutual relations. The method of structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the factors and validate the model. Then, the optimal model was found. The logistic parameters, including service continuity and frequency, and service, including information rate, station proximity and vehicle cleanliness, are the factors influencing passengers´ satisfaction on a large scale.

  7. The Determinants of Transportation Mode Choice in the Middle Eastern Cities: the Kerman Case, Iran

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    Hamid Soltanzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Having a precise understanding of the determinants of transportation mode choices and decisions can be under the influence of regional and cultural aspects. This paper outlines such determinants in the Iranian city of Kerman as a representative of the similar Middle Eastern cities located in hot-arid climates and Moslem cultures. The descriptive analysis of the results derived from a short survey that was a part of a larger study conducted in the second half of 2013 indicated that adding to accessibility to public transportation and the convenience of using it can persuade people to shift from car driving to public transit use. The main barriers to bicycling are socio-cultural aspects, while for walking the obstacles are physical and objective. Increasing the quality of pedestrian infrastructure and spaces is a stronger deterrent than personal attitudes against walking. Such findings show slight dissimilarities from the results of some of the western studies that find the built environment more effective. These findings can be a general guide for the Middle Eastern planners to promote walking, biking, and public transport use.

  8. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PM x , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 . Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5, NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and C 6 H 6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Reynolds stress and toroidal momentum transport in the dynamics of internal transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interplay between intrinsic rotation and internal transport barrier (ITB) dynamics through the dynamic change of the parallel Reynolds stress. Global flux-driven gyrofluid simulations are used for this study. In particular, we investigate the role of parallel velocity gradient instability (PVGI) in the ITB formation and the back transition. It is found that the excitation of PVGI is followed by a change in the Reynolds stress which drives a momentum redistribution. This significantly influences E×B shear evolution and subsequent ITB dynamics. Nonlocal interactions among fluctuations are also observed during the PVGI excitation, resulting in turbulence suppression at the ITB.

  10. EFFICIENCY IN ORGANIZING TRANSPORT ROUTES AS PART OF THE CITY WASTE MANAGEMENT: PROPOSAL FOR INNOVATIVE WAY OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Novarlić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research presented in this paper is primarily focused on the theoretical model of transportation routes' optimization, by means of using an innovative approach, projected to countries in transition. This paper presents part of the research, whose main parameters are directly related to basic research hypothesis, and are result of author's stay in vocational training in the Japanese city of Osaka, in the period 12.01. - 07.03.2015. Based on the transport routes' calculations, we came to an answer set in the research problem of this paper, as well as to the optimization of costs and avoiding a "downtime" during the collection of waste conducted by utility companies, who will be the beneficiaries of this model. The primary goal of the work is to, on the base of knowledge and experience acquired in Japan, create an Optimization Model of Transport Routes adjusted to countries in transition (Bosnia and Herzegovina and others, which will, in the long run, be of benefit to these countries, in terms of a sustainable waste management.

  11. Sustainability Measures of Urban Public Transport in Cities: A World Review and Focus on the Asia/Middle East Region

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    Chris De Gruyter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of public transport sustainability in cities have been very limited to date, particularly in more developing countries located throughout Asia and the Middle East. This paper assesses the sustainability of urban public transport systems in cities by adopting a quantitative measurement framework containing 15 public transport sustainability indicators. It compares aggregate sustainability performance of urban public transport in international regions of cities, and then examines the relative sustainability of selected cities in the Asia and Middle East region. The world region analysis shows that Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America achieve the highest aggregate normalised scores for sustainable public transport, in that order. In general, the results suggest that western developed countries (Western Europe, North America, and Oceania have better performance on environmental and social indicators but poorer performance on system effectiveness and economic indicators. Asia and Latin America perform the other way round; better on economic and system effectiveness and worse on social and environmental indicators. Eastern Europe is one of the few regions with higher level performance all round. The city-based analysis of Asia/Middle East suggested that out of the 26 cities studied, the top 3 cities in terms of sustainable public transport in the Asia and Middle East Region are: 1st, Manila (Philippines; 2nd, Tokyo (Japan; and 3rd, Chennai (India. Dubai (United Arab Emirates (UAE, rated 26th, Shizuoka (Japan, rated 25th and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia, rated 24th were the lowest rated cities. The paper explores the implications of the findings and makes suggestions for future research.

  12. Improving Urban Freight Transport Sustainability by Carriers : Best Practices from The Netherlands and the EU Project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    ers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport more

  13. Deadhead Trip Minimization in City Bus Transportation: A Real Life Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efendi Nasibov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of public transportation services is one of the most important performance indicators of modern urban policies for both planning and implementation aspects. Therefore, along with the size of the city, the significance of appropriate cost evaluation and optimization of all related transportation activities increases as well. One of the most important cost factors for the public transport agencies is naturally the fuel consumption of the vehicles. In this study, the attention is focused on the metropolitan bus transport service. The specific aim is to minimize a significant portion of total fuel utilization that occurs due to the so called deadhead trip or dead mileage, which is defined as the idle distance covered by the vehicle between the garage and the route terminal stops without carrying any passengers. In this study, the results of four mathematical models for minimizing the total deadhead trip distance covered in city bus services of Izmir are presented. The models vary due to the inclusion of garage capacity restrictions or operator distinction for supporting both operational and strategical decisions. All models are applied to the recent bus schedule data, which consist of 293 routes, 1,424 buses and 10 garages, for obtaining the optimal route bus-garage allocations and garage capacities. The results of the Decentralized-Capacitated model, which is appropriate for quick implementation, promise a 7.8% reduction in total dead mileage. While on the other hand, if all garage capacities can be expanded and the bus service is maintained only by one operator as modelled in the Centralized-Uncapacitated case, even a 31.4% improvement is possible in the long term. The environmental gains as well as the financial benefits to be achieved when the solutions are actually implemented, justify the practical contribution of the study.

  14. PREDICTION OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOTOR TRANSPORT ON CITY STREETS AND DISTRICTS

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    T. I. Rusakova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of applied numerical model for prediction of atmospheric pollution rate on streets and districts of a city taking into account chemical transformations of pollutants. Methodology. To solve hydrodynamic task of determining velocity field of wind flow in street the method of discrete vortices was used, in the city district – the method of separation flows vortex of ideal incompressible fluid, for solution equation of pollutant transfer - alternating triangular implicit difference scheme. Findings.An efficient numerical model using the type of «street canyons»for prediction of air quality on city streets and districts with emissions from motor transport considering chemical transformations of pollutants was designed in the work. Originality.The numerical model, which allows taking into account impact of buildings on pollutants dispersion and requiring a small consumption of computer time during practical realization was created. The advantage of the model is the possibility of rapid calculation of emissions dispersion in the street with considering the chemical reactions of pollutants. Practical value. The developed numerical model can be used in practice during the planning of new highways in new urban areas or in the renovation of old ones, for a series of calculations that require search of different variants for arrangement of buildings, highways, under certain weather conditions.

  15. Assessment of inter-city transport of particulate matter in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region

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    X. Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The regional transport of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 plays an important role in the air pollution of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region in China. However, previous studies on regional transport of PM2.5 mainly aim at province level, which is insufficient for the development of an optimal joint PM2.5 control strategy. In this study, we calculate PM2.5 inflows and outflows through the administrative boundaries of three major cities in the BTH region, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model-CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. The monthly average inflow fluxes indicate the major directions of PM2.5 transport. For Beijing, the PM2.5 inflow fluxes from Zhangjiakou (in the northwest and Baoding (in the southwest constitute 57 % of the total in winter, and Langfang (in the southeast and Baoding constitute 73 % in summer. Based on the net PM2.5 fluxes and their vertical distributions, we find there are three major transport pathways in the BTH region: the northwest–southeast pathway in winter (at all levels below 1000 m, the northwest–southeast pathway in summer (at all levels below 1000 m, and the southwest–northeast pathway in both winter and in summer (mainly at 300–1000 m. In winter, even if surface wind speeds are low, the transport at above 300 m can still be strong. Among the three pathways, the southwest–northeast happens along with PM2.5 concentrations 30 and 55 % higher than the monthly average in winter and summer, respectively. Analysis of two heavy pollution episodes in January and July in Beijing show a much (8–16 times stronger transport than the monthly average, emphasizing the joint air pollution control of the cities located on the transport pathways, especially during heavy pollution episodes.

  16. Transport spatial model for the definition of green routes for city logistics centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamučar, Dragan; Gigović, Ljubomir; Ćirović, Goran; Regodić, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a transport spatial decision support model (TSDSM) for carrying out the optimization of green routes for city logistics centers. The TSDSM model is based on the integration of the multi-criteria method of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and the modified Dijkstra algorithm within a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS is used for processing spatial data. The proposed model makes it possible to plan routes for green vehicles and maximize the positive effects on the environment, which can be seen in the reduction of harmful gas emissions and an increase in the air quality in highly populated areas. The scheduling of delivery vehicles is given as a problem of optimization in terms of the parameters of: the environment, health, use of space and logistics operating costs. Each of these input parameters was thoroughly examined and broken down in the GIS into criteria which further describe them. The model presented here takes into account the fact that logistics operators have a limited number of environmentally friendly (green) vehicles available. The TSDSM was tested on a network of roads with 127 links for the delivery of goods from the city logistics center to the user. The model supports any number of available environmentally friendly or environmentally unfriendly vehicles consistent with the size of the network and the transportation requirements. - Highlights: • Model for routing light delivery vehicles in urban areas. • Optimization of green routes for city logistics centers. • The proposed model maximizes the positive effects on the environment. • The model was tested on a real network.

  17. Transport spatial model for the definition of green routes for city logistics centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamučar, Dragan, E-mail: dpamucar@gmail.com [University of Defence in Belgrade, Department of Logistics, Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Gigović, Ljubomir, E-mail: gigoviclj@gmail.com [University of Defence in Belgrade, Department of Mathematics, Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ćirović, Goran, E-mail: cirovic@sezampro.rs [College of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, The Belgrade University, Hajduk Stankova 2, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Regodić, Miodrag, E-mail: mregodic62@gmail.com [University of Defence in Belgrade, Department of Mathematics, Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a transport spatial decision support model (TSDSM) for carrying out the optimization of green routes for city logistics centers. The TSDSM model is based on the integration of the multi-criteria method of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and the modified Dijkstra algorithm within a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS is used for processing spatial data. The proposed model makes it possible to plan routes for green vehicles and maximize the positive effects on the environment, which can be seen in the reduction of harmful gas emissions and an increase in the air quality in highly populated areas. The scheduling of delivery vehicles is given as a problem of optimization in terms of the parameters of: the environment, health, use of space and logistics operating costs. Each of these input parameters was thoroughly examined and broken down in the GIS into criteria which further describe them. The model presented here takes into account the fact that logistics operators have a limited number of environmentally friendly (green) vehicles available. The TSDSM was tested on a network of roads with 127 links for the delivery of goods from the city logistics center to the user. The model supports any number of available environmentally friendly or environmentally unfriendly vehicles consistent with the size of the network and the transportation requirements. - Highlights: • Model for routing light delivery vehicles in urban areas. • Optimization of green routes for city logistics centers. • The proposed model maximizes the positive effects on the environment. • The model was tested on a real network.

  18. Differential subsidence in Mexico City and implications to its Collective Transport System (Metro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Rojas, D. E.; Wdowinski, S.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Osmanoglu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Mexico City is one of the fastest subsiding metropolis in the world. At displacement rates ranging from 0 to -380 [mm/yr], the complex geological setting is subjected to differential subsidence, which has led to damage, operation interruptions, and accidents to the Collective Transport System, or Metro. The Metro plays a critical role in Mexico City, carrying more than four million passengers per day. However, no previous study has focused on the deformation monitoring along the 93 km of the Metro surface railways, mainly because of the limitations of the traditional geodetic techniques. In this study, we use high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations to monitor land subsidence throughout the city and quantify differential subsidence along surface Metro lines. Our analysis is based on 34 TerraSAR-X StripMap scenes acquired from May 2011 to June 2013 and 36 COSMO-SkyMed Stripmap scenes acquired from June 2011 to June 2012. The data were processed using the StaMPS InSAR time series technique, obtaining point densities of up to 4827 points/km2. Our post-processing methodologies include the following two components: (1) Detection of differential subsidence along the metro lines by calculating subsidence gradients, and (2) Detection of apparent uplift—areas subsiding slower than their surroundings—by using spatial frequency filtering. The two analyses allow us to recognize four main consequences of differential subsidence in the Metro system: 1. Deflection in elevated railways, 2. Deflection in street-level railways, 3. Columns with decreased loading capacity, and 4. Apparent uplift affecting surrounding infrastructure. Our results aim at shortening the large gap between scientific geodetic studies and applicable engineering parameters that can be used by local authorities in the city for maintenance and new lines development.

  19. Sensing Models and Sensor Network Architectures for Transport Infrastructure Monitoring in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Transport infrastructure monitoring and analysis is one of the focus areas in the context of smart cities. With the growing number of people moving into densely populated urban metro areas, precise tracking of moving people and goods is the basis for profound decision-making and future planning. With the goal of defining optimal extensions and modifications to existing transport infrastructures, multi-modal transport has to be monitored and analysed. This process is performed on the basis of sensor networks that combine a variety of sensor models, types, and deployments within the area of interest. Multi-generation networks, consisting of a number of sensor types and versions, are causing further challenges for the integration and processing of sensor observations. These challenges are not getting any smaller with the development of the Internet of Things, which brings promising opportunities, but is currently stuck in a type of protocol war between big industry players from both the hardware and network infrastructure domain. In this paper, we will highlight how the OGC suite of standards, with the Sensor Web standards developed by the Sensor Web Enablement Initiative together with the latest developments by the Sensor Web for Internet of Things community can be applied to the monitoring and improvement of transport infrastructures. Sensor Web standards have been applied in the past to pure technical domains, but need to be broadened now in order to meet new challenges. Only cross domain approaches will allow to develop satisfying transport infrastructure approaches that take into account requirements coming form a variety of sectors such as tourism, administration, transport industry, emergency services, or private people. The goal is the development of interoperable components that can be easily integrated within data infrastructures and follow well defined information models to allow robust processing.

  20. Modern requirements of legal regulations for transport in the cities and necessity for making sector strategy in order to harmonize with other modes of transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra VASILJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crucial problem of transport in the cities, as a source of pollution of the environment, are uncontrolled individual motorization, permanently increasing number of motor vehicles on the roads and streets that expels human primary need for walking.Reduced social area is also loaded with vibrations and increased sound pressure which often exceeds recommended 80 dB/A.Accent is on ecological problems caused by: polluted air, which comes from gas emissions (full of aerosol, metals, dust, soot, smoke, cutting and disappearance of green areas in order to provide space for transport, making huge amount of secondary waste (e. g. tyres, metal, used oil, liquids.To improve present sequences and reduce negative effects in the future it is necessary to take different measures: fiscal, administrative, educational, which will restrict use of individual, particularly car traffic. Same measures should be used to encourage users to use public transportation.Transport in the cities, with all weaknesses and comparative advantages, should be separately analyzed mode of road transport and also be an individual part in strategic documents.The most important questions that such strategy of transport in the cities should include are: regulation, privatization or other more efficient mode of organization in public transport of passengers, as well as urban elements of sustainable development of the urban areas and transport.

  1. Global contexts, social capital, and acculturative stress: experiences of Indian immigrant men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2011-08-01

    Immigrants depend on within-group social networks for social support during the acculturation process. Within-group social networks are linked to higher mutual concern and reciprocity, lower acculturative stress, and lower depression among immigrants Studies are limited, however, about immigrants' social support in the contexts of global connectedness and transnational connectivity. Grounded in social capital approach and immigrant health framework, this qualitative, community-based study examined the social networks of immigrant men from India to New York City. Drawing upon the participants' narratives, the author illustrates the ways that social capital influences social networking and acculturative stress in post-immigration sociocultural contexts along with its implications for community-based interventions.

  2. Communication and transportation as quality of life determinants based on cities in Central Java Province and Special Region of Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Hartatik; Hakim, A. R.; Daerobi, A.; Setiawan, R. R.

    2018-03-01

    The quality of life become a concern for individuals and communities seeking to find their sustainable life. Some people in industry, consumer groups, academics, and policy makers have sought to better understand how communication and transportation contributes on quality of life. Thus, this paper aimed to calculate quality of life based on transportation and communication. Indicator of transportation such as road surface condition and the availability of public of transportation; while indicator of communication such as the availability of television signal, post services, cable phone, and internet cafes. Cities involved in this study were Magelang, Surakarta, Salatiga, Semarang, Pekalongan, Tegal,and Yogyakarta. This paper used national socio-economic survey data and the potential of village data. Estimation techniques using multiple regression method. The findings of this paper, (1) transportation and communication were linked to Quality of Life; (2) the highest quality of life obtained by the city of Magelang, while the lowest was occupied by the City of Pekalongan. Suggestion from this paper, local government should have to prioritize infrastructure development such as transportation and communication because it can improve the quality of life whose lived in the city.

  3. Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans

  4. Complexity analysis on public transport networks of 97 large- and medium-sized cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhanwei; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Hongfei; Ma, Li

    2018-04-01

    The traffic situation in Chinese urban areas is continuing to deteriorate. To make a better planning and designing of the public transport system, it is necessary to make profound research on the structure of urban public transport networks (PTNs). We investigate 97 large- and medium-sized cities’ PTNs in China, construct three types of network models — bus stop network, bus transit network and bus line network, then analyze the structural characteristics of them. It is revealed that bus stop network is small-world and scale-free, bus transit network and bus line network are both small-world. Betweenness centrality of each city’s PTN shows similar distribution pattern, although these networks’ size is various. When classifying cities according to the characteristics of PTNs or economic development level, the results are similar. It means that the development of cities’ economy and transport network has a strong correlation, PTN expands in a certain model with the development of economy.

  5. Marketing Research on Passenger Satisfaction With Public Transport Service in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radnović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine, based on conducted marketing research, the level of passenger satisfaction with public transport services for the purpose of making better marketing decisions in the example of the City of Belgrade. The main task is to test the hypothesis on the existence of significant influence of factors, such as quality service, attitude and behaviour of employees (e.g. driver, adequate informing, quality of vehicles, line routes and timetable, on passenger satisfaction. Correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used for interpreting the obtained results and examining the formulated hypothesis. Empirical research has shown that there is a significant correlation between the aforementioned factors and passenger satisfaction with public transport services. The obtained results provided recommendations and guidelines for improving and increasing the quality of public transport services. The research results also provide the basis for future research that could examine the relationship between passenger satisfaction with services and sub-groups within the analyzed factors.

  6. Work Environment, Stress, and Driving Anger: A Structural Equation Model for Predicting Traffic Sanctions of Public Transport Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Public transport is an effective and sustainable alternative to private vehicle usage, also helping to reduce the environmental impact of driving. However, the work environment of public transport operators is full of adverse conditions, which, together with their high mileage, may increase the occurrence of negative safety outcomes such as traffic accidents, often preceded by risky road behaviors enhanced by stress, anger, and difficult operating conditions. The aims of this study were, first, to determine the association between work-related psychosocial factors and individual characteristics of public transport drivers and the rate of traffic sanctions they are subject to; and second, to assess the mediation of driving anger in this relationship. A sample of professional drivers (57.4% city bus, 17.6% taxi, and 25% inter-urban bus male operators) was used for this cross-sectional study, responding to a five-section survey including demographic data and driving-related factors, psychosocial work factors including job stress, driving stress, risk predisposition, and driving anger. The results of this study showed significant associations between work-related factors: measures of stress and self-reported rates of traffic fines. Second, it was found that driving anger mediates the associations between driving stress, risk predisposition, and traffic sanctions; and partially mediates the association between driving experience, hourly intensity, and job stress. This study supports the idea that traffic penalties reported by public transport rates are preceded by work-related, personality, and other individual factors that, when combined with driving anger, enhance the occurrence of road misbehavior that may affect overall road safety. PMID:29534530

  7. Work Environment, Stress, and Driving Anger: A Structural Equation Model for Predicting Traffic Sanctions of Public Transport Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Montoro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport is an effective and sustainable alternative to private vehicle usage, also helping to reduce the environmental impact of driving. However, the work environment of public transport operators is full of adverse conditions, which, together with their high mileage, may increase the occurrence of negative safety outcomes such as traffic accidents, often preceded by risky road behaviors enhanced by stress, anger, and difficult operating conditions. The aims of this study were, first, to determine the association between work-related psychosocial factors and individual characteristics of public transport drivers and the rate of traffic sanctions they are subject to; and second, to assess the mediation of driving anger in this relationship. A sample of professional drivers (57.4% city bus, 17.6% taxi, and 25% inter-urban bus male operators was used for this cross-sectional study, responding to a five-section survey including demographic data and driving-related factors, psychosocial work factors including job stress, driving stress, risk predisposition, and driving anger. The results of this study showed significant associations between work-related factors: measures of stress and self-reported rates of traffic fines. Second, it was found that driving anger mediates the associations between driving stress, risk predisposition, and traffic sanctions; and partially mediates the association between driving experience, hourly intensity, and job stress. This study supports the idea that traffic penalties reported by public transport rates are preceded by work-related, personality, and other individual factors that, when combined with driving anger, enhance the occurrence of road misbehavior that may affect overall road safety.

  8. Work Environment, Stress, and Driving Anger: A Structural Equation Model for Predicting Traffic Sanctions of Public Transport Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Luis; Useche, Sergio; Alonso, Francisco; Cendales, Boris

    2018-03-12

    Public transport is an effective and sustainable alternative to private vehicle usage, also helping to reduce the environmental impact of driving. However, the work environment of public transport operators is full of adverse conditions, which, together with their high mileage, may increase the occurrence of negative safety outcomes such as traffic accidents, often preceded by risky road behaviors enhanced by stress, anger, and difficult operating conditions. The aims of this study were, first, to determine the association between work-related psychosocial factors and individual characteristics of public transport drivers and the rate of traffic sanctions they are subject to; and second, to assess the mediation of driving anger in this relationship. A sample of professional drivers (57.4% city bus, 17.6% taxi, and 25% inter-urban bus male operators) was used for this cross-sectional study, responding to a five-section survey including demographic data and driving-related factors, psychosocial work factors including job stress, driving stress, risk predisposition, and driving anger. The results of this study showed significant associations between work-related factors: measures of stress and self-reported rates of traffic fines. Second, it was found that driving anger mediates the associations between driving stress, risk predisposition, and traffic sanctions; and partially mediates the association between driving experience, hourly intensity, and job stress. This study supports the idea that traffic penalties reported by public transport rates are preceded by work-related, personality, and other individual factors that, when combined with driving anger, enhance the occurrence of road misbehavior that may affect overall road safety.

  9. [The effect of occupational stress on depression symptoms among 244 policemen in a city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wenhui

    2015-10-01

    To explore the influence of occupational stress related factors on depression symptoms among 244 policemen in a city in China. In May 2011, 287 policemen from a city public security bureau were recruited to this survey by cluster sampling method. We deleted questionnaires which include missing variables on demographic characteristics and factors associated with occupational stress questionnaires which include over 3 missing items. 244 policemen were included in this study. Depression symptoms and occupational stressors were measured using Chinese version of depression self-reported questionnaire, job content questionnaire, Chinese version of effort-reward imbalances questionnaire, job hazard scale and occupational stress inventory. Depression symptom scores and the relationship between the variables and occupational stress were analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The Median (P25-P75) of depression symptom scores of all respondents was 16.50 (11.00-25.00). 144 were policemen with no depression symptoms and 100 were with depression symptoms. The median (P25-P75) of depression symptoms scores among policemen with length of serves stress and negative affectivity among policemen with depression symptoms were 17.00 (8.00-26.00), 16.00 (11.00-24.50), 19.00 (12.00-27.00), and 12.00 (6.25-15.00), respectively, which were higher than those with no depression symptoms (24.00 (22.00-25.00), 8.00 (5.00-13.00), 8.00 (6.00-10.00), 1.00 (0-2.75)), and the differences were significant (Z=3.82, 5.39, 5.15, 6.41, Pstress, negative affectivity and job hazards scores. Correlations coefficient were 0.44, 0.28, 0.28, 0.33, 0.38, 0.44, and 0.38, respectively (Pstress and negative affectivity had bigger contribution on the depression symptoms scores. The standard regression coefficient was -0.46, 0.19 and 0.13, respectively (Pstress, negative affectivity and job hazards scores were the inducement of depression symptoms for policemen. To reduce the

  10. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sagaris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transport initiatives.Inspired by urban reforms in Bogot´a, Living City now focuses mainly on “active transport” (formerly nonmotorized, building the policies, attitudes and infrastructure necessary to encourage walking and cycling, and the inclusion of the differently abled. It has won two major awards for innovation and now partners with NGOs in The Netherlands and elsewhere in Chile and Latin America.Moreover, Living City now organizes cycling-inclusive training programs, design charrettes and participatory processes in cooperation with Santiago’s regional and national authorities. Its publication, La Voz de La Chimba, distributed free throughout the city by volunteers, has helped to open people’s eyes to the implications of active transport for social equality and health, and provided support to other citizens’ initiatives, struggling to get off the ground.This experience illustrates how citizens’ and community organizations acquire important knowledge and practical experience in learning by doing situations, and how they can learn to reach out to ordinary people and key policymakers, building bridges across the citizen-policy divide to produce innovative, win-win programs that simultaneously bring change at micro- and macro-levels.Bien que la nécessité de marcher et de faire du vélo pour rester en bonne santé soit de plus en plus reconnue, l’importance du rôle prépondérant de la société civile dans le développement de nouvelles

  11. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Gao, J.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, X. F.; Saunders, S. M.; Fan, S. J.; Zuo, H. C.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the measurements of ozone (O3) and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities - Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site downwind of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv), while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in situ production. The O3 production was in a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-limited regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2) on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO), were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  12. Nuclear transport of heat shock proteins in stressed cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chughtai, Zahoor Saeed

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear import of proteins that are too large to passively enter the nucleus requires soluble factors, energy , and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Nuclear protein transport can be regulated, and different forms of stress affect nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. As such, import of proteins containing a classical NLS is inhibited in starving yeast cells. In contrast, the heat shock protein hsp70 Ssa4p concentrates in nuclei upon starvation. Nuclear concentration of Ssa4p in starving cells is reversible, and transfer of nutrient-depleted cells to fresh medium induces Ssa4p nuclear export. This export reaction represents an active process that is sensitive to oxidative stress. Upon starvation, the N-terminal domain of Ssa4p mediates Ssa4p nuclear accumulation, and a short hydrophobic sequence, termed Star (for starvation), is sufficient to localize the reporter proteins green fluorescent protein or β-gaIactosidase to nuclei. To determine whether nuclear accumulation of Star-β-galactosidase depends on a specific nuclear carrier, I have analyzed its distribution in mutant yeast strains that carry a deletion of a single β-importin gene. With this assay I have identified Nmd5p as a β-importin required to concentrate Star-β-galactosidase in nuclei of stationary phase cells. (author)

  13. Nuclear transport of heat shock proteins in stressed cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chughtai, Zahoor Saeed

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear import of proteins that are too large to passively enter the nucleus requires soluble factors, energy , and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Nuclear protein transport can be regulated, and different forms of stress affect nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. As such, import of proteins containing a classical NLS is inhibited in starving yeast cells. In contrast, the heat shock protein hsp70 Ssa4p concentrates in nuclei upon starvation. Nuclear concentration of Ssa4p in starving cells is reversible, and transfer of nutrient-depleted cells to fresh medium induces Ssa4p nuclear export. This export reaction represents an active process that is sensitive to oxidative stress. Upon starvation, the N-terminal domain of Ssa4p mediates Ssa4p nuclear accumulation, and a short hydrophobic sequence, termed Star (for starvation), is sufficient to localize the reporter proteins green fluorescent protein or {beta}-gaIactosidase to nuclei. To determine whether nuclear accumulation of Star-{beta}-galactosidase depends on a specific nuclear carrier, I have analyzed its distribution in mutant yeast strains that carry a deletion of a single {beta}-importin gene. With this assay I have identified Nmd5p as a {beta}-importin required to concentrate Star-{beta}-galactosidase in nuclei of stationary phase cells. (author)

  14. Sand transport, shear stress, and the building of a delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Miller, K. L.; Hiatt, M. R.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas distribute sediment to the coastal sea through a complex branching network of channels; however, the routing and storage of this sediment in and through the delta is poorly understood. We present results from field studies of the sediment and water transport through the branching Wax Lake Delta on the coast of Louisiana. Two channels studied, Main Pass and East Pass, maintain a near-equal total partitioning of flow and sediment. However, East Pass is narrower and has higher river velocities, lower tidal velocity fluctuations, less alluvial bed cover, and more sediment flux per unit width than Main Pass. We connect these differences to small differences in the geometry of the two channels and feedbacks between these differences. We link trends in measured sediment deposits to both measured and modeled shear velocities in Wax Lake Delta's channels and open water `islands' to understand how hydrologic processes shaped the sedimentary architecture of the delta. These connections define the sediment transport and deposition regimes in the WLD. We extend the results herein to suggest that the relationships between the available sediment and shear stress determines the basic planform of the Wax Lake Delta and cross-sectional geometries of its channels.

  15. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in consultation with concerned department/agencies. Field surveys were also conducted to get input from passengers and local people. Initial investigation informed that out of four operational bus routes, only two routes are profitable. The overall bus operation is running in loss (only 0.3% net profit. It has barely any profit for the bus operator against its investment thereby making the urban bus operation financially non-viable. The whole revenue flow is dependent on passenger ticketing revenue only. Around 35% of the buses are in poor condition with major issues of quality of tyres, no speedometer, worse condition of seats, floor and ceiling, and display of route. Illegal operation of Qingqis/Rickshaws (as para-transit mode along the bus routes is also decreasing the revenue by capturing the passenger volume. According to passenger opinion analysis, around 55% of the passenger are not satisfied with the service quality and prefer other modes of transport. Their major concerns are absence of facilities for disables and bus stops, bus seating and standing capacity, poor bus condition and pick pocketing. Collectively, these factors are contributing

  16. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Innis, Charles J; Kennedy, Adam E; McNally, Kerry L; Davis, Deborah G; Burgess, Elizabeth A; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress ('transport stress') on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on 'control days' 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four 'stress-associated' parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp's ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These results are likely

  17. Perceived Neighborhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transport among Adult Residents of 17 Cities in 12 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Emond, Jennifer A; Badland, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults' neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments. METHODS: As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self......-report data were taken from 13,745 adults (18 - 65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using...... the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored. RESULTS: Walking for transport outcomes were significantly associated...

  18. Work, Stress, and Diurnal Bruxism: A Pilot Study among Information Technology Professionals in Bangalore City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants (N=147 were interviewed by a trained interviewer to record information. A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. The prevalence of self-reported diurnal bruxism was 59%. Bivariate analyses revealed that work (<0.05 and work experience (<0.05 were significantly associated with self-reported diurnal bruxism. In the binary logistic regression analysis stress (Odds Ratio [OR] =5.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.6–13.3 was identified to be a strong predictor of diurnal bruxism. Professionals with 11 or more years of experience were less likely to report diurnal bruxism (OR=0.04, 95% CI 0.00–0.43 than those with 1 to 5 years of work experience. The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city.

  19. Exposure to ultrafine particles in different transport modes in the city of Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, Mario; Toschi, Nicola; Vicentini, Laura; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Magrini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence of adverse health impacts from human exposure to particulate air pollution, including increased rates of respiratory and cardiovascular illness, hospitalizations, and pre-mature mortality. Most recent hypotheses assign an important role to ultrafine particles (UFP) (<0.1 μm) and to associated transition metals (in particular Fe). In a large city like Rome, where many active people spend more than one hour per day in private or public transportation, it may be important to evaluate the level of exposure to harmful pollutants which occurs during urban travelling. In this context, the aim of this work was to examine the relative contribution of different transport modes to total daily exposure. We performed experimental measurements during both morning and evening traffic peak hours throughout the winter season (December 2013–March 2014), for a total of 98 trips. Our results suggest that the lowest UFP exposures are experienced by underground train commuters, with an average number concentration of 14 134 cm −3 , and are largely a reflection of the routes being at greater distance from vehicular traffic. Motorcyclists experienced significantly higher average concentrations (73 168 cm −3 ) than all other exposure classes, and this is most likely a result of the presence of high-concentration and short-duration peaks which do not occur when the same routes are traveled by car. UFP concentrations in subway train environments were found to be comparable to urban background levels. Still, in underground trains we found the highest values of PM 10 mass concentration with a maximum value of 422 μg/m 3 . PM 10 concentration in trains was found to be four and two times higher than what was measured in car and motorbike trips, respectively. Transport mode contribution to total integrated UFP daily exposure was found to be 16.3%–20.9% while travelling by car, 28.7% for motorbike trips, and 8.7% for subway trips. Due to lower exposure times

  20. The Serotonin Transporter and Early Life Stress: Translational Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien D. A. Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR and adverse early life stressing (ELS events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human short allele carriers are at increased risk. This 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is absent in the rodent SERT gene, but heterozygous SERT knockout rodents (SERT+/− show several similarities to the human S-allele carrier, therefore creating an animal model of the human situation. Many rodent studies investigated ELS interactions in SERT knockout rodents combined with ELS. However, underlying neuromolecular mechanisms of the (maladaptive responses to adversity displayed by SERT rodents remain to be elucidated. Here, we provide a comprehensive review including studies describing mechanisms underlying SERT variation × ELS interactions in rodents. Alterations at the level of translation and transcription but also epigenetic alterations considerably contribute to underlying mechanisms of SERT variation × ELS interactions. In particular, SERT+/− rodents exposed to adverse early rearing environment may be of high translational and predictive value to the more stress sensitive human short-allele carrier, considering the similarity in neurochemical alterations. Therefore, SERT+/− rodents are highly relevant in research that aims to unravel the complex psychopathology of mental disorders. So far, most studies fail to show solid evidence for increased vulnerability to develop affective-like behavior after ELS in SERT+/− rodents. Several reasons may underlie these failures, e.g., (1 stressors used might not be optimal or severe enough to induce maladaptations, (2 effects in females are not sufficiently studied, and (3 few studies include both behavioral manifestations and molecular correlates of ELS-induced effects in SERT+/− rodents. Of course, one should not

  1. The Serotonin Transporter and Early Life Stress: Translational Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwing, Danielle J.; Buwalda, Bauke; van der Zee, Eddy A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT) linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and adverse early life stressing (ELS) events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human short allele carriers are at increased risk. This 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is absent in the rodent SERT gene, but heterozygous SERT knockout rodents (SERT+/−) show several similarities to the human S-allele carrier, therefore creating an animal model of the human situation. Many rodent studies investigated ELS interactions in SERT knockout rodents combined with ELS. However, underlying neuromolecular mechanisms of the (mal)adaptive responses to adversity displayed by SERT rodents remain to be elucidated. Here, we provide a comprehensive review including studies describing mechanisms underlying SERT variation × ELS interactions in rodents. Alterations at the level of translation and transcription but also epigenetic alterations considerably contribute to underlying mechanisms of SERT variation × ELS interactions. In particular, SERT+/− rodents exposed to adverse early rearing environment may be of high translational and predictive value to the more stress sensitive human short-allele carrier, considering the similarity in neurochemical alterations. Therefore, SERT+/− rodents are highly relevant in research that aims to unravel the complex psychopathology of mental disorders. So far, most studies fail to show solid evidence for increased vulnerability to develop affective-like behavior after ELS in SERT+/− rodents. Several reasons may underlie these failures, e.g., (1) stressors used might not be optimal or severe enough to induce maladaptations, (2) effects in females are not sufficiently studied, and (3) few studies include both behavioral manifestations and molecular correlates of ELS-induced effects in SERT+/− rodents. Of course, one should not exclude the

  2. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  3. Early life thermal stress: Impact on future thermotolerance, stress response, behavior, and intestinal morphology in piglets exposed to a heat stress challenge during simulated transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objectives were to evaluate the impact of early life thermal stress (ELTS) on thermoregulation, stress, and intestinal health of piglets subjected to a future heat stress (HS) challenge during simulated transport. Approximately 7 d after farrowing, 12 first parity gilts and their litters were ...

  4. The effect of load and thickness variation on stress analysis of monocoque frame of electric city car using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhrojan, Agus; Suprihadi, Agus; Budi, Sigit Setijo; Jamari, J.; Ismail, Rifky

    2017-01-01

    The electric car is transportation which growing and constantly put through improvisation vehicle design. One of the structural components of the electric car which holds a major role is a frame. The purpose of this study is to get monocoque frame design which lightweight and powerful for a city car with two passengers that was able to improve the efficiency of the battery voltage source. Monocoque frame should be able to accept the normal loads such as the weight of batteries, passenger, and body. The most important thing, monocoque frame should also be able to protect the driver and passengers in the event of a collision. Mild steel was chosen for the design because it is easy to obtain and reasonable price as well as easy to shaped for two-seater electric car. FEM (finite element method) was used to determine stress determination and rigidity of the monocoque frame when receiving a static load. The results show that the monocoque frame was still able to withstand the required loads with minimal deflection.

  5. The Impact of Urban Growth and Climate Change on Heat Stress in an Australian City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S.; Mcalpine, C. A.; Thatcher, M. J.; Salazar, A.; Watson, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    inner city and by 6°C during a period of hot days. The scenarios of future temperature are ongoing and will show how heat stress will change in Brisbane when both urban growth and climate change are considered.

  6. Urban expansion and transportation : the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Lue, Bin; de Roo, Gert

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in the development of China's growing megacities in the transport-related environmental costs due to rapid urban expansion. In light of this issue, the authors examine the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing. Based on household-survey data, the

  7. Urban and Transport Planning Related Exposures and Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment for Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dadvand, Payam; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Tonne, Cathryn; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Valentín, Antònia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    , Gascon M, Martinez D, Tonne C, Triguero-Mas M, Valentín A, Nieuwenhuijsen M. 2017. Urban and transport planning related exposures and mortality: a health impact assessment for cities. Environ Health Perspect 125:89-96; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP220.

  8. Societal perception toward transportation modes based on online (Go-Jek) In Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buamona, D. M.

    2017-06-01

    Driver online which is renowned as Go-jek is one of alternative transportation exist in Malang city based on IT. This service is supportive enough for all societies and easy to do serving, namely it is enough by using Go-jek application which is exist in Smartphone. Some services served by Go-jek including Go-Ride, Go-Car, Go-Food, Go-Send dan Go- Massage. By the development of technology and the emergence of alternative transportation, it will not close any chance to get competition.In its development some Go-Jek users started complaining about the services provided. This study aims is to assess the level of importance and performance and measure the level of community satisfaction in using Go-Jek with the method of Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) and Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI), Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) is used to determine the attributes of importance and level of satisfaction of performance while the Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) is used to view the percentage of satisfaction level. Accidental Sampling technique is used to determine the sample based on spontaneity factor as well as for data collection using questionnaires with 100 respondents. The results of this study indicate that services considered important by the community but less attention namely waiting time for short reservations, ability to reach a specific location. Drivers deliver you to the right destination and reliability. For percentage of respondent satisfaction level, it is seen from several criteria: a) 0,81-1,00 Very satisfied, b) 0,66-0,80 Satisfied, c) 0,51-0,65 Simply satisfied, d) 0,35 -0.50 Less satisfied, and d) 0.00-0.34 Very dissatisfied. From the results of this study, it shows that people feel very satisfied with the service given today with a value of 0.84 CSI, this value is at the interval of 0.81-1.00. Based on the results of the analysis, although the percentage of this study shows high level of satisfaction of the respondents but the service

  9. Stress, Flow and Particle Transport in Rock Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Tomofumi

    2007-09-15

    The fluid flow and tracer transport in a single rock fracture during shear processes has been an important issue in rock mechanics and is investigated in this thesis using Finite Element Method (FEM) and streamline particle tracking method, considering evolutions of aperture and transmissivity with shear displacement histories under different normal stresses, based on laboratory tests. The distributions of fracture aperture and its evolution during shear were calculated from the initial aperture fields, based on the laser-scanned surface roughness features of replicas of rock fracture specimens, and shear dilations measured during the coupled shear-flow-tracer tests in laboratory performed using a newly developed testing apparatus in Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan. Three rock fractures of granite with different roughness characteristics were used as parent samples from which nine plaster replicas were made and coupled shear-flow tests was performed under three normal loading conditions (two levels of constant normal loading (CNL) and one constant normal stiffness (CNS) conditions). In order to visualize the tracer transport, transparent acrylic upper parts and plaster lower parts of the fracture specimens were manufactured from an artificially created tensile fracture of sandstone and the coupled shear-flow tests with fluid visualization was performed using a dye tracer injected from upstream and a CCD camera to record the dye movement. A special algorithm for treating the contact areas as zero-aperture elements was used to produce more accurate flow field simulations by using FEM, which is important for continued simulations of particle transport, but was often not properly treated in literature. The simulation results agreed well with the flow rate data obtained from the laboratory tests, showing that complex histories of fracture aperture and tortuous flow channels with changing normal stresses and increasing shear displacements, which were also captured

  10. Renal sympathetic nerve, blood flow, and epithelial transport responses to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thad E

    2017-05-01

    Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state. Hyperthermia extends these directional changes, until heat illness results. Because kidney responses are very difficult to study in humans in vivo, this review describes and qualitatively evaluates an in vivo human skin model of sympathetically regulated epithelial tissue compared to that of the nephron. This model utilizes skin responses to thermal stress, involving 1) increased skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), decreased skin blood flow, and suppressed eccrine epithelial transport during cold stress; and 2) increased SSNA, skin blood flow, and eccrine epithelial transport during heat stress. This model appears to mimic aspects of the renal responses. Investigations of skin responses, which parallel certain renal responses, may aid understanding of epithelial-sympathetic nervous system interactions during cold and heat stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF CARGO TRAM FOR CITY LOGISTICS COMPARED TO ROAD FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION: A CASE STUDY OF ISTANBUL CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Faruk Gorçun

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, changes relating to logistics approaches have been observed. Logistics activities at a micro level have begun to gain an importance compared to logistics activities at the macro level although global logistics are still important. Urban logistics, also known as city logistics, has come to gain an importance for regional and global actors of logistics and supply chains. While the economic costs were the most important concept in the past, nowadays, external costs have become a...

  12. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyue He

    Full Text Available Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  13. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  14. Estimated health benefits of exhaust free transport in the city of Malmö, Southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Ebba; Lisberg Jensen, Ebba; Westerberg, Karin; Stroh, Emilie; Rittner, Ralf; Gustafsson, Susanna; Spanne, Mårten; Nilsson, Henric; Oudin, Anna

    2018-05-25

    Air pollution is responsible for one in eight premature deaths worldwide, and thereby a major threat to human health. Health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution concentrations can be used as a mean of assessing the health impacts of policy, plans and projects, and support decision-makers in choices to prevent disease. The aim of this study was to estimate health impacts attributable to a hypothetical decrease in air pollution concentrations in the city of Malmö in Southern Sweden corresponding to a policy on-road transportations without tail-pipe emissions in the municipality. We used air pollution data modelled for each of the 326,092 inhabitants in Malmö by a Gaussian dispersion model combined with an emission database with >40,000 sources. The dispersion model calculates Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) (later transformed into Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 )) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter pipe emissions. Even though the estimates are sensitive to the dose-response functions used and to exposure misclassification errors, even the most conservative estimate of the number of prevented deaths is 7 times larger than the annual traffic fatalities in Malmö, indicating a substantial possibility to reduce the health burden attributed to tail-pipe emissions in the study area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. El rol del transporte público alternativo motorizado en la ciudad / The role of motorized paratransit in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isabel Amorós Zurita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl trabajo de investigación presenta una aproximación global sobre las diversas pautas de comportamiento del transporte público alternativo. Es decir, se pretende, a través de la realización de una investigación meramente descriptiva, identificar las diferentes características físicas y de operación de este tipo de transporte en la ciudad. Su estructura incluye el análisis de conceptos y clasificaciones relacionados al transporte público alternativo, la presentación de dos experiencias distintas sobre la utilización de la motocicleta a tres ruedas, uno de los principales tipos de transporte público alternativo motorizado, y finalmente los principales efectos positivos y negativos que causa su circulación a nivel urbano, ambiental, social y económico. Los resultados obtenidos permiten a las instituciones relacionadas con el transporte reflexionar sobre la posibilidad fortalecer esta propuesta de movilidad, necesaria especialmente en países en vías de desarrollo.Palabras claveTransporte público alternativo, ciudad, movilidad.AbstractThis research work presents a new global approach on various paratransit’s behavior patterns in the city. That is to say, through a descriptive research, to allow identifying the physical and operational characteristics of motorized paratransit in the city. The research structure includes the analysis of paratransit’s concepts and classifications, the exposure of two different experiences based on the three-wheeled motorcycle use, one of the main motorized paratransit’s types, and finally its main positive and negative effects in an urban, environmental, social and economic level. The results that were obtained allow transport institutions to reflect on the possibility of strengthen this mobility proposal, required especially in developing countries.KeywordsParatransit, city, mobility.

  16. Personality and posttraumatic stress disorder among directly exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Abbacchi, Anna; Cloninger, C Robert

    2012-01-01

    Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality in association with exposure to disaster and development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A study of survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing examined PTSD and personality measured after the disaster. In a random sample of 255 survivors from a bombing survivor registry, 151 (59%) completed both full PTSD and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Postbombing PTSD was associated with low self-directedness and low cooperativeness, and also with high self-transcendence and harm avoidance in most configurations. Disorganized (schizotypal) character and explosive (borderline) temperament configurations were associated with PTSD; creative and autocratic character configurations were negatively associated with PTSD. Clinicians should be vigilant for PTSD among individuals with personality disorders and also be aware that personality disorders are likely to be overrepresented among people with PTSD. Treatment of PTSD may need to take into account comorbid personality disorders and personality features. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. QUIC Transport and Dispersion Modeling of Vehicle Emissions in Cities for Better Public Health Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC plume modeling system is used to explore how the transport and dispersion of vehicle emissions in cities are impacted by the presence of buildings. Using downtown Philadelphia as a test case, notional vehicle emissions of gases and particles are specified as line source releases on a subset of the east–west and north–south streets. Cases were run in flat terrain and with 3D buildings present in order to show the differences in the model-computed outdoor concentration fields with and without buildings present. The QUIC calculations show that buildings result in regions with much higher concentrations and other areas with much lower concentrations when compared to the flat-earth case. On the roads with vehicle emissions, street-level concentrations were up to a factor of 10 higher when buildings were on either side of the street as compared to the flat-earth case due to trapping of pollutants between buildings. However, on roads without vehicle emissions and in other open areas, the concentrations were up to a factor of 100 times smaller as compared to the flat earth case because of vertical mixing of the vehicle emissions to building height in the cavity circulation that develops on the downwind side of unsheltered buildings. QUIC was also used to calculate infiltration of the contaminant into the buildings. Indoor concentration levels were found to be much lower than outdoor concentrations because of deposition onto indoor surfaces and particulate capture for buildings with filtration systems. Large differences in indoor concentrations from building to building resulted from differences in leakiness, air handling unit volume exchange rates, and filter type and for naturally ventilated buildings, whether or not the building was sheltered from the prevailing wind by a building immediately upwind.

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE CITY TRANSPORT SYSTEM’S DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY DESIGN PRINCIPLES WITH ACCOUNT OF RISKS AND SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MAKAROVA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport system is the key indicator of sustainable spatial development, because if it is ineffective it can render the economy, the environment, and society vulnerable. Despite the large number of already existing research, the city transportation sys-tem’s development strategy design is still a relevant objective, because the existing ways and strategies of the transport development may not always be applicable in certain circumstances. This article presents the possible ways of improvement of sustainability of the city transportation systems adapted in accordance with the peculiarities of Russian cities. It is stated that when working out a city transportation system’s development strategy it is necessary to take into account all possible risks. According to the case study of Naberezhnye Chelny city, all vulnerabilities of the system that today are typical almost for all Russian cities were analyzed, classification of risks was made, and means of their control were suggested. Solutions proposed as a result of the SWOT-analysis can be used when developing transport strategies for other cities with similar specificity.

  19. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  20. Effects of transportation stress on quality and sensory profiles of Nile tilapia fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis Goes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated pre-slaughter stress and its influence on the stress indicators, quality characteristics and sensory characteristics of Nile tilapia fillets. To this end, two experiments were conducted: (1 two transportation times (60 and 240 min, with a density of 200 kg m−3, were compared to control treatment fish (in which the fish were removed from the net cage and immediately euthanized; and (2 two transportation densities (100 and 400 kg m−3, transported for 180 min, compared with control treatment fish. In experiment 1, the transportation time of 60 min resulted in higher levels of serum cortisol and plasma glucose compared to the transportation time of 240 min and the control. Fish fillets transported for 240 min had higher water-holding capacity, less water loss by pressure and higher levels of juiciness compared to fish transported for 60 min. Color, pH and water loss during cooking were not affected by transportation time. In experiment 2, transportation densities of 100 and 400 kg m−3 did not significantly affect the stress indicators nor the instrumental quality parameters of the fillets, but fish transported at 400 kg m−3 showed better visual acceptance by panellists.

  1. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  2. The impacts of water stress on phloem transport in Douglas-fir trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Woodruff

    2014-01-01

    Despite the critical role that phloem plays in a number of plant functional processes and the potential impact of water stress on phloem structural and phloem sap compositional characteristics, little research has been done to examine how water stress influences phloem transport. The objectives of this study were to develop a more accurate understanding of how water...

  3. Coaction of Stress and Serotonin Transporter Genotype in Predicting Aggression at the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Christopher C.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Lind, Penelope A.; Najman, Jake M.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that serotonin functioning affects stress reactivity and vulnerability to aggression, research on serotonin gene-stress interactions (G x E) in the development of aggression remains limited. The present study investigated variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a moderator of the…

  4. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E.; Innis, Charles J.; Kennedy, Adam E.; McNally, Kerry L.; Davis, Deborah G.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress (‘transport stress’) on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on ‘control days’ 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four ‘stress-associated’ parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp’s ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These

  5. A faculty-led solution to transport-related stress among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In many parts of the developing world the lack of consistent and affordable transport may be a serious obstacle to education and a unique sociocultural cause of stress among undergraduate students. Objective. To determine the student-perceived benefits of a faculty-led, grassroots student transport service for ...

  6. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  7. Treated wastewater and Nitrate transport beneath irrigated fields near Dodge city, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M.A.; Vocasek, F.; Ma, Liwang; Ashok, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    Use of secondary-treated municipal wastewater for crop irrigation south of Dodge City, Kansas, where the soils are mainly of silty clay loam texture, has raised a concern that it has resulted in high nitratenitrogen concentrations (10-50 mg/kg) in the soil and deeper vadose zone, and also in the underlying deep (20-45 m) ground water. The goal of this field-monitoring project was to assess how and under what circumstances nitrogen (N) nutrients under cultivated corn that is irrigated with this treated wastewater can reach the deep ground water of the underlying High Plains aquifer, and what can realistically be done to minimize this problem. We collected 15.2-m-deep cores for physical and chemical properties characterization; installed neutron moisture-probe access tubes and suction lysimeters for periodic measurements; sampled area monitoring, irrigation, and domestic wells; performed dye-tracer experiments to examine soil preferential-flow processes through macropores; and obtained climatic, crop, irrigation, and N-application rate records. These data and additional information were used in the comprehensive Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) to identify key parameters and processes that influence N losses in the study area. We demonstrated that nitrate-N transport processes result in significant accumulations of N in the thick vadose zone. We also showed that nitrate-N in the underlying ground water is increasing with time and that the source of the nitrate is from the wastewater applications. RZWQM2 simulations indicated that macropore flow is generated particularly during heavy rainfall events, but during our 2005-06 simulations the total macropore flow was only about 3% of precipitation for one of two investigated sites, whereas it was more than 13% for the other site. Our calibrated model for the two wastewater-irrigated study sites indicated that reducing current levels of corn N fertilization by half or more to the level of 170 kg/ha substantially

  8. Family and Work Influences on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Among Bisexual Latino Men in the New York City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Ripkin, Alexandra; Garcia, Jonathan; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-12-01

    The empirical exploration of mental health problems among bisexual Latino men is scarce. Bisexual men experience stress because of their non-conforming sexuality from multiple-sources. In this study we focus on the family and work environments. We conducted a mixed-methods study to examine the impacts of these social environments among behavioral bisexual Latino men in New York City (N = 142). Using the Brief Symptom Inventory we measured stress, depression, and anxiety, and used specific scales to measure familial and work social environmental stress factors. We also measured four cultural factors to assess their potential influence on our hypothesized stressors. To test our hypothesis we used linear regression with stress, depression and anxiety as the primary outcome variables. Our results indicated that bisexual Latino men experienced negative mental health outcomes due to pressures in their familial and work environments. Stress was the strongest predictor of anxiety and depression among the men in the study. After taking stress into account, familial factors were stronger predictors of negative mental health outcomes than work factors. Cultural factors such as acculturation and length of living in the United States were not associated with negative mental health outcomes in our sample. Our findings suggest the importance of addressing stress, anxiety and depression among behaviorally bisexual men, and suggest that addressing family-based stressors is critical for this population. This research should inform future studies addressing this underserved population and provide mental health providers with a foundation for working with bisexual Latino men.

  9. Participatory quantitative health impact assessment of urban and transport planning in cities: A review and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Khreis, Haneen; Verlinghieri, Ersilia; Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David

    2017-06-01

    Urban and transport planning have large impacts on public health, but these are generally not explicitly considered and/or quantified, partly because there are no comprehensive models, methods and tools readily available. Air pollution, noise, temperature, green space, motor vehicle crashes and physical activity are important pathways linking urban and transport planning and public health. For policy decision-making, it is important to understand and be able to quantify the full-chain from source through pathways to health effects and impacts to substantiate and effectively target actions. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of recent studies on the health impacts related to urban and transport planning in cities, describe the need for novel participatory quantitative health impact assessments (HIA) and provide recommendations. To devise our searches and narrative, we were guided by a recent conceptual framework linking urban and transport planning, environmental exposures, behaviour and health. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and references from relevant articles in English language from January 1, 1980, to November 1, 2016, using pre-defined search terms. The number of HIA studies is increasing rapidly, but there is lack of participatory integrated and full-chain HIA models, methods and tools. These should be based on the use of a systemic multidisciplinary/multisectorial approach and state-of-the-art methods to address questions such as what are the best, most feasible and needed urban and transport planning policy measures to improve public health in cities? Active citizen support and new forms of communication between experts and citizens and the involvement of all major stakeholders are crucial to find and successfully implement health promoting policy measures. We provided an overview of the current state-of-the art of HIA in cities and made recommendations for further work. The process on how to get there is as important and

  10. Silicon in vascular plants: uptake, transport and its influence on mineral stress under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontigo, Sofía; Ribera, Alejandra; Gianfreda, Liliana; de la Luz Mora, María; Nikolic, Miroslav; Cartes, Paula

    2015-07-01

    So far, considerable advances have been achieved in understanding the mechanisms of Si uptake and transport in vascular plants. This review presents a comprehensive update about this issue, but also provides the new insights into the role of Si against mineral stresses that occur in acid soils. Such information could be helpful to understand both the differential Si uptake ability as well as the benefits of this mineral element on plants grown under acidic conditions. Silicon (Si) has been widely recognized as a beneficial element for many plant species, especially under stress conditions. In the last few years, great efforts have been made to elucidate the mechanisms involved in uptake and transport of Si by vascular plants and recently, different Si transporters have been identified. Several researches indicate that Si can alleviate various mineral stresses in plants growing under acidic conditions, including aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) toxicities as well as phosphorus (P) deficiency all of which are highly detrimental to crop production. This review presents recent findings concerning the influence of uptake and transport of Si on mineral stress under acidic conditions because a knowledge of this interaction provides the basis for understanding the role of Si in mitigating mineral stress in acid soils. Currently, only four Si transporters have been identified and there is little information concerning the response of Si transporters under stress conditions. More investigations are therefore needed to establish whether there is a relationship between Si transporters and the benefits of Si to plants subjected to mineral stress. Evidence presented suggests that Si supply and its subsequent accumulation in plant tissues could be exploited as a strategy to improve crop productivity on acid soils.

  11. Effectiveness of psychological rehabilitation, using Dohsa-Hou, on hemodialysis patients’ depression, anxiety, and stress in Zahdan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shirazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Dialysis patients are prone to various complications such as physical, economic, social and psychological problems which can result in psychopathological complications.. The current study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of psychological rehabilitation using Dohsa-Hou, on reducing ESRD (Hemodialysis patients’ depression, anxiety, and stress, in Zahdan city. Materials and Methods: The present study is a semi experimental research on 30 patients of hemodialysis (ESRD men, having medical records in Kidney Patient Support Foundation and Private Centers of Zahdan city. These  patients were selected through available sampling method. They were randomly divided into two equal groups: experimental  and control group.. The experimental group underwent 11 therapy sessions Dohsa psychomotor relaxation for 11 weeks, each lasting 45 minutes. Data collection tool was depression, anxiety, and stress questionnaire (DASS-21. The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS software (V:19, applying independent t-test and covariance statistical tests. Results: Mean score of depression, anxiety, and stress in the experimental and control   groups, revealed no significant difference before intervention (P>0.05, but it was significantly lower in the experimental group compared to the control (P0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that psychological rehabilitation using Dohsa-Hou has a significant impact on reducing ESRD patients’ depression, anxiety, and stress. Therefore, not only prescribing medicines for their problems is suggested, but also. psychologic interventions are recommended.

  12. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  13. Hepatic ZIP14-mediated zinc transport is required for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Aydemir, Tolunay B; Kim, Jinhee; Cousins, Robert J

    2017-07-18

    Extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress damages the liver, causing apoptosis and steatosis despite the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Restriction of zinc from cells can induce ER stress, indicating that zinc is essential to maintain normal ER function. However, a role for zinc during hepatic ER stress is largely unknown despite important roles in metabolic disorders, including obesity and nonalcoholic liver disease. We have explored a role for the metal transporter ZIP14 during pharmacologically and high-fat diet-induced ER stress using Zip14 -/- (KO) mice, which exhibit impaired hepatic zinc uptake. Here, we report that ZIP14-mediated hepatic zinc uptake is critical for adaptation to ER stress, preventing sustained apoptosis and steatosis. Impaired hepatic zinc uptake in Zip14 KO mice during ER stress coincides with greater expression of proapoptotic proteins. ER stress-induced Zip14 KO mice show greater levels of hepatic steatosis due to higher expression of genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which are suppressed in ER stress-induced WT mice. During ER stress, the UPR-activated transcription factors ATF4 and ATF6α transcriptionally up-regulate Zip14 expression. We propose ZIP14 mediates zinc transport into hepatocytes to inhibit protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity, which acts to suppress apoptosis and steatosis associated with hepatic ER stress. Zip14 KO mice showed greater hepatic PTP1B activity during ER stress. These results show the importance of zinc trafficking and functional ZIP14 transporter activity for adaptation to ER stress associated with chronic metabolic disorders.

  14. Effect of road transport stress on Erthrocyte Osmotic Fragility (EOF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After an overnight fast, venous blood was collected from each subject for the determination of serum cortisol, glucose concentration and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. The subjects were then transported at a speed of 65 – 75Km/h covering a distance of 180km. Thereafter venous blood was again collected (within 10 minutes) ...

  15. Study of exposure to cold stress and body physiological responses in auto mechanic employees in Hamadan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Saedpanah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous exposure to cold air is considered to be a hazardous agent in the workplace in cold seasons. This study aimed to determine the level of cold stress and relation with physiological responses in auto mechanic employees. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the winter of 1395 on auto mechanic employees in Hamadan city. Physiological responses during daily activity were measured in accordance with ISO 9886 standard method. Environmental air measures like air temperature and air velocity were measured simultaneously and cold stress indexes were also determined. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21 software. Result: The result showed that mean wind chill index, equivalent chill temperature and required clothing insulation were 489.97±47.679 kcal/m2.h, 13.78± 1.869 0c and 2.04 ± 0.246 clo, respectively. According to the results of cold stress indexes, the studied employees are exposed to cold stress. Pearson correlation test showed that there are significant relationship between cold stress indexes with physiological responses (p<0.05, however, IREQ min showed more correlation than the others.  There is also a significant relationship between body fat percentage and deep temperature (p<0.05, r=0.314. Conclusion: The result confirmed that IREQ min index has high validity for estimation of cold stress among auto mechanic employees. Moreover, the increase of body fat percentage leads to an increase of cold tolerance power of employees.

  16. The influence of wind speed on airflow and fine particle transport within different building layouts of an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dan; Wen, Meng; Xu, Xuemei; Zhu, Yuzheng; Xing, Futang

    2018-04-20

    In atmospheric environment, the layout difference of urban buildings has a powerful influence on accelerating or inhibiting the dispersion of particle matters (PM). In industrial cities, buildings of variable heights can obstruct the diffusion of PM from industrial stacks. In this study, PM dispersed within building groups was simulated by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled Lagrangian approach. Four typical street building arrangements were used: (a) a low-rise building block with Height/base H/b = 1 (b = 20 m); (b) step-up building layout (H/b = 1, 2, 3, 4); (c) step-down building layout (H/b = 4, 3, 2, 1); (d) high-rise building block (H/b = 5). Profiles of stream functions and turbulence intensity were used to examine the effect of various building layouts on atmospheric airflow. Here, concepts of particle suspension fraction and concentration distribution were used to evaluate the effect of wind speed on fine particle transport. These parameters showed that step-up building layouts accelerated top airflow and diffused more particles into street canyons, likely having adverse effects on resident health. In renewal old industry areas, the step-down building arrangement which can hinder PM dispersion from high-level stacks should be constructed preferentially. High turbulent intensity results in formation of a strong vortex that hinders particles into the street canyons. It is found that an increase in wind speed enhanced particle transport and reduced local particle concentrations, however, it did not affect the relative location of high particle concentration zones, which are related to building height and layout. This study has demonstrated the height variation and layout of urban architecture affect the local concentration distribution of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere and for the first time that wind velocity has particular effects on PM transport in various building groups. The findings may have general implications in optimization

  17. Climate adaptive action plans to manage heat stress in Indian cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite projections by climate models of a warming climate and increasing frequency ... This project, implemented by the New Delhi-based organization Integrated ... provide training to urban planners, municipal commissioners, city engineers, ...

  18. Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities Transporte y salud: una mirada a tres ciudades latinoamericanas Transporte e saúde: um olhar sobre três cidades latino-americanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Dujon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia, Curitiba (Brazil, and Santiago (Chile, and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America.El transporte está asociado con problemas ambientales, pérdidas económicas, salud poblacional e inequidades sociales. En ciudades de Europa y Estados Unidos hay iniciativas para promover el transporte multimodal. En Latinoamérica hay proyectos en curso para cambiar los sistemas de transporte y estimular el transporte no motorizado (caminar y montar bicicleta. Basada en una revisión de artículos publicados en revistas académicas, se identifica de qué forma los cambios en el transporte en Bogotá (Colombia, Curitiba (Brasil y Santiago (Chile han contribuido a promover el transporte activo. A pesar que en estas tres ciudades se están implementando iniciativas para promover el transporte activo (sistema de autobuses articulados, ciclovías, ciclorutas, y restricciones para el uso del coche particular, pocos estudios han sido desarrollados sobre

  19. Co-regulation of water and K(+) transport in sunflower plants during water stress recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlloch, Manuel; Benlloch-González, María

    2016-06-01

    16-day-old sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were subjected to deficit irrigation for 12 days. Following this period, plants were rehydrated for 2 days to study plant responses to post-stress recovery. The moderate water stress treatment applied reduced growth in all plant organs and the accumulation of K(+) in the shoot. After the rehydration period, the stem recovered its growth and reached a similar length to the control, an effect which was not observed in either root or leaves. Moreover, plant rehydration after water stress favored the accumulation of K(+) in the apical zone of the stem and expanding leaves. In the roots of plants under water stress, watering to field capacity, once the plants were de- topped, rapidly favored K(+) and water transport in the excised roots. This quick and short-lived response was not observed in roots of plants recovered from water stress for 2 days. These results suggest that the recovery of plant growth after water stress is related to coordinated water and K(+) transport from the root to the apical zone of the ​​stem and expanding leaves. This stimulation of K(+) transport in the root and its accumulation in the cells of the growing zones of the ​​stem must be one of the first responses induced in the plant during water stress recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of CO2 emission from transportation activities in the area of Pasar Besar in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, K. E.; Sulistyo, D. E.; Utomo, D. M.

    2017-06-01

    The number of vehicles increases every year. Where vehicles are the largest contributor to air pollution up to 70%-80%, while 20%-30% caused by industrial activities. The increasing number of vehicles which perform movements will result in more emissions of vehicles in the free air of the city. Traffic is also influenced by the presence of land use. One of the types of land use that have considerable influence against the movement of traffic is trade. Along with the development of transport activities in the area of Pasar Besar Malang city (the Biggest Traditional Market in Malang), it will cause problems such as traffic jam and air pollution. Therefore, the need for proper handling of the problem of traffic jam and air pollution in the area of Pasar Besar that is to identify the performance of road traffic around area of Pasar Besar and calculate the quantity of CO2 emissions based on the footprint of transport on the area of Pasar Besar. Where is produced that level of service roads on its way around area of Pasar Besar have an average value between LOS A and B, while the quantity of CO2 emissions is based on the footprint of transport on area of Pasar Besar that is amounting to 4,551.42 tons/year. The magnitude of the emissions have exceeded the standard of composition in the air so that the need for recommendations. Recommendations in this research is in the form of simulated users of private vehicle redirects to public transportation based on the level of willingness to switch by the users of private vehicles. The selected simulation that is the second of four simulations with the output of emissions amounting to 3,952.91 tons/year in which can reduce emissions amounting to 598.51 tons/year or approximately 13.15%.

  1. Generation, storage, collection and transportation of municipal solid waste - A case study in the city of Kathmandu, capital of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, R.; Chowdhury, M.A.I.; Hasan, G.M.J.; Karanjit, B.; Shrestha, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) services have consistently failed to keep up with the vast amount of solid waste produced in urban areas. There is not currently an efficient system in place for the management, storage, collection, and transportation of solid waste. Kathmandu City, an important urban center of South Asia, is no exception. In Kathmandu Metropolitan City, solid waste generation is predicted to be 1091 m 3 /d (245 tons/day) and 1155 m 3 /d (260 tons/day) for the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. The majority (89%) of households in Kathmandu Metropolitan City are willing to segregate the organic and non-organic portions of their waste. Overall collection efficiency was 94% in 2003. An increase in waste collection occurred due to private sector involvement, the shutdown of the second transfer station near the airport due to local protest, a lack of funding to maintain trucks/equipment, a huge increase in plastic waste, and the willingness of people to separate their waste into separate bins. Despite a substantial increase in total expenditure, no additional investments were made to the existing development plan to introduce a modern disposal system due to insufficient funding. Due to the lack of a proper lining, raw solid waste from the existing dumping site comes in contact with river water directly, causing severe river contamination and deteriorating the quality of the water

  2. HKT transporters mediate salt stress resistance in plants: from structure and function to the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Shin; Horie, Tomoaki; Hauser, Felix; Deinlein, Ulrich; Schroeder, Julian I; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2015-04-01

    Plant cells are sensitive to salinity stress and do not require sodium as an essential element for their growth and development. Saline soils reduce crop yields and limit available land. Research shows that HKT transporters provide a potent mechanism for mediating salt tolerance in plants. Knowledge of the molecular ion transport and regulation mechanisms and the control of HKT gene expression are crucial for understanding the mechanisms by which HKT transporters enhance crop performance under salinity stress. This review focuses on HKT transporters in monocot plants and in Arabidopsis as a dicot plant, as a guide to efforts toward improving salt tolerance of plants for increasing the production of crops and bioenergy feedstocks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation and intercomparison of Ozone and PM10 simulations by several chemistry transport models over four European cities within the CityDelta project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vautard, R.; Builtjes, P.H.J.; Thunis, P.; Cuvelier, C.; Bedogni, M.; Bessagnet, B.; Honoré, C.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Pirovano, G.; Schaap, M.; Stern, R.; Tarrason, L.; Wind, P.

    2007-01-01

    The CityDelta project Cuvelier et al. [2006. CityDelta: a model intercomparison study to explore the impact of emission reductions in European cities in 2010. Atmospheric Environment] is designed to evaluate the air quality response of several emission abatement scenarios for 2010 at the scale of

  4. Analysis of Public Bus Transportation of a Brazilian City Based on the Theory of Complex Networks Using the P-Space

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. De Bona; K. V. O. Fonseca; M. O. Rosa; R. Lüders; M. R. B. S. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    The city of Curitiba, located at Southern Brazil, is recognized by its urban planning structured on three pillars: land use, collective transportation, and traffic. With 3.8 million people in its metropolitan area, the public transport system deals with approximately 2.5 million passengers daily. The structure and properties of such a transportation system have substantial implications for the urban planning and public politics for sustainable development of Curitiba. Therefore, this paper an...

  5. Serum miRNA disregulation during transport-related stress in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Tomás Marques

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small 21-25 nucleotide regulatory non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. miRNAs are complementary to the 3′-untranslated regions of mRNA and act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, exhibiting remarkable stability in extracellular fluids such as blood. Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo farming is a species economically relevant but the lack of efficient protocols for the evaluation of commercial turkeys prevents to measure the impact of industry practices on birds productivity and welfare. In order to identify potential molecular biomarkers for monitoring stress in turkey’s handling, we investigated by TaqMan qPCR the abundance of five circulating miRNA, namely miR-22, miR-155, miR-181a, miR-204 and miR-365, previously demonstrated to be involved in stress in chicken due to feed deprivation. Road transportation related procedures were selected as stressful model for this study. The serum of twenty healthy animals was collected before and after 2h transportation. Our results demonstrated that miR-22, miR-155 and miR-365 are statistically more expressed after road transportation. Receiver-operator characteristics (ROC analysis was used to estimate the diagnostic value of these miRNAs to evaluate the stress in animals. The serum level of miR-22, miR-155 and miR-365 can discriminate stressed from non-stressed animals with an AUC=0.763, 0.710 and 0.704, respectively, and the average expression of their combination has the same specificity (AUC=0.745. miR-22, miR-155 and miR-365 are stress-specific markers and can be considered as suitable biomarkers to identify turkeys stressed by road transportation.

  6. Towards a better understanding and behavior recognition of inhabitants in smart cities. A public transport case

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Radoslaw; Kotulski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    The idea of modern urban systems and smart cities requires monitoring and careful analysis of different signals. Such signals can originate from different sources and one of the most promising is the BTS, i.e. base transceiver station, an element of mobile carrier networks. This paper presents the fundamental problems of elicitation, classification and understanding of such signals so as to develop context-aware and pro-active systems in urban areas. These systems are characterized by the omn...

  7. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    L. Sagaris

    2010-01-01

    Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva) a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transp...

  8. Road risk analysis due to the transportation of chlorine in Rosario city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenna, N.J.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M.

    2005-01-01

    A risk assessment for chlorine releases as a consequence of truck accidents along the circumvallation highway around Rosario city is presented. A methodology capable of handling uncertainties and an adapted computational system based on the DEGADIS model is developed. Wind intensity, wind direction and atmospheric stability are treated as uncertain parameters. This is critical for the vulnerability calculation. As a result, chlorine concentration distributions and the risk in the area of interest are achieved

  9. An Overview of the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign: Mexico City Emissions and their Transport and Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Madronich, Sasha; Gaffney, Jeffrey; Apel, Eric; de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Ferrare, R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lamb, Brian K.; Orsonio-Vargas, A. R.; Russell, P. B.; Schauer, James J.; Stevens, P. S.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Zavala, Miguel A.

    2010-03-25

    The world’s population is projected to increase 33% during the next three decades, to 8.1 billion. Nearly all of the projected growth is expected to be concentrated in urban centers. These rapidly expanding urban regions and surrounding suburban areas are leading to the phenomenon of megacities (metropolitan areas with populations exceeding 10 million inhabitants). Well governed, densely populated settlements can reduce the need for land conversion and provide proximity to infrastructure and services. However, many urban areas experience uncontrolled sprawl and their activities are the leading cause of environmental problems. These mega-centers of human population are tied directly to increasing demands for energy and associated industrial activities and motorization that lead to more emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the most important environmental challenges of this century. This challenge is particularly acute in the developing world where the rapid growth of megacities is producing atmospheric pollution of unprecedented severity and extent. MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) is the first international collaborative project to examine the behavior and the export of atmospheric pollutants generated in megacities. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) - one of the world’s largest megacities and North America’s most populous city -- was selected as the initial case study to characterize the sources and processes of emissions from the urban center and to evaluate the regional and global impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume

  10. Security in Intelligent Transport Systems for Smart Cities: From Theory to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Awais; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Znaidi, Wassim

    2016-06-15

    Connecting vehicles securely and reliably is pivotal to the implementation of next generation ITS applications of smart cities. With continuously growing security threats, vehicles could be exposed to a number of service attacks that could put their safety at stake. To address this concern, both US and European ITS standards have selected Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) algorithms to secure vehicular communications. However, there is still a lack of benchmarking studies on existing security standards in real-world settings. In this paper, we first analyze the security architecture of the ETSI ITS standard. We then implement the ECC based digital signature and encryption procedures using an experimental test-bed and conduct an extensive benchmark study to assess their performance which depends on factors such as payload size, processor speed and security levels. Using network simulation models, we further evaluate the impact of standard compliant security procedures in dense and realistic smart cities scenarios. Obtained results suggest that existing security solutions directly impact the achieved quality of service (QoS) and safety awareness of vehicular applications, in terms of increased packet inter-arrival delays, packet and cryptographic losses, and reduced safety awareness in safety applications. Finally, we summarize the insights gained from the simulation results and discuss open research challenges for efficient working of security in ITS applications of smart cities.

  11. Security in Intelligent Transport Systems for Smart Cities: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Awais; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Znaidi, Wassim

    2016-01-01

    Connecting vehicles securely and reliably is pivotal to the implementation of next generation ITS applications of smart cities. With continuously growing security threats, vehicles could be exposed to a number of service attacks that could put their safety at stake. To address this concern, both US and European ITS standards have selected Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) algorithms to secure vehicular communications. However, there is still a lack of benchmarking studies on existing security standards in real-world settings. In this paper, we first analyze the security architecture of the ETSI ITS standard. We then implement the ECC based digital signature and encryption procedures using an experimental test-bed and conduct an extensive benchmark study to assess their performance which depends on factors such as payload size, processor speed and security levels. Using network simulation models, we further evaluate the impact of standard compliant security procedures in dense and realistic smart cities scenarios. Obtained results suggest that existing security solutions directly impact the achieved quality of service (QoS) and safety awareness of vehicular applications, in terms of increased packet inter-arrival delays, packet and cryptographic losses, and reduced safety awareness in safety applications. Finally, we summarize the insights gained from the simulation results and discuss open research challenges for efficient working of security in ITS applications of smart cities. PMID:27314358

  12. Security in Intelligent Transport Systems for Smart Cities: From Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais Javed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Connecting vehicles securely and reliably is pivotal to the implementation of next generation ITS applications of smart cities. With continuously growing security threats, vehicles could be exposed to a number of service attacks that could put their safety at stake. To address this concern, both US and European ITS standards have selected Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC algorithms to secure vehicular communications. However, there is still a lack of benchmarking studies on existing security standards in real-world settings. In this paper, we first analyze the security architecture of the ETSI ITS standard. We then implement the ECC based digital signature and encryption procedures using an experimental test-bed and conduct an extensive benchmark study to assess their performance which depends on factors such as payload size, processor speed and security levels. Using network simulation models, we further evaluate the impact of standard compliant security procedures in dense and realistic smart cities scenarios. Obtained results suggest that existing security solutions directly impact the achieved quality of service (QoS and safety awareness of vehicular applications, in terms of increased packet inter-arrival delays, packet and cryptographic losses, and reduced safety awareness in safety applications. Finally, we summarize the insights gained from the simulation results and discuss open research challenges for efficient working of security in ITS applications of smart cities.

  13. Cyclic stress effects on transport properties of superconducting composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, E.S.; Kim, S.H.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of cyclic stresses at 4.2 0 K on the conductor materials for large superconducting magnets are being investigted in samples of unalloyed copper and of composites containing Nb--Ti or Nb 3 Sn wires in a copper matrix. The samples are constant-strain cycled in pure tension-compression modes. The increase in electrical resistivity of different grades of copper with number and amplitude of cycles is described. The increases can be of the order of the magnetoresistance for 1000 to 2000 cycles at 0.20 percent strain per cycle. The facility for measuring critical current changes with composite cycling is described and the initial results indicate significant I/sub c/ changes as well as unexpected filament fractures. 10 fig

  14. Identifying the impacts of climate on the regional transport of haze pollution and inter-cities correspondence within the Yangtze River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Hang; Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Huiling; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Han; Tong, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Regional haze pollution has become an important environmental issue in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Regional transport and inter-influence of PM 2.5 among cities occurs frequently as a result of the subtropical monsoon climate. Backward trajectory statistics indicated that a north wind prevailed from October to March, while a southeast wind predominated from May to September. The temporal relationships of carbon and nitrogen isotopes among cities were dependent on the prevailing wind direction. Regional PM 2.5 pollution was confirmed in the YRD region by means of significant correlations and similar cyclical characteristics of PM 2.5 among Lin'an, Ningbo, Nanjing and Shanghai. Granger causality tests of the time series of PM 2.5 values indicate that the regional transport of haze pollutants is governed by prevailing wind direction, as the PM 2.5 concentrations from upwind area cities generally influence that of the downwind cities. Furthermore, stronger correlation coefficients were identified according to monsoon pathways. To clarify the impacts of the monsoon climate, a vector autoregressive (VAR) model was introduced. Variance decomposition in the VAR model also indicated that the upwind area cities contributed significantly to PM 2.5 in the downwind area cities. Finally, we attempted to predict daily PM 2.5 concentrations in each city based on the VAR model using data from all cities and obtained fairly reasonable predictions. These indicate that statistical methods of the Granger causality test and VAR model have the potential to evaluate inter-influence and the relative contribution of PM 2.5 among cities, and to predict PM 2.5 concentrations as well. - Graphical abstract: The above figures clearly show that the variation of PM 2.5 concentrations at a city could be Granger cause for the corresponding changes at the other cities. Panel A and B represent the statistically significant correlations during winter time for 2014 and 2015 respectively

  15. The impact of center city economic and cultural vibrancy on greenhouse gas emissions from transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Urban planners and scholars have focused a great deal of attention on understanding the relationship between the built environment and transportation behavior. However, other aspects of the urban environment--including the vibrancy and quality of lif...

  16. Accessibility-Based Transportation Planning : Literature and Applications for Shrinking Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    For 15 years, scholars have claimed that accessibility-based transportation planning was at the brink of becoming a new paradigm, and yet this hope remains unrealized. Its implementation may lag due to vague definitions when compared to mobility, or ...

  17. Impacts of Flooding on Road Transport Infrastructure In Enugu Metropolitan City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Iloeje, A. F; Aniagolu, C. O

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the impact of flooding on the road transport infrastructure in Enugu Metropolis was carried out using survey research method. Thirty impact indicators were rated by the respondents against six impact dimensions of population, vulnerability of activities, frequency, intensity, extent and risk. Three null hypotheses were postulated and tested. One sample t-test was used for testing hypothesis one which stated that damages to the road transport infrastructure resulti...

  18. Route planning of raw materials transportation in the industrial hub of Mariupol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Вікторівна Булгакова

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The multi-modal freight transportation routes planning problem is viewed in this paper. The case study of iron ore deliveries to the metallurgical enterprises of Mariupol from Kryvyi Rih is presented. Based on the analysis of Ukrainian railroads and sea ports infrastructures six possible routes of multi-modal iron ore transportation are built. The paper presents a short review of route planning problem in multi-modal freight transportations, which are use sea and land parts together, regarding decision support methods of routes evaluation and selection. The lack of studies dedicated to fuzzy logic theory application for solving the stated problems is identified. The relevance of fuzzy set application to the route planning problem is proved. Taking into account the peculiarities of iron ore transportations technology, the following criterions of routes evaluation are chosen: «transportation costs», «delivery times», «transportation risks». The model of multicriterion decision-making of routes evaluation and the optimal route selection, based on fuzzy logic theory, is developed. Criteria of routes evaluation are set by three terms Gaussian and sigmoidal membership functions. The approach to each function construction is practice-based and executed together with iron ore supply chain manager. The model is created in MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Tool Box environment using Mamdani’s fuzzy inference

  19. Lifestyle as an Influential Factor to Urban Mobility Transport: a Case Study of Semarang City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismiyati, I.; Hermawan, F.

    2018-02-01

    Most of urban spatial structures in developing countries apparently face a typical phenomenon, as well as in Indonesia. The development of the urban spatial structure has the effects, namely to create polycentric pattern (sprawl). Moreover, communication technology believes that the factors of distance and density are highly considered in the organization of the urban structure. In other words, a distance problem is overcome by communication technology, in terms of interaction among people; in running their activities, mobility or distance is not a problem at all. Urban structure as path which is dependent is unable to intervene for an optimum form of urban structure because of dynamic of development objectives. In facts, lifestyle of inhabitant particularly concerning residential and vehicle ownership influences the mobility transport on the tremendous changes in developing countries. On the contrary, this research points out that mobility transport contributes to transportation problems as it becomes increasingly inefficient. Therefore, a sporadic traffic jam and increasing carbon emission issues have risen on the urban phenomenon. It is important to investigate the lifestyle, in terms of residential choice and vehicle ownership to reshape the urban spatial structure. The research aims to draw the urban spatial growth which extends to the phenomenon process toward polycentric pattern and inefficient transport mobility patterns triggering transportation problems in the context of Indonesia. The results confirm that lifestyle regarding residential choices to suburban area and vehicle ownership preference are unable to create the efficient mobility transport, either by cost, density consequences or vehicle ownership as orientation. This research recommends the local authority from multi-disciplinary sector, in particular public policy making to issue permission for authority of land use; residential area and transport agencies for reconciliation with regard to life

  20. The role of glycerol transporters in yeast cells in various physiological and stress conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Michala; Borovikova, D.; Herynková, Pavla; Rapoport, A.; Sychrová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 362, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 0378-1097 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * glycerol transport * desiccation * osmotic stress Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.858, year: 2015

  1. Comparative economic efficiency, operating costs and fuel consumption rates of freight transport modes between the largest industrial cities and seaports in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J (Wessel Pienaar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with aspects of efficiency within the five modes of freight transport, with special reference to the operating cost and fuel consumption rates between South Africa’s largest industrial cities and seaports. In particular, the paper deals with (a the opportunities that exist for the achievement of efficiency in freight transport; (b the subgroups of economies that can enhance efficiency attainment in the freight transport industry; (c prevailing cost structures, operating cost and fuel consumption rates within the five modes of freight transport; and (d the salient economic features of the freight transport market. The research approach and methodology combine (a a literature survey; (b empiric research, (c an analysis of the cost structures of freight transport operators from different modes of transport; and (d interviews conducted with specialists in the freight transport industry.

  2. Acute inescapable stress alleviates fear extinction recall deficits caused by serotonin transporter abolishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Pieter; Henckens, Marloes J A G; Lopresto, Dora; Kozicz, Tamas; Homberg, Judith R

    2018-07-02

    Life stress increases risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more prominently so in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT -/- ) rats show compromised extinction (recall) of conditioned fear, which might mediate the increased risk for PTSD and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy. Here, we assessed whether acute inescapable stress (IS) differentially affects fear extinction and extinction recall in 5-HTT -/- rats and wildtype controls. Surprisingly, IS experience improved fear extinction recall in 5-HTT -/- rats to the level of wildtype animals, while wildtypes were unaffected by this IS. Thus, whereas 5-HTT -/- rats evidently were more responsive to the stressor, the behavioral consequences presented themselves as adaptive. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.

  4. Transport Demand Management Policy Integration in Chinese Cities : A Proposed Analysis of Its Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.; Veeneman, W.; de Jong, W.M.

    2018-01-01

    Transport demand management (TDM) measures are widely regarded as essential tools to deal with traffic issues. Their effectiveness has been under scrutiny. Packaging of TDM measures has recently received much attention from researchers and governments because it can achieve more complex policy goals

  5. Review of the transportation planning process in the Kansas City metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the FHWA Office of Operations, Office of Transportation Management (HOTM) commissioned the development of a white paper, Data Capture and Management: Needs and Gaps in the Operation and Coordination of U.S. DOT Data Capture and Management Pro...

  6. Right to the city: Applying justice tests to public transport investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazari Adli, Saeid; Donovan, Stuart

    Many policy-makers are grappling with the twin challenges posed by growing travel demands and persistent socioeconomic inequality. To address these issues, numerous studies propose and apply “justice tests”, which relate the effects of transport policies to prevailing socioeconomic deprivation.

  7. Macrophage mitochondrial damage from StAR transport of 7-hydroperoxycholesterol: implications for oxidative stress-impaired reverse cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytowski, Witold; Wawak, Katarzyna; Pabisz, Pawel; Schmitt, Jared C; Girotti, Albert W

    2014-01-03

    StAR family proteins in vascular macrophages participate in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We hypothesize that under pathophysiological oxidative stress, StARs will transport not only cholesterol to macrophage mitochondria, but also pro-oxidant cholesterol hydroperoxides (7-OOHs), thereby impairing early-stage RCT. Upon stimulation with dibutyryl-cAMP, RAW264.7 macrophages exhibited a strong time-dependent induction of mitochondrial StarD1 and plasma membrane ABCA1, which exports cholesterol. 7α-OOH uptake by stimulated RAW cell mitochondria (like cholesterol uptake) was strongly reduced by StarD1 knockdown, consistent with StarD1 involvement. Upon uptake by mitochondria, 7α-OOH (but not redox-inactive 7α-OH) triggered lipid peroxidation and membrane depolarization while reducing ABCA1 upregulation. These findings provide strong initial support for our hypothesis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. LEDs APPLICATION IN THE SERVICE OF URBAN PASSENGER TRANSPORT IN THE CITY OF URUAPAN MICHOACÁN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Arevalo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of urban transport in the city of Uruapan Michoacán and the rest of the country is essential. The bus routes are identified by labeled numbers, however in the darkness of early morning, evening or rainy day, they is difficult to identify, because of the material used (white shoes paint. Through high-brightness LEDs, displays can be built based on seven-segment digits that display the route number. Without using programmable devices it is possible to turn on/off each segment and easily get any number from 0 to 9, also it is possible to the cost of equipment and get less fragile circuits.

  9. Allocation private building in urban city and along the transport arteries for creating a modern energy-efficient living environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyanov, Vitaliy; Prelovskaya, Yana

    2017-10-01

    This article submits for consideration the structuring elements of the “private sector” development system, the so-called architectural heritage of the Russian province [1]. Three types of development, still present in central parts of settlement systems, i.e. parts of historical value, are revealed. Common features of private plot development for the majority of middle-scale and small towns are characterized. Dependence of the types on various factors: ethnical, natural (geographical), economical, is revealed. It is important to determine which buildings are located along the transport arteries. Does it have historical significance and cultural value, since it forms the image of the city. The outgoing line passes, as a rule, through the entire settlement system and leads to the central part. Basic principles of formation of historically emerged development types, such as blocks, streets and side streets, are shown, and also problems needed to be solved by the means of urban planning are generalized and casted.

  10. Bending stresses: imposed on underground small diameter lines in city streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottmann, A

    1975-05-01

    Die Technischen Werke der Stadt Stuttgart AG (TWS, Stuttgart) investigated the accuracy of available bending stress calculations to represent the actual stress exerted on underground pipelines, the effective bending intervals, and the pipe diameter required to effectively resist the expected stress. The investigation covers steel, cast iron, ductile cast iron, asbestos cement, and PVC 100. The theoretical stresses were determined by the Boussinesgne method from the effects of SLW60 vehicles on pipes buried 3.28 ft (1 m) underground. The cumulative load on the pipe was obtained as the total of the vehicle load, soil load, pipe load, and water load. Results indicate that the tensile stress from internal pipe pressure can be omitted, and that welded steel and sealed PVC pipes should account for longitudinal tensile stresses. Steel pipes are generally so oversized that they need not account for these stresses. The calculations also considered the interaction between the pipe and pipe joint as the pipe emerges from the trench for the 3 possible conditions: an overhang beam, a beam encased at one end and jointed at the other, and a beam, encased at both ends. The curves of the resisting moments varied according to the type of material and pipe diameter, with the greatest rate increase reported for asbestos cement, followed by PVC 100, cast iron, ductile cast iron, and steel. Operating data of a cast-iron underground TWS system in Stuttgart indicated that pipes with less than or equal to 4 in. ( less than or equal to 100 mm) nominal diameter were quite fragile while those with diameters >6 in. (>105 mm) sustained considerably less damage. The degree of damage was found to decrease with increasing diameters. The effect of temperature also proved important. Since it is not economically possible to reinstall the distribution lines with 8-in. (200-mm) pipes, elastic support systems such as crossing troughs are recommended to support the pipes in stress areas.

  11. Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Singer, M.

    2017-09-01

    The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

  12. Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

  13. Spatial and social factors associated with transportation and recreational physical activity among adults in Hat Yai City, Songkhla,Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churangsarit, Saowaphan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2011-08-01

    Transportation physical activity (TPA) and recreational physical activity (RPA) in an urban area can be sources of physical activity (PA) in addition to working. This study was conducted in Hat Yai City Municipality, the fourth most populous city in Thailand, to describe the magnitude of these physical activities and identify their associated factors. 369 adults were selected from a random sampling of registered households. Based on the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), subjects were interviewed on their modes of TPA and RPA during the past week. Hurdle regression was used to examine predictors for having PA separately from predictor of intensity of PA among the active. Metabolic equivalent (MET) of TPA and RPA were computed. Prevalence of not having TPA and RPA were 71.3% and 45.8%, respectively. TPA and RPA contributed 1.5% and 9.2% of total PA. Active commuters were more common in females 40 or more years old, less sedentary persons, and those living near shopping places. Persons having RPA were more likely to be less sedentary, whereas the intensity of RPA was higher among single persons and males. TPA and RPA in this study area were uncommon. Further strategies are needed to improve the situation, especially among sedentary persons.

  14. Influence of turbulent horseshoe vortex and associated bed shear stress on sediment transport in front of a cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinzhao; Qi, Meilan; Fuhrman, David R.

    2018-01-01

    -normal distribution for uniform channel-open flows. The comparisons of sediment transport rates where turbulent fluctuations in the bed shear stress are, or are not, taken into account show that the sediment transport rates calculated by the mean bed shear stress are under-predicted. Furthermore, a new sediment......This study concerns the flow and associated sediment transport in front of a cylinder in steady currents. The study comprises (i) flow characteristics induced by the turbulent horseshoe vortex (THV), (ii) bed shear stress within the THV region, and (iii) predicted sediment transport rates...

  15. A City to Live or Work In? Contradictions Present in the Spatial Distribution of Economic Activities, Transport and Social Conditions: A Case Study of the City of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Aprigliano Fernandes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is currently an effort by the transport sector of Rio de Janeiro todemonstrate the contribution of urban mobility for addressing social, environmental and economic issues, the claims are contradictory because urban restructuring continues to cause the uneven distribution of jobs in the city, high levels of social inequality and chronic problems with poor urban mobility, as seen in high levels of private transportation use, low levels of public transport service, long journeys and travel times. This work uses a geographical perspective to evaluate the relationship between available transport infrastructure and the dynamics of jobs and businesses in the city of Rio de Janeiro. We seek to evaluate whether the existing and projected means of transportation in the city merely attend to the demands of historically established interest groups or create ruptures and new spatial logics which reduce socio-spatial differences.

  16. Characteristics of movement and factors affecting the choice of mode of transport of community on the bank of Musi River of Palembang City of South Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliansyah, Joni; Hartono, Yusuf; Hastuti, Yulia; Astuti, Rinna

    2017-11-01

    Palembang City is one of the cities having the largest river in Indonesia and it should be able to take advantage of river transportation as an alternative choice. Inadequate availability of river transport facilities and infrastructures makes the people prefer other modes of land transportation rather than using river transportation. In addition, the development planning of river transportation such as the development of river taxi is less successful because it is not yet based on the movement pattern of the origin of the community travel destination. Based on the above matter, this study was conducted. The aim of the study was to find out the characteristics and factors affecting the mode choice of the community living along the bank of Musi River of Palembang City to be the basis of the development of river transportation system in Palembang City. The selected modes were motorcycles, cars, city transports, and ketek (motorized boats). Survey of home interviews was conducted to determine the origin of the destination and characteristics of travel was conducted in 30 villages located on the banks of Musi River. Field survey was conducted to determine the conditions and types of existing river transportation facilities and services. The results show that only 5.3 % of the occurrence movement used river transportation, the rest used motorcycles (69.1%), urban transport (15.9 %) and cars (9.7%), with the travel range less than10 minutes and 10 - 20 minutes as much as 43.2 % and 29 % of the total trips. From the socioeconomic profile of the community, it is found that most of the people living along the Musi River have low and middle incomes with the largest types of jobs as workers, students, shop owner, and housewives. The peak movement time for the movement of river transport occurs at 7:00 - 8:00, 10:00 - 11:00 and 16:00 - 17:00 with the movement of origin of the destination of river transportation is known to be 50% at the traditional market center of Dermaga of

  17. Assessing the heat stress of brick-manufacturing units’ workers based on WBGT index in Qom city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hajizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat stress is considered as a serious risk factor to the health and safety of workers in most working environments, especially in outdoor works and jobs that workers are exposed to heat due to the working process. This study aimed to evaluate heat stress among workers of brick-manufacturing units in Qom city based on WBGT index as well as the relationship between WBGT and physiological indicators. .Material and Method: The present study was conducted in 40 brick-manufacturing units in Qom city. WBGT measurements were performed according to ISO7243 standard. Physiological responses of 184 workers (up to 5 people per unit and also atmospheric parameters were measured. The physiological responses included oral temperature, skin temperature, and temperature for the carotid artery of the ear, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 16. .Result: Mean WBGT index for various brick-manufacturing jobs including firing, manual material handling, working with conveyors, molding, and tempering were 30.8 °C, 26.74 °C 26.58 °C and 24.25 °C, respectively and the average WBGT was estimated 27.98 °C. WBGT levels measured in all units exceeded the level provided in ISO7243 standard. The highest mean WBGT was belonged to kiln section (30.8 °C. The mean WBGT at three heights of head, abdomen and legs were not statistically different (using t-test. The correlation coefficients between mean WBGT and mean oral, skin and ears temperatures were 0.203, 0.319, and 0.490, respectively, with the highest correlation belonged to the carotid arteries of ears. Moreover, WBGT showed no significant association with the mean heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure (P-value>0.05. Indoor and outdoor WBGT index was significantly different (P-value<0.05. .Conclusion: The level of heat stress in all brick-manufacturing units was higher than the recommended limits, and the workers in kiln

  18. Generation of sheared poloidal flows via Reynolds stress and transport barrier physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Sanchez, E.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Milligen, B. van; Silva, C.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Riccardi, C.; Carrozza, R.; Fontanesi, M.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.

    2000-01-01

    A view of the latest experimental results and progress in the understanding of the role of poloidal flows driven by fluctuations via Reynolds stress is given. Reynolds stress shows a radial gradient close to the velocity shear layer location in tokamaks and stellarators, indicating that this mechanism may drive significant poloidal flows in the plasma boundary. Observation of the generation of ExB sheared flows via Reynolds stress at the ion Bernstein resonance layer has been noticed in toroidal magnetized plasmas. The experimental evidence of sheared ExB flows linked to the location of rational surfaces in stellarator plasmas might be interpreted in terms of Reynolds stress sheared driven flows. These results show that ExB sheared flows driven by fluctuations can play an important role in the generation of transport barriers. (author)

  19. The application of transportation models in emergency situations: Example of a hypothetical city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Jovana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency situations, where mass evacuation of people is present, are serious problem that is difficult to resolve. Such events have become more frequent in recent years. The transportation network is a key part of the infrastructure when it comes to events with disastrous consequences, because a large population of people must be effectively evacuated from densely populated urban areas. Therefore, requirements during an evacuation process are made in a relatively short period of time, and available capacity of the road network has become the main resource to be efficiently utilized in order to shorten the time required for evacuation. By using transportation model, the paper presents the simulation of the traffic in a situation when there is a need to evacuate large numbers of people, in order to propose measures that could be efficiently used.

  20. Identifying the impacts of climate on the regional transport of haze pollution and inter-cities correspondence within the Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hang; Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Huiling; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Han; Tong, Lei

    2017-09-01

    Regional haze pollution has become an important environmental issue in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Regional transport and inter-influence of PM 2.5 among cities occurs frequently as a result of the subtropical monsoon climate. Backward trajectory statistics indicated that a north wind prevailed from October to March, while a southeast wind predominated from May to September. The temporal relationships of carbon and nitrogen isotopes among cities were dependent on the prevailing wind direction. Regional PM 2.5 pollution was confirmed in the YRD region by means of significant correlations and similar cyclical characteristics of PM 2.5 among Lin'an, Ningbo, Nanjing and Shanghai. Granger causality tests of the time series of PM 2.5 values indicate that the regional transport of haze pollutants is governed by prevailing wind direction, as the PM 2.5 concentrations from upwind area cities generally influence that of the downwind cities. Furthermore, stronger correlation coefficients were identified according to monsoon pathways. To clarify the impacts of the monsoon climate, a vector autoregressive (VAR) model was introduced. Variance decomposition in the VAR model also indicated that the upwind area cities contributed significantly to PM 2.5 in the downwind area cities. Finally, we attempted to predict daily PM 2.5 concentrations in each city based on the VAR model using data from all cities and obtained fairly reasonable predictions. These indicate that statistical methods of the Granger causality test and VAR model have the potential to evaluate inter-influence and the relative contribution of PM 2.5 among cities, and to predict PM 2.5 concentrations as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of an Electromagnetic Pulse Strike on the Transportation Infrastructure of Kansas City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    infrastructure citing high congestion in urban areas wasting fuel and time. The cost from these inefficiencies is upwards of $101 billion dollars...rail transport grows creating increased congestion on the rail network. As freight volumes increase the contributing congestion is costing the U.S...trucks were disabled during the time frame of Starfish Prime. Observations and reports did not suggest any vehicular accidents as a result of the

  2. Depression, anxiety, and stress among undergraduate dental students in Hyderabad City, Telangana, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambati Sravani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased levels of psychological disturbances such as depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS among dental students affect the way these students take care of patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess DAS among undergraduate dental students in Hyderabad city, Telangana, India. Materials and Methods: A short version of depression, anxiety, and stress scale was distributed to undergraduate dental students in four dental colleges. Comparison among the variables was done using ANOVA and Independent t-test. Results: The study group comprised 200 (23.7% males and 645 (76.3% females. The overall mean DAS score and its dimensions were not significant based on gender. Married students showed significantly more DAS compared to unmarried (P < 0.05. When the year of study was considered for all colleges together, the overall mean DAS score and its individual dimensions score were significantly high among III year students followed by IV, I, and II years (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Clinical years were more stressful than the nonclinical years. This suggests a need for special attention to the structure of the clinical program, particularly at the point of transition from the preclinical to the clinical phase.

  3. Humic Acid Confers HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1-Mediated Salinity Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleda, Laila; Park, Hee Jin; Yun, Dae-Jin; Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Min Gab; Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2017-12-31

    Excessive salt disrupts intracellular ion homeostasis and inhibits plant growth, which poses a serious threat to global food security. Plants have adapted various strategies to survive in unfavorable saline soil conditions. Here, we show that humic acid (HA) is a good soil amendment that can be used to help overcome salinity stress because it markedly reduces the adverse effects of salinity on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. To identify the molecular mechanisms of HA-induced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, we examined possible roles of a sodium influx transporter HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1 (HKT1). Salt-induced root growth inhibition in HKT1 overexpressor transgenic plants (HKT1-OX) was rescued by application of HA, but not in wild-type and other plants. Moreover, salt-induced degradation of HKT1 protein was blocked by HA treatment. In addition, the application of HA to HKT1-OX seedlings led to increased distribution of Na+ in roots up to the elongation zone and caused the reabsorption of Na+ by xylem and parenchyma cells. Both the influx of the secondary messenger calcium and its cytosolic release appear to function in the destabilization of HKT1 protein under salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that HA could be applied to the field to enhance plant growth and salt stress tolerance via post-transcriptional control of the HKT1 transporter gene under saline conditions.

  4. Effects of city expansion on heat stress under climate change conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Argüeso

    Full Text Available We examine the joint contribution of urban expansion and climate change on heat stress over the Sydney region. A Regional Climate Model was used to downscale present (1990-2009 and future (2040-2059 simulations from a Global Climate Model. The effects of urban surfaces on local temperature and vapor pressure were included. The role of urban expansion in modulating the climate change signal at local scales was investigated using a human heat-stress index combining temperature and vapor pressure. Urban expansion and climate change leads to increased risk of heat-stress conditions in the Sydney region, with substantially more frequent adverse conditions in urban areas. Impacts are particularly obvious in extreme values; daytime heat-stress impacts are more noticeable in the higher percentiles than in the mean values and the impact at night is more obvious in the lower percentiles than in the mean. Urban expansion enhances heat-stress increases due to climate change at night, but partly compensates its effects during the day. These differences are due to a stronger contribution from vapor pressure deficit during the day and from temperature increases during the night induced by urban surfaces. Our results highlight the inappropriateness of assessing human comfort determined using temperature changes alone and point to the likelihood that impacts of climate change assessed using models that lack urban surfaces probably underestimate future changes in terms of human comfort.

  5. On Displacement Height, from Classical to Practical Formulation: Stress, Turbulent Transport and Vorticity Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Displacement height ( d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how previous stress-based formulations for displacement height can be seen as simplified cases of a more general definition including turbulent transport. Further, we also give a simplified and practical form for d that is in agreement with the general approach, exploiting the concept of vortex thickness scale from mixing-layer theory. We assess the new and previous displacement height formulations by using flow statistics derived from the atmospheric boundary-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model SCADIS as well as from wind-tunnel observations, for different vegetation types and flow regimes in neutral conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget, accounting for the combined effects of turbulent transport and shear production. The Coriolis force also plays a role, introducing wind-speed dependence into the behaviour of the roughness sublayer; this affects the turbulent transport, shear production, stress, and wind speed, as well as the displacement height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (`mixing-layer') form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as

  6. EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION STRESS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ANDRONIE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Our research monitored the response of some welfare indicators in sport horses during transport by assessing the intensity of stress during travel time, changes in heart rate, cortisol, lactic acid and creatinine levels. The horses included in the study were separated into 2 groups: horses that were transported for the first time (A n: 12 and horses that had been previously transported (B n: 10. The values of the indicators varied between the two groups regardless of the fact that travel length and transport conditions were almost identical. The heart rate and cortisol levels were elevated in horses from group A as compared to the ones in group B while the latter showed increased levels of these indicators upon repeating the loading and unloading (100-130 nmol/l. The recorded value of lactic acid was higher for the first group (2,2 mmol/l, only until the moment when the horses adapted to the effort, after which it decreased (1,8 mmol/l. Transport of horses under certain conditions related to their adjusting to manhandling during loading and unloading operations, as well as the animals’ temper, may be considered a stress factor with significant depreciating effect on horse welfare.

  7. CITY TRANSPORT IN BARRIER-FREE ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING SPACE FOR PEOPLE WITH LIMITED MOBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryadko Igor’ Petrovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of transport organization for people with limited mobility. The article evaluates the results of the actions the executive authorities of Moscow and Moscow Region take. Barrier-free space organization for disabled people and parents with prams is given a special attention. The lack of strategy in the sphere leads to considerable difficulties for people with limited ability. This problem should be solved in cooperation with the survey of other peoples' needs. The article gives examples of comfortable urban space in Sochi, Moscow, Chita, Mytishchi and analyses the ways urbanism influences people with limited abilities.

  8. How to handle heat stress and flooding in the city; Omgaan met hittestress en wateroverlast in de stad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, H.; Mees, H.; Driessen, P. [Sectie Milieumaatschappijwetenschappen, Faculteit Geowetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Sluijs, J.; Wardekker, A. [Sectie Natuurwetenschap en Samenleving NWS, Faculteit Betawetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Climate change can bring along various risks such as an increase in heat stress and flooding. Scientific research usually focuses on providing insight in these risks and on developing adaptation measures. Less information is available on how urban planners anticipate climate change. In this contribution we analyze whether and how the future effects of climate change are anticipated in Dutch cities. [Dutch] Klimaatverandering kan verschillende risico's met zich meebrengen, zoals toename van hittestress en wateroverlast. Wetenschappelijk onderzoek richt zich doorgaans op het inzichtelijk maken van deze risico's en de ontwikkeling van adaptatiemaatregelen. Veel minder is bekend hoe stedelijke planners anticiperen op klimaatveranderingen. In deze bijdrage analyseren we of en hoe in Nederlandse steden wordt ingespeeld op toekomstige invloeden van klimaatverandering.

  9. How change of public transportation usage reveals fear of the SARS virus in a city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003 resulted in unprecedented impacts on people's daily life. One of the most significant impacts to people is the fear of contacting the SARS virus while engaging daily routine activity. Here we use data from daily underground ridership in Taipei City and daily reported new SARS cases in Taiwan to model the dynamics of the public fear of the SARS virus during the wax and wane of the SARS period. We found that for each reported new SARS case there is an immediate loss of about 1200 underground ridership (the fresh fear). These daily loss rates dissipate to the following days with an e-folding time of about 28 days, reflecting the public perception on the risk of contacting SARS virus when traveling with the underground system (the residual fear). About 50% of daily ridership was lost during the peak of the 2003 SARS period, compared with the loss of 80% daily ridership during the closure of the underground system after Typhoon Nari, the loss of 50-70% ridership due to the closure of the governmental offices and schools during typhoon periods, and the loss of 60% daily ridership during Chinese New Year holidays.

  10. How change of public transportation usage reveals fear of the SARS virus in a city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic in 2003 resulted in unprecedented impacts on people's daily life. One of the most significant impacts to people is the fear of contacting the SARS virus while engaging daily routine activity. Here we use data from daily underground ridership in Taipei City and daily reported new SARS cases in Taiwan to model the dynamics of the public fear of the SARS virus during the wax and wane of the SARS period. We found that for each reported new SARS case there is an immediate loss of about 1200 underground ridership (the fresh fear. These daily loss rates dissipate to the following days with an e-folding time of about 28 days, reflecting the public perception on the risk of contacting SARS virus when traveling with the underground system (the residual fear. About 50% of daily ridership was lost during the peak of the 2003 SARS period, compared with the loss of 80% daily ridership during the closure of the underground system after Typhoon Nari, the loss of 50-70% ridership due to the closure of the governmental offices and schools during typhoon periods, and the loss of 60% daily ridership during Chinese New Year holidays.

  11. The effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on stress response in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Liste, M.G; María, G. A.; García-Belenguer, S.; Chacón, G.; Gazzola, P.; Villarroel, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on physiological stress response of commercial rabbits in Aragón (Spain). A total of 156 animals were sampled in a 2x2x3 factorial design testing two transport times: short, 1 hour (1hT) and long, 7 hours (7hT), in two different seasons: hot, during summer (HT) and cold during winter (CT), and three different positions on the truck: upper, middle or lower decks in multi-floor cages on rolling stands (MFR...

  12. XML Survey of the productivity loss due to heat stress in different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam Esmaielpou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat is one of the hazardous physical agents in the workplace. Exposure to heat and consequent thermal stress influence workers productivity in addition to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the heat stress induced productivity loss related to different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city, during summer. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in summer, 2014, among farmers in Darreh Shahr city. After determining the sample size, farmers’ activities were determined using hierarchical task analysis (HTA, and WBGT measurements were done according to the ISO7243. Metabolism was estimated by the ISO8996. Following, the type of activities were identified according their required metabolism. Knowing WBGT and workload and using the work capacity model, the productivity loss in different tasks and ultimately total productivity loss were calculated. Result: The mean WBGT activities for plowing, terracing, planting seeds, watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, and harvesting were 29.98 °C, 31.28 °C,30.66 °C,31.39 °C,31.99 °C,31.75 °C,31.08 °C, and 30.3 °C, respectively. WBGT values were higher than the permissible level provided by ISO7243 in all farming activities. Maximum value of WBGT was belonged to fertilizing activity (31.99 °C and the lowest value was for plowing (29.98 °C. ANOVA test results did not show a significant difference in WBGT at head, waist, and ankle height. The highest and lowest amount of productivity loss was estimated respectively for weeding and plowing activities. The total productivity loss for farming was calculated 69.3 percent in an hour which is due to high physical activity, working outdoor, with exposure to direct solar radiation, and consequent heat stress imposed to workers. Conclusion: Productivity is a factor which is affected by the workplace heat stress. According to results of the present research, the amount of productivity is reduced

  13. Survey of the productivity loss due to heat stress in different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam Esmaielpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat is one of the hazardous physical agents in the workplace. Exposure to heat and consequent thermal stress influence workers productivity in addition to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the heat stress induced productivity loss related to different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city, during summer. . Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in summer, 2014, among farmers in Darreh Shahr city. After determining the sample size, farmers’ activities were determined using hierarchical task analysis (HTA, and WBGT measurements were done according to the ISO7243. Metabolism was estimated by the ISO8996. Following, the type of activities were identified according their required metabolism. Knowing WBGT and workload and using the work capacity model, the productivity loss in different tasks and ultimately total productivity loss were calculated. .Result: The mean WBGT activities for plowing, terracing, planting seeds, watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, and harvesting were 29.98 °C, 31.28 °C,30.66 °C,31.39 °C,31.99 °C,31.75 °C,31.08 °C, and 30.3 °C, respectively. WBGT values were higher than the permissible level provided by ISO7243 in all farming activities. Maximum value of WBGT was belonged to fertilizing activity (31.99 °C and the lowest value was for plowing (29.98 °C. ANOVA test results did not show a significant difference in WBGT at head, waist, and ankle height. The highest and lowest amount of productivity loss was estimated respectively for weeding and plowing activities. The total productivity loss for farming was calculated 69.3 percent in an hour which is due to high physical activity, working outdoor, with exposure to direct solar radiation, and consequent heat stress imposed to workers. .Conclusion: Productivity is a factor which is affected by the workplace heat stress. According to results of the present research, the amount of productivity is

  14. Prospects of introduction of innovative technology overhead passenger traffic on the basis of the passenger ropeways for the modernization of the public transport system of the Bryansk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the current situation in the field of public transport in the Bryansk city was shown the main problems in the implementation of innovative technology for the aerial passenger transport on the basis of suspended passenger ropeways (Cable metro. Shows the advantages of the cable metro-based mechatronic technology transportation compared to the traditional suspended passenger ropeways. Was made the technical and economic feasibility analysis of the construction of the cable metro in conditions of a highly urbanized urban environment of large cities, metropolises and urban agglomerations. Presented the statistical data on the development of vehicles in the Bryansk city in the period 2004-2016 years and based on the analysis of these data shows the feasibility of the development of aerial passenger transport as the most high-speed and environmentally friendly mode of transport compared with automobile and electric transport. Considered the possible sources of financing of design and construction works and shows the commercial attractiveness of the project to potential investors in the framework of public-private partnerships. For existing urban development and major transport flows of the Bryansk city was formulated proposals for the location of future transport cable metro lines, order their gaskets, the formation routes of movement of the rolling stock. Made the estimation of labor and financial costs for the implementation of the project of modernization of the public transport system of the city of Bryansk on the basis of the suspended passenger ropeways. The proposed option has the following characteristics: the number of transport lines - 6, total length - 54.8 km, total number of passenger boarding stations - 26, hub passenger stations – 6, the total number of intermediate supports – 100...110 pieces with a span between supports of 400...600 m. the cost of construction of transport lines and the purchase of necessary

  15. Strategies for integrated densification with urban qualities : Combining Space Syntax with building density, land usage, public transport and property rights in Bergen city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Koning, R.E.; van Nes, A.; Ye, Y.; Roald, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Bergen city in Norway is presently undergoing an enormous population growth. In this respect, Bergen municipality wanted to identify all the possibilities for densification in the current situation. Therefore, the following issues were evaluated: street network and public transport accessibility,

  16. Fuel cell electric vehicle as a power plant : Fully renewable integrated transport and energy system design and analysis for smart city areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, V.D.W.M.; Verhoef, L.A.; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and affordable future zero emission power, heat and transport systems require efficient and versatile energy storage and distribution systems. This paper answers the question whether for city areas, solar and wind electricity together with fuel cell electric vehicles as energy generators

  17. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Tian, Lide; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH_4"+ in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L"−"1, with an average of 12.5 ng L"−"1. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH_4"+. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH_4"+ was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  18. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  19. Effects of water stress on photosynthetic electron transport, photophosphorylation, and metabolite levels of Xanthium strumarium mesophyll cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, T D; Badger, M R

    1982-12-01

    Several component processes of photosynthesis were measured in osmotically stressed mesophyll cells of Xanthium strumarium L. The ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration capacity was reduced by water stress. Photophoshorylation was sensitive to water stress but photosynthetic electron transport was unaffected by water potentials down to-40 bar (-4 MPa). The concentrations of several intermediates of the photosynthetic carbon-reduction cycle remained relatively constant and did not indicate that ATP supply was limiting photosynthesis in the water-stressed cells.

  20. CO{sub 2} emissions from road transport and selected parts in the Kosice city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carach, V.; Mueller, G.; Janoskova, K.

    2007-07-01

    At present, climatic changes are the most important and urgent worldwide problems. They are a real and rising threat to the environment. An intensive climatic research and monitoring yielded a better knowledge about the reasons and effects of global warming. Global warming in the range of 1.4 to 5.8 {sup o}C affects weather, year seasons, ecosystems, water sources, health of citizens, as well as global and domestic economy. Nowadays, it is clear that the climatic instability is mostly caused by human activities. 21% of total carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Europe comes from traffic, which is one of the biggest sources of greenhouse effect gases and rises up to 2.5% every year. A main reason is the increasing automobile and airplane transport.

  1. Stress Response to Long Distance Transportation of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dobšíková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress responses and changes in biochemical and haematological indices were investigated in three-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. during a long-distance transportation in special truck tanks. Twelve-hour transportation caused a significant increase in ammonia (p < 0.01, mean corpuscular volume MCV (p < 0.01, metamyelocytes ( p < 0.05 and band neutrophils (p < 0.01, and a significant decrease in Cl- (p < 0.05, lactate (p < 0.05, ALT (p < 0.05 and ALP (p < 0.01 levels. The values of LDH (p < 0.01, AST (p < 0.05, CK (p < 0.01 and haematocrit PCV (p < 0.05 were also significantly influenced by the transportation, but no time-dependent relation was found. On the contrary, the levels of cortisol, glucose and total protein in the biochemical profile, and the values of erythrocyte count (RBC, haemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte counts (WBC and leukogram (except for metamyelocytes and band neutrophils in the haematological profile were not significantly influenced by the transportation. Results showed that pre-transport fish manipulation (hauling, netting, handling, loading was found to be an important stressor for fish. Long-distance transportation itself was relatively considerate for the common carp tested.

  2. Attracting higher income class to public transport in socially clustered cities. The case of Caracas. / Atracción del mayor nivel de ingresos al transporte público en las ciudades socialmente segregadas. El caso de Caracas.

    OpenAIRE

    Flórez, Josefina

    2000-01-01

    In Caracas, as in most socially clustered cities, modal split is highly related to income. High income population is mostly car dependant, while lower income people are captive of public transport. This typical situation is explained by world-wide social values and fashion but also by the fact that new, segregated residential areas for the upper social levels have been located in areas poorly served by public transport, creating a dependency on the private car. It is not surprising that, duri...

  3. Analysis of Public Bus Transportation of a Brazilian City Based on the Theory of Complex Networks Using the P-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. De Bona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Curitiba, located at Southern Brazil, is recognized by its urban planning structured on three pillars: land use, collective transportation, and traffic. With 3.8 million people in its metropolitan area, the public transport system deals with approximately 2.5 million passengers daily. The structure and properties of such a transportation system have substantial implications for the urban planning and public politics for sustainable development of Curitiba. Therefore, this paper analyzes the structure of the public transportation system of Curitiba through the theory of complex networks in a static approach of network topology and presents a comparative analysis of the results from Curitiba, three cities from China (Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou, and three cities from Poland (GOP, Warszawa, and Łódź. The transportation network was modeled as a complex network with exact geographical coordinates of its bus stops. In all bus lines, the method used was the P-Space. The results show that this bus network has characteristics of both small-world and scale-free networks.

  4. Stress, Socializing, and Other Motivations for Smoking Among the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Community in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat-Khah, Deanna P; Dill, LeConté J; Reynolds, Simone A; Joseph, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging literature on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer (LGBTQ) health disparities and tobacco use by examining the motivations for smoking among the New York City (NYC) LGBTQ population. We used grounded theory and blended methods from 3 grounded theorists-Strauss, Corbin, and Charmaz-for data collection, coding, and analysis. NYC has extensive legislation to prevent smoking; however, the current smoking prevalence of homosexuals is double that of heterosexuals. Study participants were leaders from 23 NYC LGBTQ organizations. Leaders were chosen to establish a relationship with community and to ensure cultural sensitivity. Eligibility criteria required holding a leadership position in an organization serving the NYC LGBTQ community. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and uploaded into Dedoose for analysis. An initial code list was developed from the interview guide. Key themes were identified as the themes with the most number of quotes. Three key themes emerged from our interviews: image, socializing, and stress. Smoking was reported to be a socialization aid and a maladaptive coping technique for stress arising from interactions of conflicting identities. Future smoking cessation interventions among the LGBTQ community should equip smokers with healthy coping mechanisms that address the stressors that arise from the intersections of smokers' many identities.

  5. Perceived Neighborhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transport among Adult Residents of 17 Cities in 12 Countries: The IPEN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Emond, Jennifer A.; Badland, Hannah; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga; Carlson, Jordan; Sallis, James F.; Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli; Conway, Terry; Schofield, Grant; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Christiansen, Lars B.; Van Dyck, Delfien; Davey, Rachel; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Salvo, Deborah; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Mitáš, Josef; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of walking and cycling for transport is low and varies greatly across countries. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions related to walking and cycling for transport in different countries. Therefore, it is challenging to prioritize appropriate built-environment interventions. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults’ neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments. Methods As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self-reported data were taken from 13,745 adults (18–65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored. Results Walking-for-transport outcomes were significantly associated with perceived residential density, land use mix–access, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. Any cycling for transport was significantly related to perceived land use mix–access, street connectivity, infrastructure, aesthetics, safety, and perceived distance to destinations. Between-city differences existed for some attributes in relation to walking or cycling for transport. Conclusions Many perceived environmental attributes supported both cycling and walking; however, highly walkable environments may not support cycling for transport. People appear to walk for transport despite safety concerns. These findings can guide the implementation of global health strategies. Citation Kerr J, Emond JA, Badland H, Reis R, Sarmiento O, Carlson J, Sallis

  6. Role of sea surface wind stress forcing on transport between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.

    Using an Indian-Pacific Ocean Circulation Model (IPOM) a simulation study on the Transports of between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean such as Indonesian Through flow (ITF) has been done. IPOM covered the area 25°E-70°W, 35°S-60°N. There are 31 levels in the vertical with 22 levels upper 400m in it. The horizontal resolution is 1/3° lat x 1.5° lon between 10°S and 10°N. The coastline and ocean topography of IPOM is prepared from Scripps topography data on 1x1°grid. Forcing IPOM with monthly observational wind stress in 1990-1999 the interannual variation of sea temperature has been reproduced well, not only on El Nino in the Pacific but also on Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Therefore, the oceanic circulations in the tropical ocean are reasonable. The analyses of the oceanic circulations from the simulations suggest that the transport southward through Makassar Strait is the primary route of thermocline water masses from the North Pacific to the Indonesian sea. The transport westward through Bali-Western Australian Transect (BWAT, at 117.5E) can be thought as the final output of ITF through the archipelago to Indian Ocean. The transport westward through BWAT is in 8-12S above 150m, its core centered near surface 10S, which looks like a jet. The westward velocity is more than 50 cm/s. The transport shows significant seasonal and interannual variations. The maximum is in Jul-Oct, minimum in Jan-Mar. These results are consistent with some observation basically. The correlation analyses indict that the variations of transport westward is related with the southeasterly anomaly in the east tropical Indian ocean. The transport variation lags wind anomaly about 3 months. The correlation coefficient is more than 0.6. The transport is strong during IOD, for example in 1994 and 1997. The variations are also related with the northwesterly anomaly in the center equatorial Pacific and the easterly in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The transport is strong in most ENSO

  7. The Role of Na+ and K+ Transporters in Salt Stress Adaptation in Glycophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekoum V. M. Assaha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionic stress is one of the most important components of salinity and is brought about by excess Na+ accumulation, especially in the aerial parts of plants. Since Na+ interferes with K+ homeostasis, and especially given its involvement in numerous metabolic processes, maintaining a balanced cytosolic Na+/K+ ratio has become a key salinity tolerance mechanism. Achieving this homeostatic balance requires the activity of Na+ and K+ transporters and/or channels. The mechanism of Na+ and K+ uptake and translocation in glycophytes and halophytes is essentially the same, but glycophytes are more susceptible to ionic stress than halophytes. The transport mechanisms involve Na+ and/or K+ transporters and channels as well as non-selective cation channels. Thus, the question arises of whether the difference in salt tolerance between glycophytes and halophytes could be the result of differences in the proteins or in the expression of genes coding the transporters. The aim of this review is to seek answers to this question by examining the role of major Na+ and K+ transporters and channels in Na+ and K+ uptake, translocation and intracellular homeostasis in glycophytes. It turns out that these transporters and channels are equally important for the adaptation of glycophytes as they are for halophytes, but differential gene expression, structural differences in the proteins (single nucleotide substitutions, impacting affinity and post-translational modifications (phosphorylation account for the differences in their activity and hence the differences in tolerance between the two groups. Furthermore, lack of the ability to maintain stable plasma membrane (PM potentials following Na+-induced depolarization is also crucial for salt stress tolerance. This stable membrane potential is sustained by the activity of Na+/H+ antiporters such as SOS1 at the PM. Moreover, novel regulators of Na+ and K+ transport pathways including the Nax1 and Nax2 loci regulation of SOS1

  8. Heat stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas: A study for a densely populated midlatitude maritime region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are usually warmer than their surrounding natural areas, an effect known as the urban heat island effect. As such, they are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine unprecedented long-term (35 years) urban climate model integrations at the convection-permitting scale (2.8 km resolution) with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess temperature-based heat stress for Belgium, a densely populated midlatitude maritime region. We discover that the heat stress increase toward the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heat waves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our results demonstrate the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  9. Chemical speciation, transport and contribution of biomass burning smoke to ambient aerosol in Guangzhou, a mega city of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhisheng; Engling, Guenter; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Lung, Shih-Chun C.; Chang, Shih-Yu; Fan, Shaojia; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2010-08-01

    Intensive measurements of aerosol (PM 10) and associated water-soluble ionic and carbonaceous species were conducted in Guangzhou, a mega city of China, during summer 2006. Elevated levels of most chemical species were observed especially at nighttime during two episodes, characterized by dramatic build-up of the biomass burning tracers levoglucosan and non-sea-salt potassium, when the prevailing wind direction had changed due to two approaching tropical cyclones. High-resolution air mass back trajectories based on the MM5 model revealed that air masses with high concentrations of levoglucosan (43-473 ng m -3) and non-sea-salt potassium (0.83-3.2 μg m -3) had passed over rural regions of the Pearl River Delta and Guangdong Province, where agricultural activities and field burning of crop residues are common practices. The relative contributions of biomass burning smoke to organic carbon in PM 10 were estimated from levoglucosan data to be on average 7.0 and 14% at daytime and nighttime, respectively, with maxima of 9.7 and 32% during the episodic transport events, indicating that biomass and biofuel burning activities in the rural parts of the Pearl River Delta and neighboring regions could have a significant impact on ambient urban aerosol levels.

  10. Theoretical analysis of the cumulative costs of different diesel bus alternatives for a public transport in the city of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Stevan S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes comparative analysis of the environmental, energetic, and financial costs of different bus propulsion, possibly applied on the public transport in the city of Belgrade. It considers the modern diesel bus, the trolleybus, the natural gas bus with the spark ignition engine, the electric bus using LiFePO4 battery, and the electric bus with ultra-capacitor. The results are presented according to the real data and the real electro-energetic situation in Serbia, with the dominantly used lignite coal as primary fuel. This model gives the exact exhaust emission of electric vehicles at the thermal power plant, enables its comparison to the internal combustion engine vehicles. The result in analysis shows that the natural gas bus is the most cost efficient in economical way with overall exploitation price of $87 per 100 km. The trolleybus is more economical then the natural gas powered bus only at high departures rate, higher than 230 per workday.

  11. Exploring violence exposure, stress, protective factors and behavioral problems among inner-city youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Eric; Weist, Mark D; Albus, Kathleen E

    2003-09-01

    This study examined relationships between violence exposure, other stressors, family support, and self-concept on self-reported behavioral problems among 320 urban adolescents (aged 11-18) referred for mental health treatment. Overall, participants reported high levels of violence exposure, with a median of six past encounters with violence as a witness, victim, or through the experiences of associates. All forms of violence exposure (witnessing, being a victim, knowing of victims) were correlated with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems for males and females. Total violence exposure predicted behavioral problems among participants, even after controlling for the effects of other risk, demographic and protective factors. Family support and self-concept moderated the influence of life stress and cumulative risk on problem behavior outcomes, but these protective variables did not significantly moderate violence exposure.

  12. Green cities, smart people and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Harrison, T.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change will require substantial changes to urban environments. Cities are huge sources of greenhouse gases. Further, cities will suffer tremendously under climate change due to heat stresses, urban flooding, energy and water supply and demand changes, transportation problems, resource supply and demand and a host of other trials and tribulations. Cities that evolve most quickly and efficiently to deal with climate change will likely take advantage of the changes to create enjoyable, healthy and safer living spaces for families and communities. Technology will provide much of the capability to both mitigate and adapt our cities BUT education and coordination of citizen and community lifestyle likely offers equal opportunities to make our cities more sustainable and more enjoyable places to live. This work is the first phase of a major project evaluating urban mitigation and adaptation policies, programs and technologies. All options are considered, from changes in engineering, planning and management; and including a range of citizen and population-based lifestyle practices.

  13. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  14. Evaluation of alternatives for reducing the consumption of natural gas fuel at city-gates of Brazilian transport systems; Avaliacao das alternativas de reducao do consumo de gas natural combustivel nos pontos de entrega dos sistemas de transporte brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir B [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R; Seidl, Peter R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Goncalves, Raquel G [UNISUAM - Centro Universitario Augusto Motta, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to identify actions that can be implemented to increase the energy efficiency of processes involved in the value chain of natural gas, specifically in the process of heating in existing city-gates of transporting natural gas Brazilians plants. The goal is increase supply of gas in Brazil. The main function of city-gates is to deliver the natural gas in contract terms (flow, pressure, temperature and quality). The main issue related to the consumption of natural gas fuel in city-gates is related to the operation (set-up and control) of natural gas combustion, in other words, depends on how the heating system is adjusted dynamically to burn, efficiently, the exact amount of gas required by this system, depending on temperature, pressure, temperature, quality and flow of natural gas at the 'city-gates'. The main objective of this work is to present a study on alternatives at design, set-up and control of natural gas city-gates (transport) in Brazil, aiming to increase the energy efficiency of this facility, and thus contributing to the growth in supply of natural gas available to the market. (author)

  15. Evaluation of alternatives for reducing the consumption of natural gas fuel at city-gates of Brazilian transport systems; Avaliacao das alternativas de reducao do consumo de gas natural combustivel nos pontos de entrega dos sistemas de transporte brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir B. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R.; Seidl, Peter R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Goncalves, Raquel G. [UNISUAM - Centro Universitario Augusto Motta, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to identify actions that can be implemented to increase the energy efficiency of processes involved in the value chain of natural gas, specifically in the process of heating in existing city-gates of transporting natural gas Brazilians plants. The goal is increase supply of gas in Brazil. The main function of city-gates is to deliver the natural gas in contract terms (flow, pressure, temperature and quality). The main issue related to the consumption of natural gas fuel in city-gates is related to the operation (set-up and control) of natural gas combustion, in other words, depends on how the heating system is adjusted dynamically to burn, efficiently, the exact amount of gas required by this system, depending on temperature, pressure, temperature, quality and flow of natural gas at the 'city-gates'. The main objective of this work is to present a study on alternatives at design, set-up and control of natural gas city-gates (transport) in Brazil, aiming to increase the energy efficiency of this facility, and thus contributing to the growth in supply of natural gas available to the market. (author)

  16. Heterogeneity of road traffic accident rate in the Russian cities and the need of usage various methods of transport safety management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. I.; Petrova, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers one of the topical problems of road safety management at the federal level - the problem of the heterogeneity of road traffic accident rate in Russian cities. The article analyzes actual statistical data on road traffic accident rate in the administrative centers of Russia. The histograms of the distribution of the values of two most important road accidents characteristics - Social Risk HR and Severity Rate of Road Accidents - formed in 2016 in administrative centers of Russia are presented. On the basis of the regression model of the statistical connection between Severity Rate of Road Accidents and Social Risk HR, a classification of the Russian cities based on the level of actual road traffic accident rate was developed. On the basis of this classification a differentiated system of priority methods for organizing the safe functioning of transport systems in the cities of Russia is proposed.

  17. Chronic and Acute Stress, Gender, and Serotonin Transporter Gene-Environment Interactions Predicting Depression Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many recent studies of serotonin transporter gene by environment effects predicting depression have used stress assessments with undefined or poor psychometric methods, possibly contributing to wide variation in findings. The present study attempted to distinguish between effects of acute and chronic stress to predict depressive…

  18. Relational Security Moderates the Effect of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Stress Generation and Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs…

  19. Assessment of glucose homeostasis in crossbred steer progeny sired by Brahman bulls that experienced prenatal transportation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to assess glucose homeostasis of crossbred male progeny whose Brahman sires experienced prenatal transportation stress (PS) in utero. Sixteen steers (PNS group) sired by 3 PS bulls gestating dams were transported for 2 h at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 ± 5 d of gest...

  20. [Work-related stress and psychological distress assessment in urban and suburban public transportation companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, L; Lazzarini, G; Farisè, E; Quintarelli, E; Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department.

  1. Seismic analysis, support design and stress calculation of HTR-PM transport and conversion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zheyu; Yuan Chaolong; Zhang Haiquan; Nie Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    Background: The transport and conversion devices are important guarantees for normal operation of HTR-PM fuel handling system in normal and fault conditions. Purpose: A conflict of devices' support design needs to be solved. The flexibility of supports is required because of pipe thermal expansion displacement, while the stiffness is also required because of large devices quality and eccentric distance. Methods: In this paper, the numerical simulation was employed to analyze the seismic characteristics and optimize the support program, Under the chosen support program, the stress calculation of platen support bracket was designed by solidworks software. Results: The supports solved the conflict between the flexibility and stiffness requirements. Conclusions: Therefore, it can ensure the safety of transport and conversion devices and the supports in seismic conditions. (authors)

  2. Reduced Stress Tensor and Dissipation and the Transport of Lamb Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, Ye; Wu, Jian-Ming

    1996-01-01

    We develop a methodology to ensure that the stress tensor, regardless of its number of independent components, can be reduced to an exactly equivalent one which has the same number of independent components as the surface force. It is applicable to the momentum balance if the shear viscosity is constant. A direct application of this method to the energy balance also leads to a reduction of the dissipation rate of kinetic energy. Following this procedure, significant saving in analysis and computation may be achieved. For turbulent flows, this strategy immediately implies that a given Reynolds stress model can always be replaced by a reduced one before putting it into computation. Furthermore, we show how the modeling of Reynolds stress tensor can be reduced to that of the mean turbulent Lamb vector alone, which is much simpler. As a first step of this alternative modeling development, we derive the governing equations for the Lamb vector and its square. These equations form a basis of new second-order closure schemes and, we believe, should be favorably compared to that of traditional Reynolds stress transport equation.

  3. Impacts of Wind Stress Changes on the Global Heat Transport, Baroclinic Instability, and the Thermohaline Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Prietsch Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind stress is a measure of momentum transfer due to the relative motion between the atmosphere and the ocean. This study aims to investigate the anomalous pattern of atmospheric and oceanic circulations due to 50% increase in the wind stress over the equatorial region and the Southern Ocean. In this paper we use a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity (SPEEDO. The results show that the intensification of equatorial wind stress causes a decrease in sea surface temperature in the tropical region due to increased upwelling and evaporative cooling. On the other hand, the intensification of wind stress over the Southern Ocean induces a regional increase in the air and sea surface temperatures which in turn leads to a reduction in Antarctic sea ice thickness. This occurs in association with changes in the global thermohaline circulation strengthening the rate of Antarctic Bottom Water formation and a weakening of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Moreover, changes in the Southern Hemisphere thermal gradient lead to modified atmospheric and oceanic heat transports reducing the storm tracks and baroclinic activity.

  4. Dual-Level Material and Psychological Assessment of Urban Water Security in a Water-Stressed Coastal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has been gradually aggravating water security issues, such as water shortages, water pollution, and flooding or drought disasters and so on. Water security issues have become a great challenge to urban sustainable development. In this context, we proposed a dual-level material and psychological assessment method to assess urban water security. Psychological security coefficients were introduced in this method to combine material security and residents’ security feelings. A typical water-stressed coastal city in China (Dalian was chosen as a case study. The water security status of Dalian from 2010 to 2012 was analysed dynamically. The results indicated that the Dalian water security statuses from 2010 to 2012 were basically secure, but solutions to improve water security status and solve water resource problems are still required. This dual-level material and psychological assessment for urban water security has improved conventional material assessment through the introduction of psychological security coefficients, which can benefit decision-making for urban water planning, management and protection.

  5. Motorized transport in the city area of Besancon and its impact on energy consumption; Les deplacements motorises dans l`agglomeration bisontine et leurs consequences energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, G.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and environmental burdens due to motor traffic in the city area of Besancon has been determined by statistics, counting and sample surveys. A computer model has been developed to simulate the impact of different elements and policy measures as the development of public transport systems, traffic regulation, limiting the accessibility of certain areas and car pooling. (C.B.) 101 refs.

  6. Motorized transport in the city area of Besancon and its impact on energy consumption; Les deplacements motorises dans l`agglomeration bisontine et leurs consequences energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, G

    1996-12-31

    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and environmental burdens due to motor traffic in the city area of Besancon has been determined by statistics, counting and sample surveys. A computer model has been developed to simulate the impact of different elements and policy measures as the development of public transport systems, traffic regulation, limiting the accessibility of certain areas and car pooling. (C.B.) 101 refs.

  7. Simulating the potential for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) reduction by the application of environmentally friendly transportation (case study: Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, Isra; Turmuzi Lubis, Muhammad; Mawaddah, Nurul

    2018-03-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is one of the greenhouse gases. One source of greenhouse gases comes from the use of fossil fuels from the transport sector. The transportation sector is one of the dominant sectors in contributing to the greenhouse effect. This study aims to calculate the amount of CO2 from transportation activities by using mobile six equations in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City. A sampling of CO2 concentration was done using Carbon Dioxide Monitor with Non-Dispersive Infra Red (NDIR) Analyzer method. Also, a simulation of the reduction of the number of private vehicles to mass transportation such as BRT gas-fired. The results showed CO2 emissions calculations with mobile six ranged from 47.2 kg CO2 - 978.2 kg CO2. Meanwhile, measurements range from 3,004 ppm - 3,405 ppm. Implementation of the concept of environmentally friendly transportation such as BRT in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City will be able to reduce the average emissions load CO2 by 42.75% -78.80%. Based on the calculation simulation in this study is estimated the number of BRT required approximately 71 units.

  8. Sources and transport of Δ14C in CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Singh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1 relatively few samples (23% were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57±2‰ despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2 frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the "regional radiocarbon background" above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. Likely sources include the release of 14C-enhanced carbon from bomb 14C sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2 from other "hot" sources. Plausible perturbations from local point "hot" sources include the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns; medical waste incineration; and emissions from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. These observations provide insight into the use of Δ14CO2 to constrain fossil fuel emissions in the megacity environment, indicating that underestimation of the fossil fuel contribution to the CO2 flux is likely wherever biomass burning coexists with urban emissions and is unaccounted for as a source of the elevated CO2 observed above local background. Our findings increase the complexity required to quantify fossil fuel-derived CO2 in source-rich environments characteristic of megacities, and have implications for the use of Δ14CO2 observations in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories and their reliability as a tool for validating national emission claims of CO2 within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.

  9. Empowering individuals to make environmentally sustainable and healthy transportation choices in mega-cities through a smartphone app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    A paradox of industrialized society is the overreliance on unsustainable fossil fuel energy for transportation and insufficient use of sustainable : bodily energy for more physically active modes of transport. Different modes of transportation requir...

  10. Impact of transportation duration on stress responses in day-old chicks from young and old breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Buyse, Johan; Tuyttens, Frank Andre Maurice

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interaction effect of transportation duration and parental age on physiological stress responses and quality in day-old chicks. After hatch, 3240 chicks from either 29-week old (young) or 60-week old (old) broiler breeders were transported for 1.5h (short) or 11h (long). Thereafter, 228 chicks were assessed for quality and blood plasma was assayed for corticosterone (CORT), lactate, glucose, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, increased concentrations can indicate oxidative stress). No interaction effects of parental age and transportation duration were found (all P>0.10). Chicks from young breeders showed higher CORT levels (P=0.007) and were of higher quality (Tona method, Ptransportation, chicks showed increased CORT (Ptransportation. No evidence was provided that long transportation differently affected the quality or stress responses of chicks from breeder flocks of two ages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: 4, Transportation and the City, Grades 8, 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Barbara; And Others

    This instructional unit for grades eight and nine tells why and how American small towns declined as a result of the availability and acceptance of automobiles, and it tells of the growth of suburbs and their effect on the city. The learning activities also relate the story of the demand for cars and explain the drain on the cities' sense of…

  12. Ion transport in a human lens epithelial cell line exposed to hyposmotic and apoptotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimote, Ameet A; Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K

    2010-04-01

    Membrane transport changes in human lens epithelial (HLE-B3) cells under hyposmotic and apoptotic stress were compared. Cell potassium content, K(i), uptake of the K congener rubidium, Rb(i), and water content were measured after hyposmotic stress induced by hypotonicity, and apoptotic stress by the protein-kinase inhibitor staurosporine (STP). Cell water increased in hyposmotic (150 mOsm) as compared to isosmotic (300 mOsm) balanced salt solution (BSS) by >2-fold at 5 min and decreased within 15 min to baseline values accompanied by a 40% K(i) loss commensurate with cell swelling and subsequent cell shrinkage likely due to regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Loss of K(i), and accompanying water, and Rb(i) uptake in hyposmotic BSS were prevented by clotrimazole (CTZ) suggesting water shifts associated with K and Rb flux via intermediate conductance K (IK) channels, also detected at the mRNA and protein level. In contrast, 2 h after 2 microM STP exposure, the cells lost approximately 40% water and approximately 60% K(i), respectively, consistent with apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Indeed, water and K(i) loss was at least fivefold greater after hyposmotic than after apoptotic stress. High extracellular K and 2 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) but not CTZ significantly reduced apoptosis. Annexin labeling phosphatidylserine (PS) at 15 min suggested loss of lipid asymmetry. Quantitative PCR revealed significant IK channel expression during prolonged hyposmotic stress. Results suggest in HLE-B3 cells, IK channels likely partook in and were down regulated after RVD, whereas pro-apoptotic STP-activation of 4-AP-sensitive voltage-gated K channels preceded or accompanied PS externalization before subsequent apoptosis. J. Cell. Physiol. 223: 110-122, 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Polyamines control of cation transport across plant membranes: implications for ion homeostasis and abiotic stress signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are unique polycationic metabolites, controlling a variety of vital functions in plants, including growth and stress responses. Over the last two decades a bulk of data was accumulated providing explicit evidence that polyamines play an essential role in regulating plant membrane transport. The most straightforward example is a blockage of the two major vacuolar cation channels, namely slow (SV) and fast (FV) activating ones, by the micromolar concentrations of polyamines. This effect is direct and fully reversible, with a potency descending in a sequence Spm(4+) > Spd(3+) > Put(2+). On the contrary, effects of polyamines on the plasma membrane (PM) cation and K(+)-selective channels are hardly dependent on polyamine species, display a relatively low affinity, and are likely to be indirect. Polyamines also affect vacuolar and PM H(+) pumps and Ca(2+) pump of the PM. On the other hand, catabolization of polyamines generates H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radicals. Export of polyamines to the apoplast and their oxidation there by available amine oxidases results in the induction of a novel ion conductance and confers Ca(2+) influx across the PM. This mechanism, initially established for plant responses to pathogen attack (including a hypersensitive response), has been recently shown to mediate plant responses to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this review we summarize the effects of polyamines and their catabolites on cation transport in plants and discuss the implications of these effects for ion homeostasis, signaling, and plant adaptive responses to environment.

  14. Low-stress mounting configuration design for large aperture laser transport mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Quan, Xusong; Yao, Chao; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    TM1-6S1 large aperture laser transport mirror is a crucial optical unit of high power solid-state laser in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facility. This article focuses on the low-stress and precise mounting method of large-aperture mirror. Based on the engineering practice of SG-III, the state-of-the-art and key problems of current mounting configuration are clarified firstly. Subsequently, a brand new low-stress mounting configuration with flexure supports is proposed. Opto-mechanical model of the mirror under mounting force is built up with elastic mechanics theory. Further, numerical methods and field tests are employed to verify the favorable load uniform capacity and load adjust capacity of flexure supports. With FEM, the relation between the mounting force from new configuration and the mirror surface distortion (wavefront error) is clarified. The novel mounting method of large aperture optics could be not only used on this laser transport mirror, but also on the other transmission optics and large crystals in ICF facilities.

  15. Anisotropy effect of the clay soil masses on the stress-strain state of transport tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Boris Semenovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the kinds of clay soil mass anisotropy in the form of the spatial heterogeneity of properties of thawed and frozen soils, ambiguity of the frost heaving values and shrinkage in different directions. The questions of anisotropy of the clay soil properties at the positive temperatures are reported. The dependence of the heterogeneity of the physical and mechanical properties of frozen soils from the cryogenic texture, natural arrangement, different types of stratification and interbedding is considered. Indexes of the strength and strain anisotropy are noted. The accounting possibilities of the basic numerical indexes of heaving phenomena from the standpoint of anisotropy of the properties and processes inherent in the freezing through soil are analyzed by substitution in the heaving strain formula. The unevenness of thawed soil shrinkage in vertical and horizontal directions is noted during the freezing of the top layer. The unevenness of shrinkage in different directions is connected with kind of stress and cryogenic texture. Anisotropy of the frost heaving process is considered in the context of one-dimensional and non-one-dimensional problem depending on the amount of the freezing fronts and their direction. There is summarized the effect of anisotropy appearances on the stress-strain state of the transport tunnel. One can conclude that the resulting non-uniformity of heaving and shrinkage in conjunction with anisotropic properties of frozen soils, is a significant component in the complex of power factors determining the optimal design solution of a transport tunnel.

  16. Effect of heat stress on protein utilization and nutrient transporters in meat-type chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, Walid S.; Milfort, Marie C.; Fuller, Alberta L.; Attia, Youssef A.; Rekaya, Romdhane; Aggrey, Samuel E.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat stress (HS) on digestibility of protein and fat and the expression of nutrient transporters in broilers. Forty-eight male Cobb500 chicks were used in this study. At day 14, birds were randomly divided into two groups and kept under either constant normal temperature (25 °C) or high temperature (35 °C) in individual cages. Five birds per treatment at 1 and 12 days post-treatment were euthanized, and Pectoralis major ( P. major) and ileum were sampled for gene expression analysis. At day 33, ileal contents were collected and used for digestibility analysis. The total consumption and retention of protein and fat were significantly lower in the HS group compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the retention of crude protein per BWG was significantly higher in the HS group compared to the control group. In P. major and ileum tissues at day 1, transporters FATP1 and SGLT1 were down-regulated in the HS group. Meanwhile, FABP1 and PepT1 were down-regulated only in the ileum of the HS group. The converse was shown in P. major. The nutrient transporter FABP1 at day 12 post-HS was down-regulated in the P. major and ileum, but GLUT1 and PepT2 were down-regulated only in the ileum, and PepT1 was down-regulated only in the P. major compared with the control group. These changes in nutrient transporters suggest that high ambient temperature might change the ileum and P. major lipids, glucose, and oligopeptide transporters.

  17. The Effect of Lupin (Lupinus Angustifolius Supplementation on Adaptation of Ewes after Short Transport Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopková D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle transportation represents acute stress to animals with release of catecholamines and glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland resulting in impaired metabolic state. Such changes in metabolism may be reduced by the application of suitable feed supplement. The aim of this study was to test the effects of lupin supplementation applied after 1-hour transportation. Ewes in the control group (n = 7 were fed on trefoil-grass silage and hay, while the diet of the experimental group (n = 7 was supplemented with lupin groats (Lupinus angustifolius, var. SONET; 500 g per head per day for 8 days. In both groups, blood was collected on the day of transportation and on Days 6 and 11 thereafter. Total blood parameters were assayed using spectrophotometry and fractions of protein, cholesterol, and lactate dehydrogenase using agarose electrophoresis. Lupin increased the albumin: globulin (ALB : GLB ratio and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB concentration and reduced serum cholesterol and lactate, however it had no effect on body weight, body condition score (BCS, plasma glucose, serum protein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or alkaline phosphatise (ALP. Lupin may therefore be used as suitable feed supplement for sheep at times of high nutrient requirement.

  18. Response to Dietary Supplementation of Glutamine in Broiler Chickens Subjected to Transportation Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine effects of glutamine supplementation on performance and blood parameters including Hsp70 and acute phase protein when chicken were subjected to transportation stress. A total of four hundred day-old-male cobb-500 chicks were obtained directly from a local hatchery. The chicks were allotted to two groups as: immediate placement (1 hour after hatching with access to feed and water and placement after 24h transportation without access to feed and water. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of 2 different diets and 2 different time of placement. Chicks from each placement group were fed either basal diet or basal diet + 1% glutamine from 1 to 21 days of age. The results indicated that dietary glutamine improved the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly when chicks were subjected to delayed or immediate placement. In conclusion, supplementing chicken with glutamine in diet can reduce negative effects of delayed access to feed and water during transportation. Moreover, APP concentration and HSP70 level were positively affected when chicks supplemented with glutamine in the diet.

  19. Regulation of taurine transport at the blood-placental barrier by calcium ion, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Na-Young

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, we investigated the changes of uptake and efflux transport of taurine under various stress conditions using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT cells, as in vitro blood-placental barrier (BPB model. Methods The transport of taurine in TR-TBT cells were characterized by cellular uptake study using radiolabeled taurine. The efflux of taurine was measured from the amount of radiolabeled taurine remaining in the cells after the uptake of radiolabeled taurine for 60 min. Results Taurine uptake was significantly decreased by phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC activator in TR-TBT cells. Also, calcium ion (Ca2+ was involved in taurine transport in TR-TBT cells. Taurine uptake was inhibited and efflux was enhanced under calcium free conditions in the cells. In addition, oxidative stress induced the change of taurine transport in TR-TBT cells, but the changes were different depending on the types of oxidative stress inducing agents. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and diethyl maleate (DEM significantly increased taurine uptake, but H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO donor decreased taurine uptake in the cells. Taurine efflux was down-regulated by TNF-α in TR-TBT cells. Conclusion Taurine transport in TR-TBT cells were regulated diversely at extracellular Ca2+ level, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions. It suggested that variable stresses affected the taurine supplies from maternal blood to fetus and taurine level of fetus.

  20. [Relationship between domestic violence and posttraumatic stress disorder among women living in the communities of Wuhan city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L L; Chang, X N; Yang, S B; Du, Y K; Shen, M

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence of domestic violence and the correlation between domestic violence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) so as to improve the mental health status of women in Wuhan city of China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the community health service center in Wuhan. Participants were women who came to the center for gynecological examination. Data on general condition, social support, injury, epidemiological characteristics of domestic violence and PTSD were gathered. Chi -square, student- t and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were employed to compare the distribution of each characteristic variable between PTSD and non-PTSD group. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between domestic violence and PTSD. Results: A total of 1 015 women were effectively surveyed. The life-time incidence rates of events related to domestic, psychological, physical and sexual violence were 29.36%, 28.28%, 6.60% and 3.55%, respectively. The overall prevalence rate of PTSD was 4.73%. Women who suffered from domestic violence had higher risk of PTSD ( OR =2.11, 95 %CI : 1.04-4.29) than those who never experiencing domestic violence. Women who suffered from psychological or physical violence were 5.06 times more likely to suffer from PTSD ( OR =5.06, 95 % CI : 1.91-13.42). Conclusion: A strong correlation between domestic violence and PTSD was seen. Victims who suffered from domestic violence should be provided with psychological counseling to reduce the risk of PTSD.

  1. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2017-05-01

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Challenges related to the management of energy and transportation infrastructures within the context of future eco cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Laurent; Culver, Keith; Gaudin, Etienne; Sun, David

    2010-09-15

    The 100 years from 1950 to 2050 will be remembered for the greatest social, cultural, economic and environmental transformation in history - the urbanization of humanity. With half of us now occupying urban space, the future of the human species is tied to the city - Anna Tibaijuka, Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director UN-HABITAT, in remarks at the third session of the World Urban Forum in Vancouver, Canada, in 2006. The urbanization of humanity is both a fact and a challenge. 3.5 billion people live in cities now, and 6 billion people will live in cities by 2050.

  3. Conserved ABC Transport System Regulated by the General Stress Response Pathways of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrou, Julien; Willett, Jonathan W.; Czy; #380; , Daniel M.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Kim, Youngchang; Crosson, Sean (UC)

    2016-12-19

    ABSTRACT

    Brucella abortusσE1is an EcfG family sigma factor that regulates the transcription of dozens of genes in response to diverse stress conditions and is required for maintenance of chronic infection in a mouse model. A putative ATP-binding cassette transporter operon,bab1_0223-bab1_0226, is among the most highly activated gene sets in the σE1regulon. The proteins encoded by the operon resemble quaternary ammonium-compatible solute importers but are most similar in sequence to the broadly conserved YehZYXW system, which remains largely uncharacterized. Transcription ofyehZYXWis activated by the general stress sigma factor σSinEnterobacteriaceae, which suggests a functional role for this transport system in bacterial stress response across the classesAlphaproteobacteriaandGammaproteobacteria. We present evidence thatB. abortusYehZYXW does not function as an importer of known compatible solutes under physiological conditions and does not contribute to the virulence defect of a σE1-null strain. The solein vitrophenotype associated with genetic disruption of this putative transport system is reduced growth in the presence of high Li+ion concentrations. A crystal structure ofB. abortusYehZ revealed a class II periplasmic binding protein fold with significant structural homology toArchaeoglobus fulgidusProX, which binds glycine betaine. However, the structure

  4. Heat in the city. An inventory of knowledge and knowledge deficiencies regarding heat stress in Dutch cities and options for its mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo Rahola, B.; Mulder, K. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Van Oppen, P. [Stichting Bouwresearch SBR, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-03-15

    This report gives an overview of heat stress problems in urban areas of the Netherlands and various options for mitigating this stress. Climate change is causing more occurrences of heat waves. Urban areas in particular will suffer the most, as they are warmer than the countryside. What is known about the magnitude of heat stress in Dutch urban areas? What are the consequences? What research is needed to clarify its effects? Which options in particular could do with further study in order to prevent fatalities, maintain comfort levels and avoid increases in energy consumption for summer cooling? This report aims at identifying: the foreseeable problems of urban heat in the Netherlands; the specifics (geographic, cultural, economic, technological) that apply to the Netherlands; the most promising options for mitigating urban heat; and the priorities for further research.

  5. Relationship between psychological well-being and perceptions of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bengaluru city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anushri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dental profession has been considered a stressful occupation. The origins of this stress may also lie in the process of dental education. The perception of stress is frequently influenced by one′s personal system of beliefs and attitudes. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between psychological well-being and perception of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 800 1-4 th year dental students. Information on demographics, social background, and health behaviors were collected. The psychological general well-being (PGWB index and the dental environment stress (DES questionnaire were used to measure PGWB and perceptions of stress, respectively. Multiple intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. Correlation analysis was done to find out relationship between PGWB and DES. Regression analysis to find out the strongest predictor of PGWB. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in PGWB among different year of study. Female students had significantly lower PGWB scores and higher DES scores than male students. The stress differed among different year of study with highest stress in final year students in all domains except for clinical/preclinical training, which was highest among 1 st year students. Correlational analysis showed a negative relationship between PGWB and DES score. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that "workload," "patient treatment," "performance pressure" and "others" domains of stress were significant predictors of PGWB. Conclusion: This study revealed that the perception of stress is influenced by gender and health behaviors which in turn affect PGWB.

  6. Porous media fluid flow, heat, and mass transport model with rock stress coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runchal, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the physical and mathematical basis of a general purpose porous media flow model, GWTHERM. The mathematical basis of the model is obtained from the coupled set of the classical governing equations for the mass, momentum and energy balance. These equations are embodied in a computational model which is then coupled externally to a linearly elastic rock-stress model. This coupling is rather exploratory and based upon empirical correlations. The coupled model is able to take account of time-dependent, inhomogeneous and anisotropic features of the hydrogeologic, thermal and transport phenomena. A number of applications of the model have been made. Illustrations from the application of the model to nuclear waste repositories are included

  7. Effects of farm management practices and transport duration on stress response and meat quality traits of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, M J; Suárez, M D; Rodero, E; Álvarez, R; Sáez, M I; Martínez, T F

    2017-09-01

    Studies aimed to assess up to what extent farming and transport previous to slaughtering might affect physiology and meat quality in young goat kids are needed, with the ultimate purpose of promoting practices that minimize stress in these animals. In this regard the effects of on-farm management and transport duration on some physiological responses and meat quality parameters in goat kids were assessed. Two farms representing 'high' and 'low' welfare-friendly management practices were selected. In total, 32 suckling kids were withdrawn from each farm, transported by road for 2 or 6 h, and then slaughtered. Blood samples were collected both on-farm and in the slaughterhouse, and biochemistry, cell counts and haematocrit were determined. After slaughtering, carcass quality parameters were measured. Longissimus dorsi muscle was dissected and pH, colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force were measured throughout 8-day ageing period. Results indicate that, regardless its duration, transport caused significant effects on some blood parameters suggesting stress in live animals, like glucose, cortisol or creatine kinase. Despite the marked stress status in animals, this condition was not decisively reflected on L. dorsi quality parameters, but some effects were observed regarding fat cover in carcasses and colour parameters. The results suggest that postmortem changes throughout ageing were more decisive in terms of meat quality than stressful management either on-farm or during transport.

  8. Meso-scale on-road vehicle emission inventory approach: a study on Dhaka City of Bangladesh supporting the 'cause-effect' analysis of the transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Zito, Rocco

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to develop an emission inventory (EI) approach and conduct an inventory for vehicular sources in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A meso-scale modelling approach was adopted for the inventory; the factors that influence the emissions and the magnitude of emission variation were identified and reported on, which was an innovative approach to account emissions unlike the conventional inventory approaches. Two techniques for the emission inventory were applied, viz. (i) a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that considered the total vehicle population and the average diurnal on-road vehicle speed profile in the city and (ii) a bottom-up approach that accounted for road link-specific emissions of the city considering diurnal traffic volume and speed profiles of the respective roads. For the bottom-up approach, road link-specific detailed data were obtained through field survey in 2012, where mid-block traffic count of the day, vehicle speed profile, road network and congestion data were collected principally. The emission variances for the change in transport system characteristics (like change in fuel type, AC usage pattern, increased speed and reduced congestion/stopping) were predicted and analysed in this study; congestion influenced average speed of the vehicles, and fuel types in the vehicles were identified as the major stressors. The study performance was considered reasonable when comparing with the limited number of similar studies conducted earlier. Given the increasing trend of private vehicles each year coupled with increasing traffic congestion, the city is under threat of increased vehicular emissions unless a good management strategy is implemented. Although the inventory is conducted for Dhaka and the result may be important locally, the approach adopted in this research is innovative in nature to be followed for conducting research on other urban transport systems.

  9. Phenomena of the ionic transport in the stress corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravano, S.M.

    1986-07-01

    For the study of electrochemical conditions of propagation, a model which calculates the concentrations and potential profiles inside cracks or localized corrosion cavities, was developed. Considering transport by difussion and migration it was applied to pure metals (Zn, Fe) in solutions where pitting occurs (NaCl or Na2SO4, with borate buffer), and also extended to systems where stress corrosion cracking is present, such as Cu and yellow brass in NaNO2. Physical bases of the 'constant intermediate elongation rate technique' to predict stress corrosion cracking susceptibility was analized, studying by mathematical models: 1) dissolution current, that should be the result of superposition of repassivation transients on the fresh metal, exposed to corrosive medium by strain, with the same rate of that of a static specimen; 2) ohmic drop, that in some systems could be quite important and it must be considered in the overpotential evaluation; and 3) metallic ion concentration that, instead of what happens in a crack, never attains saturation in the analized cases. For repassivation transient according to the crak propagation models proposed by Scully and Ford it was found that, at the tip of the crack, it is unlikely that the same repassivation transients occur as in the constant intermediate elongation rate experiments. (M.E.L.)

  10. Work ability and stress in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Coelho, Cecília Martins; Barbosa, Fábio Bonfim; Mancini, Marisa Cotta; Parreira, Verônica Franco

    2009-01-01

    Demographic, occupational and psychosocial characteristics affect the health and occupational performance of workers. The objective of the present study was to elaborate a profile of the work ability and factors that affect it in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The instruments used included a socio-demographic and occupational questionnaire, the Work Ability Index and the Job Stress Scale. Demographic information revealed that 85.7% of the 126 employees of the company were active workers, 98% were males, with an average of 39 years of age (SD= 10) and 79 months working in the company (SD= 68); more than half reported having a low schooling level. In terms of personal habits, 88% were exposed to one or more risk factors, especially a sedentary lifestyle. The average strain value (as a consequence of stress) was 0.78 (SD= 0.2) and 75.3% reported episodes of violence at the workplace. The work ability was good to excellent among 89% of the workers. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that strain was the only significant variable in relation to the Work Ability Index, (estimated odds ratio of 0.02). The results suggest that psychosocial factors presented the greatest association with work ability, and preventive and/or corrective measures should be implemented.

  11. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  12. Involvement of Potassium Transport Systems in the Response of Synechocystis PCC 6803 Cyanobacteria to External pH Change, High-Intensity Light Stress and Heavy Metal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchetto, Vanessa; Segalla, Anna; Sato, Yuki; Bergantino, Elisabetta; Szabo, Ildiko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    The unicellular photosynthetic cyanobacterium, able to survive in varying environments, is the only prokaryote that directly converts solar energy and CO2 into organic material and is thus relevant for primary production in many ecosystems. To maintain the intracellular and intrathylakoid ion homeostasis upon different environmental challenges, the concentration of potassium as a major intracellular cation has to be optimized by various K(+)uptake-mediated transport systems. We reveal here the specific and concerted physiological function of three K(+)transporters of the plasma and thylakoid membranes, namely of SynK (K(+)channel), KtrB (Ktr/Trk/HKT) and KdpA (Kdp) in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, under specific stress conditions. The behavior of the wild type, single, double and triple mutants was compared, revealing that only Synk contributes to heavy metal-induced stress, while only Ktr/Kdp is involved in osmotic and salt stress adaptation. With regards to pH shifts in the external medium, the Kdp/Ktr uptake systems play an important role in the adaptation to acidic pH. Ktr, by affecting the CO2 concentration mechanism via its action on the bicarbonate transporter SbtA, might also be responsible for the observed effects concerning high-light stress and calcification. In the case of illumination with high-intensity light, a synergistic action of Kdr/Ktp and SynK is required in order to avoid oxidative stress and ensure cell viability. In summary, this study dissects, using growth tests, measurement of photosynthetic activity and analysis of ultrastructure, the physiological role of three K(+)transporters in adaptation of the cyanobacteria to various environmental changes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cortisol responses to chronic stress in adult macaques: moderation by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shangchuan; Yang, Lichuan; Fan, Xiaona; Lü, Longbao; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xintian

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the association between stress and depressive symptoms. However, the exact etiologies underlying this moderation are not well understood. Here it is reported that among adult female rhesus macaques, an orthologous polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) exerted an influence on cortisol responses to chronic stress. It was found that females with two copies of the short allele were associated with increased cortisol responses to chronic stress in comparison to their counterparts who have one or two copies of the long allele. In the absence of stress, no differences related to genotype were observed in these females. This genetic moderation was found without a genetic influence on exposure to stressful situations. Rather it was found to be a genetic modulation of cortisol responses to chronic stress. These findings indicate that the rh5-HTTLPR polymorphism is closely related to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, which may increase susceptibility to depression in females with low serotonin transporter efficiency and a history of stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transport stress induces heart damage in newly hatched chicks via blocking the cytoprotective heat shock response and augmenting nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F; Zuo, Y-Z; Ge, J; Xia, J; Li, X-N; Lin, J; Zhang, C; Xu, H-L; Li, J-L

    2018-04-20

    Transport stress affects the animal's metabolism and psychological state. As a pro-survival pathway, the heat shock response (HSR) protects healthy cells from stressors. However, it is unclear whether the HSR plays a role in transport stress-induced heart damage. To evaluate the effects of transport stress on heart damage and HSR protection, newly hatched chicks were treated with transport stress for 2 h, 4 h and 8 h. Transport stress caused decreases in body weight and increases in serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, nitric oxide (NO) content in heart tissue, cardiac nitric oxide syntheses (NOS) activity and NOS isoforms transcription. The mRNA expression of heat shock factors (HSFs, including HSF1-3) and heat shock proteins (HSPs, including HSP25, HSP40, HSP47, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90 and HSP110) in the heart of 2 h transport-treated chicks was upregulated. After 8 h of transport stress in chicks, the transcription levels of the same HSPs and HSF2 were reduced in the heart. It was also found that the changes in the HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels had similar tendencies. These results suggested that transport stress augmented NO generation through enhancing the activity of NOS and the transcription of NOS isoforms. Therefore, this study provides new evidence that transport stress induces heart damage in the newly hatched chicks by blocking the cytoprotective HSR and augmenting NO production.

  15. Reliability and Validity study of the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ among Firefighters in Tehran city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kazronian

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Considering that Validity and Reliability factors of the questionnaire were be appropriate, it can be recommended that NIOSH Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ can be used as a Valid and Reliable questionnaire for job stress evaluation in Iran.

  16. Association of stressful life events with acute myocardial infarction in population in the city of Niš within the period from 1998-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin Zorana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stressful life events present a very important category of psychosocial stress. A few studies have showed that a psychosocial stress represents a very important risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, but measures of stress may not be suitable for different countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of stressful life events with AMI in the period of 1998-2000 in the population of the city of Niš. Methods. A case-control study included 100 patients with the first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 healthy subjects, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the city of Niš. The data of stressful life events were obtained by the Scaling of life events by Paykel ES, modified by the authors consistent with the examined population and the period of investigation. The Yates χ2 test, odds ratio - OR and their 99% interval of confidence were used as statistical procedures. Results. The results showed that stressful life events in the period of investigation were very important risk factors for AMI with a statistically significant level (p = 0.000. Huge financial problems (OR = 202.36, Ci = 24.82-4387.58, violation of law (OR = 168.00, Ci = 10.66-6658.96 and serious illness of family members (OR = 159.60, Ci = 19.05- 3514.81 were the highest risk for AMI. The patients who reported that his/her son or other member of family had been gone to the army (or mobilization before the illness onset, had 138 times higher risk of AMI (Ci = 14.98-3222.47, χ2 = 40.95, p = 0.000, while the patients who had mobilized themselves had 84 times higher risk (Ci = 7.00- 2363.06, χ2 = 23.87, p = 0.000. Effect of several stressful life events lead to significantly increased risk of AMI and that significance is larger as the number of life events is more frequent (one life event: OR = 28.41, Ci = 3.73- 593.52; χ2 = 17.40, p = 0.000; ≥ 4: OR = 336.00, Ci = 28.31- 9760.28, χ2 = 50

  17. A study of effects of hyperthermia on large, short-haired male dogs : a simulated air transport environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    When dogs are shipped by air transport, they can encounter environmental temperatures as high as 130.0 F during the summer months. Heat- induced hyperthermia can be a major problem in dogs. : To assess some aspects of the heat stress problem, 20 dogs...

  18. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  19. Solving "Smart City" Transport Problems by Designing Carpooling Gamification Schemes with Multi-Agent Systems: The Case of the So-Called "Mordor of Warsaw".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Robert; Pałka, Piotr; Turek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-06

    To reduce energy consumption and improve residents' quality of life, "smart cities" should use not only modern technologies, but also the social innovations of the "Internet of Things" (IoT) era. This article attempts to solve transport problems in a smart city's office district by utilizing gamification that incentivizes the carpooling system. The goal of the devised system is to significantly reduce the number of cars, and, consequently, to alleviate traffic jams, as well as to curb pollution and energy consumption. A representative sample of the statistical population of people working in one of the biggest office hubs in Poland (the so-called "Mordor of Warsaw") was surveyed. The collected data were processed using spatial data mining methods, and the results were a set of parameters for the multi-agent system. This approach made it possible to run a series of simulations on a set of 100,000 agents and to select an effective gamification methodology that supports the carpooling process. The implementation of the proposed solutions (a "serious game" variation of urban games) would help to reduce the number of cars by several dozen percent, significantly reduce energy consumption, eliminate traffic jams, and increase the activity of the smart city residents.

  20. Who is that masked person: the use of face masks on Mexico City public transportation during the Influenza A (H1N1) outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Bradly John; Sinha, Tapen

    2010-04-01

    This article examines three issues: (1) the use, over time, of facemasks in a public setting to prevent the spread of a respiratory disease for which the mortality rate is unknown; (2) the difference between the responses of male and female subjects in a public setting to unknown risks; and (3) the effectiveness of mandatory and voluntary public health measures in a public health emergency. The use of facemasks to prevent the spread of respiratory diseases in a public setting is controversial. At the height of the influenza epidemic in Mexico City in the spring of 2009, the federal government of Mexico recommended that passengers on public transport use facemasks to prevent contagion. The Mexico City government made the use of facemasks mandatory for bus and taxi drivers, but enforcement procedures differed for these two categories. Using an evidence-based approach, we collected data on the use of facemasks over a 2-week period. In the specific context of the Mexico City influenza outbreak, these data showed mask usage rates mimicked the course of the epidemic and gender difference in compliance rates among metro passengers. Moreover, there was not a significant difference in compliance with mandatory and voluntary public health measures where the effect of the mandatory measures was diminished by insufficiently severe penalties, the lack of market forces to create compliance incentives and sufficient political influence to diminish enforcement. Voluntary compliance was diminished by lack of trust in the government. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of wheat root plasma membrane vesicles and effect of water stress on 45Ca2+ transport activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jinyin; Gao Junfeng; Cao Cuiling

    1998-01-01

    The wheat roots plasma membrane (PM) vesicles were obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The experiment results shows that the wheat roots of Zhengyin No.1 PM H + -ATPase latent activity was 24%, and PM inside-out vesicle (IOV) accounts for 76%. With -1.0 MPa stress of 24h, PM Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of both orientation wheat roots were increased. Under normal water condition and PEG stress, 62% and 53% of the enzyme activity was inhibited respectively by EGTA, radioactive calcium-45 transport amount was 22.09 nmol/mg pro and 4.17 nmol/mg pro. respectively with PM-IOV.PEG stress results in a decrease of 45 Ca 2+ transport amount of wheat roots PM-IOV by 81%

  2. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillgren Per

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace violence (WPV is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique. Methods The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded

  3. Effects of air transportation cause physiological and biochemical changes indicative of stress leading to regulation of chaperone expression levels and corticosterone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, SunBo; Lee, SeHyun; Kim, ChuelKyu; Kim, ByoungGuk; Jee, SeungWan; Lee, SuHae; Sin, JiSoon; Bae, ChangJoon; Woo, Jong-Min; Cho, JungSik; Lee, EonPil; Choi, HaeWook; Kim, HongSung; Lee, JaeHo; Jung, YoungJin; Cho, ByungWook; Chae, KabRyong; Hwang, DaeYoun

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory animals generally experience numerous unfamiliar environmental and psychological influences such as noises, temperatures, handling, shaking, and smells during the process of air transportation. To investigate whether stress induced by air transportation affects stress-related factors in animals, the levels of hormone and chaperone protein were measured in several tissues of F344 rats transported for 13 h and not transported. Herein, we conclude that the levels of corticosterone, HSP70, and GRP78 were significantly increased in the transported group compare to not transported group, but they were rapidly restored to the not transported group level after a recovery period of one week. However, the magnitude of induction and restoration levels of these factors varied depending on the tissue type. Thus, these results suggest that air transportation should be considered for the improvement of laboratory animal health and to reduce the incidence of laboratory animal stress.

  4. Chaski, a novel Drosophila lactate/pyruvate transporter required in glia cells for survival under nutritional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María Graciela; Oliva, Carlos; López, Estefanía; Ibacache, Andrés; Galaz, Alex; Delgado, Ricardo; Barros, L Felipe; Sierralta, Jimena

    2018-01-19

    The intercellular transport of lactate is crucial for the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS), a model of brain energetics according to which neurons are fueled by astrocytic lactate. In this study we show that the Drosophila chaski gene encodes a monocarboxylate transporter protein (MCT/SLC16A) which functions as a lactate/pyruvate transporter, as demonstrated by heterologous expression in mammalian cell culture using a genetically encoded FRET nanosensor. chaski expression is prominent in the Drosophila central nervous system and it is particularly enriched in glia over neurons. chaski mutants exhibit defects in a high energy demanding process such as synaptic transmission, as well as in locomotion and survival under nutritional stress. Remarkably, locomotion and survival under nutritional stress defects are restored by chaski expression in glia cells. Our findings are consistent with a major role for intercellular lactate shuttling in the brain metabolism of Drosophila.

  5. Trk2 Potassium Transport System in Streptococcus mutans and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis, Biofilm Formation, and Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binepal, Gursonika; Gill, Kamal; Crowley, Paula; Cordova, Martha; Brady, L. Jeannine; Senadheera, Dilani B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in the fluids of dental biofilm. The biochemical and biophysical functions of K+ and a variety of K+ transport systems have been studied for most pathogenic bacteria but not for oral pathogens. In this study, we establish the modes of K+ acquisition in Streptococcus mutans and the importance of K+ homeostasis for its virulence attributes. The S. mutans genome harbors four putative K+ transport systems that included two Trk-like transporters (designated Trk1 and Trk2), one glutamate/K+ cotransporter (GlnQHMP), and a channel-like K+ transport system (Kch). Mutants lacking Trk2 had significantly impaired growth, acidogenicity, aciduricity, and biofilm formation. [K+] less than 5 mM eliminated biofilm formation in S. mutans. The functionality of the Trk2 system was confirmed by complementing an Escherichia coli TK2420 mutant strain, which resulted in significant K+ accumulation, improved growth, and survival under stress. Taken together, these results suggest that Trk2 is the main facet of the K+-dependent cellular response of S. mutans to environment stresses. IMPORTANCE Biofilm formation and stress tolerance are important virulence properties of caries-causing Streptococcus mutans. To limit these properties of this bacterium, it is imperative to understand its survival mechanisms. Potassium is the most abundant cation in dental plaque, the natural environment of S. mutans. K+ is known to function in stress tolerance, and bacteria have specialized mechanisms for its uptake. However, there are no reports to identify or characterize specific K+ transporters in S. mutans. We identified the most important system for K+ homeostasis and its role in the biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and growth. We also show the requirement of environmental K+ for the activity of biofilm-forming enzymes, which explains why such high levels of K+ would favor biofilm formation. PMID:26811321

  6. Effects of a single preappointment dose of gabapentin on signs of stress in cats during transportation and veterinary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, Karen A; Forsythe, Lauren R Eichstadt; Stelow, Elizabeth A; Bain, Melissa J

    2017-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of oral gabapentin administration prior to veterinary examination on signs of stress in cats. DESIGN Randomized, blinded, crossover clinical trial. ANIMALS 20 healthy pet cats with a history of fractious behavior or signs of stress during veterinary examination. PROCEDURES Cats were scheduled for 2 veterinary visits 1 week apart and randomly assigned to receive a capsule containing 100 mg of gabapentin (13.0 to 29.4 mg/kg [5.9 to 13.4 mg/lb]) or placebo (lactose powder) prior to the first visit and the opposite treatment prior to the second visit. Owners were instructed to administer the assigned capsule orally 90 minutes prior to placing the cat into a carrier and transporting it to the veterinary hospital. Standardized physical examinations and blood pressure readings were performed. Owners assigned a cat stress score during transportation and examination, and the veterinarian assigned a compliance score at the visit. Scores were compared between treatments, controlling for various factors. RESULTS Owner-assessed cat stress scores during transportation and veterinary examination and veterinarian-assessed compliance scores were significantly lower when cats received gabapentin than when they received the placebo. Sedation was a common effect of gabapentin administration, and ataxia, hypersalivation, and vomiting were also reported. All effects resolved within 8 hours after gabapentin administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Owners' perception of stress in their cats is a primary reason for failing to seek veterinary care. Results of this study suggested that gabapentin is a safe and effective treatment for cats to help reduce stress and aggression and increase compliance for transportation and veterinary examination.

  7. Urban city transportation mode and respiratory health effect of air pollution: a cross-sectional study among transit and non-transit workers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Chris E; Ettebong, E O; Akpan, E E; Samson, T K; Daniel, Nyebuk E

    2012-01-01

    To assess the respiratory health effect of city ambient air pollutants on transit and non-transit workers and compare such effects by transportation mode, occupational exposure and sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Cross-sectional, randomised survey. A two primary healthcare centre survey in 2009/2010 in Uyo metropolis, South-South Nigeria. Of the 245 male participants recruited, 168 (50 taxi drivers, 60 motorcyclists and 58 civil servants) met the inclusion criteria. These include age 18-35 years, a male transit worker or civil servant who had worked within Uyo metropolis for at least a year prior to the study, and had no history of respiratory disorders/impairment or any other debilitating illness. The adjusted ORs for respiratory function impairment (force vital capacity (FVC) and/or FEV(1)air pollution by occupation and transportation mode was independently associated with respiratory functions impairment and incident respiratory symptoms among participants. Motorcyclists had the highest effect, with adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.402 to 16.207 for FVCair pollution on city transit workers globally. The role of other confounders acting synergistically to cause a more deleterious effect is obvious. In all, the effect depends on the mode and duration of exposure.

  8. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  9. Salt Stress in Thellungiella halophila Activates Na+ Transport Mechanisms Required for Salinity Tolerance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; García-Ramírez, Liliana; Pantoja, Omar

    2005-01-01

    Salinity is considered one of the major limiting factors for plant growth and agricultural productivity. We are using salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) to identify biochemical mechanisms that enable plants to grow in saline conditions. Under salt stress, the major site of Na+ accumulation occurred in old leaves, followed by young leaves and taproots, with the least accumulation occurring in lateral roots. Salt treatment increased both the H+ transport and hydrolytic activity of salt cress tonoplast (TP) and plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases from leaves and roots. TP Na+/H+ exchange was greatly stimulated by growth of the plants in NaCl, both in leaves and roots. Expression of the PM H+-ATPase isoform AHA3, the Na+ transporter HKT1, and the Na+/H+ exchanger SOS1 were examined in PMs isolated from control and salt-treated salt cress roots and leaves. An increased expression of SOS1, but no changes in levels of AHA3 and HKT1, was observed. NHX1 was only detected in PM fractions of roots, and a salt-induced increase in protein expression was observed. Analysis of the levels of expression of vacuolar H+-translocating ATPase subunits showed no major changes in protein expression of subunits VHA-A or VHA-B with salt treatment; however, VHA-E showed an increased expression in leaf tissue, but not in roots, when the plants were treated with NaCl. Salt cress plants were able to distribute and store Na+ by a very strict control of ion movement across both the TP and PM. PMID:16244148

  10. Salt stress in Thellungiella halophila activates Na+ transport mechanisms required for salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; García-Ramírez, Liliana; Pantoja, Omar

    2005-11-01

    Salinity is considered one of the major limiting factors for plant growth and agricultural productivity. We are using salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) to identify biochemical mechanisms that enable plants to grow in saline conditions. Under salt stress, the major site of Na+ accumulation occurred in old leaves, followed by young leaves and taproots, with the least accumulation occurring in lateral roots. Salt treatment increased both the H+ transport and hydrolytic activity of salt cress tonoplast (TP) and plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases from leaves and roots. TP Na(+)/H+ exchange was greatly stimulated by growth of the plants in NaCl, both in leaves and roots. Expression of the PM H(+)-ATPase isoform AHA3, the Na+ transporter HKT1, and the Na(+)/H+ exchanger SOS1 were examined in PMs isolated from control and salt-treated salt cress roots and leaves. An increased expression of SOS1, but no changes in levels of AHA3 and HKT1, was observed. NHX1 was only detected in PM fractions of roots, and a salt-induced increase in protein expression was observed. Analysis of the levels of expression of vacuolar H(+)-translocating ATPase subunits showed no major changes in protein expression of subunits VHA-A or VHA-B with salt treatment; however, VHA-E showed an increased expression in leaf tissue, but not in roots, when the plants were treated with NaCl. Salt cress plants were able to distribute and store Na+ by a very strict control of ion movement across both the TP and PM.

  11. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and cortisol stress responsiveness: preliminary evidence for a modulating role for sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalfsen, Jens H; Markus, C Rob

    2018-05-23

    The short (S) allele of a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is found to predispose the risk for stress-related affective disorders relative to the long (L) allele. Evidence suggests that elevated stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis might underlie this association although there is little understanding about the origin of inconsistent findings. Since inadequate sleep is commonly known to promote HPA stress reactivity, it might well play an important modulating role. The present study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether sleep quality moderates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and cortisol stress responsiveness. From a large 5-HTTLPR database (n = 771), a sample of healthy male and female participants homozygous for either the 5-HTTLPR S-allele (n = 25) or L-allele (n = 25) were assessed for sleep quality and salivary cortisol secretion during acute laboratory stress. Diminished sleep quality was found to exclusively potentiate cortisol stress reactivity in the homozygous L-allele genotype. Accounting for this 5-HTTLPR-dependent influence enhanced the predictive value of 5-HTTLPR on cortisol stress responsiveness, revealing greater HPA reactivity in S-allele relative to L-allele carriers. Current findings suggest that variations in sleep quality may serve as a confounding factor in the search for genetic differences in stress sensitivity and related affective disorders.

  12. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L.; Ikpe, Uduakobong N.; Brooks, Jeannie S.; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided. PMID:25071874

  13. Heat Stress in the Urban and Suburban Landscape and its Spatial Differentiation Through the Example of a Medium-Sized City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Vysoudil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of heat stress in a Central European city and its surroundings was examined. We evaluated the length of time for which the threshold values of Humidex and air temperatures were exceeded at individual stations. The longest interval of temperature discomfort was detected at the border of open mid-rise development and open spaces. The shortest intervals were found in compact mid-rise development and near a forest. There are spatial differences between locations with long periods of high temperatures and locations with long intervals of high Humidex values. However, when the heat stress is being assessed in relation to the mortality rate, Humidex does not show better results than the air temperature.

  14. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L; Ikpe, Uduakobong N; Brooks, Jeannie S; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided.

  15. How Can Autonomous and Connected Vehicles, Electromobility, BRT, Hyperloop, Shared Use Mobility and Mobility-As-A-Service Shape Transport Futures for the Context of Smart Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Nikitas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A smarter transport system that caters for social, economic and environmental sustainability is arguably one of the most critical prerequisites for creating pathways to more livable urban futures. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art analysis of a selection of mobility initiatives that may dictate the future of urban transportation and make cities smarter. These are mechanisms either recently introduced with encouraging uptake so far and much greater potential to contribute in a shift to a better transport paradigm or still in an embryonic stage of their development and yet to be embraced as powerful mechanisms that could change travel behaviour norms. Autonomous and connected vehicles are set to revolutionise the urban landscape by allowing machines to take over driving that for over a century has been exclusively a human activity, while electrical vehicles are already helping decarbonising the transport sector. Bus rapid transit has been steadily reinventing and rebranding conventional bus services revitalising the use of the humblest form of public transport, while hyperloop is an entirely new, disruptive, and somewhat provocative, travel mode proposition based on the use of sealed tube systems through which pods could travel free of air resistance with speeds exceeding 1000 km/h. Shared use mobility mechanisms like car-sharing, ride-sharing, ride-sourcing and public bicycles can help establishing a culture for using mobility resources on an as-needed basis, while mobility-as-a-service will take this sharing culture a step further, offering tailored mobility and trip planning packages that could entirely replace the need for privately owned modes of transport.

  16. Overview of the 2006 MILAGRO Campaign in Mexico City: Transport and Transformation of Emissions from a Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L.; MILAGRO Science Team

    2009-04-01

    Megacities (metropolitan areas with population over 10 million) and large urban centers present a major challenge for the global environment. Population growth, increasing motorization and industrialization have resulted in a higher demand for energy, greater use of fossil fuels, and more emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. As a result, air pollution has become not only one of the central environmental problems of the century, but also presents serious consequences to human health and ecosystems and economic costs to society. MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) is the first international effort to study the impact of air pollutants generated and exported by megacity. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) - one of the largest megacities in the world - was selected as the initial case study for MILAGRO. The measurement phase consisted of a month-long series of carefully coordinated observations of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere in and near Mexico City during March 2006, using a wide range of instruments at ground sites, on aircraft and satellites, complemented by meteorological forecasting and numerical simulations. Together, these research observations have provided the most comprehensive characterization of Mexico City's urban and regional air pollution that will take years to analyze and evaluate fully. Initial analysis of the data is focused on understanding meteorology, emissions, urban and regional photochemistry, aerosol evolution and radiative effects - spanning the urban to regional scale transition. Many interesting aspects of atmospheric chemistry in and near the MCMA are emerging and have already added significantly to our understanding of the chemical and physical properties of the city's reactive atmosphere and the regional impacts. The information can be useful for decision-makers in Mexico in developing air quality management strategies as well as provide insights to air pollution problems in

  17. Selective downregulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain activity and increased oxidative stress in human atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanova, Larisa; Ashary, Zain; Cosic, Milanka; Negmadjanov, Ulugbek; Ross, Gracious; Rizvi, Farhan; Olet, Susan; Kress, David; Sra, Jasbir; Tajik, A Jamil; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Shi, Yang; Jahangir, Arshad

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondria are critical for maintaining normal cardiac function, and a deficit in mitochondrial energetics can lead to the development of the substrate that promotes atrial fibrillation (AF) and its progression. However, the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and AF in humans is still not fully defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate differences in the functional activity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and oxidative stress in right atrial tissue from patients without (non-AF) and with AF (AF) who were undergoing open-heart surgery and were not significantly different for age, sex, major comorbidities, and medications. The overall functional activity of the electron transport chain (ETC), NADH:O2 oxidoreductase activity, was reduced by 30% in atrial tissue from AF compared with non-AF patients. This was predominantly due to a selective reduction in complex I (0.06 ± 0.007 vs. 0.09 ± 0.006 nmol·min(-1)·citrate synthase activity(-1), P = 0.02) and II (0.11 ± 0.012 vs. 0.16 ± 0.012 nmol·min(-1)·citrate synthase activity(-1), P = 0.003) functional activity in AF patients. Conversely, complex V activity was significantly increased in AF patients (0.21 ± 0.027 vs. 0.12 ± 0.01 nmol·min(-1)·citrate synthase activity(-1), P = 0.005). In addition, AF patients exhibited a higher oxidative stress with increased production of mitochondrial superoxide (73 ± 17 vs. 11 ± 2 arbitrary units, P = 0.03) and 4-hydroxynonenal level (77.64 ± 30.2 vs. 9.83 ± 2.83 ng·mg(-1) protein, P = 0.048). Our findings suggest that AF is associated with selective downregulation of ETC activity and increased oxidative stress that can contribute to the progression of the substrate for AF. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-11-08

    The unprecedented growth of today's cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  19. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented growth of today’s cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  20. Alternative oxidase: a respiratory electron transport chain pathway essential for maintaining photosynthetic performance during drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Martyn, Greg D; Dahal, Keshav

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are the hubs of energy metabolism in plants. Drought strongly perturbs photosynthesis as a result of both diffusive limitations resulting from stomatal closure, and in some cases biochemical limitations that are associated with a reduced abundance of key photosynthetic components. The effects of drought on respiration, particularly respiration in the light (RL ), are less understood. The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain includes a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase called alternative oxidase (AOX). Several studies have shown that drought increases AOX transcript, protein and maximum capacity. Here we review recent studies comparing wild-type (WT) tobacco to transgenic lines with altered AOX protein amount. Specifically during drought, RL was compromised in AOX knockdown plants and enhanced in AOX overexpression plants, compared with WT. Significantly, these differences in RL were accompanied by dramatic differences in photosynthetic performance. Knockdown of AOX increased the susceptibility of photosynthesis to drought-induced biochemical limitations, while overexpression of AOX delayed the development of such biochemical limitations, compared with WT. Overall, the results indicate that AOX is essential to maintaining RL during drought, and that this non-energy conserving respiration maintains photosynthesis during drought by promoting energy balance in the chloroplast. This review also outlines several areas for future research, including the possibility that enhancement of non-energy conserving respiratory electron sinks may be a useful biotechnological approach to increase plant performance during stress. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. How can fossil fuel based public bus transport systems become a sustainable solution for Swedish medium-sized cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Borén, Sven; Nurhadi, Lisiana; Ny, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Vehicles, infrastructure, fuel systems and other energy-driven systems that serve public transport are complex with many resource inputs and outputs, and involve many processes. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) helps analyzing those by quantifying environmental and economic effects, but will not in themselves provide a full systems perspective. Swedish authorities have set ambitious national goals, and many regions targets a 100% increase in public transport by 2020. T...

  2. Stress in the City: Influence of Urban Social Stress and Violence on Pregnancy and Postpartum Quality of Life among Adolescent and Young Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Powell, Adeya; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-02-01

    Adolescent and young mothers transitioning from pregnancy to postpartum need to maintain an optimal quality of life. Stress and exposure to violence (e.g., intimate partner violence (IPV), nonpartner violence) are predictors of poor quality of life for adult women; however, these associations remain understudied among adolescent and young mothers in urban areas. Guided by the social ecological model, the current study created a latent variable, urban social stress, to examine the impact of the urban social environment (i.e., stressful life events, discrimination, family stress, and neighborhood problems) on the quality of life of adolescent and young mothers during both pregnancy and postpartum. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 296 expectant young mothers recruited at obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Results from structural equation and multigroup models found that higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life during pregnancy, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-exposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. In the postpartum period, higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-unexposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. Stress reduction programs need to help adolescent and young mothers in urban areas develop stress management skills specific to urban social stress. Pregnancy and parenting programs need to be tailored to the specific needs of young mothers in urban areas by becoming sensitive to the role of IPV and nonpartner violence in these young women's lives.

  3. Long-range pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico City outflow event using free-floating altitude-controlled balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Voss

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major objectives of the Megacities Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO-2006 campaign was to investigate the long-range transport of polluted Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA outflow and determine its downwind impacts on air quality and climate. Six research aircraft, including the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C-130, made extensive chemical, aerosol, and radiation measurements above MCMA and more than 1000 km downwind in order to characterize the evolution of the outflow as it aged and dispersed over the Mesa Alta, Sierra Madre Oriental, Coastal Plain, and Gulf of Mexico. As part of this effort, free-floating Controlled-Meteorological (CMET balloons, commanded to change altitude via satellite, made repeated profile measurements of winds and state variables within the advecting outflow. In this paper, we present an analysis of the data from two CMET balloons that were launched near Mexico City on the afternoon of 18 March 2006 and floated downwind with the MCMA pollution for nearly 30 h. The repeating profile measurements show the evolving structure of the outflow in considerable detail: its stability and stratification, interaction with other air masses, mixing episodes, and dispersion into the regional background. Air parcel trajectories, computed directly from the balloon wind profiles, show three transport pathways on 18–19 March: (a high-altitude advection of the top of the MCMA mixed layer, (b mid-level outflow over the Sierra Madre Oriental followed by decoupling and isolated transport over the Gulf of Mexico, and (c low-level outflow with entrainment into a cleaner northwesterly jet above the Coastal Plain. The C-130 aircraft intercepted the balloon-based trajectories three times on 19 March, once along each of these pathways; in all three cases, peaks in urban tracer concentrations and LIDAR backscatter are consistent with MCMA pollution. In comparison with the transport models

  4. Рassenger survey on public transport in Zhitomir and evaluation of the main technical and operational parameters for the choice of city buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzynskyi V.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of the passenger movements in the direction of public transport in Zhitomir are defined and conformity assessment of technical and operational parameters of urban shuttle buses is folded. Firstly, the amount of passenger traffic affects the optimal choice of passenger vehicles and secondly, the intensity of road traffic on the streets of areas where passengers pass routes. It should also be kept in mind that passenger traffic can fluctuate significantly depending on the time of day and days of the week. But virtually all carriers can be replaced within days with rolling at a large passenger capacity, and vice versa. Therefore, the choice of one type of rolling stock, the capacity of which is set taking into account the data on hourly passenger capacity on the most loaded part of the route up to an hour "peak", or its capacity per day on the route as a whole. Thus the research work on inspection of passenger-route passenger transport, and public electric transport in Zhitomir is conducted. Primary data was estimated to select the main criteria for urban passenger bus. It was found that the buses in the "peak" hours move on passenger congestion. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations on the criteria of optimal rolling of choice for the city bus route network are provided.

  5. A methodology for calculating transport emissions in cities with limited traffic data: Case study of diesel particulates and black carbon emissions in Murmansk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, N; Evans, M; Gusev, E; Yu, S; Malyshev, V; Tretyakova, S; Barinov, A

    2016-03-15

    This paper presents a methodology for calculating exhaust emissions from on-road transport in cities with low-quality traffic data and outdated vehicle registries. The methodology consists of data collection approaches and emission calculation methods. For data collection, the paper suggests using video survey and parking lot survey methods developed for the International Vehicular Emissions model. Additional sources of information include data from the largest transportation companies, vehicle inspection stations, and official vehicle registries. The paper suggests using the European Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) 4 model to calculate emissions, especially in countries that implemented European emissions standards. If available, the local emission factors should be used instead of the default COPERT emission factors. The paper also suggests additional steps in the methodology to calculate emissions only from diesel vehicles. We applied this methodology to calculate black carbon emissions from diesel on-road vehicles in Murmansk, Russia. The results from Murmansk show that diesel vehicles emitted 11.7 tons of black carbon in 2014. The main factors determining the level of emissions are the structure of the vehicle fleet and the level of vehicle emission controls. Vehicles without controls emit about 55% of black carbon emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The possible role of Reynolds stress in the creation of a transport barrier in tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, M.; Van Schoor, M.; Xu, Y.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.; Hron, M.; Stoeckel, J.

    2005-01-01

    To obtain a good confinement, mandatory in a fusion reactor, the understanding of the formation of transport barriers in the edge plasma of a tokamak is essential. Turbulence, the major candidate to explain anomalous transport, can be quenched by sheared flows in the edge which rip the convective cells apart, thus forming a barrier. Experimental evidence from the Chinese HT-6M tokamak [Y.H. Xu et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 3867], points to the fact that momentum transfer from the turbulence can create these sheared flows via the Reynolds stresses. A new 1-d fluid model for the generation of the poloidal flow, has been developed taking into account the driving force of the Reynolds stress and the friction forces due to neutrals and parallel viscosity. Special attention has been dedicated to the computation of the flux-surface-averaging for the various terms. This model has been confronted with the experimental results obtained in the HT-6M tokamak, where Reynolds stresses were generated by application of a turbulent heating pulse. If the model is applied in cylindrical geometry, the calculated Reynolds stress-induced flow agrees well with the measured poloidal velocity in the plasma edge. However, when the full toroidal geometry is taken into account, it seems that the Reynolds stresses are too small to explain the observed rotation. This indicates that the role of the Reynolds stresses in inducing macroscopic flow in the torus is weakened. A combined system of probes allowing to measure the Reynolds stress and the rotation velocity simultaneously, has been developed and installed on the CASTOR tokamak. We report here on the first results obtained. (author)

  7. Post-traumatic stress and coping in an inner-city child. Traumatogenic witnessing of interparental violence and murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, E R

    1995-01-01

    Violence today appears to be ubiquitous: it even enters the clinical session, deeply internalized within child victims who were exposed to often unspeakable horror. Violence and its pernicious, horrific effects are observed in the streets, schools, parks, playgrounds, and homes of some inner-city communities. This article introduces the use of Anna Freud's Diagnostic Profile system with an inner-city child who, at the age of four, witnessed his mother fatally stab his father with a kitchen knife and at age eleven was assessed and treated by the author. Clinicians may wonder whether any kind of therapy could ever undo the serious fixations, regressions, developmental arrests, and integrate trauma-shattered ego functions observed in children exposed to visual horror and affective terror. Application of the Profile may offer some direction with these children: a panoramic view of their painful mood, their hypervigilance and distrust, fears, separation and annihilation anxieties, nightmares (with murder imagery), developmental anomalies and arrests is presented with clarity and force. The therapist uses countertransference responses to monitor the affect tolerance in the child and to determine the appropriate dosages of awareness the child can integrate from one moment to the next. The therapist also serves as the child's external stimulus barrier and explores feelings about media-driven portrayals of violence, stereotypes, and inner-city children and youths. The unsurpassed utility of the Profile as a diagnostic system that documents vital economic, dynamic, structural, genetic and adaptive-coping information about the child is discussed in detail as is the Profile's added benefit of possibly guarding against misdiagnosis and charting a course for psychotherapy in difficult city-violence trauma cases.

  8. Residual Stress Relaxation Induced by Mass Transport Through Interface of the Pd/SrTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarpour S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metal interconnections having a small cross-section and short length can be subjected to very large mass transport due to the passing of high current densities. As a result, nonlinear diffusion and electromigration effects which may result in device failure and electrical instabilities may be manifested. Various thicknesses of Pd were deposited over SrTiO3 substrate. Residual stress of the deposited film was evaluated by measuring the variation of d-spacing versus sin2ψ through conventional X-ray diffraction method. It has been found that the lattice misfit within film and substrate might be relaxed because of mass transport. Besides, the relation between residual intrinsic stress and oxygen diffusion through deposited film has been expressed. Consequently, appearance of oxide intermediate layer may adjust interfacial characteristics and suppress electrical conductivity by increasing electron scattering through metallic films.

  9. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and its relationship with anxiety, stress, and depression in intermediate students in Birjand city in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Turi

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated a high prevalence of internet addiction in the students and had significant relationships with anxiety, stress , and depression.This is something that necessitates . interventions aiming at preventing various harms to them.

  10. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  11. City transport of the future - the high speed pedestrian conveyor. Part 2: ergonomic considerations of complete conveyor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A C

    1975-03-01

    This is the second part of an article on an unusual form of passenger transport, the moving pavement or pedestrian conveyor running at speeds up to 16 km/h. Part 1, "Ergonomic considerations of acceleration, deceleration and transfer sections," was published in the December, 1974, issue.

  12. Mathematical model of optimizing the arrival of fire units with the use of information systems for monitoring transport logistics of Voronezh city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kochegarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the strong pace of construction is increasing in big cities. With their growth becomes a question of the deployment of firefighters and the number of fire stations. The most effective solution is the problem of finding the optimum route of fire departments, taking into account the information transport logistics systems within the city that will allow us to arrive at the scene at any time, regardless of the degree of congestion of city roads. Prompt arrival of fire units provides the most successful fire fighting. The main objective of the study is to develop a preliminary route and the route in case of unforeseen factors affecting the time fire engine arrived. To construct the routes used to develop actively in the current methods of machine learning artificial neural networks. To construct the optimal route requires a correct prediction of the future behavior of a complex system of urban traffic based on its past behavior. Within the framework of statistical machine learning theory considered the problem of classification and regression. The learning process is to select a classification or a regression function of a predetermined broad class of such functions. After determining the prediction scheme, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of its forecasts, which are measured not on the basis of observations, and on the basis of an improved stochastic process, the result of the construction of the prediction rules. The model is verified on the basis of data collected in real departures real fire brigades, which made it possible to obtain a minimum time of arrival of fire units.

  13. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1 is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods. Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results. Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion. Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity.

  14. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD) was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:29849603

  15. Wildfire smoke transport and impact on air quality observed by a mullti-wavelength elastic-raman lidar and ceilometer in New York city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghua; Peña, Wilson; Gross, Barry.; Moshary, Fred

    2018-04-01

    The intense wildfires from the western Canada in May 2016 injected large amount of smoke into the atmosphere. This paper presents integrated observation of the event by a lidar, ceilometer, and satellite together with models and an assessment of smoke plume impacts on local air quality in New York City (NYC) area. A dense aloft plume on May 20 and a boundary layer plume on May 25 are analyzed. The smoke mixing into planetary-boundary-layer (PBL) and strong diurnal variation of PBL-top are shown. For the 2ndcase, the ground PM2.5 measurements show a significant increase in both the urban and upwind non-urban areas of NYC. The smoke sources and transport paths are further verified by the satellite observations and HYSPLIT model data.

  16. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 from a southern coastal city of China: applications of modeling and chemical tracers in demonstration of regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiamao; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Junji; Zhao, Zhuzi; Zhao, Shuyu; Zhu, Chongshu; Wang, Qiyuan; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Youzhi; Wang, Ping; Tie, Xuexi

    2018-05-11

    An intensive sampling campaign of airborne fine particles (PM 2.5 ) was conducted at Sanya, a coastal city in Southern China, from January to February 2012. Chemical analyses and mass reconstruction were used identify potential pollution sources and investigate atmospheric reaction mechanisms. A thermodynamic model indicated that low ammonia and high relative humidity caused the aerosols be acidic and that drove heterogeneous reactions which led to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosol. Relationships among neutralization ratios, free acidity, and air-mass trajectories suggest that the atmosphere at Sanya was impacted by both local and regional emissions. Three major transport pathways were identified, and flow from the northeast (from South China) typically brought the most polluted air to Sanya. A case study confirmed strong impact from South China (e.g., Pearl River Delta region) (contributed 76.8% to EC, and then this result can be extended to primary pollutants) when the northeast winds were dominant. The Weather Research Forecasting Black carbon model and trace organic markers were used to apportion local pollution versus regional contributions. Results of the study offer new insights into the atmospheric conditions and air pollution at this coastal city.

  17. Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Siegel

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear. We used both pharmacological (2 week paraquat (PQ treatment of wild type mice and transgenic (mice lacking Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1(-/- models to test the effect of oxidative stress on in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy were used to measure mitochondrial ATP and oxygen fluxes and cell energetic state. In both models of oxidative stress, coupling of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly lower (lower P/O at rest in vivo in skeletal muscle and was dose-dependent in the PQ model. Despite this reduction in efficiency, in vivo mitochondrial phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax was maintained in both models, and ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers was unchanged following PQ treatment. In association with the reduced P/O, PQ treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in PCr/ATP ratio and increased phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicate that oxidative stress uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and results in energetic stress in the absence of defects in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  18. Knowledge Cities and Transport Sustainability: The Link between the Travel Behavior of Knowledge Workers and Car-Related Job Perks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    from a survey among knowledge workers in Tel-Aviv. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (1) high annual kilometrage, (2) increased commute by car, (3) long commute travel times, (4) high trip chaining frequency, and (5) many long-distance leisure trips. Results suggest......This study analyzes the linkage between the travel behavior of knowledge workers and car-related job perks. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved...... that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider decoupling knowledge workers from car-related job perks. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  19. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  20. Analysis technology in the thick plate free drop impact, heat and thermal stress of the cask for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dew Hey; Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong

    2002-03-01

    In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology

  1. Analysis technology in the thick plate free drop impact, heat and thermal stress of the cask for radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dew Hey [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology.

  2. Expression of heat shock protein 70 in transport-stressed broiler pectoralis major muscle and its relationship with meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, T; Wang, M F; Han, M Y; Zhu, X S; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2017-09-01

    Omics research has indicated that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a potential biomarker of meat quality. However, the specific changes and the potential role of HSP70 in postmortem meat quality development need to be further defined. In this study, Arbor Acres broiler chickens (n=126) were randomly categorized into three treatment groups of unstressed control (C), 0.5-h transport (T) and subsequent water shower spray following transport (T/W). Each treatment consisted of six replicates with seven birds each. The birds were transported according to a designed protocol. The pectoralis major (PM) muscles of the transport-stressed broilers were categorized as normal and pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like muscle samples according to L* and pH24 h values to test the expression and location of HSP70. Results revealed that the activities of plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased significantly (Pmeat quality and stress indicators. In conclusion, this research suggests that the variation in HSP70 expression may provide a novel insight into the pathways underlying meat quality development.

  3. The freight system in Mexico City. Factors to consider in the analysis of freight transportation and freight mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Perdomo, Florián Rosa

    2010-01-01

    El artículo presenta un análisis del sistema de transporte de carga en la Ciudad de México desde el punto de vista sistémico, considerando las variables económicas, políticas, técnicas, sociales que permitan comprender la problemática que actualmente enfrenta esta ciudad en la movilidad de mercancías. Es una reflexión de carácter multidisciplinario basada en el método cualitativo para explicar y comprender la situación actual del transporte de carga en México dentro del contexto de la globali...

  4. Smart City trends and ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijs, Lisanne; Witte, P.A.; de Klerk, Daniel; Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Research into smart city projects and applications has been increasing in recent years (Meijer & Bolivar, 2015). The smart city concept is mostly considered from a technology-oriented perspective that stresses the usage of data technologies, big data and ICT to ‘smarten up’ cities. In contrast,

  5. Participation for Sustainable Urban Freight Transport Systems : A Case Study of Freight Receivers in the City of Gothenburg

    OpenAIRE

    Lindkvist, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a case study research that look into the difficulty in engaging freight receivers in initiatives related to urban freight transport. The aim of the paper is to investigate how participatory processes could be formed for more successful outcomes and how the freight receivers could become more engaged in the processes. By conducting a qualitative research where primarily interviews with freight receivers and other concerned stakeholder were made, it was possible to distinguish di...

  6. Transboundary Air-Pollution Transport in the Czech-Polish Border Region between the Cities of Ostrava and Katowice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černikovský, Libor; Krejčí, Blanka; Blažek, Zdeněk; Volná, Vladimíra

    2016-12-01

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) estimated the transboundary transport of air pollution between the Czech Republic and Poland by assessing relationships between weather conditions and air pollution in the area as part of the "Air Quality Information System in the Polish-Czech border of the Silesian and Moravian-Silesian region" project (http://www.air-silesia.eu). Estimation of cross-border transport of pollutants is important for Czech-Polish negotiations and targeted measures for improving air quality. Direct measurement of PM 10 and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) concentrations and the direction and wind speed from measuring stations in the vicinity of the Czech-Polish state border in 2006-2012. Taking into account all the inaccuracies, simplifications and uncertainties, by which all of the measurements are affected, it is possible to state that the PM 10 transboundary transport was greater from the direction of Poland to the Czech Republic, rather than the other way around. Nevertheless, the highest share of the overall PM 10 concentration load was recorded on days with a vaguely estimated airflow direction. This usually included days with changing wind direction or days with a distinct wind change throughout the given day. A changeable wind is most common during low wind speeds. It can be assumed that during such days with an ambiguous daily airflow, the polluted air saturated with sources on both sides of the border moves from one country to the other. Therefore, we could roughly ascribe an equal level of these concentrations to both the Czech and Polish side. PM 10 transboundary transport was higher from Poland to the Czech Republic than from the opposite direction, despite the predominant air flow from the Czech Republic to Poland. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  7. Experience in the transport and disposal of uranium mill tailings from Aldama City to Sierra Pena Blanca in Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.; Molina, G.; Angeles C, A.; Cruz G, S.; Lizacano C, D.; Reyes, J.; Rojas, V.

    1996-01-01

    In the process of decontamination, transport and disposal of uranium mill tailings, in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, was necessary the multidisciplinary and multi institutional task to select mainly the site for the final disposal. The uranium mill tailings content Ra-226 which half live time is 1600 years, therefore the site should be adequately stable, a remote place of population, and which containment will survive for thousand of years. The decontamination of site where the uranium mill tailings were 25 years ago, required the application of norms from regulator organism. For the transport of uranium mill tailings was necessary that the vehicles had devices to reduce the dispersion of material in the road. The selection of the site was product of balance between the cost of transport and the final disposal. To typify the site, studies of hydrology, meteorology, ecology, geology and seismology were performed. On the other hand, the decision to locate the deposit in the site was due to dispersion of material by the rain, wind and bowls. (authors). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Contraction-stimulated glucose transport in muscle is controlled by AMPK and mechanical stress but not sarcoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+ release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Sylow, Lykke; Rose, Adam John

    2014-01-01

    signals through proteins such as AMPK. Here, we demonstrate in incubated mouse muscle that Ca(2+) release is neither sufficient nor strictly necessary to increase glucose transport. Rather, the glucose transport response is associated with metabolic feedback signals through AMPK, and mechanical stress......-activated signals. Furthermore, artificial stimulation of AMPK combined with passive stretch of muscle is additive and sufficient to elicit the full contraction glucose transport response. These results suggest that ATP-turnover and mechanical stress feedback are sufficient to fully increase glucose transport...

  9. The difference of level CO2 emissions from the transportation sector between weekdays and weekend days on the City Centre of Pemalang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, E.; Hardiman, G.; Buchori, I.

    2017-06-01

    The high growth of human activity potentially increases the number of vehicles and the use of fossil fuels that contribute the increase of CO2 emissions in atmosphere. Controlling CO2 emission that causes greenhouse effect becomes the main agenda of Indonesian Government. The first step control CO2 emissions is by measuring the level of CO2 emissions, especially CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in the transport sector. This research aims to assess the level of CO2 emissions from transportation sector on the main roads in the city centre of Pemalang both in weekdays and weekend days. The methods applied to calculate CO2 emissions using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 method. For this, a survey on the number of vehicles passing through the main roads using hand tally counter is firstly done. The results, CO2 emissions in working day, i.e. 49,006.95 tons/year compared to weekend i.e. 38,865.50 tons/year.

  10. Sources of Stress among Undergraduate Students in the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the role of inadequate facilities/accommodation, poor health, emotional problems, socio-economic status and poor time management as sources of stress among University of Benin undergraduates. The research instrument used was a questionnaire. The survey method was adopted for the study. Seven hundred and fifty respondents were…

  11. Parenting Values and Parenting Stress among Impoverished Village and Middle-Class Small City Mothers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Darlene C.; Schneider, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is known to influence parenting values, parenting stress, psychological adjustment, and social support according to North American research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether poverty might work in similar ways in a collectivistic Latin culture. The participants were primary caregivers in two distinct communities in the…

  12. Seasonal variability of oxidative stress markers in city bus drivers – Part II: Oxidative damage to lipids and proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 642, 1-2 (2008), s. 21-27 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Air pollution * Oxidative stress * Bus drivers Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2008

  13. Seasonal variability of oxidative stress markers in city bus drivers – Part I: Oxidative damage to DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 642, 1-2 (2008), s. 14-20 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Aair pollution * Bus drivers * Oxidative stress Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2008

  14. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  15. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  16. The mitochondrial phosphate transporters modulate plant responses to salt stress via affecting ATP and gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana.

  17. Ion Transport and Precipitation Kinetics as Key Aspects of Stress Generation on Pore Walls Induced by Salt Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.

    2018-01-01

    The stress generation on pore walls due to the growth of a sodium chloride crystal in a confined aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with numerical computations of crystal growth. The study indicates that the stress buildup on the pore walls is a highly transient process taking place over a very short period of time (in less than 1 s in our experiments). The analysis makes clear that what matters for the stress generation is not the maximum supersaturation at the onset of the crystal growth but the supersaturation at the interface between the solution and the crystal when the latter is about to be confined between the pore walls. The stress generation is summarized in a simple stress diagram involving the pore aspect ratio and the Damkhöler number characterizing the competition between the precipitation reaction kinetics and the ion transport towards the growing crystal. This opens up the route for a better understanding of the damage of porous materials induced by salt crystallization, an important issue in Earth sciences, reservoir engineering, and civil engineering.

  18. Effect of water soluble vitamins on Zn transport of Caco-2 cells and their implications under oxidative stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupe, Rashmi Santosh; Agte, Vaishali Vilas

    2010-02-01

    The role of different water soluble vitamins in Zn metabolism beyond intestinal Zn absorption is poorly explored. Using Caco-2 cells, effects of different vitamins on intestinal Zn transport and their implications under oxidative stress (OS) were investigated. Cells were apically treated with Zn (25 muM) and vitamins (Folic acid (FA), Nicotinic acid (NA), Ascorbic acid (AA), riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine) for 60 min. The effect of most promising vitamins on zinc transport, antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase), and intracellular OS status (ROS generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential) were investigated. OS was generated by tert-butyl hydro peroxide and results for each vitamin were compared with respective Zn containing controls with and without OS. Without OS, Zn transport was slightly enhanced in presence of NA, while it was significantly reduced by thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine. Under OS, NA significantly (P vitamins. With Zn + FA + OS, enzyme activities decreased maximally, with twofold increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) (P < 0.01) and lowering of rhodamine fluorescence (P < 0.05). In Zn + AA + OS, DCF-DA fluorescence increased (P < 0.05) but with NA, cellular enzymes, and antioxidant profile were improved. Results for the first time demonstrate advantageous effects of NA and deleterious consequences of FA with no effect by AA on Zn transport, especially under OS. These observed changes in the transport of Zn seem to have an impact on OS markers.

  19. Réponse au stress induit par le transport chez la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUGER Y.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available La réponse au stress induit par le transport a été étudiée chez des truites arc-en-ciel immatures d'un poids moyen de 200 g. D'une manière globale, les valeurs de l'hématocrite, de l'osmolarité du plasma sanguin, du Cortisol et de la testostérone sont significativement plus élevées chez les poissons transportés que chez les témoins non transportés, alors que les niveaux de gonadostimuline (GTH1 et d'hormone de croissance ne diffèrent pas suivant les lots. L'analyse du comportement en "open field" des individus de chaque lot montre que les poissons transportés s'immobilisent en moyenne après un temps significativement plus long que les témoins. L'étude des performances zootechniques de chaque lot pendant les deux mois suivant l'expérience indique que le lot transporté récupère rapidement.

  20. Dental health status and treatment needs of transport workers of a northern Indian city: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep S.; Sogi, Girish M.; Veeresha, Koratagere Lingappa; Sohi, Ramandeep K.; Randhawa, Amaninder; Kakar, Heena

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the dental health status and treatment needs of transport workers working in Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (C.T.U.) buses, Chandigarh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all the available C.T.U. workers at all three bus depots. The data were recorded on a modified W.H.O. format (1997). A total of 1008 subjects constituted the final sample size. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 45.3 ± 7.8 years, and 97% (978) were males. Prevalence of dental caries was 63.4% and mean DMFT was 5.02. 47.6% of subjects needed some prosthesis in the maxillary arch while 53.3% needed some prosthesis in the mandibular arch. Regarding highest CPI (Community Periodontal Index) score, 8.13% of the subjects had healthy periodontium while maximum subjects (73.2%) had a score 2 (Calculus). Conclusion: Mean DMFT (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth) was satisfactory. Prosthetic need of the subjects was high with only a few subjects possessing prosthesis. Advanced periodontal disease (CPI score, 4) affected small number of subjects with maximum subjects (73%) having a CPI score of 2. PMID:24082750

  1. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A; Richards, Jennifer; Bralten, Janita B; Franke, Barbara; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2014-12-01

    The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to psychosocial stress than L-allele homozygotes. This study aimed to investigate whether 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the effects of stress on ADHD in a multisite prospective ADHD cohort study. 5-HTTLPR genotype, as well as the number of stressful life events in the past 5 years and ongoing long-term difficulties, was determined in 671 adolescents and young adults with ADHD, their siblings, and healthy controls (57.4% male, average age 17.3 years). Linear mixed models, accounting for family relatedness, were applied to investigate the effects of genotype, experienced stress, and their interaction on ADHD severity at time point T2, while controlling for ADHD severity at T1 (mean follow-up time 5.9 years) and for comorbid internalizing problems at T2. The interaction between genotype and stress significantly predicted ADHD severity at T2 (p = .006), which was driven by the effect on hyperactivity-impulsivity (p = .004). Probing of the interaction effect made clear that S-allele carriers had a significantly more positive correlation between stress and ADHD severity than L-allele homozygotes. The results show that the interaction between 5-HTTLPR and stress is a mechanism involved particularly in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension of ADHD, and that this is independent of comorbid internalizing problems. Further research into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this interaction effect is warranted. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Sergio A; Ortiz, Viviola Gómez; Cendales, Boris E

    2017-07-01

    There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two. A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR). Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving. The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained. This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce

  3. The effect of transport density and gender on stress indicators and carcass and meat quality in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, T.L.; Corassa, A.; Komiyama, C. M.; Araújo, C.V.; Kataoka, A.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 168 finishing pigs were used to investigate the effects of gender (barrows and gilts) and transport densities for slaughter (236, 251, and 275 kg/m²) on stress indicators and carcass and pork quality. The animals transported at 251 kg/m² (T251) presented cortisol values below those at 236 kg/m2 (T236), but no different from those at 275 kg/m2 (T275). The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) values in pigs transported at T236 were the lowest. The blood components did not differ between T236 and T275. The pH values at 45 min (pH45) and at 24 h (pH24) postmortem were higher for pigs subjected to T236. However, the pH45 was higher at T251 than at T275, but pH24 was lower at T251 than at T275. The lightness values in the muscles of the pigs transported at T236 and T251 were higher than those at T275. Lower drip loss values were observed in the muscle of animals at T251. Carcasses of pigs at T236 contained more 1–5 cm lesions while those at T275 contained more 5–10 cmlesions in sections of loin. No significant effects of gender were found on the stress indicators, blood components, pH45, pH24, color, drip loss or carcass lesions in general. These results indicate that the pre-slaughter transport of pigs at densities of 251 kg/m² generates less physiological damage and smaller losses on carcass and pork quality irrespective of gender. (Author)

  4. Stress test performed on gas transport pipelines as a method for quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelzer, J.; Baessler, R.

    1991-01-01

    Modern pipeline construction increasingly uses the stress test as an integral component test while aiming at enhanced safety and availability. The application described by the article highlights the particular fact that expanded and non-expanded pipes of identical material quality will reveal a different behaviour in the stress test. (orig.) [de

  5. City transport of the future - the high speed pedestrian conveyor. Part 1: ergonomic considerations of accelerators, decelerators and transfer sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A C

    1974-12-01

    In this article, an uncommon form of passenger transport is considered, the moving pavement or pedestrian conveyor running at speeds of up to 16 km/h. There are very little relevant ergonomic data for such devices and some specific laboratory experiments have been carried out using 1000 subjects to represent the general public. It is concluded that whilst high speed pedestrian conveyors are quite feasible, stations along them are likely to be large. The most attractive type is a set of parallel surfaces moving at different speeds and with handholds provided in the form of poles. This type could be extremely convenient for certain locations but will probably have to be restricted in its use to fairly fit adults carrying little luggage, and would find applications in situations where a large number of people need to travel in the same direction. Part 2, Ergonomic considerations of complete conveyor systems, will follow.

  6. Genetic moderation of the association between adolescent romantic involvement and depression: Contributions of serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, chronic stress, and family discord

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Studies support a link between adolescent romantic involvement and depression. Adolescent romantic relationships may increase depression risk by introducing chronic stress, and genetic vulnerability to stress reactivity/emotion dysregulation may moderate these associations. We tested genetic moderation of longitudinal associations between adolescent romantic involvement and later depressive symptoms by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR), and ...

  7. Contraction-stimulated glucose transport in muscle is controlled by AMPK and mechanical stress but not sarcoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+ release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Jensen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how muscle contraction orchestrates insulin-independent muscle glucose transport may enable development of hyperglycemia-treating drugs. The prevailing concept implicates Ca2+ as a key feed forward regulator of glucose transport with secondary fine-tuning by metabolic feedback signals through proteins such as AMPK. Here, we demonstrate in incubated mouse muscle that Ca2+ release is neither sufficient nor strictly necessary to increase glucose transport. Rather, the glucose transport response is associated with metabolic feedback signals through AMPK, and mechanical stress-activated signals. Furthermore, artificial stimulation of AMPK combined with passive stretch of muscle is additive and sufficient to elicit the full contraction glucose transport response. These results suggest that ATP-turnover and mechanical stress feedback are sufficient to fully increase glucose transport during muscle contraction, and call for a major reconsideration of the established Ca2+ centric paradigm.

  8. Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2012-01-01

    The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine...... are significantly increased following hyperosmotic exposure. Swelling-induced ROS production in NIH3T3 fibroblasts is generated by NOX4 and by increasing total ROS, by either exogenous application of H(2)O(2) or overexpressing NOX4, we demonstrate that TonEBP activity and taurine influx are regulated negatively...... by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low...

  9. Impact of Atmospheric Microparticles on the Development of Oxidative Stress in Healthy City/Industrial Seaport Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Golokhvast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric microsized particles producing reactive oxygen species can pose a serious health risk for city residents. We studied the responses of organisms to microparticles in 255 healthy volunteers living in areas with different levels of microparticle air pollution. We analyzed the distribution of microparticles in snow samples by size and content. ELISA and flow cytometry methods were employed to determine the parameters of the thiol-disulfide metabolism, peroxidation and antioxidant, genotoxicity, and energy state of the leukocytes. We found that, in the park areas, microparticles with a size of 800 μm or more were predominant (96%, while in the industrial areas, they tended to be less than 50 μm (93%, including size 200–300 nm (7%. In the industrial areas, we determined the oxidative modification of proteins (21% compared to the park areas, p≤0.05 and DNA (12%, p≤0.05, as well as changes in leukocytes’ energy potential (53%, p≤0.05. An increase in total antioxidant activity (82%, p≤0.01 and thiol-disulfide system response (thioredoxin increasing by 33%, p≤0.01; glutathione, 30%, p≤0.01 with stable reductases levels maintains a balance of peroxidation-antioxidant processes, protecting cellular and subcellular structures from significant oxidative damage.

  10. FERTILITY INTENTIONS AND EARLY LIFE HEALTH STRESS AMONG WOMEN IN EIGHT INDIAN CITIES: TESTING THE REPRODUCTIVE ACCELERATION HYPOTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Säävälä, Minna

    2015-09-01

    In life history theory, early life adversity is associated with an accelerated reproductive tempo. In harsh and unpredictable conditions in developing societies fertility is generally higher and the reproductive tempo faster than in more secure environments. This paper examines whether differences in female anthropometry, particularly adult height, are associated with fertility intentions of women in urban environments in India. The study population consists of women aged 15-29 (N=4485) in slums and non-slums of eight Indian cities in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2005-2006. Adult height is taken as a proxy for early childhood health and nutritional condition. Fertility intentions are examined by using two variables: the desire to have a child or another child, and to have it relatively soon, as indicative of accelerated reproductive scheduling. Evidence supporting the acceleration hypothesis is found in two urban frames out of 26 examined in a two-staged multinomial logistic model. In three cases, the relationship between fertility intentions and height is the opposite than expected by the acceleration hypothesis: taller women have a higher predictive probability of desiring a(nother) child and/or narrower birth spacing. Potential explanations for the partly contradictory relationship between the childhood health indicator and fertility intentions are discussed.

  11. Numerical prediction of cavitating flow around a hydrofoil using pans and improved shear stress transport k-omega model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang De-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracies of partially-averaged Navier-Stokes model and improved shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model for simulating the unsteady cavitating flow around the hydrofoil were discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that the two turbulence models can effectively reproduce the cavitation evolution process. The numerical prediction for the cycle time of cavitation inception, development, detachment, and collapse agrees well with the experimental data. It is found that the vortex pair induced by the interaction between the re-entrant jet and mainstream is responsible for the instability of the cavitation shedding flow.

  12. Attracting higher income class to public transport in socially clustered cities. The case of Caracas. / Atracción del mayor nivel de ingresos al transporte público en las ciudades socialmente segregadas. El caso de Caracas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez, Josefina

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In Caracas, as in most socially clustered cities, modal split is highly related to income. High income population is mostly car dependant, while lower income people are captive of public transport. This typical situation is explained by world-wide social values and fashion but also by the fact that new, segregated residential areas for the upper social levels have been located in areas poorly served by public transport, creating a dependency on the private car. It is not surprising that, during the 1970's, a high proportion of Caracas's middle and high-income citizens were systematically using their car even in areas where there was a good offer of public transport. What is more unusual is to realise that, since 1983 when the metro system was inaugurated, there is a new pattern of travel behaviour. The metro has mainly attracted high-income people. Besides the few of them who have transferred from surface to underground public transport, many of the wealthier patrons seem to be regular car users that presently take the metro when it provides a good alternative. Currently, the transit system in Caracas is comprised of four main modes: the metro (since 1983; the "por puesto", which are minibus vehicles of 18 to 32 seats; the jeeps, which are dual traction vehicles of up to 12 seat (most of them serving hilly areas, basically slums; and the bus system, consisting of metro-bus and private operators. CA Metro operates the metro and, since 1987, metro-bus lines, which are bus feeder services to its heavy rail metro operation that extend the cover area of the system into the less central zones of the city. While the metro and metro-bus offer transit services to middle and high income users, the mini-buses and jeeps provide flexible transit service to low income groups. The metro and metro-bus services are more reliable and offer higher quality that mini-buses and jeeps. This higher quality service is one of the main attributes attracting the wealthier

  13. The ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid on the oxidative status, live weight and recovery rate in road transport stressed goats in a hot humid tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwunuji, Tanko Polycarp; Mayowa, Opeyemi Onilude; Yusoff, Sabri Mohd; Bejo, Siti-Khairani; Salisi, Shahrom; Mohd, Effendy Abd Wahid

    2014-05-01

    The ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on live weight following transportation is vital in animal husbandry. This study investigated the influence of AA on live weight, rectal temperature (rt), and oxidative status of transport stressed goats in a hot humid tropical environment. Twenty-four goats were divided into four groups, A, B, C and D of six animals each. Group A were administered AA 100 mg/kg intramuscularly 30 min prior to 3.5 h transportation. Group B was administered AA following transportation. Group C were transported but not administered AA as positive controls while group D were not transported but were administered normal saline as negative controls. Live weight, rt and blood samples were collected before, immediately post-transport (pt), 24 h, 3 days, 7 days and 10 days pt. Plasma was used for malondialdehyde (MDA) analysis while hemolysates were used for superoxide dismutase (SOD) analysis. There was minimal live weight loss in group A compared to groups B and C. Group A recorded reduced MDA activities and increased SOD activities compared to groups B and C which recorded significantly high MDA activities. This study revealed that AA administration ameliorated the stress responses induced by transportation in animals in hot humid tropical environments. The administration of AA to goats prior to transportation could ameliorate stress and enhance productivity. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  15. Assessment of well vulnerability for groundwater source protection based on a solute transport model: a case study from Jilin City, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Huan; Wang, Jinsheng; Lai, Desheng; Teng, Yanguo; Zhai, Yuanzheng

    2015-05-01

    Well vulnerability assessment is essential for groundwater source protection. A quantitative approach to assess well vulnerability in a well capture zone is presented, based on forward solute transport modeling. This method was applied to three groundwater source areas (Jiuzhan, Hadawan and Songyuanhada) in Jilin City, northeast China. The ratio of the maximum contaminant concentration at the well to the released concentration at the contamination source ( c max/ c 0) was determined as the well vulnerability indicator. The results indicated that well vulnerability was higher close to the pumping well. The well vulnerability in each groundwater source area was low. Compared with the other two source areas, the cone of depression at Jiuzhan resulted in higher spatial variability of c max/ c 0 and lower minimum c max/ c 0 by three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis indicated that the denitrification rate in the aquifer was the most sensitive with respect to well vulnerability. A process to derive a NO3-N concentration at the pumping well is presented, based on determining the maximum nitrate loading limit to satisfy China's drinking-water quality standards. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and prospects for improving the precision of this well vulnerability assessment approach are discussed.

  16. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  17. Ultimate pH values and bacteriological condition of meat and stress metabolites in blood of transported reindeer bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    2001-03-01

    . However, the plasma ASAT activity and urea concentrations at slaughter were significantly lower in the non-transported group. In both transport groups, the plasma Cortisol concentrations increased during loading onto and unloading from the lorry. Abomasal lesions were observed in all treatment groups. It was concluded that reindeer showed an acute stress response to manual handling and transport.

  18. Identification of an Efflux Transporter LmrB Regulating Stress Response and Extracellular Polysaccharide Synthesis in Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efflux transporters have been implicated in regulating bacterial virulence properties such as resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation and colonization. The pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, relies on the bacterium’s ability to form biofilms on tooth surface. However, the studies on efflux transporters in S. mutans are scare and the function of these transporters remained to be clarified. In this study, we identified an efflux transporter (LmrB in S. mutans through cloning the lmrB gene into Escherichia coli. Introducing lmrB into E. coli conferred a multidrug-resistant phenotype and resulted in higher EtBr efflux activity which could be suppressed by efflux inhibitor. To explore whether LmrB was involved in S. mutans virulence properties regulation, we constructed the lmrB inactivation mutant and examined the phenotypes of the mutant. It was found that LmrB deficiency resulted in increased IPS storage and prolonged acid production. Enhanced biofilm formation characterized by increased extracellular polysaccharides (EPS production and elevated resistance to hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobials were also observed in lmrB mutant. To gain a better understanding of the global role of LmrB, a transcriptome analysis was performed using lmrB mutant strain. The expression of 107 genes was up- or down-regulated in the lmrB mutant compared with the wild type. Notably, expression of genes in several genomic islands was differentially modulated, such as stress-related GroELS and scnRK, sugar metabolism associated glg operons and msmREFGK transporter. The results presented here indicate that LmrB plays a vital global role in the regulation of several important virulence properties in S. mutans.

  19. Seasonal variability of oxidative stress markers in city bus drivers. Part II. Oxidative damage to lipids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2008-07-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variability of markers of oxidative damage to lipids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 15-F2t-IsoP) and proteins (protein carbonyl levels) in 50 bus drivers and 50 controls from Prague, Czech Republic, and to identify factors affecting oxidative stress markers. The samples were collected in three seasons with different levels of air pollution. The exposure to environmental pollutants (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, c-PAHs, particulate matter, PM2.5 and PM10, and volatile organic compounds, VOC) was monitored by personal and/or stationary monitors. For the analysis of both markers, ELISA techniques were used. The median levels of individual markers in bus drivers versus controls were as follows: 15-F2t-IsoP (nmol/mmol creatinine): winter 2005, 0.81 versus 0.68 (pbus drivers in winter seasons, but not in summer. Lipid peroxidation was positively correlated with c-PAHs and PM exposure; protein oxidation correlated negatively and was highest in summer suggesting another factor(s) affecting protein carbonyl levels.

  20. On Displacement Height, from Classical to Practical Formulation: Stress, Turbulent Transport and Vorticity Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget...

  1. Localisation of selected Ca2+-transport systems in rat's heart and kidney and their modulation by stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacikova, L.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the identification of selected calcium transport systems and their modulation by immobilization stress in rat heart and kidney. In our experiments we used normotensive (Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Kyoto) and hypertensive (SHR) strains. We compared mRNA levels, protein expression and activity of the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger from hearts of control animals, animals subjected to a single (once) or repeated (seven times) immobilization stress and from animals treated continually with cortisol. We have observed that immobilization stress increased both, gene expression and protein message of the Na + /Ca 2 + exchanger in rat cardiac left, but not right ventricle. This effect is not mediated through the glucocorticoid responsive element. We have found that cortisol decreased activity of the N a +/Ca 2+ exchanger without changing expression and protein amount of this transport system. IP3 receptor of type I and 2 was detected on mRNA levels in rat cardiac atria. Very small amounts of these receptors were observed in rat cardiac ventricles. Since it was difficult to detect these amounts in ventricles, we used 'seminested' PCR to verify expression of IP 3 R1 and 2 in cardiac ventricles. The highest levels of IP 3 R1 and 2 were expressed in left atria. Immobilization stress significantly increased mRNA IP 3 R1 and 2 in rat cardiac atria. We observed both, mRNA and type 1 IP 3 receptor's protein in renal medulla, but not in renal cortex. We have found that this receptor was approximately twice as abundant in normotensive as in genetically hypertensive rat kidney. Immobilization stress significantly down-regulated IP 3 R1 in renal medulla, but not in renal cortex. To investigate the role of NAADP in signaling we measured 45 Ca 2+ release from rat cardiac microsomes. We examined concentration and time dependence of 45 Ca 2+ release from rat cardiac microsomes. All these results could contribute to the understanding of Ca 2+ modulation in cardiac and kidney under

  2. Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Wakana; Kimura, Shunsuke; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Irié, Tarou; Izumi, Hironori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hara, Takafumi; Ohara, Osamu; Koseki, Haruhiko; Sato, Toshiro; Robine, Sylvie; Mori, Hisashi; Hattori, Yuichi; Mishima, Kenji; Ohno, Hiroshi; Hase, Koji; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27736879

  3. Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Ohashi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

  4. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  5. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  6. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Grandin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship.

  7. Cellular stress stimulates nuclear localization signal (NLS) independent nuclear transport of MRJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joel F.; Sykora, Landon J.; Barik-Letostak, Tiasha; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Mitra, Aparna; Barik, Sailen; Shevde, Lalita A.; Samant, Rajeev S.

    2012-01-01

    HSP40 family member MRJ (DNAJB6) has been in the spot light for its relevance to Huntington’s, Parkinson’s diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, placental development, neural stem cells, cell cycle and malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. This gene has two spliced variants coding for 2 distinct proteins with significant homology. However, MRJ(L) (large variant) is predominantly localized to the nucleus whereas MRJ(S) (small variant) is predominantly cytoplasmic. Interestingly MRJ(S) translocates to the nucleus in response to heat shock. The classical heat shock proteins respond to crises (stress) by increasing the number of molecules, usually by transcriptional up-regulation. Our studies imply that a quick increase in the molar concentration of MRJ in the nuclear compartment is a novel method by which MRJ responds to stress. We found that MRJ(S) shows NLS (nuclear localization signal) independent nuclear localization in response to heat shock and hypoxia. The specificity of this response is realized due to lack of such response by MRJ(S) when challenged by other stressors, such as some cytokines or UV light. Deletion analysis has allowed us to narrow down on a 20 amino acid stretch at the C-terminal region of MRJ(S) as a potential stress sensing region. Functional studies indicated that constitutive nuclear localization of MRJ(S) promoted attributes of malignancy such as proliferation and invasiveness overall indicating distinct phenotypic characteristics of nuclear MRJ(S). PMID:22504047

  8. Cellular stress stimulates nuclear localization signal (NLS) independent nuclear transport of MRJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Joel F.; Sykora, Landon J.; Barik Letostak, Tiasha; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Mitra, Aparna; Barik, Sailen; Shevde, Lalita A.; Samant, Rajeev S.

    2012-01-01

    HSP40 family member MRJ (DNAJB6) has been in the spot light for its relevance to Huntington's, Parkinson's diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, placental development, neural stem cells, cell cycle and malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. This gene has two spliced variants coding for 2 distinct proteins with significant homology. However, MRJ(L) (large variant) is predominantly localized to the nucleus whereas MRJ(S) (small variant) is predominantly cytoplasmic. Interestingly MRJ(S) translocates to the nucleus in response to heat shock. The classical heat shock proteins respond to crises (stress) by increasing the number of molecules, usually by transcriptional up-regulation. Our studies imply that a quick increase in the molar concentration of MRJ in the nuclear compartment is a novel method by which MRJ responds to stress. We found that MRJ(S) shows NLS (nuclear localization signal) independent nuclear localization in response to heat shock and hypoxia. The specificity of this response is realized due to lack of such response by MRJ(S) when challenged by other stressors, such as some cytokines or UV light. Deletion analysis has allowed us to narrow down on a 20 amino acid stretch at the C-terminal region of MRJ(S) as a potential stress sensing region. Functional studies indicated that constitutive nuclear localization of MRJ(S) promoted attributes of malignancy such as proliferation and invasiveness overall indicating distinct phenotypic characteristics of nuclear MRJ(S).

  9. Cellular stress stimulates nuclear localization signal (NLS) independent nuclear transport of MRJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Joel F.; Sykora, Landon J.; Barik Letostak, Tiasha; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Mitra, Aparna [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Barik, Sailen [Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, College of Science, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shevde, Lalita A. [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Samant, Rajeev S., E-mail: rsamant@usouthal.edu [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)

    2012-06-10

    HSP40 family member MRJ (DNAJB6) has been in the spot light for its relevance to Huntington's, Parkinson's diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, placental development, neural stem cells, cell cycle and malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. This gene has two spliced variants coding for 2 distinct proteins with significant homology. However, MRJ(L) (large variant) is predominantly localized to the nucleus whereas MRJ(S) (small variant) is predominantly cytoplasmic. Interestingly MRJ(S) translocates to the nucleus in response to heat shock. The classical heat shock proteins respond to crises (stress) by increasing the number of molecules, usually by transcriptional up-regulation. Our studies imply that a quick increase in the molar concentration of MRJ in the nuclear compartment is a novel method by which MRJ responds to stress. We found that MRJ(S) shows NLS (nuclear localization signal) independent nuclear localization in response to heat shock and hypoxia. The specificity of this response is realized due to lack of such response by MRJ(S) when challenged by other stressors, such as some cytokines or UV light. Deletion analysis has allowed us to narrow down on a 20 amino acid stretch at the C-terminal region of MRJ(S) as a potential stress sensing region. Functional studies indicated that constitutive nuclear localization of MRJ(S) promoted attributes of malignancy such as proliferation and invasiveness overall indicating distinct phenotypic characteristics of nuclear MRJ(S).

  10. Cellular stress stimulates nuclear localization signal (NLS) independent nuclear transport of MRJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Joel F.; Sykora, Landon J.; Barik Letostak, Tiasha; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Mitra, Aparna [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Barik, Sailen [Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, College of Science, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shevde, Lalita A. [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Samant, Rajeev S., E-mail: rsamant@usouthal.edu [Department of Oncologic Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)

    2012-06-10

    HSP40 family member MRJ (DNAJB6) has been in the spot light for its relevance to Huntington's, Parkinson's diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, placental development, neural stem cells, cell cycle and malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. This gene has two spliced variants coding for 2 distinct proteins with significant homology. However, MRJ(L) (large variant) is predominantly localized to the nucleus whereas MRJ(S) (small variant) is predominantly cytoplasmic. Interestingly MRJ(S) translocates to the nucleus in response to heat shock. The classical heat shock proteins respond to crises (stress) by increasing the number of molecules, usually by transcriptional up-regulation. Our studies imply that a quick increase in the molar concentration of MRJ in the nuclear compartment is a novel method by which MRJ responds to stress. We found that MRJ(S) shows NLS (nuclear localization signal) independent nuclear localization in response to heat shock and hypoxia. The specificity of this response is realized due to lack of such response by MRJ(S) when challenged by other stressors, such as some cytokines or UV light. Deletion analysis has allowed us to narrow down on a 20 amino acid stretch at the C-terminal region of MRJ(S) as a potential stress sensing region. Functional studies indicated that constitutive nuclear localization of MRJ(S) promoted attributes of malignancy such as proliferation and invasiveness overall indicating distinct phenotypic characteristics of nuclear MRJ(S).

  11. Allocation, stress tolerance and carbon transport in plants: how does phloem physiology affect plant ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica A; Clearwater, Michael J; Haines, Dustin F; Klein, Tamir; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Sevanto, Sanna; Turgeon, Robert; Zhang, Cankui

    2016-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of carbon transport in whole plant physiology and its impact on plant-environment interactions and ecosystem function, relatively little research has tried to examine how phloem physiology impacts plant ecology. In this review, we highlight several areas of active research where inquiry into phloem physiology has increased our understanding of whole plant function and ecological processes. We consider how xylem-phloem interactions impact plant drought tolerance and reproduction, how phloem transport influences carbon allocation in trees and carbon cycling in ecosystems and how phloem function mediates plant relations with insects, pests, microbes and symbiotes. We argue that in spite of challenges that exist in studying phloem physiology, it is critical that we consider the role of this dynamic vascular system when examining the relationship between plants and their biotic and abiotic environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Physiological effects and transport of 24-epibrassinolide in heat-stressed barley

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeczko, A.; Oklešťková, Jana; Pociecha, E.; Koscielniak, J.; Mirek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2011), s. 1249-1259 ISSN 0137-5881 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Brassinosteroid transport * Dark respiration * Hordeum vulgare L * PSII efficiency * Metabolic activity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

  13. Mannitol transport and mannitol dehydrogenase activities are coordinated in Olea europaea under salt and osmotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Silva, Paulo; Agasse, Alice; Conde, Carlos; Gerós, Hernâni

    2011-10-01

    The intracellular accumulation of organic compatible solutes functioning as osmoprotectants, such as polyols, is an important response mechanism of several plants to drought and salinity. In Olea europaea a mannitol transport system (OeMaT1) was previously characterized as a key player in plant response to salinity. In the present study, heterotrophic sink models, such as olive cell suspensions and fruit tissues, and source leaves were used for analytical, biochemical and molecular studies. The kinetic parameters of mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) determined in cells growing in mannitol, at 25°C and pH 9.0, were as follows: K(m), 54.5 mM mannitol; and V(max), 0.47 μmol h⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein. The corresponding cDNA was cloned and named OeMTD1. OeMTD1 expression was correlated with MTD activity, OeMaT1 expression and carrier-mediated mannitol transport in mannitol- and sucrose-grown cells. Furthermore, sucrose-grown cells displayed only residual OeMTD activity, even though high levels of OeMTD1 transcription were observed. There is evidence that OeMTD is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MTD activity and OeMTD1 expression were repressed after Na+, K+ and polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments, in both mannitol- and sucrose-grown cells. In contrast, salt and drought significantly increased mannitol transport activity and OeMaT1 expression. Taken together, these studies support that olive trees cope with salinity and drought by coordinating mannitol transport with intracellular metabolism.

  14. Metropolitan transportation management center : a case study : Michigan intelligent transportation system : improving safety and air quality while reducing stress for motorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The following case study provides a snapshot of Michigan's Intelligent Transportation Systems transportation management center (MITSC). It follows the outline provided in the companion document, Metropolitan Transportation Management Center Concepts ...

  15. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  16. Sediment loads and transport at constructed chutes along the Missouri River - Upper Hamburg Chute near Nebraska City, Nebraska, and Kansas Chute near Peru, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Rus, David L.; Moser, Matthew T.; Hall, Brent M.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2016-02-04

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, monitored suspended sediment within constructed Missouri River chutes during March through October 2012. Chutes were constructed at selected river bends by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to help mitigate aquatic habitat lost through the creation and maintenance of the navigation channel on the Missouri River. The restoration and development of chutes is one method for creating shallow-water habitat within the Missouri River to meet requirements established by the amended 2000 Biological Opinion. Understanding geomorphic channel-evolution processes and sediment transport is important for the design of chutes, monitoring and maintenance of existing chutes, and characterizing the habitat that the chutes provide. This report describes the methods used to monitor suspended sediment at two Missouri River chutes and presents the results of the data analysis to help understand the suspended-sediment characteristics of each chute and the effect the chutes have on the Missouri River. Upper Hamburg chute, near Nebraska City, Nebraska, and Kansas chute, near Peru, Nebraska, were selected for monitoring. At each study site, monthly discrete samples were collected from April through October in the Missouri River main-channel transects upstream from the chute inlet, downstream from the chute outlet, at the outlet (downstream transect) of both chutes, and at the inlet (upstream transect) of Kansas chute. In addition, grab samples from all chute sampling locations were collected using autosamplers. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and grain-size metrics were determined for all samples (discrete and grab). Continuous water-quality monitors recorded turbidity and water temperature at 15-minute intervals at the three chute sampling locations. Two acoustic Doppler velocimeters, one within each chute, measured water depth and current velocities continuously. The depth and velocity data were used to

  17. Big data, smart cities and city planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Michael

    2013-11-01

    I define big data with respect to its size but pay particular attention to the fact that the data I am referring to is urban data, that is, data for cities that are invariably tagged to space and time. I argue that this sort of data are largely being streamed from sensors, and this represents a sea change in the kinds of data that we have about what happens where and when in cities. I describe how the growth of big data is shifting the emphasis from longer term strategic planning to short-term thinking about how cities function and can be managed, although with the possibility that over much longer periods of time, this kind of big data will become a source for information about every time horizon. By way of conclusion, I illustrate the need for new theory and analysis with respect to 6 months of smart travel card data of individual trips on Greater London's public transport systems.

  18. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  19. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  20. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  1. The dehydration stress of couch grass is associated with its lipid metabolism, the induction of transporters and the re-programming of development coordinated by ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janská, Anna; Svoboda, Pavel; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Kučera, Ladislav; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2018-05-02

    The wild relatives of crop species represent a potentially valuable source of novel genetic variation, particularly in the context of improving the crop's level of tolerance to abiotic stress. The mechanistic basis of these tolerances remains largely unexplored. Here, the focus was to characterize the transcriptomic response of the nodes (meristematic tissue) of couch grass (a relative of barley) to dehydration stress, and to compare it to that of the barley crown formed by both a drought tolerant and a drought sensitive barley cultivar. Many of the genes up-regulated in the nodes by the stress were homologs of genes known to be mediated by abscisic acid during the response to drought, or were linked to either development or lipid metabolism. Transporters also featured prominently, as did genes acting on root architecture. The resilience of the couch grass node arise from both their capacity to develop an altered, more effective root architecture, but also from their formation of a lipid barrier on their outer surface and their ability to modify both their lipid metabolism and transporter activity when challenged by dehydration stress. Our analysis revealed the nature of dehydration stress response in couch grass. We suggested the tolerance is associated with lipid metabolism, the induction of transporters and the re-programming of development coordinated by ABA. We also proved the applicability of barley microarray for couch grass stress-response analysis.

  2. Season, Transport Duration and Trailer Compartment Effects on Blood Stress Indicators in Pigs: Relationship to Environmental, Behavioral and Other Physiological Factors, and Pork Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sommavilla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the season, travel duration and trailer compartment location on blood creatine-kinase (CK, lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT, behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Blood CK was greater in pigs transported in summer (p = 0.02, after 18 h transportation (p < 0.001 and in pigs located in C4, C5 and C10 (p = 0.002. In winter, the concentration of blood lactate was higher (p = 0.04 in pigs transported for 6 h in C5. Pigs located in C10 showed higher (p = 0.01 concentration of cortisol than those transported for 18h in C4 in summer. The highest correlations were between blood cortisol and GTT (r = 0.53; p < 0.001, and between blood CK and GTT (r = 0.41; p < 0.001, truck temperature (r = 0.42; p < 0.001, and pHu in the longissimus muscle (r = 0.41; p < 0.001. In conclusion, although increased blood cortisol and CK levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to moderate correlations with environmental and other animal welfare indicators suggest that blood stress parameters can only be used as a complementary measurement in the assessment of the pigs’ response to transport stress.

  3. Antioxidant and oxidative stress parameters in brain of Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure condition; role of mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Many fishes are exposed to air in their natural habitat or during their commercial handling. In natural habitat or during commercial handling, the cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis is exposed to air for >24h. Data on its oxidative metabolism in the above condition are not available. Oxidative stress (OS) indices (lipid and protein oxidation), toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS: H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes (complex I-IV) were investigated in brain tissue of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25°C). Decreased activities of antioxidant (except catalase) and ETC enzymes (except complex II) with increased H2O2 and OS levels were observed in the tissue under water deprivation condition. Positive correlation was observed for complex II activity and non-protein thiol groups with time period of air exposure. The critical time period to induce OS and to reduce most of the studied antioxidant level in brain was found to be 3-6h air exposure. The data can be useful to minimize the stress generated during commercial handling of the live fishes those exposed to air in general and H. fossilis in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of four phosphate transporter genes from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) in response to mycorrhizal colonization and Pi stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudake, Ramesh Namdeo; Mehta, Chandra Mohan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Sharma, Suvigya; Varma, Ajit; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a vital nutrient for plant growth and development, and is absorbed in cells with the help of membrane-spanning inorganic phosphate transporter (Pht) protein. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) also helps in transporting P from the soil to plant and Pht proteins play an important role in it. To understand this phenomenon in Finger Mille plant, we have cloned four Pht genes from Finger millet, which shares the homology with Pht1 protein family of cereals. Expression pattern analysis during the AM infection indicated that EcPT4 gene was AM specific, and its expression was higher in roots where AM colonization percentage was high. The expression level of EcPT1-4 gene under the phosphorous (Pi) stress in seedlings was found to be consistent with its role in acquisition of phosphorus. Homology study of the EcPt proteins with Pht proteins of cereals shows close relationship. The findings of the study indicate that Pht1 family genes from finger millet can serve to be an important resource for the better understanding of phosphorus use efficiency.

  5. Inhibition of macrophage oxidative stress prevents the reduction of ABCA-1 transporter induced by advanced glycated albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pinto, Raphael; Castilho, Gabriela; Paim, Bruno Alves; Machado-Lima, Adriana; Inada, Natalia M; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Vercesi, Aníbal Eugênio; Passarelli, Marisa

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the role of aminoguanidine and benfotiamine on the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in macrophages induced by advanced glycated albumin (AGE-albumin) and its relationship with cell cholesterol homeostasis, emphasizing the expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA-1). AGE-albumin was made by incubating fatty acid-free albumin with 10 mM glycolaldehyde. ROS production and ABCA-1 protein level were determined by flow cytometry in J774 macrophages treated along time with control (C) or AGE-albumin alone or in the presence of aminoguanidine or benfotiamine. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by oxygraphy. Compared to C-albumin, AGE-albumin increased ROS production in macrophages, which was ascribed to the activities of NADPH oxidase and of the mitochondrial system. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity was reduced in cells incubated with AGE-albumin. ROS generation along time was associated with the reduction in macrophage ABCA-1 protein level. Aminoguanidine prevented ROS elevation and restored the ABCA-1 content in macrophages; on the other hand, benfotiamine that promoted a lesser reduction in ROS generation was not able to restore ABCA-1 levels. Inhibition of oxidative stress induced by AGE-albumin prevents disturbances in reverse cholesterol transport by curbing the reduction of ABCA-1 elicited by advanced glycation in macrophages and therefore may contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

  6. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are becoming a reality. Various aspects of modern cities are being automated and integrated with information and communication technologies to achieve higher functionality, optimized resources utilization, and management, and improved quality of life for the residents. Smart cities...... rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...... technology is Fog Computing, which extends the traditional Cloud Computing paradigm to the edge of the network to enable localized and real-time support for operating-enhanced smart city services. However, proper integration and efficient utilization of CoT and Fog Computing is not an easy task. This paper...

  7. Serotonin and Serotonin Transporters in the Adrenal Medulla: A Potential Hub for Modulation of the Sympathetic Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Rebecca L; Bauer, Mary Beth; Blakely, Randy D; Currie, Kevin P M

    2017-05-17

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling. Experimentally, loss of SERT function (SERT knockout mice or chronic pharmacological block) has been reported to augment the sympathetic stress response. Alterations to serotonergic signaling in the CNS and thus central drive to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system are presumed to underlie this augmentation. Although less widely recognized, SERT is robustly expressed in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal chromaffin cells do not synthesize 5-HT but accumulate small amounts by SERT-mediated uptake. Recent evidence demonstrated that 5-HT 1A receptors inhibit catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells via an atypical mechanism that does not involve modulation of cellular excitability or voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. This raises the possibility that the adrenal medulla is a previously unrecognized peripheral hub for serotonergic control of the sympathetic stress response. As a framework for future investigation, a model is proposed in which stress-evoked adrenal catecholamine secretion is fine-tuned by SERT-modulated autocrine 5-HT signaling.

  8. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    is therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics...... dialectic forces were at play. City logistics schemes are still in an innovation phase. The biggest challenge in managing a process toward city logistics is to convince the many public and private stakeholders of their mutual interest and goals. Research limitations/implications: – Urban goods transport...... city logistics projects may fail. Thereby, cities become more environmentally and socially sustainable. Originality/value: – Insights into a city logistics project from a change management perspective has not previously been reported in literature....

  9. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  10. Design for limit stresses of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis under axial and radial compression as related to transportation and storage design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article employed the Hertz contact stress theory and the finite element method to evaluate the maximum contact pressure and the limit stresses of orange fruit under transportation and storage. The elastic properties of orange fruits subjected to axial and axial contact were measured such that elastic limit force, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and bioyield stress were obtained as 18 N, 0.691 MPa, 0.367, 0.009 MPa for axial compression and for radial loading were 15.69 N, 0.645 MPa, 0.123, 0.010 MPa. The Hertz maximum contact pressure was estimated for axial and radial contacts as 0.036 MPa. The estimated limiting yield stress estimated as von Mises stresses for the induced surface stresses of the orange topologies varied from 0.005 MPa–0.03 MPa. Based on the distortion energy theory (DET the yield strength of orange fruit is recommended as 0.03 MPa while based on the maximum shear stress theory (MSST is 0.01 MPa for the design of orange transportation and storage system.

  11. Effect of heat stress on the gene expression of ion transporters/channels in the uterus of laying hens during eggshell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Shahab; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Heat stress is a problem in laying hens as it decreases egg quality by decreasing eggshell mineralization. Heat stress alters gene expression, hence our aim was to investigate effects of heat stress on gene expression of ion transport elements involving in uterine mineralization (TRPV6, CALB1, ITPR3, SCNN1G, SLC4A4, KCNJ15, SLC4A9, and CLCN2) by real time quantitative PCR. Forty 23-week-old White Leghorn laying hens were housed in two rooms. The control group (n = 20) was maintained at 21-23 °C, and the heat stress group (n = 20) was exposed to 36-38 °C for 8 weeks. All parameters of egg quality including egg weight, surface area, volume, and eggshell weight, thickness, ash weight, and calcium content were decreased in the heat stress group compared to the control group (by 26.9%, 32.7%, 44.1%, 38.4%, 31.7%, 39.4%, and 11.1%, respectively). Total plasma calcium was decreased by 13.4%. Levels of ITPR3, SLC4A4, and SLC4A9 transcripts in the uterine lining were decreased in the heat stress group compared to the control group (by 61.4%, 66.1%, and 66.1%, respectively). CALB1 transcript level was increased (by 34.2 fold) in the heat stress group of hens compared to controls. TRPV6, SCNN1G, KCNJ15, and CLCN2 transcript levels did not significantly differ between control and heat stress groups of laying hens. It is concluded that the down-expression of ITPR3, SLC4A4, and SLC4A9 genes may impair transportation of Cl - , HCO 3 - , and Na + in eggshell mineralization during heat stress. Increased CALB1 gene expression may increase resistance of uterine cells to detrimental effects of heat stress.

  12. Aspergillus fumigatus mitochondrial electron transport chain mediates oxidative stress homeostasis, hypoxia responses and fungal pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahl, Nora; Dinamarco, Taisa Magnani; Willger, Sven D; Goldman, Gustavo H; Cramer, Robert A

    2012-04-01

    We previously observed that hypoxia is an important component of host microenvironments during pulmonary fungal infections. However, mechanisms of fungal growth in these in vivo hypoxic conditions are poorly understood. Here, we report that mitochondrial respiration is active in hypoxia (1% oxygen) and critical for fungal pathogenesis. We generated Aspergillus fumigatus alternative oxidase (aoxA) and cytochrome C (cycA) null mutants and assessed their ability to tolerate hypoxia, macrophage killing and virulence. In contrast to ΔaoxA, ΔcycA was found to be significantly impaired in conidia germination, growth in normoxia and hypoxia, and displayed attenuated virulence. Intriguingly, loss of cycA results in increased levels of AoxA activity, which results in increased resistance to oxidative stress, macrophage killing and long-term persistence in murine lungs. Thus, our results demonstrate a previously unidentified role for fungal mitochondrial respiration in the pathogenesis of aspergillosis, and lay the foundation for future research into its role in hypoxia signalling and adaptation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  14. Development of an Effective Transport Media for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon to Mitigate Stress and Improve Smolt Survival During Columbia River Fish Hauling Operations, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1985-02-01

    Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survival and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

  15. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  16. Hamilton : the electric city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R [Richard Gilbert Consultant, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-04-13

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    2006-01-01

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  19. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  20. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasso Loredana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  1. Caveolin-1 and glucose transporter 4 involved in the regulation of glucose-deprivation stress in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Huang, Liang; Han, Chao; Guan, Xin; Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Jing; Wan, Jing-Hua; Zou, Wei

    2015-08-25

    Recent evidence suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the major protein constituent of caveolae, plays a prominent role in neuronal nutritional availability with cellular fate regulation besides in several cellular processes such as cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of signal transduction, integrin signaling and cell growth. Here, we aimed to investigate the function of Cav-1 and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) upon glucose deprivation (GD) in PC12 cells. The results demonstrated firstly that both Cav-1 and GLUT4 were up-regulated by glucose withdrawal in PC12 cells by using Western blot and laser confocal technology. Also, we found that the cell death rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were also respectively changed followed the GD stress tested by CCK8 and flow cytometry. After knocking down of Cav-1 in the cells by siRNA, the level of [Ca(2+)]i was increased, and MMP was reduced further in GD-treated PC12 cells. Knockdown of Cav-1 or methylated-β-Cyclodextrin (M-β-CD) treatment inhibited the expression of GLUT4 protein upon GD. Additionally, we found that GLUT4 could translocate from cytoplasm to cell membrane upon GD. These findings might suggest a neuroprotective role for Cav-1, through coordination of GLUT4 in GD.

  2. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  3. Three-dimensional multi-phase flow computational fluid dynamics model for analysis of transport phenomena and thermal stresses in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, A.R.; Al-Baghdadi, S. [International Technological Univ., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Haroun, A.K.; Al-Janabi, S. [Babylon Univ., Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Fuel cell technology is expected to play an important role in meeting the growing demand for distributed generation because it can convert the chemical energy of a clean fuel directly into electrical energy. An operating fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature, humidity, and power generation across the active area of the fuel cell in 3D. This paper presented a model that was developed to improve the basic understanding of the transport phenomena and thermal stresses in PEM fuel cells, and to investigate the behaviour of polymer membrane under hygro and thermal stresses during the cell operation. This comprehensive 3D, multiphase, non-isothermal model accounts for the major transport phenomena in a PEM fuel cell, notably convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer; electrode kinetics; transport and phase change mechanism of water; and potential fields. The model accounts for the liquid water flux inside the gas diffusion layers by viscous and capillary forces and can therefore predict the amount of liquid water inside the gas diffusion layers. This study also investigated the key parameters affecting fuel cell performance including geometry, materials and operating conditions. The model considers the many interacting, complex electrochemical, transport phenomena, thermal stresses and deformation that cannot be studied experimentally. It was concluded that the model can provide a computer-aided tool for the design and optimization of future fuel cells with much higher power density and lower cost. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  4. DsSWEET17, a Tonoplast-Localized Sugar Transporter from Dianthus spiculifolius, Affects Sugar Metabolism and Confers Multiple Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters affect the growth of plants by regulating the transport of sugar from source to sink and its intracellular transport between different organelles. In this study, DsSWEET17 from Dianthus spiculifolius was identified and characterized. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression of DsSWEET17 was affected by exogenous application of fructose and glucose as well as under salt, osmotic, and oxidation stress. Colocalization experiments showed that the DsSWEET17-GFP (green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized to the FM4-64-labeled tonoplasts in Arabidopsis. Compared to the wild type, the transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing DsSWEET17 had longer roots, greater fresh weight, and a faster root growth upon exogenous application of fructose. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings had significantly higher fructose accumulation than was observed for the wild-type seedlings. The analysis of root length revealed that transgenic Arabidopsis had higher tolerance to salt, osmotic, and oxidative stresses. Taken together, our results suggest that DsSWEET17 may be a tonoplast sugar transporter, and its overexpression affects sugar metabolism and confers multiple stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  5. DsSWEET17, a Tonoplast-Localized Sugar Transporter from Dianthus spiculifolius, Affects Sugar Metabolism and Confers Multiple Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aimin; Ma, Hongping; Feng, Shuang; Gong, Shufang; Wang, Jingang

    2018-05-24

    Plant SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters) affect the growth of plants by regulating the transport of sugar from source to sink and its intracellular transport between different organelles. In this study, DsSWEET17 from Dianthus spiculifolius was identified and characterized. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression of DsSWEET17 was affected by exogenous application of fructose and glucose as well as under salt, osmotic, and oxidation stress. Colocalization experiments showed that the DsSWEET17-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein was localized to the FM4-64-labeled tonoplasts in Arabidopsis . Compared to the wild type, the transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing DsSWEET17 had longer roots, greater fresh weight, and a faster root growth upon exogenous application of fructose. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings had significantly higher fructose accumulation than was observed for the wild-type seedlings. The analysis of root length revealed that transgenic Arabidopsis had higher tolerance to salt, osmotic, and oxidative stresses. Taken together, our results suggest that DsSWEET17 may be a tonoplast sugar transporter, and its overexpression affects sugar metabolism and confers multiple stress tolerance in Arabidopsis .

  6. Molecular analysis of the role of osmolyte transporters opuCA and betL in Listeria monocytogenes after cold and freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Hanene; Elabed, Hamouda; Ben Slama, Rihab; Rhim, Amel; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of humans and other animals. The striking ability to survive several stresses usually used for food preservation makes L. monocytogenes one of the biggest concerns to the food industry. This ubiquity can be partly explained by the ability of the organism to grow and persist at very low temperatures, a consequence of its ability to accumulate cryoprotective compound called osmolytes. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was used to measure mRNA transcript accumulation for the stress response genes opuCA and betL (encoding carnitine and betaine transporters, respectively) and the housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. Assays were conducted on mid-exponential phase L. monocytogenes cells exposed to conditions reflecting cold and freezing stress, conditions usually used to preserve foods. We showed that expression of the two cold-adapted genes encoded the transporters of the cryoprotectants carnitine and betaine in ATCC 19115 and the food-isolated L. monocytogenes S1 is induced after cold and freezing stress exposure. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding opuCA and betL revealed that each transporter is induced to different degrees upon cold shock of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and S1. Our results confirm an increase in carnitine uptake at low temperatures more than in betaine after cold-shocked temperature compared to the non-stress control treatment. It was concluded the use of carnitine and betaine as cryoprotectants is essential for rapid induction of the tested stress response under conditions typically encountered during food preservation.

  7. Cities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Elming, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a community-driven science gaming project where students in collaboration with urban planners and youth project workers in the City of Copenhagen used Minecreaft to redesign their neighbourhood to generate solutions to problems in their local area. The project involved 25...... administrated by the City of Copenhagen. Resources were allocated for one of these projects to recondition the subsidized housing for this area. A community-driven science gaming process was designed in which overall challenges for redesign, defined by urban planners, were given to the students to highlight...... for redesigning the neighbourhood in Minecraft and LEGO. These were presented to City of Copenhagen architects and urban planners as well as the head of the Department of Transport, Technology and Environment. Overall the study showed that tasks focused on solving local living problems through neighbourhood...

  8. Mobilities, Futures & the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Kesselring, Sven

    2016-01-01

    significant attention to these shifts in societies’ discursive patterns and structures. For making up powerful and strong visions and policies for sustainable cities, ‘collaborative storytelling’ plays a key role. The theoretical outset for the research project ‘Mobilities, Futures & the City’, which grounds......The future of cities and regions will be strongly shaped by the mobilities of people, goods, modes of transport, waste and information. In many ways, the ‘why and ‘for what’ often get lost in discourses on planning and designing mobilities. The predominant planning paradigm still conceptualizes...... the future of cities and mobilities as a matter of rather more efficient technologies than of social cohesion, integration and connectivity. Sustainable mobility needs the mobilities of ideas and concepts and the reflexivity of policies. Communicative planning theory and the ‘argumentative turn’ have given...

  9. Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako

    2010-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...

  10. Estrés laboral, factores de riesgo psicosociales extralaborales e intralaborales en una empresa prestadora de servicios en salud ocupacional de la ciudad de Santa Marta.Job stress, psychosocial risk factors in a company in city Santa Marta.

    OpenAIRE

    Suescún, Jesús David; Socarras Plaza, Ximena; Hernández Remolina, Karolayn; Rhenals Bandera, Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    Estrés laboral, factores de riesgo psicosociales extralaborales e intralaborales en una empresa prestadora de servicios en salud ocupacional de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Job stress, psychosocial risk factors both inside and outside work, in a company that provides occupational health services in the city of Santa Marta.  Resumen El artículo presenta resultados de la investigación realizada sobre los factores de riesgo psicosociales laborales y el estrés, tema que en la actualidad representan ...

  11. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  13. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and brain function during emotional distraction from cognitive processing in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonergic system dysfunction has been implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Genetic polymorphisms associated with serotonin signaling may predict differences in brain circuitry involved in emotion processing and deficits associated with PTSD. In healthy individuals, common functional polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 have been shown to modulate amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC activity in response to salient emotional stimuli. Similar patterns of differential neural responses to emotional stimuli have been demonstrated in PTSD but genetic factors influencing these activations have yet to be examined. Methods We investigated whether SLC6A4 promoter polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR, rs25531 and several downstream single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs modulated activity of brain regions involved in the cognitive control of emotion in post-9/11 veterans with PTSD. We used functional MRI to examine neural activity in a PTSD group (n = 22 and a trauma-exposed control group (n = 20 in response to trauma-related images presented as task-irrelevant distractors during the active maintenance period of a delayed-response working memory task. Regions of interest were derived by contrasting activation for the most distracting and least distracting conditions across participants. Results In patients with PTSD, when compared to trauma-exposed controls, rs16965628 (associated with serotonin transporter gene expression modulated task-related ventrolateral PFC activation and 5-HTTLPR tended to modulate left amygdala activation. Subsequent to combat-related trauma, these SLC6A4 polymorphisms may bias serotonin signaling and the neural circuitry mediating cognitive control of emotion in patients with PTSD. Conclusions The SLC6A4 SNP rs16965628 and 5-HTTLPR are associated with a bias in neural responses to traumatic reminders and cognitive control of emotions in patients with PTSD. Functional MRI may help identify

  14. Increased free Zn2+ correlates induction of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum stress via altered expression levels of Zn2+ -transporters in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgar, Yusuf; Durak, Aysegul; Tuncay, Erkan; Bitirim, Ceylan Verda; Ozcinar, Evren; Inan, Mustafa Bahadir; Tokcaer-Keskin, Zeynep; Akcali, Kamil Can; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan; Turan, Belma

    2018-03-01

    Zn 2+ -homoeostasis including free Zn 2+ ([Zn 2+ ] i ) is regulated through Zn 2+ -transporters and their comprehensive understanding may be important due to their contributions to cardiac dysfunction. Herein, we aimed to examine a possible role of Zn 2+ -transporters in the development of heart failure (HF) via induction of ER stress. We first showed localizations of ZIP8, ZIP14 and ZnT8 to both sarcolemma and S(E)R in ventricular cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) using confocal together with calculated Pearson's coefficients. The expressions of ZIP14 and ZnT8 were significantly increased with decreased ZIP8 level in HF. Moreover, [Zn 2+ ] i was significantly high in doxorubicin-treated H9c2 cells compared to their controls. We found elevated levels of ER stress markers, GRP78 and CHOP/Gadd153, confirming the existence of ER stress. Furthermore, we measured markedly increased total PKC and PKCα expression and PKCα-phosphorylation in HF. A PKC inhibition induced significant decrease in expressions of these ER stress markers compared to controls. Interestingly, direct increase in [Zn 2+ ] i using zinc-ionophore induced significant increase in these markers. On the other hand, when we induced ER stress directly with tunicamycin, we could not observe any effect on expression levels of these Zn 2+ transporters. Additionally, increased [Zn 2+ ] i could induce marked activation of PKCα. Moreover, we observed marked decrease in [Zn 2+ ] i under PKC inhibition in H9c2 cells. Overall, our present data suggest possible role of Zn 2+ transporters on an intersection pathway with increased [Zn 2+ ] i and PKCα activation and induction of HF, most probably via development of ER stress. Therefore, our present data provide novel information how a well-controlled [Zn 2+ ] i via Zn 2+ transporters and PKCα can be important therapeutic approach in prevention/treatment of HF. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and

  15. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  16. Environmental stress affects DNA methylation of a CpG rich promoter region of serotonin transporter gene in a nurse cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka S Alasaari

    Full Text Available Shift-working nurses are exposed to a stressful work environment, which puts them at an increased risk for burnout and depression. We explored the effect of environmental stress on serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 promoter methylation among nurses from high and low work stress environments.Using bisulfite sequencing, we investigated the methylation status of five CpG residues of a CpG-rich region in the promoter of SLC6A4 by comparing female shift working nurses from a high work stress environment (n = 24 to low work stress environment (n = 25. We also analyzed the association of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism at 5' end of SLC6A4. Work stress was assessed by the Karasek's Model and possible signs of burnout or depression were measured by the Maslach Burnout Index General Survey and Beck Depression Index. Methylation levels were assessed by bisulfite sequencing of DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Restriction enzyme treatment followed by standard PCR was used to identify 5-HTTLPR genotypes.We found that nurses in the high stress environment had significantly lower promoter methylation levels at all five CpG residues compared to nurses in the low stress environment (p<0.01. There was no significant interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype and work stress with methylation (p = 0.58. In unadjusted (bivariate analysis, burnout was not significantly associated to methylation levels. However, when mutually adjusted for both, burnout and work stress were significant contributors (p = 0.038 and p<0.0001 respectively to methylation levels.Our findings show that environmental stress is concurrent with decreased methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter. This may lead to increased transcriptional activity of the gene, increased reuptake of serotonin from synaptic clefts, and termination of the activity of serotonin. This could present a possible coping mechanism for environmental stress in humans that could eventually increase risk for disturbed functional

  17. The Arabidopsis thaliana RNA editing factor SLO2, which affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, participates in multiple stress and hormone responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Zhang, Chunyi; Mühlenbock, Per; Eastmond, Peter J; Valcke, Roland; De Coninck, Barbara; Oden, Sevgi; Karampelias, Michael; Cammue, Bruno P A; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2014-02-01

    Recently, we reported that the novel mitochondrial RNA editing factor SLO2 is essential for mitochondrial electron transport, and vital for plant growth through regulation of carbon and energy metabolism. Here, we show that mutation in SLO2 causes hypersensitivity to ABA and insensitivity to ethylene, suggesting a link with stress responses. Indeed, slo2 mutants are hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stress during the germination stage, while adult plants show increased drought and salt tolerance. Moreover, slo2 mutants are more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea infection. An increased expression of nuclear-encoded stress-responsive genes, as well as mitochondrial-encoded NAD genes of complex I and genes of the alternative respiratory pathway, was observed in slo2 mutants, further enhanced by ABA treatment. In addition, H2O2 accumulation and altered amino acid levels were recorded in slo2 mutants. We conclude that SLO2 is required for plant sensitivity to ABA, ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress. Although two stress-related RNA editing factors were reported very recently, this study demonstrates a unique role of SLO2, and further supports a link between mitochondrial RNA editing events and stress response.

  18. Benzocaína sobre respostas ao estresse do matrinxã submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos Benzocaine on the stress response of matrinxã subjected to transport in plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Hackbarth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O transporte é uma prática de manejo necessária em todas as estações de piscicultura. Entretanto, tal evento é um estímulo adverso e agudo, que interrompe o equilíbrio dos animais com o ambiente, de forma a promover o estresse. Alguns peixes de importância comercial, como o matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, apresentam movimentação excessiva durante o manejo em geral, o que pode ocasionar consequências indesejáveis como perda de muco, de escamas, ferimentos e mortalidade. No presente trabalho, foi testado o anestésico benzocaína adicionado à água de transporte, como forma de reduzir estresse. Foram testadas duas concentrações de benzocaína, 10 e 15mg/L. Os resultados não mostraram efeitos de diminuição de estresse, apesar de a utilização da benzocaína ter reduzido a movimentação dos animais durante o transporte. As concentrações testadas podem ter aumentado o estresse por sofrimento respiratório, entretanto, o equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico não foi alterado, com sugestão de ação do anestésico sobre a liberação de catecolaminas.Transport is a necessary procedure in fish farming. However, it is an adverse and acute stimulus that breaks the balance between fish and environment, starting the stress condition. Some economic relevant species, as “matrinxã” (Brycon amazonicus, present excessive movements in handling, which may result in the unwanted consequences as loss of mucus, scales, injuries and death. In this work, the addition of the anesthetic benzocaine to the transport water was evaluated in juvenile “matrinxã”, in order to still the fish and possibly reducing stress. Two concentrations of benzocaine (10 and 15mg/L were tested. The results did not show any diminution of indices related to stress, notwithstanding the use of benzocaine during transport. Concentrations tested increased the stress responses by respiratory affliction, however, hydro-electrolytic balance was unaltered, being suggested some

  19. Urban Form and City Life

    OpenAIRE

    Luque-Valdivia, J. (José)

    2011-01-01

    The compact city is often presented as an answer to sustainable urban development, the paper tries to stress the influence of urban form of the compact city itself in the kind of civic life La ciudad compacta se presenta con frecuencia como una respuesta al desarrollo urbano sostenible; el paper trata de identificar la influencia la forma urbana propia de la ciudad compacta en el tipo de vida ciudadana

  20. Aloe vera enhances the innate immune response of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) after transport stress and combined heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Sabioni, Rafael E; Montoya, Luz Natalia F; Favero, Gisele; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2017-06-01

    In this study, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) were fed with diets containing Aloe vera for 10 days prior to transport stress and infection with heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila. A. vera is popular around the world due to its medicinal properties, including immunostimulatory effects which was observed in this study. The results show that transport causes immunosuppression, an effect that was prevented by A. vera. Specifically, A. vera prevented reductions of both leukocyte respiratory burst and hemolytic activity of complement system caused by transport. Further, fish fed with A. vera also showed significantly higher leukocyte respiratory burst, serum lysozyme concentrations and activity of complement system 24 h after bacterial infection. Additionally, we observed that A. vera may modulate the innate response through activation of complement system during bacterial immune stimulation. In summary, A. vera extract enhanced innate immune parameters and consequently the ability of fish to cope with pathogens following transport stress. These findings show that A. vera has promise for use in aquaculture and add further evidence that medicinal herbs added to fish feed assist to prevent disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Function of transport H+-ATPases in plant cell plasma and vacuolar membranes of maize under salt stress conditions and effect of adaptogenic preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybchenko, Zh I; Palladina, T O

    2011-01-01

    Participations of electrogenic H+-pumps of plasma and vacuolar membranes represented by E1-E2 and V-type H+-ATPases in plant cell adaptation to salt stress conditions has been studied by determination of their transport activities. Experiments were carried out on corn seedlings exposed during 1 or 10 days at 0.1 M NaCl. Preparations Methyure and Ivine were used by seed soaking at 10(-7) M. Plasma and vacuolar membrane fractions were isolated from corn seedling roots. In variants without NaCl a hydrolytical activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase was increased with seedling age and its transport one was changed insignificantly, wherease the response of the weaker vacuolar H+-ATPase was opposite. NaCl exposition decreased hydrolytical activities of both H+-ATPases and increased their transport ones. These results demonstrated amplification of H+-pumps function especially represented by vacuolar H+-ATPase. Both preparations, Methyure mainly, caused a further increase of transport activity which was more expressed in NaCl variants. Obtained results showed the important role of these H+-pumps in plant adaptation under salt stress conditions realized by energetical maintenance of the secondary active Na+/H+ -antiporters which remove Na+ from cytoplasm.

  2. The District Capital, City of Toyota : experiments of advanced transportation information, park and ride at events, shared use of low emission vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-09

    On Thursday, November 9, 2000, the Benefits, Evaluation and Costs (BEC) Committee of ITS America hosted a workshop entitled International Workshop on ITS Benefits: How Evaluation Results Are Used in Transportation Decision-Making in Turin, Ital...

  3. Genome-wide expression analysis of rice ABC transporter family across spatio-temporal samples and in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Moon, Sunok; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Although the super family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins plays key roles in the physiology and development of plants, the functions of members of this interesting family mostly remain to be clarified, especially in crop plants. Thus, systematic analysis of this family in rice (Oryza sativa), a major model crop plant, will be helpful in the design of effective strategies for functional analysis. Phylogenomic analysis that integrates anatomy and stress meta-profiling data based on a large collection of rice Affymetrix array data into the phylogenic context provides useful clues into the functions for each of the ABC transporter family members in rice. Using anatomy data, we identified 17 root-preferred and 16-shoot preferred genes at the vegetative stage, and 3 pollen, 2 embryo, 2 ovary, 2 endosperm, and 1 anther-preferred gene at the reproductive stage. The stress data revealed significant up-regulation or down-regulation of 47 genes under heavy metal treatment, 16 genes under nutrient deficient conditions, and 51 genes under abiotic stress conditions. Of these, we confirmed the differential expression patterns of 14 genes in root samples exposed to drought stress using quantitative real-time PCR. Network analysis using RiceNet suggests a functional gene network involving nine rice ABC transporters that are differentially regulated by drought stress in root, further enhancing the prediction of biological function. Our analysis provides a molecular basis for the study of diverse biological phenomena mediated by the ABC family in rice and will contribute to the enhancement of crop yield and stress tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  5. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...

  6. [WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment.

  7. Heat indicators of oxidative stress, inflammation and metal transport show dependence of cadmium pollution history in the liver of female zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing-Ling; Guo, Sai-Nan; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Xia, Hu

    2017-10-01

    Environmental stressors such as high temperature and metal exposure may occur sequentially, simultaneously, previously in aquatic ecosystems. However, information about whether responses to high temperature depend on Cd exposure history is still unknown in fish. Zebrafish were exposed to 0 (group 1), 2.5 (group 2) and 5μg/L (group 3) cadmium (Cd) for 10 weeks, and then each group was subjected to Cd-free water maintained at 26°C and 32°C for 7days respectively. 26 indicators were used to compare differences between 26°C and 32°C in the liver of female zebrafish, including 5 biochemical indicators (activity of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and iNOS; LPO; MT protein), 8 molecular indicators of oxidative stress (mRNA levels of Nrf2, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, HSF1, HSF2, HSP70, MTF-1 and MT), 5 molecular indicators of inflammation (mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS and NF-κB), 8 molecular indicators of metal transport (mRNA levels of, ZnT1, ZnT5, ZIP8, ZIP10, ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1). All biochemical indicators were unchanged in group 1 and changed in group 2 and 3. Contrarily, differences were observed in almost all of molecular indicators of inflammation and metal transport in group 1, about half in group 2, and few in group 3. We also found that all molecular indicators of oxidative stress in group 2 and fewer in group 1 and 3 were significantly affected by heat. Our data indicated that heat indicators of oxidative stress, inflammation and metal transport showed dependence of previous cadmium exposure in the liver of zebrafish, emphasizing metal pollution history should be carefully considered when evaluating heat stress in fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The transcriptional response of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM 20451T and its tcyB mutant lacking a functional cystine transporter to diamide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, Mandy; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2014-07-01

    As a result of its strong adaptation to wheat and rye sourdoughs, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis has the smallest genome within the genus Lactobacillus. The concomitant absence of some important antioxidative enzymes and the inability to synthesize glutathione suggest a role of cystine transport in maintenance of an intracellular thiol balance. Diamide [synonym 1,1'-azobis(N,N-dimethylformamide)] disturbs intracellular and membrane thiol levels in oxidizing protein thiols depending on its initial concentration. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to reveal the transcriptional response of L. sanfranciscensis DSM 20451(T) (wild type [WT]) and its ΔtcyB mutant with a nonfunctional cystine transporter after thiol stress caused by diamide. Along with the different expression of genes involved in amino acid starvation, pyrimidine synthesis, and energy production, our results show that thiol stress in the wild type can be compensated through activation of diverse chaperones and proteases whereas the ΔtcyB mutant shifts its metabolism in the direction of survival. Only a small set of genes are significantly differentially expressed between the wild type and the mutant. In the WT, mainly genes which are associated with a heat shock response are upregulated whereas glutamine import and synthesis genes are downregulated. In the ΔtcyB mutant, the whole opp operon was more highly expressed, as well as a protein which probably includes enzymes for methionine transport. The two proteins encoded by spxA and nrdH, which are involved in direct or indirect oxidative stress responses, are also upregulated in the mutant. This work emphasizes that even in the absence of definitive antioxidative enzymes, bacteria with a small genome and a high frequency of gene inactivation and elimination use small molecules such as the cysteine/cystine couple to overcome potential cell damage resulting from oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  9. Can North-made IOT solutions address the challenges of emerging cities in the South? The case of Korean born Smart transportation card implementation in Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Audouin, Maxime; Razaghi, Mohamad; Finger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the last ten years, the urban population in the Global South has grown at a rate of 1.2 million people per week, putting the developing countries at the center of the urban development in 21st century. This rapid urbanization resulted in the emergence of serious challenges, such as provision of decent mobility, requiring innovative solutions. Currently, many northern cities use Internet of Things (IoT) solutions for answering urban challenges, but there are certain doubts a...

  10. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  11. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  12. Incorporating Air Quality Improvement at a Local Level into Climate Policy in the Transport Sector: A Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Gunawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate policy has a strong influence on policy processes at national levels in Indonesia, while other policies with a focus on air quality improvement are being implemented at local levels. Indonesia as a developing country has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 29 percent by the year 2030. This calls into question the extent to which cities and local governments can cope with the challenges of climate change mitigation. The purpose of the research is to find out the extent to which local air pollution reduction policies can contribute to the climate change mitigation program. The research design involved an empirical case study on governance and policy relevant to climate change efforts to lower GHG in Bandung City, Indonesia. The study evaluated the air quality improvement and the climate change mitigation programs using the actor-based framework of the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT. The governance and stakeholder characteristic of climate change mitigation were also analysed using the structural context part of the CIT framework. The result shows that air quality improvement policy is implemented separately from climate policy; the latter operates at the national level and the former at the local level. By looking at the actor interaction analysis, the study concludes that a more holistic environmental policy approach would be more efficient at reducing local air pollution and contributing to the mitigation of climate change.

  13. Metro Commuter Exposures to Particulate Air Pollution and PM2.5-Associated Elements in Three Canadian Cities: The Urban Transportation Exposure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, Keith; Anastasopolos, Angelos T; Evans, Greg; Sun, Liu; Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Kulka, Ryan; Wallace, Lance; Weichenthal, Scott

    2017-05-16

    System-representative commuter air pollution exposure data were collected for the metro systems of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, Canada. Pollutants measured included PM 2.5 (PM = particulate matter), PM 10 , ultrafine particles, black carbon, and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 . Sampling over three weeks was conducted in summer and winter for each city and covered each system on a daily basis. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to identify system features related to particulate exposures. Ambient levels of PM 2.5 and its elemental components were compared to those of the metro in each city. A microenvironmental exposure model was used to estimate the contribution of a 70 min metro commute to daily mean exposure to PM 2.5 elemental and mass concentrations. Time spent in the metro was estimated to contribute the majority of daily exposure to several metallic elements of PM 2.5 and 21.2%, 11.3% and 11.5% of daily PM 2.5 exposure in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, respectively. Findings suggest that particle air pollutant levels in Canadian metros are substantially impacted by the systems themselves, are highly enriched in steel-based elements, and can contribute a large portion of PM 2.5 and its elemental components to a metro commuter's daily exposure.

  14. Evaluating Impact Of Communication Skills Training On Level Of Job Stress Among Nursing Personnel Working At Rehabilitation Centers In Cities: Ray- Tehran- Shemiranat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Rhezaii

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Today, work related stress has become a common and costly problem in work places that most of studies in the last 30 decades have engaged in this problem. Several reports indicate that the occupations such as nursing which have high psychological job demands and low decision latitude are very stressful. This stress can cause harmful physical and psychological effects on nurses’ health. On the other hand, job stress may result in high rates of injury, tardiness and absenteeism at work place and reduced productivity and organizational commitment leading to low quality of nursing care. Numerous studies suggested that learning new activities and skills such as communication skills is one of the best strategies against job stress .The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of communication Skills training in reducing work stress level among nursing personnel in rehabilitation centers. Materials and Methods: The quasi- experimental design was conducted. A sample of 48 nursing personnel participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two experimental or control groups. Subjects in experimental group participated in a 7- hour’s workshop, all subjects were pre and post tested (one month later for job stress and communication skills with the Karasek’s Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ and communication skills test. Results: Results revealed the following: (1 subjects in both groups after pretest were the middle level of stress and communication skills. (2 After training the experimental group scored higher on the rating of communication skills than control group and had successfully maintained their improvements for 4 weeks. (3 After training the experimental group showed lower level of stress than control group and had successfully maintained their improvements for 4 weeks. Conclusion: As a result of this research communication skills training could reduce level of stress among nursing personnel

  15. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, to test the respiratory burst of leukocytes exposed to Aloe extract (0.0, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS only at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. Plasma glucose increased after 2 and 4 h of transport and returned to control levels within 24 h, but the addition of Aloe in the transport water did not affect the level of blood glucose. However, at 2 h of transport, Aloe enhanced the respiratory activity of leukocytes in a dose-dependent way. The highest value of respiratory burst activity of leukocytes was observed in the fish transported in water containing Aloe at 2 mg/L. The enhancing effect of the plant extract on the production of oxygen radicals was confirmed in vitro in leukocytes of pacu incubated in Aloe at concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L. The results suggest that Aloe vera is a modulator of the immune system in fish improving the innate immune response tested.

  16. A cold-induced myo-inositol transporter-like gene confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambe, Mame Abdou Nahr; He, Xueying; Tu, Qinghua; Guo, Zhenfei

    2015-03-01

    A full length cDNA encoding a myo-inositol transporter-like protein, named as MfINT-like, was cloned from Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (herein falcata), a species with greater cold tolerance than alfalfa (M. sativa subsp. sativa). MfINT-like is located on plasma membranes. MfINT-like transcript was induced 2-4 h after exogenous myo-inositol treatment, 24-96 h with cold, and 96 h by salinity. Given that myo-inositol accumulates higher in falcata after 24 h of cold treatment, myo-inositol is proposed to be involved in cold-induced expression of MfINT-like. Higher levels of myo-inositol was observed in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfINT-like than the wild-type but not in the roots of plants grown on myo-inositol containing medium, suggesting that transgenic plants had higher myo-inositol transport activity than the wild-type. Transgenic plants survived better to freezing temperature, and had lower ion leakage and higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) after chilling treatment. In addition, greater plant fresh weight was observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild-type when plants were grown under drought or salinity stress. The results suggest that MfINT-like mediated transport of myo-inositol is associated with plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  18. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  19. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  20. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  1. Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The case study by Ejigu reveals a tension inherent in urban development in the ... In fact, the price of viable land in the Global South cities is sometimes as high as the ... He discusses the 'piecemeal' construction practice typical of the informal ...

  2. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...

  3. From on-road trial evaluation of electric and conventional bicycles to comparison with other urban transport modes: Case study in the city of Lisbon, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patrícia; Pina, André; Duarte, Gonçalo; Rolim, Catarina; Pereira, Gonçalo; Silva, Carlos; Farias, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five transportation alternatives were compared in Lisbon, Portugal. • Electric bicycles allowed increasing average speed from 8% to 26%, mainly in positive slopes. • WTW energy consumption of electric bicycle was 1–11% of the other transport options impacts. • Alternatives’ low energy needs and zero local emissions contributes to improve urban air quality. - Abstract: Increasing energy costs, energy consumption and emissions profiles prompted the promotion of different transportation alternatives. This research work addresses the comparison of trip dynamics, energy consumption, CO 2 and NO x Well-to-Wheel impacts of 5 transportation alternatives (conventional and electric bicycles, conventional and electric vehicles and an urban bus) in Lisbon, Portugal. On-road monitoring of a specific route in Lisbon revealed that bikers using electric bicycles increased their average speed between 8% and 26% compared to their use of the conventional bicycle, especially in the route sections with positive slopes (up to 49% increases). Electric bicycles result in a Tank-to-Wheel energy consumption of 0.028 MJ/km, allowing an average autonomy of 46 km between recharging. When comparing the 5 transportation alternatives, the electric bicycles presented a higher travel time of 13.5%, 1.9% and 7.8% over the bus, low powered electric vehicle, and standard electric vehicle/conventional technologies, respectively. Regarding the Well-to-Wheel energy consumption analysis, the results indicated that, when compared to the other transportation solutions, the electric bicycle only uses 11%, 3%, 1%, 2% and 4% of the energy required when using the low powered electric vehicle, standard electric vehicle, conventional gasoline and diesel technologies and bus, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of Well-to-Wheel emissions reveals that the electric bicycle has 13% and 4% lower CO 2 emissions and 12% and 4% lower NO x emissions when compared to the low powered and

  4. Avaliação do estresse térmico em condição simulada de transporte de frangos de corte Evaluation of thermal stress in simulated condition of transportation on broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Neves da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se simular, em câmara climática, a condição ambiental de estresse térmico durante o transporte de aves até o abatedouro para avaliação da influência do estresse térmico sobre parâmetros fisiológicos e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte. Trinta frangos machos com 42 dias de idade foram pesados, alocados em caixas de transporte (10 aves/caixa e submetidos a condição de alto estresse térmico (35ºC e 85% UR para simular o transporte até o abatedouro. A cada tempo de exposição às condições de estresse (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 minutos, foram retiradas duas aves de cada caixa para análises posteriores. Foram mensurados o peso corporal, a temperatura retal, a freqüência respiratória e o hematócrito e, em seguida, as aves foram abatidas para avaliação das características de carcaça (pesos da carcaça eviscerada, do peito, das pernas (coxa e sobrecoxa, do dorso e das vísceras. As características fisiológicas e de carcaça (perda de peso corporal e pesos de pernas, asas e dorso diferiram após a exposição das aves à condição de alto estresse. O tempo de exposição e a condição ambiental de transporte afetaram negativamente o metabolismo e o equilíbrio térmico corporal das aves.This experiment aimed to simulate thermal-stress-environment conditions in climatic chamber during the transportation of birds to slaughterhouse to evaluate the influence of these conditions on physiological parameters and carcass conformation in broiler chickens. Thirty chicks with 42 days old were weighted and distributed to transportation crates (10 chicks by crate, and submitted to high stress conditions (35ºC and 85% RH to simulate the transport to the slaughterhouse. At each time of exposition to the stress conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, two birds from each crate was withdrawn for further analyses. Body weight, rectal temperature, respiratory frequency and hematocrit value were measured, and after

  5. Prospective Cohort Study to Elucidate the Correlation between Occupational Stress and Hypertension Risk in Oil Workers from Kelamayi City in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Bo; Ge, Hua; Ning, Li; Zhao, Junling; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to assess the major risk factors for hypertension in oil workers, and investigate the effect of occupational stress on the incidence of hypertension after controlling for other risk factors. A prospective cohort approach was used following enrollment of 1354 oil workers. The occupational stress experienced by oil workers was higher than for the general population in China. By the end of the cohort study, 231 new cases of hypertension among the oil workers had been diagnosed. The cumulative incidence of hypertension was 17.06%. There were 44, 112, and 75 workers who developed hypertension in the low, intermediate, and high occupational stress groups, which represented a 12.0%, 15.6%, and 20.3% cumulative incidence, respectively (chi-square value = 9.812, p occupational stress group was 1.549 (1.072-2.236) compared to the low exposure group, and 2.337 (1.191-4.585) in female subjects. Our study indicated that an increase in occupational stress was associated with an increased risk of hypertension after other factors were adjusted.

  6. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  7. Genetic moderation of the association between adolescent romantic involvement and depression: Contributions of serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, chronic stress, and family discord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R; Hammen, Constance

    2016-05-01

    Studies support a link between adolescent romantic involvement and depression. Adolescent romantic relationships may increase depression risk by introducing chronic stress, and genetic vulnerability to stress reactivity/emotion dysregulation may moderate these associations. We tested genetic moderation of longitudinal associations between adolescent romantic involvement and later depressive symptoms by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) and examined contributory roles of chronic stress and family discord. Three hundred eighty-one youth participated at ages 15 and 20. The results indicated that 5-HTTLPR moderated the association between age 15 romantic involvement and age 20 depressive symptoms, with strongest effects for short homozygotes. Conditional process analysis revealed that chronic stress functioned as a moderated mediator of this association, fully accounting for the romantic involvement-depression link among short/short genotypes. Also, romantic involvement predicted later depressive symptoms most strongly among short-allele carriers with high family discord. The results have important implications for understanding the romantic involvement-depression link and the behavioral and emotional correlates of the 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  8. Study on welding thermal cycle and residual stress of UNS S32304 duplex steel selected as external shield for a transport packaging of Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betini, Evandro G.; Gomes, Maurilio P.; Milagre, Mariana X.; Machado, Caruline S.C.; Reis, Luis A.M.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Orlando, Marcos T.D.; Luz, Temístocles S.

    2017-01-01

    Thin plates of duplex stainless steel UNS S32304 were welded using the pulsed gas tungsten arc GTAW process (butt joint) without filler addition. The used shielding gas was pure argon and 98% argon plus 2% of nitrogen. The thermal cycles were acquired during welding, in regions near the melting pool. This alloy is candidate for the external clad of a cask for the transport of high activity radiopharmaceuticals substances. For the residual stress measurements in austenite phase an X-ray diffractometer was used in a Bragg-Brentano geometry with CuKα radiation (γ= 0.154 and for ferrite phase was used a pseudo-parallel geometry with CrKα radiation (γ= 0.2291 nm). The results of residual stress using sin 2 Ψ methodology shown that the influence of the high welding temperature leads to compressive stresses in for both phase of the duplex steels mainly in heat-affected zone. It was observed a high temperature peak and an increase of the mean residual stress after addition of nitrogen to the argon shielding gas. (author)

  9. Study on welding thermal cycle and residual stress of UNS S32304 duplex steel selected as external shield for a transport packaging of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betini, Evandro G.; Gomes, Maurilio P.; Milagre, Mariana X.; Machado, Caruline S.C.; Reis, Luis A.M.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: egbetini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Orlando, Marcos T.D.; Luz, Temístocles S., E-mail: mtdorlando@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (DFIS/UFES), Vitória, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Física

    2017-07-01

    Thin plates of duplex stainless steel UNS S32304 were welded using the pulsed gas tungsten arc GTAW process (butt joint) without filler addition. The used shielding gas was pure argon and 98% argon plus 2% of nitrogen. The thermal cycles were acquired during welding, in regions near the melting pool. This alloy is candidate for the external clad of a cask for the transport of high activity radiopharmaceuticals substances. For the residual stress measurements in austenite phase an X-ray diffractometer was used in a Bragg-Brentano geometry with CuKα radiation (γ= 0.154 and for ferrite phase was used a pseudo-parallel geometry with CrKα radiation (γ= 0.2291 nm). The results of residual stress using sin{sup 2} Ψ methodology shown that the influence of the high welding temperature leads to compressive stresses in for both phase of the duplex steels mainly in heat-affected zone. It was observed a high temperature peak and an increase of the mean residual stress after addition of nitrogen to the argon shielding gas. (author)

  10. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  11. Efeito do ambiente pós-transporte na recuperação dos indicadores de estresse de pacus juvenis, Piaractus mesopotamicus = Effect of post-transport environment on the stress indicators recovery of pacu juveniles , Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Susumu Takahashi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a recuperação das respostas fisiológicas de estresse após transporte de pacus em diferentes condições de es tocagem. Após transporte por 2h30min, os peixes foram transferidos para tanque de terra ou para caixas de polietileno em laboratório. Houve significativa redução dos valores de cortisol observados na chegada 24 horas depois, nas duas condições de estocagem , enquanto a concentração de glicose caiu significativamente 72 horas depois nos peixes estocados no tanque de t 1erra e 120 horas nos peixes estocados no laboratório. A osmolalidade, sódio, potássio e cloreto suger em um retorno à homeostase durante o perío do de recuperação, principalmente nos peixes no tanque de terra. Os parâmetros hematológicos, sem efeito da condição de estocagem, não se caracterizaram indicadores sensíveis. Após o transporte, uma prática de manejo que causa estresse em peixes, o retorno às condições normais foi favorecido quando os pacus foram estocados em tanque de terra.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recovery of physiological stress responses after the transport of pacu juveniles in different stocking conditions. After being transported for 2 h30min, fish were transferred to earthen ponds or indoor polyethylene boxes. There was a significant reduction of cortisol values registered at fish arrival , 24 hours after, in both stocking conditions . The glucose concentration reduced significantly 72 hours after in fish stocked in earthen ponds , and 120 hours in fish stocked indoor. Osmolality, sodium, potassium and chloride behavior suggested the re-establishment of the homeostasis during the recovery period, mainly in fish kept in the earthen ponds. Concerning the hematological parameters, only hemoglobin concentration reduced significantly in the recovery period , without effect of stockingcondition, which does not characterize feasible indicators. After transport, a management

  12. Stress and life dissatisfaction are inversely associated with jogging and other types of physical activity in leisure time--The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, P; Kristensen, T S; Prescott, E

    2005-01-01

    for pooled data. The odds ratios (ORs) are presented as adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, education and income. With increasing physical activity in leisure time, there was a decrease in high level of stress, between sedentary persons and joggers, OR=0.30 (95% confidence...

  13. The Relationship of Violent Fathers, Posttraumatically Stressed Mothers and Symptomatic Children in a Preschool-Age Inner-City Pediatrics Clinic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J. Blake; Myers, Michael M.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to understand if greater severity of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), related to maternal report of interpersonal violence, mediates the effects of such violence on (a) child PTSS as well as on (b) child externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Study participants were mothers (N = 77) and children 18 to 48 months…

  14. Stress mitigation to promote development of prosocial values and school engagement of inner-city urban African American and Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolan, Patrick; Lovegrove, Peter; Clark, Eren

    2013-01-01

    Studies of predictors of development of young men of color have been primarily focused on factors that impede positive development rather than factors that promote it. There are also few examples of longitudinal studies of positive development of this population and few that consider multiple protective factors simultaneously. Little is also known about how such positive outcomes might relate to prediction of problematic functioning. This study tests a developmental-ecological framework of positive and risky development among a sample of young men of color growing up in high-risk urban environments. African American and Latino adolescent males (148 African American, 193 Latino) were followed from early to late adolescence. Stress in early adolescence was related to school engagement and prosocial values as well as depressive symptoms and problems assessed 2 years later. The role of family and individual protective factors as direct effects and as mitigating the stress-outcome relation were also tested. Stress predicted problem outcomes but not positive functioning. Early engagement in prosocial activities and coping skills did predict positive outcomes. In contrast, problem outcomes were predicted directly by stress, with some indication of interaction with some protective factors for both such outcomes. Overall results suggest value in focusing on positive outcomes along with negative outcomes, as they are not the antithesis and have some shared but some different predictors. Implications for supporting positive development are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  15. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  16. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  17. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  18. City of layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of the ‘Sky Train' in central Bangkok. The research question explores the potential socially segregating effect of the Sky Train on Bangkok mobility patterns. The conclusion is that in the networked urban geographies of Bangkok's transportation system new...... mobility practices are played out in a relational space where the potential for movement is shifted in favour of the elite and the tourists. The Sky Train reconfigures the mobility patterns of the inner city of Bangkok in ways that are more than planning policies to overcome congestion and traffic jams...

  19. Disease stigma and its mediating effect on the relationship between symptom severity and quality of life among community-dwelling women with stress urinary incontinence: a study from a Chinese city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Cuili; Xu, Dongjuan; Guan, Xiaomeng; Sun, Tao; Wang, Kefang

    2014-08-01

    To examine the association between disease stigma and quality of life and whether disease stigma mediates the relationship between symptom severity and quality of life among community-dwelling women with stress urinary incontinence in China. Urinary incontinent patients perceived great stigma, which inhibited from seeking medical help. There is evidence that stigma associated with some other diseases had a complex relationship with illness severity and quality of life. However, little empirical research has examined the role that stigma plays among urinary incontinent population. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used. A purposive sample of 333 women with stress urinary incontinence from a Chinese city was enrolled. Data were collected on symptom severity, disease stigma and quality of life using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form, Social Impact Scale and Incontinence Quality-of-Life Measure, respectively. The mediate effect of disease stigma was analysed using a series of hierarchical regression models. Disease stigma negatively correlated with quality of life among stress urinary incontinent women. Social isolation and internalised shame, but not social rejection, the domains of disease stigma, partially mediated the effect of symptom severity on quality of life, attenuating the effect by 34·3% together. Disease stigma impairs quality of life of women with stress urinary incontinence and mediates the association between symptom severity and quality of life. Health workers may improve their quality of life by addressing perceived stigma. Our findings suggest that in clinical practice, stigma reduction may have the potential to not only improve quality of life, but also mitigate the impact of the severity on quality of life among urinary incontinent women. Social isolation and internalised shame should be more concerned in targeted interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  1. City Marketing : Case: Moscow

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays cities compete with each other for attracting investments and people, which make them implement new city marketing and city branding strategies. There are many factors that can influence city image and its perception in customers’ minds. The purpose of this thesis is to realize how a well-selected city marketing strategy benefits the city and gain a deeper understanding of city marketing possibilities. The final goal is to offer suggestions for the city of Moscow, which can help to i...

  2. Sucrose preload reduces snacking after mild mental stress in healthy participants as a function of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene promoter polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, C Rob; Jonkman, Lisa M; Capello, Aimee; Leinders, Sacha; Hüsch, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is considered to promote food intake and eating-related disturbances, especially under stress or negative mood. Vulnerability for 5-HT disturbances is considered to be genetically determined, including a short (S) allele polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) that is associated with lower serotonin function. Since 5-HT function may be slightly increased by carbohydrate consumption, S-allele 5-HTTLPR carriers in particular may benefit from a sugar-preload due to their enhanced 5-HT vulnerability. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a sugar-containing preload may reduce appetite and energy intake after exposure to stress to induce negative mood, depending on genetic 5-HT vulnerability. From a population of 771 healthy young male and female genotyped college students 31 S/S carriers (8 males, 23 females) and 26 long allele (L/L) carriers (9 males, 17 females) (mean ± S.D. 22 ± 1.6 years; body mass index, BMI, 18-33 kg/m(2)) were monitored for changes in appetite and snacking behavior after stress exposure. Results revealed an increased energy intake after mild mental stress (negative mood) mainly for high-fat sweet foods, which was significantly greater in S/S carriers, and only in these genotypes this intake was significantly reduced by a sucrose-containing preload. Although alternative explanations are possible, it is suggested that S/S participants may have enhanced brain (hypothalamic) 5-HT responsiveness to food that makes them more susceptible to the beneficial satiation effects of a sucrose-preload as well as to the negative effects of mild mental stress on weight gain.

  3. The structure of the solution obtained with Reynolds-stress-transport models at the free-stream edges of turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalbou, J.-B.; Chassaing, P.

    2002-02-01

    The behavior of Reynolds-stress-transport models at the free-stream edges of turbulent flows is investigated. Current turbulent-diffusion models are found to produce propagative (possibly weak) solutions of the same type as those reported earlier by Cazalbou, Spalart, and Bradshaw [Phys. Fluids 6, 1797 (1994)] for two-equation models. As in the latter study, an analysis is presented that provides qualitative information on the flow structure predicted near the edge if a condition on the values of the diffusion constants is satisfied. In this case, the solution appears to be fairly insensitive to the residual free-stream turbulence levels needed with conventional numerical methods. The main specific result is that, depending on the diffusion model, the propagative solution can force turbulence toward definite and rather extreme anisotropy states at the edge (one- or two-component limit). This is not the case with the model of Daly and Harlow [Phys. Fluids 13, 2634 (1970)]; it may be one of the reasons why this "old" scheme is still the most widely used, even in recent Reynolds-stress-transport models. In addition, the analysis helps us to interpret some difficulties encountered in computing even very simple flows with Lumley's pressure-diffusion model [Adv. Appl. Mech. 18, 123 (1978)]. A new realizability condition, according to which the diffusion model should not globally become "anti-diffusive," is introduced, and a recalibration of Lumley's model satisfying this condition is performed using information drawn from the analysis.

  4. A gestão socioambiental em uma empresa de transporte coletivo urbano no município de Santa Maria-RS / Environmental management in a company of urban collective transport in the city of Santa Maria-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Rossi de Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available É notável o compromisso das empresas com posturas socialmente corretas, ambientalmente sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis em suas práticas de gestão. É neste sentido que a responsabilidade socioambiental torna-se uma variável importante na estratégia competitiva das empresas para que estas procurem atingir e demonstrar para a sociedade um desempenho ambiental correto, controlando os impactos no meio ambiente. Assim, no que tange às políticas públicas dos transportes, as empresas privadas, que detêm a concessão dos serviços dos transportes urbanos, precisam adotar medidas que vão além do mero cumprimento legal exigido pelos órgãos reguladores e fiscalizadores, adotando práticas de responsabilidade social e ambiental que minimizem os impactos negativos e melhorem a qualidade dos serviços de transportes prestados. É neste sentido que se torna relevante o estudo das práticas de responsabilidade socioambientais da empresa de transporte em estudo. A crescente valorização das questões ambientais deve estar adequada à legislação, às demandas sociais e alinhada à estratégia da organização. Neste sentido, a presente pesquisa estuda a gestão socioambiental adotada em uma empresa de transporte coletivo urbana na cidade de Santa Maria, RS; especificamente pretende verificar as práticas de gestão em relação às questões ambientais e sociais, bem como o seu alinhamento com a estratégia empresarial. Sendo assim, trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, que se utiliza do estudo de caso por tratar-se de um conhecimento profundo e exaustivo de um único objeto. Assim, o desenvolvimento desse estudo busca a definição de um conjunto de dados que deverão auxiliar o processo de descrição de fases ou totalidade do processo social da empresa MEDIANEIRA TRANSPORTES LTDA. As conclusões limitam-se ao contexto unicamente da empresa, indicando que as estratégias de sustentabilidade estão alinhadas à filosofia de neg

  5. How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennøy, Aud; Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza

    2016-01-01

    regions. Even if diffusion of research-based knowledge have been investigated, planners' use of expert knowledge when making plans, and the effects on the content of plans, have gained surprisingly little attention in planning research. Over the past few years, interesting discussions concerning...... achievement potential of plans. This knowledge is the main basis for many planners' knowing and acting, and fundamental for land use and transport planning being coordinated and for traffic-reducing measures being included in the plans. The knowledge is used for explaining cause-effect relations......, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call for traffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge...

  6. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  7. MOTORIZATION PROCESS AND MANAGEMENT IN BIG CITIES IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong MA

    2007-01-01

    This paper expresses and analyzes the mobility development process in big cities in China, taking Beijing as an example. The evolution of transportation policy is described. Both transportation demand management and infrastructure contraction should be considered simultaneously in the policy.

  8. Effects of Immune Stress on Performance Parameters, Intestinal Enzyme Activity and mRNA Expression of Intestinal Transporters in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Feng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune stress is the loss of immune homeostasis caused by external forces. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of immune stress on the growth performance, small intestinal enzymes and peristalsis rate, and mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two 1-d-old broilers (Cobb500 were randomly assigned to four groups for treatment; each group included nine cages with 12 birds per cage. Group 1 = no vaccine (NV; Group 2 = conventional vaccine (CV; group 3 = lipopolysaccharide (LPS+conventional vaccine (LPS; group 4 = cyclophosphamide (CYP+conventional vaccine (CYP. The results demonstrated that immune stress by LPS and CYP reduced body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI, small intestine peristalsis rate and sIgA content in small intestinal digesta (p<0.05. However, the feed conversion ratio (FCR remained unchanged during the feeding period. LPS and CYP increased intestinal enzyme activity, relative expression of SGLT-1, CaBP-D28k and L-FABP mRNAs (p<0.05. LPS and CYP injection had a negative effect on the growth performance of healthy broiler chickens. The present study demonstrated that NV and CV could improve growth performance while enzyme activity in small intestine and relative expression of nutrient transporter mRNA of NV and CV were decreased in the conditions of a controlled rational feeding environment. It is generally recommended that broilers only need to be vaccinated for the diseases to which they might be exposed.

  9. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, D. van der; Hartman, C.A.; Richards, J.; Bralten, J.B.; Franke, B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  10. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hartman, C.A.; Richards, J.; Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  11. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hartman, C.A.; Richards, J.; Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  12. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; Richards, Jennifer; Bralten, Janita B.; Franke, Barbara; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  13. Interactive Effects of the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on College Student Drinking and Drug Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Covault, J.; Tennen, H.; Armeli, S.; Conner, T.S.; Herman, A.I.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Kranzler, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Background - A common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene has been associated with heavy drinking in college students. We examined this polymorphism as it interacted with negative life events to predict drinking and drug use in college students. Methods - Daily

  14. A Novel Sugar Transporter from Dianthus spiculifolius, DsSWEET12, Affects Sugar Metabolism and Confers Osmotic and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant SWEETs (sugars will eventually be exported transporters play a role in plant growth and plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, DsSWEET12 from Dianthus spiculifolius was identified and characterized. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that DsSWEET12 expression was induced by sucrose starvation, mannitol, and hydrogen peroxide. Colocalization experiment showed that the DsSWEET12-GFP fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane, which was labeled with FM4-64 dye, in Arabidopsis and suspension cells of D. spiculifolius. Compared to wild type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing DsSWEET12 have longer roots and have a greater fresh weight, which depends on sucrose content. Furthermore, a relative root length analysis showed that transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Finally, a sugar content analysis showed that the sucrose content in transgenic Arabidopsis was less than that in the wild type, while fructose and glucose contents were higher than those in the wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that DsSWEET12 plays an important role in seedling growth and plant response to osmotic and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis by influencing sugar metabolism.

  15. A Novel Sugar Transporter from Dianthus spiculifolius, DsSWEET12, Affects Sugar Metabolism and Confers Osmotic and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aimin; Ma, Hongping; Feng, Shuang; Gong, Shufang; Wang, Jingang

    2018-02-07

    Plant SWEETs (sugars will eventually be exported transporters) play a role in plant growth and plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, DsSWEET12 from Dianthus spiculifolius was identified and characterized. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that DsSWEET12 expression was induced by sucrose starvation, mannitol, and hydrogen peroxide. Colocalization experiment showed that the DsSWEET12-GFP fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane, which was labeled with FM4-64 dye, in Arabidopsis and suspension cells of D. spiculifolius . Compared to wild type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing DsSWEET12 have longer roots and have a greater fresh weight, which depends on sucrose content. Furthermore, a relative root length analysis showed that transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Finally, a sugar content analysis showed that the sucrose content in transgenic Arabidopsis was less than that in the wild type, while fructose and glucose contents were higher than those in the wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that DsSWEET12 plays an important role in seedling growth and plant response to osmotic and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis by influencing sugar metabolism.

  16. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  17. The use of a simulation model to analyze the impact of heavy transport generated by the port to the city traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiak Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the impact of transport on heavy urban traffic on Wharf Kwiatkowski using program PTV Vissim. The data for analysis were taken from the Road and Greenery in Gdynia from program PTV Visum. Attention has been focused on vehicle traffic in the afternoon the top of its intensity. Model of Kwiatkowskiego Wharf, made entirely in the PTV VISSIM, was used for microscopic simulation of traffic. With its help, it was possible to find and analyze the behavior of each autonomous vehicle and interactions on the Web. For the analysis was used as a program of traffic lights currency at these junctions. The analysis results of simulation in the PTV VISSIM are related to the movement of the two structures. The first assumes that the route will move cars and trucks, taking into account their share in the network based on the intensity of traffic during peak hours of the afternoon, the second consisted only of cars. The results presented are based on measuring the time of travel and delays on specific relationships and the average length of queues at selected inlets. The results of analysis and simulation tests were subjected to statistical analysis.

  18. Investigation of enhanced cross-city transport and trapping of air pollutants by coastal and urban land-sea breeze circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jeff C. F.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Chen, Fei

    2006-07-01

    Recent satellite observations show that a layer of haze perpetually hangs over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and surface observations show numerous violations of the Hong Kong Air Quality Objective. This layer of haze mostly concentrates in the Pearl River Estuary and a narrow (20 km wide) band along the shoreline, in particular during weak wind situations. Although researchers suspect the land-sea breeze (LSB) circulations "concentrate" or "trap" various pollutants in this region, the physical mechanism of the phenomenon has never been fully explained or quantified. In this paper, a mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) coupled with the Noah land surface model (LSM), which has bulk urban land use treatments along with a detailed Pearl River Delta land use map, is used to investigate the unique feature and mechanism of this land-sea breeze effect and the temporal evolution. A three-dimensional particle trajectory model is used to understand its associated pollutant transport, trapping and accumulation. A conceptual model is then developed for the perpetual air pollution phenomenon in the region. Further sensitivity experiments are used to illustrate the impact of urbanization and large-scale winds on the pollution processes. Results show that urbanization enhances the pollutant trapping and therefore contributes to the overall poor air quality in the region.

  19. Early-life stress induces persistent alterationsin 5-HT1Areceptor and serotonin transporter mRNA expression in the adultrat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Bravo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Early-life experience plays a major role in the stress response throughout life. Neonatal maternal separation (MS is an animal model of depression with an altered serotonergic response. We hypothesize that this alteration may be caused by differences in 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter (SERT mRNA expression in brain areas involved in the control of emotions, memory and fear as well as in regions controlling the central serotonergic tone.To test this, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MS for 3h daily during post-natal days 2-12. As control, age matched rats were not separated (NS from their dams. When animals reached adulthood (11-13 weeks brain was extracted and mRNA expression of 5-HT1A receptor in amygdala, hippocampus and dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN and SERT in the DRN was analyzed through in-situ hybridisation.Densitometric analysis revealed that MS increased 5-HT1A receptor mRNA expression in the amygdala, and reduced its expression in the DRN, but no changes were observed in the hippocampus in comparison to NS controls. Also, MS reduced SERT mRNA expression in the DRN when compared to NS rats.These results suggest that early-life stress induces persistent changes in 5-HT1A receptor and SERT mRNA expression in key brain regions involved in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. The reduction in SERT mRNA indicates an alteration that is in line with clinical findings such as polymorphic variants in individuals with higher risk of depression. These data may help to understand how early-life stress contributes to the development of mood disorders in adulthood.

  20. Melatonin mediated antidepressant-like effect in the hippocampus of chronic stress-induced depression rats: Regulating vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and monoamine oxidase A levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Bojana; Spasojevic, Natasa; Jovanovic, Predrag; Jasnic, Nebojsa; Djordjevic, Jelena; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2016-10-01

    The hippocampus is sensitive to stress which activates norepinephrine terminals deriving from the locus coeruleus. Melatonin exerts positive effects on the hippocampal neurogenic process and on depressive-like behaviour. Thus, in the present study, an examination was made of the effect of chronic melatonin treatment on norepinephrine content, synthesis, uptake, vesicular transport and degradation in the hippocampus of rats exposed to CUMS. This entailed quantifying the norephinephrine, mRNA and protein levels of DBH, NET, VMAT 2, MAO-A and COMT. The results show that CUMS evoked prolonged immobility. Melatonin treatment decreased immobility in comparison with the placebo group, reflecting an antidepressant-like effect. Compared with the placebo group, a dramatic decrease in norepinephrine content, decreased VMAT2 mRNA and protein and increased MAO-A protein levels in the hippocampus of the CUMS rats were observed. However, no significant differences in the levels of DBH, NET, COMT mRNA and protein and MAO-A mRNA levels between the placebo and the stressed groups were found. The results showed the restorative effects of melatonin on the stress-induced decline in the norepinephrine content of the hippocampus. It was observed that melatonin treatment in the CUMS rats prevented the stress-induced decrease in VMAT2 mRNA and protein levels, whereas it reduced the increase of the mRNA of COMT and protein levels of MAO-A. Chronic treatment with melatonin failed to alter the gene expression of DBH or NET in the hippocampus of the CUMS rats. Additionally, the results show that melatonin enhances VMAT2 expression and norepinephrine storage, whilst it reduces norepinephrine degrading enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.