WorldWideScience

Sample records for stress axis function

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genetic variation and early stress moderates amygdala function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Christina R; Carey, Caitlin E; Michalski, Lindsay J; Corral-Frias, Nadia S; Conley, Emily Drabant; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bogdan, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    Early life stress may precipitate psychopathology, at least in part, by influencing amygdala function. Converging evidence across species suggests that links between childhood stress and amygdala function may be dependent upon hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Using data from college-attending non-Hispanic European-Americans (n=308) who completed the Duke Neurogenetics Study, we examined whether early life stress (ELS) and HPA axis genetic variation interact to predict threat-related amygdala function as well as psychopathology symptoms. A biologically-informed multilocus profile score (BIMPS) captured HPA axis genetic variation (FKBP5 rs1360780, CRHR1 rs110402; NR3C2 rs5522/rs4635799) previously associated with its function (higher BIMPS are reflective of higher HPA axis activity). BOLD fMRI data were acquired while participants completed an emotional face matching task. ELS and depression and anxiety symptoms were measured using the childhood trauma questionnaire and the mood and anxiety symptom questionnaire, respectively. The interaction between HPA axis BIMPS and ELS was associated with right amygdala reactivity to threat-related stimuli, after accounting for multiple testing (empirical-p=0.016). Among individuals with higher BIMPS (i.e., the upper 21.4%), ELS was positively coupled with threat-related amygdala reactivity, which was absent among those with average or low BIMPS. Further, higher BIMPS were associated with greater self-reported anxious arousal, though there was no evidence that amygdala function mediated this relationship. Polygenic variation linked to HPA axis function may moderate the effects of early life stress on threat-related amygdala function and confer risk for anxiety symptomatology. However, what, if any, neural mechanisms may mediate the relationship between HPA axis BIMPS and anxiety symptomatology remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Circadian Clocks and the Interaction between Stress Axis and Adipose Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Kolbe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological processes and most endocrine functions show fluctuations over the course of the day. These so-called circadian rhythms are governed by an endogenous network of cellular clocks and serve as an adaptation to daily and, thus, predictable changes in the organism’s environment. Circadian clocks have been described in several tissues of the stress axis and in adipose cells where they regulate the rhythmic and stimulated release of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, and various adipokine factors. Recent work suggests that both adipose and stress axis clock systems reciprocally influence each other and adrenal-adipose rhythms may be key players in the development and therapy of metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of adrenal and adipose tissue rhythms and clocks and how they might interact to regulate energy homoeostasis and stress responses under physiological conditions. Potential chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic and stress disorders are discussed.

  3. Toxic stress history and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in a social stress task: Genetic and epigenetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Hannah E; Ahmed, Sarah; Moore, Celia L; Hunter, Richard G

    2018-02-21

    Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test. Additional measures included perceived status, social support, background activity of HPA axis, and genetic variants in aspects of the stress response system. Participants (n = 90) answered questions about historical and ongoing stress, provided a DNA sample to examine genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic marks, and underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) during which three saliva samples were collected to assess HPA function. Individuals who reported high levels of childhood adversity had a blunted salivary cortisol response to the TSST. Childhood adversity, discrimination experiences, and FKBP5 genotype were found to predict pretest cortisol levels. Following up on recent observations that the glucocorticoid receptor directly interacts with the mitochondrial genome, particularly the NADH dehydrogenase 6 (MT-ND6) gene, individuals who reported high childhood adversity were also found to have higher percent methylation across six CpG sites upstream of MT-ND6. These findings suggest multiple contributions across psychological, genetic, epigenetic, and social domains to vulnerability and resilience in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. Further study to examine how these multiple contributors affect developmental endpoints through integrated or independent pathways will be of use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Daily family stress and HPA axis functioning during adolescence: The moderating role of sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J.; Tsai, Kim M.; Park, Heejung; Bower, Julienne E.; Almeida, David M.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of sleep in the association between family demands and conflict and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents (n = 316). Adolescents completed daily diary reports of family demands and conflict for 15 days, and wore actigraph watches during the first 8 nights to assess sleep. Participants also provided five saliva samples for 3 consecutive days to assess diurnal cortisol rhythms. Regression analyses indicated that sleep latency and efficiency moderated the link between family demands and the cortisol awakening response. Specifically, family demands were related to a smaller cortisol awakening response only among adolescents with longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency. These results suggest that certain aspects of HPA axis functioning may be sensitive to family demands primarily in the context of longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency. PMID:27235639

  5. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C; Huizink, Anja C; Tulen, Joke H M; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Creemers, Hanneke E; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary diagnoses of clinical anxiety disorders (AD) from each other, and from a general population reference group (GP). The study sample consisted of 152 AD children (comparing separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and specific phobia), aged 8- to 12-years, and 200 same-aged reference children. HPA-axis functioning was measured by a diurnal cortisol profile. ANS functioning was measured by continuous measures of skin conductance level in rest and during a mental arithmetic task and high frequency heart rate variability in rest. PA was assessed by a questionnaire. The AD sample showed lower high frequency heart rate variability during rest, heightened anticipatory PA, higher basal and reactive skin conductance levels and lower basal HPA-axis functioning compared to the GP sample. The existence of three or more clinical disorders, i.e. a high clinical 'load', was associated with lower basal HPA-axis functioning, higher skin conductance level and lower posttest PA. Specific phobia could be discerned from social phobia and separation anxiety disorder on higher skin conductance level. Our findings indicated that children with AD have specific psychophysiological characteristics, which resemble the psychophysiological characteristics of chronic stress. A high clinical 'load' is associated with an altered ANS and HPA-axis functioning. Overall, ANS and HPA-axis functioning relate to AD in general, accept for specific phobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Repetitive stress leads to impaired cognitive function that is associated with DNA hypomethylation, reduced BDNF and a dysregulated HPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhathini, Khayelihle B; Abboussi, Oualid; Stein, Dan J; Mabandla, Musa V; Daniels, William M U

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to repetitive stress has a negative influence on cognitive-affective functioning, with growing evidence that these effects may be mediated by a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, abnormal neurotrophic factor levels and its subsequent impact on hippocampal function. However, there are few data about the effect of repetitive stressors on epigenetic changes in the hippocampus. In the present study, we examine how repetitive restrain stress (RRS) affects cognitive-affective functioning, HPA axis regulation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and global hippocampal DNA methylation. RRS was induced in rats by restraining the animals for 6h per day for 28 days. The novel object recognition test (NORT) was used to assess cognitive functioning and the open field test (OFT) was performed to assess anxiety-like behavior during the last week of stress. Hippocampal BDNF levels, glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor mRNA were assessed using real-time PCR and confirmed with Western blot, while ELISAs were used to determine plasma corticosterone levels and the global methylation status of the hippocampus. Animals exposed to repetitive stress demonstrated significant alterations in the NORT and OFT, had significantly increased plasma corticosterone and significantly decreased hippocampal BDNF concentrations. The expression levels of GR and MR mRNA and protein levels of these genes were significantly decreased in the stressed group compared to control animals. The global DNA methylation of the hippocampal genome of stressed animals was also significantly decreased compared to controls. The data here are consistent with previous work emphasizing the role of the HPA axis and neurotrophic factors in mediating cognitive-affective changes after exposure to repetitive stressors. Our findings, however, extend the literature by indicating that epigenetic alterations in the hippocampal genome may also play an important role in the

  7. How does the brain deal with cumulative stress? A review with focus on developmental stress, HPA axis function and hippocampal structure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodl, Thomas; O'Keane, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    There is evidence that excessive stress exposure of the brain, mediated through the neurotoxic effects of cortisol and possibly neuroinflammation, causes damage to brain structure and function: the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis. Functional changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as alterations in brain structures like the hippocampus have been consistently reported in major depression. However, there has not been a lot of emphasis on bringing findings from studies on early childhood stress, HPA axis functioning and hippocampal imaging together. This is the subject for this systematic review of the literature on how developmental stress, specifically childhood maltreatment, may impact on HPA axis function and hippocampal structure. We will also review the literature on the relationship between HPA axis function and hippocampal volume in healthy, depressed and other disease states. There is evidence that prenatal stress and childhood maltreatment is associated with an abnormally developing HPA system, as well as hippocampal volume reduction. Smaller hippocampal volumes are associated with increased cortisol secretion during the day. We conclude that a model integrating childhood maltreatment, cortisol abnormalities and hippocampal volume may need to take other factors into account, such as temperament, genetics or the presence of depression; to provide a cohesive explanation of all the findings. Finally, we have to conclude that the cascade hypothesis, mainly based on preclinical studies, has not been translated enough into humans. While there is evidence that early life maltreatment results in structural hippocampal changes and these are in turn more prominent in subjects with higher continuous cortisol secretion it is less clear which role early life maltreatment plays in HPA axis alteration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Amygdala functional connectivity, HPA axis genetic variation, and life stress in children and relations to anxiety and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2015-11-01

    Internalizing pathology is related to alterations in amygdala resting state functional connectivity, potentially implicating altered emotional reactivity and/or emotion regulation in the etiological pathway. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that stress exposure and genetic vulnerability impact amygdala structure/function and risk for internalizing pathology. The present study examined whether early life stress and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within 4 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predicted individual differences in amygdala functional connectivity in school-age children (9- to 14-year-olds; N = 120). Whole-brain regression analyses indicated that increasing genetic "risk" predicted alterations in amygdala connectivity to the caudate and postcentral gyrus. Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted weakened amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. Genetic "risk" and stress exposure interacted to predict weakened connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior and middle frontal gyri, caudate, and parahippocampal gyrus in those children with the greatest genetic and environmental risk load. Furthermore, amygdala connectivity longitudinally predicted anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation skills at a later follow-up. Amygdala connectivity mediated effects of life stress on anxiety and of genetic variants on emotion regulation. The current results suggest that considering the unique and interacting effects of biological vulnerability and environmental risk factors may be key to understanding the development of altered amygdala functional connectivity, a potential factor in the risk trajectory for internalizing pathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Amygdala functional connectivity, HPA axis genetic variation, and life stress in children and relations to anxiety and emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Belden, Andrew C.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Internalizing pathology is related to alterations in amygdala resting state functional connectivity, potentially implicating altered emotional reactivity and/or emotion regulation in the etiological pathway. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that stress exposure and genetic vulnerability impact amygdala structure/function and risk for internalizing pathology. The present study examined whether early life stress and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within four hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predicted individual differences in amygdala functional connectivity in school-age children (9–14 year olds; N=120). Whole-brain regression analyses indicated that increasing genetic ‘risk’ predicted alterations in amygdala connectivity to the caudate and postcentral gyrus. Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted weakened amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. Genetic ‘risk’ and stress exposure interacted to predict weakened connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior and middle frontal gyri, caudate, and parahippocampal gyrus in those children with the greatest genetic and environmental risk load. Furthermore, amygdala connectivity longitudinally predicted anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation skills at a later follow-up. Amygdala connectivity mediated effects of life stress on anxiety and of genetic variants on emotion regulation. The current results suggest that considering the unique and interacting effects of biological vulnerability and environmental risk factors may be key to understanding the development of altered amygdala functional connectivity, a potential factor in the risk trajectory for internalizing pathology. PMID:26595470

  10. Nitric oxide in the stress axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Figueroa, M O; Day, H E; Akil, H; Watson, S J

    1998-10-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) or stress axis, activation of which is one of the defining features of a stress response. Evidence suggests that NO may modulate the release of the stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone, and NOS activity and transcription is increased in the LHPA axis following various stressful stimuli. Furthermore, following activation of the stress axis, glucocorticoids are thought to down-regulate the transcription and activity of NOS via a feedback mechanism. Taken together, current data indicate a role for NO in the regulation of the LHPA axis, although at present this role is not well defined. It has been suggested that NO may act as a cellular communicator in plasticity and development, to facilitate the activation or the release of other neurotransmitters, to mediate immune responses, and/or as a vasodilator in the regulation of blood flow. In the following review we summarize some of the latest insights into the function of NO, with special attention to its relationship with the LHPA axis.

  11. The effects of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in subjects with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Guest (Paul); D. Martins-de-Souza (Daniel); H. Rahmoune (Hassan); S. Bahn (Sabine); P.C. Guest (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOver the last few decades, evidence has been emerging that the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia can involve perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Variations in the manifestation of these effects could be related to the differences in

  12. Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa; Domingo, Jose L.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

  13. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, G.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Creemers, H.E.; van der Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different

  14. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C.; Huizink, Anja C.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Creemers, Hanneke E.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary

  15. The microbiota-gut-brain axis as a key regulator of neural function and the stress response: Implications for human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, N C; Dinan, T G; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; Clarke, G; Cryan, J F

    2017-07-01

    The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression. Therefore, much research effort in recent years has focused on understanding the potential of targeting the intestinal microbiota to prevent and treat such disorders. This review aims to explore the influence of the gut microbiota on host neural function and behavior, particularly those of relevance to stress-related disorders. The involvement of microbiota in diverse neural functions such as myelination, microglia function, neuronal morphology, and blood-brain barrier integrity across the life span, from early life to adolescence to old age, will also be discussed. Nurturing an optimal gut microbiome may also prove beneficial in animal science as a means to manage stressful situations and to increase productivity of farm animals. The implications of these observations are manifold, and researchers are hopeful that this promising body of preclinical work can be successfully translated to the clinic and beyond.

  16. Update on stress and depression: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Andrea de Abreu Feijó de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, relationships between stress and the neurobiological changes seen in psychiatric disorders have been well-documented. A major focus of investigations in this area has been the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, both as a marker of stress response and as a mediator of additional downstream pathophysiologic changes. This review examines the emerging literature concerning the relationship between stress, HPA axis function, and depression, as well as the role of early life stress as an important risk factor for HPA axis dysregulation. The more recent studies reviewed suggest that the prominence of HPA axis hyperactivity in adults with depressive and anxiety disorders may constitute a link between the occurrence of adversity in childhood and the development of adult psychopathology

  17. Modulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis by Early Life Stress Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bodegom, Miranda; Homberg, Judith R.; Henckens, Marloes J. A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stress during critical periods in development can have severe long-term consequences, increasing overall risk on psychopathology. One of the key stress response systems mediating these long-term effects of stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; a cascade of central and peripheral events resulting in the release of corticosteroids from the adrenal glands. Activation of the HPA-axis affects brain functioning to ensure a proper behavioral response to the stressor, but stress-induced (mal)adaptation of the HPA-axis' functional maturation may provide a mechanistic basis for the altered stress susceptibility later in life. Development of the HPA-axis and the brain regions involved in its regulation starts prenatally and continues after birth, and is protected by several mechanisms preventing corticosteroid over-exposure to the maturing brain. Nevertheless, early life stress (ELS) exposure has been reported to have numerous consequences on HPA-axis function in adulthood, affecting both its basal and stress-induced activity. According to the match/mismatch theory, encountering ELS prepares an organism for similar (“matching”) adversities during adulthood, while a mismatching environment results in an increased susceptibility to psychopathology, indicating that ELS can exert either beneficial or disadvantageous effects depending on the environmental context. Here, we review studies investigating the mechanistic underpinnings of the ELS-induced alterations in the structural and functional development of the HPA-axis and its key external regulators (amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex). The effects of ELS appear highly dependent on the developmental time window affected, the sex of the offspring, and the developmental stage at which effects are assessed. Albeit by distinct mechanisms, ELS induced by prenatal stressors, maternal separation, or the limited nesting model inducing fragmented maternal care, typically results in HPA-axis

  18. Stressor-specific effects of sex on HPA axis hormones and activation of stress-related neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-11-01

    Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.

  19. Influence of early life stress on later hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and its covariation with mental health symptoms: a study of the allostatic process from childhood into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Marilyn J; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Burk, Linnea R; Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M

    2011-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a primary mechanism in the allostatic process through which early life stress (ELS) contributes to disease. Studies of the influence of ELS on children's HPA axis functioning have yielded inconsistent findings. To address this issue, the present study considers multiple types of ELS (maternal depression, paternal depression, and family expressed anger), mental health symptoms, and two components of HPA functioning (traitlike and epoch-specific activity) in a long-term prospective community study of 357 children. ELS was assessed during the infancy and preschool periods; mental health symptoms and cortisol were assessed at child ages 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. A three-level hierarchical linear model addressed questions regarding the influences of ELS on HPA functioning and its covariation with mental health symptoms. ELS influenced traitlike cortisol level and slope, with both hyper- and hypoarousal evident depending on type of ELS. Further, type(s) of ELS influenced covariation of epoch-specific HPA functioning and mental health symptoms, with a tighter coupling of HPA alterations with symptom severity among children exposed previously to ELS. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple types of ELS and dynamic HPA functioning in order to capture the allostatic process unfolding across the transition into adolescence.

  20. Modulation of HPA axis response to social stress in schizophrenia by childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Claudia; Huber, Christian G; Fröhlich, Daniela; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Walter, Marc

    2017-08-01

    HPA axis functioning plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). However, only few studies have examined HPA axis responsivity to psychosocial stress in SSD, and results are heterogeneous. Furthermore, childhood trauma is known to influence psychopathology and treatment outcome in SSD, but studies on the influence of childhood trauma on stress related HPA axis activity are missing. The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol response to a psychosocial stress challenge in SSD patients, and to examine its association with severity of childhood trauma. The present study included 25 subacutely ill patients with a current episode of a chronic SSD and 25 healthy controls. Participants underwent the modified Trier Social Stress Test, and salivary cortisol levels were assessed. The childhood trauma questionnaire was used to assess severity of adverse life events. Overall, cortisol response was blunted in the patient group compared to the control group (pchildhood trauma experience: responders had experienced more emotional abuse in their past (pchildhood trauma might influence stress-related HPA axis activity in SSD. Our data contribute to the hypothesis that severity of childhood trauma may be of pathophysiological relevance in schizophrenia. In addition, it may be an overlooked factor contributing to inconsistent findings regarding HPA axis response to psychosocial stress in SSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Chronic Stress and Limbic-Hypothalamopituitary-Adrenal Axis (LHPA Response in Female Reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis is a critical adaptive system that maximizes survival potential in the face of physical or psychological challenge. The principal end products of the HPA axis, glucocorticoid hormones, act on multiple organ systems, including the brain, to maintain homeostatic balance. The brain is a target of stress, and the hippocampus is the first brain region, besides the hypothalamus, to be recognized as a target of glucocorticoids. These anatomical areas in brain are limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and amigdal that have multiple control points in regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis. The studies show the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA activity and regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classic feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Chronic stress can have a deleterious effect on the reproductive axis that, for females, is manifested in reduced pulsatile gonadotropin secretion and increased incidence of ovulatory abnormalities and infertility. The limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (LHPA axis suggests a functional role for gonadal steroids in the regulation of a female’s response to stress.

  2. Lithium attenuated the depressant and anxiogenic effect of juvenile social stress through mitigating the negative impact of interlukin-1β and nitric oxide on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Mirzaian, A; Amiri, S; Kordjazy, N; Momeny, M; Razmi, A; Rahimi-Balaei, M; Amini-Khoei, H; Haj-Mirzaian, A; Marzban, H; Mehr, S E; Ghaffari, S H; Dehpour, A R

    2016-02-19

    The neuroimmune-endocrine dysfunction has been accepted as one of fundamental mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, interleukin-1β, and nitrergic system in mediating the negative behavioral impacts of juvenile social isolation stress (SIS) in male mice. We also investigated the possible protective effects of lithium on behavioral and neurochemical changes in socially isolated animals. Results showed that experiencing 4-weeks of juvenile SIS provoked depressive and anxiety-like behaviors that were associated with hyper responsiveness of HPA axis, upregulation of interleukin-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in the pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus. Administration of lithium (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the depressant and anxiogenic effects of SIS in behavioral tests. Lithium also restored the negative effects of SIS on cortical and hippocampal interleukin-1β and NO as well as HPA axis deregulation. Unlike the neutralizing effects of l-arginine (NO precursor), administration of l-NAME (3 mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (20 mg/kg) potentiated the positive effects of lithium on the behavioral and neurochemical profile of isolated mice. In conclusion, our results revealed that juvenile SIS-induced behavioral deficits are associated with abnormalities in HPA-immune function. Also, we suggest that alleviating effects of lithium on behavioral profile of isolated mice may be partly mediated by mitigating the negative impact of NO on HPA-immune function. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adversity-driven changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning during adolescence. The trails study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Odilia M; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, Marcel A G; Ormel, Johan

    2017-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed to be a key mechanism underlying the link between adversity and mental health, but longitudinal studies on adversity and HPA-axis functioning are scarce. Here, we studied adversity-driven changes in HPA-axis functioning during adolescence (N=141). HPA-axis functioning (basal cortisol, cortisol awakening response, anticipation of, reaction to and recovery after a stress task) was measured twice, at age 16 and 19. Adversity (i.e., social defeat and loss/illness) since age 16 was measured extensively with the Life Stress Interview at age 19. Adolescents who reported being exposed to social defeat showed increases in basal cortisol (ɳ 2 =0.029) and decreases in reaction to the stress task (ɳ 2 =0.030) from age 16-19, compared to their peers in the loss/illness and no stress group. The current study provides unique longitudinal data on the role of adversity in HPA-axis functioning. Evidence is provided that adversity can affect the body's neuroendocrine response to stress, dependent on the nature of both the HPA-measures and adverse events under study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis response to predator odor predicts high stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Annie M; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with trauma- and stress-related disorders exhibit increases in avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, heightened anxiety and altered neuroendocrine stress responses. Our laboratory uses a rodent model of stress that mimics the avoidance symptom cluster associated with stress-related disorders. Animals are classified as 'Avoiders' or 'Non-Avoiders' post-stress based on avoidance of predator-odor paired context. Utilizing this model, we are able to examine subpopulation differences in stress reactivity. Here, we used this predator odor model of stress to examine differences in anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function in animals that avoid a predator-paired context relative to those that do not. Rats were exposed to predator odor stress paired with a context and tested for avoidance (24h and 11days), anxiety-like behavior (48h and 5days) and HPA activation following stress. Control animals were exposed to room air. Predator odor stress produced avoidance in approximately 65% of the animals at 24h that persisted 11days post-stress. Both Avoiders and Non-Avoiders exhibited a heightened anxiety-like behavior at 48h and 5days post-stress when compared to unstressed Controls. Non-Avoiders exhibited significant increases in circulating adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) concentrations immediately following predator odor stress compared to Controls and this response was significantly attenuated in Avoiders. There was an inverse correlation between circulating ACTH/CORT concentrations and avoidance, indicating that lower levels of ACTH/CORT predicted higher levels of avoidance. These results suggest that stress effects on HPA stress axis activation predict long-term avoidance of stress-paired stimuli, and build on previous data showing the utility of this model for exploring the neurobiological mechanisms of trauma- and stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 is essential for normal hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachus, Helen; Bright, Charlotte; Cunliffe, Vincent T; Placzek, Marysia; Wood, Jonathan D; Watt, Penelope J

    2017-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we show that the role of DISC1 in stress responses is evolutionarily conserved and that DISC1 is essential for normal functioning of the HPI axis. Adult zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1 show aberrant behavioural responses to stress. Our studies reveal that in the embryo, disc1 is expressed in neural progenitor cells of the hypothalamus, a conserved region of the vertebrate brain that centrally controls responses to environmental stressors. In disc1 mutant embryos, proliferating rx3+ hypothalamic progenitors are not maintained normally and neuronal differentiation is compromised: rx3-derived ff1b+ neurons, implicated in anxiety-related behaviours, and corticotrophin releasing hormone (crh) neurons, key regulators of the stress axis, develop abnormally, and rx3-derived pomc+ neurons are disorganised. Abnormal hypothalamic development is associated with dysfunctional behavioural and neuroendocrine stress responses. In contrast to wild type siblings, disc1 mutant larvae show altered crh levels, fail to upregulate cortisol levels when under stress and do not modulate shoal cohesion, indicative of abnormal social behaviour. These data indicate that disc1 is essential for normal development of the hypothalamus and for the correct functioning of the HPA/HPI axis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis induces cellular oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jereme G. Spiers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal gland in response to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis induce activity in the cellular reduction-oxidation (redox system. The redox system is a ubiquitous chemical mechanism allowing the transfer of electrons between donor/acceptors and target molecules during oxidative phosphorylation while simultaneously maintaining the overall cellular environment in a reduced state. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the current literature discussing the link between HPA axis-derived glucocorticoids and increased oxidative stress, particularly focussing on the redox changes observed in the hippocampus following glucocorticoid exposure.

  7. If It Goes up, Must It Come Down? Chronic Stress and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Zhou, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    The notion that chronic stress fosters disease by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis is featured prominently in many theories. The research linking chronic stress and HPA function is contradictory, however, with some studies reporting increased activation, and others reporting the opposite. This meta-analysis showed…

  8. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: Multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change

    OpenAIRE

    Tessa K Solomon-Lane; Erica J Crespi; Erica J Crespi; Matthew Scott Grober; Matthew Scott Grober

    2013-01-01

    Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has ...

  9. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Crespi, Erica J.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has be...

  10. A sustained hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Quigley, E M M; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G

    2014-10-01

    Despite stress being considered a key factor in the pathophysiology of the functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), there is a paucity of information regarding the ability of IBS patients to respond to acute experimental stress. Insights into the stress response in IBS could open the way to novel therapeutic interventions. To this end, we assessed the response of a range of physiological and psychological parameters to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in IBS. Thirteen female patients with IBS and 15 healthy female age-matched control participants underwent a single exposure to the TSST. Salivary cortisol, salivary C-reactive protein (CRP), skin conductance level (SCL), GI symptoms, mood and self-reported stress were measured pre- and post-exposure to the TSST. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the TSST was sustained in IBS, as shown by a greater total cortisol output throughout (p = 0.035) and higher cortisol levels measured by an area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG) analysis (p = 0.044). In IBS patients, GI symptoms increased significantly during the recovery period following exposure to the TSST (p = 0.045). Salivary CRP and SCL activity showed significant changes in relation to stress but with no differential effect between experimental groups. Patients with IBS exhibit sustained HPA axis activity, and an increase in problematic GI symptoms in response to acute experimental psychosocial stress. These data pave the way for future interventional studies aimed at identifying novel therapeutic approaches to modulate the HPA axis and GI symptom response to acute psychosocial stress in IBS.

  11. Corticotropin releasing hormone and imaging, rethinking the stress axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contoreggi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The stress system provides integration of both neurochemical and somatic physiologic functions within organisms as an adaptive mechanism to changing environmental conditions throughout evolution. In mammals and primates the complexity and sophistication of these systems have surpassed other species in triaging neurochemical and physiologic signaling to maximize chances of survival. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and its related peptides and receptors have been identified over the last three decades and are fundamental molecular initiators of the stress response. They are crucial in the top down regulatory cascade over a myriad of neurochemical, neuroendocrine and sympathetic nervous system events. From neuroscience, we've seen that stress activation impacts behavior, endocrine and somatic physiology and influences neurochemical events that one can capture in real time with current imaging technologies. To delineate these effects one can demonstrate how the CRH neuronal networks infiltrate critical cognitive, emotive and autonomic regions of the central nervous system (CNS) with somatic effects. Abundant preclinical and clinical studies show inter-regulatory actions of CRH with multiple neurotransmitters/peptides. Stress, both acute and chronic has epigenetic effects which magnify genetic susceptibilities to alter neurochemistry; stress system activation can add critical variables in design and interpretation of basic and clinical neuroscience and related research. This review will attempt to provide an overview of the spectrum of known functions and speculative actions of CRH and stress responses in light of imaging technology and its interpretation. Metabolic and neuroreceptor positron emission/single photon tomography (PET/SPECT), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anatomic MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (pMRS) are technologies that can delineate basic mechanisms of neurophysiology and

  12. Associations between HPA axis functioning and level of anxiety in children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallen, V. L.; Tulen, J. H. M.; Utens, E. M. W. J.; Treffers, P. D. A.; de Jong, F. H.; Ferdinand, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis becomes active in response to stress. Hence, increased levels of anxiety in children and adolescents may be associated with changes in HPA-axis functioning. The aim of this study was to test if level of anxiety or specific anxiety disorders were

  13. Regulation of the corticosteroid signalling system in rainbow trout HPI axis during confinement stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Servili, Arianna; Péron, Sandrine; Valotaire, Claudiane; Goardon, Lionel; Leguen, Isabelle; Prunet, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to shed light on corticosteroid regulation of stress in teleost fish with focus on the corticosteroid signalling system. The role of the mineralocorticoid-like hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in fish is still enigmatic, as is the function of the mineralocorticoid receptor, MR. Low plasma DOC levels and ubiquitous tissue distribution of MR question the physiological relevance of the mineralocorticoid-axis. Furthermore, the particular purpose of each of the three corticosteroid receptors in fish, the glucocorticoid receptors, GR1 and GR2, and the MR, is still largely unknown. Therefore we investigate the regulation of cortisol and DOC in plasma and mRNA levels of MR, GR1 and GR2 in the HPI-axis tissues (hypothalamus, pituitary and interrenal gland) during a detailed confinement stress time-course. Here we show a sustained up-regulation of plasma DOC levels during a confinement stress time-course. However, the low DOC levels compared to cortisol measured in the plasma do not favour an activity of DOC through MR receptors. Furthermore, we show differential contribution of the CRs in regulation and control of HPI axis activity following confinement stress. Judged by the variation of mRNA levels negative feedback regulation of cortisol release occurs on the level of the pituitary via MR and on the level of the interrenal gland via GR2. Finally, asa significant effect of confinement stress on CR expressions was observed in the pituitary gland, we completed this experiment by demonstrating that corticosteroid receptors (GR1, GR2 and MR) are co-expressed in the ACTH cells located in the adenohypophysis. Overall, these data suggest the involvement of these receptors in the regulation of the HPI axis activity by cortisol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Visceral Pain: Relevance to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Rachel D; Johnson, Anthony C; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Dinan, Timothy G; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Cryan, John F

    2016-02-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs of the body, which affects a significant proportion of the population and is a common feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). While IBS is multifactorial, with no single etiology to completely explain the disorder, many patients also experience comorbid behavioral disorders, such as anxiety or depression; thus, IBS is described as a disorder of the gut-brain axis. Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of visceral pain disorders. Chronic stress can modify central pain circuitry, as well as change motility and permeability throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. More recently, the role of the gut microbiota in the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis, and subsequent changes in behavior, has emerged. Thus, stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviors. This review will highlight the evidence by which stress and the gut microbiota interact in the regulation of visceral nociception. We will focus on the influence of stress on the microbiota and the mechanisms by which microbiota can affect the stress response and behavioral outcomes with an emphasis on visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Obesity, and Chronic Stress Exposure: Sleep and the HPA Axis in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucassen, Eliane A.; Cizza, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, exposure to stress and inadequate sleep are prevalent phenomena in modern society. In this review we focus on their relationships and critically evaluate causality. In obese individuals, one of the main stress systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is altered, and concentrations of cortisol are elevated in adipose tissue due to elevated local activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1. Short sleep and decreased sleep quality are also associated with obesity....

  16. Beyond the HPA axis: progesterone-derived neuroactive steroids in human stress and emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eWirth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress and social isolation are well-known risk factors for psychopathology. However, more research is needed as to the physiological mechanisms by which social support buffers the impacts of stress. Research in animal models suggests important roles for progesterone (P and its product, the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO, in stress and psychopathology. These hormones are produced in brain and periphery during stress in rodents, and down-regulate anxiety behavior and HPA axis activity. Human clinical populations, including depressed patients, have alterations in ALLO levels, but it is unclear whether these basal hormone level differences have clinical import. To begin to address this question, this review examines the role of P and ALLO in stress physiology, and the impact of these hormones on mood, in healthy humans. Evidence largely supports that P and ALLO increase during stress in humans. However, P/ALLO administration appears to cause only mild effects on mood and subjective anxiety, while exerting effects consistent with GABA receptor modulation. Additionally, P is linked to motivation for affiliation / social contact; P (and ALLO release may be especially responsive to social rejection. These observations lead to the novel hypothesis that stress-related P/ALLO production functions not only to down-regulate stress and anxiety, but also to promote social contact as a long-term coping strategy. Malfunctioning of the P/ALLO system could therefore underlie depression partly by decreasing propensity to affiliate with others.

  17. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism affects HPA-axis reactivity to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nina; Osinsky, Roman; Schmitz, Anja; Mueller, Eva; Kuepper, Yvonne; Hennig, Juergen

    2010-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that individual differences in HPA-axis reactivity to psychosocial stress are partly due to heritable influences. However, knowledge about the role of specific genetic variants remains very limited to date. Since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) not only exhibits neurotrophic actions but is also involved in the regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides, we investigated the role of a common functional polymorphism within the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met) in the context of endocrine and cardiovascular stress reactivity. Healthy male adults (N=100) were genotyped and exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (Public Speaking). Saliva cortisol and self-reported mood levels were obtained at 6 time points prior to the stressor and during an extended recovery period. Furthermore, heart rate reactivity as an indicator of sympathetic activation was monitored continuously during the experimental procedure. We report a small, but significant effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on stress reactivity. More precisely, carriers of the met-allele showed a significantly attenuated HPA-axis and cardiovascular reactivity to the psychosocial stressor compared to subjects with the val/val genotype. Furthermore, the diminished physiological response in met-allele carriers was also attended by significantly lower self-reported ratings of perceived stress and nervousness. Our findings of a diminished endocrine and cardiovascular stress response in healthy male adults is consistent with a previously published study and adds further evidence for a crucial role of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in the modulation of stress reactivity. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Rev1 contributes to proper mitochondrial function via the PARP-NAD(+)-SIRT1-PGC1 alpha axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakouri, Nima Borhan; Durhuus, Jon Ambaek; Regnell, Christine Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    (ADP) ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) activity, low endogenous NAD+, low expression of SIRT1 and PGC1α and low adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) activity. We conclude that replication stress via Rev1-deficiency contributes to metabolic stress caused by compromized mitochondrial function via...... the PARP-NAD+-SIRT1-PGC1α axis....

  19. Stress responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: age-related features of the vasopressinergic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Dmitrievna Goncharova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis plays a key role in adaptation to environmental stresses. Parvicellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus secrete corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH and arginine vasopressin (AVP into pituitary portal system; CRH and AVP stimulate ACTH release through specific G protein-coupled membrane receptors on pituitary corticotrophs, CRH1 for CRH and V1b for AVP; the adrenal gland cortex secretes glucocorticoids in response ACTH. The glucocorticoids activate specific receptors in brain and peripheral tissues thereby triggering the necessary metabolic, immune, neuromodulatory and behavioral changes to resist stress. While importance of CRH, as a key hypothalamic factor of HPA axis regulation in basal and stress conditions in most species, is generally recognized, role of AVP remains to be clarified. This review focuses on the role of AVP in the regulation of stress responsiveness of the HPA axis with emphasis on the effects of aging on vasopressinergic regulation of HPA axis stress responsiveness. Under most of the known stressors, AVP is necessary for acute ACTH secretion but in a context-specific manner. The current data on the AVP role in regulation of HPA responsiveness to chronic stress in adulthood are rather contradictory. The importance of the vasopressinergic regulation of the HPA stress responsiveness is greatest during fetal development, in neonatal period, and in the lactating adult. Aging associated with increased variability in several parameters of HPA function including basal state, responsiveness to stressors, and special testing. Reports on the possible role of the AVP/V1b receptor system in the increase of HPA axis hyperactivity with aging are contradictory and requires further research. Many contradictory results may be due to age and species differences in the HPA function of rodents and primates.

  20. Association of HPA axis-related genetic variation with stress reactivity and aggressive behaviour in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muráni Eduard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress, elicited for example by aggressive interactions, has negative effects on various biological functions including immune defence, reproduction, growth, and, in livestock, on product quality. Stress response and aggressiveness are mutually interrelated and show large interindividual variation, partly attributable to genetic factors. In the pig little is known about the molecular-genetic background of the variation in stress responsiveness and aggressiveness. To identify candidate genes we analyzed association of DNA markers in each of ten genes (CRH g.233C>T, CRHR1 c.*866_867insA, CRHBP c.51G>A, POMC c.293_298del, MC2R c.306T>G, NR3C1 c.*2122A>G, AVP c.207A>G, AVPR1B c.1084A>G, UCN g.1329T>C, CRHR2 c.*13T>C related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis, one of the main stress-response systems, with various stress- and aggression-related parameters at slaughter. These parameters were: physiological measures of the stress response (plasma concentrations of cortisol, creatine kinase, glucose, and lactate, adrenal weight (which is a parameter reflecting activity of the central branch of the HPA axis over time and aggressive behaviour (measured by means of lesion scoring in the context of psychosocial stress of mixing individuals with different aggressive temperament. Results The SNP NR3C1 c.*2122A>G showed association with cortisol concentration (p = 0.024, adrenal weight (p = 0.003 and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.012; total lesion score p = 0.045. The SNP AVPR1B c.1084A>G showed a highly significant association with aggressive behaviour (middle lesion score, p = 0.007; total lesion score p = 0.003. The SNP UCN g.1329T>C showed association with adrenal weight (p = 0.019 and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.029. The SNP CRH g.233C>T showed a significant association with glucose concentration (p = 0.002, and the polymorphisms POMC c.293_298del and MC2R c.306T>G with adrenal

  1. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: Multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa K Solomon-Lane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis. Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids (GCs, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli, a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.

  2. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K; Crespi, Erica J; Grober, Matthew S

    2013-01-01

    Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis). Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli), a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.

  3. [Corticotropic axis and chronic stress in abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullu-Ciocca, S; Verger, P; Bocquier, A; Oliver, C

    2005-12-03

    Several indicators of corticotropic axis hyperactivity have been observed in common abdominal obesity, which is clinically similar to the obesity found in Cushing's syndrome. Corticotropic axis hyperactivity may be involved in the development and metabolic and cardiovascular complications of abdominal obesity. Several mechanisms may be responsible for this hormonal dysregulation: genetic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors, and chronic stress. We note the necessity of methodologically-impeccable clinical studies for an objective evaluation of the role of stress in obesity.

  4. Adolescent Survivors of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Study of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis constitutes an important biological component of the stress response commonly studied through the measurement of cortisol. Limited research has examined HPA axis dysregulation in youth exposed to disasters. Objective: This study examined HPA axis activation in adolescent Hurricane Katrina…

  5. Experimental hyperthyroidism and central mediators of stress axis and thyroid axis activity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geven, Edwin J W; Verkaar, Folkert; Flik, Gert; Klaren, Peter H M

    2006-12-01

    The effect of experimental hyperthyroidism, realized by T(4) injection, on central mediators of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI-axis) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was studied. Our results show that hyperthyroidism evokes a marked 3.2-fold reduction in basal plasma cortisol levels. Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, measured by real-time quantitative PCR, were significantly elevated by 40%, but CRH, urotensin-I, prepro-TRH, prohormone convertase-1 (PC1), and POMC mRNA levels were unchanged. In the pituitary pars distalis, PC1, CRH receptor-1, and POMC mRNA levels were unaffected, as was ACTH content. Plasma alpha-MSH concentrations were significantly elevated by 30% in hyperthyroid fish, and this was reflected in PC1 and POMC mRNA levels in pituitary pars intermedia that were increased 1.5- and 2.4-fold respectively. The alpha-MSH content of the pars intermedia was unchanged. Hyperthyroidism has profound effects on the basal levels of a central mediator, i.e., CRH-BP, of HPI-axis function in unstressed carp in vivo, and we conclude that HPI- and hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid-axis functions are strongly interrelated. We suggest that the changes in plasma cortisol, thyroid hormone, and alpha-MSH levels reflect their concerted actions on energy metabolism.

  6. Adversity-driven changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O.M.; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, M.A.G.; Ormel, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed to be a key mechanism underlying the link between adversity and mental health, but longitudinal studies on adversity and HPA-axis functioning are scarce. Here, we studied adversity-driven changes in HPA-axis functioning during

  7. Early life stress, HPA axis adaptation and mechanisms contributing to later health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi eManiam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress response system. Early life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that early life stress produces long-term hyper responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviours. Recently, evidence has emerged on early life stress induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1. We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early life stress induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilisation and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early life stress induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early life stress and later health outcomes will also

  8. Antidepressant-like Effect of Bacopaside I in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress by Modulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function and Activating BDNF Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xianpeng; Zhang, Mingjian; Li, Wencai; Xie, Haisheng; Lin, Zhang; Yang, Niao; Liu, Xinru; Zhang, Weidong

    2017-11-01

    Preliminary studies conducted in our laboratory have confirmed that Bacopaside I (BS-I), a saponin compound isolated from Bacopa monnieri, displayed antidepressant-like activity in the mouse behavioral despair model. The present investigation aimed to verify the antidepressant-like action of BS-I using a mouse model of behavioral deficits induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and further probe its underlying mechanism of action. Mice were exposed to CUMS for a period of 5 consecutive weeks to induce depression-like behavior. Then, oral gavage administrations with vehicle (model group), fluoxetine (12 mg/kg, positive group) or BS-I (5, 15, 45 mg/kg, treated group) once daily were started during the last two weeks of CUMS procedure. The results showed that BS-I significantly ameliorated CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors in mice, as characterized by an elevated sucrose consumption in the sucrose preference test and reduced immobility time without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity in the forced swimming test, tail suspension test and open field test. It was also found that BS-I treatment reversed the increased level of plasma corticosterone and decreased mRNA and protein expressions of glucocorticoid receptor induced by CUMS exposure, indicating that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity of CUMS-exposed mice was restored by BS-I treatment. Furthermore, chronic administration of BS-I elevated expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (mRNA and protein) and activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in mice subjected to CUMS procedure. Taken together, these results indicated that BS-I exhibited an obvious antidepressant-like effect in mouse model of CUMS-induced depression that was mediated, at least in part, by modulating HPA hyperactivity and activating BDNF signaling pathway.

  9. Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be

  10. The different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhu

    Full Text Available Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression and the mechanism underling the dysfunction of HPA axis is not well understood. Chronic stress has a causal relationship with the hyperactivity of HPA axis. Stress induces the over-synthesis of glucocorticoids, which will arrive at all the body containing the brain. It is still complicated whether glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity and in which part of the brain the glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity. Here, we demonstrated that glucocorticoids were indispensable and sufficient for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Although acute glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus and hypothalamus exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis, we found that chronic glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus but not in the hypothalamus accounted for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Chronic glucocorticoids exposure in the hypothalamus still exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis activity. More importantly, we found mineralocorticoid receptor (MR - neuronal nitric oxide synthesis enzyme (nNOS - nitric oxide (NO pathway mediated the different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in regulating HPA axis activity. This study suggests that the glucocorticoids in the hippocampus play an important role in the development of HPA axis hyperactivity and the glucocorticoids in the hypothalamus can't induce hyperactivity of HPA axis, revealing new insights into understanding the mechanism of depression.

  11. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  12. Evidence for Stress-like Alterations in the HPA-Axis in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Johannes; König, Johanna; Homuth, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Using oral contraceptives has been implicated in the aetiology of stress-related disorders like depression. Here, we followed the hypothesis that oral contraceptives deregulate the HPA-axis by elevating circulating cortisol levels. We report for a sample of 233 pre-menopausal women increased...

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to social stress and adolescent cannabis use: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prince van Leeuwen, A.; Creemers, H.E.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relationship of life-time and repeated cannabis use with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to social stress in a general population sample of adolescents. Design: Adolescents who reported life-time or repeated cannabis use, life-time or repeated tobacco

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to social stress and adolescent cannabis use : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Creemers, Hanneke E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    Aims To investigate the relationship of life-time and repeated cannabis use with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to social stress in a general population sample of adolescents. Design Adolescents who reported life-time or repeated cannabis use, life-time or repeated tobacco use

  15. HPA-axis stress reactivity in youth depression: evidence of impaired regulatory processes in depressed boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; McGinnis, Ellen; Kuhlman, Kate; Geiss, Elisa; Vargas, Ivan; Mayer, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Given the link between youth depression and stress exposure, efforts to identify related biomarkers have involved examinations of stress regulation systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Despite these vast efforts, the underlying mechanisms at play, as well as factors that may explain heterogeneity of past findings, are not well understood. In this study, we simultaneously examined separate components of the HPA-axis response (e.g. activation intensity, peak levels, recovery) to the Socially Evaluated Cold-Pressor Test in a targeted sample of 115 youth (age 9-16), recruited to overrepresent youth with elevated symptoms of depression. Among youth who displayed a cortisol response to the task, depression symptoms were associated with higher peak responses but not greater rate of activation or recovery in boys only. Among those who did not respond to the task, depression symptoms were associated with greater cortisol levels throughout the visit in boys and girls. Results suggest that depression symptoms are associated with a more prolonged activation of the axis and impaired recovery to psychosocial stressors primarily in boys. We discussed two potential mechanistic explanations of the link between depression symptoms and the duration of activation: (1) inhibitory shift (i.e. point at which the ratio of inhibitory and excitatory input into the axis shifts from greater excitatory to greater inhibitory input) or (2) inhibitory threshold (i.e. level of cortisol exposure required to activate the axis' feedback inhibition system).

  16. FLEXURAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF RIGID PAVEMENTS USING AXI-SYMMETRIC AND PLANE STRAIN FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Sawant

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of pavement involves a study of soils and paving materials, their response under load for different climatic conditions. In the present study, an attempt has been made to compare stresses predicted using two finite element analyses. First analysis is based on the twodimensional plane strain assumption where as in second approach axi-symmetric condition is assumed to consider three-dimensional behavior of rigid pavement. The results are compared with flexural stresses obtained from conventional Portland Cement Association method. The computed flexural stresses obtained from axi-symmetric condition are found to be in close agreement with PCA method. Results of plane strain analysis show a fair agreement after application of an appropriate multiplication factor

  17. Stress field models from Maxwell stress functions: southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The lithospheric stress field is formally divided into three components: a standard pressure which is a function of elevation (only), a topographic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field) and a tectonic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field). The boundary between topographic and tectonic stress anomalies is somewhat arbitrary, and here is based on the modeling tools available. The topographic stress anomaly is computed by numerical convolution of density anomalies with three tensor Green's functions provided by Boussinesq, Cerruti and Mindlin. By assuming either a seismically estimated or isostatic Moho depth, and by using Poisson ratio of either 0.25 or 0.5, I obtain four alternative topographic stress models. The tectonic stress field, which satisfies the homogeneous quasi-static momentum equation, is obtained from particular second derivatives of Maxwell vector potential fields which are weighted sums of basis functions representing constant tectonic stress components, linearly varying tectonic stress components and tectonic stress components that vary harmonically in one, two and three dimensions. Boundary conditions include zero traction due to tectonic stress anomaly at sea level, and zero traction due to the total stress anomaly on model boundaries at depths within the asthenosphere. The total stress anomaly is fit by least squares to both World Stress Map data and to a previous faulted-lithosphere, realistic-rheology dynamic model of the region computed with finite-element program Shells. No conflict is seen between the two target data sets, and the best-fitting model (using an isostatic Moho and Poisson ratio 0.5) gives minimum directional misfits relative to both targets. Constraints of computer memory, execution time and ill-conditioning of the linear system (which requires damping) limit harmonically varying tectonic stress to no more than six cycles along each axis of the model. The primary limitation on close fitting is that the Shells model predicts very sharp

  18. A ghrelin-growth hormone axis drives stress-induced vulnerability to enhanced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R M; Burgos-Robles, A; Liu, E; Correia, S S; Goosens, K A

    2014-12-01

    Hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mediate many of the bodily responses to stressors, yet there is no clear relationship between the levels of these hormones and stress-associated mental illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, other hormones are likely to be involved in this effect of stress. Here we used a rodent model of PTSD in which rats repeatedly exposed to a stressor display heightened fear learning following auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our results show that stress-related increases in circulating ghrelin, a peptide hormone, are necessary and sufficient for stress-associated vulnerability to exacerbated fear learning and these actions of ghrelin occur in the amygdala. Importantly, these actions are also independent of the classic HPA stress axis. Repeated systemic administration of a ghrelin receptor agonist enhanced fear memory but did not increase either corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticosterone. Repeated intraamygdala infusion of a ghrelin receptor agonist produced a similar enhancement of fear memory. Ghrelin receptor antagonism during repeated stress abolished stress-related enhancement of fear memory without blunting stress-induced corticosterone release. We also examined links between ghrelin and growth hormone (GH), a major downstream effector of the ghrelin receptor. GH protein was upregulated in the amygdala following chronic stress, and its release from amygdala neurons was enhanced by ghrelin receptor stimulation. Virus-mediated overexpression of GH in the amygdala was also sufficient to increase fear. Finally, virus-mediated overexpression of a GH receptor antagonist was sufficient to block the fear-enhancing effects of repeated ghrelin receptor stimulation. Thus, ghrelin requires GH in the amygdala to exert fear-enhancing effects. These results suggest that ghrelin mediates a novel branch of the stress response and highlight a previously unrecognized role for ghrelin and

  19. The somatotropic axis: Effects on brain and cognitive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Both hormones of the somatotropic axis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) can cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to their receptors in neurons and glia throughout the brain. Features of aging resemble those of GHD and aging is also associated with a decline in the

  20. The impact of reproduction on the stress axis of free-living male northern red backed voles (Myodes rutilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Quinn E; Dantzer, Ben; Boonstra, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis culminates in the release of glucocorticoids (henceforth CORT), which have wide-reaching physiological effects. Three hypotheses potentially explain seasonal variation in CORT. The enabling hypothesis predicts that reproductive season CORT exceeds post-reproductive season CORT because CORT enables reproductive investment. The inhibitory hypothesis predicts the opposite because CORT can negatively affect reproductive function. The costs of reproduction hypothesis predicts that HPA axis condition declines over and following the reproductive season. We tested these hypotheses in wild male red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) during the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons. We quantified CORT levels in response to restraint stress tests consisting of three blood samples (initial, stress-induced, and recovery). Mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor mRNA levels in the brain were also quantified over the reproductive season. Total CORT (tCORT) in the initial and stress-induced samples were greater in the post-reproductive than in the reproductive season, which supported the inhibitory hypothesis. Conversely, free CORT (fCORT) did not differ between the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons, which was counter to both the enabling and inhibitory hypotheses. Evidence for HPA axis condition decline in CORT as well as GR and MR mRNA over the reproductive season (i.e. costs of reproduction hypothesis) was mixed. Moreover, all of the parameters that showed signs of declining condition over the reproductive season did not also show signs of declining condition over the post-reproductive season suggesting that the costs resulting from reproductive investment had subsided. In conclusion, our results suggest that different aspects of the HPA axis respond differently to seasonal changes and reproductive investment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allison; Mach, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function. The gut microbiome and its influence on host behavior, intestinal barrier and immune function are believed to be a critical aspect of the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence in murine models shows that there is a high correlation between physical and emotional stress during exercise and changes in gastrointestinal microbiota composition. For instance, induced exercise-stress decreased cecal levels of Turicibacter spp and increased Ruminococcus gnavus, which have well defined roles in intestinal mucus degradation and immune function. Diet is known to dramatically modulate the composition of the gut microbiota. Due to the considerable complexity of stress responses in elite athletes (from leaky gut to increased catabolism and depression), defining standard diet regimes is difficult. However, some preliminary experimental data obtained from studies using probiotics and prebiotics studies show some interesting results, indicating that the microbiota acts like an endocrine organ (e.g. secreting serotonin, dopamine or other neurotransmitters) and may control the HPA axis in athletes. What is troubling is that dietary recommendations for elite athletes are primarily based on a low consumption of plant polysaccharides, which is associated with reduced microbiota diversity and functionality (e.g. less synthesis of byproducts such as short chain fatty acids and neurotransmitters). As more

  2. Stress axis regulation during social ascension in a group-living cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Brett M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Balshine, Sigal

    2018-06-19

    Animals living in groups often form social hierarchies, with characteristic behaviours and physiologies associated with rank. However, when social opportunities arise and a subordinate ascends into a dominant position, quick adjustments are necessary to secure this position. Such periods of social transition are typically associated with elevated glucocorticoid production, but the precise regulation of the stress axis during these occasions is not well understood. Using the group-living cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, the effects of social ascension on the stress axis were assessed. Ascenders rapidly filled experimentally created vacancies, adopting a dominant behavioural phenotype within 72 h-elevating aggression, activity, and workload, while receiving high rates of affiliative behaviours from their group members. Despite assuming behavioural dominance within their groups, ascenders displayed higher cortisol levels than dominants three days post-ascension. Additionally, compared to subordinates, ascenders had increased transcript abundance of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star) and cytochrome p450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc) in the head kidney, indicating activation of the stress axis. Cortisol levels were lowest in ascenders that displayed low rates of aggression, potentially reflecting the reestablishment of social stability in these groups. Increased transcript abundance of both glucocorticoid receptors (gr1 and gr2) in the brain's preoptic area (POA) of ascenders compared to dominants suggested an enhanced capacity for cortisol regulation via negative feedback. Our results reveal a regulatory cascade of behavioural and physiological interactions and highlight the importance of investigating the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress axis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, C.J.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction

    The main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which

  4. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel by iptakalim normalizes stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behaviour by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Zhan; Yang, Dan-Dan; Cao, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Ling; Ji, Juan; Gu, Jun; Huang, Ji-Ye; Sun, Xiu-Lan

    2017-04-01

    Stress-induced disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly implicated in incidence of mood disorders. A heightened neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress play a fundamental role in the dysfunction of the HPA axis. We have previously demonstrated that iptakalim (Ipt), a new ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, could prevent oxidative injury and neuroinflammation against multiple stimuli-induced brain injury. The present study was to demonstrate the impacts of Ipt in stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behavior. We employed 2 stress paradigms: 8 weeks of continuous restraint stress (chronic restraint stress, CRS) and 2h of restraint stress (acute restraint stress, ARS), to mimic both chronic stress and severe acute stress. Prolonged (4 weeks) and short-term (a single injection) Ipt treatment was administered 30min before each stress paradigm. We found that HPA axis was altered after stress, with different responses to CRS (lower ACTH and CORT, higher AVP, but normal CRH) and ARS (higher CRH, ACTH and CORT, but normal AVP). Both prolonged and short-term Ipt treatment normalized stress-induced HPA axis disorders and abnormal behaviors in mice. CRS and ARS up-regulated mRNA levels of inflammation-related molecules (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and TLR4) and oxidative stress molecules (gp91phox, iNOS and Nrf2) in the mouse hypothalamus. Double immunofluorescence showed CRS and ARS increased microglia activation (CD11b and TNFα) and oxidative stress in neurons (NeuN and gp91phox), which were alleviated by Ipt. Therefore, the present study reveals that Ipt could prevent against stress-induced HPA axis disorders and depressive behavior by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in the cyclic rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, M.M.

    1997-01-01


    The influence of stress on reproductive functions has been subject of much research. Various kinds of stress are known to affect reproductive functions. In females, the complex regulation of the ovarian cycle relies on a series of neuroendocrine events whose temporal relationship is so

  6. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Giles

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  7. Association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with HPA and SAM axis reactivity to psychological and physical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuru J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jusen Tsuru,1 Yoshihiro Tanaka,1 Yoshinobu Ishitobi,1 Yoshihiro Maruyama,1 Ayako Inoue,1 Aimi Kawano,1 Rie Ikeda,1 Tomoko Ando,1 Harumi Oshita,2 Saeko Aizawa,1 Koji Masuda,1 Haruka Higuma,1 Masayuki Kanehisa,1 Taiga Ninomiya,1 Jotaro Akiyoshi1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan Background: Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder.Methods: To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST] and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A.Results: A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; P<0.05 was demonstrated that revealed different salivary cortisol responses in the TSST but not in electrical stimulation. Met/Met women had stronger cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. Met/Met men exhibited stronger salivary cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST.Conclusion: These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in BDNF had different effects on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests. Keywords: stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cortisol, saliva

  8. Age-related differences in stress responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of nonhuman primates with various types of adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Nadezhda D; Oganyan, Tamara E

    2018-03-01

    Aging is characterized by disturbances in the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, associated with disturbances in the adaptation processes and increase of the probability of the onset of post-stress syndrome. However, the individual features of age-related disorders stress reactivity of HPA axis have not been studied. The purpose was to study individual characteristics of the HPA axis responsiveness to acute psycho-emotional stress exposure (restraint, ASE) at different age periods on the model of the young adult and old physically healthy female rhesus monkeys that differ in their behavioral responses to stress, i.e., with depression-like and anxiety-like behavior (DAB) on the one hand and healthy standard (control) adaptive behavior (SB) on the other hand. No significant intergroup differences were observed in HPA axis responses to ASE in young animals. During aging the monkeys with SB showed reduced ACTH response to the ASE, whereas the monkeys with DAB demonstrated its increase. The old animals with DAB in response to ASE demonstrated the most pronounced HPA axis disorders, such as the highest levels of corticotrophin (ACTH), the lowest levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), reduced cortisol (F) levels and the highest values of the F/DHEAS molar ratio. The ratio F/DHEAS positively correlates with the malondialdehyde concentration in erythrocytes that is considered as the biomarker of oxidative stress. Thus, these data allow us to consider the old monkeys with DAB as individuals with higher vulnerability to the adverse effects of ASE. In addition, depression-like and anxiety-like behavior of aged primates under mild/moderate stress along with reduced DHEAS plasma concentration and increased values of F/DHEAS ratio can be used to identify individuals with increased vulnerability to ASE and accelerated aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of ginseng on stress-related depression, anxiety, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungyeop Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng effectively regulates the immune response and the hormonal changes due to stress, thus maintaining homeostasis. In addition to suppressing the occurrence of psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression, ginseng also prevents stress-associated physiological diseases. Recent findings have revealed that ginseng is involved in adjusting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and controlling hormones, thus producing beneficial effects on the heart and brain, and in cases of bone diseases, as well as alleviating erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have highlighted the potential use of ginseng in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of ginseng on these stress-related diseases has not been completely established. In this review, we focus on the disease pathways caused by stress in order to determine how ginseng acts to improve health. Central to our discussion is how this effective and stable therapeutic agent alleviates the anxiety and depression caused by stress and ameliorates inflammatory diseases.

  10. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with HPA axis reactivity to psychological stress characterized by genotype and gender interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Idan; Lerer, Elad; Israel, Salomon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Gritsenko, Inga; Mankuta, David; Ebstein, Richard P; Kaitz, Marsha

    2009-04-01

    A key protein in maintaining neuronal integrity throughout the life span is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The BDNF gene is characterized by a functional polymorphism, which has been associated with stress-related disorders such as anxiety-related syndromes and depression, prompting us to examine individual responses by Genotype and Sex to a standardized social stress paradigm. Gender differences in BDNFxstress responses were posited because estrogen induces synthesis of BDNF in several brain regions. 97 university students (51 females and 46 males) participated in a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). Indices of stress were derived from repeated measurement of cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate during the TSST. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism. Tests of within-subject effects showed a significant three-way interaction (SPSS GLM repeated measures: Time (eight levels)xBDNF (val/val, val/met)xSex: p=0.0002), which reflects gender differences in the pattern of cortisol rise and decline during the social challenge. In male subjects, val/val homozygotes showed a greater rise in salivary cortisol than val/met heterozygotes. In female subjects, there was a trend for the opposite response, which is significant when area under the curve increase (AUCi) was calculated for the val/val homozygotes to show the lowest rise. Overall, the same pattern of results was observed for blood pressure and heart rate. These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in the BDNF gene modulates HPA axis reactivity and regulation during the TSST differently in men and women. Findings may be related to gender differences in reactivity and vulnerability to social stress.

  11. The joint power of sex and stress to modulate brain-gut-microbiota axis and intestinal barrier homeostasis: implications for irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigrau, M; Rodiño-Janeiro, B K; Casado-Bedmar, M; Lobo, B; Vicario, M; Santos, J; Alonso-Cotoner, C

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is a dynamic process that takes place at the interface between the lumen and the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, where a constant scrutiny for antigens and toxins derived from food and microorganisms is carried out by the vast gut-associated immune system. Intestinal homeostasis is preserved by the ability of the mucus layer and the mucosal barrier to keep the passage of small-sized and antigenic molecules across the epithelium highly selective. When combined and preserved, immune surveillance and barrier's selective permeability, the host capacity of preventing the development of intestinal inflammation is optimized, and viceversa. In addition, the brain-gut-microbiome axis, a multidirectional communication system that integrates distant and local regulatory networks through neural, immunological, metabolic, and hormonal signaling pathways, also regulates intestinal function. Dysfunction of the brain-gut-microbiome axis may induce the loss of gut mucosal homeostasis, leading to uncontrolled permeation of toxins and immunogenic particles, increasing the risk of appearance of intestinal inflammation, mucosal damage, and gut disorders. Irritable bowel syndrome is prevalent stress-sensitive gastrointestinal disorder that shows a female predominance. Interestingly, the role of stress, sex and gonadal hormones in the regulation of intestinal mucosal and the brain-gut-microbiome axis functioning is being increasingly recognized. We aim to critically review the evidence linking sex, and stress to intestinal barrier and brain-gut-microbiome axis dysfunction and the implications for irritable bowel syndrome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Stress-induced sensitization: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Fuentes, Silvia; Daviu, Nuria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to certain acute and chronic stressors results in an immediate behavioral and physiological response to the situation followed by a period of days when cross-sensitization to further novel stressors is observed. Cross-sensitization affects to different behavioral and physiological systems, more particularly to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It appears that the nature of the initial (triggering) stressor plays a major role, HPA cross-sensitization being more widely observed with systemic or high-intensity emotional stressors. Less important appears to be the nature of the novel (challenging) stressor, although HPA cross-sensitization is better observed with short duration (5-15 min) challenging stressors. In some studies with acute immune stressors, HPA sensitization appears to develop over time (incubation), but most results indicate a strong initial sensitization that progressively declines over the days. Sensitization can affect other physiological system (i.e. plasma catecholamines, brain monoamines), but it is not a general phenomenon. When studied concurrently, behavioral sensitization appears to persist longer than that of the HPA axis, a finding of interest regarding long-term consequences of traumatic stress. In many cases, behavioral and physiological consequences of prior stress can only be observed following imposition of a new stressor, suggesting long-term latent effects of the initial exposure.

  13. The stress-buffering effect of acute exercise: Evidence for HPA axis negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschucke, Elisabeth; Renneberg, Babette; Dimeo, Fernando; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Ströhle, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    According to the cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis, physically trained individuals show lower physiological and psychological responses to stressors other than exercise, e.g. psychosocial stress. Reduced stress reactivity may constitute a mechanism of action for the beneficial effects of exercise in maintaining mental health. With regard to neural and psychoneuroendocrine stress responses, the acute stress-buffering effects of exercise have not been investigated yet. A sample of highly trained (HT) and sedentary (SED) young men was randomized to either exercise on a treadmill at moderate intensity (60-70% VO2max; AER) for 30 min, or to perform 30 min of "placebo" exercise (PLAC). 90 min later, an fMRI experiment was conducted using an adapted version of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). The subjective and psychoneuroendocrine (cortisol and α-amylase) changes induced by the exercise intervention and the MIST were assessed, as well as neural activations during the MIST. Finally, associations between the different stress responses were analysed. Participants of the AER group showed a significantly reduced cortisol response to the MIST, which was inversely related to the previous exercise-induced α-amylase and cortisol fluctuations. With regard to the sustained BOLD signal, we found higher bilateral hippocampus (Hipp) activity and lower prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in the AER group. Participants with a higher aerobic fitness showed lower cortisol responses to the MIST. As the Hipp and PFC are brain structures prominently involved in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, these findings indicate that the acute stress-buffering effect of exercise relies on negative feedback mechanisms. Positive affective changes after exercise appear as important moderators largely accounting for the effects related to physical fitness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional Implications of the IL-23/IL-17 Immune Axis in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Berk, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies. In addition, other indirect factors known to confer schizophrenia risk like complement activation and altered gut microbiota are shown to modulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. These preliminary observations provide crucial clues about the functional implications of IL-23/IL-17 axis in schizophrenia. In this review, an attempt has been made to highlight the biology of IL-23/IL-17 axis and its relevance to schizophrenia risk and pathogenesis. Given the pathogenic potential of the IL-23/IL-17 axis, therapeutic targeting of this axis may be a promising approach to benefit patients suffering from this devastating disorder.

  15. Design of a multi-axis implantable MEMS sensor for intraosseous bone stress monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Fernando; Weiss, Lee; Campbell, Phil; Fedder, Gary K; Miller, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The capability to assess the biomechanical properties of living bone is important for basic research as well as the clinical management of skeletal trauma and disease. Even though radiodensitometric imaging is commonly used to infer bone quality, bone strength does not necessarily correlate well with these non-invasive measurements. This paper reports on the design, fabrication and initial testing of an implantable ultra-miniature multi-axis sensor for directly measuring bone stresses at a micro-scale. The device, which is fabricated with CMOS-MEMS processes, is intended to be permanently implanted within open fractures, or embedded in bone grafts, or placed on implants at the interfaces between bone and prosthetics. The stress sensor comprises an array of piezoresistive pixels to detect a stress tensor at the interfacial area between the MEMS chip and bone, with a resolution to 100 Pa, in 1 s averaging. The sensor system design and manufacture is also compatible with the integration of wireless RF telemetry, for power and data retrieval, all within a 3 mm × 3 mm × 0.3 mm footprint. The piezoresistive elements are integrated within a textured surface to enhance sensor integration with bone. Finite element analysis led to a sensor design for normal and shear stress detection. A wired sensor was fabricated in the Jazz 0.35 µm BiCMOS process and then embedded in mock bone material to characterize its response to tensile and bending loads up to 250 kPa

  16. Design and implementation of five-axis transformation function in CNC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To implement five-axis functions in CNC system, based on domestic system Lan Tian series, an improved design method for the system software structure is proposed in this paper. The numerical control kernel of CNC system is divided into the task layer and the motion layer. A five-axis transformation unit is integrated into the motion layer. After classifying five-axis machines into different types and analyzing their geometry information, the five-axis kinematic library is designed according to the abstract factory pattern. Furthermore, by taking CA spindle-tilting machine as an example, the forward and the inverse kinematic transformations are deduced. Based on the new software architecture and the five-axis kinematic library, algorithms of RTCP (rotation tool center point control and 3D radius compensation for end-milling are designed and realized. The milling results show that, with five-axis functions based on such software structure, the instructions with respect to the cutter’s position and orientation can be directly carried out in the CNC system.

  17. Neurobiology of Maternal Stress: Role of Social Rank and Central Oxytocin in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal Axis Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Coplan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic stress may conceivably require plasticity of maternal physiology and behavior to cope with the conflicting primary demands of infant rearing and foraging for food. In addition, social rank may play a pivotal role in mandating divergent homeostatic adaptations in cohesive social groups. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oxytocin (OT levels and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis regulation in the context of maternal social stress and assessed the contribution of social rank to dyadic-distance as reflective of distraction from normative maternal-infant interaction. Methods: Twelve socially-housed mother-infant bonnet macaque dyads were studied after variable foraging demand (VFD exposure compared to 11 unstressed dyads. Dyadic-distance was determined by behavioral observation. Social ranking was performed blindly by two observers. Post-VFD maternal plasma cortisol and CSF OT were compared to corresponding measures in non-VFD exposed mothers. Results: High social rank was associated with increased dyadic-distance only in VFD-exposed dyads and not in control dyads. In mothers unexposed to VFD, social rank was not related to maternal cortisol levels whereas VFD-exposed dominant versus subordinate mothers exhibited increased plasma cortisol. Maternal CSF OT directly predicted maternal cortisol only in VFD-exposed mothers. CSF OT was higher in dominant versus subordinate mothers. VFD-exposed mothers with high cortisol specifically exhibited CSF OT elevations in comparison to control groups. Conclusions: Pairing of maternal social rank to dyadic-distance in VFD presumably reduces maternal contingent responsivity, with ensuing long-term sequelae. VFD-exposure dichotomizes maternal HPA axis response as a function of social rank with relatively reduced cortisol in subordinates. OT may serve as a homeostatic buffer during maternal stress exposure.

  18. Interactions Between Stress and Sex in Microbial Responses Within the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilimigras, Matthew C B; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Sioda, Michael; Gray, Laura; Fodor, Anthony A; Lyte, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Animal models are frequently used to examine stress response, but experiments seldom include females. The connection between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and behavioral stress response is investigated here using a mixed-sex mouse cohort. CF-1 mice underwent alternating days of restraint and forced swim for 19 days (male n = 8, female n = 8) with matching numbers of control animals at which point the 16S rRNA genes of gut microbiota were sequenced. Mixed linear models accounting for stress status and sex with individuals nested in cage to control for cage effects evaluated these data. Murine behaviors in elevated plus-maze, open-field, and light/dark box were investigated. Community-level associations with sex, stress, and their interaction were significant. Males had higher microbial diversity than females (p = .025). Of the 638 operational taxonomic units detected in at least 25% of samples, 94 operational taxonomic units were significant: 31 (stress), 61 (sex), and 34 (sex-stress interaction). Twenty of the 39 behavioral measures were significant for stress, 3 for sex, and 6 for sex-stress. However, no significant associations between behavioral measures and specific microbes were detected. These data suggest sex influences stress response and the microbiota-gut-brain axis and that studies of behavior and the microbiome therefore benefit from consideration of how sex differences drive behavior and microbial community structure. Host stress resilience and absence of associations between stress-induced behaviors with specific microbes suggests that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation represents a threshold for microbial influence on host behavior. Future studies are needed in examining the intersection of sex, stress response, and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  19. Environmental stressors and epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Richard; Sawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we provide a brief summary of several key studies that broaden our understanding of stress and its epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)-axis function and behavior. Clinical and animal studies suggest a link among exposure to stress, dysregulation of the HPA-axis, and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses. Recent studies have supported the notion that exposure to glucocorticoids and stress in various forms, duration, and intensity during di...

  20. Interpolation of magnetic surface functions for an axi-symmetric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Taiki; Maeyama, Mitsuaki

    2000-01-01

    Informations of the magnetic surface functions of magnetically confined plasma are indispensable for equilibrium, stability and transport analyses. In this paper, in order to identify a realistic surface functions and compare those with ones which are introduced from Taylor's relaxation theory, we propose a code to interpolate these surface functions for an axi-symmetric plasma from experimentally measured data. To confirm our code, we used the date which were analyzed from known functions given as a measured data. As a result, we have developed a code which can derive surface functions I and P. Effects of measurement error on those functions are also examined. (author)

  1. Brain angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis: A new target to reduce the cardiovascular risk to emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky; Martins Lima, Augusto; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza dos

    2016-04-01

    Emotional stress is now considered a risk factor for several diseases including cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension. It is well known that the activation of neuroendocrine and autonomic mechanisms features the response to emotional stress. However, its link to cardiovascular diseases and the regulatory mechanisms involved remain to be further comprehended. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in homeostasis on all body systems. Specifically in the brain, the RAS regulates a number of physiological aspects. Recent data indicate that the activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/AT1 receptor axis facilitates the emotional stress responses. On the other hand, growing evidence indicates that its counterregulatory axis, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/(Ang)iotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis, reduces anxiety and attenuates the physiological responses to emotional stress. The present review focuses on angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis as a promising target to attenuate the physiological response to emotional stress reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  3. Early-life social experiences in mice affect emotional behaviour and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Simó, Clara; Valverde, Olga

    2012-09-01

    Early-life stressful experiences are associated to alterations in behavioural responses and development of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. In rodents, individual housing is considered as a stressful condition whilst enriched environment can protect against stress and its negative consequences. Neuroendocrine responses to stress can also be altered by early-life experiences and seem to contribute to behavioural alterations induced by changes in housing conditions. To develop an improved procedure of social isolation throughout development (from pre-adolescence to adulthood) in CD1 mice and to elucidate its effects on behavioural parameters related to stress and neuroendocrine responses compared to enriched or social conditions. CD1 male mice (PND 21) were housed in social/standard conditions, enriched conditions or isolated conditions during seven weeks. After that, different relevant behaviours were evaluated, including locomotor activity, anxiety-like and despair behaviour. Levels of plasma corticosterone were also analysed before and after a stressful event. CD1 mice exposed to an isolated environment exhibited higher locomotion and anxiety-like responses than animals exposed to social or enriched conditions. In addition, isolated animals showed lower basal plasma corticosterone than social or enriched ones but after a stressful event the elevation of plasma corticosterone was higher, suggesting an enhanced response of the HPA axis to a novel and stressful situation. Social interaction is an important feature to display an appropriate behavioural and neuronal development. Habituation to novel stimuli is impaired in subjects exposed to social isolation and induces increased excitability response to stressful events. Social deprivation increases the possibility of altered neuronal function and could facilitate the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The stress response and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: from molecule to melancholia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Organisms survive by maintaining equilibrium with their environment. The stress system is critical to this homeostasis. Glucocorticoids modulate the stress response at a molecular level by altering gene expression, transcription, and translation, among other pathways. The effect is the inhibition of the functions of inflammatory cells, predominantly mediated through inhibition of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. The central effectors of the stress response are the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE)\\/sympathetic systems. The CRH system activates the stress response and is subject to modulation by cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Glucocorticoids also modulate the growth, reproductive and thyroid axes. Abnormalities of stress system activation have been shown in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, as well as behavioural syndromes such as melancholic depression. These disorders are comparable to those seen in rats whose CRH system is genetically abnormal. Thus, the stress response is central to resistance to inflammatory and behavioural syndromes. In this review, we describe the response to stress at molecular, cellular, neuroendocrine and behavioural levels, and discuss the disease processes that result from a dysregulation of this response, as well as recent developments in their treatment.

  5. The influence of surgical stress on the psychoneuro-endocrine-immune axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is known to depress the immune system severely. This study was done to evaluate whether surgical stress influenced polymorphonuclear (PMN and monocyte functions in association with serum cortisol and the anxiety score as measured on the HARS Rating Scale. We found that surgery (irrespective of whether it was major or minor significantly depressed PMN and monocyte functions and increased serum cortisol levels. PMN phagocytosis correlated significantly (p < 0.05 with the rise in serum cortisol. In spite of these changes, postoperative clinical recovery was uneventful. No major alterations in the HARS scores were noted pre and post operatively. This study demonstrates that surgical stress depresses the immune system with a concomitant rise in cortisol.

  6. Association of HPA axis hormones with copeptin after psychological stress differs by sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Elias K; Wand, Gary S; Ji, Nan; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2016-01-01

    Copeptin levels are elevated in severe medical conditions, an effect that is attributed to elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in response to physiological stress, resulting in activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the current study, we wanted to determine if copeptin is responsive to psychological stress, correlates with cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and if associations differed by sex. In a cross-sectional study that included 100 healthy men (41%) and women (59%) (aged 18-30 years; mean 24.6 ± 3 years), who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we examined the association between percent change (peak-baseline/baseline) in copeptin levels and percent change in log ACTH and cortisol. Three baselines samples were drawn followed by blood sampling at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 85 min after TSST. There was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin and the percent change in log-transformed salivary cortisol (β-coefficient=0.95; p=0.02). The association between percent change in copeptin and log-transformed serum cortisol was not statistically significant in the overall population. There was a trend for a non-significant association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in log-transformed ACTH (β-coefficient=1.14; p=0.06). In males, there was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin levels and log-transformed salivary (β-coefficient=1.33, p=0.016) and serum cortisol (β-coefficient=0.69, p=0.01), whereas in women there was no statistically significant association. We found a significant positive association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in salivary and serum cortisol among males only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HPA axis response to psychological stress and treatment retention in residential substance abuse treatment: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Stacey B; Richards, Jessica M; Gorka, Stephanie M; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-12-01

    Substance abuse treatment programs are often characterized by high rates of premature treatment dropout, which increases the likelihood of relapse to drug use. Negative reinforcement models of addiction emphasize an individual's inability to tolerate stress as a key factor for understanding poor substance use treatment outcomes, and evidence indicates that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis contributes to an individual's inability to respond adaptively to stress. The aim of the current study was to examine whether HPA axis response to stress is predictive of treatment retention among a sample of drug users in residential substance abuse treatment. Prospective study assessing treatment retention among 102 individuals enrolled in residential substance abuse treatment. Participants completed two computerized stress tasks, and HPA axis response to stress was measured via salivary cortisol at five time points from baseline (pre-stress) to 30 min post-stress exposure. The main outcome measures were treatment dropout (categorical) and total number of days in treatment (continuous). A significantly higher salivary cortisol response to stress was observed in treatment dropouts compared to treatment completers. Further, Cox proportional hazards survival analyses indicated that a higher peak cortisol response to stress was associated with a shorter number of days to treatment dropout. Results indicate that a higher salivary cortisol level in response to stress is associated with an inability to remain in substance abuse treatment. These findings are the first to document a biological marker of stress as a predictor of substance abuse treatment dropout, and support the development and implementation of treatments targeting this vulnerability.

  8. Regulation of the activins-follistatins-inhibins axis by energy status: Impact on reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakakis, Nikolaos; Upadhyay, Jagriti; Ghaly, Wael; Chen, Joyce; Chrysafi, Pavlina; Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2018-05-09

    We have previously demonstrated that the adipose tissue derived hormone leptin controls reproductive function by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in response to energy deficiency. Here, we evaluate the activins-follistatins-inhibins (AFI) axis during acute (short-term fasting in healthy people) and chronic energy deficiency (women with hypothalamic amenorrhea due to strenuous exercise [HA]) and investigate their relation to leptin and reproductive function in healthy subjects and subjects with HA. The AFI axis was investigated in: a) A double-blinded study in healthy subjects having three randomly assigned admissions, each time for four days: in the isocaloric fed state, complete fasting with placebo treatment, complete fasting with leptin replacement, b) A case-control study comparing women with HA vs healthy controls, c) An open-label interventional study investigating leptin treatment in women with HA over a period of up to three months, d) A randomized interventional trial investigating leptin treatment vs placebo in women with HA for nine months. The circulating levels of activin A, activin B, follistatin and follistatin-like 3 change robustly in response to acute and chronic energy deficiency. Leptin replacement in acute energy deprivation does not affect the levels of these hormones suggesting an independent regulation by these two hormonal pathways. In chronic energy deficiency, leptin replacement restores only activin B levels, which are in turn associated with an increase in the number of dominant follicles. We demonstrate for the first time that the AFI axis is affected both by acute and chronic energy deficiency. Partial restoration of a component of the axis, i.e. activin B only, through leptin replacement is associated with improved reproductive function in women with HA. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of Early-Life Adversity on Hippocampal Structures and Associated HPA Axis Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Puetz, Vanessa B; Scharke, Wolfgang; von Polier, Georg G; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2018-01-01

    Early-life adversity (ELA) is one of the major risk factors for serious mental and physical health risks later in life. ELA has been associated with dysfunctional neurodevelopment, especially in brain structures such as the hippocampus, and with dysfunction of the stress system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Children who have experienced ELA are also more likely to suffer from mental health disorders such as depression later in life. The exact interplay of aberrant neurodevelopment and HPA axis dysfunction as risks for psychopathology is not yet clear. We investigated volume differences in the bilateral hippocampus and in stress-sensitive hippocampal subfields, behavior problems, and diurnal cortisol activity in 24 children who had experienced documented ELA (including out-of-home placement) in a circumscribed duration of adversity only in their first 3 years of life in comparison to data on 25 control children raised by their biological parents. Hippocampal volumes and stress-sensitive hippocampal subfields (Cornu ammonis [CA]1, CA3, and the granule-cell layer of the dentate gyrus [GCL-DG]) were significantly smaller in children who had experienced ELA, taking psychiatric diagnoses and dimensional psychopathological symptoms into account. ELA moderated the relationship between left hippocampal volume and cortisol: in the control group, hippocampal volumes were not related to diurnal cortisol, while in ELA children, a positive linear relationship between left hippocampal volume and diurnal cortisol was present. Our findings show that ELA is associated with altered development of the hippocampus, and an altered relationship between hippocampal volume and HPA axis activity in youth in care, even after they have lived in stable and caring foster family environments for years. Altered hippocampal development after ELA could thus be associated with a risk phenotype for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. © 2017 S. Karger

  10. Oxidative Stress/Angiotensinogen/Renin-Angiotensin System Axis in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Kamiyama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although recent studies have proven that renin-angiotensin system (RAS blockades retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy, the detailed mechanisms of their reno-protective effects on the development of diabetic nephropathy remain uncertain. In rodent models, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS are important for intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT augmentation in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, no direct evidence is available to demonstrate that AGT expression is enhanced in the kidneys of patients with diabetes. To examine whether the expression levels of ROS- and RAS-related factors in kidneys are increased with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, biopsied samples from 8 controls and 27 patients with type 2 diabetes were used. After the biopsy, these patients were diagnosed with minor glomerular abnormality or diabetes mellitus by clinical and pathological findings. The intensities of AGT, angiotensin II (Ang II, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry. Expression levels were greater in patients with diabetes than in control subjects. Moreover, the augmented intrarenal AGT mRNA expression paralleled renal dysfunction in patients with diabetes. These data suggest the importance of the activated oxidative stress/AGT/RAS axis in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and function of cardiac muscle in energy deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lachowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequently repeated statement that energy restriction is a factor that improves cardiovascular system function seems to be not fully truth. Low energy intake modifies the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism. Thyroid hormones, as modulators of the expression and activity of many cardiomyocyte proteins, control heart function. Decreased thyroid hormone levels and their disturbanced conversion and action result in alternation of cardiac remodeling, disorder of calcium homeostasis and diminish myocardial contractility. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of energy restriction effects on thyroidal axis activity, thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism and action in target tissues, especially in cardiac myocytes. We also showed the existence of energy restriction-thyroid-heart pathway.

  12. Predicting mental disorders from hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning: a 3-year follow-up in the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhof, E; van Oort, F V A; Bouma, E M C; Laceulle, O M; Oldehinkel, A J; Ormel, J

    2015-08-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, with cortisol as its major output hormone, has been presumed to play a key role in the development of psychopathology. Predicting affective disorders from diurnal cortisol levels has been inconclusive, whereas the predictive value of stress-induced cortisol concentrations has not been studied before. The aim of this study was to predict mental disorders over a 3-year follow-up from awakening and stress-induced cortisol concentrations. Data were used from 561 TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) participants, a prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents. Saliva samples were collected at awakening and half an hour later and during a social stress test at age 16. Mental disorders were assessed 3 years later with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). A lower cortisol awakening response (CAR) marginally significantly predicted new disorders [odds ratio (OR) 0.77, p = 0.06]. A flat recovery slope predicted disorders with a first onset after the experimental session (OR 1.27, p = 0.04). Recovery revealed smaller, non-significant ORs when predicting new onset affective or anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, or dependence disorders in three separate models, corrected for all other new onsets. Our results suggest that delayed recovery and possibly reduced CAR are indicators of a more general risk status and may be part of a common pathway to psychopathology. Delayed recovery suggests that individuals at risk for mental disorders perceived the social stress test as less controllable and less predictable.

  13. Regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis function in male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) during parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, J D; Cooke, S J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-08-01

    Male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) provide sole parental care until offspring reach independence, a period of several weeks. During the early parental care period when males are guarding fresh eggs (MG-FE), cortisol responsiveness is attenuated; the response is re-established when males reach the end of the parental care period and are guarding free-swimming fry (MG-FSF). It was hypothesized that attenuation of the cortisol response in male smallmouth bass during early parental care reflected modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis function. Male smallmouth bass were sampled at the beginning (MG-FE) and end of the parental care period (MG-FSF), before and/or 25 min after exposure to a standardized stressor consisting of 3 min of air exposure. Repeated sampling of stressed fish for analysis of plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels was carried out. Males significantly elevated both plasma cortisol and ACTH levels when guarding free-swimming fry but not during early parental care. Control and stressed fish were terminally sampled for tissue mRNA abundance of preoptic area (POA) and hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) as well as head kidney melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc). No significant differences in either hypothalamus CRF or head kidney P450scc mRNA abundance were found across parental care stages or in response to stress. However, POA CRF mRNA abundance and interrenal cell MC2R and StAR mRNA abundances failed to increase in response to stress in MG-FE. Thus, the attenuated cortisol response in males guarding fresh eggs may be explained by hypoactive HPI axis function in response to stress. The present is one of few studies, and the first teleost study, to address the mechanisms underlying resistance to stress during the reproductive/parental care period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Stress reactivity in childhood functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulewitsch, M D; Weimer, K; Enck, P; Schwille-Kiuntke, J; Hautzinger, M; Schlarb, A A

    2017-01-01

    Frequent abdominal pain (AP) in childhood has been shown to be associated with elevated experience of stress and with deficits in stress coping, but psychophysiological stress reactivity has been studied rarely. We examined whether children with frequent AP show altered reactions of the parasympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during and following an afternoon laboratory social stress task in comparison to healthy children and children with anxiety disorders. Twenty-four children with frequent AP (18 with functional AP and six with irritable bowel syndrome; M = 9.9 years), and 24 healthy controls underwent stressful free speech and arithmetic tasks. Twelve children with anxiety disorders served as second comparison sample. Groups were compared regarding parasympathetic reaction and saliva cortisol concentration. We found no differences in parasympathetic withdrawal between the groups. Concerning the HPA axis, we detected an attenuated cortisol reactivity in children with AP compared to both other groups. This study provides preliminary evidence that childhood AP is not associated with altered parasympathetic withdrawal during stress. It seems to be related to a down-regulated reactivity of the HPA axis. This pattern was ascertained in comparison to healthy children and also in comparison to children with anxiety disorders. Childhood abdominal pain could be related to down-regulated HPA axis reactivity to stress but not to altered parasympathetic reaction. Children with abdominal pain and children with anxiety disorders exhibit a divergent stress-related HPA axis reaction. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  15. Expression and Function of Xmsx-2B in Dorso-Ventral Axis Formation in Gastrula Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, I; Takeda, M; Maéno, M

    2000-11-01

    Msx is a homeodomain-containing transcriptional factor that plays an essential role in pattern formation in vertebrata and invertebrata embryos. In Xenopus laevis, two msx genes have been identified (Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2). In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the expression and function of Xmsx-2B (formerly designated as Xhox7.1') in early embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization analyses showed that the expression pattern of Xmsx-2B at gastrula and neurula stages was very similar to that of Xmsx-1: the transcript of Xmsx-2B was observed in ventral and lateral sides of the embryo. At the tailbud stage, however, the expression pattern of Xmsx-2B in neural tissues was distinct from that of Xmsx-1. An RNA injection experiment revealed that, like BMP-4, Xmsx-2B has a strong ventralizing activity. In the Xmsx-2B -injected embryos, differentiation of axial structures such as the notochord, muscle, and neural tissue was completely suppressed, whereas alpha-globin mRNA, a blood cell marker, was highly expressed. Simultaneous injection of Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2B RNAs showed that they function in an additive manner. It was also shown that coinjection of Xmsx-2B with a dominant-negative BMP-4 receptor (tBR), which can induce formation of secondary axis when injected alone in ventral blastomeres, suppressed secondary axis formation. Furthermore, Xmsx-2B also suppressed secondary axis formation, which was induced by a dominant-negative form of Xmsx-1 (VP16/msx-1). Therefore, like Xmsx-1, Xmsx-2B is a downstream nuclear factor of the BMP-4-derived ventralizing signal, and these two factors probably share the same target molecules. In conclusion, Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2B function in dorso-ventral axis formation in early Xenopus laevis development.

  16. Does stress affect the joints? Daily stressors, stress vulnerability, immune and HPA axis activity, and short-term disease and symptom fluctuations in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Middendorp, H. van; Sweep, F.C.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Donders, A.R.T.; Eijsbouts, A.E.; Laarhoven, A.I.M. van; Brouwer, S.J.M. de; Wirken, L.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Both stressors and stress vulnerability factors together with immune and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity components have been considered to contribute to disease fluctuations of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present

  17. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and sex hormones in chronic stress and obesity: pathophysiological and clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, particularly the abdominal phenotype, has been ascribed to an individual maladaptation to chronic environmental stress exposure mediated by a dysregulation of related neuroendocrine axes. Alterations in the control and action of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis play a major role in this context, with the participation of the sympathetic nervous system. The ability to adapt to chronic stress may differ according to sex, with specific pathophysiological events leading to the development of stress-related chronic diseases. This seems to be influenced by the regulatory effects of sex hormones, particularly androgens. Stress may also disrupt the control of feeding, with some differences according to sex. Finally, the amount of experimental data in both animals and humans may help to shed more light on specific phenotypes of obesity, strictly related to the chronic exposure to stress. This challenge may potentially imply a different pathophysiological perspective and, possibly, a specific treatment. PMID:22612409

  18. Ultraviolet (UV and Hydrogen Peroxide Activate Ceramide-ER Stress-AMPK Signaling Axis to Promote Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE Cell Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS impair the physiological functions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells by inducing cell apoptosis, which is the main cause of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The mechanism by which UV/ROS induces RPE cell death is not fully addressed. Here, we observed the activation of a ceramide-endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling axis in UV and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-treated RPE cells. UV and H2O2 induced an early ceramide production, profound ER stress and AMPK activation. Pharmacological inhibitors against ER stress (salubrinal, ceramide production (fumonisin B1 and AMPK activation (compound C suppressed UV- and H2O2-induced RPE cell apoptosis. Conversely, cell permeable short-chain C6 ceramide and AMPK activator AICAR (5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide mimicked UV and H2O2’s effects and promoted RPE cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that UV/H2O2 activates the ceramide-ER stress-AMPK signaling axis to promote RPE cell apoptosis.

  19. A Miniature Magnetic-Force-Based Three-Axis AC Magnetic Sensor with Piezoelectric/Vibrational Energy-Harvesting Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Fang Hung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a miniature magnetic-force-based, three-axis, AC magnetic sensor with piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. For magnetic sensing, the sensor employs a magnetic–mechanical–piezoelectric configuration (which uses magnetic force and torque, a compact, single, mechanical mechanism, and the piezoelectric effect to convert x-axis and y-axis in-plane and z-axis magnetic fields into piezoelectric voltage outputs. Under the x-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 0.2–3.2 gauss and the z-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 0.2–3.2 gauss, the voltage output with the sensitivity of the sensor are 1.13–26.15 mV with 8.79 mV/gauss and 1.31–8.92 mV with 2.63 mV/gauss, respectively. In addition, through this configuration, the sensor can harness ambient vibrational energy, i.e., possessing piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. Under x-axis vibration (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 3.5 g and z-axis vibration (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 3.8 g, the root-mean-square voltage output with power output of the sensor is 439 mV with 0.333 μW and 138 mV with 0.051 μW, respectively. These results show that the sensor, using this configuration, successfully achieves three-axis magnetic field sensing and three-axis vibration energy-harvesting. Due to these features, the three-axis AC magnetic sensor could be an important design reference in order to develop future three-axis AC magnetic sensors, which possess energy-harvesting functions, for practical industrial applications, such as intelligent vehicle/traffic monitoring, processes monitoring, security systems, and so on.

  20. Lithium-induced malaise does not interfere with adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís-Ollé, Maria; Ortega-Sánchez, Juan A; Belda, Xavier; Gagliano, Humberto; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2017-04-03

    We have recently demonstrated that adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to repeated exposure to a stressor does not follow the rules of habituation and can be fully expressed after a single experience with severe stressors. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that adaptation could be impaired if animals experience malaise during initial exposure to the stressor. To this end, animals were allowed to drink saccharin for 30min before being exposed for 3h to immobilization on boards (IMO), a severe stressor; then they were given either saline or lithium ip after the first hour of IMO. Stress-naïve rats followed exactly the same procedure except IMO. Exposure to IMO caused a strong activation of the HPA axis whereas the effect of lithium was modest. Both IMO and lithium administration resulted in conditioned taste aversion to saccharin when evaluated 4days later. When all animals were exposed to IMO 6days later, reduced HPA response and less impact on body weight was observed in the two groups previously exposed to IMO as compared with stress-naïve rats. Therefore, lithium administration during the first IMO exposure did not affect adaptation of the HPA axis and weight gain. These results indicate that malaise per se only weakly activated the HPA axis and argue against the hypothesis that signs of physical malaise during exposure to the stressor could impair HPA adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress in adolescence and drugs of abuse in rodent models: Role of dopamine, CRF, and HPA axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Andrew R.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Research on adolescence and drug abuse increased substantially in the past decade. However, drug-addiction related behaviors following stressful experiences during adolescence are less studied. We focus on rodent models of adolescent stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. Objectives Review the ontogeny of behavior, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in adolescent rodents. We evaluate evidence that stressful experiences during adolescence engender hypersensitivity to drugs of abuse and offer potential neural mechanisms. Results and Conclusions Much evidence suggests that final maturation of behavior, dopamine systems, and HPA axis occurs during adolescence. Stress during adolescence increases amphetamine- and ethanol-stimulated locomotion, preference, and self-administration under many conditions. The influence of adolescent stress on subsequent cocaine- and nicotine-stimulated locomotion and preference is less clear. The type of adolescent stress, temporal interval between stress and testing, species, sex, and the drug tested are key methodological determinants for successful cross-sensitization procedures. The sensitization of the mesolimbic dopamine system is proposed to underlie stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse in both adolescents and adults through modulation by CRF. Reduced levels of mesocortical dopamine appear to be a unique consequence of social stress during adolescence. Adolescent stress may reduce the final maturation of cortical dopamine through D2 dopamine receptor regulation of dopamine synthesis or glucocorticoid-facilitated pruning of cortical dopamine fibers. Certain rodent models of adolescent adversity are useful for determining neural mechanisms underlying the cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. PMID:24370534

  2. Loss of melanocortin-4 receptor function attenuates HPA responses to psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Karen K; Mul, Joram D; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    function. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous MC4R signaling contributes to the HPA axis response to stress. Because MC4R plays a critical role in the regulation of energy balance, the present work suggests that it may also serve as an important communication link between brain metabolic...... in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) regulation. The present work investigated the role of chronic Mc4r function to modulate basal HPA axis tone and to facilitate acute HPA responses to psychological stress, using a novel rat model with Mc4r loss-of-function. In this study, adult male rats were......The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), well-known for its role in the regulation of energy balance, is widely expressed in stress-regulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the medial amygdala (MeA). In agreement with this, MC4R has been implicated...

  3. HPA AXIS RESPONSE TO STRESS PREDICTS SHORT-TERM SNACK INTAKE IN OBESE WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Peters, Erica N.; Spring, Bonnie J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher post-stress cortisol was associated with decreased post-stress snack intake in obese women but was unrelated to snack intake in lean wome...

  4. Curcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Ku, Baoshan; Tie, Lu; Yao, Haiyan; Jiang, Wengao; Ma, Xing; Li, Xuejun

    2006-11-29

    Curcuma longa is a major constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine Xiaoyao-san, which has been used to effectively manage stress and depression-related disorders in China. Curcumin is the active component of curcuma longa, and its antidepressant effects were described in our prior studies in mouse models of behavioral despair. We hypothesized that curcumin may also alleviate stress-induced depressive-like behaviors and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. Thus in present study we assessed whether curcumin treatment (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) affects behavior in a chronic unpredictable stress model of depression in rats and examined what its molecular targets may be. We found that subjecting animals to the chronic stress protocol for 20days resulted in performance deficits in the shuttle-box task and several physiological effects, such as an abnormal adrenal gland weight to body weight (AG/B) ratio and increased thickness of the adrenal cortex as well as elevated serum corticosterone levels and reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression. These changes were reversed by chronic curcumin administration (5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.). In addition, we also found that the chronic stress procedure induced a down-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels and reduced the ratio of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) to CREB levels (pCREB/CREB) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of stressed rats. Furthermore, these stress-induced decreases in BDNF and pCREB/CREB were also blocked by chronic curcumin administration (5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.). These results provide compelling evidence that the behavioral effects of curcumin in chronically stressed animals, and by extension humans, may be related to their modulating effects on the HPA axis and neurotrophin factor expressions.

  5. Does stress affect the joints? Daily stressors, stress vulnerability, immune and HPA axis activity, and short-term disease and symptom fluctuations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Andrea W M; Verhoeven, Elisabeth W M; van Middendorp, Henriët; Sweep, Fred C G J; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Donders, A Rogier T; Eijsbouts, Agnes E; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; de Brouwer, Sabine J M; Wirken, Lieke; Radstake, Timothy R D J; van Riel, Piet L C M

    2014-09-01

    Both stressors and stress vulnerability factors together with immune and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity components have been considered to contribute to disease fluctuations of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether daily stressors and worrying as stress vulnerability factor as well as immune and HPA axis activity markers predict short-term disease activity and symptom fluctuations in patients with RA. In a prospective design, daily stressors, worrying, HPA axis (cortisol) and immune system (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor α) markers, clinical and self-reported disease activity (disease activity score in 28 joints, RA disease activity index), and physical symptoms of pain and fatigue were monitored monthly during 6 months in 80 RA patients. Multilevel modelling indicated that daily stressors predicted increased fatigue in the next month and that worrying predicted increased self-reported disease activity, swollen joint count and pain in the next month. In addition, specific cytokines of IL-1β and IFN-γ predicted increased fatigue 1 month later. Overall, relationships remained relatively unchanged after controlling for medication use, disease duration and demographic variables. No evidence was found for immune and HPA axis activity markers as mediators of the stress-disease relationship. Daily stressors and the stress-vulnerability factor worrying predict indicators of the short-term course of RA disease activity and fatigue and pain, while specific cytokines predict short-term fluctuations of fatigue. These stress-related variables and immune markers seem to affect different aspects of disease activity or symptom fluctuations independently in RA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. A novel stress isolation guard-ring design for the improvement of a three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Shen; Chang, Heng-Chung; Hu, Chih-Fan; Cheng, Chao-Lin; Fang, Weileun

    2011-01-01

    This study designs and implements a stress isolation guard-ring structure to improve the performances of the existing single proof-mass three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer. Thus, the environment disturbances, such as temperature variation and force/deflection transmittance, for a packaged three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer are significantly reduced. In application, the three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer has been fabricated using the bulk micromachining process on the SOI wafer. Experimental results show that the out-of-plane deformation of the suspended spring mass on the packaged accelerometer is reduced from 0.72 to 0.10 µm at a 150 °C temperature elevation. The temperature coefficient of zero-g offset for the presented sensor is reduced, and the temperature-induced sensitivity variation is minimized as well. Measurements also demonstrate that the guard-ring design successfully reduces the false signals induced by the force and displacement transmittance disturbances for one order of magnitude. Moreover, the three-axis acceleration sensing for the presented accelerometer with guard ring has also been demonstrated with sensitivities of 0.12–0.17 mV V −1 g −1 and nonlinearity < 1.02%.

  7. Os efeitos do estresse na função do eixo hipotalâmico-pituitário-adrenal em indivíduos com esquizofrenia The effects of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function in subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L. Guest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, têm surgido evidências sugerindo que a patogênese de desordens psiquiátricas, tais como a esquizofrenia, pode envolver perturbações no eixo hipotalâmico-pituitário-adrenal (HPA. Variações na manifestação desses efeitos poderiam estar relacionadas a diferenças em sintomas clínicos entre os indivíduos afetados, assim como a diferenças na resposta ao tratamento. Tais efeitos podem também ser originados de complexas interações entre genes e fatores ambientais. Aqui, revisamos os efeitos do estresse maternal em anormalidades na regulação do eixo HPA e desenvolvimento de desordens psiquiátricas, incluindo a esquizofrenia. Estudos nessa área podem gerar o aumento do nosso entendimento da natureza multidimensional da esquizofrenia. Posterior pesquisa nesse campo poderia, em última instância, levar ao desenvolvimento de melhores diagnósticos e novas abordagens terapêuticas para essa debilitante condição psiquiátrica.Over the last few decades, evidence has been emerging that the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia can involve perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Variations in the manifestation of these effects could be related to the differences in clinical symptoms between affected individuals as well as to differences in treatment response. Such effects can also arise from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Here, we review the effects of maternal stress on abnormalities in HPA axis regulation and the development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Studies in this area may prove critical for increasing our understanding of the multi-dimensional nature of schizophrenia. Further research in this area could ultimately lead to the development of improved diagnostics and novel therapeutic approaches for treating this debilitating psychiatric condition.

  8. A smoothing spline that approximates Laplace transform functions only known on measurements on the real axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amore, L; Campagna, R; Murli, A; Galletti, A; Marcellino, L

    2012-01-01

    The scientific and application-oriented interest in the Laplace transform and its inversion is testified by more than 1000 publications in the last century. Most of the inversion algorithms available in the literature assume that the Laplace transform function is available everywhere. Unfortunately, such an assumption is not fulfilled in the applications of the Laplace transform. Very often, one only has a finite set of data and one wants to recover an estimate of the inverse Laplace function from that. We propose a fitting model of data. More precisely, given a finite set of measurements on the real axis, arising from an unknown Laplace transform function, we construct a dth degree generalized polynomial smoothing spline, where d = 2m − 1, such that internally to the data interval it is a dth degree polynomial complete smoothing spline minimizing a regularization functional, and outside the data interval, it mimics the Laplace transform asymptotic behavior, i.e. it is a rational or an exponential function (the end behavior model), and at the boundaries of the data set it joins with regularity up to order m − 1, with the end behavior model. We analyze in detail the generalized polynomial smoothing spline of degree d = 3. This choice was motivated by the (ill)conditioning of the numerical computation which strongly depends on the degree of the complete spline. We prove existence and uniqueness of this spline. We derive the approximation error and give a priori and computable bounds of it on the whole real axis. In such a way, the generalized polynomial smoothing spline may be used in any real inversion algorithm to compute an approximation of the inverse Laplace function. Experimental results concerning Laplace transform approximation, numerical inversion of the generalized polynomial smoothing spline and comparisons with the exponential smoothing spline conclude the work. (paper)

  9. Multi-level risk factors for suicidal ideation among at-risk adolescent females : The role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giletta, M.; Calhoun, C.D.; Hastings, P.D.; Rudolph, K.D.; Nock, M.K.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological,

  10. Association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with HPA and SAM axis reactivity to psychological and physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Jusen; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Kawano, Aimi; Ikeda, Rie; Ando, Tomoko; Oshita, Harumi; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2014-01-01

    Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder. To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men) using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A). A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; PBDNF had different effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests.

  11. Axi-symmetric generalized thermoelastic diffusion problem with two-temperature and initial stress under fractional order heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deswal, Sunita; Kalkal, Kapil Kumar; Sheoran, Sandeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model of fractional order two-temperature generalized thermoelasticity with diffusion and initial stress is proposed to analyze the transient wave phenomenon in an infinite thermoelastic half-space. The governing equations are derived in cylindrical coordinates for a two dimensional axi-symmetric problem. The analytical solution is procured by employing the Laplace and Hankel transforms for time and space variables respectively. The solutions are investigated in detail for a time dependent heat source. By using numerical inversion method of integral transforms, we obtain the solutions for displacement, stress, temperature and diffusion fields in physical domain. Computations are carried out for copper material and displayed graphically. The effect of fractional order parameter, two-temperature parameter, diffusion, initial stress and time on the different thermoelastic and diffusion fields is analyzed on the basis of analytical and numerical results. Some special cases have also been deduced from the present investigation.

  12. Tiam1/Vav2-Rac1 axis: A tug-of-war between islet function and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2017-05-15

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] from the islet β-cell involves a well-orchestrated interplay between metabolic and cationic events. It is well established that intracellular generation of adenine and guanine nucleotide triphosphates [e.g., ATP and GTP] represents one of the requisite signaling steps in GSIS. The small molecular mass GTP-binding proteins [G-proteins; e.g., Rac1 and Cdc42] have been shown to regulate islet β-cell function including actin cytoskeletal remodeling and fusion of insulin granules with the plasma membrane for GSIS to occur. In this context, several regulatory factors for these G-proteins have been identified in the pancreatic β-cell; these include guanine nucleotide exchange factors [GEFs] and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors [GDI]. Recent pharmacological and molecular biological evidence identified Tiam1 and Vav2 as GEFs for Rac1 in promoting physiological insulin secretion. Paradoxically, emerging evidence in multiple cell types, including the islet β-cell, suggests key roles for Rac1 in the onset of cellular dysfunction under conditions of metabolic stress and diabetes. Furthermore, functional inactivation of either Tiam1 or Vav2 appears to attenuate sustained activation of Rac1 and its downstream signaling events [activation of stress kinases] under conditions of metabolic stress. Together, these findings suggest both "friendly" and "non-friendly" roles for Tiam1/Vav2-Rac1 signaling axis in islet β-cell in health and diabetes. Our current understanding of the field and the knowledge gaps that exist in this area of islet biology are heighted herein. Furthermore, potential caveats in the specificity and selectivity of pharmacological inhibitors that are available currently are discussed in this Commentary. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from the gene......OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...... the general population were investigated from 2008 to 2012. INTERVENTION(S): Participants completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including a four-item questionnaire about self-rated stress, had a physical examination performed, delivered a semen sample, and had a blood sample drawn. MAIN OUTCOME...

  14. Modifications of glucocorticoid receptors mRNA expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to early-life stress in female Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, C; Spencer, K A

    2014-12-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can programme individual brain and physiology. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the primary targets of this programming, which is generally associated with a hyperactive HPA axis, indicative of a reduced negative-feedback. This reduced feedback efficiency usually results from a reduced level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and/or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) within the HPA axis. However, a few studies have shown that early-life stress exposure results in an attenuated physiological stress response, suggesting an enhance feedback efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether early-life stress had long-term consequences on GR and MR levels in quail and whether the effects on the physiological response to acute stress observed in prenatally stressed individuals were underpinned by changes in GR and/or MR levels in one or more HPA axis components. We determined GR and MR mRNA expression in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland in quail exposed to elevated corticosterone during prenatal development, postnatal development, or both, and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. We showed that prenatal stress increased the GR:MR ratio in the hippocampus, GR and MR expression in the hypothalamus and GR expression in the pituitary gland. Postnatal stress resulted in a reduced MR expression in the hippocampus. Both early-life treatments permanently affected the expression of both receptor types in HPA axis regions. The effects of prenatal stress are in accordance with a more efficient negative-feedback within the HPA axis and thus can explain the attenuated stress response observed in these birds. Therefore, these changes in receptor density or number as a consequence of early-life stress exposure might be the mechanism that allows an adaptive response to later-life stressful conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis adaptation processes in a depressive-like state induced by chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Gaelle; Ixart, Guy; Maurice, Tangui; Tapia-Arancibia, Lucia; Givalois, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Depression is potentially life-threatening. The most important neuroendocrine abnormality in this disorder is hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hyperactivity. Recent findings suggest that all depression treatments may boost the neurotrophin production especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Moreover, BDNF is highly involved in the regulation of HPA axis activity. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic stress (restraint 3h/day for 3 weeks) on animal behavior and HPA axis activity in parallel with hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary BDNF levels. Chronic stress induced changes in anxiety (light/dark box test) and anhedonic states (sucrose preference test) and in depressive-like behavior (forced swimming test); general locomotor activity and body temperature were modified and animal body weight gain was reduced by 17%. HPA axis activity was highly modified by chronic stress, since basal levels of mRNA and peptide hypothalamic contents in CRH and AVP and plasma concentrations in ACTH and corticosterone were significantly increased. The HPA axis response to novel acute stress was also modified in chronically stressed rats, suggesting adaptive mechanisms. Basal BDNF contents were increased in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary in chronically stressed rats and the BDNF response to novel acute stress was also modified. This multiparametric study showed that chronic restraint stress induced a depressive-like state that was sustained by mechanisms associated with BDNF regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond the HPA-axis: The role of the gonadal steroid hormone receptors in modulating stress-related responses in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchel, Daphna; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Vainer, Ella; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a major role in the response to stress, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis are closely linked with the ability to inhibit the other. Testosterone, a product of the HPG, has many beneficial effects beyond its functions as a sex hormone including anti-anxiety properties. In this study we examined the effect of stress exposure on gonadal hormones, and their efficacy in modulating anxiety-like response in an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were exposed to predator scent stress, followed by analysis of brain expression of androgen receptor (AR) receptor and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The behavioral effects of immediate treatment with testosterone, testosterone receptor antagonist (flutamide) or vehicle were evaluated using the elevated plus-maze, acoustic startle response and trauma-cue response. Levels of circulating corticosterone and testosterone were also measured after treatment. The behavioral effects of delayed testosterone treatment were explored in the same manner. We report that animals whose behavior was extremely disrupted (EBR) selectively displayed significant down-regulation of AR and ERα in the hippocampus. Immediate treatment with flutamide or delayed treatment with testosterone significantly increased prevalence rates of minimal behavioral response (MBR) and decreased prevalence of EBR with favorable behavioral results. Testosterone levels were higher in control un-exposed animals, while corticosterone was higher in control exposed animals. This study suggests that gonadal steroid hormones are involved in the neurobiological response to predator scent stress and thus warrant further study as a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Critical features of acute stress-induced cross-sensitization identified through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-08-11

    Stress-induced sensitization represents a process whereby prior exposure to severe stressors leaves animals or humans in a hyper-responsive state to further stressors. Indeed, this phenomenon is assumed to be the basis of certain stress-associated pathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. One biological system particularly prone to sensitization is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypic stress system. It is well established that under certain conditions, prior exposure of animals to acute and chronic (triggering) stressors enhances HPA responses to novel (heterotypic) stressors on subsequent days (e.g. raised plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels). However, such changes remain somewhat controversial and thus, the present study aimed to identify the critical characteristics of the triggering and challenging stressors that affect acute stress-induced HPA cross-sensitization in adult rats. We found that HPA cross-sensitization is markedly influenced by the intensity of the triggering stressor, whereas the length of exposure mainly affects its persistence. Importantly, HPA sensitization is more evident with mild than strong challenging stressors, and it may remain unnoticed if exposure to the challenging stressor is prolonged beyond 15 min. We speculate that heterotypic HPA sensitization might have developed to optimize biologically adaptive responses to further brief stressors.

  18. Neuropsychological and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis function in female patients with melancholic and non-melancholic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Ioannis; Zervas, Iannis M; Pantelis, Chris; Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Papakosta, Vassiliki-Maria; Boufidou, Fotini; Nikolaou, Chrissoula; Papageorgiou, Charalambos; Soldatos, Costas R; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2008-06-01

    Executive function deficits in depression implicate involvement of frontal-striatal circuits. However, studies of hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function suggest that stress-related brain changes of hippocampus may also implicate prefrontal-hippocampal circuits, which may explain the profile of both executive dysfunction and memory deficits. In this study we examined the performance of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) on tasks of memory and executive function in relation to melancholic features and to cortisol levels. Our hypothesis was that raised cortisol levels in melancholic patients would correlate with these deficits. Forty female MDD patients, 20 having melancholic features (MEL vs. Non-MEL), and 20 sex-age- and education-matched normal controls were investigated using the Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB), to assess memory (paired associative learning, PAL; short-term recognition memory, SRM) and executive (intradimensional/extradimensional set-shifting, ID/ED; Stockings of Cambridge, SOC) functions. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured. The MDD patients performed worse than controls on PAL and both executive tasks. The MEL group differed from controls on all tests, and differed from the non-MEL only at the ED stage of the ID/ED task. Patient cortisol levels were within the normal range and did not correlate with neuropsychological performance for any group. MDD patients showed neuropsychological deficits on tasks of executive function and memory, supporting the model of frontal-temporal dysfunction. MEL vs. non-MEL performed worse overall and demonstrated a qualitative difference in set shifting, perhaps implicating more extensive prefrontal involvement. Cortisol levels did not correlate with depression severity or the observed deficits.

  19. Effect of Heat Stress on the Expression of GABA Receptor mRNA in the HPG Axis of Wenchang Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ Xie

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We investigated the effect of heat stress (HS on the expression of the GABA receptor in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of Wenchang chickens. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to quantify the GABA receptor mRNA levels along the HPG axis of chickens under HS (40±0.5 °C for 1-6 weeks. Our results showed that the expression of GABAA and GABAB receptor at the mRNAs levels in the tissues of HPG axis exhibited fluctuation and variability. After HS, the mRNA level of GABAA receptor was significantly reduced in the hypothalamus of 1-week-old and in the pituitary of 3-week-old chickens, but significantly increased in the pituitary of 1-, 4-, and 5-week-old chickens. The GABAB receptor mRNA level significantly declined in the hypothalamus of 1-week-old and in the pituitary of 3-week-old chickens, but was significantly upregulated in the pituitary and testis of 1- and 2-week-old chickens. At other time points, the expressions of GABAA receptor and GABAB receptor showed no significant differences compared with control group. These results indicated that the levels of GABAA receptor and GABAB receptor mRNAs varied in different tissues of the HPG axis in chickens of different ages, displaying temporal and spatial variations. GABA receptor behaved as a positively-regulated gene by HS, i.e., its mRNA was increased by HS; similarly, it was a negatively-regulated gene by HS, when its expression was reduced by HS.

  20. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Physiology and Cognitive Control of Behavior in Stress Inoculated Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Lindley, Steven E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated…

  1. Effects of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rats: in vitro and in situ studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Calogero, Aldo E; Konstandi, Maria; Kamilaris, Themis C; La Vignera, Sandro; Vignera, Sandro La; Chrousos, George P

    2013-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with hypercorticosteronemia, although the locus that is principally responsible for the hypercorticosteronism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hyperthyroidism on the functional integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, to identify the locus in the HPA axis that is principally affected, and address the time-dependent effects of alterations in thyroid status. The functional integrity of each component of the HPA axis was examined in vitro and in situ in sham-thyroidectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats given placebo or in thyroidectomized rats given pharmacological dose (50 μg) of thyroxin for 7 or 60 days. Basal plasma corticosterone and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were significantly increased in short- and long-term hyperthyroid rats, and by 60 days. Basal plasma ACTH levels were similar to controls. Both hypothalamic CRH content and the magnitude of KCL- and arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced CRH release from hypothalamic culture were increased in long-term hyperthyroid rats. There was a significant increase in the content of both ACTH and β-endorphin in the anterior pituitaries of both short- and long-term hyperthyroid animals. Short-term hyperthyroid rats showed a significant increase in basal POMC mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary, and chronically hyperthyroid animals showed increased stress-induced POMC mRNA expression. Adrenal cultures taken from short-term hyperthyroid rats responded to exogenous ACTH with an exaggerated corticosterone response, while those taken from 60-day hyperthyroid animals showed responses similar to controls. The findings show that hyperthyroidism is associated with hypercorticosteronemia and HPA axis dysfunction that becomes more pronounced as the duration of hyperthyroidism increases. The evidence suggests that experimentally induced hyperthyroidism is associated with central hyperactivity of the HPA axis.

  2. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often

  3. Saikosaponin D relieves unpredictable chronic mild stress induced depressive-like behavior in rats: involvement of HPA axis and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Ying-Hua; Zeng, Min-Jie; Fang, Fang; Li, Min; Qin, Ting-Ting; Ye, Lu-Yu; Li, Hong-Wei; Qu, Rong; Ma, Shi-Ping

    2017-11-01

    Saikosaponin D (SSD), a major bioactive component isolated from Radix Bupleuri, has been reported to exert neuroprotective properties. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-depressant-like effects and the potential mechanisms of SSD. Behavioural tests including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT) and forced swim test (FST) were performed to study the antidepressant-like effects of SSD. In addition, we examined corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels to evaluate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Furthermore, hippocampal neurogenesis was assessed by testing doublecortin (DCX) levels, and neurotrophic molecule levels were also investigated in the hippocampus of rats. We found that unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) rats displayed lost body weight, decreased sucrose consumption in SPT, reduced locomotive activity in OFT, and increased immobility time in FST. Chronic treatment with SSD (0.75, 1.50 mg/kg) remarkably ameliorated the behavioral deficiency induced by UCMS procedure. SSD administration downregulated elevated serum corticosterone levels, as well as alleviated the suppression of GR expression and nuclear translocation caused by UCMS, suggesting that SSD is able to remit the dysfunction of HPA axis. In addition, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that SSD treatment significantly increased the generation of neurons in the hippocampus of UCMS rats indicated by elevated DCX levels. Moreover, hippocampal neurotrophic molecule levels of UCMS rats such as phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were raised after SSD treatment. Together, Our results suggest that SSD opposed UCMS-induced depressive behaviors in rats, which was mediated, partially, by the enhancement of HPA axis function and consolidation of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  4. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Odelia; Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm 3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm 3 ] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm 3 (SD, 302.8 mm 3 ) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects ( P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches.

  5. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Design: Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Methods: Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Results: Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm3] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm3 (SD, 302.8 mm3) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects (P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. Conclusions: The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:29264511

  6. Interplay Between the Gut-Brain Axis, Obesity and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P.; López-Almela, Inmaculada; Campillo, Isabel; Maes, Michael; Romaní-Pérez, Marina; Sanz, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    Obesity continues to be one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence and co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities not only include cardiometabolic disorders but also mood and cognitive disorders. Obese subjects often show deficits in memory, learning and executive functions compared to normal weight subjects. Epidemiological studies also indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and vice versa. These associations between pathologies that presumably have different etiologies suggest shared pathological mechanisms. Gut microbiota is a mediating factor between the environmental pressures (e.g., diet, lifestyle) and host physiology, and its alteration could partly explain the cross-link between those pathologies. Westernized dietary patterns are known to be a major cause of the obesity epidemic, which also promotes a dysbiotic drift in the gut microbiota; this, in turn, seems to contribute to obesity-related complications. Experimental studies in animal models and, to a lesser extent, in humans suggest that the obesity-associated microbiota may contribute to the endocrine, neurochemical and inflammatory alterations underlying obesity and its comorbidities. These include dysregulation of the HPA-axis with overproduction of glucocorticoids, alterations in levels of neuroactive metabolites (e.g., neurotransmitters, short-chain fatty acids) and activation of a pro-inflammatory milieu that can cause neuro-inflammation. This review updates current knowledge about the role and mode of action of the gut microbiota in the cross-link between energy metabolism, mood and cognitive function. PMID:29615850

  7. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  8. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) administration positively affects reproductive axis in hypogonadotropic women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, A D; Lanzoni, C; Ricchieri, F; Santagni, S; Rattighieri, E; Chierchia, E; Monteleone, P; Jasonni, V M

    2011-04-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is characterized by neuroendocrine impairment that, in turn, negatively modulates endocrine function, mainly within the reproductive axis. HA presents with hypo-LH, hypoestrogenism and, until now, a definite therapeutic strategy has not yet been found. The aim of the following study was to test the efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) administration in HA-affected subjects. Twenty-four patients affected by stress-induced HA were divided into two groups according to LH plasma levels: group A, hypo-LH (LH≤3 mIU/ml; no.=16), and group B, normo-LH (LH>3 mIU/ml; no.=8), were treated with ALC (1 g/day, per os) for 16 weeks. Patients underwent baseline hormonal assessment, pulsatility test (for LH and FSH), naloxone test (for LH, FSH and cortisol) both before and after 16 weeks of treatment. Under ALC administration hypo-LH patients showed a significant increase in LH plasma levels (from 1.4±0.3 to 3.1±0.5 mIU/ml, p<0.01) and in LH pulse amplitude (p<0.001). No changes were observed in the normo-LH group. LH response to naloxone was restored under ALC therapy. Maximal LH response and area under the curve under naloxone were significantly increased (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). No changes were observed in the normo-LH patients. Our data support the hypothesis of a specific role of ALC on counteracting the stress-induced abnormalities in hypo-LH patients affected by hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  9. Activation of the Tor/Myc signaling axis in intestinal stem and progenitor cells affects longevity, stress resistance and metabolism in drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strilbytska, Olha M; Semaniuk, Uliana V; Storey, Kenneth B; Edgar, Bruce A; Lushchak, Oleh V

    2017-01-01

    The TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and the transcriptional factor Myc play important roles in growth control. Myc acts, in part, as a downstream target of TOR to regulate the activity and functioning of stem cells. Here we explore the role of TOR-Myc axis in stem and progenitor cells in the regulation of lifespan, stress resistance and metabolism in Drosophila. We found that both overexpression of rheb and myc-rheb in midgut stem and progenitor cells decreased the lifespan and starvation resistance of flies. TOR activation caused higher survival under malnutrition conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate gut-specific activation of JAK/STAT and insulin signaling pathways to control gut integrity. Both genetic manipulations had an impact on carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional levels of metabolic genes. Our findings indicate that activation of the TOR-Myc axis in midgut stem and progenitor cells influences a variety of traits in Drosophila. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of resistance exercise on the HPA axis response to psychological stress during short-term smoking abstinence in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jen-Yu; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Vingren, Jakob L; Fragala, Maren S; Flanagan, Shawn D; Maladouangdock, Jesse; Szivak, Tunde K; Hatfield, Disa L; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) response to mental challenge, withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, and cognitive stress during 24-hour smoking abstinence. 8 sedentary smokers (mean±SD age: 20.1±1.7y; height: 171.6±10.8cm; body mass: 70.4±12.0kg; smoking history: 2.9±0.8y) completed a 24-hour ad libitum smoking trial (SMO) followed by two 24-hour smoking abstinence trials. During abstinence trials, participants performed six whole body resistance exercises (EX) or a control condition (CON) in the morning, followed by mental challenge tasks in the afternoon. Plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and salivary and serum cortisol were measured during each visit at rest (REST), and then before (PRE-EX), immediately after (IP-EX), and 30min after exercise (30-EX); and before (PRE-MC), immediately after (IP-MC), and 30min after mental challenge (30-MC). Resistance exercise significantly (p≤0.05) elevated plasma ACTH and serum cortisol at IP-EX during EX compared with SMO and CON trials. Resting ACTH, salivary and serum cortisol concentrations at Pre-MC did not differ between EX and CON trials. The HPA axis response to mental challenge was similar after EX and CON trials. Finally, resistance exercise did not reduce withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, or stress. Resistance exercise did not substantially alter resting HPA hormones or the HPA response to mental challenge tasks during 24h of smoking abstinence. © 2013.

  11. DPSCs from Inflamed Pulp Modulate Macrophage Function via the TNF-α/IDO Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Zhang, Q.Z.; Karabucak, B.; Le, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be isolated from inflamed pulp derived from carious teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (I-DPSCs), which possess stemness and multidifferentiation potentials similar to DPSCs from healthy pulp. Since macrophages—essential cell players of the pulpal innate immunity—can regulate pulpal inflammation and repair, the authors investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs/I-DPSCs on macrophage functions and their underlying mechanisms. Similar to DPSCs, I-DPSCs were capable of colony-forming efficiency and adipogenic and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation under in vitro induction conditions. I-DPSCs also expressed a similar phenotypic profile of mesenchymal stem cell markers, except a relatively higher level of CD146 as compared with DPSCs. Coculture of DPSCs or I-DPSCs with differentiated THP-1 cells, the human monocyte cell line, markedly suppressed tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and/or nigericin. However, unlike TNF-α, the secreted level of interleukin 1β was not affected by coculture with DPSCs or I-DPSCs. Furthermore, DPSC/I-DPSC-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion by macrophages was abolished by pretreatment with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, a specific inhibitor of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), but not by NSC-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, suggesting IDO as a mediator. Interestingly, IDO expression was significantly augmented in macrophages and mesenchymal stromal cells in inflamed human pulp tissues. Collectively, these findings show that I-DPSCs, similar to DPSCs, possess stem cell properties and suppress macrophage functions via the TNF-α/IDO axis, thereby providing a physiologically relevant context for their innate immunomodulatory activity in the dental pulp and their capability for pulp repair. PMID:27384335

  12. DPSCs from Inflamed Pulp Modulate Macrophage Function via the TNF-α/IDO Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Zhang, Q Z; Karabucak, B; Le, A D

    2016-10-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be isolated from inflamed pulp derived from carious teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (I-DPSCs), which possess stemness and multidifferentiation potentials similar to DPSCs from healthy pulp. Since macrophages-essential cell players of the pulpal innate immunity-can regulate pulpal inflammation and repair, the authors investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs/I-DPSCs on macrophage functions and their underlying mechanisms. Similar to DPSCs, I-DPSCs were capable of colony-forming efficiency and adipogenic and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation under in vitro induction conditions. I-DPSCs also expressed a similar phenotypic profile of mesenchymal stem cell markers, except a relatively higher level of CD146 as compared with DPSCs. Coculture of DPSCs or I-DPSCs with differentiated THP-1 cells, the human monocyte cell line, markedly suppressed tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and/or nigericin. However, unlike TNF-α, the secreted level of interleukin 1β was not affected by coculture with DPSCs or I-DPSCs. Furthermore, DPSC/I-DPSC-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion by macrophages was abolished by pretreatment with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, a specific inhibitor of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), but not by NSC-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, suggesting IDO as a mediator. Interestingly, IDO expression was significantly augmented in macrophages and mesenchymal stromal cells in inflamed human pulp tissues. Collectively, these findings show that I-DPSCs, similar to DPSCs, possess stem cell properties and suppress macrophage functions via the TNF-α/IDO axis, thereby providing a physiologically relevant context for their innate immunomodulatory activity in the dental pulp and their capability for pulp repair. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  13. Metabolomics analysis identifies sex-associated metabotypes of oxidative stress and the autotaxin–lysoPA axis in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Shama; Kolmert, Johan; Yang, Mingxing; Reinke, Stacey N.; Kamleh, Muhammad Anas; Snowden, Stuart; Heyder, Tina; Levänen, Bettina; Erle, David J.; Sköld, C. Magnus; Wheelock, Åsa M.; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex dependency of circulating metabolic profiles in COPD. Serum from healthy never-smokers (healthy), smokers with normal lung function (smokers), and smokers with COPD (COPD; Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II/A–B) from the Karolinska COSMIC cohort (n=116) was analysed using our nontargeted liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics platform. Pathway analyses revealed that several altered metabolites are involved in oxidative stress. Supervised multivariate modelling showed significant classification of smokers from COPD (p=2.8×10−7). Sex stratification indicated that the separation was driven by females (p=2.4×10−7) relative to males (p=4.0×10−4). Significantly altered metabolites were confirmed quantitatively using targeted metabolomics. Multivariate modelling of targeted metabolomics data confirmed enhanced metabolic dysregulation in females with COPD (p=3.0×10−3) relative to males (p=0.10). The autotaxin products lysoPA (16:0) and lysoPA (18:2) correlated with lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in males with COPD (r=0.86; pCOPD, and suggest that sex-enhanced dysregulation in oxidative stress, and potentially the autotaxin–lysoPA axis, are associated with disease mechanisms and/or prevalence. PMID:28642310

  14. Effects of early childhood trauma on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempke, Stefan; Luyten, Patrick; De Coninck, Sarah; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn; Mayes, Linda C; Claes, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have investigated the assumption that early childhood trauma is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The current study is the first to simultaneously investigate relationships among early childhood trauma, cortisol activity, and cortisol stress reactivity to psychosocial stress in a sample of well-screened CFS patients. We also examined whether self-critical perfectionism (SCP) plays a mediating role in the potential relationship between early trauma and neurobiological stress responses. A total of 40 female patients diagnosed with CFS were asked to provide morning saliva cortisol samples (after awakening, 30min later, and 1h later) for seven consecutive days as a measure of cortisol activity. In addition, patients were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test, a well-validated stress test, to investigate the relationship between early childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity. Before the start of the study, patients completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short form (CTQ-SF) as a measure of early childhood trauma (i.e. sexual, physical and emotional traumatic experiences). SCP was measured with the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ). Data were analyzed by calculating several indices of cortisol secretion (i.e. Cortisol Awakening Response and Area Under the Curve). There was no association between early childhood trauma and cortisol as measured over the 7-day period. However, emotional neglect was significantly negatively related to cortisol reactivity in the TSST. SCP did not significantly mediate this association. Findings of this study suggest that emotional neglect is associated with blunted HPA axis reactivity, congruent with the assumption that CFS may reflect loss of adaptability of the neuroendocrine stress response system in at least a subgroup of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychostimulants and forced swim stress interaction: how activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress-induced hyperglycemia are affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Humberto; Ortega-Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported that simultaneous exposure to amphetamine and various stressors resulted in reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and glycemic responses to the stressors. Since this is a new and relevant phenomenon, we wanted to further explore this interaction. This study aims (i) to characterize the effect of various doses of amphetamine on the physiological response to a predominantly emotional stressor (forced swim) when the drug was given immediately before stress; (ii) to study if an interaction appears when the drug was given 30 min or 7 days before swim; and (iii) to know whether cocaine causes similar effects when given just before stress. Adult male rats were used and plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone, and glucose were the outcomes. Amphetamine caused a dose-dependent activation of the HPA axis, but all doses reduced HPA and glycemic responses to swim when given just before the stressor. Importantly, during the post-swim period, the stressor potently inhibited the ACTH response to amphetamine, demonstrating mutual inhibition between the two stimuli. The highest dose of amphetamine also reduced the response to swim when given 30 min before stress, whereas it caused HPA sensitization when given 7 days before. Cocaine also reduced stress-induced HPA activation when given just before swim. The present results demonstrate a negative synergy between psychostimulants (amphetamine and cocaine) and stress regarding HPA and glucose responses when rats were exposed simultaneously to both stimuli. The inhibitory effect of amphetamine is also observed when given shortly before stress, but not some days before.

  16. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  17. Gradient COUP-TFI Expression Is Required for Functional Organization of the Hippocampal Septo-Temporal Longitudinal Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, Gemma; Di Ruberto, Giuseppina; Parisot, Joséphine; Sannino, Sara; Russo, Fabio; Illingworth, Elizabeth A; Studer, Michèle; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2017-02-01

    The hippocampus (HP), a medial cortical structure, is subdivided into a distinct dorsal (septal) and ventral (temporal) portion, which is separated by an intermediate region lying on a longitudinal curvature. While the dorsal portion is more dedicated to spatial navigation and memory, the most ventral part processes emotional information. Genetic factors expressed in gradient during development seem to control the size and correct positioning of the HP along its longitudinal axis; however, their roles in regulating differential growth and in supporting its anatomical and functional dissociation remain unexplored. Here, we challenge the in vivo function of the nuclear receptor COUP-TFI (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor 1) in controlling the hippocampal, anatomical, and functional properties along its longitudinal axis. Loss of cortical COUP-TFI function results in a dysmorphic HP with altered shape, volume, and connectivity, particularly in its dorsal and intermediate regions. Notably, topographic inputs from the entorhinal cortex are strongly impaired in the dorsal portion of COUP-TFI mutants. These severe morphological changes are associated with selective spatial learning and memory impairment. These findings identify a novel transcriptional regulator required in the functional organization along the hippocampal septo-temporal axis supporting a genetic basis of the hippocampal volumetric growth with its final shape, circuit, and type of memory function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The relationship between stressful life events and Axis I diagnoses among adolescent offspring of probands with bipolar and non-bipolar psychiatric disorders and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Rooks, Brian T.; Hickey, Mary; Fan, Jie Yu; Merranko, John; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim S.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Hafeman, Daniella; Iyengar, Satish; Goldstein, Benjamin; Kupfer, David J.; Axelson, David; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2018-01-01

    Background Previous studies have explored the role of stressful life events in the development of mood disorders. We examined the frequency and nature of stressful life events as measured by the Stressful Life Events Scale(SLES) among three groups of adolescent offspring of probands: with bipolar(BD), with non-BD psychiatric disorders, and healthy control(HC). Furthermore, we examined the relationship between stressful life events and presence of DSM-IV Axis I disorders in these offspring. Stressful life events were characterized as dependent, independent, or uncertain (neither dependent or independent), and positive, negative, and neutral (neither positive or negative). Method Offspring of probands with BD aged 13–18 years(N=269), demographically-matched offspring of probands with non-BD Axis I disorders(N=88), and HC probands(N=81) from the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study were assessed from 2002–2007 with standardized instruments at intake. Probands completed the SLES for their offspring for life events within the prior year. Life events were evaluated with regard to current offspring Axis I diagnoses after adjusting for confounds. Results After adjusting for demographic and clinical between-group differences(in probands and offspring), offspring of BD probands had greater independent and neutral life events compared with HC offspring and greater number of more severe stressful life events than HC offspring, but not non-BD offspring. Offspring of BD probands with comorbid substance use disorder reported more independent stressful life events. Greater frequency and severity of stressful life events were associated with current Axis I disorder in offspring of both BD and non-BD affected probands regardless of dependency or valence. Greater frequency and severity of stressful life events were associated with greater current Axis I disorder in all offspring. Conclusions Offspring of BD probands have greater exposure to independent and neutral life events than

  19. Wearing red for signaling: the heme-bach axis in heme metabolism, oxidative stress response and iron immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Watanabe-Matsui, Miki

    2014-04-01

    The connection between gene regulation and metabolism is an old issue that warrants revisiting in order to understand both normal as well as pathogenic processes in higher eukaryotes. Metabolites affect the gene expression by either binding to transcription factors or serving as donors for post-translational modification, such as that involving acetylation and methylation. The focus of this review is heme, a prosthetic group of proteins that includes hemoglobin and cytochromes. Heme has been shown to bind to several transcription factors, including Bach1 and Bach2, in higher eukaryotes. Heme inhibits the transcriptional repressor activity of Bach1, resulting in the derepression of its target genes, such as globin in erythroid cells and heme oxygenase-1 in diverse cell types. Since Bach2 is important for class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes as well as regulatory and effector T cell differentiation and the macrophage function, the heme-Bach2 axis may regulate the immune response as a signaling cascade. We discuss future issues regarding the topic of the iron/heme-gene regulation network based on current understanding of the heme-Bach axis, including the concept of "iron immunology" as the synthesis of the iron metabolism and the immune response.

  20. Psychological Stress and the Cutaneous Immune Response: Roles of the HPA Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. F. Hall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress, an evolutionary adaptation to the fight-or-flight response, triggers a number of physiological responses that can be deleterious under some circumstances. Stress signals activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Elements derived from those systems (e.g., cortisol, catecholamines and neuropeptides can impact the immune system and possible disease states. Skin provides a first line of defense against many environmental insults. A number of investigations have indicated that the skin is especially sensitive to psychological stress, and experimental evidence shows that the cutaneous innate and adaptive immune systems are affected by stressors. For example, psychological stress has been shown to reduce recovery time of the stratum corneum barrier after its removal (innate immunity and alters antigen presentation by epidermal Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity. Moreover, psychological stress may trigger or exacerbate immune mediated dermatological disorders. Understanding how the activity of the psyche-nervous -immune system axis impinges on skin diseases may facilitate coordinated treatment strategies between dermatologists and psychiatrists. Herein, we will review the roles of the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system on the cutaneous immune response. We will selectively highlight how the interplay between psychological stress and the immune system affects atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  1. Primary cilia function regulates the length of the embryonic trunk axis and urogenital field in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainwright, Elanor N.; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee

    2014-01-01

    The issues of whether and how some organs coordinate their size and shape with the blueprint of the embryo axis, while others appear to regulate their morphogenesis autonomously, remain poorly understood. Mutations in Ift144, encoding a component of the trafficking machinery of primary cilia asse...

  2. Seismicity and state of stress near the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, northeast Japan, after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; No, T.; Fujie, G.; Hino, R.; Shinohara, M.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake ruptured roughly 200 km wide and 500 km long megathrust along the Japan Trench. The rupture propagated to the trench axis with a maximum slip about 50 m near the trench axis. As a consequence of this large near-trench slip, earthquakes have been activated near the axis of the Japan Trench off Miyagi, northeast Japan. We have conducted ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) experiments in the Japan Trench axis area, surrounding area of the IODP JFAST drilling site, since the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Although conventionally used OBS cannot be deployed at seafloor deeper than 6000 m water depth, we used newly developed ultra-deep OBS using ceramic sphere, which can be deployed at a depth of 9000 m, for the observations in the trench axis. The ultra-deep OBS has almost equivalent dimensions and weight with the conventionally used OBS, thus we can handle it in the same manner with the conventionally OBS without any special operation. As a result of a series of the OBS observations, we obtained accurate hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms in both seaward and landward of the trench axis. Earthquakes near the trench axis area were located within the overriding and incoming/subducting plates with very few on the plate interface below the inner trench slope landward of the trench axis. Most of the earthquakes both in the overriding and incoming/subducting plates having normal or strike-slip faulting focal mechanisms with T-axis normal to the trench axis. This indicates that tensional stress is dominant in the trench axis area. However, most seaward part of the seismicity within the overriding plate is characterized by a localized cluster of trench-normal compressional earthquakes, which may relate to spatial variation of the frictional behavior of the shallowest part of the megathrust. On the other hand, trench-normal extensional earthquakes in the incoming/subducting Pacific plate were located at depths shallower than about

  3. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle.

  4. Left ventricular long axis function assessed during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance is an independent predictor of adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vibhav; Chacko, Satish Jacob; Romano, Simone; Jue, Jennifer; Jariwala, Nikhil; Chung, Jaehoon; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin

    2016-06-07

    Left ventricular pump function requires a complex interplay involving myocardial fibers orientated in the longitudinal, oblique and circumferential directions. Long axis dysfunction appears to be an early marker for a number of pathological states. We hypothesized that mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) measured during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reflects changes in long axis function and may be an early marker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aims of this study were therefore: 1) To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of MAPSE measurements during routine cine-CMR; and 2) To assess whether MAPSE, as a surrogate for long axis function, is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Four hundred consecutive patients undergoing CMR were prospectively enrolled. MAPSE was measured in the 4-chamber cine view. Patients were prospectively followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) - death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina, and late revascularization. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with MACE. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated to assess whether addition of MAPSE resulted in improved risk reclassification of MACE. Seventy-two MACE occurred during a median follow-up of 14.5 months. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with lateral MAPSE cine-CMR is an independent predictor of MACE.

  5. Polymorphisms of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis influence the cortisol awakening response as well as self-perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Tempel, Ting; Larra, Mauro F; Winnikes, Ulrike; Tempel, Tobias; DeRijk, Roel H; Schulz, André; Schächinger, Hartmut; Meyer, Jobst; Schote, Andrea B

    2016-09-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a crucial endocrine system for coping with stress. A reliable and stable marker for the basal state of that system is the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We examined the influence of variants of four relevant candidate genes; the mineralocorticoid receptor gene (MR), the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR), the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) and the gene encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on CAR and self-perceived stress in 217 healthy subjects. We found that polymorphisms of GR influenced both, the basal state of the HPA axis as well as self-perceived stress. MR only associated with self-perceived stress and 5-HTT only with CAR. BDNF did not affected any of the investigated indices. In summary, we suggest that GR variants together with the CAR and supplemented with self reports on perceived stress might be useful indicators for the basal HPA axis activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deposition of stress free c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film grown on (002) ZnO coated Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2012-01-01

    C-axis oriented lithium niobate thin films have been deposited on Si substrate using RF sputtering technique. A thin buffer layer of c-axis (002) oriented ZnO on Si substrate has been used as a nucleating layer to promote the growth of (006) oriented LiNbO 3 film. The processing gas composition and pressure are found to be very critical in obtaining stress free LiNbO 3 film having desired (006) orientation. The LiNbO 3 films deposited under unique combination of sputtering pressure (10 mTorr) and argon percentage (80%) in reactive gas (Ar + O 2 ) composition become almost stress free having lattice parameter (1.3867 A) close to the bulk value. The observed variation in the structural properties and optical phonon modes observed by Raman spectroscopic studies of the oriented LiNbO 3 thin film with stress has been correlated with growth kinetics.

  7. Association of IL-6, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, and depression in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, Christian Friedrich; Kühnhardt, Dagmar; Bartholomae, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Sebastian; Schmid, Peter; Possinger, Kurt; Flath, Bernd Christian; Lüftner, Diana

    2010-09-01

    Evidence suggests that cytokines (IL-6) and alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis play a crucial role in the etiology of depression. Patients with cancer show elevated prevalence rates for depression. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between these abnormalities and depression. Plasma concentrations of IL-6 and cortisol were measured in cancer patients with (N = 31) and without depression (N = 83). The relative diurnal variation of cortisol (cortisol VAR), expressed in percentage, was calculated. There was a significant difference in median plasma concentration of IL-6 between the patients with depression and those without (18.7 vs 2.7 pg/mL; P cancer is associated with increased plasma IL-6 concentrations and dysfunction of the HPA axis.

  8. Imidazoline2 (I2) receptor- and alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in control and acute restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, David P; Hudson, Alan L; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Coventry, Toni L; Jessop, David S; Nutt, David J; Harbuz, Michael S

    2004-03-01

    Central noradrenaline regulates the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the neuroendocrine response to stress. alpha2-adrenoceptors and imidazoline2 (I2) receptors modulate the activity of the central noradrenergic system. The present set of experiments investigated the role of alpha2-adrenoceptors and I2 receptors in the regulation of HPA axis activity under basal conditions and during exposure to the acute psychological stress of restraint. Three separate experiments were carried out in which rats were given an i.p. injection of either saline vehicle, the combined alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist and I2 receptor ligand idazoxan (10 mg/kg), the selective I2 receptor ligand BU224 (2.5 or 10 mg/kg) or the selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 (2.5 mg/kg) with or without restraint stress. Drugs were administered immediately prior to restraint of 60 min duration. Blood was sampled pre-injection, 30, 60 and 240 min post-injection and plasma corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. In experiment 1, idazoxan increased plasma corticosterone levels in naive animals and potentiated the corticosterone response to acute restraint stress. In experiment 2, BU224 administration increased plasma corticosterone levels in a dose-related manner in naive rats. The results of experiment 3 indicated that RX821002 also elevated plasma corticosterone levels in naive rats, however, only BU224 potentiated the corticosterone response to restraint stress. These studies suggest that both alpha2-adrenoceptors and I2 receptors play a role in modulating basal HPA axis activity and that I2 receptors may play a more important role than alpha2-adrenoceptors in modulating the HPA axis response to the acute psychological stress of restraint.

  9. Effects of denial of reward through maternal contact in the neonatal period on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Raftogianni, Androniki; Stamatakis, Antonios; Oitzl, Melly S; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2013-06-01

    Emotional behavioral traits associated with stress response are well documented to be affected by early life events. In the present work, we used a novel paradigm of neonatal experience, in which pups were trained in a T-maze and either received (RER rats) or were denied (DER) the reward of maternal contact, during postnatal days 10-13. We then evaluated stress coping and key factors controlling the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adulthood. Adult male DER rats exposed to a single session of forced swim stress (FSS) showed increased immobility, while RER rats exhibited increased escape attempts. The corticosterone response following this stressor was higher although not prolonged in the DER rats. Their CRH mRNA levels in the PVN were increased up to 2h after the forced swim. However, basal levels of these hormones did not differ among groups. In addition, the DER neonatal experience induced an increase in hippocampal GR but a decrease in CRH-R1 immunopositive cells in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and the central amygdala. Overall, these data show a distinct stress response profile in the DER male rats, characterized by passive coping during the forced swim, increased hormonal response following stress, increased inhibitory control through GR and an indirect contribution of CRH-R1, the latter two factors resulting in a modified regulation of the response termination. It thus appears that DER rats have an enhanced potential for appropriate reactivity upon an incoming challenge, while maintaining in parallel an adequate control of the duration of their stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical Calculation of D- and Q-axis Inductance for Interior Permanent Magnet Motors Based on Winding Function Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interior permanent magnet (IPM motors are widely used in electric vehicles (EVs, benefiting from the excellent advantages of a more rational use of energy. For further improvement of energy utilization, this paper presents an analytical method of d- and q-axis inductance calculation for IPM motors with V-shaped rotor in no-load condition. A lumped parameter magnetic circuit model (LPMCM is adopted to investigate the saturation and nonlinearity of the bridge. Taking into account the influence of magnetic field distribution on inductance, the winding function theory (WFT is employed to accurately calculate the armature reaction airgap magnetic field and d- and q-axis inductances. The validity of the analytical technique is verified by the finite element method (FEM.

  11. HPA axis response to social stress is attenuated in schizophrenia but normal in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of existing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Simone; Dazzan, Paola; Kempton, Matthew J; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the HPA axis response to social stress in studies that used the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), or comparable distressing paradigms, in individuals with either depression or schizophrenia. Sample size-adjusted effect sizes (Hedge's g statistic) were calculated to estimate the HPA axis stress response to social stress. We used a meta-regression model to take into account the moderating effect of the baseline cortisol level. Participants with depression show an activation pattern to social stress similar to that of healthy controls. Despite a normal cortisol production rate, individuals with schizophrenia have lower cortisol levels than controls both in anticipation and after exposure to social stress. Participants with depression and higher cortisol levels before the task have an increased cortisol production and reached higher cortisol levels during the task. This may be explained by the presence of an impaired negative feedback. The activation pattern present in schizophrenia may explain the reduced ability to appropriately contextualize past experiences shown by individuals with psychosis in social stressful situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of HPA Axis Function After Successful Gonadotropin-Induced Pregnancy and Delivery in a Woman With Panhypopituitarism: Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Qiongyue; Yang, Jianzhi; Zhao, Xiaolong; He, Min; Shou, Xuefei; Li, Shiqi; Li, Yiming; Wang, Yongfei; Ye, Hongying

    2015-09-01

    Hypopituitarism is defined as the partial or complete defect of anterior pituitary hormone secretion. Patients with hypopituitarism usually need life-long hormone replacement therapy. However, in this case, we report a patient with panhypopituitarism whose hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function was completely recovered after pregnancy and delivery. In this case study, we reported the case management and conducted a review of literature to identify the possible mechanism of pituitary function recovery. The patient who suffered from secondary amenorrhea was found a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma, and the hormone test showed serum cortisol, FT3, FT4, thyrotropic hormone, and prolactin were at normal range. After surgical removal of the tumor which invasion in the sellar region, the patient had panhypopituitarism confirmed by the routine hormone test. Though spontaneous pregnancy is impossible in female patients with panhypopituitarism, the patient was restored fertility by the help of artificial reproductive techniques. After the confirmation of the pregnancy, levothyroixine was increased to 75 μg daily and readjusted to 150 μg daily before delivery according to the monthly measurement thyroid function. Hydrocortisone 10 mg daily replaced cortisone acetate; the dose was increased according to the symptoms of morning sickness. A single stress dose of hydrocortisone (200 mg) was used before elective cesarean delivery and was tapered to the dose of 10 mg per day in 1 week. Levothyroixine was reduced to 75 μg daily after delivery. During follow-up, her hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function was completely recovered. The peak serum cortisol level could increase to 19.08 μg/dL by insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, growth hormone remained unresponsive to the insulin-tolerance test, and thyroid hormone still needed exogenous supplementation. Hormone replacement therapy needed closely followed by endocrinologist and multidisciplinary

  13. Sex differences in the outcome of juvenile social isolation on HPA axis function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, M G; Garau, A; Boero, G; Biggio, F; Pibiri, V; Dore, R; Locci, V; Paci, E; Porcu, P; Serra, M

    2016-04-21

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from anxiety disorders and major depression. These disorders share hyperresponsiveness to stress as an etiological factor. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by chronic stress may account for the increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Social isolation is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors. Here we investigated the sex difference in the effects of post-weaning social isolation on acute stress sensitivity and behavior in rats. In both sexes, social isolation at weaning reduced basal levels of the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone in the brain and of corticosterone in plasma. Moreover, acute stress increased plasma corticosterone levels in both group-housed and socially isolated male and female rats; however this effect was greater in male than female rats subjected to social isolation. Intriguingly, group-housed female rats showed no change in plasma and brain levels of allopregnanolone after acute foot-shock stress. The absence of stress-induced effects on allopregnanolone synthesis might be due to the physiologically higher levels of this hormone in females vs. males. Accordingly, increasing allopregnanolone levels in male rats blunted the response to foot-shock stress in these animals. Socially isolated male, but not female, rats also display depressive-like behavior and increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The ovarian steroids could "buffer" the effect of this adverse experience in females on these parameters. Finally, the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test indicated that the chronic stress associated with social isolation impairs feedback inhibition in both sexes in which an increase in the abundance of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus was found. Altogether, these results demonstrate that social isolation affects neuroendocrine

  14. Taurine and pioglitazone attenuate diabetes-induced testicular damage by abrogation of oxidative stress and up-regulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Mohamed, Hanaa M; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impairment of testicular function. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of taurine and pioglitazone against diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Both normal and diabetic rats received taurine (100 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally and daily for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed a significant (P Taurine and pioglitazone alleviated hyperglycemia, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased circulating levels of insulin, testosterone, LH, and FSH. Gene and protein expression of LH and FSH receptors and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17) was significantly (P taurine and pioglitazone. In addition, taurine and pioglitazone significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and enhanced activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes of diabetic rats. In conclusion, taurine and pioglitazone exerted protective effects against diabetes-induced testicular damage through attenuation of hyperglycemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and up-regulation of the pituitary/gonadal axis.

  15. Paternal preconception ethanol exposure blunts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity and stress-induced excessive fluid intake in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, Gregory R; Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of environmental insults have been shown to induce epigenetic effects that persist across generations. For instance, paternal preconception exposures to ethanol or stress have independently been shown to exert such intergenerational effects. Since ethanol exposure is a physiological stressor that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that paternal ethanol exposure would impact stress responsivity of offspring. Adult male mice were exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol or control conditions for 5 weeks before being mated with ethanol-naïve females to produce ethanol (E)- and control (C)-sired offspring. Adult male and female offspring were tested for plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels following acute restraint stress and the male offspring were further examined for stress-evoked 2-bottle choice ethanol-drinking. Paternal ethanol exposure blunted plasma CORT levels following acute restraint stress selectively in male offspring; females were unaffected. In a stress-evoked ethanol-drinking assay, there was no effect of stress on ethanol consumption. However, C-sired males exhibited increased total fluid intake (polydipsia) in response to stress while E-sired males were resistant to this stress-induced phenotype. Taken together, these data suggest that paternal ethanol exposure imparts stress hyporesponsivity to male offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early experience and sex interact to influence limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function after acute alcohol administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, C S; Newman, T K; Lindell, S; Becker, M L; Shannon, C; Champoux, M; Suomi, S J; Higley, J D

    2004-07-01

    Studies in rodents demonstrate sex differences in neuroendocrine stress axis activity after treatment with alcohol. In abstinent alcoholics, atypical depressives, and individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder, limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA)-axis activity is often blunted; among females in these patient populations, however, resistance to glucocorticoid feedback and increased pituitary reactivity is observed. Early parental loss is a major life stressor and is a risk factor for both affective disturbances and LHPA-axis abnormalities later in life. We wanted to determine whether sex and early life parental absence would interact to influence alcohol-induced alterations in LHPA-axis activity after exposure to ethanol in macaques. Animals were reared with their mothers in social groups (MR, n = 94) or without adults in peer-only groups (PR, n = 79). At 5 years of age, they received an intravenous infusion of alcohol (2-2.2 g/kg), and the effects of alcohol, sex, and rearing condition on ACTH and cortisol levels were analyzed by ANOVA. Peer-reared females had higher ACTH levels than did PR males, MR females, and MR males after alcohol infusion. Alcohol-induced cortisol levels were not affected by sex and rearing condition. These findings suggest that there are sex differences in glucocorticoid negative feedback, pituitary responsivity, or release of ACTH secretagogues among individuals exposed to early life stress and emphasize the importance of considering sex effects when studying LHPA-axis dysregulation in alcoholism and other stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Multi-Level Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation Among at-Risk Adolescent Females: The Role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Responses to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Casey D.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological, interpersonal and biological). Participants were 138 adolescent females (Mage=14.13 years, SD=1.40) at risk for suicidal behaviors. At baseline, lifetime suicidal ideation and a number of risk factors were assessed (i.e., depressive symptoms, impulsiveness, pubertal status and peer stress). Participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress task and HPA-axis responses were assessed by measuring cortisol levels pre- and post-stressor. At 3 months post-baseline, suicidal ideation again was assessed. Using group-based trajectory modeling, three groups of cortisol stress-response patterns were identified (i.e., hyporesponsive, normative, and hyperresponsive). As compared to females in the normative and hyporesponsive group, females in the hyperresponsive group were more likely to report a lifetime history of suicidal ideation at baseline, above and beyond the effects of the other predictors. Moreover, as compared to females in the normative group, females in the hyperresponsive group were at increased risk for reporting suicidal ideation 3 months later, after controlling for prior ideation. No interactions between cortisol group and the other risk factors were significant, with the exception of a non-significant trend between impulsiveness and cortisol group on lifetime suicidal ideation. Findings highlight the importance of HPA-axis responses to acute stressors as a risk factor for suicidal ideation among adolescents. PMID:24958308

  18. Nutrient restriction induces failure of reproductive function and molecular changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in postpubertal gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-07-01

    People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus. NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated fourth estrus. Blood samples were collected at 5 days' interval for consecutive three times for measurement of hormone concentrations at the 23th day of the fourth estrus cycle. Individual progesterone concentrations of NR gilts from three consecutive blood samples were below 1.0 ng/mL versus 2.0 ng/mL in CON gilts, which was considered anestrus. NR gilts had impaired development of reproductive tract characterized by absence of large follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm), decreased number of corepus lutea and atrophy of uterus and ovary tissues. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone and leptin were significantly lower in NR gilts than that in CON gilts. Nutrient restriction down-regulated gene expressions of kiss-1, G-protein coupled protein 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, leptin receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis of gilts. Collectively, nutrient restriction resulted in impairment of reproductive function and changes of hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, which shed light on the underlying mechanism by which nutrient restriction influenced reproductive function.

  19. Resolution function normalisation and secondary extinction in neutron triple-axis spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindle, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of resolution correction in triple-axis spectrometry is developed from first principles. It is demonstrated that for ideally imperfect thin crystals the formulation coincides with that introduced initially by Cooper and Nathans and subsequently considered by Dorner. The predicted energy variation of peak Bragg reflectivities of monochromator and analyser crystals in Bragg case scattering is such as to confirm experimental data. In the Laue case to obtain results compatible with experiment one has to invoke theories of secondary extinction. In an attempt to accommodate these observations a new finite threshold model of secondary extinction is proposed which interpolates thin crystals formulas and conventional secondary extinction formulas obtained in the zero threshold limit. (orig.)

  20. Impaired Sympathoadrenal Axis Function Contributes to Enhanced Insulin Secretion in Prediabetic Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eliza Andreazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of sympathoadrenal axis activity in obesity onset was investigated using the experimental model of treating neonatal rats with monosodium L-glutamate. To access general sympathetic nervous system activity, we recorded the firing rates of sympathetic superior cervical ganglion nerves in animals. Catecholamine content and secretion from isolated adrenal medulla were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed, and isolated pancreatic islets were stimulated with glucose and adrenergic agonists. The nerve firing rate of obese rats was decreased compared to the rate for lean rats. Basal catecholamine secretion decreased whereas catecholamine secretion induced by carbachol, elevated extracellular potassium, and caffeine in the isolated adrenal medulla were all increased in obese rats compared to control. Both glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia were observed in obese rats. Adrenaline strongly inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion in obese animals. These findings suggest that low sympathoadrenal activity contributes to impaired glycaemic control in prediabetic obese rats.

  1. Notochord vacuoles are lysosome-related organelles that function in axis and spine morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kathryn; Bagwell, Jennifer; Bagnat, Michel

    2013-03-04

    The notochord plays critical structural and signaling roles during vertebrate development. At the center of the vertebrate notochord is a large fluid-filled organelle, the notochord vacuole. Although these highly conserved intracellular structures have been described for decades, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in their biogenesis and maintenance. Here we show that zebrafish notochord vacuoles are specialized lysosome-related organelles whose formation and maintenance requires late endosomal trafficking regulated by the vacuole-specific Rab32a and H(+)-ATPase-dependent acidification. We establish that notochord vacuoles are required for body axis elongation during embryonic development and identify a novel role in spine morphogenesis. Thus, the vertebrate notochord plays important structural roles beyond early development.

  2. Dopamine D1 and D2 dopamine receptors regulate immobilization stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Armario, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Whereas the role of most biogenic amines in the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to stress has been extensively studied, the role of dopamine has not. We studied the effect of different dopamine receptor antagonists on HPA response to a severe stressor (immobilization, IMO) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Haloperidol administration reduced adrenocorticotropin hormone and corticosterone responses to acute IMO, particularly during the post-IMO period. This effect cannot be explained by a role of dopamine to maintain a sustained activation of the HPA axis as haloperidol did not modify the response to prolonged (up to 6 h) IMO. Administration of more selective D1 and D2 receptor antagonists (SCH23390 and eticlopride, respectively) also resulted in lower and/or shorter lasting HPA response to IMO. Dopamine, acting through both D1 and D2 receptors, exerts a stimulatory role on the activation of the HPA axis in response to a severe stressor. The finding that dopamine is involved in the maintenance of post-stress activation of the HPA axis is potentially important because the actual pathological impact of HPA activation is likely to be related to the area under the curve of plasma glucocorticoid levels, which is critically dependent on how long after stress high levels of glucocorticoid are maintained.

  3. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed

  4. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  5. Activation of the HPA axis and depression of feeding behavior induced by restraint stress are separately regulated by PACAPergic neurotransmission in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Lee E

    2016-07-01

    We measured serum CORT elevation in wild-type and PACAP-deficient C57BL/6N male mice after acute (1 h) or prolonged (2-3 h) daily restraint stress for 7 d. The PACAP dependence of CORT elevation was compared to that of stress-induced hypophagia. Daily restraint induced unhabituated peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia/weight loss, of similar magnitude for 1, 2, and 3 h of daily restraint, in wild-type mice. Peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia, were both attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice for 2 and 3 h daily restraint. Hypophagia induced by 1-h daily restraint was also greatly reduced in PACAP-deficient mice, however CORT elevation, both peak and during recovery from stress, was unaffected. Thus, hypothalamic PACAPergic neurotransmission appears to affect CRH gene transcription and peptide production, but not CRH release, in response to psychogenic stress. A single exposure to restraint sufficed to trigger hypophagia over the following 24 h. PACAP deficiency attenuated HPA axis response (CORT elevation) to prolonged (3 h) but not acute (1 h) single-exposure restraint stress, while hypophagia induced by either a single 1 h or a single 3 h restraint were both abolished in PACAP-deficient mice. These results suggest that PACAP's actions to promote suppression of food intake following an episode of psychogenic stress is unrelated to the release of CRH into the portal circulation to activate the pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, demonstration of suppressed food intake after a single 1-h restraint stress provides a convenient assay for investigating the location of the synapses and circuits mediating the effects of PACAP on the behavioral sequelae of psychogenic stress.

  6. Frequent cellular phone use modifies hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to a cellular phone call after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronikolou, Styliani A; Chamakou, Aikaterini; Mantzou, Aimilia; Chrousos, George; KanakaGantenbein, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the main "gate-keeper" of the organism's response to every somatic or mental stress. This prospective study aims to investigate the HPA-axis response to a cellular phone call exposure after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents and to assess the possible predictive role of baseline endocrine markers to this response. Two groups of healthy school-age children aged 11-14 (12.5±1.5) years were included in the study, the one comprising those who are occasional users of a cellular phone (Group A) while the second those who do regularly use one (Group B). Blood samples were obtained from all participants at 8.00 am after a 12-hour overnight fasting for thyroid hormone, glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels determination. The participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) (5 minoral task followed by 5 min arithmetic task). Salivary cortisol samples were obtained at baseline, 10' and 20' min after the TSST-C and 10' and 20' after a 5 minute cellular phone call. Significant changes in the salivary cortisol levels were noted between 10' and 20' mins after the cellular phone call with different responses between the two groups. Baseline thyroid hormone levels seem to predict the cortisol response to mental stress mainly in group A, while HOMA had no impact on salivary cortisol response at any phase of the test, in either group. HPA axis response to cellular phone after mental stress in children and adolescents follow a different pattern in frequent users than in occasional users that seems to be influenced by the baseline thyroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary growth axis in three dwarf Friesian foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf-Roelfsema, E; Back, W; Keizer, H A; Stout, T A E; van der Kolk, J H

    2009-09-26

    Serial blood samples were collected from three dwarf Friesian foals to examine their endogenous growth hormone (GH) profiles, and the integrity of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis was tested in one of them by examining its responses to the administration of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and to 10 days of treatment with recombinant equine GH. The basal serum concentrations of IGF-1 in the three dwarf foals were compared with those in nine age-matched normal foals. All the dwarf foals secreted endogenous GH. Stimulation with 7.0 microg/kg GHRH led to a 1400 per cent increase in plasma GH concentration in the dwarf foal tested, and 10 daily subcutaneous treatments with 20 microg/kg recombinant equine GH led to a 100 per cent increase in its serum IGF-1 concentration. The basal serum concentrations of IGF-1 in the dwarf foals were not significantly different from those of the normal foals.

  8. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  9. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  10. Role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis and corticotropin-releasing factor stress system on cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesi, Fernanda L; Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Mijares, Miriam Garcia; Cippitelli, Andrea; Cannella, Nazzareno; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo

    2016-10-05

    A large body of evidence has shown that the Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) system, which plays a key role in stress modulation, is deeply involved in relapse to alcohol seeking induced by exposure to stressful events such as foot shock or yohimbine injections. Exposure to environmental cues is also known to be a trigger for alcohol relapse, nevertheless, the relationship between the relapse evoked by the cue-induced model and the CRF stress systems remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in male Wistar rats, the involvement of the CRF system and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in relapse induced by environmental cues. Antalarmin, a selective CRF1 receptor antagonist, Metyrapone, a corticosterone (CORT) synthesis inhibitor and CORT were evaluated for their effects on the reinstatement test in a cue-induced relapse model. Antalarmin (20mg/kg) blocked relapse to alcohol seeking induced by environmental cues. Metyrapone (50 and 100mg/kg) also blocked relapse in Wistar rats but only at the highest dose (100mg/kg). Corticosterone had no effect on relapse at the doses tested. The results obtained from this study suggest that the CRF stress system and the HPA axis are involved in cue-induced alcohol relapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The involvement of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical axis in stress physiology and its significance in the assessment of animal welfare in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Brown

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of cattle production has raised concern for animal welfare due to the stress that is associated with farming practices. The welfare of an animal is determined by the animal’s ability to cope with or adapt to its continuously changing environment and the biological cost that is associated with this adaptation and maintenance. Stressors arise from various psychological, physiological and physical aspects of farming practices due to management and human–cattle interactions. Measuring the activity of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis with plasma cortisol levels is a useful method for determining the effects of stress on animals as it is stimulated at the onset of a perceived stress. The activation of the HPA axis affects various target tissues or systems and can result in suppression of the immune system, increased susceptibility to disease and adverse effects on reproductive success in prenatal and neonatal calves. Although some levels of stress associated with farming practices are unavoidable, improvements in farming methods need to be implemented in order to maintain or increase the efficiency of cattle production in a way that does not compromise the welfare of the animal.

  12. Vestibular thresholds for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis as a function of frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Luzia; Nicoucar, Keyvan; Mast, Fred W; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2008-04-01

    Perceptual direction detection thresholds for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis were measured at seven frequencies (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 Hz) in seven subjects in the dark. Motion stimuli consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration and were generated by a motion platform. An adaptive two-alternative categorical forced-choice procedure was used. The subjects had to indicate by button presses whether they perceived yaw rotation to the left or to the right. Thresholds were measured using a 3-down, 1-up staircase paradigm. Mean yaw rotation velocity thresholds were 2.8 deg s(-1) for 0.05 Hz, 2.5 deg s(-1) for 0.1 Hz, 1.7 deg s(-1) for 0.2 Hz, 0.7 deg s(-1) for 0.5 Hz, 0.6 deg s(-1) for 1 Hz, 0.4 deg s(-1) for 2 Hz, and 0.6 deg s(-1) for 5 Hz. The results show that motion thresholds increase at 0.2 Hz and below and plateau at 0.5 Hz and above. Increasing velocity thresholds at lower frequencies qualitatively mimic the high-pass characteristics of the semicircular canals, since the increase at 0.2 Hz and below would be consistent with decreased gain/sensitivity observed in the VOR at lower frequencies. In fact, the measured dynamics are consistent with a high pass filter having a threshold plateau of 0.71 deg s(-1) and a cut-off frequency of 0.23 Hz, which corresponds to a time constant of approximately 0.70 s. These findings provide no evidence for an influence of velocity storage on perceptual yaw rotation thresholds.

  13. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  14. Evidence against a critical role of CB1 receptors in adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other consequences of daily repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa, Cristina; Pastor-Ciurana, Jordi; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Carrasco, Javier; Gagliano, Humberto; García-Gutiérrez, María S; Manzanares, Jorge; Armario, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) play a role in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, although they appear to have dual, stimulatory and inhibitory, effects. Recent data in rats suggest that eCBs, acting through CB1 receptors (CB1R), may be involved in adaptation of the HPA axis to daily repeated stress. In the present study we analyze this issue in male mice and rats. Using a knock-out mice for the CB1 receptor (CB1-/-) we showed that mutant mice presented similar adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to the first IMO as wild-type mice. Daily repeated exposure to 1h of immobilization reduced the ACTH response to the stressor, regardless of the genotype, demonstrating that adaptation occurred to the same extent in absence of CB1R. Prototypical changes observed after repeated stress such as enhanced corticotropin releasing factor (CRH) gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, impaired body weight gain and reduced thymus weight were similarly observed in both genotypes. The lack of effect of CB1R in the expression of HPA adaptation to another similar stressor (restraint) was confirmed in wild-type CD1 mice by the lack of effect of the CB1R antagonist AM251 just before the last exposure to stress. Finally, the latter drug did not blunt the HPA, glucose and behavioral adaptation to daily repeated forced swim in rats. Thus, the present results indicate that CB1R is not critical for overall effects of daily repeated stress or proper adaptation of the HPA axis in mice and rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cognitive function in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, J A; Dixon, R A; McCluskey, S E; Young, A H

    2000-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is associated with abnormalities in neuroendocrine function including sustained hypercortisolism, which has been shown elsewhere to be associated with impairment of function in learning, memory and attention. Cognitive impairment has also been observed in anorexia nervosa. These effects may be mediated in part through cortisol effects on the hippocampus, which is dense with glucocorticoid receptors. We investigated the association between cortisol levels and cognitive function in anorexia nervosa by measuring both 24-hour urinary cortisol counts and performance on tasks of learning, memory and attention in patients suffering from the disorder. Cortisol secretion was shown to be significantly higher in the patient group than in a matched control group and patients were also shown to be impaired in memory and attention. However, no correlations were found between the cognitive deficits and cortisol measures. It is suggested that more sensitive profiling of cortisol levels throughout the circadian cycle may be useful in future studies of cognitive function in anorexia nervosa.

  16. The enteroinsular axis and endocrine pancreatic function in chronic alcohol consumers: evidence for early beta-cell hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patto, R J; Russo, E K; Borges, D R; Neves, M M

    1993-09-01

    Chronic alcohol consumers may have, as judged by functional criteria, exocrine as well as endocrine pancreatic dysfunction, the latter represented by a decreased insulin response to an oral glucose load. To investigate whether this decreased insulin response was due to an ethanol-induced beta-cell dysfunction or to an ethanol-induced dysfunction of the enteroinsular axis, we determined glucose, insulin, and C-peptide plasma concentrations following an oral and an intravenous glucose load in 16 healthy volunteer nonalcohol consumers and in 10 chronic alcohol consumers. In each group, total integrated response for glucose did not significantly change whether glucose was given orally or intravenously, indicating isoglycemic glucose loads. The total integrated response values for insulin in the alcoholic group following both glucose loads as well as C-peptide plasma concentrations were significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, in both groups the insulin TIR values following the oral glucose load were significantly greater than the values obtained following the intravenous glucose load, indicating an incretin effect. These results indicate that the decreased insulin response observed in alcoholics was not caused by a dysfunction of the enteroinsular axis because it also occurred following an intravenous glucose load, but by an ethanol-induced beta-cell dysfunction because C-peptide and insulin were proportionally decreased in this group.

  17. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.

  18. Adaptation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to daily repeated stress does not follow the rules of habituation: A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa, Cristina; Gagliano, Humberto; Pastor-Ciurana, Jordi; Fuentes, Silvia; Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Repeated exposure to a wide range of stressors differing in nature and intensity results in a reduced response of prototypical stress markers (i.e. plasma levels of ACTH and adrenaline) after an acute challenge with the same (homotypic) stressor. This reduction has been considered to be a habituation-like phenomenon. However, direct experimental evidence for this assumption is scarce. In the present work we demonstrate in adult male rats that adaptation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to repeated stress does not follow some of the critical rules of habituation. Briefly, adaptation was stronger and faster with more severe stressors, maximally observed even with a single exposure to severe stressors, extremely long-lasting, negatively related to the interval between the exposures and positively related to the length of daily exposure. We offer a new theoretical view to explain adaptation to daily repeated stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: Prebiotics Have Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-like Effects and Reverse the Impact of Chronic Stress in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burokas, Aurelijus; Arboleya, Silvia; Moloney, Rachel D; Peterson, Veronica L; Murphy, Kiera; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-10-01

    The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders, is rapidly advancing. Nurturing a beneficial gut microbiome with prebiotics, such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), is an appealing but underinvestigated microbiota manipulation. Here we tested whether chronic prebiotic treatment modifies behavior across domains relevant to anxiety, depression, cognition, stress response, and social behavior. C57BL/6J male mice were administered FOS, GOS, or a combination of FOS+GOS for 3 weeks prior to testing. Plasma corticosterone, microbiota composition, and cecal short-chain fatty acids were measured. In addition, FOS+GOS- or water-treated mice were also exposed to chronic psychosocial stress, and behavior, immune, and microbiota parameters were assessed. Chronic prebiotic FOS+GOS treatment exhibited both antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. Moreover, the administration of GOS and the FOS+GOS combination reduced stress-induced corticosterone release. Prebiotics modified specific gene expression in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Regarding short-chain fatty acid concentrations, prebiotic administration increased cecal acetate and propionate and reduced isobutyrate concentrations, changes that correlated significantly with the positive effects seen on behavior. Moreover, FOS+GOS reduced chronic stress-induced elevations in corticosterone and proinflammatory cytokine levels and depression-like and anxiety-like behavior in addition to normalizing the effects of stress on the microbiota. Taken together, these data strongly suggest a beneficial role of prebiotic treatment for stress-related behaviors. These findings strengthen the evidence base supporting therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota for brain-gut axis disorders, opening new avenues in the field of nutritional neuropsychopharmacology. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by

  20. Early Life Stress Increases Metabolic Risk, HPA Axis Reactivity, and Depressive-Like Behavior When Combined with Postweaning Social Isolation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Javier; Junco, Mariana; Gomez, Carlos; Lajud, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Early-life stress is associated with depression and metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Such associations could be due to increased glucocorticoid levels. Periodic maternal separation in the neonate and rearing in social isolation are potent stressors that increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Moreover, social isolation promotes feed intake and body weight gain in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation; however, its effects on metabolic risks have not been described. In the present study, we evaluated whether periodic maternal separation, social isolation rearing, and a combination of these two stressors (periodic maternal separation + social isolation rearing) impair glucose homeostasis and its relation to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and depressive-like behavior. Periodic maternal separation increased basal corticosterone levels, induced a passive coping strategy in the forced swimming test, and was associated with a mild (24%) increase in fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Rearing in social isolation increased stress reactivity in comparison to both controls and in combination with periodic maternal separation, without affecting the coping strategy associated with the forced swimming test. However, social isolation also increased body weight gain, fasting glucose (120%), and insulin levels in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation. Correlation analyses showed that stress-induced effects on coping strategy on the forced swimming test (but not on metabolic risk markers) are associated with basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that maternal separation and postweaning social isolation affect stress and metabolic vulnerability differentially and that early-life stress-related effects on metabolism are not directly dependent on glucocorticoid levels. In conclusion, our study supports the cumulative stress hypothesis, which suggests that

  1. Subacute stress and chronic stress interact to decrease intestinal barrier function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, Adriana; Vanuytsel, Tim; Vanormelingen, Christophe; Vanheel, Hanne; Salim Rasoel, Shadea; Tóth, Joran; Tack, Jan; Fornari, Fernando; Farré, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress increases intestinal permeability, potentially leading to low-grade inflammation and symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We assessed the effect of subacute, chronic and combined stress on intestinal barrier function and mast cell density. Male Wistar rats were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 8/group): 1/sham; 2/subacute stress (isolation and limited movement for 24 h); 3/chronic crowding stress for 14 days and 4/combined subacute and chronic stress. Jejunum and colon were collected to measure: transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER; a measure of epithelial barrier function); gene expression of tight junction molecules; mast cell density. Plasma corticosterone concentration was increased in all three stress conditions versus sham, with highest concentrations in the combined stress condition. TEER in the jejunum was decreased in all stress conditions, but was significantly lower in the combined stress condition than in the other groups. TEER in the jejunum correlated negatively with corticosterone concentration. Increased expression of claudin 1, 5 and 8, occludin and zonula occludens 1 mRNAs was detected after subacute stress in the jejunum. In contrast, colonic TEER was decreased only after combined stress, and the expression of tight junction molecules was unaltered. Increased mast cell density was observed in the chronic and combined stress condition in the colon only. In conclusion, our data show that chronic stress sensitizes the gastrointestinal tract to the effects of subacute stress on intestinal barrier function; different underlying cellular and molecular alterations are indicated in the small intestine versus the colon.

  2. Morphological and molecular evidence for functional organization along the rostrocaudal axis of the adult zebrafish intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Siew

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebrafish intestine is a simple tapered tube that is folded into three sections. However, whether the intestine is functionally similar along its length remains unknown. Thus, a systematic structural and functional characterization of the zebrafish intestine is desirable for future studies of the digestive tract and the intestinal biology and development. Results To characterize the structure and function of the adult zebrafish intestine, we divided the intestine into seven roughly equal-length segments, S1-S7, and systematically examined the morphology of the mucosal lining, histology of the epithelium, and molecular signatures from transcriptome analysis. Prominent morphological features are circumferentially-oriented villar ridges in segments S1-S6 and the absence of crypts. Molecular characterization of the transcriptome from each segment shows that segments S1-S5 are very similar while S6 and S7 unique. Gene ontology analyses reveal that S1-S5 express genes whose functions involve metabolism of carbohydrates, transport of lipids and energy generation, while the last two segments display relatively limited function. Based on comparative Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, the first five segments share strong similarity with human and mouse small intestine while S6 shows similarity with human cecum and rectum, and S7 with human rectum. The intestinal tract does not display the anatomical, morphological, and molecular signatures of a stomach and thus we conclude that this organ is absent from the zebrafish digestive system. Conclusions Our genome-wide gene expression data indicate that, despite the lack of crypts, the rostral, mid, and caudal portions of the zebrafish intestine have distinct functions analogous to the mammalian small and large intestine, respectively. Organization of ridge structures represents a unique feature of zebrafish intestine, though they produce similar cross sections to mammalian intestines

  3. Multiple cluster axis II comorbidity and functional outcome in severe patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nerea; McMaster, Antonia; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; de la Vega, Irene; Montes, Ana; Carrasco, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    Current literature suggests that personality disorder comorbidity negatively contributes to both the severity and prognosis of other disorders; however, little literature has been devoted to its influence on borderline personality disorder (BPD). The objective of the present work is to study comorbidity with other personality disorders in a severe clinical sample of patients with BPD, and its relationship with global functionality. A sample of 65 patients with severe borderline personality disorder was included in the study. Clinical and functionality measures were applied in order to study comorbidity of BPD with other disorders and its relationship with functionality. Associations with other comorbid PDs were analyzed with t-tests and linear correlations. Most patients (87%) presented comorbidity with other PDs. Almost half of the sample (42%) presented more than two PDs, and cluster A (paranoid) and C (obsessive and avoidant) PD were more frequent than cluster B (histrionic and antisocial). Only the presence of avoidant PD predicted a worse functional outcome in the long term (U Mann Withney ppersonality disorder might negatively predict for prognosis.

  4. Pre-receptor Regulation of Cortisol in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning an Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H.J. Dekker (Marieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGlucocorticoids (GCs) are ubiquitous, nuclear hormones, which are essential for life. In man, the main GC is cortisol, produced by the adrenals, endocrine glands that are situated on top of the kidneys. Cortisol exerts its functions in nearly all tissues and is crucial in the

  5. Deposition of stress free c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film grown on (002) ZnO coated Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Swati; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2012-05-15

    C-axis oriented lithium niobate thin films have been deposited on Si substrate using RF sputtering technique. A thin buffer layer of c-axis (002) oriented ZnO on Si substrate has been used as a nucleating layer to promote the growth of (006) oriented LiNbO{sub 3} film. The processing gas composition and pressure are found to be very critical in obtaining stress free LiNbO{sub 3} film having desired (006) orientation. The LiNbO{sub 3} films deposited under unique combination of sputtering pressure (10 mTorr) and argon percentage (80%) in reactive gas (Ar + O{sub 2}) composition become almost stress free having lattice parameter (1.3867 A) close to the bulk value. The observed variation in the structural properties and optical phonon modes observed by Raman spectroscopic studies of the oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film with stress has been correlated with growth kinetics.

  6. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 ablation causes dysregulation of the HPA axis and increases hippocampal BDNF protein levels: implications for stress-related psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Kayo; Mombereau, Cedric; Lötscher, Erika; Uzunov, Doncho P; van der Putten, Herman; Flor, Peter J; Cryan, John F

    2006-06-01

    Regulation of neurotransmission via group-III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR4, -6, -7, and -8) has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders, such as major depression and anxiety. For instance, mice with a targeted deletion of the gene for mGluR7 (mGluR7-/-) showed antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in a variety of stress-related paradigms, including the forced swim stress and the stress-induced hyperthermia tests. Deletion of mGluR7 reduces also amygdala- and hippocampus-dependent conditioned fear and aversion responses. Since the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates the stress response we investigate whether parameters of the HPA axis at the levels of selected mRNA transcripts and endocrine hormones are altered in mGluR7-deficient mice. Over all, mGluR7-/- mice showed only moderately lower serum levels of corticosterone and ACTH compared with mGluR7+/+ mice. More strikingly however, we found strong evidence for upregulated glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent feedback suppression of the HPA axis in mice with mGluR7 deficiency: (i) mRNA transcripts of GR were significantly upregulated in the hippocampus of mGluR7-/- animals, (ii) similar increases were seen with 5-HT1A receptor transcripts, which are thought to be directly controlled by the transcription factor GR and finally (iii) mGluR7-/- mice showed elevated sensitivity to dexamethasone-induced suppression of serum corticosterone when compared with mGluR7+/+ animals. These results indicate that mGluR7 deficiency causes dysregulation of HPA axis parameters, which may account, at least in part, for the phenotype of mGluR7-/- mice in animal models for anxiety and depression. In addition, we present evidence that protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor are also elevated in the hippocampus of mGluR7-/- mice, which we discuss in the context of the antidepressant-like phenotype found in those animals. We conclude that genetic ablation of m

  7. Comparison of the effects of single and daily repeated immobilization stress on resting activity and heterotypic sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviu, Núria; Rabasa, Cristina; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Acute exposure to severe stressors causes marked activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that is reflected on the day after higher resting levels of HPA hormones and sensitization of the HPA response to novel (heterotypic) stressors. However, whether a single exposure to a severe stressor or daily repeated exposure to the same (homotypic) stressor modifies these responses to the same extent has not been studied. In this experiment, we studied this issue in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats daily exposed for seven days to a severe stressor such as immobilization on boards (IMO). A first exposure to 1 h IMO resulted in a marked activation of the HPA axis as reflected in plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone, and such activation was significantly reduced after the seventh IMO. On the day after the first IMO, higher resting levels of ACTH and corticosterone and sensitization of their responses to a short exposure to an open-field (OF) were observed, together with a marked hypoactivity in this environment. Repeated exposure to IMO partially reduced hypoactivity, the increase in resting levels of HPA hormones and the ACTH responsiveness to the OF on the day after the last exposure to IMO. In contrast, corticosterone response was gradually increased, suggesting partial dissociation from ACTH. These results indicate that daily repeated exposure to the same stressor partially reduced the HPA response to the homotypic stressor as well as the sensitization of HPA axis activity observed the day after chronic stress cessation.

  8. Role of changes in functional status of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in immunoenhancement after low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuzheng; Zhao Yong; Han Zhenbo

    1994-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation (WBI) of mice with 75 mGy X-rays caused increase in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) content of hypothalamus and decrease in serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CS) level, accompanied with potentiation of immune functions, expressed as increased spontaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR into thymocytes, augmented proliferative reaction of the splenocytes to Con A and increased production of interleukin-2 by the splenocytes. After intra hypothalamic injection of 5HT there occurred a lowering of serum ACTH level and enhancement of immune reactivity of the splenic and thymic lymphocytes. It is assumed that low dose radiation could influence the central 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurons causing increase in hypothalamic 5HT content and this, in turn, decreases pituitary secretion of ACTH with a down-regulation of the adrenocortical function. This would partially release the tonic suppression normally exerted on the immune organs by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, thus leading to potentiation of immune functions. These neuroendocrine changes should be considered as an important factor in the analysis of the mechanism of immunoenhancement after WBI with low doses

  9. Progressive dysregulation of autonomic and HPA axis functions in HIV-1 clade C infection in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiprol, Seetharamaiah; Kumar, Adarsh M; Satishchandra, P; Taranath Shetty, K; Bhimasena Rao, R S; Subbakrishna, D K; Philip, Mariyamma; Satish, K S; Ravi Kumar, H; Kumar, Mahendra

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes a wide spectrum of abnormalities in neurological, neuropsychological, and neuroendocrinological functions. Several studies report disturbance in autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in HIV-1B infected individuals. However, no such investigations on the effect of HIV-1 clade C infection, particularly during the initial phase of the disease progression, have been reported. The present investigations were carried out longitudinally over a 2-year period at 12 monthly intervals in clinically asymptomatic HIV-1 clade C seropositive patients (n=120) and seronegative control subjects (n=29). We determined both the basal levels and the dynamic changes in plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT). Studies were also extended longitudinally (at three separate yearly visits of each participant), to evaluate the response of autonomic and HPA axis to mirror star tracing challenge test (MSTCT) and the values were determined as area under the curve (AUC, corrected for baseline levels of NE, E, ACTH, and CORT). The findings show that the values of basal plasma NE levels, as well as NE response to MSTCT (AUC) at the first visit of HIV-1 seropositive individuals did not differ from those found in the control subjects (NE, pg/ml, HIV-1C=313.5+/-12.7 vs. controls=353.0+/-21.3; p=NS; AUC, HIV-1C=225+/-14.75 vs. controls=232.7+/-19.34; p=NS, respectively). At the subsequent two visits of HIV-1 positive patients however, NE response to MSTCT challenge was progressively attenuated (AUC=235+/-19.5 and 162.7+/-13.6; p<0.01 and 0.05, respectively) compared to that found at the first visit. On the other hand, plasma levels of E as well as E response to MSTCT at the first visit were significantly lower in HIV-1C seropositive individuals compared to those in the control subjects (pg/ml, HIV-1C=77.30+/-5.7 vs. controls

  10. SLAM-seq defines direct gene-regulatory functions of the BRD4-MYC axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhar, Matthias; Ebert, Anja; Neumann, Tobias; Umkehrer, Christian; Jude, Julian; Wieshofer, Corinna; Rescheneder, Philipp; Lipp, Jesse J; Herzog, Veronika A; Reichholf, Brian; Cisneros, David A; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schlapansky, Moritz F; Bhat, Pooja; von Haeseler, Arndt; Köcher, Thomas; Obenauf, Anna C; Popow, Johannes; Ameres, Stefan L; Zuber, Johannes

    2018-05-18

    Defining direct targets of transcription factors and regulatory pathways is key to understanding their roles in physiology and disease. We combined SLAM-seq [thiol(SH)-linked alkylation for the metabolic sequencing of RNA], a method for direct quantification of newly synthesized messenger RNAs (mRNAs), with pharmacological and chemical-genetic perturbation in order to define regulatory functions of two transcriptional hubs in cancer, BRD4 and MYC, and to interrogate direct responses to BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETis). We found that BRD4 acts as general coactivator of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, which is broadly repressed upon high-dose BETi treatment. At doses triggering selective effects in leukemia, BETis deregulate a small set of hypersensitive targets including MYC. In contrast to BRD4, MYC primarily acts as a selective transcriptional activator controlling metabolic processes such as ribosome biogenesis and de novo purine synthesis. Our study establishes a simple and scalable strategy to identify direct transcriptional targets of any gene or pathway. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Regulatory landscape of AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis and its modulation by PPARγ activation in high fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Luca; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Saethang, Thammakorn; Carini, Marina; Payne, D Michael; Pisitkun, Trairak; Aldini, Giancarlo; Leelahavanichkul, Asada

    2017-01-01

    The AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress (AROS) axis is involved in the onset and progression of metabolic syndrome induced by a high-fructose diet (HFD). PPARγ activation is known to modulate metabolic syndrome; however a systems-level investigation looking at the protective effects of PPARγ activation as related to the AROS axis has not been performed. The aim of this work is to simultaneously characterize multiple molecular parameters within the AROS axis, using samples taken from different body fluids and tissues of a rat model of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome, in the presence or absence of a PPARγ agonist, Rosiglitazone (RGZ). Rats were fed with 60% HFD for the first half of the treatment duration (21 days) then continued with either HFD alone or HFD plus RGZ for the second half. Rats receiving HFD alone showed metabolic syndrome manifestations including hypertension, dyslipidemia, increased glucose levels and insulin resistance, as well as abnormal kidney and inflammatory parameters. Systolic blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose levels, plasma creatinine, and albuminuria were significantly improved in the presence of RGZ. The following molecular parameters of the AROS axis were significantly upregulated in our rat model: carboxymethyl lysine (CML) in urine and liver; carboxyethyl lysine (CEL) in urine; advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in plasma; receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in liver and kidney; advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in plasma; and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in plasma, liver, and kidney. Conversely, with RGZ administration, the upregulation of AOPP and AGEs in plasma, CML and CEL in urine, RAGE in liver as well as HNE in plasma and liver was significantly counteracted/prevented. Our data demonstrate (i) the systems-level regulatory landscape of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome involving multiple molecular parameters, including HNE, AGEs and their receptor RAGE, and (ii) attenuation of metabolic syndrome by

  12. Corticosterone response to gestational stress and postpartum memory function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zahra; Mehla, Jogender; Afrashteh, Navvab; Kolb, Bryan E; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-01-01

    Maternal stress is a common adversity during pregnancy. Gestational corticosterone alternations are thought to contribute to the etiology of postpartum behavioral disturbances. However, the impact of stress during pregnancy, in particular noise exposure, on gestational corticosterone fluctuations and spatial cognition in postpartum mice has not been fully understood yet. We hypothesized that noise exposure during pregnancy negatively affects gestational corticosterone levels and postpartum memory function in the dams similar to the physical stressors. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either one of two stress conditions or a control condition. The noise stress (NS) was induced by presenting a loud intermittent 3000 Hz frequency on gestational days (GDs) 12, 14, and 16 for 24 hours, whereas the physical stress (PS) consisted of restraint and exposure to an elevated platform on GDs 12-16. Plasma corticosterone level was collected on GDs 11 and 17, and Morris water task (MWT) was carried out 30 days after parturition. Compared to the control group, the level of corticosterone in the stressed groups was significantly increased on GD17 relative to GD11. Significantly longer swim time and lower swim speed were observed in both stressed groups relative to the control group. Probe time was significantly shorter in the NS group than the other groups. The delta corticosterone level was significantly correlated with the swim time as well as the probe time in the three groups. Given the results, the adverse effects of gestational noise exposure on the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and postpartum spatial learning and memory function were as large as/ or a bit stronger than the physical stresses. The findings suggest the significance of conservation against loud noise exposure in daily living, as well as need to further notice to the different aspects of gestational stress in mothers' behavior like offspring.

  13. The connection between animal stress and meat production: Uncoupling of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades, researchers have demonstrated that "stress" can have detrimental effects on the immune system. However, what had not been distinguished until recently are the divergent effects of "acute" stress associated with subclinical immunological burdens on the animal versus long-term or "chronic...

  14. Thermal and mechanical stresses in a functionally graded thick sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, M.R.; Babaei, M.H.; Poultangari, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a general solution for the one-dimensional steady-state thermal and mechanical stresses in a hollow thick sphere made of functionally graded material is presented. The temperature distribution is assumed to be a function of radius, with general thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the inside and outside surfaces of the sphere. The material properties, except Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary along the radius r according to a power law function. The analytical solution of the heat conduction equation and the Navier equation lead to the temperature profile, radial displacement, radial stress, and hoop stress as a function of radial direction

  15. Chronic stress and neural function: accounting for sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, V N; Beck, K D; Bowman, R E; Frankfurt, M; Maclusky, N J

    2007-10-01

    Cognitive responses to stress follow the temporally dependent pattern originally established by Selye (1) wherein short-term stressors elicit adaptive responses whereas continued stress (chronic) results in maladaptive changes--deleterious effects on physiological systems and impaired cognition. However, this pattern for cognitive effects appears to apply to only half the population (males) and, more specifically, to young, adult males. Females show different cognitive responses to stress. In contrast to impaired cognition in males after chronic stress, female rodents show enhanced performance on the same memory tasks after the same stress. Not only cognition, but anxiety, shows sex-dependent changes following chronic stress--stress is anxiolytic in males and anxiogenic in females. Moreover, behavioral responses to chronic stress are different in developing as well as aging subjects (both sexes) as compared to adults. In aged rats, chronic stress enhances recognition memory in both sexes, does not alter spatial memory, and anxiety effects are opposite to young adults. When pregnant dams are exposed to chronic stress, at adulthood the offspring display yet different consequences of stress on anxiety and cognition, and, in contrast to adulthood when the behavioral effects of stress are reversible, prenatal stress effects appear enduring. Changing levels of estradiol in the sexes over the lifespan appear to contribute to the differences in response to stress. Thus, theories of stress dependent modulations in CNS function--developed solely in male models, focused on peripheral physiological processes and tested in adults--may require revision when applied to a more diverse population (age- and sex-wise) at least in relation to the neural functions of cognition and anxiety. Moreover, these results suggest that other stressors and neural functions should be investigated to determine whether age, sex and gonadal hormones also have an impact.

  16. LRRK2 interacts with ATM and regulates Mdm2-p53 cell proliferation axis in response to genotoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongcan; Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Minxia; Zhou, Zhi Dong; Li, Baojie; Li, Jing; Tan, Eng King; Zeng, Li

    2017-11-15

    Pathogenic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are recognized as the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease in certain populations. Recently, LRRK2 mutations were shown to be associated with a higher risk of hormone-related cancers. However, how LRRK2 itself contributes to cancer risk remains unknown. DNA damage causes cancer, and DNA damage responses are among the most important pathways in cancer biology. To understand the role of LRRK2 in DNA damage response pathway, we induced DNA damage by applying genotoxic stress to the cells with Adriamycin. We found that DNA damage enhances LRRK2 phosphorylation at Serine 910, Serine 935 and Serine 1292. We further showed that LRRK2 phosphorylation is abolished in the absence of ATM, suggesting that LRRK2 phosphorylation requires ATM. It should also be noted that LRRK2 interacts with ATM. In contrast, overexpression or knockdown of LRRK2 does not affect ATM phosphorylation, indicating that LRRK2 is the downstream target of ATM in response to DNA damage. Moreover, we demonstrated that LRRK2 increases the expression of p53 and p21 by increasing the Mdm2 phosphorylation in response to DNA damage. Loss-of-function in LRRK2 has the opposite effect to that of LRRK2. In addition, FACS analysis revealed that LRRK2 enhances cell cycle progression into S phase in response to DNA damage, a finding that was confirmed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunostaining. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that LRRK2 plays an important role in the ATM-Mdm2-p53 pathway that regulates cell proliferation in response to DNA damage. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of hypothalamus hypophysis axis lesions; Relationship between posterior pituitary function and posterior bright spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiina, Takeki; Uno, Kimiichi; Arimizu, Noboru; Yoshida, Sho (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Yamada, Kenichi

    1990-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.5T superconductive machine was performed to the thirty three cases with a variety of the sellar and parasellar tumors and with dysfunction of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis. Posterior pituitary bright spot (PBS) on T1 weighted image was evaluated with the pituitary hormonal function. These cases were 12 cases of post-treated tumors including pituitary adenoma (9 patients), suprasellar germinoma (2 patients) and craniopharyngioma (one patient), and non-tumorous conditions including 15 cases of central diabetes insipidus (DI), Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH) (one patient), Sheehan's syndrome (3 patients) and anorexia nervosa (2 patients). Pituitary bright spot was not seen in all 19 cases with overt DI. On the other hand, PBS was not seen in 9 cases without overt DI. Three cases of these 9 cases showing Sheehan's syndrome with insufficient antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion was considered as the state of subclinical DI. Posterior bright spot was not seen in all 13 cases of empty sella including partial empty sella. The results suggested that disappearance of PBS represents abnormality or loss of posterior pituitary function and also it was considered to be closely related to the empty sella. (author).

  18. THE ANISOTROPIC TWO-POINT CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF THE NONLINEAR TRACELESS TIDAL FIELD IN THE PRINCIPAL-AXIS FRAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Hahn, Oliver; Porciani, Cristiano

    2009-01-01

    Galaxies on the largest scales of the universe are observed to be embedded in the filamentary cosmic web, which is shaped by the nonlinear tidal field. As an efficient tool to quantitatively describe the statistics of this cosmic web, we present the anisotropic two-point correlation functions of the nonlinear traceless tidal field in the principal-axis frame, which are measured using numerical data from an N-body simulation. We show that both the nonlinear density and traceless tidal fields are more strongly correlated along the directions perpendicular to the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of the local tidal field. The correlation length scale of the traceless tidal field is found to be ∼20 h -1 Mpc, which is much larger than that of the density field ∼5 h -1 Mpc. We also provide analytic fitting formulae for the anisotropic correlation functions of the traceless tidal field, which turn out to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. We expect that our numerical results and analytical formula are useful to disentangle cosmological information from the filamentary network of the large-scale structures.

  19. Effects of work stress and home stress on autonomic nervous function in Japanese male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eri; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic imbalance is one of the important pathways through which psychological stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases/sudden death. Although previous studies have focused mainly on stress at work (work stress), the association between autonomic function and stress at home (home stress) is still poorly understood. The purpose was to clarify the effect of work/home stress on autonomic function in 1,809 Japanese male workers. We measured corrected QT (QTc) interval and QT index on the electrocardiogram along with blood pressure and heart rate. Participants provided self-reported information about the presence/absence of work/home stress and the possible confounders affecting QT indicators. Home stress was related positively to QT index (p=0.040) after adjusting for the possible confounders, though work stress did not show a significant relation to QTc interval or QT index. The odds ratio of home stress to elevated QT index (≥105) was 2.677 (95% CI, 1.050 to 6.822). Work/home stress showed no significant relation to blood pressure or heart rate. These findings suggest that autonomic imbalance, readily assessed by QT indicators, can be induced by home stress in Japanese workers. Additional research is needed to identify different types of home stress that are strongly associated with autonomic imbalance.

  20. ATP/P2X7 axis modulates myeloid-derived suppressor cell functions in neuroblastoma microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G; Vuerich, M; Pellegatti, P; Marimpietri, D; Emionite, L; Marigo, I; Bronte, V; Di Virgilio, F; Pistoia, V; Raffaghello, L

    2014-03-20

    Tumor microenvironment of solid tumors is characterized by a strikingly high concentration of adenosine and ATP. Physiological significance of this biochemical feature is unknown, but it has been suggested that it may affect infiltrating immune cell responses and tumor progression. There is increasing awareness that many of the effects of extracellular ATP on tumor and inflammatory cells are mediated by the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Aim of this study was to investigate whether: (i) extracellular ATP is a component of neuroblastoma (NB) microenvironment, (ii) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) express functional P2X7R and (iii) the ATP/P2X7R axis modulates MDSC functions. Our results show that extracellular ATP was detected in NB microenvironment in amounts that increased in parallel with tumor progression. The percentage of CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+) cells was higher in NB-bearing mice compared with healthy animals. Within the CD11b/Gr-1(+) population, monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs) produced higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), arginase-1 (ARG-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and stimulated more potently in vivo tumor growth, as compared with granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs). P2X7R of M-MDSCs was localized at the plasma membrane, coupled to increased functionality, upregulation of ARG-1, TGF-β1 and ROS. Quite surprisingly, the P2X7R in primary MDSCs as well as in the MSC-1 and MSC-2 lines was uncoupled from cytotoxicity. This study describes a novel scenario in which MDSC immunosuppressive functions are modulated by the ATP-enriched tumor microenvironment.

  1. Basal and stress-induced differences in HPA axis, 5-HT responsiveness, and hippocampal cell proliferation in two mouse lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Koolhaas, JM; De Kloet, ER; Pacak, K; Aguilera, B; Saban, E; Kvetnansky, R

    2004-01-01

    To characterize individual differences in neuroendocrine and neurochemical correlates of stress coping, two lines of wild house mice were studied. These mice are genetically selected for high and low aggression and show distinctly different behavioral strategies toward environmental stimuli. Long

  2. Functional correlates of the position of the axis of rotation of the mandible during chewing in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Terhune, Claire E; Taylor, Andrea B; Ross, Callum F

    2017-10-01

    The location of the axis of rotation (AoR) of the mandible was quantified using the helical axis (HA) in eight individuals from three species of non-human primates: Papio anubis, Cebus apella, and Macaca mulatta. These data were used to test three hypotheses regarding the functional significance of anteroposterior condylar translation - an AoR located inferior to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) - during chewing: minimizing impingement of the gonial region on cervical soft tissue structures during jaw opening; avoiding stretching of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB); and increasing jaw-elevator muscle torques. The results reveal that the HA is located near the occlusal plane in Papio and Cebus, but closer to the condyle in Macaca; is located anteroinferior to the TMJ during both opening and closing in Papio, as well as during opening in Macaca and Cebus; and varies in its location during closing in Macaca and Cebus. The impingement hypothesis is not supported by interspecific variation in HA location: species with larger gonial angles like Cebus do not have more inferiorly located HAs than species with more obtuse mandibular angles like Papio. However, intraspecific variation provides some support for the impingement hypothesis. The HA seldom passes near or through the lingula, falsifying the hypothesis that its location is determined by the sphenomandibular ligament, and the magnitudes of strain associated with a HA at the TMJ would not be large enough to cause problematic stretching of the IANB. HA location does affect muscle moment arms about the TMJ, with implications for the torque generation capability of the jaw-elevator muscles. In Cebus, a HA farther away from the TMJ is associated with larger jaw-elevator muscle moment arms about the joint than if it were at the TMJ. The effects of HA location on muscle strain and muscle moment arms are largest at large gapes and smallest at low gapes, suggesting that if HA location is of functional

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-sheng LIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal folding requires that unique conditions should be maintained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER lumen, and nascent proteins are initially bound to Ca2+dependent chaperone proteins. Proteins synthesized in the ER are properly folded with the assistance of ER chaperones. misfolded proteins are disposed by ER-associated protein degradation. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER triggers an adaptive ER stress response, which leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, a conserved pathway that transmits signals to restore homeostasis or eliminate the irreparably damaged cells. It has been shown that ER stress involves in pathophysiological development of many diseases, including neurological diseases. However, nowadays, a few studies have begun to focus on the possibility that the accumulation of misfolded proteins can also contribute to reproductive diseases. In this article, we mainly introduced the involvement of ER stress response in preimplantation embryos, placental development, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and testicular germ cells so as to provide important insights for the molecular mechanisms of ER stress-induced apoptosis in reproductive diseases.

  4. Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Xin-Hua Yang,1 Su-Qi Song,2 Yun Xu3 1Department of Pharmacy, Hefei Eighth People’s Hospital, Hefei, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chaohu Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China Abstract: Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES, a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively. The sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of RES. The activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis was evaluated by detecting the plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hippocampal protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that RES relieved depression-like behavior of CUMS rats, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobile time. Rats that received RES treatment exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by RES. Moreover, after RES treatment, the rats exhibited increased

  5. Environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride leads to abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function by disruption in kisspeptin/leptin signaling in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Gabriela C.; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C.; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L.; Araújo, Julia F.P. de [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Brandão, Poliane A.A.; Carneiro, Maria T.W.D. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Zicker, Marina C. [Department of Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ferreira, Adaliene V.M. [Department of Basic Nursing, Nursing School, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil); Takiya, Christina M.; Lemos Barbosa, Carolina M. de; Morales, Marcelo M. [Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos-Silva, Ana Paula [Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Experimental Endocrinology Research, Development and Innovation Group, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Postgraduate Program in Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda-Alves, Leandro [Experimental Endocrinology Research, Development and Innovation Group, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Postgraduate Program in Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, Ian V. [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Graceli, Jones B., E-mail: jbgraceli@gmail.com [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action. Female Wistar rats were administered vehicle and TBT (100 ng/kg/day) for 15 days via gavage. We analyzed their effects on the tin serum and ovary accumulation (as biomarker of TBT exposure), estrous cyclicity, surge LH levels, GnRH expression, Kiss action, fertility, testosterone levels, ovarian apoptosis, uterine inflammation, fibrosis, estrogen negative feedback, body weight gain, insulin, leptin, adiponectin levels, as well as the glucose tolerance (GTT) and insulin sensitivity tests (IST). TBT led to increased serum and ovary tin levels, irregular estrous cyclicity, and decreased surge LH levels, GnRH expression and Kiss responsiveness. A strong negative correlation between the serum and ovary tin levels with lower Kiss responsiveness and GnRH mRNA expression was observed in TBT rats. An increase in the testosterone levels, ovarian and uterine fibrosis, ovarian apoptosis, and uterine inflammation and a decrease in fertility and estrogen negative feedback were demonstrated in the TBT rats. We also identified an increase in the body weight gain and abnormal GTT and IST tests, which were associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, in the TBT rats. TBT disrupted proper functioning of the HPG axis as a result of abnormal Kiss action. The metabolic dysfunctions co-occur with the HPG axis abnormalities. Hyperleptinemia as a result of obesity induced by TBT may

  6. Environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride leads to abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function by disruption in kisspeptin/leptin signaling in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Gabriela C.; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C.; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L.; Araújo, Julia F.P. de; Brandão, Poliane A.A.; Carneiro, Maria T.W.D.; Zicker, Marina C.; Ferreira, Adaliene V.M.; Takiya, Christina M.; Lemos Barbosa, Carolina M. de; Morales, Marcelo M.; Santos-Silva, Ana Paula; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V.; Graceli, Jones B.

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action. Female Wistar rats were administered vehicle and TBT (100 ng/kg/day) for 15 days via gavage. We analyzed their effects on the tin serum and ovary accumulation (as biomarker of TBT exposure), estrous cyclicity, surge LH levels, GnRH expression, Kiss action, fertility, testosterone levels, ovarian apoptosis, uterine inflammation, fibrosis, estrogen negative feedback, body weight gain, insulin, leptin, adiponectin levels, as well as the glucose tolerance (GTT) and insulin sensitivity tests (IST). TBT led to increased serum and ovary tin levels, irregular estrous cyclicity, and decreased surge LH levels, GnRH expression and Kiss responsiveness. A strong negative correlation between the serum and ovary tin levels with lower Kiss responsiveness and GnRH mRNA expression was observed in TBT rats. An increase in the testosterone levels, ovarian and uterine fibrosis, ovarian apoptosis, and uterine inflammation and a decrease in fertility and estrogen negative feedback were demonstrated in the TBT rats. We also identified an increase in the body weight gain and abnormal GTT and IST tests, which were associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, in the TBT rats. TBT disrupted proper functioning of the HPG axis as a result of abnormal Kiss action. The metabolic dysfunctions co-occur with the HPG axis abnormalities. Hyperleptinemia as a result of obesity induced by TBT may

  7. Basal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and psychological distress in recreational ecstasy polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Montgomery, Catharine

    2014-04-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) is a psychostimulant drug which is increasingly associated with psychobiological dysfunction. While some recent studies suggest acute changes in neuroendocrine function, less is known about long-term changes in HPA functionality in recreational users. The current study is the first to explore the effects of ecstasy-polydrug use on psychological distress and basal functioning of the HPA axis through assessing the secretion of cortisol across the diurnal period. Seventy-six participants (21 nonusers, 29 light ecstasy-polydrug users, 26 heavy ecstasy-polydrug users) completed a substance use inventory and measures of psychological distress at baseline, then two consecutive days of cortisol sampling (on awakening, 30 min post awakening, between 1400 and 1600 hours and pre bedtime). On day 2, participants also attended the laboratory to complete a 20-min multitasking stressor. Both user groups exhibited significantly greater levels of anxiety and depression than nonusers. On day 1, all participants exhibited a typical cortisol profile, though light users had significantly elevated levels pre-bed. On day 2, heavy users demonstrated elevated levels upon awakening and all ecstasy-polydrug users demonstrated elevated pre-bed levels compared to non-users. Significant between group differences were also observed in afternoon cortisol levels and in overall cortisol secretion across the day. The increases in anxiety and depression are in line with previous observations in recreational ecstasy-polydrug users. Dysregulated diurnal cortisol may be indicative of inappropriate anticipation of forthcoming demands and hypersecretion may lead to the increased psychological and physical morbidity associated with heavy recreational use of ecstasy.

  8. Unhealthy lifestyle in early psychoses: the role of life stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, Núria; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Montalvo, Itziar; Franch, Joan; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Walker, Brian R; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    An unhealthy lifestyle is thought to contribute to the metabolic syndrome in subjects with psychoses. In the present study we aimed to study whether life stress or cortisol measures may influence dietary patterns in subjects with early stages of psychoses. We studied 81 subjects with early psychoses (65 subjects with a psychotic disorder [PD] and food intake (24h recall). Physical activity was assessed by validated questionnaire. Life stress was assessed with Holmes-Rahe Social Readjustment Scale. Fasting morning salivary and plasma cortisol levels were determined. We found that PD and HR reported an unhealthier lifestyle with more smoking, reduced physical activity and poorer dietary habits. HR reported increased intake of calories and saturated fatty acids and reduced protein consumption, when compared to HS. Life stress was a predictor of these adverse behaviours, although we found opposite associations in HR and PD. Life stress was associated with increased intake of refined sugar in PD and decreased intake in HR and HS. Salivary cortisol was related to increased intake of saturated fat only in HR subjects, but cortisol levels in plasma or saliva were not associated with other dietary habits or obesity measures (BMI, waist circumference). Our study suggests that unhealthy diet in early psychoses is influenced by stress, but our data do not support this effect being mediated by hypercortisolism. Future preventive interventions in psychosis may target dietary habits, particularly for those who are at risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  10. Use of the Dexamethasone-Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone Test to Assess Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function may be abnormal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. A pilot study in 7 patients suggested impaired glucocorticoid feedback in some patients after the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH test. This study aimed to investigate the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing factor test in a larger group of patients and relate the results to characteristics of the disease. Methods. Outpatients with active RA (≥3 swollen and tender joints and C-reactive protein > 10 mg/L took dexamethasone (1.5 mg at 23:00 hour in the evening. Next day, baseline saliva and plasma samples were collected, CRH was infused at 11:00 hour, and 4 serial blood and saliva samples were collected. Plasma samples were stored at −80∘C and a radioimmunoassay performed for saliva and plasma cortisol. Results. All 20 participants showed normal dexamethasone suppression and mounted no response to the CRH challenge. In samples with measurable cortisol, there was a strong correlation between saliva and plasma values (r = 0.876, n = 26, P<.01. Conclusion. No abnormalities were found in the Dexamethasone-CRH test in RA patients in contrast to a previous pilot study. Salivary cortisol measurement may offer an alternative noninvasive technique to plasma cortisol in RA patients in future studies.

  11. HPA AXIS RELATED GENES AND RESPONSE TO PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES: GENETICS AND EPIGENETICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Lester, Kathryn J.; Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Breen, Gerome; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Fjermestad, Krister; Havik, Odd E.; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike; Rapee, Ronald M.; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Eley, Thalia C.; Wong, Chloe C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning has been implicated in the development of stress-related psychiatric diagnoses and response to adverse life experiences. This study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and epigenetics in HPA axis and response to cognitive

  12. Teacher Stress Predicts Child Executive Function: Moderation by School Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Friedman-Krauss, Allison; Raver, Cybele; Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Recent research has explored relations between classroom quality and child executive function (EF), but little is known about how teachers' well-being, including stress, relates to child EF--a crucial component of self-regulation. We hypothesized that teacher stress is negatively or curvilinearly related to child EF and…

  13. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  14. first principles derivation of a stress function for axially symmetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    governing partial differential equations of linear isotropic elasticity were reduced to the solution of the biharmonic ... The stress function was then applied to solve the axially symmetric ..... [1] Borg S.K.: Fundamentals of Engineering Elasticity,.

  15. Perceived stress and cognitive function in older adults: which aspect of perceived stress is important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Nicole C M; Comijs, Hannie C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2017-04-01

    Few studies examined the association between perceived stress and cognitive function in older adults. This study will examine which aspects of perceived stress especially impact cognitive function. Cross-sectional data of 1099 older adults between 64 and 100 years from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Perceived stress and its subscales perceived helplessness and perceived self-efficacy were measured with the Perceived Stress Scale. Cognitive function was assessed regarding memory, processing speed and executive function. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed between the stress measures and the domains of cognitive function. Perceived stress was associated with worse processing speed, direct and delayed recall, semantic fluency and digit span backwards (range β = -0.10; -0.11; p cognitive function, also after adjustment for depressive symptoms or sense of mastery (range β = 0.10; 0.18; p cognitive functions. Perceived self-efficacy might be an important factor in reducing stress and the prevention of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Differential impact of stress on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis: Gene expression changes in Lewis and Fisher rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ergang, Peter; Vodička, Martin; Soták, Matúš; Klusoňová, Petra; Behuliak, Michal; Řeháková, Lenka; Zach, P.; Pácha, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, Mar 2015 (2015), s. 49-59 ISSN 0306-4530 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0969 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 * brain * neuropeptides * stress * Fisher rat * Lewis rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.704, year: 2015

  17. Chlorella vulgaris reduces the impact of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain c-fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Queiroz, Julia; Marín Blasco, Ignacio; Gagliano, Humberto; Daviu, Nuria; Gómez Román, Almudena; Belda, Xavier; Carrasco, Javier; Rocha, Michelle C; Palermo Neto, João; Armario, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Predominantly emotional stressors activate a wide range of brain areas, as revealed by the expression of immediate early genes, such as c-fos. Chlorella vulgaris (CV) is considered a biological response modifier, as demonstrated by its protective activities against infections, tumors and stress. We evaluated the effect of acute pretreatment with CV on the peripheral and central responses to forced swimming stress in adult male rats. Pretreatment with CV produced a significant reduction of stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation, demonstrated by decreased corticotrophin releasing factor gene expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lower ACTH response. Hyperglycemia induced by the stressor was similarly reduced. This attenuated neuroendocrine response to stress occurred in parallel with a diminished c-fos expression in most evaluated areas, including the PVN. The data presented in this study reinforce the usefulness of CV to diminish the impact of stressors, by reducing the HPA response. Although our results suggest a central effect of CV, further studies are necessary to understand the precise mechanisms underpinning this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  19. Microstructural stress relaxation mechanics in functionally different tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, H R C; Toorani, S; Shelton, J C

    2013-01-01

    Tendons experience widely varying loading conditions in vivo. They may be categorised by their function as either positional tendons, which are used for intricate movements and experience lower stress, or as energy storage tendons which act as highly stressed springs during locomotion. Structural and compositional differences between tendons are thought to enable an optimisation of their properties to suit their functional environment. However, little is known about structure-function relationships in tendon. This study adopts porcine flexor and extensor tendon fascicles as examples of high stress and low stress tendons, comparing their mechanical behaviour at the micro-level in order to understand their stress relaxation response. Stress-relaxation was shown to occur predominantly through sliding between collagen fibres. However, in the more highly stressed flexor tendon fascicles, more fibre reorganisation was evident when the tissue was exposed to low strains. By contrast, the low load extensor tendon fascicles appears to have less capacity for fibre reorganisation or shearing than the energy storage tendon, relying more heavily on fibril level relaxation. The extensor fascicles were also unable to sustain loads without rapid and complete stress relaxation. These findings highlight the need to optimise tendon repair solutions for specific tendons, and match tendon properties when using grafts in tendon repairs. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Executive function in cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Guo, Juncheng; Jiang, Xiangling

    2017-03-01

    Background Cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder can lead to their noncompliant behaviors. However, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of posttraumatic stress disorder in general cancer types or patient populations. The current study attempted to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and their relationships with executive function in individuals with cancer. Methods A total of 285 cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and 150 healthy individuals were recruited for the present study. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were administered to all participants. Results Significant differences in the score of Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were observed between the posttraumatic stress disorder group and the healthy control group ( p posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and executive function. Conclusions These findings suggest that individuals with cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder exhibit more severe impairment in executive function than healthy controls do.

  1. Exposure to severe stressors causes long-lasting dysregulation of resting and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Rotllant, David; Fuentes, Silvia; Delgado, Raúl; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Exposure to some predominantly emotional (electric shock) and systemic (interleukin-1beta) stressors has been found to induce long-term sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to further superimposed stressors. Since exposure to immobilization on wooden boards (IMO) is a severe stressor and may have interest regarding putative animal models of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), we have characterized long-lasting effects of a single exposure to IMO and other stressors on the HPA response to the same (homotypic) and to novel (heterotypic) stressors and the putative mechanisms involved. A single exposure to IMO caused a long-lasting reduction of peripheral and central responses of the HPA axis, likely to be mediated by some brain areas, such as the lateral septum and the medial amygdala. This desensitization is not explained by changes in negative glucocorticoid feedback, and, surprisingly, it is positively related to the intensity of the stressors. In contrast, the HPA response to heterotypic stressors (novel environments) was enhanced, with maximal sensitization on the day after IMO. Sensitization progressively vanished over the course of 1-2 weeks and was not modulated by IMO-induced corticosterone release. Moreover, it could not be explained by changes in the sensitivity of the HPA axis to fast or intermediate/delayed negative feedback, as evaluated 1 week after exposure to IMO, using shock as the heterotypic stressor. Long-lasting stress-induced behavioral changes reminiscent of enhanced anxiety and HPA sensitization are likely to be parallel but partially independent phenomena, the former being apparently not related to the intensity of stressors.

  2. Association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with HPA and SAM axis reactivity to psychological and physical stress

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyoshi, Jotaro; Tsuru,Jusen; Tanaka,Yoshihiro; Ishitobi,Yoshinobu; Maruyama,Yoshihiro; Inoue,Ayako; Kawano,Aimi; Ikeda,Rie; Ando,Tomoko; Oshita,Harumi; Aizawa,Saeko; Masuda,Koji; Higuma,Haruka; Kanehisa,Masayuki; Ninomiya,Taiga

    2014-01-01

    Jusen Tsuru,1 Yoshihiro Tanaka,1 Yoshinobu Ishitobi,1 Yoshihiro Maruyama,1 Ayako Inoue,1 Aimi Kawano,1 Rie Ikeda,1 Tomoko Ando,1 Harumi Oshita,2 Saeko Aizawa,1 Koji Masuda,1 Haruka Higuma,1 Masayuki Kanehisa,1 Taiga Ninomiya,1 Jotaro Akiyoshi1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan Background: Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val...

  3. Role of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the control of the response to stress and infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH from the corticotrophs is controlled principally by vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH. Oxytocin may augment the release of ACTH under certain conditions, whereas atrial natriuretic peptide acts as a corticotropin release-inhibiting factor to inhibit ACTH release by direct action on the pituitary. Glucocorticoids act on their receptors within the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland to suppress the release of vasopressin and CRH and the release of ACTH in response to these neuropeptides. CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus also project to the cerebral cortex and subcortical regions and to the locus ceruleus (LC in the brain stem. Cortical influences via the limbic system and possibly the LC augment CRH release during emotional stress, whereas peripheral input by pain and other sensory impulses to the LC causes stimulation of the noradrenergic neurons located there that project their axons to the CRH neurons stimulating them by alpha-adrenergic receptors. A muscarinic cholinergic receptor is interposed between the alpha-receptors and nitric oxidergic interneurons which release nitric oxide that activates CRH release by activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and epoxygenase. Vasopressin release during stress may be similarly mediated. Vasopressin augments the release of CRH from the hypothalamus and also augments the action of CRH on the pituitary. CRH exerts a positive ultrashort loop feedback to stimulate its own release during stress, possibly by stimulating the LC noradrenergic neurons whose axons project to the paraventricular nucleus to augment the release of CRH.

  4. Leaf sodium accumulation facilitates salt stress adaptation and preserves photosystem functionality in salt stressed Ocimum basilicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancarella, S.; Orsini, F.; Oosten, van M.J.; Sanoubar, R.; Stanghellini, C.; Kondo, S.; Gianquinto, G.; Maggio, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, plant growth, water relations, ABA levels, ion accumulation patterns and chlorophyll fluorescence were functionally linked to salt stress tolerance of two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with different stress sensitivity levels. Plants were treated with salty water at 0,

  5. Effects of cetrorelix, a GnRH-receptor antagonist, on gonadal axis in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardelli, Rita; Gianotti, Laura; Karamouzis, Ioannis; Picu, Andreea; Giordano, Roberta; D'Angelo, Valentina; Zinnà, Domenico; Lanfranco, Fabio; Ghigo, Ezio; Arvat, Emanuela

    2011-10-01

    Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) antagonists (GnRHa) suppress gonadotropin and sex-steroid secretion. In normal women, acute GnRHa administration induces inhibitory effect on pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by Luteinizing Hormone (LH) rebound. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is characterised by impaired gonadotropin secretion and hypogonadism secondary to blunted GnRH pulsatility. We studied the effects of a GnRHa, cetrorelix (CTX 3.0 mg), in six women with HA (age 30.7 ± 3.2 years; BMI 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) and six control subjects (CS, 28.2 ± 0.6 years; 22.6 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)) on LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and oestradiol levels over 4 h (08.00-12.00 am) before, +24 h and +96 h after CTX; LH, FSH, and oestradiol were also evaluated at +6, +8, +12, +48, +72 h after CTX. CS: CTX reduced (p < 0.05) LH, FSH, and oestradiol (nadir at +12 h, +24 h, and +24 h); LH rebounded at +96 h, FSH and oestradiol recovered at +48 h and +72 h. The 4-h evaluation showed LH and FSH reduction (p < 0.05) at +24 h, with LH rebound at +96 h. HA: CTX reduced (p < 0.05) LH, FSH, and oestradiol, (nadir at +24 h, +48 h, and +48 h, recovery at +48 h, +72 h, and +96 h). The 4-h evaluation showed gonadotropin reduction (p < 0.05) 24 h after CTX, without any rebound effect. One single CTX dose still modulates gonadotropin secretion in HA. Its 'paradoxical' stimulatory effect on gonadotropins needs to be verified after prolonged administration.

  6. The Functional Status of Hypophysis — ​Gonad Axis in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most frequent form of endocrine pathology and occurs in 5–10 % women of reproductive age and makes up 80 %, and according to some data, even 90 % of all forms of hyperandrogenism. The information about pathogenesis of PCOS is contradictory. The main step of the SPCO pathogenesis is hyperproduction of LH of by the hypophysis, revealed in 40–80 % patients. According to one of numerous theories, an increase secretion results in the increase of LH by the hypothalamus of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRH, secreted in the discrete mode under control sexual steroid hormones, monoamines and opioid peptides. The aim of the investigation is to study the functional status of hypophysis — gonads axis for women with SPCO. Material and methods. In the department of neuroendocrinology of the Center of Endocrinology of Health Ministry of the Republic of Uzbekistan in a period from September 2015 till July 2016 120 outpatients of fertile age with PCOS were inspected. Mean age of patients was 25.5 ± 4.3 years. The duration of the disease hesitated from 7 months to 9 years. 20 healthy women of corresponding age made a control group. The complex of researches, including clinical, biochemical (glycemia, glucose tolerance test, hormonal (LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrostendion (ДGEA, 17-oxyprogesterone, аntimuller hormone (АМH, insulin was performed in all patients, ultrasonic examination of uterus and ovaries (transabdominal and transvaginal on the 14th day of cycle with folliculometria in dynamics, and also magnetically-resonant tomography of hypophysis and questionnaire of patients were carried out. Results. Patients were divided into two groups: with primary sterility (94 cases and with secondary sterility (26 cases. In the first group of patients with primary sterility the reliable decline of both pituitary and ovarian hormones was determined on a background of

  7. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for the production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional culturing process responsive to shear stress uses a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-.alpha.-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D.sub.3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating an in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  8. Environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride leads to abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function by disruption in kisspeptin/leptin signaling in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Gabriela C; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L; de Araújo, Julia F P; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Zicker, Marina C; Ferreira, Adaliene V M; Takiya, Christina M; de Lemos Barbosa, Carolina M; Morales, Marcelo M; Santos-Silva, Ana Paula; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2017-03-15

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action. Female Wistar rats were administered vehicle and TBT (100ng/kg/day) for 15days via gavage. We analyzed their effects on the tin serum and ovary accumulation (as biomarker of TBT exposure), estrous cyclicity, surge LH levels, GnRH expression, Kiss action, fertility, testosterone levels, ovarian apoptosis, uterine inflammation, fibrosis, estrogen negative feedback, body weight gain, insulin, leptin, adiponectin levels, as well as the glucose tolerance (GTT) and insulin sensitivity tests (IST). TBT led to increased serum and ovary tin levels, irregular estrous cyclicity, and decreased surge LH levels, GnRH expression and Kiss responsiveness. A strong negative correlation between the serum and ovary tin levels with lower Kiss responsiveness and GnRH mRNA expression was observed in TBT rats. An increase in the testosterone levels, ovarian and uterine fibrosis, ovarian apoptosis, and uterine inflammation and a decrease in fertility and estrogen negative feedback were demonstrated in the TBT rats. We also identified an increase in the body weight gain and abnormal GTT and IST tests, which were associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, in the TBT rats. TBT disrupted proper functioning of the HPG axis as a result of abnormal Kiss action. The metabolic dysfunctions co-occur with the HPG axis abnormalities. Hyperleptinemia as a result of obesity induced by TBT may be

  9. Etazolate rescues behavioral deficits in chronic unpredictable mild stress model: modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Ankur; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary study in our laboratory showed that etazolate produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects in rodent models, however, the ability of etazolate to produce antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects and underlying mechanism(s) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model have not been adequately addressed. This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of etazolate on CUMS-induced behavioral deficits (depression- and anxiety-like behaviors). In addition, the possible underlying mechanism(s) of etazolate in CUMS model was also investigated by measuring serum corticosterone (CORT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Mice were subjected to a battery of stressors for 28 days. Etazolate (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg, p.o.) were administered during the last 21 days (8-28th) of the CUMS paradigm. The results showed that 4-weeks CUMS produces significant depression-like behavior in tail suspension test (TST) and partial anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT). Stressed mice have also shown a significant high serum CORT and low BDNF level. Chronic treatment with etazolate (0.5 and 1mg/kg., p.o.) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg., p.o.) produced significant antidepressant-like behavior in TST (decreased duration of immobility), whereas, partial anxiolytic-like behavior in EPM (increased percentage of open arm entries) and OFT (increased % central ambulation score, total ambulation score and time spent in center zone). In addition, etazolate and fluoxetine treatment significantly (pBDNF level and inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hyperactivity, as evidenced by low serum CORT level in stressed mice. In addition, etazolate and fluoxetine also showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects in normal control mice. In this study no significant changes were observed in locomotor activity in actophotometer test. Moreover, we did not find any

  10. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis is functional in neuroendocrine tumors and signals on mTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circelli, Luisa; Sciammarella, Concetta; Guadagno, Elia; Tafuto, Salvatore; del Basso de Caro, Marialaura; Botti, Giovanni; Pezzullo, Luciano; Aria, Massimo; Ramundo, Valeria; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Ieranò, Caterina; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Colao, Annamaria; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Scala, Stefania

    2016-04-05

    To evaluate the possible crosstalk between C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)/C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) axis with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Sixty-one human NETs were included into the study. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis and mTOR pathway were assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The effect of mTOR inhibitor, RAD001, was evaluated on CXCR4 pathway through proliferation and p-Erk and p-AKT induction. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis and p-mTOR were found to be active and correlated with grading, Ki67 index and tumor stage. mTOR pathway activation significantly correlated with poor prognosis. In human NET cells, CXCL12 induced mTOR signalling while AMD3100 (CXCR4-antagonist) impaired it. The mTOR-antagonist, RAD001, impaired the CXCL12-dependent induction of CXCR4 downstream effectors. Combination of AMD3100 and RAD001 potentiate cell growth inhibition. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis is active in NETs and signals on mTOR. CXCR4 might be considered a prognostic factor in NETs. Combined treatment with AMD3100 and RAD001 may provide clinical benefits in NET patients with drug-resistant.

  11. The somatotropic axis: Effects on brain and cognitive functions : De somatotrope as: Effecten op de hersenen en cognitieve functies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise

    Abstract Both hormones of the somatotropic axis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) can cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to their receptors in neurons and glia throughout the brain. Features of aging resemble those of GHD and aging is also associated with a decline in

  12. The cyclophilin D/Drp1 axis regulates mitochondrial fission contributing to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in SH-SY5Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Anqi; Gan, Xueqi; Chen, Ruiqi; Ren, Yanming; Yu, Haiyang; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidences have demonstrated that structural abnormalities in mitochondria are involved in oxidative stress related nerve cell damage. And Drp1 plays a critical role in mitochondrial dynamic imbalance insulted by oxidative stress-derived mitochondria. However, the status of mitochondrial fusion and fission pathway and its relationship with mitochondrial properties such as mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the role of Cyclophilin D (CypD), a crucial component for mPTP formation, in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in oxidative stress treated nerve cell. We observed that CypD-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 and subsequently augmented Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria and shifts mitochondrial dynamics toward excessive fission, which contributes to the mitochondrial structural and functional dysfunctions in oxidative stress-treated nerve cells. CypD depletion or over expression accompanies mitochondrial dynamics/functions recovery or aggravation separately. We also demonstrated first time the link between the CypD to mitochondrial dynamics. Our data offer new insights into the mechanism of mitochondrial dynamics which contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunctions, specifically the role of CypD in Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. The protective effect of CsA, or other molecules affecting the function of CypD hold promise as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for governing oxidative stress pathology via mitochondrial pathways. - Highlights: • Demonstrated first time the link between the mPTP to mitochondrial dynamics. • The role of Cyclophilin D in the regulation of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. • CsA as a potential target for governing oxidative stress related neuropathology.

  13. Polyamines Function in Stress Tolerance: From Synthesis to Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hong eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are challenged by a variety of biotic or abiotic stresses, which can affect their growth and development, productivity and geographic distribution. In order to survive adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies, among which is the accumulation of metabolites that play protective roles. A well-established example of the metabolites that are involved in stress responses, or stress tolerance, is the low-molecular-weight aliphatic polyamines, including putrescine,spermidine and spermine. The critical role of polyamines in stress tolerance is suggested by several lines of evidence: firstly, the transcript levels of polyamine biosynthetic genes, as well as the activities of the corresponding enzymes, are induced by stresses; secondly, elevation of endogenous polyamine levels by exogenous supply of polyamines, or overexpression of polyamine biosynthetic genes, results in enhanced stress tolerance; and thirdly, a reduction of endogenous polyamines is accompanied by compromised stress tolerance. A number of studies have demonstrated that polyamines function in stress tolerance largely by modulating the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to their direct, or indirect, roles in regulating antioxidant systems or suppressing ROS production. The transcriptional regulation of polyamine synthesis by transcription factors is also reviewed here. Meanwhile, future perspectives on polyamine research are also suggested.

  14. Effects of heat stress on baroreflex function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Craig G.; Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Heat stress significantly reduces orthostatic tolerance in humans. The mechanism(s) causing this response remain unknown. The purpose of this review article is to present data pertaining to the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance in heat stressed individuals is a result of heat stress induced alterations in baroflex function. METHODS: In both normothermic and heat stressed conditions baroreflex responsiveness was assessed via pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. In addition, the effects of heat stress on post-synaptic vasoconstrictor responsiveness were assessed. RESULTS: Generally, whole body heating did not alter baroreflex sensitivity defined as the gain of the linear portion of the baroreflex curve around the operating point. However, whole body heating shifted the baroreflex curve to the prevailing (i.e. elevated) heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Finally, the heat stress impaired vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous administration of adrenergic agonists. CONCLUSION: Current data do not support the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance associated with heat stress in humans is due to impaired baroreflex responsiveness. This phenomenon may be partially due to the effects of heat stress on reducing vasoconstrictor responsiveness.

  15. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Elise M; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H; Leenders, Arnold G E; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders. The search yielded 946 articles, of which 8 were included with data from 654 children with functional constipation and 1931 children with (constipation-associated) fecal incontinence (FI). Overall, children with functional defecation disorders had been significantly more exposed to stressful life events than healthy children, with prevalence rates ranging from 1.6% to 90.9%. Being bullied, being a relational victim, interruption of toilet training, punishment by parents during toilet training, and hospitalization were significantly related to FI, whereas separation from the best friend, failure in an examination, severe illness in a close family member, loss of job by a parent, frequent punishment, and living in a war-affected area were significantly related to constipation. Only 1 study measured the prevalence of child abuse, which reported a significantly higher prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with FI compared with controls. The prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse is significantly higher in children with functional defecation disorders compared with healthy children. To gain more insight into the true prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders, more studies are clearly needed.

  16. Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Song, Su-Qi; Xu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively. The sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of RES. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hippocampal protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that RES relieved depression-like behavior of CUMS rats, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobile time. Rats that received RES treatment exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by RES. Moreover, after RES treatment, the rats exhibited increased plasma IL-6, CRP, and TNF-α concentrations. Furthermore, RES treatment upregulated the hippocampal protein levels of BDNF and the relative ratio of p-β-catenin/β-catenin while downregulating the relative ratio of p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that RES improved

  17. Hypothalamic AMPK-ER Stress-JNK1 Axis Mediates the Central Actions of Thyroid Hormones on Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Seoane-Collazo, Patricia; Contreras, Cristina; Varela, Luis; Villarroya, Joan; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Buqué, Xabier; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Delgado, Teresa C; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; González-García, Ismael; Roa, Juan; Whittle, Andrew J; Gomez-Santos, Beatriz; Velagapudi, Vidya; Tung, Y C Loraine; Morgan, Donald A; Voshol, Peter J; Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; López-González, Tania; Liñares-Pose, Laura; Gonzalez, Francisco; Chatterjee, Krishna; Sobrino, Tomás; Medina-Gómez, Gema; Davis, Roger J; Casals, Núria; Orešič, Matej; Coll, Anthony P; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Mittag, Jens; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Malagón, María M; Diéguez, Carlos; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Aspichueta, Patricia; Rahmouni, Kamal; Nogueiras, Rubén; Sabio, Guadalupe; Villarroya, Francesc; López, Miguel

    2017-07-05

    Thyroid hormones (THs) act in the brain to modulate energy balance. We show that central triiodothyronine (T3) regulates de novo lipogenesis in liver and lipid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the parasympathetic (PSNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), respectively. Central T3 promotes hepatic lipogenesis with parallel stimulation of the thermogenic program in BAT. The action of T3 depends on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced regulation of two signaling pathways in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH): decreased ceramide-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which promotes BAT thermogenesis, and increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which controls hepatic lipid metabolism. Of note, ablation of AMPKα1 in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons of the VMH fully recapitulated the effect of central T3, pointing to this population in mediating the effect of central THs on metabolism. Overall, these findings uncover the underlying pathways through which central T3 modulates peripheral metabolism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms across adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn Ann; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2018-01-01

    . In this study, we examined the unique relationship between autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and whether such relationships varied with age across adulthood. A representative sample of 1040 adult Danes (20–70 years old) reported the frequency with which they recall......Previous research has documented robust individual differences in the functions served by autobiographical memories, and shown that different autobiographical memory functions are related to both positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being, and that their frequency varies with age...... autobiographical memories for different purposes as well as their level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Higher reflective and ruminative functions, as well as lower social function, predicted higher levels of PTSS. There were no moderating effects of age. The results suggest that although...

  19. Effects of an Off-Axis Pivoting Elliptical Training Program on Gait Function in Persons With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Liang-Ching; Ren, Yupeng; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Revivo, Gadi A; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2017-07-01

    This preliminary study examined the effects of off-axis elliptical training on reducing transverse-plane gait deviations and improving gait function in 8 individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) (15.5 ± 4.1 years) who completed an training program using a custom-made elliptical trainer that allows transverse-plane pivoting of the footplates during exercise. Lower-extremity off-axis control during elliptical exercise was evaluated by quantifying the root-mean-square and maximal angular displacement of the footplate pivoting angle. Lower-extremity pivoting strength was assessed. Gait function and balance were evaluated using 10-m walk test, 6-minute-walk test, and Pediatric Balance Scale. Toe-in angles during gait were quantified. Participants with CP demonstrated a significant decrease in the pivoting angle (root mean square and maximal angular displacement; effect size, 1.00-2.00) and increase in the lower-extremity pivoting strength (effect size = 0.91-1.09) after training. Reduced 10-m walk test time (11.9 ± 3.7 seconds vs. 10.8 ± 3.0 seconds; P = 0.004; effect size = 1.46), increased Pediatric Balance Scale score (43.6 ± 12.9 vs. 45.6 ± 10.8; P = 0.042; effect size = 0.79), and decreased toe-in angle (3.7 ± 10.5 degrees vs. 0.7 ± 11.7 degrees; P = 0.011; effect size = 1.22) were observed after training. We present an intervention to challenge lower-extremity off-axis control during a weight-bearing and functional activity for individuals with CP. Our preliminary findings suggest that this intervention was effective in enhancing off-axis control, gait function, and balance and reducing in-toeing gait in persons with CP.

  20. Monocyte Trafficking to the Brain with Stress and Inflammation: A Novel Axis of Immune-to-Brain Communication that Influences Mood and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Wohleb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stressors cause physiological, immunological, and behavioral alterations in humans and rodents that can be maladaptive and negatively affect quality of life. Several lines of evidence indicate that psychological stress disrupts key functional interactions between the immune system and brain that ultimately affects mood and behavior. For example, activation of microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the brain, has been implicated as a key regulator of mood and behavior in the context of prolonged exposure to psychological stress. Emerging evidence implicates a novel neuroimmune circuit involving microglia activation and sympathetic outflow to the peripheral immune system that further reinforces stress-related behaviors by facilitating the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the brain. Evidence from various rodent models, including repeated social defeat (RSD, revealed that trafficking of monocytes to the brain promoted the establishment of anxiety-like behaviors following prolonged stress exposure. In addition, new evidence implicates monocyte trafficking from the spleen to the brain as key regulator of recurring anxiety following exposure to prolonged stress. The purpose of this review is to discuss mechanisms that cause stress-induced monocyte re-distribution in the brain and how dynamic interactions between microglia, endothelial cells, and brain macrophages lead to maladaptive behavioral responses.

  1. Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  2. Stress, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning of Ethnically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…

  3. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, Elise M.; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Leenders, Arnold G. E.; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the

  4. Increased depression-like behaviors with dysfunctions in the stress axis and the reward center by free access to highly palatable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E; Kim, J Y; Lee, J-H; Jahng, J W

    2014-03-14

    This study was conducted to examine the behavioral consequences of unlimited consumption of highly palatable food (HPF) and investigate its underlying neural mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to chocolate cookie rich in fat (HPF) in addition to ad libitum chow and the control group received chow only. Rats were subjected to behavioral tests during the 2nd week of food condition; i.e. ambulatory activity test on the 8th, elevated plus maze test (EPM) on the 10th and forced swim test (FST) on the 14th day of food condition. After 8 days of food condition, another group of rats were placed in a restraint box and tail bloods were collected at 0, 20, 60, and 120 time points during 2h of restraint period, used for the plasma corticosterone assay. At the end of restraint session, rats were sacrificed and the tissue sections of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) were processed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Ambulatory activities and the scores of EPM were not significantly affected by unlimited cookie consumption. However, immobility duration during FST was increased, and swim decreased, in the rats received free cookie access compared with control rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was exaggerated in cookie-fed rats, while the stress-induced c-Fos expression in the NAc was blunted, compared to control rats. Results suggest that free access to HPF may lead to the development of depression-like behaviors in rats, likely in relation with dysfunctions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the reward center. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface correlation function analysis of high resolution scattering data from mirrored surfaces obtained using a triple-axis X-ray diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    methods is that they are bandwidth-limited. A crucial point in the analysis of data is, therefore, to specify accurately the wavelength bandwidth limitation and to determine the surface autocorrelation function within this bandwidth. The authors present a number of scattering measurements obtained using...... a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer and the results of an autocorrelation function analysis. Furthermore, they present some measurements of integrated reflectivity, which they believe provide evidence for microroughness in the range from a few angstroms to tens of microns...

  6. Changes in ventricular function during emotional stress and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiess, M.C.; Moore, R.A.; Dimsdale, J.; Alpert, N.M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with cardiac disease frequently develop symptoms with emotional stress or cold exposure. To investigate the effects of these stresses in normal subjects, an ambulatory ventricular function monitor (VEST) (previously reported to measure EFs which correlate well with gamma camera measurements) was employed to record sequential 2 minute time activity curves from the left ventricles of 6 healthy men (ages 19-24) during a control period and during a 30 minute stress interview with a psychiatrist. Four of the subjects were also monitored in a cold room (1 0 C) for 20 min. In addition to the left ventricular time-activity curve, heart rate (HR), and BP (cuff) were recorded. All subjects had increases in HR, BP and EF during the stress interview. Cold, however, produced decreases in HR and EF and an increase in BP. The results (mean +- SD) are tabulated. End-systolic and end-diastolic counts and hence volume decreased during the interview and increased during cold exposure. The results suggest that (1) ambulatory changes in ventricular function can be measured with the VEST, and (2) significant changes in cardiovascular physiology are seen in normal subjects during a stress interview and exposure to cold

  7. Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Links Matthew G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets. Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in

  8. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Fractions Prepared from Danzhi-Xiaoyao-San Decoction in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Arginine Vasopressin, and Neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of two fractions, including petroleum ether soluble fraction (Fraction A, FA and water-EtOH soluble fraction (Fraction B, FB prepared from the Danzhi-xiaoyao-san (DZXYS by using chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rat model. The results indicated that DZXYS could ameliorate the depression-like behavior in chronic stress model of rats. The inhibition of hyperactivity of HPA axis and the modulation of monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus may be the important mechanisms underlying the action of DZXYS antidepressant-like effect in chronically stressed rats.

  9. Stress and brain functional changes in patients with Crohn's disease: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, A; Ballotta, D; Righi, S; Moretti, M; Bertani, A; Scarcelli, A; Sartini, A; Ercolani, M; Nichelli, P; Campieri, M; Benuzzi, F

    2017-10-01

    In Crohn's disease (CD) patients, stress is believed to influence symptoms generation. Stress may act via central nervous system pathways to affect visceral sensitivity and motility thus exacerbating gastrointestinal symptoms. The neural substrate underpinning these mechanisms needs to be investigated in CD. We conducted an explorative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in order to investigate potential differences in the brain stress response in CD patients compared to controls. 17 CD patients and 17 healthy controls underwent a fMRI scan while performing a stressful task consisting in a Stroop color-word interference task designed to induce mental stress in the fMRI environment. Compared to controls, in CD patients the stress task elicited greater blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in the midcingulate cortex (MCC). The MCC integrate "high" emotional processes with afferent sensory information ascending from the gut. In light of these integrative functions, the stress-evoked MCC hyperactivity in CD patients might represent a plausible neural substrate for the association between stress and symptomatic disease. The MCC dysfunction might be involved in mechanisms of central disinhibition of nociceptive inputs leading to amplify the visceral sensitivity. Finally, the stress-evoked MCC hyperactivity might affect the regulation of intestinal motility resulting in exacerbation of disease symptoms and the autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation of inflammation resulting in enhanced inflammatory activity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The protective effects of social bonding on behavioral and pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to chronic mild stress in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Neal; Appleton, Katherine M; Johnson, Alan Kim; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Wardwell, Joshua; Murphy, Rachel; Bishop, Christina; Knecht, Alison; Grippo, Angela J

    2017-03-01

    Positive social interactions may protect against stress. This study investigated the beneficial effects of pairing with a social partner on behaviors and neuroendocrine function in response to chronic mild stress (CMS) in 13 prairie vole pairs. Following 5 days of social bonding, male and female prairie voles were exposed to 10 days of CMS (mild, unpredictable stressors of varying durations, for instance, strobe light, white noise, and damp bedding), housed with either the social partner (paired group) or individually (isolated group). Active and passive behavioral responses to the forced swim test (FST) and tail-suspension test (TST), and plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone, were measured in all prairie voles following the CMS period. Both female and male prairie voles housed with a social partner displayed lower durations of passive behavioral responses (immobility, a maladaptive behavioral response) in the FST (mean ± SEM; females: 17.3 ± 5.4 s; males: 9.3 ± 4.6 s) and TST (females: 56.8 ± 16.4 s; males: 40.2 ± 11.3 s), versus both sexes housed individually (females, FST: 98.6 ± 12.9 s; females, TST: 155.1 ± 19.3 s; males, FST: 92.4 ± 14.1 s; males, TST: 158.9 ± 22.0 s). Female (but not male) prairie voles displayed attenuated plasma stress hormones when housed with a male partner (ACTH: 945 ± 24.7 pg/ml; corticosterone: 624 ± 139.5 ng/ml), versus females housed individually (ACTH: 1100 ± 23.2 pg/ml; corticosterone: 1064 ± 121.7 ng/ml). These results may inform understanding of the benefits of social interactions on stress resilience. Lay Summary: Social stress can lead to depression. The study of social bonding and stress using an animal model will inform understanding of the protective effects of social bonds. This study showed that social bonding in a rodent model can protect against behavioral responses to stress, and may

  11. miR-181c-BRK1 axis plays a key role in actin cytoskeleton-dependent T cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shok Ping; Ioannou, Nikolaos; Ramsay, Alan G; Darling, David; Gäken, Joop; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2018-05-01

    MicroRNAs are short endogenous noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in a diverse range of cellular processes. The miR-181 family is important in T cell development, proliferation, and activation. In this study, we have identified BRK1 as a potential target of miR-181c using a dual selection functional assay and have showed that miR-181c regulates BRK1 by translational inhibition. Given the importance of miR-181 in T cell function and the potential role of BRK1 in the involvement of WAVE2 complex and actin polymerization in T cells, we therefore investigated the influence of miR-181c-BRK1 axis in T cell function. Stimulation of PBMC derived CD3 + T cells resulted in reduced miR-181c expression and up-regulation of BRK1 protein expression, suggesting that miR-181c-BRK1 axis is important in T cell activation. We further showed that overexpression of miR-181c or suppression of BRK1 resulted in inhibition of T cell activation and actin polymerization coupled with defective lamellipodia generation and immunological synapse formation. Additionally, we found that BRK1 silencing led to reduced expressions of other proteins in the WAVE2 complex, suggesting that the impairment of T cell actin dynamics was a result of the instability of the WAVE2 complex following BRK1 depletion. Collectively, we demonstrated that miR-181c reduces BRK1 protein expression level and highlighted the important role of miR-181c-BRK1 axis in T cell activation and actin polymerization-mediated T cell functions. ©2018 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. Resistance of functional Lactobacillus plantarum strains against food stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Verónica; Quiberoni, Andrea; Reinhemer, Jorge; Suárez, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    The survival of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (Lp 790, Lp 813 and Lp 998) with functional properties was studied taking into account their resistance to thermal, osmotic and oxidative stress factors. Stress treatments applied were: 52 °C-15 min (Phosphate Buffer pH 7, thermal shock), H2O2 0.1% (p/v) - 30 min (oxidative shock) and NaCl aqueous solution at 17, 25 and 30% (p/v) (room temperature - 1 h, osmotic shock). The osmotic stress was also evaluated on cell growth in MRS broth added of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (p/v) of NaCl, during 20 h at 30 °C. The cell thermal adaptation was performed in MRS broth, selecting 45 °C for 30 min as final conditions for all strains. Two strains (Lp 813 and Lp 998) showed, in general, similar behaviour against the three stress factors, being clearly more resistant than Lp 790. An evident difference in growth kinetics in presence of NaCl was observed between Lp 998 and Lp 813, Lp998 showing a higher optical density (OD570nm) than Lp 813 at the end of the assay. Selected thermal adaptation improved by 2 log orders the thermal resistance of both strains, but cell growth in presence of NaCl was enhanced only in Lp 813. Oxidative resistance was not affected with this thermal pre-treatment. These results demonstrate the relevance of cell technological resistance when selecting presumptive "probiotic" cultures, since different stress factors might considerably affect viability or/and performance of the strains. The incidence of stress conditions on functional properties of the strains used in this work are currently under research in our group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions between Temperament, Stress, and Immune Function in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Burdick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects caused by stressors encountered by animals during routine handling can pose economic problems for the livestock industry due to increased costs ultimately borne by the producer and the consumer. Stress adversely affects key physiological processes of the reproductive and immune systems. In recent years stress responsiveness has been associated with cattle behavior, specifically temperament. Cattle with more excitable temperaments, as measured by chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (flight speed, exhibit greater basal concentrations of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. Similar to stressed cattle, more temperamental cattle (i.e., cattle exhibiting greater exit velocity or pen and chute scores have poorer growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune responses. Thus, understanding the interrelationship of stress and temperament can help in the development of selection and management practices that reduce the negative influence of temperament on growth and productivity of cattle. This paper discusses the relationship between stress and temperament and the developing evidence of an effect of temperament on immune function of cattle that have been handled or restrained. Specifically, the paper discusses different methodologies used to measure temperament, including chute score, pen score, and exit velocity, and discusses the reaction of cattle to different stressors including handling and restraint.

  14. Socioeconomic Status, Subjective Social Status, and Perceived Stress: Associations with Stress Physiology and Executive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.

  15. Influence of Stress Shape Function on Analysis of Contact Problem Using Hybrid Photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dongchul; Hawong, Jaisug

    2013-01-01

    In this research, a study on stress shape functions was conducted to analyze the contact stress problem by using a hybrid photoelasticity. Because the contact stress problem is generally solved as a half-plane problem, the relationship between two analytical stress functions, which are compositions of the Airy stress function, was similar to one of the crack problem. However, this relationship in itself could not be used to solve the contact stress problem (especially one with singular points). Therefore, to analyze the contact stress problem more correctly, stress shape functions based on the condition of two contact end points had to be considered in the form of these two analytical stress functions. The four types of stress shape functions were related to the stress singularities at the two contact end points. Among them, the primary two types used for the analysis of an O-ring were selected, and their validities were verified in this work

  16. Prenatal bisphenol a exposure and dysregulation of infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function: findings from the APrON cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Ejaredar, Maede; Liu, Jiaying; Thomas, Jenna; Letourneau, Nicole; Campbell, Tavis; Martin, Jonathan W; Dewey, Deborah

    2017-05-19

    Animal models show that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sexually dimorphic disruption of the neuroendocrine system in offspring, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) neuroendocrine system, but human data are lacking. In humans, prenatal BPA exposure is associated with sex-specific behavioural problems in children, and HPA axis dysregulation may be a biological mechanism. The objective of the current study was to examine sex differences in associations between prenatal maternal urinary BPA concentration and HPA axis function in 3 month old infants. Mother-infant pairs (n = 132) were part of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study, a longitudinal birth cohort recruited (2010-2012) during pregnancy. Maternal spot urine samples collected during the 2nd trimester were analyzed for total BPA and creatinine. Infant saliva samples collected prior to and after a blood draw were analyzed for cortisol. Linear growth curve models were used to characterize changes in infant cortisol as a function of prenatal BPA exposure. Higher maternal BPA was associated with increases in baseline cortisol among females (β = 0.13 log μg/dL; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.26), but decreases among males (β = -0.22 log μg/dL; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.05). In contrast, higher BPA was associated with increased reactivity in males (β = .30 log μg/dL; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.56) but decreased reactivity in females (β = -0.15 log μg/dL; 95% CI: -0.35, 0.05). Models adjusting for creatinine yielded similar results. Prenatal BPA exposure is associated with sex-specific changes in infant HPA axis function. The biological plausibility of these findings is supported by their consistency with evidence in rodent models. Furthermore, these data support the hypotheses that sexually dimorphic changes in children's behaviour following prenatal BPA exposure are mediated by sexually dimorphic changes in HPA axis function.

  17. Association analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 axis parameters with survival and functional status in nonagenarians of the Leiden Longevity Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Rozing, Maarten P; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J

    2015-01-01

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been associated with longevity in various model organisms. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in human survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to test whether circulating IGF-1 axis parameters associate...... with old age survival and functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. This study examined 858 Dutch nonagenarian (males≥89 years; females≥91 years) siblings from 409 families, without selection on health or demographic characteristics. Nonagenarians were divided over sex...

  18. Effects of in-plane compressive stress on electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin film capacitors prepared by on- and off-axis rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Young; Ahn, Kun Ho; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the structural and electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) thin film capacitors with thicknesses ranging from 18 to 215 nm, which were prepared by on- and off-axis rf magnetron sputtering technique on Pt/SiO 2 /Si substrates. The deposition rate and cation composition ratios of the films were controlled to be the same regardless of the sputtering geometry. All the films show elongations in the out-of-plane lattice spacing, suggesting the presence of compressive stress with a smaller value by on-axis sputtering than by the off-axis system. There was no thickness dependence of the strain in the polycrystalline BST films. The BST films deposited using the on-axis system showed a higher bulk dielectric constant with a higher interfacial capacitance and a lower leakage current level than the films produced by the off-axis system. The strain effect was proposed to explain the correlations between the structural and electrical properties

  19. Oxidative stress induced inflammation initiates functional decline of tear production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Uchino

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage and inflammation are proposed to be involved in an age-related functional decline of exocrine glands. However, the molecular mechanism of how oxidative stress affects the secretory function of exocrine glands is unclear. We developed a novel mev-1 conditional transgenic mouse model (Tet-mev-1 using a modified tetracycline system (Tet-On/Off system. This mouse model demonstrated decreased tear production with morphological changes including leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis. We found that the mev-1 gene encodes Cyt-1, which is the cytochrome b(560 large subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase in complex II of mitochondria (homologous to succinate dehydrogenase C subunit (SDHC in humans. The mev-1 gene induced excessive oxidative stress associated with ocular surface epithelial damage and a decrease in protein and aqueous secretory function. This new model provides evidence that mitochondrial oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland induces lacrimal dysfunction resulting in dry eye disease. Tear volume in Tet-mev-1 mice was lower than in wild type mice and histopathological analyses showed the hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation by intense mononuclear leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis in the lacrimal gland of Tet-mev-1 mice. These findings strongly suggest that oxidative stress can be a causative factor for the development of dry eye disease.

  20. Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-01-01

    Executive function is a neuropsychological construct that enables controlled cognitive processing, which has been hypothesized to enhance individuals' resilience to stress. However, little empirical work has directly examined how executive function under different conditions mitigates the negative effects of stress exposure on health. To address this issue, we recruited 110 healthy young adults and assessed their recent life stress exposure, executive function in either a stressful or non-stressful context, and current health complaints. Based on existing research, we hypothesized that individuals exhibiting better executive function following a laboratory-based stressor (but not a control task) would demonstrate weaker associations between recent stress exposure and health because they perceived recent life stressors as being less severe. Consistent with this hypothesis, better executive function during acute stress, but not in the absence of stress, was associated with an attenuated link between participants' recent life stress exposure and their current health complaints. Moreover, this attenuating effect was mediated by lesser perceptions of stressor severity. Based on these data, we conclude that better executive function under stress is associated with fewer health complaints and that these effects may occur by reducing individuals' perceptions of stressor severity. The data thus suggest the possibility of reducing stress-related health problems by enhancing executive function.

  1. Neuroepigenetics of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B B; Hunter, R G

    2014-09-05

    Stress, a common if unpredictable life event, can have pronounced effects on physiology and behavior. Individuals show wide variation in stress susceptibility and resilience, which are only partially explained by variations in coding genes. Developmental programing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis provides part of the explanation for this variance. Epigenetic approaches have successfully helped fill the explanatory gaps between the influences of gene and environment on stress responsiveness, and differences in the sequelae of stress across individuals and generations. Stress and the stress axis interacts bi-directionally with epigenetic marks within the brain. It is now clear that exposure to stress, particularly in early life, has both acute and lasting effects on these marks. They in turn influence cognitive function and behavior, as well as the risk for suicide and psychiatric disorders across the lifespan and, in some cases, unto future generations. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Green's Function and Stress Fields in Stochastic Heterogeneous Continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Vineet

    Many engineering materials used today are heterogenous in composition e.g. Composites - Polymer Matrix Composites, Metal Matrix Composites. Even, conventional engineering materials - metals, plastics, alloys etc. - may develop heterogeneities, like inclusions and residual stresses, during the manufacturing process. Moreover, these materials may also have intrinsic heterogeneities at a nanoscale in the form of grain boundaries in metals, crystallinity in amorphous polymers etc. While, the homogenized constitutive models for these materials may be satisfactory at a macroscale, recent studies of phenomena like fatigue failure, void nucleation, size-dependent brittle-ductile transition in polymeric nanofibers reveal a major play of micro/nanoscale physics in these phenomena. At this scale, heterogeneities in a material may no longer be ignored. Thus, this demands a study into the effects of various material heterogeneities. In this work, spatial heterogeneities in two material properties - elastic modulus and yield stress - have been investigated separately. The heterogeneity in the elastic modulus is studied in the context of Green's function. The Stochastic Finite Element method is adopted to get the mean statistics of the Green's function defined on a stochastic heterogeneous 2D infinite space. A study of the elastic-plastic transition in a domain having stochastic heterogenous yield stress was done using Mont-Carlo methods. The statistics for various stress and strain fields during the transition were obtained. Further, the effects of size of the domain and the strain-hardening rate on the stress fields during the heterogeneous elastic-plastic transition were investigated. Finally, a case is made for the role of the heterogenous elastic-plastic transition in damage nucleation and growth.

  3. Functional Investigation of a Non-coding Variant Associated with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Zebrafish: Elevated Expression of the Ladybird Homeobox Gene Causes Body Axis Deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we identified an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis susceptibility locus near human ladybird homeobox 1 (LBX1 and FLJ41350 by a genome-wide association study. Here, we characterized the associated non-coding variant and investigated the function of these genes. A chromosome conformation capture assay revealed that the genome region with the most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (rs11190870 physically interacted with the promoter region of LBX1-FLJ41350. The promoter in the direction of LBX1, combined with a 590-bp region including rs11190870, had higher transcriptional activity with the risk allele than that with the non-risk allele in HEK 293T cells. The ubiquitous overexpression of human LBX1 or either of the zebrafish lbx genes (lbx1a, lbx1b, and lbx2, but not FLJ41350, in zebrafish embryos caused body curvature followed by death prior to vertebral column formation. Such body axis deformation was not observed in transcription activator-like effector nucleases mediated knockout zebrafish of lbx1b or lbx2. Mosaic expression of lbx1b driven by the GATA2 minimal promoter and the lbx1b enhancer in zebrafish significantly alleviated the embryonic lethal phenotype to allow observation of the later onset of the spinal curvature with or without vertebral malformation. Deformation of the embryonic body axis by lbx1b overexpression was associated with defects in convergent extension, which is a component of the main axis-elongation machinery in gastrulating embryos. In embryos overexpressing lbx1b, wnt5b, a ligand of the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP pathway, was significantly downregulated. Injection of mRNA for wnt5b or RhoA, a key downstream effector of Wnt/PCP signaling, rescued the defective convergent extension phenotype and attenuated the lbx1b-induced curvature of the body axis. Thus, our study presents a novel pathological feature of LBX1 and its zebrafish homologs in body axis deformation at

  4. Perpetual pavement – absorbing stress and functional maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Perpetual Pavement combines the well documented smoothness and safety advantages of asphalt with an advanced, multi-layer paving design process, that with routine maintenance, extends the useful life of a roadway. Perpetual provides long lasting road and smoothness for the construction purposes. This study has the design key points of perpetual pavement based on the idea of life cycle, which has a new direction for the new highway construction, reconstruction and expansion. First, the structure of long life pavement design is studied to analyze the effect of stress absorbing layer. Second, researches on stress absorbing layer from the aspects of raw materials, mix proportion are implemented. Third, the design index of stress absorbing layer is determined by the shear strength test. The results show that the design idea of composite perpetual pavement can be realized by reasonable design of the stress absorbing layer and carrying out the surface functional maintenance can ensure the pavement to avoid structural damage in the operation stage.

  5. The modified couple stress functionally graded Timoshenko beam formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghari, M.; Rahaeifard, M.; Kahrobaiyan, M.H.; Ahmadian, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a size-dependent formulation is presented for Timoshenko beams made of a functionally graded material (FGM). The formulation is developed on the basis of the modified couple stress theory. The modified couple stress theory is a non-classic continuum theory capable to capture the small-scale size effects in the mechanical behavior of structures. The beam properties are assumed to vary through the thickness of the beam. The governing differential equations of motion are derived for the proposed modified couple-stress FG Timoshenko beam. The generally valid closed-form analytic expressions are obtained for the static response parameters. As case studies, the static and free vibration of the new model are respectively investigated for FG cantilever and FG simply supported beams in which properties are varying according to a power law. The results indicate that modeling beams on the basis of the couple stress theory causes more stiffness than modeling based on the classical continuum theory, such that for beams with small thickness, a significant difference between the results of these two theories is observed.

  6. The Regulatory Factor ZFHX3 Modifies Circadian Function in SCN via an AT Motif-Driven Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michael J.; Brancaccio, Marco; Sethi, Siddharth; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Satija, Rahul; Edwards, Jessica K.; Jagannath, Aarti; Couch, Yvonne; Finelli, Mattéa J.; Smyllie, Nicola J.; Esapa, Christopher; Butler, Rachel; Barnard, Alun R.; Chesham, Johanna E.; Saito, Shoko; Joynson, Greg; Wells, Sara; Foster, Russell G.; Oliver, Peter L.; Simon, Michelle M.; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Hastings, Michael H.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We identified a dominant missense mutation in the SCN transcription factor Zfhx3, termed short circuit (Zfhx3Sci), which accelerates circadian locomotor rhythms in mice. ZFHX3 regulates transcription via direct interaction with predicted AT motifs in target genes. The mutant protein has a decreased ability to activate consensus AT motifs in vitro. Using RNA sequencing, we found minimal effects on core clock genes in Zfhx3Sci/+ SCN, whereas the expression of neuropeptides critical for SCN intercellular signaling was significantly disturbed. Moreover, mutant ZFHX3 had a decreased ability to activate AT motifs in the promoters of these neuropeptide genes. Lentiviral transduction of SCN slices showed that the ZFHX3-mediated activation of AT motifs is circadian, with decreased amplitude and robustness of these oscillations in Zfhx3Sci/+ SCN slices. In conclusion, by cloning Zfhx3Sci, we have uncovered a circadian transcriptional axis that determines the period and robustness of behavioral and SCN molecular rhythms. PMID:26232227

  7. Enhancement of BDNF Concentration and Restoration of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Accompany Reduced Depressive-Like Behaviour in Stressed Ovariectomised Rats Treated with Either Tualang Honey or Estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriya Al-Rahbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible interaction between glucocorticoids and estrogen-induced increases in brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in enhancing depressive-like behaviour has been documented. Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17β-estradiol (E2 on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii stressed sham-operated control, (iii nonstressed OVX, (iv stressed OVX, (v stressed OVX treated with E2 (20 μg daily, sc, and (vi stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally. Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration was significantly decreased compared to other experimental groups. These changes were notably reversed by both E2 and Tualang honey. In conclusion, both Tualang honey and E2 mediate antidepressive-like effects in stressed OVX rats, possibly acting via restoration of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and enhancement of the BDNF concentration.

  8. Sex-specific association between functional neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) variants and cortisol and central stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Fabian; Akdeniz, Ceren; Haddad, Leila; Kumsta, Robert; Entringer, Sonja; Frank, Josef; Yim, Ilona S; Zänkert, Sandra; Witt, Stephanie H; Kirsch, Peter; Rietschel, Marcella; Wüst, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The brain neuropeptide S (NPS) system has recently generated substantial interest and may be of major relevance for central stress regulation. The NPS receptor (NPSR1) is highly expressed in the limbic system, exogenous NPS exerts pronounced anxiolytic and fear-attenuating effects in rodents and extensive close crosstalk between the NPS system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been demonstrated. In humans, associations between NPSR1 variants and anxiety and panic disorder, as well as amygdala responsiveness to fear- relevant faces and prefrontal cortex activity in a fear conditioning paradigm have been reported. Moreover, a NPSR1 sequence variant was found to be associated with cortisol stress responses in males. Here, we performed a haplotype-based analysis covering three functional NPSR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter (rs2530547), in exon 3 (rs324981) and exon 6 (rs727162) in 277 healthy subjects who were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). A significant sex-specific association with salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress was detected for the common TTC haplotype 2 (frequency of about 20%). In an additional study using an imaging genetics approach, 65 healthy subjects were exposed to a stress paradigm for scanner environments (“ScanSTRESS”). We found a significant and, again, sex-specific interaction between rs324981 (whose minor T-allele is harbored by haplotype 2) and the neural stress response in a cluster close to the parahippocampal gyrus (whole brain corrected). Moreover, as in the TSST sample, NPSR1 variation was associated with salivary cortisol responses (on a trend level) in a sex-specific way. In summary, our preliminary findings in two independent cohorts exposed to different stress paradigms suggest that the NPS system significantly influences acute stress responses and that sequence variation in NPSR1 may contribute to sex differences in stress regulation. Copyright © 2016

  9. Personality traits in rats predict vulnerability and resilience to developing stress-induced depression-like behaviors, HPA axis hyper-reactivity and brain changes in pERK1/2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Jorge E; Diessler, Shanaz; Varea, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that certain behavioral traits, such as anxiety, are associated with the development of depression-like behaviors after exposure to chronic stress. However, single traits do not explain the wide variability in vulnerability to stress observed in outbred populations. We...... hypothesized that a combination of behavioral traits might provide a better characterization of an individual's vulnerability to prolonged stress. Here, we sought to determine whether the characterization of relevant behavioral traits in rats could aid in identifying individuals with different vulnerabilities...... to developing stress-induced depression-like behavioral alterations. We also investigated whether behavioral traits would be related to the development of alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and in brain activity - as measured through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1...

  10. Ghrelin-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and enhancement of cognitive function are mediated independently of GH/IGF-1 axis: lessons from the spontaneous dwarf rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Endan; Kim, Yumi; Kim, Sehee; Park, Seungjoon

    2013-01-01

    We recently have reported that ghrelin modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, there is a possibility that the action of ghrelin on hippocampal neurogenesis could be, in part, due to the ability of ghrelin to stimulate the GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, where both GH and IGF-1 infusions are known to increase hippocampal neurogenesis. To explore this possibility, we assessed the impact of ghrelin on progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of spontaneous dwarf rats (SDRs), a dwarf strain with a mutation of the GH gene resulting in total loss of GH. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that Ki-67-positive progenitor cells and doublecortin (DCX)-positive neuroblasts in the DG of the SDRs expressed ghrelin receptors. We found that ghrelin treatment in the SDRs significantly increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen- and BrdU-labeled cells in the DG. The number of DCX-labeled cells in the DG of ghrelin-treated SDRs was also significantly increased compared with the vehicle-treated controls. To test whether ghrelin has a direct effect on cognitive performance independently of somatotropic axis, hippocampus-dependent learning and memory were assessed using the Y-maze and novel object recognition (NOR) test in the SDRs. Ghrelin treatment for 4 weeks by subcutaneous osmotic pump significantly increased alternation rates in the Y-maze and exploration time for novel object in the NOR test compared to vehicle-treated controls. Our results indicate that ghrelin-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and enhancement of cognitive function are mediated independently of somatotropic axis.

  11. The GH/IGF-I axis and pituitary function and size in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, I.C.; Sinnema, M.; Castelijns, J.A.; Twisk, J.W.; Curfs, L.M.; Drent, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), limited information is available about pituitary function, more specifically the prevalence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The aim of this study was to gain more insight into endocrine function in PWS adults, with emphasis on GH secretion.

  12. The interaction of BDNF Val66Met, PTSD, and child abuse on psychophysiological reactivity and HPA axis function in a sample of Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dmitri A; Neylan, Thomas C; O'Donovan, Aoife; Metzler, Thomas; Richards, Anne; Ross, Jessica A; Inslicht, Sabra S

    2018-08-01

    While the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been linked to various psychological disorders, limited focus has been on its relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and early traumas such as child abuse. Therefore, we assessed whether Val66Met was associated with fear potentiated psychophysiological response and HPA axis dysfunction and whether PTSD status or child abuse history moderated these outcomes in a sample of Veterans. 226 and 173 participants engaged in a fear potentiated acoustic startle paradigm and a dexamethasone suppression test (DST) respectively. Fear conditions included no, ambiguous, and high threat conditions. Psychophysiological response measures included electromyogram (EMG), skin conductance response (SCR), and heart rate. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ) were used to assess PTSD status and child abuse history respectively. Met allele carriers exhibited greater SCR magnitudes in the no and ambiguous threat conditions (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). Met carriers with PTSD exhibited greater physiological response magnitudes in the ambiguous (SCR, p < 0.001) and high threat conditions (SCR and heart rate, both p ≤ 0.005). Met carrier survivors of child abuse exhibited blunted heart rate magnitudes in the high threat condition (p < 0.01). Met allele carries with PTSD also exhibited greater percent cortisol suppression (p < 0.005). Limitations included small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the data. The Val66met may impact PTSD susceptibility differentially via enhanced threat sensitivity and HPA axis dysregulation. Child abuse may moderate Val66Met's impact on threat reactivity. Future research should explore how neuronal mechanisms might mediate this risk. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Combined thermal and herbicide stress in functionally diverse coral symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, J.W. van; Uthicke, S.; Beltran, V.H.; Mueller, J.F.; Negri, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Most reef building corals rely on symbiotic microalgae (genus Symbiodinium) to supply a substantial proportion of their energy requirements. Functional diversity of different Symbiodinium genotypes, endorsing the host with physiological advantages, has been widely reported. Yet, the influence of genotypic specificity on the symbiont's susceptibility to contaminants or cumulative stressors is unknown. Cultured Symbiodinium of presumed thermal-tolerant clade D tested especially vulnerable to the widespread herbicide diuron, suggesting important free-living populations may be at risk in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. Co-exposure experiments where cultured Symbiodinium were exposed to diuron over a thermal stress gradient demonstrated how fast-growing clade C1 better maintained photosynthetic capability than clade D. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action, considering combined thermal stress and herbicide contamination, revealed response additivity for inhibition of photosynthetic yield in both tested cultures, emphasizing the need to account for cumulative stressor impacts in ecological risk assessment and resource management. - Highlights: • Water quality influences thermal stress thresholds in different Symbiodinium types. • Photosystem of clade D tested more sensitive than C1 to a common herbicide. • Increased thermal tolerance quickly countered in presence of herbicide. • Mixture toxicity approach demonstrated response additivity for combined stressors. • Symbiotic partnership may be compromised in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. - Thermal-tolerant Symbiodinium type D tested especially vulnerable to a common herbicide, emphasizing the significance of cumulative stressors in ecological risk management

  14. Administration of L-thyroxine does not improve the response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis to clomiphene citrate in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, V; la Marca, A; Lanzetta, D; Morgante, G

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea to determine whether the combination of L-thyroxine and clomiphene citrate produces a qualitative and quantitative increase in induced ovulatory cycles. Gynecological Endocrinology Research Center, University of Siena (Italy). 16 young women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and 15 women with normal cycles in early follicular phase. Administration of 50 microgram GnRH and 200 microgram TRH. The women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea were divided into groups A (n=8) and B (n=8). Both groups were given 100 mg/day clomiphene for 5 days/month for 3 months. Women in group A were also given 75 mcg/day thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine) for 3 months. Comparison of basal and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, TSH and Prl, in groups A and B. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of ovulatory cycles induced in the groups. Administration of clomiphene and clomiphene plus L-thyroxine was evaluated in the second and third months of treatment and was followed by a total of 11 ovulatory cycles, six in group A and five in group B. No significant difference was found between groups. Mean progesterone concentrations measured 16 days after the last clomiphene tablet were 5.5+/-1.2 ng/ml in group A and 5.1+/-1.3 ngl/ml in group B. Administration of L-thyroxine with clomiphene does not improve the response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis to clomiphene citrate or the number of ovulatory cycles and does not reduce luteal phase defects.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms behind Free Radical Scavengers Function against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson’s disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively, collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Natural antioxidant systems are categorized into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant groups. The former includes a number of enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, while the latter contains a number of antioxidants acquired from dietary sources including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. There are also scavengers used for therapeutic purposes, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA used routinely in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (not as a free radical scavenger, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Edaravone that acts as a free radical detoxifier frequently used in acute ischemic stroke. The cell surviving properties of L-DOPA and Edaravone against oxidative stress conditions rely on the alteration of a number of stress proteins such as Annexin A1, Peroxiredoxin-6 and PARK7/DJ-1 (Parkinson disease protein 7, also known as Protein deglycase DJ-1. Although they share the targets in reversing the cytotoxic effects of H2O2, they seem to have distinct mechanism of function. Exposure to L-DOPA may result in hypoxia condition and further induction of ORP150 (150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein with its concomitant cytoprotective effects but Edaravone seems to protect cells via direct induction of Peroxiredoxin-2 and inhibition of apoptosis.

  16. Oxidative stress decreases functional airway mannose binding lectin in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai B Tran

    Full Text Available We have previously established that a defect in the ability of alveolar macrophages (AM to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis and pathogens is a potential therapeutic target in COPD. We further showed that levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL; required for effective macrophage phagocytic function were reduced in the airways but not circulation of COPD patients. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress in the airway could be a cause for such disturbances. We therefore studied the effects of oxidation on the structure of the MBL molecule and its functional interactions with macrophages. Oligomeric structure of plasma derived MBL (pdMBL before and after oxidation (oxMBL with 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidinedihydrochroride (AAPH was investigated by blue native PAGE. Macrophage function in the presence of pd/oxMBL was assessed by measuring efferocytosis, phagocytosis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and expression of macrophage scavenger receptors. Oxidation disrupted higher order MBL oligomers. This was associated with changed macrophage function evident by a significantly reduced capacity to phagocytose apoptotic cells and NTHi in the presence of oxMBL vs pdMBL (eg, NTHi by 55.9 and 27.0% respectively. Interestingly, oxidation of MBL significantly reduced macrophage phagocytic ability to below control levels. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence revealed a significant increase in expression of macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA1 in the presence of pdMBL that was abrogated in the presence of oxMBL. We show the pulmonary macrophage dysfunction in COPD may at least partially result from an oxidative stress-induced effect on MBL, and identify a further potential therapeutic strategy for this debilitating disease.

  17. Personality traits in rats predict vulnerability and resilience to developing stress-induced depression-like behaviors, HPA axis hyper-reactivity and brain changes in pERK1/2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge E; Diessler, Shanaz; Varea, Emilio; Márquez, Cristina; Larsen, Marianne H; Cordero, M Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that certain behavioral traits, such as anxiety, are associated with the development of depression-like behaviors after exposure to chronic stress. However, single traits do not explain the wide variability in vulnerability to stress observed in outbred populations. We hypothesized that a combination of behavioral traits might provide a better characterization of an individual's vulnerability to prolonged stress. Here, we sought to determine whether the characterization of relevant behavioral traits in rats could aid in identifying individuals with different vulnerabilities to developing stress-induced depression-like behavioral alterations. We also investigated whether behavioral traits would be related to the development of alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and in brain activity - as measured through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)--in response to an acute stressor following either sub-chronic (2 weeks) or chronic (4 weeks) unpredictable stress (CUS). Sprague-Dawley rats were characterized using a battery of behavioral tasks, and three principal traits were identified: anxiety, exploration and activity. When combined, the first two traits were found to explain the variability in the stress responses. Our findings confirm the increased risk of animals with high anxiety developing certain depression-like behaviors (e.g., increased floating time in the forced swim test) when progressively exposed to stress. In contrast, the behavioral profile based on combined low anxiety and low exploration was resistant to alterations related to social behaviors, while the high anxiety and low exploration profile displayed a particularly vulnerable pattern of physiological and neurobiological responses after sub-chronic stress exposure. Our findings indicate important differences in animals' vulnerability and/or resilience to the effects of repeated stress, particularly during initial or

  18. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and functional somatic symptoms : A longitudinal cohort study in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Lineke M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    In persons with functional somatic symptoms (FSS), no conventionally defined organic pathology is apparent. It has been suggested that complex interactions of psychological, physiological, and social factors are involved in the etiology of FSS. One of the physiological mechanisms that may contribute

  19. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, Marloes J. A. G.; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both

  20. Diurnal and nocturnal differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-01-15

    Temporal modulation of the stress response is a ubiquitous characteristic of animals. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms underlying daily changes in corticosterone release in an ectotherm model system. Earlier work indicated that free-living Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) have lower corticosterone concentrations during the night than during the day. This could result from: (i) a lower circadian secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as seen in mammals; (ii) from an increase in corticosterone negative feedback; or (iii) reflect lower metabolic activity during the night when core body temperature falls (from 35 degrees C during the day to as low as 21 degrees C during the night). To begin to distinguish between these three possibilities, exogenous ACTH was used to compare diel differences in adrenocortical tissue responsiveness, and dexamethasone was used to compare diel differences in the efficacy of corticosterone negative feedback. Low levels of exogenous ACTH (30 IU/kg body weight) potently stimulated both daytime and nighttime corticosterone release. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) inhibited only daytime, but not nighttime endogenous corticosterone release. Because the response to ACTH was similar between day and night we suggest that a simple lowering of core body temperature cannot explain the nighttime reduction in corticosterone release. However, the failure of negative feedback at night suggests that the response is not equivalent to the controlled downregulation seen in mammals.

  1. Structural and functional involvement of amygdale in posttraumatic stress disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakamata, Yuko; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    Pathophysiological imaging studies of brain neuro-network concerned with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have given several models, where the interaction in the amygdala-ventral/medial prefrontal cortex-hippocampus (Am-vmPFC-Hp) system is widely noticed. This paper describes the review of the structure, function and functional connectivity of Am in PTSD in relation to the Am-vmPFC-Hp system. For the structure of Am in PTSD, many studies by MRI have shown that its volume is unchanged but, exceptionally, authors have found the significant 6% volume reduction. Increased functional activity of Am has been demonstrated in PTSD by positron emission tomography (PET), but refuting findings are still presented. Studies in a larger scale are awaited for conclusion. The functional connectivity of Am in PTSD seems still controversial in an aspect of its direction in the Am-vmPFC-Hp system and participation of other systems, not studied hitherto, is thought possible. Authors expect further progress of PTSD imaging study not only from its pathophysiologic aspect but also from its therapeutic (mental and medical) view, which can compensate our knowledge of PTSD from both standpoints. (R.T.)

  2. Abnormal Functional Connectivity Density in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Liu, Feng; Chen, Huafu

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in individuals who have experienced life-threatening mental traumas. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that the pathology of PTSD may be associated with the abnormal functional integration among brain regions. In the current study, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a novel voxel-wise data-driven approach based on graph theory, to explore aberrant FC through the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the PTSD. We calculated both short- and long-range FCD in PTSD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Compared with HCs, PTSD patients showed significantly increased long-range FCD in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but no abnormal short-range FCD was found in PTSD. Furthermore, seed-based FC analysis of the left DLPFC showed increased connectivity in the left superior parietal lobe and visual cortex of PTSD patients. The results suggested that PTSD patients experienced a disruption of intrinsic long-range functional connections in the fronto-parietal network and visual cortex, which are associated with attention control and visual information processing.

  3. Light regimes differentially affect baseline transcript abundance of stress-axis and (neurodevelopment-related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton 1822 AB and TL larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud van den Bos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many strains of zebrafish (Danio rerio are readily available. Earlier we observed differences between AB and Tupfel long-fin (TL larvae regarding baseline hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI axis activity and (neurodevelopment. Light regimes, i.e. 14 h light:10 h dark and 24 h continuous dark or light, affect hatching rate and larval growth. Here, we assessed baseline transcript abundance of HPI-axis-related genes and (neurodevelopment-related genes of AB and TL larvae (5 days post fertilisation using these light regimes. A principal component analysis revealed that in AB larvae the baseline expression of HPI-axis-related genes was higher the more hours of light, while the expression of (neurodevelopment-related genes was higher under 14 h light:10 h dark than under both continuous light or dark. In TL larvae, a complex pattern emerged regarding baseline expression of HPI-axis-related and (neurodevelopment-related genes. These data extend data of earlier studies by showing that light regimes affect gene-expression in larvae, and more importantly so, strengthen the notion of differences between larvae of the AB and TL strain. The latter finding adds to the growing database of phenotypical differences between zebrafish of the AB and TL strain.

  4. A longitudinal study of disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with progestin-negative functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Y; Uemura, T; Murase, M; Yokoi, N; Ishikawa, M; Hirahara, F

    2001-10-01

    To longitudinally evaluate disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in women with secondary progestin-negative hypothalamic amenorrhea. Retrospective cohort study. Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan. Twenty-four women with progestin-negative hypothalamic amenorrhea. Administration of human corticotropin-releasing hormone (hCRH) and treatment with a combination of estrogen and progesterone. Plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations and period required for recovery from amenorrhea. Plasma ACTH concentrations 30 and 60 minutes after injection of hCRH and the percent maximum increment (%Cmax) of ACTH were significantly lower in the amenorrheic patients compared with the control group patients. The basal cortisol was significantly higher, and the %Cmax of cortisol was significantly lower. In the 16 patients who recovered from amenorrhea, there was a significant positive correlation (Y = 1.93X-10.8, r = 0.629) between the basal cortisol concentrations (X) and the period for recovery (Y). The serum E2 gradually increased before recovery, and this E2 increase was preceded by changes in the plasma cortisol concentration and the %Cmax values of cortisol and ACTH. The CRH test might be useful for evaluating the roles of stress and for estimating the period required for recovery in hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  5. Understanding the gut-kidney axis in nephrolithiasis: an analysis of the gut microbiota composition and functionality of stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Milani, Christian; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ferrario, Chiara; Dodi, Rossella; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Del Rio, Daniele; Ventura, Marco; Meschi, Tiziana

    2018-04-28

    The involvement of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis has been hypothesised since the discovery of the oxalate-degrading activity of Oxalobacter formigenes , but never comprehensively studied with metagenomics. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the faecal microbiota composition and functionality between recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers (SFs) and controls. Faecal samples were collected from 52 SFs and 48 controls (mean age 48±11). The microbiota composition was analysed through 16S rRNA microbial profiling approach. Ten samples (five SFs, five controls) were also analysed with deep shotgun metagenomics sequencing, with focus on oxalate-degrading microbial metabolic pathways. Dietary habits, assessed through a food-frequency questionnaire, and 24-hour urinary excretion of prolithogenic and antilithogenic factors, including calcium and oxalate, were compared between SFs and controls, and considered as covariates in the comparison of microbiota profiles. SFs exhibited lower faecal microbial diversity than controls (Chao1 index 1460±363vs 1658±297, fully adjusted p=0.02 with stepwise backward regression analysis). At multivariate analyses, three taxa ( Faecalibacterium , Enterobacter , Dorea ) were significantly less represented in faecal samples of SFs. The Oxalobacter abundance was not different between groups. Faecal samples from SFs exhibited a significantly lower bacterial representation of genes involved in oxalate degradation, with inverse correlation with 24-hour oxalate excretion (r=-0.87, p=0.002). The oxalate-degrading genes were represented in several bacterial species, whose cumulative abundance was inversely correlated with oxaluria (r=-0.85, p=0.02). Idiopathic calcium SFs exhibited altered gut microbiota composition and functionality that could contribute to nephrolithiasis physiopathology. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All

  6. Radionuclide response functions for the convection-dispersion equation from a point source along the axis of nested cylindrical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeNeveu, D.M.; Kolar, M.

    1996-07-01

    In this report we develop response functions for the mass transport of radionuclides from a small pinhole-sized defect in a waste container located in a cylindrical disposal room. The disposal rooms are considered to be Idled with buffer and backfill materials composed of mixtures of clay and sand or crushed rock. Mass transport of radionuclides released gradually into the room by diffusion through a pinhole can be determined by convolution with the response functions. A model based on the boundary-integral method (BIM) is described here. In this model the room is represented by three coaxial cylinders comprised of buffer, backfill and excavation damage zone, surrounded by the sparsely fractured rock. The main result of the model is the flux integrated over the surface of the excavation damage zone which can serve as the input into a model representing the surrounding geosphere. The integrated flux obtained from the BIM model is compared with the integrated flux obtained from the finite-element code called MOTIF (Chan et al. 1987). The finite-element model consists of coaxial rectangular regions that have the same volume as the respective cylinders in the BIM model. Sample numerical calculations are shown for 129 I which is one of longest lived and most readily Teachable radionuclides that would be released from a failed container. The two models give identical results in the absence of groundwater flow, and almost identical results for a range of small groundwater velocities. For very large groundwater velocities the BIM model is conservative (it gives higher integrated fluxes than the MOTIF model), except when the source is near the end of the room towards which the flow is directed. (author)

  7. IL17/IL17RA as a Novel Signaling Axis Driving Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapeutic Function in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Kurte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in multiple sclerosis (MS and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model has been well described. This effect is, in part, mediated through the inhibition of IL17-producing cells and the generation of regulatory T cells. While proinflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ, TNFα, and IL1β have been shown to enhance MSCs immunosuppressive function, the role of IL17 remains poorly elucidated. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the role of the IL17/IL17R pathway on MSCs immunoregulatory effects focusing on Th17 cell generation in vitro and on Th17-mediated EAE pathogenesis in vivo. In vitro, we showed that the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs on Th17 cell proliferation and differentiation is partially dependent on IL17RA expression. This was associated with a reduced expression level of MSCs immunosuppressive mediators such as VCAM1, ICAM1, and PD-L1 in IL17RA−/− MSCs as compared to wild-type (WT MSCs. In the EAE model, we demonstrated that while WT MSCs significantly reduced the clinical scores of the disease, IL17RA−/− MSCs injected mice exhibited a clinical worsening of the disease. The disability of IL17RA−/− MSCs to reduce the progression of the disease paralleled the inability of these cells to reduce the frequency of Th17 cells in the draining lymph node of the mice as compared to WT MSCs. Moreover, we showed that the therapeutic effect of MSCs was correlated with the generation of classical Treg bearing the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ signature in an IL17RA-dependent manner. Our findings reveal a novel role of IL17RA on MSCs immunosuppressive and therapeutic potential in EAE and suggest that the modulation of IL17RA in MSCs could represent a novel method to enhance their therapeutic effect in MS.

  8. Cornea stress test--evaluation of corneal endothelial function in vivo by contact lens induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Jagjit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and valid assessment of corneal endothelial function is a critical input for diagnosing, prognosticating and monitoring progression of disorders affecting corneal endothelium. In 123 eyes, corneal endothelial function was assessed employing data from the corneal hydration recovery dynamics. Serial pachometric readings were recorded on Haag-Striet pachometer with Mishima-Hedbys modification before and after two hours of thick soft contact lens wear. Percentage Recovery Per Hour (PRPH was derived from raw data as an index of endothelial function. Assessed PRPH in pseudophakic corneal oedema and Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy eyes (35.9 +/- 9.8% was significantly lower than normal controls (61.9 +/- 10.5%. On employing receiver operation characteristics curve analysis the tested results demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and specificity (92% for detection of low endothelial function at PRPH cut off of 47.5%. Using this PRPH cut off, 80% of Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy and 93.3% of pseudophakic corneal oedema eyes could be demonstrated to have low endothelial function. A total of 66.7% of diabetic eyes also demonstrated PRPH of lower than 47.5%. Clear corneal grafts demonstrated PRPH values of 24.6% to 73.0%. Of 6 corneal grafts that demonstrated initial PRPH of lower than 47.5%, 4 failed within 4 to 6 months. Our data demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this corneal stress test. PRPH index was useful in quantifying endothelial function in clinical disorders including diabetes mellitus. The index PRPH was demonstrated to be useful in monitoring and prognosticating outcome of corneal grafts.

  9. Triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional triple-axis neutron spectroscopy was developed by Brockhouse over thirty years ago' and remains today a versatile and powerful tool for probing the dynamics of condensed matter. The original design of the triple axis spectrometer is technically simple and probes momentum and energy space on a point-by-point basis. This ability to systematically probe the scattering function in a way which only requires a few angles to be moved under computer control and where the observed data in general can be analysed using a pencil and graph paper or a simple fitting routine, has been essential for the success of the method. These constraints were quite reasonable at the time the technique was developed. Advances in computer based data acquisition, neutron beam optics, and position sensitive area detectors have been gradually implemented on many triple axis spectrometer spectrometers, but the full potential of this has not been fully exploited yet. Further improvement in terms of efficiency (beyond point by point inspection) and increased sensitivity (use of focusing optics whenever the problem allows it) could easily be up to a factor of 10-20 over present instruments for many problems at a cost which is negligible compared to that of increasing the flux of the source. The real cost will be in complexity - finding the optimal set-up for a given scan and interpreting the data as the they are taken. On-line transformation of the data for an appropriate display in Q, ω space and analysis tools will be equally important for this task, and the success of these new ideas will crucially depend on how well we solve these problems. (author)

  10. Clinical evaluation of the function of hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis in children with central nervous system infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Wei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that certain non-thyroidal critical illness may lead to euthyroid sick syndrome(ESS. There are little reports about the change of thyroid hormone in the children's central nervous system (CNS infections. Results The results of serum TT3, TT4 and TSH in these children were compared with those in 20 cases of healthy adults and 20 cases of adults with primary hypothyroidism. Serum T3 and T4 were decreased in 34/78 children with CNS infections, T3 and T4 were much lower than those of healthy adult (p 0.05. Low T3 and T4 levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid(CSFwere predominant in children with serious infections of CNS, 31/34 (percent 91.17 cases of serious CNS infection had low serum TT3 and/or TT4. The low T3 with low T4 was seen in 14/34 children of severe CNS infections, 3 of them died. The levels of CSF T3 (X ± SD = 0.39 ± 0.47 ng/ml and T4 (x ± SD = 1.02 ± 1.27 ug/dl in the serious CNS infections were lower than that of non-CNS infections T3 (x ± SD = 0.93 ± 1.23 ng/ml, and T4 (x ± SD = 2.42 ± 1.70 ug/dl, 7 died children were all in the subjects of low T3 and/or low T4. In 22 children with non-CNS infections, serum T3 and T4 levels were lower than that of healthy adult, but have not significant difference(p > 0.05. Conclusions These results suggest that detection of TT3, TT4 and TSH in serum and/or CSF simultaneous or alone in analyses would be valuable in correctly judging thyroid function and evaluating the prognosis of the children with infections of CNS. Measuring a little amount of blood (1 mlor CSF required for this method is a simple, convenient and accurate method.

  11. Salvianolic Acid A Protects the Peripheral Nerve Function in Diabetic Rats through Regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Du

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acid A (SalA is one of the main efficacious, water-soluble constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This study investigated the protective effects of SalA on peripheral nerve in diabetic rats. Administration of SalA (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, ig was started from the 5th week after strepotozotocin (STZ60 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection and continued for 8 weeks. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV were used to assess peripheral nerve function. The western blot methods were employed to test the expression levels of serine-threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α, silent information regulator protein3 (sirtuin 3/Sirt3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in sciatic nerve. Results showed that SalA administration could increase PWMT and MNCV in diabetic rats; reduce the deterioration of sciatic nerve pathology; increase AMPK phosphorylation level, up-regulate PGC-1α, Sirt3 and nNOS expression, but had no influence on LKB1. These results suggest that SalA has protective effects against diabetic neuropathy. The beneficial effects of SalA on peripheral nerve function in diabetic rats might be attributed to improvements in glucose metabolism through regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 axis.

  12. Weight functions for the determination of stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Wang, X.; Tan, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the weight functions for the determination of the stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends under complex stress distributions. First, a compliance analysis approach is used to calculate stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge cracks in finite width plates with built-in ends with uniform or linear stress distributions acting on the crack face. The results serve as the reference solutions for the next step in which the approaches of deriving weight functions from reference stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions developed for stress boundary conditions are extended to obtain the corresponding weight functions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends. Finite element analysis is conducted to validate the derived solutions. The weight functions derived are suitable for obtaining stress intensity factors and T-stress solutions under any complex stress field

  13. Diabetes and mitochondrial function: Role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolo, Anabela P.; Palmeira, Carlos M.

    2006-01-01

    Hyperglycemia resulting from uncontrolled glucose regulation is widely recognized as the causal link between diabetes and diabetic complications. Four major molecular mechanisms have been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced tissue damage: activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms via de novo synthesis of the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), increased hexosamine pathway flux, increased advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, and increased polyol pathway flux. Hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide is the causal link between high glucose and the pathways responsible for hyperglycemic damage. In fact, diabetes is typically accompanied by increased production of free radicals and/or impaired antioxidant defense capabilities, indicating a central contribution for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the onset, progression, and pathological consequences of diabetes. Besides oxidative stress, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated a link between various disturbances in mitochondrial functioning and type 2 diabetes. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and decreases in mtDNA copy number have been linked to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The study of the relationship of mtDNA to type 2 diabetes has revealed the influence of the mitochondria on nuclear-encoded glucose transporters, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and nuclear-encoded uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in β-cell glucose toxicity. This review focuses on a range of mitochondrial factors important in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We review the published literature regarding the direct effects of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial function and suggest the possibility of regulation of mitochondrial function at a transcriptional level in response to hyperglycemia. The main goal of this review is to include a fresh consideration of pathways involved in hyperglycemia-induced diabetic complications

  14. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xing Wang; Yu-Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis.Data Sources:All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18,2016,were identified through a literature search on PubMed,ScienceDirect,and Web of Science,with the keywords of"gut microbiota","gut-brain axis",and "neuroscience".Study Selection:All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed,with no limitation of study design.Results:It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological,behavioral,and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood.Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products,enteric nervous system,sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system,neural-immune system,neuroendocrine system,and central nervous system.Moreover,there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain,including the gut-brain's neural network,neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,gut immune system,some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria,and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier.The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota,and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota.Conclusions:Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain,which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  15. Psychological stress-relieving effects of chewing - Relationship between masticatory function-related factors and stress-relieving effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Akinori; Kikuchi, Manaki; Nakanishi, Kousuke; Ueda, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Saliva was collected at three time points: before stress loading, immediately after stress loading, and 10min after stress loading. Compared to resting, chewing produced a significantly greater reduction in the rate of change in salivary cortisol levels 10min after stress loading. A negative correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and the number of chewing strokes. No significant correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and other measurement items. In healthy dentulous people, the number of chewing strokes has been shown to be a masticatory function-related factor that affects stress relief from chewing, suggesting the possibility that more appropriate chewing would produce a greater effect psychological stress relief. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology cell response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers (n = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) Control (CON):...

  17. Prevalence and Axis I Comorbidity of Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the United States: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used data from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653) to examine lifetime Axis I psychiatric comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Lifetime prevalences±standard errors of PTSD and partial PTSD were 6.4%±0.18 and 6.6%±0.18, respectively. Rates of PTSD and partial PTSD were higher among women (8.6%±0.26 and 8.6%±0.26) than men (4.1%±0.19 and 4.5%±0.21). Respondents with both PTSD and partial PTSD most commonly reported unexpected death of someone close, serious illness or injury to someone close, and sexual assault as their worst stressful experiences. PTSD and partial PTSD were associated with elevated lifetime rates of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. Respondents with partial PTSD generally had intermediate odds of comorbid Axis I disorders and psychosocial impairment relative to trauma controls and full PTSD. PMID:21168991

  18. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 are not required for GnRH neuron development and normal female reproductive axis function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierman, Margaret E; Xu, Mei; Pierce, A; Bliesner, B; Bliss, S P; Roberson, M S

    2012-01-01

    Selective deletion of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and ERK2 in the pituitary gonadotrope and ovarian granulosa cells disrupts female reproductive axis function. Thus, we asked if ERK1 and ERK2 are critical for GnRH neuron ontogeny or the central control of female reproductive function. GnRH-Cre-recombinase (Cre+) expressing mice were crossed with mice with a global deletion of ERK1 and a floxed ERK2 allele (Erk1-/Erk2fl/fl) to selectively delete ERK2 in GnRH neurons. Cre-recombinase mRNA was selectively expressed in the brain of Cre+ mice. GnRH neuron number and location were determined during embryogenesis and in the adult. GnRH neuron counts at E15 did not differ between experimental and control groups (1,198 ± 65 and 1,160 ± 80 respectively, p = NS). In adults, numbers of GnRH neurons in the GnRHCre+Erk1-/Erk2- mice (741 ± 157) were similar to those in controls (756 ± 7), without alteration in their distribution across the forebrain. ERK1 and 2 deficiency did not alter the timing of vaginal opening, age at first estrus, or estrous cyclicity. Although ERK1 and 2 are components of a dominant signaling pathway in GnRH neuronal cells that modulates survival and control of GnRH gene expression, other signaling pathways compensate for their deletion in vivo to allow GnRH neuron survival and targeting and normal onset of female sexual maturation and reproductive function. In contrast to effects at the pituitary and the ovary, ERK1 and ERK2 are dispensable at the level of the GnRH neuron. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Blunted neuroactive steroid and HPA axis responses to stress are associated with reduced sleep quality and negative affect in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Shannon K; O'Buckley, Todd K; Schiller, Crystal E; Stuebe, Alison; Morrow, A Leslie; Girdler, Susan S

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal health outcomes, including postpartum depression (PPD). However, there has been limited study of biological mechanisms underlying behavioral predictors of PPD during pregnancy. Considering the shared etiology of chronic stress amongst antenatal behavioral predictors, the primary goal of this pilot study was to examine associations among stress-related physiological factors (including GABA-ergic neurosteroids) and stress-related behavioral indices of anxiety during pregnancy. Fourteen nulliparous women in their second trimester of a singleton pregnancy underwent speech and mental arithmetic stress, following a 2-week subjective and objective recording of sleep-wake behavior. Lower cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of ALLO + pregnanolone throughout the entire stressor protocol (area under the curve, AUC) were associated with greater negative emotional responses to stress, and lower cortisol AUC was associated with worse sleep quality. Lower adrenocorticotropic hormone was associated with greater anxious and depressive symptoms. Stress produced paradoxical reductions in cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of allopregnanolone + pregnanolone, while tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone levels were elevated. These data suggest that cortisol, progesterone, and ALLO + pregnanolone levels in the second trimester of pregnancy are inversely related to negative emotional symptoms, and the negative impact of acute stress challenge appears to exert its effects by reducing these steroids to further promote negative emotional responses.

  20. Improvement in cerebral function with treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael J; Francis, Jennifer; Friedlander, Joshua; Banks-Williams, Lisa; Lande, Raymond G; Taylor, Patricia; Blair, James; McLellan, Jennifer; Law, Wendy; Tarpley, Vanita; Patt, Ivy; Yu, Henry; Mallinger, Alan; Difede, Joann; Rizzo, Albert; Rothbaum, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are signature illnesses of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, but current diagnostic and therapeutic measures for these conditions are suboptimal. In our study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to try to differentiate military service members with: PTSD and mTBI, PTSD alone, mTBI alone, and neither PTSD nor mTBI. Those with PTSD are then randomized to virtual reality exposure therapy or imaginal exposure. fMRI is repeated after treatment and along with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores to compare with baseline. Twenty subjects have completed baseline fMRI scans, including four controls and one mTBI only; of 15 treated for PTSD, eight completed posttreatment scans. Most subjects have been male (93%) and Caucasian (83%), with a mean age of 34. Significant improvements are evident on fMRI scans, and corroborated by CGI scores, but CAPS scores improvements are modest. In conclusion, CGI scores and fMRI scans indicate significant improvement in PTSD in both treatment arms, though CAPS score improvements are less robust. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  1. Intranasal Oxytocin Normalizes Amygdala Functional Connectivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Saskia B J; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been suggested as a promising pharmacological agent for medication-enhanced psychotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of its anxiolytic and prosocial properties. We therefore investigated the behavioral and neurobiological effects of a single intranasal OT administration (40 IU) in PTSD patients. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over resting-state fMRI study in male and female police officers with (n=37, 21 males) and without PTSD (n=40, 20 males). We investigated OT administration effects on subjective anxiety and functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CeM) amygdala subregions with prefrontal and salience processing areas. In PTSD patients, OT administration resulted in decreased subjective anxiety and nervousness. Under placebo, male PTSD patients showed diminished right CeM to left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) connectivity compared with male trauma-exposed controls, which was reinstated after OT administration. Additionally, female PTSD patients showed enhanced right BLA to bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) connectivity compared with female trauma-exposed controls, which was dampened after OT administration. Although caution is warranted, our findings tentatively suggest that OT has the potential to diminish anxiety and fear expression of the amygdala in PTSD, either via increased control of the vmPFC over the CeM (males) or via decreased salience processing of the dACC and BLA (females). Our findings add to accumulating evidence that OT administration could potentially enhance treatment response in PTSD.

  2. Structural and functional brain changes in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Malizia, Andrea L

    2004-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly disabling condition that is associated with intrusive recollections of a traumatic event, hyperarousal, avoidance of clues associated with the trauma, and psychological numbing. The field of neuroimaging has made tremendous advances in the past decade and has contributed greatly to our understanding of the physiology of fear and the pathophysiology of PTSD. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated significant neurobiologic changes in PTSD. There appear to be 3 areas of the brain that are different in patients with PTSD compared with those in control subjects: the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the medial frontal cortex. The amygdala appears to be hyperreactive to trauma-related stimuli. The hallmark symptoms of PTSD, including exaggerated startle response and flashbacks, may be related to a failure of higher brain regions (i.e., the hippocampus and the medial frontal cortex) to dampen the exaggerated symptoms of arousal and distress that are mediated through the amygdala in response to reminders of the traumatic event. The findings of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD are reviewed as they relate to our current understanding of the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  3. The effect of a multi-axis suspension on whole body vibration exposures and physical stress in the neck and low back in agricultural tractor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Dennerlein, Jack T; Johnson, Peter W

    2018-04-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) exposures are often predominant in the fore-aft (x) or lateral (y) axis among off-road agricultural vehicles. However, as the current industry standard seats are designed to reduce mainly vertical (z) axis WBV exposures, they may be less effective in reducing drivers' exposure to multi-axial WBV. Therefore, this laboratory-based study aimed to determine the differences between a single-axial (vertical) and multi-axial (vertical + lateral) suspension seat in reducing WBV exposures, head acceleration, self-reported discomfort, and muscle activity (electromyography) of the major muscle of the low back, neck and shoulders. The results showed that the multi-axial suspension seat had significantly lower WBV exposures compared to the single-axial suspension seats (p' suspension seat had lower head acceleration and muscle activity of the neck, shoulder, and low back compared to the single-axial suspension seat; some but not all of the differences were statistically significant. These results indicate that the multi-axial suspension seat may reduce the lateral WBV exposures and associated muscular loading in the neck and low back in agricultural vehicle operators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Objectives: Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA levels and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression among medical/paramedical students of 1 st and 3 rd year. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students; 75 from 1 st year (2010-2011 and75 from 3 rd year (2009-2010; of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Results: Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Conclusions: Stress in 3 rd year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given.

  5. Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from COPD compared to those with COPD: A case-control study. ... However, conclusions about the role of blood or lung oxidative stress markers were disparate. Aims: To ... Keywords: inflammation; lung disease; spirometry; tobacco; sedentarily; stress oxidant ...

  6. Plasma lipoproteins in posttraumatic stress disorder patients compared to healthy controls and their associations with the HPA- and HPT-axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Giel-Jan; Mocking, Roel; Assies, Johanna; Schene, Aart; Olff, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Based on studies among primarily male veteran subjects, lipoproteins are thought to mediate the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent civilian studies with female samples or samples with both sexes represented provide

  7. Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-12-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Early life stress determines the effects of glucocorticoids and stress on hippocampal function: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anup G; Arp, Marit; Velzing, Els; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Schmidt, Mathias V; Holsboer, Florian; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to early-life adversity may program brain function to prepare individuals for adaptation to matching environmental contexts. In this study we tested this hypothesis in more detail by examining the effects of early-life stress - induced by raising offspring with limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal days 2-9 - in various behavioral tasks and on synaptic function in adult mice. Early-life stress impaired adult performance in the hippocampal dependent low-arousing object-in-context recognition memory task. This effect was absent when animals were exposed to a single stressor before training. Early-life stress did not alter high-arousing context and auditory fear conditioning. Early-life stress-induced behavioral modifications were not associated with alterations in the dendritic architecture of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons or principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala. However, early-life stress reduced the ratio of NMDA to AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and glutamate release probability specifically in hippocampal CA1 neurons, but not in the basolateral amygdala. These ex vivo effects in the hippocampus were abolished by acute glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings support that early-life stress can hamper object-in-context learning via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms that affect hippocampal function but these effects are counteracted by acute stress or elevated glucocorticoid levels. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Ömer; Çubukçuoğlu, Zeynep; Erdin, Soner; Taş, Cumhur; Onur, Ece; Berk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502); household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501); participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414); hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567), superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667), and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450); and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597). There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  10. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Aydemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods: Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502; household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501; participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414; hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567, superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667, and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450; and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597. There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  11. Association between Mastication, the Hippocampus, and the HPA Axis: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Zhou, Qian; Niwa, Masami; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2017-08-03

    Mastication is mainly involved in food intake and nutrient digestion with the aid of teeth. Mastication is also important for preserving and promoting general health, including hippocampus-dependent cognition. Both animal and human studies indicate that mastication influences hippocampal functions through the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucocorticoid (GC). Epidemiologic studies suggest that masticatory dysfunction in aged individuals, such as that resulting from tooth loss and periodontitis, acting as a source of chronic stress, activates the HPA axis, leading to increases in circulating GCs and eventually inducing various physical and psychological diseases, such as cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disorders, and osteoporosis. Recent studies demonstrated that masticatory stimulation or chewing during stressful conditions suppresses the hyperactivity of the HPA axis via GCs and GC receptors within the hippocampus, and ameliorates chronic stress-induced hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of current research regarding the association between mastication, the hippocampus, and HPA axis activity. We also discuss several potential molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between mastication, hippocampal function, and HPA axis activity.

  12. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Frequency and Wavevector Dependence of the Atomic Level Stress-Stress Correlation Function in a Model Supercooled Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, Valentin A.; Morris, James R.; Egami, Takeshi

    2012-02-01

    Temporal and spatial correlations among the local atomic level shear stresses were studied for a model liquid iron by molecular dynamics simulation [PRL 106,115703]. Integration over time and space of the shear stress correlation function F(r,t) yields viscosity via Green-Kubo relation. The stress correlation function in time and space F(r,t) was Fourier transformed to study the dependence on frequency, E, and wave vector, Q. The results, F(Q,E), showed damped shear stress waves propagating in the liquid for small Q at high and low temperatures. We also observed additional diffuse feature that appears as temperature is reduced below crossover temperature of potential energy landscape at relatively low frequencies at small Q. We suggest that this additional feature might be related to dynamic heterogeneity and boson peaks. We also discuss a relation between the time-scale of the stress-stress correlation function and the alpha-relaxation time of the intermediate self-scattering function S(Q,E).

  14. Stress, serotonergic function, and mood in users of oral contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiten, A; Panhuysen, G; Koppeschaar, H; Fekkes, D; Pijl, H; Frölich, M; Krabbe, P; Everaerd, W

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between stress and changes in insulin levels, plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), mood, and food intake was investigated in women taking monophasic oral contraceptives containing progestagens. Subjects experiencing high levels of stress displayed

  15. Treatment with Parkinsonia aculeata combats insulin resistance-induced oxidative stress through the increase in PPARγ/CuZn-SOD axis expression in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tiago Gomes; Oliveira, Alexandre Gabarra; Vecina, Juliana Falcato; Marin, Rodrigo Miguel; Franco, Eryvelton Souza; Abdalla Saad, Mario J; de Sousa Maia, Maria Bernadete

    2016-08-01

    Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Caesalpiniaceae) is a traditional ethnomedicine and has been used for the empiric treatment of hyperglycemia, without scientific background. Mechanistic analyses at molecular level from the antioxidant mechanism observed by P. aculeata are required. Herein the effects of the treatment by hydroethanolic extract partitioned with ethyl acetate of P. aculeata aerial parts (HEPa/EtOAc) in mice fed a high-fat diet that share many obesity phenotypes with humans were evaluated. The animals were treated orally with HEPa/EtOAc (125 and 250 mg/kg/day) and pioglitazone (5 mg/kg/day), for 16 days. After the treatment, HEPa/EtOAc reduced fasting serum glucose and insulin levels, as well as homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. In addition, an improvement in glucose intolerance was also observed. Indeed, a reduction in the circulating levels of TNF-α and IL-6 was also observed. Furthermore, at molecular level, it was demonstrated that the HEPa/EtOAc treatment was able to improve these physiological parameters, through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) per si, as well as the enhancement of antioxidant mechanism by an increase in PPARγ/Cu(2+), Zn(2+)-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) axis expression in liver and adipose tissue. In sum, P. aculeata is effective to improve insulin resistance in a mouse model of obesity and this effect seems to involve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms through the increase in PPARγ/CuZn-SOD axis expression.

  16. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  17. Aroma Effects on Physiologic and Cognitive Function Following Acute Stress: A Mechanism Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aromas may improve physiologic and cognitive function after stress, but associated mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the effects of lavender aroma, which is commonly used for stress reduction, on physiologic and cognitive functions. The contribution of pharmacologic, hedonic, and expectancy-related mechanisms of the aromatherapy effects was evaluated.

  18. A novel hybrid stress-function finite element method immune to severe mesh distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Song; Zhou Mingjue; Fu Xiangrong

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a hybrid stress-function finite element method proposed recently for developing 2D finite element models immune to element shapes. Deferent from the first version of the hybrid-stress element constructed by Pian, the stress function φ of 2D elastic or fracture problem is regarded as the functional variable of the complementary energy functional. Then, the basic analytical solutions of φ are taken as the trial functions for finite element models, and meanwhile, the corresponding unknown stress-function constants are introduced. By using the principle of minimum complementary energy, these unknown stress-function constants can be expressed in terms of the displacements along element edges. Finally, the complementary energy functional can be rewritten in terms of element nodal displacement vector, and thus, the element stiffness matrix of such hybrid-function element can be obtained. As examples, two (8- and 12-node) quadrilateral plane elements and an arbitrary polygonal crack element are constructed by employing different basic analytical solutions of different stress functions. Numerical results show that, the 8- and 12-node plane models can produce the exact solutions for pure bending and linear bending problems, respectively, even the element shape degenerates into triangle and concave quadrangle; and the crack element can also predict accurate results with very low computational cost in analysis of stress-singularity problems.

  19. Stress tolerances of nullmutants of function-unknown genes encoding menadione stress-responsive proteins in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Éva; Bálint, Mihály; Miskei, Márton; Orosz, Erzsébet; Szabó, Zsuzsa; Pócsi, István

    2016-07-01

    A group of menadione stress-responsive function-unkown genes of Aspergillus nidulans (Locus IDs ANID_03987.1, ANID_06058.1, ANID_10219.1, and ANID_10260.1) was deleted and phenotypically characterized. Importantly, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the tested A. nidulans genes and their orthologs shed light only on the presence of a TANGO2 domain with NRDE protein motif in the translated ANID_06058.1 gene but did not reveal any recognizable protein-encoding domains in other protein sequences. The gene deletion strains were subjected to oxidative, osmotic, and metal ion stress and, surprisingly, only the ΔANID_10219.1 mutant showed an increased sensitivity to 0.12 mmol l(-1) menadione sodium bisulfite. The gene deletions affected the stress sensitivities (tolerances) irregularly, for example, some strains grew more slowly when exposed to various oxidants and/or osmotic stress generating agents, meanwhile the ΔANID_10260.1 mutant possessed a wild-type tolerance to all stressors tested. Our results are in line with earlier studies demonstrating that the deletions of stress-responsive genes do not confer necessarily any stress-sensitivity phenotypes, which can be attributed to compensatory mechanisms based on other elements of the stress response system with overlapping functions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Numerical investigation of thermal and residual stress of sapphire during c-axis vertical Bridgman growth process considering the solidification history effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Young Cheol; Lee, Wook Jin

    2018-01-01

    Sapphire single crystals have been highlighted for epitaxial of gallium nitride films in high-power laser and light emitting diode industries. In this study, the evolution of thermally induced stress in sapphire during the vertical Bridgman crystal growth process was investigated using a finite element model that simplified the real Bridgman process. A vertical Bridgman process of cylindrical sapphire crystal with a diameter of 50 mm was considered for the model. The solidification history effect during the growth was modeled by the quite element technique. The effects of temperature gradient, seeding interface shape and seeding position on the thermal stress during the process were discussed based on the finite element analysis results.

  1. Activation of the HPA Axis and Depression of Feeding Behavior Induced by Restraint Stress Are Separately Regulated by PACAPergic Neurotransmission in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    We measured serum CORT elevation in wild-type and PACAP-deficient C57Bl/6N male mice after acute (1 hr) or prolonged (2–3 hr) daily restraint stress for seven days. The PACAP-dependence of CORT elevation was compared to that of stress-induced hypophagia. Daily restraint induced unhabituated peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia/weight loss, of similar magnitude for 1, 2 and 3 hr of daily restraint, in wild-type mice. Peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia, were both attenuated in PACAP-deficient m...

  2. Transient Stress Intensity Factors of Functionally Graded Hollow Cylinders with Internal Circumferential Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Eshraghi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, transient thermomechanical stress intensity factors for functionally graded cylinders with complete internal circumferential cracks are obtained using the weight function method. The finite difference method is used to calculate the time dependent temperature distribution and thermal stresses along the cylinder thickness. Furthermore, finite element analysis is performed to determine the weight function coefficients and to investigate the accuracy of the predicted stress intensity factors from the weight functions. Variation of the stress intensity factors with time and effects of the material gradation on the results are investigated, as well. It is shown that the proposed technique can be used to accurately predict transient thermomechanical stress intensity factors for functionally graded cylinders with arbitrary material gradation.

  3. Intranasal Oxytocin Normalizes Amygdala Functional Connectivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Saskia B. J.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been suggested as a promising pharmacological agent for medication-enhanced psychotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of its anxiolytic and prosocial properties. We therefore investigated the behavioral and neurobiological effects of a single

  4. Traumatic stress and psychological functioning in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTSD). ... Aim: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptomatology and related ... Methods: Home interviews with adolescents and their maternal caregivers were ... The Child Behaviour Checklist was completed by the caregivers.

  5. Adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucose to repeated immobilization or restraint stress is not influenced by associative signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa, Cristina; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2011-02-02

    Repeated exposure to the same stressor very often results in a reduction of some prototypical stress responses, namely those related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-medullo-adrenal (SMA) axes. This reduced response to repeated exposure to the same (homotypic) stressor (adaptation) is usually considered as a habituation-like process, and therefore, a non-associative type of learning. However, there is some evidence that contextual cues and therefore associative processes could contribute to adaptation. In the present study we demonstrated in two experiments using adult male rats that repeated daily exposure to restraint (REST) or immobilization on boards (IMO) reduced the HPA (plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone) and glucose responses to the homotypic stressor and such reduced responses remained intact when all putative cues associated to the procedure (experimenter, way of transporting to the stress room, stress boxes, stress room and colour of the restrainer in the case of REST) were modified on the next day. Therefore, the present results do not favour the view that adaptation after repeated exposure to a stressor may involve associative processes related to signals predicting the imminence of the stressors, but more studies are needed on this issue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to psychological stress and memory in middle-aged women: high responders exhibit enhanced declarative memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, G; Heinrichs, M; Reichwald, U; Hautzinger, M

    2002-10-01

    According to recent studies, elevated cortisol levels are associated with impaired declarative memory performance. This specific effect of cortisol has been shown in several studies using pharmacological doses of cortisol. The present study was designed to determine the effects of endogenously stimulated cortisol secretion on memory performance in healthy middle-aged women. For psychological stress challenging, we employed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Subjects were assigned to either the TSST or a non-stressful control condition. Declarative and non-declarative memory performance was measured by a combined priming-free-recall-task. No significant group differences were found for memory performance. Post hoc analyses of variance indicated that regardless of experimental condition the subjects with remarkably high cortisol increase in response to the experimental procedure (high responders) showed increased memory performance in the declarative task compared to subjects with low cortisol response (low responders). The results suggest that stress-induced cortisol failed to impair memory performance. The results are discussed with respect to gender-specific effects and modulatory effects of the sympathetic nervous system and psychological variables. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. The Effects of Predictability on Stress and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-24

    for the inconsistent results. Further, both studies could have benefited from using more extensive stress assessments. The studies relied on very...should be used in order to judge on the potential benefits of enhancing information about aspects of a stressful event. These data underscore the...coffee flavored candy, candy containing walnuts. Catsup, chili sauce, olives, vanilla. Eggs, Dairy products (e .g. milk, cheese, yog:Jrt, ... ), red

  8. Lactobacillus casei combats acid stress by maintaining cell membrane functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei strains have traditionally been recognized as probiotics and frequently used as adjunct culture in fermented dairy products where lactic acid stress is a frequently encountered environmental condition. We have investigated the effect of lactic acid stress on the cell membrane of L. casei Zhang [wild type (WT)] and its acid-resistant mutant Lbz-2. Both strains were grown under glucose-limiting conditions in chemostats; following challenge by low pH, the cell membrane stress responses were investigated. In response to acid stress, cell membrane fluidity decreased and its fatty acid composition changed to reduce the damage caused by lactic acid. Compared with the WT, the acid-resistant mutant exhibited numerous survival advantages, such as higher membrane fluidity, higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, and higher mean chain length. In addition, cell integrity analysis showed that the mutant maintained a more intact cellular structure and lower membrane permeability after environmental acidification. These results indicate that alteration in membrane fluidity, fatty acid distribution, and cell integrity are common mechanisms utilized by L. casei to withstand severe acidification and to reduce the deleterious effect of lactic acid on the cell membrane. This detailed comparison of cell membrane responses between the WT and mutant add to our knowledge of the acid stress adaptation and thus enable new strategies to be developed aimed at improving the industrial performance of this species under acid stress.

  9. Accuracy of right and left ventricular functional assessment by short-axis vs axial cine steady-state free-precession magnetic resonance imaging: intrapatient correlation with main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta phase-contrast flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Susan H; Wald, Rachel; Wintersperger, Bernd J; Jimenez-Juan, Laura; Deva, Djeven; Crean, Andrew M; Nguyen, Elsie; Paul, Narinder S; Ley, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    The left ventricle (LV) is routinely assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using short-axis orientation; it remains unclear whether the right ventricle (RV) can also be adequately assessed in this orientation or whether dedicated axial orientation is required. We used phase-contrast (PC) flow measurements in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ascending aorta (Aorta) as nonvolumetric standard of reference and compared RV and LV volumes in short-axis and axial orientations. A retrospective analysis identified 30 patients with cardiac MRI data sets. Patients underwent MRI (1.5 T or 3 T), with retrospectively gated cine steady-state free-precession in axial and short-axis orientations. PC flow analyses of MPA and Aorta were used as the reference measure of RV and LV output. There was a high linear correlation between MPA-PC flow and RV-stroke volume (SV) short axis (r = 0.9) and RV-SV axial (r = 0.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean offset of 1.4 mL for RV axial and -2.3 mL for RV-short-axis vs MPA-PC flow. There was a high linear correlation between Aorta-PC flow and LV-SV short-axis (r = 0.9) and LV-SV axial (r = 0.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean offset of 4.8 m for LV short axis and 7.0 mL for LV axial vs Aorta-PC flow. There was no significant difference (P = .6) between short-axis-LV SV and short-axis-RV SV. No significant impact of the slice acquisition orientation for determination of RV and LV stroke volumes was found. Therefore, cardiac magnetic resonance workflow does not need to be extended by an axial data set for patients without complex cardiac disease for assessment of biventricular function and volumes. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estresse e função reprodutiva feminina Stress and female reproductive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone da Nóbrega Tomaz Moreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a relação do estresse sobre a função reprodutiva, considerando que a infertilidade pode ter causas psicológicas (hipótese da psicogênese ou pode ser a origem do estresse psicológico. A presença do estresse tem o potencial de ativar o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal, o qual, inibe o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-ovariano, levando à paralisação temporária das menstruações. Esse processo pode resultar em infertilidade transitória para as mulheres. Os autores enfatizam a necessidade de uma abordagem psicológica nos serviços de reprodução, objetivando trabalhar as tensões e frustrações advindas da infertilidade e do seu tratamento.This article discusses the relationship between stress and reproduction considering that infertility could bear psychological causes (psychogenesis hypothesis or could be caused by psychological stress. Stress has the potential of activating the hypothalamus-hypophisis-adrenal axis inhibiting the hypothalamus-hypophisis-ovarian axis leading to temporary menstruation paralysis. This process could result in a transitory infertility of women. The authors emphasize the need of a psychological approach in reproduction services with the objective of treating tensions and frustrations derived from infertility and its treatment.

  11. Effects of pre-experience of social exclusion on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and catecholaminergic responsiveness to public speaking stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Kuepper, Yvonne; Hennig, Juergen; Deinzer, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Being socially excluded is associated with a variety of psychological changes and with an increased risk of disease. Today, the immediate physiological consequences of being socially excluded are not well understood. In two recent studies employing a standardized exclusion paradigm (Cyberball) we found social exclusion in this virtual game did not alter cortisol secretion directly. However, exclusion pre-experience suppresses the normal cortisol response to public speaking stress in women. The present study aims to replicate our previous finding and further elucidate it by analyzing for the first time whether this alteration of cortisol-responsiveness is associated to ACTH and whether the catecholaminergic system is affected as well. Women were randomly assigned to Cyberball-induced exclusion (SE, n = 22) or inclusion (SI, n = 21), respectively. Immediately afterwards they were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol, plasma ACTH, catecholamines and estradiol were assessed as were psychological distress and mood. Cyberball exclusion led to a highly significant immediate increase in negative affect in excluded women. After public speaking negative affect in included women increased as well and groups no longer differed. We replicate our previous finding of cortisol non-responsiveness to public speaking stress after exclusion pre-experience and find this effect to be significantly correlated with ACTH alterations. No such effects are observed for catecholamines. We replicated our previous study result of a suppressed cortisol stress response after a short exclusion experience via Cyberball, thereby underlining the profound effects of social exclusion on a subsequent cortisol stress response. This further demonstrates that these alterations are associated with ACTH. Lack of effects on catecholamines is discussed in view of the tend-and-befriend hypothesis but also from a methodological perspective.

  12. Effects of pre-experience of social exclusion on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and catecholaminergic responsiveness to public speaking stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Weik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Being socially excluded is associated with a variety of psychological changes and with an increased risk of disease. Today, the immediate physiological consequences of being socially excluded are not well understood. In two recent studies employing a standardized exclusion paradigm (Cyberball we found social exclusion in this virtual game did not alter cortisol secretion directly. However, exclusion pre-experience suppresses the normal cortisol response to public speaking stress in women. The present study aims to replicate our previous finding and further elucidate it by analyzing for the first time whether this alteration of cortisol-responsiveness is associated to ACTH and whether the catecholaminergic system is affected as well. METHODS: Women were randomly assigned to Cyberball-induced exclusion (SE, n = 22 or inclusion (SI, n = 21, respectively. Immediately afterwards they were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol, plasma ACTH, catecholamines and estradiol were assessed as were psychological distress and mood. RESULTS: Cyberball exclusion led to a highly significant immediate increase in negative affect in excluded women. After public speaking negative affect in included women increased as well and groups no longer differed. We replicate our previous finding of cortisol non-responsiveness to public speaking stress after exclusion pre-experience and find this effect to be significantly correlated with ACTH alterations. No such effects are observed for catecholamines. CONCLUSIONS: We replicated our previous study result of a suppressed cortisol stress response after a short exclusion experience via Cyberball, thereby underlining the profound effects of social exclusion on a subsequent cortisol stress response. This further demonstrates that these alterations are associated with ACTH. Lack of effects on catecholamines is discussed in view of the tend-and-befriend hypothesis but also from a methodological

  13. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Maternal separation as a model of brain-gut axis dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2011-03-01

    Early life stress has been implicated in many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Maternal separation in rodents is a well-studied model of early life stress. However, stress during this critical period also induces alterations in many systems throughout the body. Thus, a variety of other disorders that are associated with adverse early life events are often comorbid with psychiatric illnesses, suggesting a common underlying aetiology. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is thought to involve a dysfunctional interaction between the brain and the gut. Essential aspects of the brain-gut axis include spinal pathways, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, the immune system, as well as the enteric microbiota. Accumulating evidence suggest that stress, especially in early life, is a predisposing factor to IBS.

  15. Protective effect of low dose caffeine on psychological stress and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Özgür Kasımay; Ellek, Nurfitnat; Salehin, Nabila; Hamamcı, Rabia; Keleş, Hülya; Kayalı, Damla Gökçeoğlu; Akakın, Dilek; Yüksel, Meral; Özbeyli, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine is an adrenergic antagonist that enhances neuronal activity. Psychological stress depresses cognitive function. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic low dose caffeine on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive functions of acute or chronic psychological stressed rats. Acute or chronic caffeine (3mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250g, n=42) before acute (cat odor) and chronic variable psychological stress (restraint overcrowding stress, elevated plus maze, cat odor, forced swimming) induction. Anxiety and cognitive functions were evaluated by hole-board and object recognition tests. The brain glutathione and malondialdehyde assays, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), luminol and lucigenin activity and histological examination were done. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. The depressed cognitive function with chronic stress exposure and the increased anxiety-like behavior with both stress inductions were improved via both caffeine applications (pcaffeine pretreatments in chronic stressed rats, and chronic caffeine in acute stressed ones reduced the elevated myeloperoxidase activities (pcaffeine (pcaffeine (pcaffeine decreased SOD activity (pcaffeine. The increased anxiety-like behavior and depleted cognitive functions under stress conditions were improved with both acute and predominantly chronic caffeine pretreatments by decreasing oxidative damage parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Stress Exposure and Family Functioning in Internalizing Outcomes of Urban Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidow, Ashli J; Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Strachan, Martha K

    2014-11-01

    Although research suggests that stress exposure and family functioning are associated with internalizing problems in adolescents and caregivers, surprisingly few studies have investigated the mechanisms that underlie this association. To determine whether family functioning buffers the development of internalizing problems in stress-exposed families, we assessed the relation between stress exposure, family functioning, and internalizing symptoms among a large sample of inner-city male youth and their caregivers living in poverty across five waves of data collection. We hypothesized that stress exposure and family functioning would predict development of subsequent youth and caregiver internalizing problems and that family functioning would moderate this relation, with higher functioning families demonstrating greater resiliency to stress exposure. We used a longitudinal, prospective design to evaluate whether family functioning (assessed at waves one through four) activated or buffered the effects of stress exposure (assessed at wave one) on subsequent internalizing symptoms (assessed at waves four and five). Stress from Developmental Transitions and family functioning were significant predictors of depressive symptoms and anxiety in youth; however, family functioning did not moderate the relation. Family functioning mediated the relation between stress from Daily Hassles and internalizing outcomes suggesting that poor parenting practices, low structure, and low emotional cohesion activate depression and anxiety in youth exposed to chronic and frequent everyday stressors. Surprisingly, only family functioning predicted depressive symptoms in caregivers. Results validate the use of a comprehensive, multi-informant assessment of stress when investigating internalizing outcomes in youth and support using family-based interventions in the treatment and prevention of internalizing.

  17. Improved sample manipulation at the STRESS-SPEC neutron diffractometer using an industrial 6-axis robot for texture and strain analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randau, C.; Brokmeier, H.G.; Gan, W.M.; Hofmann, M.; Voeller, M.; Tekouo, W.; Al-hamdany, N.; Seidl, G.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    The materials science neutron diffractometer STRESS-SPEC located at FRM II is a dedicated instrument for strain and pole figure measurements. Both methods make complementary demands on sample handling. On one hand pole figure measurements need a high degree of freedom to orient small samples and on the other hand in strain investigations it is often necessary to handle large and heavy components. Therefore a robot based sample positioning system was developed, which has the capability to provide both possibilities. Based on this new robot system further developments like a full automated sample changer system for texture measurements were accomplished. Moreover this system opens the door for combined strain and texture analysis at STRESS-SPEC

  18. Improved sample manipulation at the STRESS-SPEC neutron diffractometer using an industrial 6-axis robot for texture and strain analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randau, C. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Brokmeier, H.G., E-mail: heinz-guenter.brokmeier@tu-clausthal.de [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Gan, W.M. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Hofmann, M.; Voeller, M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Tekouo, W. [Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management, TU München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Al-hamdany, N. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Seidl, G. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Schreyer, A. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2015-09-11

    The materials science neutron diffractometer STRESS-SPEC located at FRM II is a dedicated instrument for strain and pole figure measurements. Both methods make complementary demands on sample handling. On one hand pole figure measurements need a high degree of freedom to orient small samples and on the other hand in strain investigations it is often necessary to handle large and heavy components. Therefore a robot based sample positioning system was developed, which has the capability to provide both possibilities. Based on this new robot system further developments like a full automated sample changer system for texture measurements were accomplished. Moreover this system opens the door for combined strain and texture analysis at STRESS-SPEC.

  19. Evaluation of a functional medicine approach to treating fatigue, stress, and digestive issues in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, Susanne M; Bergstrom, Larry R; Kalish, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    Fatigue, stress, and digestive disorders are common among adults, especially women. We conducted a 28-week pilot study to assess the efficacy of a functional medicine approach to improving stress, energy, fatigue, digestive issues, and quality of life in middle-aged women. Findings showed significant improvements in many stress, fatigue, and quality-of-life measures. The treatment program increased mean salivary dehydroepiandrosterone levels and the cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone ratio. Stool sample analyses suggested that these treatments reduced Helicobacter pylori infections. This study suggests that functional medicine may be an effective approach to managing stress and gastrointestinal symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A discrete stress-strength interference model based on universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zongwen; Huang Hongzhong; Liu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Continuous stress-strength interference (SSI) model regards stress and strength as continuous random variables with known probability density function. This, to some extent, results in a limitation of its application. In this paper, stress and strength are treated as discrete random variables, and a discrete SSI model is presented by using the universal generating function (UGF) method. Finally, case studies demonstrate the validity of the discrete model in a variety of circumstances, in which stress and strength can be represented by continuous random variables, discrete random variables, or two groups of experimental data

  1. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  2. Stress Response as a Function of Task Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    be benchmarked for validity and reliability. The State-Trait Anxiety Index (or STAI; Spielberger and Sydeman, 1994) is a popular self-report...and human performance. In J.E. Driskell & E. Salas (Eds.), Stress and Human Performance Spielberger , C.D. and Sydeman, S.J. (1994). State-Trait

  3. Effects of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management on Executive Function Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Robles-Ortega, Humbelina; Pérez-García, Miguel; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2017-02-13

    This study aims to determine whether it is possible to modify executive function in stressed individuals by means of cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management. Thirty-one people with high levels of perceived stress were recruited into the study (treatment group = 18; wait-list group = 13). The treatment group received 14 weeks of stress management program. Psychological and executive function variables were evaluated in both groups pre and post-intervention. The treatment group showed improved psychological variables of perceived stress (t = 5.492; p = .001), vulnerability to stress (t = 4.061; p = .001) and superstitious thinking (t = 2.961; p = .009). Likewise, the results showed statistically significant differences in personality variables related to executive function, positive urgency (t = 3.585; p = .002) and sensitivity to reward (t = -2.201; p = .042), which improved after the therapy. These variables showed a moderate to high effect size (oscillates between 1.30 for perceived stress and .566 for sensitivity to reward). The cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management may be an appropriate strategy for improving personality construct components related to executive function, however effects of the therapy are not showed on performance on the tests of executive function applied, as presented studies previous.

  4. Stress intensity factors and weight functions for cracks in front of notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.

    1993-12-01

    The knowledge of stress intensity factors for cracks at notch roots is important for the fracture mechanical treatment of real components. Stress intensity factor solutions are available only for special notches and externally applied loads. For the treatment of more complex loadings as thermal stresses near the notch root the weight function is needed in addition. In the first part of this report weight functions for cracks in front of internal notches are derived from stress intensity factor solutions under external loading available in the literature. The second part deals with cracks in front of edge notches. Limit cases of stress intensity factors are derived which allow to estimate stress intensity factors for cracks in front of internal elliptical notches with arbitrary aspect ratio of the ellipse and for external notches. (orig.) [de

  5. Elastic Stress Analysis of Rotating Functionally Graded Annular Disk of Variable Thickness Using Finite Difference Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Jalali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic stress analysis of rotating variable thickness annular disk made of functionally graded material (FGM is presented. Elasticity modulus, density, and thickness of the disk are assumed to vary radially according to a power-law function. Radial stress, circumferential stress, and radial deformation of the rotating FG annular disk of variable thickness with clamped-clamped (C-C, clamped-free (C-F, and free-free (F-F boundary conditions are obtained using the numerical finite difference method, and the effects of the graded index, thickness variation, and rotating speed on the stresses and deformation are evaluated. It is shown that using FG material could decrease the value of radial stress and increase the radial displacement in a rotating thin disk. It is also demonstrated that increasing the rotating speed can strongly increase the stress in the FG annular disk.

  6. Stress-altered synaptic plasticity and DAMP signaling in the hippocampus-PFC axis; elucidating the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression in neural changes associated with a prolonged exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Olalekan M; Ebenezer, Philip J; Lee, Charles C; Francis, Joseph

    2017-06-14

    Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involves changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC). Since certain synaptic proteins are also involved in danger-associated molecular pattern signaling (DAMP), we identified the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression as a potential link between the concurrent progression of synaptic and inflammatory changes in stress. Thus, a comparison between IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα, synaptic and DAMP proteins in stress and PET may highlight the significance of PET on synaptic morphology and neuronal inflammatory response. In behaviorally characterized Sprague-Dawley rats, there was a significant decline in neural IGF-1 (pIGF-1R expression. These animals showed a significant loss of presynaptic markers (synaptophysin; pIGF-1 (pIGF-1R was recorded in the Stress-PET group (pIGF-1/IGF-1R, an increase in activated hippocampal and cortical microglia was seen in stress (pIGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα. Firstly, we showed a direct relationship between IGF-1/IGF-1R expression, presynaptic function (synaptophysin) and neurotransmitter activity in stress and PET. Secondly, we identified the possible role of CaMKIIα in post-synaptic function and regulation of small ion conductance channels. Lastly, we highlighted some of the possible links between IGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα, the expression of DAMP proteins, Microglia activation, and its implication on synaptic plasticity during stress and PET. Copyright © 2017

  7. Immediate and long-term effects of meditation on acute stress reactivity, cognitive functions, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    With the current globalization of the world's economy and demands for enhanced performance, stress is present universally. Life's stressful events and daily stresses cause both deleterious and cumulative effects on the human body. The practice of meditation might offer a way to relieve that stress. The research team intended to study the effects of meditation on stress-induced changes in physiological parameters, cognitive functions, intelligence, and emotional quotients. The research team conducted the study in two phases, with a month between them. Each participant served as his own control, and the first phase served as the control for the second phase. In phase 1, the research team studied the effects of a stressor (10 minutes playing a computer game) on participants' stress levels. In phase 2, the research team examined the effects of meditation on stress levels. The research team conducted the study in a lab setting at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. The participants were 34 healthy, male volunteers who were students. To study the effects of long-term meditation on stress levels, intelligence, emotional quotients, and cognitive functions participants meditated daily for 1 month, between phases 1 and 2. To study the immediate effects of meditation on stress levels, participants meditated for 15 minutes after playing a computer game to induce stress. The research team measured galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol and administered tests for the intelligence and emotional quotients (IQ and EQ), acute and perceived stress (AS and PS), and cognitive functions (ie, the Sternberg memory test [short-term memory] and the Stroop test [cognitive flexibility]). Using a pre-post study design, the team performed this testing (1) prior to the start of the study (baseline); (2) in phase 1, after induced stress; (3) in part 1 of phase 2, after 1 month of daily meditation, and (4) in part 2 of phase 2, after

  8. Adolescent Personality: Associations With Basal, Awakening, and Stress-Induced Cortisol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between personality facets and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Previous studies have mainly focussed on stress-induced HPA-axis activation. We hypothesized that other characteristics of HPA-axis functioning would have a stronger association with personality based on the neuroendocrine literature. Data (n=343) were used from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large prospective...

  9. Traumatic stress and psychological functioning in a South African adolescent community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Karl D.; Pillay, Basil J.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Traumatic stress may arise from various incidents often leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is estimated at 1% – 2% in Western Europe, 6% – 9% in North America and at just over 10% in countries exposed to long-term violence. In South Africa, the lifetime prevalence for PTSD in the general population is estimated at 2.3%. Aim: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptomatology and related psychological functioning in a ...

  10. Latino Parent Acculturation Stress: Longitudinal Effects on Family Functioning and Youth Emotional and Behavioral Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B.; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel A.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2016-01-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model, parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use ...

  11. A Meta-Analysis Detailing Overall Sexual Function and Orgasmic Function in Women Undergoing Midurethral Sling Surgery for Stress Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Szell, DO

    2017-06-01

    Szell N, Komisaruk B, Goldstein SW, et al. A Meta-Analysis Detailing Overall Sexual Function and Orgasmic Function in Women Undergoing Midurethral Sling Surgery for Stress Incontinence. Sex Med 2017;5:e84–e93.

  12. Fetal Programming of Body Composition, Obesity, and Metabolic Function: The Role of Intrauterine Stress and Stress Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Entringer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological, clinical, physiological, cellular, and molecular evidence suggests that the origins of obesity and metabolic dysfunction can be traced back to intrauterine life and supports an important role for maternal nutrition prior to and during gestation in fetal programming. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms is an area of interest and intense investigation. In this perspectives paper we propose that in addition to maternal nutrition-related processes it may be important to concurrently consider the potential role of intrauterine stress and stress biology. We frame our arguments in the larger context of an evolutionary-developmental perspective that supports roles for both nutrition and stress as key environmental conditions driving natural selection and developmental plasticity. We suggest that intrauterine stress exposure may interact with the nutritional milieu, and that stress biology may represent an underlying mechanism mediating the effects of diverse intrauterine perturbations, including but not limited to maternal nutritional insults (undernutrition and overnutrition, on brain and peripheral targets of programming of body composition, energy balance homeostasis, and metabolic function. We discuss putative maternal-placental-fetal endocrine and immune/inflammatory candidate mechanisms that may underlie the long-term effects of intrauterine stress. We conclude with a commentary of the implications for future research and clinical practice.

  13. Stress-associated or functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James H; Bill, Arthur H

    2008-01-01

    Stress-associated amenorrhea in the adolescent is likely similar to the disorder found in young reproductive-aged adults and is termed hypothalamic amenorrhea. The key defect is an abnormality in the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This review examines the current studies that characterize the disorder and the plausible factor(s) that may account for the disturbances in gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and identifies directions for future research in this group of disorders.

  14. The stress-buffering effects of functional social support on ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kimberly S; Uchino, Bert N; Birmingham, Wendy; Carlisle, McKenzie; Smith, Timothy W; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-11-01

    Social support is a reliable predictor of cardiovascular health. According to the buffering hypothesis, stress is 1 mechanism by which support is able to affect physiological processes. However, most of the experimental evidence for the hypothesis comes from laboratory studies. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) protocols examine participants in their natural environment, where they are more likely to encounter personally relevant real-world stressors. Furthermore, prior work shows that examining support by its specific functional components reveals additional independent links to health. The current study aimed to examine the stress-buffering effects of functional social support on ABP. One hundred eighty-eight participants completed a 1-day ABP assessment along with measures of functional social support and both global perceived stress and momentary stress at time of reading. RESULTS indicated main effects for both stress measures. Global support, emotional, tangible, and informational support only moderated the effects of momentary stress, but not global stress, in predicting ABP. Informational support was the most consistent stress-buffering predictor of ABP, predicting both ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The predicted values in ABP for informational support achieved health-relevant differences, emphasizing the value of examining functional support beyond global support alone. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  16. Parenting stress in pediatric IBD: relations with child psychopathology, family functioning, and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Graef, Danielle M; Schuman, Shana S; Janicke, David M; Hommel, Kevin A

    2013-05-01

    Parenting stress in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been under-examined. Data validating use of the Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP), a measure of parenting stress associated with caring for a chronically ill child, in chronic diseases with intermittent, unpredictable disease courses, such as IBD, are needed. This study presents validity data in support of the PIP in pediatric IBD and examines relations between parenting stress and important psychosocial and medical outcomes. Adolescents (N = 130) with IBD and their caregivers across 3 sites completed measures of parenting stress, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral functioning. Disease severity was also assessed for each participant. The PIP demonstrates excellent internal consistency. Parenting stress was significantly higher among those with unhealthy general family functioning and those with children with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms. Caregiving stress was greater among parents of youth with more active Crohn's disease. Results supported the reliability and validity of the PIP for assessing caregiving stress in pediatric IBD. Routine assessment of parenting stress is recommended, particularly among parents reporting unhealthy family functioning and parents of youth with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms and more active disease.

  17. Oxidative stress, neuroendocrine function and behavior in an animal model of extended longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Stress and oxidative stress (OS) might act synergistically to exacerbate the neuronal decay associated with aging. Recent evidence has shown a redox regulation of the function of the glucocorticoid receptors as nuclear transcription factors. The lack of the p66Shc gene reduces OS and increases

  18. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  19. Corazonin neurons function in sexually dimorphic circuitry that shape behavioral responses to stress in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.

  20. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions following early life stress is associated with impaired social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-10-01

    Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Involvement of Endogenous Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, G; Zussy, C; Tran Van Ba, C; Chevallier, N; Tang, Y-P; Maurice, T; Givalois, L

    2015-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be highly involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation during adulthood, playing an important role in homeostasis maintenance. The present study aimed to determine the involvement of BDNF in HPA axis activity under basal and stress conditions via partial inhibition of this endogenous neurotrophin. Experiments were conducted in rats and mice with two complementary approaches: (i) BDNF knockdown with stereotaxic delivery of BDNF-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the lateral ventricle of adult male rats and (ii) genetically induced knockdown (KD) of BDNF expression specifically in the central nervous system during the first ontogenesis in mice (KD mice). Delivery of siRNA in the rat brain decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus (-31%) and hypothalamus (-35%) but not in the amygdala, frontal cortex and pituitary. In addition, siRNA induced no change of the basal HPA axis activity. BDNF siRNA rats exhibited decreased BDNF levels and concomitant altered adrenocortoctrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to restraint stress, suggesting the involvement of BDNF in the HPA axis adaptive response to stress. In KD mice, BDNF levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus were decreased by 20% in heterozygous and by 60% in homozygous animals compared to wild-type littermates. Although, in heterozygous KD mice, no significant change was observed in the basal levels of plasma ACTH and corticosterone, both hormones were significantly increased in homozygous KD mice, demonstrating that robust cerebral BDNF inhibition (60%) is necessary to affect basal HPA axis activity. All of these results in both rats and mice demonstrate the involvement and importance of a robust endogenous pool of BDNF in basal HPA axis regulation and the pivotal function of de novo BDNF synthesis in the establishment of an adapted response to stress. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  2. Des-Acyl Ghrelin and Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase Regulate Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activation and Anxiety in Response to Acute Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, R.; Santos, V.V.; Geenen, B.; Cabral, A.; Dinan, T.; Bayliss, J.A.; Lockie, S.H.; Reichenbach, A.; Lemus, M.B.; Perello, M.; Spencer, S.J.; Kozicz, L.T.; Andrews, Z.B.

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin exists in two forms in circulation, acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin, both of which have distinct and fundamental roles in a variety of physiological functions. Despite this fact, a large proportion of papers simply measure and refer to plasma ghrelin without specifying the acylation

  3. STRESS AND DIFFERENTIAL ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE-SYSTEM FUNCTIONS - CONCLUSIONS FROM SOCIAL STRESS STUDIES IN ANIMALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; DERUITER, AJH; HEIJNEN, CJ

    1991-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are implicated in the development, in the course of, and in the recovery from disease. The immune system may be a mediator of the disease. Studies with animal models using social interactions in rodents suggest that short- and long-term social stress does not invariably suppress

  4. Restricted and disrupted sleep : Effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Sgoifo, Andrea; Suchecki, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our modern around-the-clock society. In this context, it is an important question how sleep loss affects the stress systems in our bodies since these systems enable us to deal with everyday challenges. Altered activity

  5. Mitochondrial–Lysosomal Axis in Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Moles

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP toxicity is the most common cause of acute liver failure and a major indication for liver transplantion in the United States and Europe. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying APAP hepatotoxicity, there is still an urgent need to find novel and effective therapies against APAP-induced acute liver failure. Hepatic APAP metabolism results in the production of the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI, which under physiological conditions is cleared by its conjugation with glutathione (GSH to prevent its targeting to mitochondria. APAP overdose or GSH limitation leads to mitochondrial NAPQI-protein adducts formation, resulting in oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and necrotic cell death. As mitochondria are a major target of APAP hepatotoxicity, mitochondrial quality control and clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy, emerges as an important strategy to limit oxidative stress and the engagement of molecular events leading to cell death. Recent evidence has indicated a lysosomal–mitochondrial cross-talk that regulates APAP hepatotoxicity. Moreover, as lysosomal function is essential for mitophagy, impairment in the fusion of lysosomes with autophagosomes-containing mitochondria may compromise the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria, resulting in exacerbated APAP hepatotoxicity. This review centers on the role of mitochondria in APAP hepatotoxicity and how the mitochondrial/lysosomal axis can influence APAP-induced liver failure.

  6. The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Laura K.; Economou, Peter; Cruz, Daniel; Abraham-Cook, Shannon; Huntington, Jodi S.; Maris, Marika; Makhija, Nita; Welsh, Toni; Maley, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

  7. On residual stresses and homeostasis: an elastic theory of functional adaptation in living matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarletta, P; Destrade, M; Gower, A L

    2016-04-26

    Living matter can functionally adapt to external physical factors by developing internal tensions, easily revealed by cutting experiments. Nonetheless, residual stresses intrinsically have a complex spatial distribution, and destructive techniques cannot be used to identify a natural stress-free configuration. This work proposes a novel elastic theory of pre-stressed materials. Imposing physical compatibility and symmetry arguments, we define a new class of free energies explicitly depending on the internal stresses. This theory is finally applied to the study of arterial remodelling, proving its potential for the non-destructive determination of the residual tensions within biological materials.

  8. The electrical characteristic and gain behavior as a function of the radial distance from the laser axis in a copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, G.

    1989-06-01

    The dependence of few parameters (related to the laser gain) on the radial distance from the laser axis, is observed very easily in a large-bore Copper Vapor Laser (CVL). An 80-mm-bore CVL which has reproducible parameters for research purposes has been constructed. The temporal development of the gain at different radial distances in this laser has been measured. A narrow probing beam from a small CVL operating as a oscillator has been used for the measurements, while the large-bore CVL has been operated as an amplifier and probed by this beam at different radial points. The electric response of the laser has also been checked and lead to the conclusion that raising the electrons energy in the laser plasma entails higher gain. As the laser tube wall was moved towards the laser axis, a temporal lag in the gain development and a reduction in its size has been found. The temporal lag is related to skin effect which delays the penetration of the electric field in the plasma towards the laser axis. The reduction in gain is related to the radial dependence of the population of the laser lower levels. It has also been found that under saturation the average power per unit area extracted from the laser is weakly dependent on the radial distance. (author)

  9. Salubrious effects of oxytocin on social stress-induced deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2011-01-01

    Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to m...

  10. Blunted amygdala functional connectivity during a stress task in alcohol dependent individuals: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha E. Wade, M.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD. We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Materials and methods: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition. The amygdala was used as a seed region for whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis. Results: After controlling for family-wise error (p = 0.05, there was significantly decreased left and right amygdala connectivity with frontal (specifically mPFC, temporal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Subjective stress, but not craving, increased from pre-to post-task. Conclusions: This study demonstrated decreased connectivity between the amygdala and regions important for stress and emotional processing in long-term abstinent individuals with AD. These results suggest aberrant stress processing in individuals with AD even after lengthy periods of abstinence. Keywords: Alcohol dependence, fMRI, Stress task, Functional connectivity, Amygdala

  11. Intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus during rest predicts enhanced memory under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Klumpers, Floris; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2017-01-01

    Declarative memories of stressful events are less prone to forgetting than mundane events. Animal research has demonstrated that such stress effects on consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memories require the amygdala. In humans, it has been shown that during learning, increased amygdala-hippocampal interactions are related to more efficient memory encoding. Animal models predict that following learning, amygdala-hippocampal interactions are instrumental to strengthening the consolidation of such declarative memories. Whether this is the case in humans is unknown and remains to be empirically verified. To test this, we analyzed data from a sample of 120 healthy male participants who performed an incidental encoding task and subsequently underwent resting-state functional MRI in a stressful and a neutral context. Stress was assessed by measures of salivary cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate, and subjective ratings. Memory was tested afterwards outside of the scanner. Our data show that memory was stronger in the stress context compared to the neutral context and that stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with this memory enhancement. Interestingly, amygdala-hippocampal connectivity during post-encoding awake rest regardless of context (stress or neutral) was associated with the enhanced memory performance under stress. Thus, our findings are in line with a role for intrinsic functional connectivity during rest between the amygdala and the hippocampus in the state effects of stress on strengthening memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  14. A dependent stress-strength interference model based on mixed copula function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian Xiong; An, Zong Wen; Liu, Bo [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    In the traditional Stress-strength interference (SSI) model, stress and strength must satisfy the basic assumption of mutual independence. However, a complex dependence between stress and strength exists in practical engineering. To evaluate structural reliability under the case that stress and strength are dependent, a mixed copula function is introduced to a new dependent SSI model. This model can fully characterize the dependence between stress and strength. The residual square sum method and genetic algorithm are also used to estimate the unknown parameters of the model. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is demonstrated via a practical case. Results show that traditional SSI model ignoring the dependence between stress and strength more easily overestimates product reliability than the new dependent SSI model.

  15. Stress analysis in a functionally graded disc under mechanical loads ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 36; Issue 1 ... Infinitesimal deformation theory of elasticity and power law distribution for functional ... are presented due to internal pressure, external pressure, centrifugal force and steady state temperature.

  16. Dynamic regulation of NMDAR function in the adult brain by the stress hormone corticosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Chung eTse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress and corticosteroids dynamically modulate the expression of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the developed brain. Together with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR are critical mediators of synaptic function and are essential for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of NMDAR function by cortisol/corticosterone (CORT may be fundamental to the effects of stress on synaptic plasticity. Recent reports of the efficacy of NMDAR antagonists in treating certain stress-associated psychopathologies further highlight the importance of understanding the regulation of NMDAR function by CORT. Knowledge of how corticosteroids regulate NMDAR function within the adult brain is relatively sparse, perhaps due to a common belief that NMDAR function is relatively stable in the adult brain. We review recent results from our laboratory and others demonstrating dynamic regulation of NMDAR function by CORT in the adult brain. In addition, we consider the issue of how differences in the early life environment may program differential sensitivity to modulation of NMDAR function by CORT and how this may influence synaptic function during stress. Findings from these studies demonstrate that NMDAR function in the adult hippocampus remains sensitive to even brief exposures to CORT and that the capacity for modulation of NMDAR may be programmed, in part, by the early life environment. Modulation of NMDAR function may contribute to dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity and adaptation in the face of stress, however enhanced NMDAR function may be implicated in mechanisms of stress related psychopathologies including depression.

  17. Effect of saline stress on plasma membrane structure and function of barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, F. H.

    2000-01-01

    Barely (Hordeum vulgare L. c v. Black Local) plants were grown hydroponic ally under different saline stresses (50, 100, 150 And 200 mm NaCI. The adverse effect of each saline stress on the structure and function of root cells plasma membrane was studied in terms of root surface ATPase activation by NaCI in the reaction mixture. Was 0, 50, 100. 150 and 200mM. ATPase activity was found to be increased gradually at certain concentrations of NaCI. For control and 50mM stressed plants, the increase in root surface ATPase activity was started at 150mM NaCI. For 100mM stressed plants it was started at 100mM NaCI. For 150 and 200mM stressed plants it was stated at 50mM NaCI Results indicated that the adverse effect of the growth medium saline stresses on the integrity of the plasma membrane was started at 100mM saline stress. Accordingly the role of plasma membrane bound ATPase in active ion transport was disturbed at 100mM saline stress and may be impaired at 150 and 200mM saline stresses. It was suggested that the lipid environment of the plasma membrane surrounding ATPase was modified by the saline stresses 100-200mM. (author). 38 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Stress, cortisol, and B lymphocytes: a novel approach to understanding academic stress and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Bonnie A; Murphy, Karly M; Albano, Denise L; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2016-01-01

    Animal and human in vitro models suggest that stress-related B lymphocyte decrements are due to high levels of glucocorticoids which cause apoptosis of pre-B-cells as they emerge from the bone marrow. The present study sought to explore the relationships among distress, salivary cortisol, and human B lymphocytes in vivo. Distress (perceived stress, negative affect, depressive symptoms), lymphocyte phenotype, and salivary cortisol were assessed among first-year graduate students (n = 22) and a community control sample (n = 30) at the start of classes in the fall and the week immediately before spring preliminary exams. Compared to controls, students reported greater distress on all measures at each time point except baseline perceived stress. Hierarchical linear regression with necessary control variables was used to assess the effect of student status on the three measures of distress, the four measures of lymphocyte phenotype, and cortisol AUC and CAR over time (T1-T2). Student status was associated with a significant decrease in CD19 + B lymphocytes and flattened cortisol awakening response (CAR). Change in CAR was associated with the decrease in CD19 + B lymphocytes. Results indicated that there are significant associations among student status, flattening of CAR, and decrements in CD19 + lymphocytes.

  19. Objective effect manifestation of pectus excavatum on load-stressed pulmonary function testing: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship.

  20. Microbiota Modulate Anxiety-Like Behavior and Endocrine Abnormalities in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Huo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbes are an important system in the human body, with significant effects on behavior. An increasing body of research indicates that intestinal microbes affect brain function and neurogenesis, including sensitivity to stress. To investigate the effects of microbial colonization on behavior, we examined behavioral changes associated with hormones and hormone receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis under stress. We tested germ-free (GF mice and specific pathogen-free (SPF mice, divided into four groups. A chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol was utilized to induce external pressure in two stress groups by restraining mice in a conical centrifuge tube for 4 h per day for 21 days. After CRS, Initially, GF restraint-stressed mice explored more time than SPF restraint-stressed mice in the center and total distance of the OFT. Moreover, the CRH, ACTH, CORT, and ALD levels in HPA axis of GF restraint-stressed mice exhibited a significantly greater increase than those of SPF restraint-stressed mice. Finally, the Crhr1 mRNA levels of GF CRS mice were increased compared with SPF CRS mice. However, the Nr3c2 mRNA levels of GF CRS mice were decreased compared with SPF CRS mice. All results revealed that SPF mice exhibited more anxiety-like behavior than GF mice under the same external stress. Moreover, we also found that GF mice exhibited significant differences in, hormones, and hormone receptors compared with SPF mice. In conclusion, Imbalances of the HPA axis caused by intestinal microbes could affect the neuroendocrine system in the brain, resulting in an anxiety-like behavioral phenotype. This study suggested that intervention into intestinal microflora may provide a new approach for treating stress-related diseases.

  1. Child Behavior Problems, Teacher Executive Functions, and Teacher Stress in Head Start Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele; Neuspiel, Juliana M; Kinsel, John

    2014-01-01

    The current article explores the relationship between teachers' perceptions of child behavior problems and preschool teacher job stress, as well as the possibility that teachers' executive functions moderate this relationship. Data came from 69 preschool teachers in 31 early childhood classrooms in 4 Head Start centers and were collected using Web-based surveys and Web-based direct assessment tasks. Multilevel models revealed that higher levels of teachers' perceptions of child behavior problems were associated with higher levels of teacher job stress and that higher teacher executive function skills were related to lower job stress. However, findings did not yield evidence for teacher executive functions as a statistical moderator. Many early childhood teachers do not receive sufficient training for handling children's challenging behaviors. Child behavior problems increase a teacher's workload and consequently may contribute to feelings of stress. However, teachers' executive function abilities may enable them to use effective, cognitive-based behavior management and instructional strategies during interactions with students, which may reduce stress. Providing teachers with training on managing challenging behaviors and enhancing executive functions may reduce their stress and facilitate their use of effective classroom practices, which is important for children's school readiness skills and teachers' health.

  2. Child Behavior Problems, Teacher Executive Functions, and Teacher Stress in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele; Neuspiel, Juliana M.; Kinsel, John

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings The current article explores the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of child behavior problems and preschool teacher job stress, as well as the possibility that teachers’ executive functions moderate this relationship. Data came from 69 preschool teachers in 31 early childhood classrooms in 4 Head Start centers and were collected using Web-based surveys and Web-based direct assessment tasks. Multilevel models revealed that higher levels of teachers’ perceptions of child behavior problems were associated with higher levels of teacher job stress and that higher teacher executive function skills were related to lower job stress. However, findings did not yield evidence for teacher executive functions as a statistical moderator. Practice or Policy Many early childhood teachers do not receive sufficient training for handling children’s challenging behaviors. Child behavior problems increase a teacher’s workload and consequently may contribute to feelings of stress. However, teachers’ executive function abilities may enable them to use effective, cognitive-based behavior management and instructional strategies during interactions with students, which may reduce stress. Providing teachers with training on managing challenging behaviors and enhancing executive functions may reduce their stress and facilitate their use of effective classroom practices, which is important for children’s school readiness skills and teachers’ health. PMID:28596698

  3. Food and the circadian activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.O. Leal

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal organization is an important feature of biological systems and its main function is to facilitate adaptation of the organism to the environment. The daily variation of biological variables arises from an internal time-keeping system. The major action of the environment is to synchronize the internal clock to a period of exactly 24 h. The light-dark cycle, food ingestion, barometric pressure, acoustic stimuli, scents and social cues have been mentioned as synchronizers or" zeitgebers". The circadian rhythmicity of plasma corticosteroids has been well characterized in man and in rats and evidence has been accumulated showing daily rhythmicity at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Studies of restricted feeding in rats are of considerable importance because they reveal feeding as a major synchronizer of rhythms in HPA axis activity. The daily variation of the HPA axis stress response appears to be closely related to food intake as well as to basal activity. In humans, the association of feeding and HPA axis activity has been studied under physiological and pathological conditions such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus and Cushing's syndrome. Complex neuroanatomical pathways and neurochemical circuitry are involved in feeding-associated HPA axis modulation. In the present review we focus on the interaction among HPA axis rhythmicity, food ingestion, and different nutritional and endocrine states

  4. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Atorvastatin Inhibits the HIF1α-PPAR Axis, Which Is Essential for Maintaining the Function of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2018-06-19

    We herein report a novel mechanism of action of statin preparations using a new drug discovery method. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFG-E8) was identified from the secretory component of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) as a cell adhesion-promoting factor effective for screening active cellular agents of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in vitro using electrochemical impedance. Our analyses showed that atorvastatin did not cause death in myocardial cells differentiated from hiPSCs but reduced the pluripotent cell survival in vitro when using serum- and albumin-free media, and inhibited the ability to form teratomas in mice. This result could have been already the cytopathic effect of atorvastatin, and complete elimination of hiPSCs was confirmed in the xenotransplantation assay. The administration of atorvastatin to hiPSCs caused the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1α mRNA to be unchanged at 6 hr and downregulated at 24 hr. In addition, the inhibition of the survival of hiPSCs was confirmed by HIF1α-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) axis inhibition. These results suggest that the addition of atorvastatin to hiPSC cultures reduces the survival of pluripotent cells by suppressing the HIF1α-PPAR axis. In summary, the HIF1α-PPAR axis has an important role in maintaining the survival of pluripotent hiPSCs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lateralized kappa opioid receptor signaling from the amygdala central nucleus promotes stress-induced functional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kelsey M; De Felice, Milena; Hernandez, Pablo I; Dodick, David W; Neugebauer, Volker; Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2018-05-01

    The response of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) is often decreased, or lost, in stress-related functional pain syndromes. Because the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) pathway is activated by stress, we determined its role in DNIC using a model of stress-induced functional pain. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were primed for 7 days with systemic morphine resulting in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Fourteen days after priming, when hyperalgesia was resolved, rats were exposed to environmental stress and DNIC was evaluated by measuring hind paw response threshold to noxious pressure (test stimulus) after capsaicin injection in the forepaw (conditioning stimulus). Morphine priming without stress did not alter DNIC. However, stress produced a loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats in both hind paws that was abolished by systemic administration of the KOR antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). Microinjection of nor-BNI into the right, but not left, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls were not modulated by bilateral nor-BNI in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Stress increased dynorphin content in both the left and right CeA of primed rats, reaching significance only in the right CeA; no change was observed in the rostral ventromedial medulla or hypothalamus. Although morphine priming alone is not sufficient to influence DNIC, it establishes a state of latent sensitization that amplifies the consequences of stress. After priming, stress-induced dynorphin/KOR signaling from the right CeA inhibits DNIC in both hind paws, likely reflecting enhanced descending facilitation that masks descending inhibition. Kappa opioid receptor antagonists may provide a new therapeutic strategy for stress-related functional pain disorders.

  7. Development of thermal stress screening method. Application of green function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Ichiro; Shibamoto, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Naoto

    2004-01-01

    This work was achieved for the development of the screening method of thermal transient stresses in FBR components. We proposed an approximation method for evaluations of thermal stress under variable heat transfer coefficients (non-linear problems) using the Green functions of thermal stresses with constant heat transfer coefficients (linear problems). Detailed thermal stress analyses provided Green functions for a skirt structure and a tube-sheet of Intermediate Heat Exchanger. The upper bound Green functions were obtained by the analyses using those upper bound heat transfer coefficients. The medium and the lower bound Green functions were got by the analyses of those under medium and the lower bound heat transfer coefficients. Conventional evaluations utilized the upper bound Green functions. On the other hand, we proposed a new evaluation method by using the upper bound, medium and the lower bound Green functions. The comparison of above results gave the results as follows. The conventional evaluations were conservative and appropriate for the cases under one fluid thermal transient structure such as the skirt. The conventional evaluations were generally conservative for the complicated structures under two or more fluids thermal transients such as the tube-sheet. But the danger locations could exists for the complicated structures under two or more fluids transients, namely the conventional evaluations were non-conservative. The proposed evaluations gave good estimations for these complicated structures. Though above results, we have made the basic documents of the screening method of thermal transient stresses using the conventional method and the new method. (author)

  8. Stress, Immune Function and Collegiate Holiday Drinking: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Natalie A; Sharma, Shobhit; Patterson, Thomas L; Graham, Reiko; Howard, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Social aspects of collegiate holiday drinking have been studied frequently, but physiological consequences are often overlooked. This study examined self-reported stress, endocrine and immune indicators in students at an American university before and after their week-long spring break (SB) holiday. Participants (n = 27; 9 males) provided saliva samples and completed surveys pre- and post-SB. Based on their cortisol reaction to SB, participants were grouped as cortisol nonresponders (CNR; n = 14) or increasers (CI; n = 13). Groups were matched on demographics, baseline alcohol use, family history of alcoholism, and SB plans. Differences over time and between groups were examined for α-amylase, quantity/frequency of alcohol use (quantity/frequency index, QFI) and the immunoglobulin A (IgA) to albumin ratio (IgA:albumin). α-Amylase decreased over time. A time × group interaction was noted for QFI, in which CNRs increased drinking over SB, but CIs did not. Time and time × group effects occurred for IgA:albumin. CIs decreased IgA:albumin over SB, whereas CNRs did not. Pre-SB QFI and pre-/post-SB QFI changes were correlated with changes in IgA:albumin. These findings support previously published relationships between blunted cortisol responses and risk for problem drinking, as well as elevated cortisol and decreased immune response. These data also highlight the importance of physiological measures in the study of collegiate holiday drinking. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Mitochondrial Function in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sifuentes-Franco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the second most frequent and prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM. The increase in the production of oxidative stress (OS is induced by the persistent hyperglycemic state capable of producing oxidative damage to the macromolecules (lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. OS favors the production of oxidative damage to the histones of the double-chain DNA and affects expression of the DNA repairer enzyme which leads to cell death from apoptosis. The chronic hyperglycemic state unchains an increase in advanced glycation end-products (AGE that interact through the cellular receptors to favor activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and the protein kinase C (PKC system, leading to the appearance of inflammation, growth, and augmentation of synthesis of the extracellular matrix (ECM in DN. The reactive oxygen species (ROS play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications because the production of ROS increases during the persistent hyperglycemia. The primary source of the excessive production of ROS is the mitochondria with the capacity to exceed production of endogenous antioxidants. Due to the fact that the mechanisms involved in the development of DN have not been fully clarified, there are different approaches to specific therapeutic targets or adjuvant management alternatives in the control of glycemia in DN.

  10. Sympathetic arousal, but not disturbed executive functioning, mediates the impairment of cognitive flexibility under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Martin; Riečanský, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference. Stress response was indicated by changes in skin conductance, hearth rate, and state anxiety. Our analyses showed that acute stress impaired cognitive flexibility via a concomitant increase in sympathetic arousal, while this mediator was positively associated with semantic fluency. Stress also decreased working memory capacity, which was partially mediated by elevated cognitive interference, but neither of these two measures were associated with cognitive flexibility or sympathetic arousal. Following these findings, we conclude that acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility via sympathetic arousal that modulates lexical-semantic and associative processes. In particular, the results indicate that stress-level of sympathetic activation may restrict the accessibility and integration of remote associates and bias the response competition towards prepotent and dominant ideas. Importantly, our results indicate that stress-induced impairments of cognitive flexibility and executive functions are mediated by distinct neurocognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Shobitha; Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-04-01

    Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (pwomen. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy.

  12. Executive function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the influence of comorbid depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Polak, A Rosaura; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, D.

    BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, such as impaired verbal memory and executive functioning. Less is known about executive function and the role of comorbid depression in PTSD. Recently, studies have shown that verbal memory impairments

  13. Executive function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the influence of comorbid depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Polak, A. Rosaura; Witteveen, Anke B.; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, such as impaired verbal memory and executive functioning. Less is known about executive function and the role of comorbid depression in PTSD. Recently, studies have shown that verbal memory impairments may be

  14. Elastic-plastic potential functionals for rates and increments of stress and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, R.A.; Zouain, N.

    1990-03-01

    In this work attention is focused in the derivation of variational formulations of the constutive relationship in the form of conjugate potential functionals from which stress and strain rates are derived as elements of the corresponding sub-differential sets. The main result obtained is a pair of potential functionals. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  15. Study on application of green's function method in thermal stress rapid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guihe; Duan Yuangang; Xu Xiao; Chen Rong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a quick and accuracy thermal stress calculation method, the Green's Function Method, which is a combination of finite element method and numerical algorithm method. Thermal stress calculation of Safe Injection Nozzle of Reactor Coolant Line of PWR plant is performed with Green's function method for heatup and cooldown thermal transients as a demonstration example, and the result is compared with finite element method to verify the rationality and accuracy of this method. The advantage and disadvantage of the Green's function method and the finite element method are also compared. (authors)

  16. Effects of stress on immune function: the good, the bad, and the beautiful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2014-05-01

    Although the concept of stress has earned a bad reputation, it is important to recognize that the adaptive purpose of a physiological stress response is to promote survival during fight or flight. While long-term stress is generally harmful, short-term stress can be protective as it prepares the organism to deal with challenges. This review discusses the immune effects of biological stress responses that can be induced by psychological, physiological, or physical (including exercise) stressors. We have proposed that short-term stress is one of the nature's fundamental but under-appreciated survival mechanisms that could be clinically harnessed to enhance immunoprotection. Short-term (i.e., lasting for minutes to hours) stress experienced during immune activation enhances innate/primary and adaptive/secondary immune responses. Mechanisms of immuno-enhancement include changes in dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking, maturation, and function as well as local and systemic production of cytokines. In contrast, long-term stress suppresses or dysregulates innate and adaptive immune responses by altering the Type 1-Type 2 cytokine balance, inducing low-grade chronic inflammation, and suppressing numbers, trafficking, and function of immunoprotective cells. Chronic stress may also increase susceptibility to some types of cancer by suppressing Type 1 cytokines and protective T cells and increasing regulatory/suppressor T cell function. Here, we classify immune responses as being protective, pathological, or regulatory, and discuss "good" versus "bad" effects of stress on health. Thus, short-term stress can enhance the acquisition and/or expression of immunoprotective (wound healing, vaccination, anti-infectious agent, anti-tumor) or immuno-pathological (pro-inflammatory, autoimmune) responses. In contrast, chronic stress can suppress protective immune responses and/or exacerbate pathological immune responses. Studies such as the ones discussed

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE44 (Rv2770c) is involved in response to multiple stresses and promotes the macrophage expression of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 via the p38, ERK, and NF-κB signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaoxiao; Zhang, Chenhui; Zhou, Mingliang; Li, Qiming; Li, Hui; Duan, Wei; Li, Xue; Feng, Yonghong; Xie, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a formidable threat to global public health. The successful intracellular persistence of M. tuberculosis significantly contributes to the intractability of tuberculosis. Proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) are mycobacterial exclusive protein families that widely reported to be involved in the bacterial virulence, physiology and interaction with host. Rv2770c (PPE44), a predicted virulence factor, was up-regulated upon the infected guinea pig lungs. To investigate the role of Rv2770c, we heterologously expressed the PPE44 in the nonpathogenic fast-growing M. smegmatis strain. Subcellular location analysis demonstrated that Rv2770c is a cell wall associated protein, suggestive of a potential candidate involved in host-pathogen interaction. The Rv2770c can enhance M. smegmatis survival within macrophages and under stresses such as H 2 O 2 , SDS, diamide exposure, and low pH condition. M. smegmatis expressing Rv2770c is more virulent as testified by the increased death of macrophages and the increased expression of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and interlukin-12p40 (IL-12p40). Moreover, Rv2770c altered the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12p40 of macrophages via NF-κB, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK axis. Taken together, this study implicated that Rv2770c was a virulent factor actively engaged in the interaction with host macrophage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Shuyusan in Rats Exposed to Chronic Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate antidepressant activities of Shuyusan (a Chinese herb, using a rats model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS. The administration groups were treated with Shuyusan decoction for 3 weeks and compared with fluoxetine treatment. In order to understand the potential antidepressant-like activities of Shuyusan, tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were used as behavioral despair study. The level of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone (CORT and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor expression were examined. After modeling, there was a significant prolongation of immobility time in administration groups with the TST and FST. High-dose Shuyusan could reduce the immobility time measured with the TST and FST. The immobility time in high-dose herbs group and fluoxetine group was increased significantly compared with the model group. After 3 weeks herbs fed, the serum contents level of CRH, ACTH, and CORT in high-dose herb group was significantly decreased compared to the model group. The result indicated that Shuyusan had antidepressant activity effects on UCMS model rats. The potential antidepressant effect may be related to decreasing glucocorticoid levels activity, regulating the function of HPA axis, and inhibiting glucocorticoid receptor expression in hippocampus.

  19. Analysis of macro and micro residual stresses in functionally graded materials by diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dantz, D; Reimers, W

    1999-01-01

    The residual stress state in microwave sintered metal-ceramic functionally graded materials (FGM) consisting of 8Y-ZrO/sub 2//Ni and 8Y-ZrO/sub 2//NiCr8020, respectively, was analysed by non- destructive diffraction methods. In $9 order to get knowledge of the complete residual stress state in the near surface region as well as in the interior of the material, complementary methods were applied. Whereas the surface was characterised by X-ray techniques using $9 conventional sources, the stresses within the bulk of the material were investigated by means of high energy synchrotron radiation. The stress state was found to obey the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion $9 (micro-stresses) on the one hand and the inhomogeneous cooling conditions (macrostresses) on the other hand. (7 refs).

  20. Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes...... and the phytohormone ABA. Although ectopic expression of several TFs has improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants, fine-tuning of TF expression and protein levels remains a challenge to avoid crop yield loss. To further our understanding of TFs in abiotic stress responses, emerging gene regulatory networks based...... on TFs and their direct targets genes are presented. These revealed components shared between ABA-dependent and independent signaling as well as abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Protein structure analysis suggested that TFs hubs of large interactomes have extended regions with protein intrinsic...

  1. Childhood poverty and stress reactivity are associated with aberrant functional connectivity in default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W; Welsh, Robert C; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-08-01

    Convergent research suggests that childhood poverty is associated with perturbation in the stress response system. This might extend to aberrations in the connectivity of large-scale brain networks, which subserve key cognitive and emotional functions. Resting-state brain activity was measured in adults with a documented history of childhood poverty (n=26) and matched controls from middle-income families (n=26). Participants also underwent a standard laboratory social stress test and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Childhood poverty was associated with reduced default mode network (DMN) connectivity. This, in turn, was associated with higher cortisol levels in anticipation of social stress. These results suggest a possible brain basis for exaggerated stress sensitivity in low-income individuals. Alterations in DMN may be associated with less efficient cognitive processing or greater risk for development of stress-related psychopathology among individuals who experienced the adversity of chronic childhood poverty.

  2. The Impact of Midurethral Sling Surgery on Sexual Activity and Function in Women With Stress Urinary Incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengerink, Bianca B.; van Leijsen, Sanne A. L.; Vierhout, Mark E.; IntHout, Joanna; Mol, Ben W. J.; Milani, Alfredo L.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; van Eijndhoven, Hugo W. F.; van der Vaart, Carl H.; van Gestel, Iris; Hartog, Francis E.; Heesakkers, John F. A.; Kluivers, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Stress urinary incontinence has a negative impact on sexual function. Aim: To assess the effect of midurethral sling surgery on sexual activity and function in women with stress urinary incontinence. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Value of Urodynamics Prior to Stress

  3. Family Environments and Children's Executive Function: The Mediating Role of Children's Affective State and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhong-Hua; Yin, Wen-Gang

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that inadequate family environments (family material environment and family psychosocial environment) are not only social problems but also factors contributing to adverse neurocognitive outcomes. In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship among family environments, children's naturalistic affective state, self-reported stress, and executive functions in a sample of 157 Chinese families. These findings revealed that in inadequate family material environments, reduced children's cognitive flexibility is associated with increased naturalistic negative affectivity and self-reported stress. In addition, naturalistic negative affectivity mediated the association between family expressiveness and children's cognitive flexibility. The authors used a structural equation model to examine the mediation model hypothesis, and the results confirmed the mediating roles of naturalistic negative affectivity and self-reported stress between family environments and the cognitive flexibility of Chinese children. These findings indicate the importance of reducing stress and negative emotional state for improving cognitive functions in children of low socioeconomic status.

  4. Magnetic property variation in carbon steel and chrome-molybdenum steel as a function of uniaxial stress noncoaxial with the magnetic field (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kaminski, D.A.; Jiles, D.C.; Biner, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    Magnescope 1 magnetic measurements were made on carbon steel specimens ranging from 0.1--0.8 wt %C and on chrome-molybdenum steel specimens cut from electric power plant pipes previously in service. The carbon steel specimens were heat-treated using three procedures: (1) spheroidization, (2) quenching, and (3) quench and tempering. The specimens were subjected to uniaxial tension up to 40 ksi. The inspection head was aligned so that the magnetic field was oriented at different angles with respect to the stress axis. Magnetic properties (such as coercivity and maximum differential permeability) were extracted from digitized magnetic hysteresis loop measurements. Magnetic properties were studied as a function of stress at each angle of stress-field orientation. To our knowledge, such a comprehensive study of noncoaxial stress and field effects has never been accomplished before for such a wide variety of steel specimens. Results for the various materials are presented for different orientation angles and compared to numerical results from the noncoaxial magnetomechanical hysteresis model of Sablik et al. 2

  5. Maternal Parenting Stress and Child Perception of Family Functioning Among Families Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D; Payne, Diana L; Goodrum, Nada M; Murphy, Debra A

    Mothers living with HIV (MLWH) experience stressors inherent to parenting, often within a context characterized by poverty, stigma, and/or limited social support. Our study assessed the relationship between parenting stress and child perceptions of family functioning in families with MLWH who have healthy school-age children. MLWH and their children (N = 102 pairs) completed measures addressing parenting stress and perceptions of family functioning (i.e., parent-child communication, family routines, and family cohesion). We used covariance structural modeling to evaluate the relationship between these factors, with results showing greater maternal parenting stress associated with poorer family functioning outcomes (reported by both the child and the mother). Findings offer support for the parenting stress-family functioning relationship by providing the child perspective along with the maternal perspective, and point to the need for interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of maternal parenting stress on family functioning. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in adolescent rape victims with post traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Postma, Riemke M.; Sinnema, Gerben; de Roos, Carlijn; Olff, Miranda; van Wesel, Floryt; van de Putte, Elise M.

    2013-01-01

    In chronic sexual abuse victims with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated. In single rape victims, PTSD symptoms are hypothesized to function as a chronic stressor leading to similar HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of the

  7. The effect of surgical and psychological stress on learning and memory function in aged C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Li, C; Xu, Z; Zhao, S; Li, P; Cao, J; Mi, W

    2016-04-21

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an important complication following major surgery and general anesthesia in older patients. However, the etiology of POCD remains largely to be determined. It is unknown how surgical stress and psychological stress affect the postoperative learning and memory function in geriatric patients. We therefore established a pre-clinical model in aged C57BL/6 mice and aimed to investigate the effects of surgical stress and psychological stress on learning and memory function and the possible roles of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway. The surgical stress was induced by abdominal surgery under local anesthesia, and the psychological stress was induced by a communication box. Cognitive functions and markers of the AKT/mTOR pathway were assessed at 1, 3 and 7 days following the stress. The impairments of learning and memory function existed for up to 7 days following surgical stress and surgical stress plus psychological stress, whereas the psychological stress did not affect the cognitive function alone or combined with surgical stress. Analysis of brain tissue revealed a significant involvement of the AKT/mTOR pathway in the impairment of cognition. These data suggested that surgical stress could induce cognitive impairment in aged mice and perioperative psychological stress is not a constitutive factor of POCD. The AKT/mTOR pathway is likely involved as one of the underlying mechanisms of the development of POCD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Life event stress in duodenal ulcer compared with functional dyspepsia: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hafeiz Hassan; Al Quorain Abdulaziz; Karim Ahmed; Al-Mangoor Shuaa

    1997-01-01

    This is a prospective study of life event stress in 80 duodenal ulcer patients compared with 80 patients with functional dyspepsia and 80 healthy controls; matched for age, sex and marital status. A semi structured psychiatric interview was used in the psychiatric assessment of the dyspeptic patients and controls. A modified version of Life Events Scale by Tennant and Andrews was used in the assessment of life event stress. More dyspeptic patients reported life events than the controls, but, ...

  9. Research Paper: Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Ajilchi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  10. Blunted amygdala functional connectivity during a stress task in alcohol dependent individuals: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Natasha E; Padula, Claudia B; Anthenelli, Robert M; Nelson, Erik; Eliassen, James; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2017-12-01

    Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition. The amygdala was used as a seed region for whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis. After controlling for family-wise error (p = 0.05), there was significantly decreased left and right amygdala connectivity with frontal (specifically mPFC), temporal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Subjective stress, but not craving, increased from pre-to post-task. This study demonstrated decreased connectivity between the amygdala and regions important for stress and emotional processing in long-term abstinent individuals with AD. These results suggest aberrant stress processing in individuals with AD even after lengthy periods of abstinence.

  11. Evaluating Effects of Heat Stress on Cognitive Function among Workers in a Hot Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Mazloumi; Farideh Golbabaei; Somayeh Mahmood Khani; Zeinab Kazemi; Mostafa Hosseini; Marzieh Abbasinia; Somayeh Farhang Dehghan

    2014-01-01

    Background:Heat stress, as one of the most common occupational health problems, can impair operators' cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on cognitive function among workers in a hot industry. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Malibel Saipa Company in 2013, workers were assigned into two groups: one group were exposed to heat stress (n=35), working in casting unit and the other group working in machin-ing unit (n=35) wit...

  12. The Effects of Stress and Executive Functions on Decision Making in an Executive Parallel Task

    OpenAIRE

    McGuigan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute stress on parallel task performance with the Game of Dice Task (GDT) to measure decision making and the Stroop test.  Two previous studies have found that the combination of stress and a parallel task with the GDT and an executive functions task preserved performance on the GDT for a stress group compared to a control group.  The purpose of this study was to create and use a new parallel task with the GDT and the stroop test to elu...

  13. Hypothesis: NDL proteins function in stress responses by regulating microtubule organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Nisha; Mudgil, Yashwanti

    2015-01-01

    N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE proteins (NDL), members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily were recently rediscovered as interactors of G-protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the precise molecular function of NDL proteins is still elusive, in animals these proteins play protective role in hypoxia and expression is induced by hypoxia and nickel, indicating role in stress. Homology of NDL1 with animal counterpart N-MYC DOWNREGULATED GENE (NDRG) suggests similar functions in animals and plants. It is well established that stress responses leads to the microtubule depolymerization and reorganization which is crucial for stress tolerance. NDRG is a microtubule-associated protein which mediates the microtubule organization in animals by causing acetylation and increases the stability of α-tubulin. As NDL1 is highly homologous to NDRG, involvement of NDL1 in the microtubule organization during plant stress can also be expected. Discovery of interaction of NDL with protein kinesin light chain- related 1, enodomembrane family protein 70, syntaxin-23, tubulin alpha-2 chain, as a part of G protein interactome initiative encourages us to postulate microtubule stabilizing functions for NDL family in plants. Our search for NDL interactors in G protein interactome also predicts the role of NDL proteins in abiotic stress tolerance management. Based on published report in animals and predicted interacting partners for NDL in G protein interactome lead us to hypothesize involvement of NDL in the microtubule organization during abiotic stress management in plants.

  14. The Application of Normal Stress Reduction Function in Tilt Tests for Different Block Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Gratchev, Ivan; Hein, Maw; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the shapes of rock cores, which control the sliding or toppling behaviours in tilt tests for the estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC). When the JRC values are estimated by performing tilt tests, the values are directly proportional to the basic friction of the rock material and the applied normal stress on the sliding planes. Normal stress obviously varies with the shape of the sliding block, and the basic friction angle is also affected by the sample shapes in tilt tests. In this study, the shapes of core blocks are classified into three representative shapes and those are created using plaster. Using the various shaped artificial cores, a set of tilt tests is carried out to identify the shape influences on the normal stress and the basic friction angle in tilt tests. The test results propose a normal stress reduction function to estimate the normal stress for tilt tests according to the sample shapes based on Barton's empirical equation. The proposed normal stress reduction functions are verified by tilt tests using artificial plaster joints and real rock joint sets. The plaster joint sets are well matched and cast in detailed printed moulds using a 3D printing technique. With the application of the functions, the obtained JRC values from the tilt tests using the plaster samples and the natural rock samples are distributed within a reasonable JRC range when compared with the measured values.

  15. Psychological and psychobiological stress in the relationship between basic cognitive function and school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Fernández-Martín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the role played by daily stress, assessed through self-report and at the psychobiological level, in relation to basic cognitive function when predicting school performance. The sample comprised 100 schoolchildren (55 girls and 45 boys, age range 8 to 11 years from a state school in the city of Malaga (Spain. Daily stress was assessed through the Children's Daily Stress Inventory (IIEC m Spanish; Tnanes et al., 2009. Psychobiological stress was measured through the cortisol/DHEAS ratio, derived from saliva samples taken in the morning on two consecutive days. Basic cognitive skills were assessed by means of the Computerized Cognitive Assessment System (CDR battery; Wesnes et al., 2003, 2000. Finally, the measure of school performance was the mean value of the final grades recorded in the child's school report. In addition to descriptive and correlational statistical analyses, multiple regression analyses were conducted in order to assess the model. The results show that children's daily stress self-reported contributes to predict school performance, and has proven to be more influential than basic cognitive function when it comes to predict school performance. Therefore, in order to achieve good school performance, a pupil not only requires good basic cognitive function, but must also present low levels of self-reported daily stress. These findings suggest a new way of explaining and predicting school failure.

  16. Minority stress and relationship functioning among young male same-sex couples: An examination of actor-partner interdependence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; McConnell, Elizabeth; Dyar, Christina; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-05-01

    In different-sex couples, individual and partner stress can both have a negative impact on relationship functioning (actor and partner effects). Gay and bisexual men experience unique stress (sexual minority stress), but few studies have examined the effects of this stress on relationship functioning among young male couples. The current study examined (a) actor and partner effects of general and minority stress (internalized stigma, microaggressions, victimization, and outness) on relationship functioning (relationship quality and negative relationship interactions), (b) interactions between individual and partner stress as predictors of relationship functioning, and (c) dyadic coping and relationship length as moderators of actor and partner effects. Actor-partner interdependence models were tested using data from 153 young male couples. There was strong support for actor effects. Higher general stress and internalized stigma were associated with lower relationship quality, but only for those in longer relationships. Additionally, higher general stress, internalized stigma, and microaggressions, and lower outness, were associated with more negative relationship interactions. There was limited support for partner effects. Having a partner with higher internalized stigma was associated with more negative relationship interactions, but none of the other partner effects were significant. There was no support for individual and partner stress interacting to predict relationship functioning or for dyadic coping as a stress buffer. Findings highlight the influence of one's own experiences of general and minority stress on relationship functioning, but raise questions about how partner stress influences relationship functioning among young male couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The calculation of the viscosity from the autocorrelation function using molecular and atomic stress tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S. T.

    The stress-stress correlation function and the viscosity of a united-atom model of liquid decane are studied by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation using two different formalisms for the stress tensor: the atomic and the molecular formalisms. The atomic and molecular correlation functions show dramatic difference in short-time behaviour. The integrals of the two correlation functions, however, become identical after a short transient period whichis significantly shorter than the rotational relaxation time of the molecule. Both reach the same plateau value in a time period corresponding to this relaxation time. These results provide a convenient guide for the choice of the upper integral time limit in calculating the viscosity by the Green-Kubo formula.

  18. A Novel Shape-Free Plane Quadratic Polygonal Hybrid Stress-Function Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plane quadratic shape-free hybrid stress-function (HS-F polygonal element is developed by employing the principle of minimum complementary energy and the fundamental analytical solutions of the Airy stress function. Without construction of displacement interpolation function, the formulations of the new model are much simpler than those of the displacement-based polygonal elements and can be degenerated into triangular or quadrilateral elements directly. In particular, it is quite insensitive to various mesh distortions and even can keep precision when element shape is concave. Furthermore, the element does not show any spurious zero energy modes. Numerical examples show the excellent performance of the new element, denoted by HSF-AP-19β, in both displacement and stress solutions.

  19. Determination of Hot-Carrier Distribution Functions in Uniaxially Stressed p-Type Germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    This paper gives a description of an experimental determination of distribution functions in k→ space of hot holes in uniaxially compressed germanium. The hot-carrier studies were made at 85°K at fields up to 1000 V/cm and uniaxial stresses up to 11 800 kg/cm2. The field and stress were always in...... probabilities with stress. A model based on the nonparabolicity of the upper p3 / 2 level is proposed for the negative differential conductivity in stressed p-type Ge....... function has been assumed. The parameters of the distribution function are then fitted to the experimental modulation. The calculation of absorption was performed numerically, using a four-band k→·p→ model. This model was checked for consistency by comparing with piezoabsorption measurements performed...... in thermal equilibrium. The average carrier energy calculated from the distribution function shows a fast increase with stress and almost saturates when the strain splitting of the two p3 / 2 levels reaches the optical-phonon energy. This saturation is interpreted in terms of the change in scattering...

  20. [Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Anna; Köhler, Hubert; Cierpka, Manfred

    2018-03-01

    Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality Parental stress exposure can influence the parent-child relationship, child development and child wellbeing in negative ways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic risk exposure on the quality of the mother-child-interaction and family functionality. A sample of 294 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was compared with a lower-risk, middle-class sample of 125 mother-infant-dyads in regard to maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation (CARE-Index), maternal stress (PSI-SF) and family functionality (FB-K). Lower levels of maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation and by trend also of the family functionality were found among the mothers from the at-risk sample in comparison to the low-risk sample. The level of maternal stress was similar in both samples. The results underpin the negative effects of a socio-economic risk exposure on the mother-child relationship. An early, sensitivity-focused family support could be encouraged to counteract the negative effects of early socioeconomic stress.

  1. Linear and Non-Linear Dose-Response Functions Reveal a Hormetic Relationship Between Stress and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zoladz, Phillip R.; Diamond, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as ...

  2. GADD34 Function in Protein Trafficking Promotes Adaptation to Hyperosmotic Stress in Human Corneal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Krokowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: GADD34, a stress-induced regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP1, is known to function in hyperosmotic stress through its well-known role in the integrated stress response (ISR pathway. Adaptation to hyperosmotic stress is important for the health of corneal epithelial cells exposed to changes in extracellular osmolarity, with maladaptation leading to dry eye syndrome. This adaptation includes induction of SNAT2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi-processed protein, which helps to reverse the stress-induced loss of cell volume and promote homeostasis through amino acid uptake. Here, we show that GADD34 promotes the processing of proteins synthesized on the ER during hyperosmotic stress independent of its action in the ISR. We show that GADD34/PP1 phosphatase activity reverses hyperosmotic-stress-induced Golgi fragmentation and is important for cis- to trans-Golgi trafficking of SNAT2, thereby promoting SNAT2 plasma membrane localization and function. These results suggest that GADD34 is a protective molecule for ocular diseases such as dry eye syndrome. : Here, Krokowski et al. show that GADD34/PP1 protects the microtubule network, prevents Golgi fragmentation, and preserves protein trafficking independent of its action in the integrated stress response (ISR. In osmoadaptation, GADD34 facilitates trans-Golgi-mediated processing of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-synthesized amino acid transporter SNAT2, which in turn increases amino acid uptake. Keywords: SNAT2, GADD34, hyperosmotic stress, amino acid transport, Golgi fragmentation, ISR

  3. Nitric oxide in the stress axis

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Figueroa, M.O.; Day, H.E.W.; Akil, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbichypothalamic- ...

  4. Functional changes in littoral macroinvertebrate communities in response to watershed-level anthropogenic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya E Kovalenko

    Full Text Available Watershed-scale anthropogenic stressors have profound effects on aquatic communities. Although several functional traits of stream macroinvertebrates change predictably in response to land development and urbanization, little is known about macroinvertebrate functional responses in lakes. We assessed functional community structure, functional diversity (Rao's quadratic entropy and voltinism in macroinvertebrate communities sampled across the full gradient of anthropogenic stress in Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Functional diversity and voltinism significantly decreased with increasing development, whereas agriculture had smaller or non-significant effects. Functional community structure was affected by watershed-scale development, as demonstrated by an ordination analysis followed by regression. Because functional community structure affects energy flow and ecosystem function, and functional diversity is known to have important implications for ecosystem resilience to further environmental change, these results highlight the necessity of finding ways to remediate or at least ameliorate these effects.

  5. Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

    2011-04-30

    Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events were assessed as predictors of concurrent vs. delayed recovery of role functioning in 4 domains (friends, family, home duties, work/school). Despite clinical recovery, a subset of patients experienced delayed functional recovery in various role domains. Moreover, delayed functional recovery was significantly associated with presence of one or more stressors in the prior 3 months, even after controlling for mood symptoms. Presence of a stressor predicted longer time to functional recovery in life domains, up to 112 days in work/school. Interventions that provide monitoring, support, and problem-solving may be needed to help prevent or mitigate the effects of stress on functional recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aroma Effects on Physiologic and Cognitive Function Following Acute Stress: A Mechanism Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S

    2016-09-01

    Aromas may improve physiologic and cognitive function after stress, but associated mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the effects of lavender aroma, which is commonly used for stress reduction, on physiologic and cognitive functions. The contribution of pharmacologic, hedonic, and expectancy-related mechanisms of the aromatherapy effects was evaluated. Ninety-two healthy adults (mean age, 58.0 years; 79.3% women) were randomly assigned to three aroma groups (lavender, perceptible placebo [coconut], and nonperceptible placebo [water] and to two prime subgroups (primed, with a suggestion of inhaling a powerful stress-reducing aroma, or no prime). Participants' performance on a battery of cognitive tests, physiologic responses, and subjective stress were evaluated at baseline and after exposure to a stress battery during which aromatherapy was present. Participants also rated the intensity and pleasantness of their assigned aroma. Pharmacologic effects of lavender but not placebo aromas significantly benefited post-stress performance on the working memory task (F(2, 86) = 5.41; p = 0.006). Increased expectancy due to positive prime, regardless of aroma type, facilitated post-stress performance on the processing speed task (F(1, 87) = 8.31; p = 0.005). Aroma hedonics (pleasantness and intensity) played a role in the beneficial lavender effect on working memory and physiologic function. The observable aroma effects were produced by a combination of mechanisms involving aroma-specific pharmacologic properties, aroma hedonic properties, and participant expectations. In the future, each of these mechanisms could be manipulated to produce optimal functioning.

  7. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  8. Stress differentially impacts reserve pools and root exudation: implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon; Karst, Justine; Wiley, Erin; Gaster, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Environmental stress can influence carbon assimilation and the accumulation and distribution of carbon between growth, reserves, and exudation; however, it is unclear how these processes vary by different stress types. Partitioning of carbon to growth and reserves in plants might also vary between different organs. Roots reserves are of particular interest as they link the plant with the soil carbon cycle through exudation. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients predict the more C reserves in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by the plants. In a controlled study we tested whether different types of stresses (shade, cold soil, and drought) have differential effects on the distribution, abundance, and form (sugar vs. starch) of carbohydrates in seedlings, and whether these changes alone could explain differences in root exudation between stress types. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and pool sizes varied by stress type and between organs. Mass-specific C exudation increased with fine root sugar concentration; however, stress type affected exudation independently of reserve concentration. Seedlings exposed to cold soils exuded the most C on a per root mass basis followed by shade and drought. Through 13C labeling, we also found that depending on the stress type, aspen seedlings may be less able to control the loss of C to the soil compared with unstressed seedlings, resulting in more C leaked to the rhizosphere. The loss of C beyond that predicted by simple concentration gradients might have important implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance. If stressed plants lose proportionally more carbon to the soil, existing interactions between plants and soils may decouple under stress, and may include unexpected C fluxes between trees, soils and the atmosphere with a changing climate.

  9. Association Between Parenting Stress and Functional Impairment Among Children Diagnosed with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogbel, Yasser S; Goyal, Rohit; Sansgiry, Sujit S

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between parenting stress and functional impairment among children with Neurodevelopmental Disorder (NDD). A sample of 150 parents of children diagnosed with NDD were recruited from schools that offer special education services. Parents completed a self-administered survey containing the parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF) scale and the Columbia Impairment Scale. The multiple logistic regression conducted to compare those with clinically significant PSI-SF scores indicated that the risk of parents with clinically significant scores of parenting stress increased 5.5 times with functionally impaired children with NDD. Further the risk of stress increased 4.6 times when these parents reported having their own disorder/disease. The risk of stress was reduced by 57% for those who had higher than a college level education compared to those with a college level education or below. These findings might help health care providers to initiate early intervention strategies such as peer support and education that can prevent parenting stress and reduce the risk of potential incidence of depression.

  10. Dynamic functional connectivity and individual differences in emotions during social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Michael J; Hayashi, Koby; Ballard, Grey; Gotlib, Ian H; Waugh, Christian E

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to acute stress induces multiple emotional responses, each with their own unique temporal dynamics. Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) measures the temporal variability of network synchrony and captures individual differences in network neurodynamics. This study investigated the relationship between dFC and individual differences in emotions induced by an acute psychosocial stressor. Sixteen healthy adult women underwent fMRI scanning during a social evaluative threat (SET) task, and retrospectively completed questionnaires that assessed individual differences in subjectively experienced positive and negative emotions about stress and stress relief during the task. Group dFC was decomposed with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) into 10 components, each with a temporal signature, spatial network of functionally connected regions, and vector of participant loadings that captures individual differences in dFC. Participant loadings of two networks were positively correlated with stress-related emotions, indicating the existence of networks for positive and negative emotions. The emotion-related networks involved the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala, among other distributed brain regions, and time signatures for these emotion-related networks were uncorrelated. These findings demonstrate that individual differences in stress-induced positive and negative emotions are each uniquely associated with large-scale brain networks, and suggest that dFC is a mechanism that generates individual differences in the emotional components of the stress response. Hum Brain Mapp 38:6185-6205, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Neurobiological Programming of Early Life Stress: Functional Development of Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry and Vulnerability for Stress-Related Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-04-25

    Early adverse experiences are associated with heighted vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology across the lifespan. While extensive work has investigated the effects of early adversity on neurobiology in adulthood, developmental approaches can provide further insight on the neurobiological mechanisms that link early experiences and long-term mental health outcomes. In the current review, we discuss the role of emotion regulation circuitry implicated in stress-related psychopathology from a developmental and transdiagnostic perspective. We highlight converging evidence suggesting that multiple forms of early adverse experiences impact the functional development of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry. Next, we discuss how adversity-induced alterations in amygdala-prefrontal development are associated with symptoms of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Additionally, we discuss potential mechanisms through which protective factors may buffer the effects of early adversity on amygdala-prefrontal development to confer more adaptive long-term outcomes. Finally, we consider limitations of the existing literature and make suggestions for future longitudinal and translational research that can better elucidate the mechanisms linking early adversity, neurobiology, and emotional phenotypes. Together, these findings may provide further insight into the neuro-developmental mechanisms underlying the emergence of adversity-related emotional disorders and facilitate the development of targeted interventions that can ameliorate risk for psychopathology in youth exposed to early life stress.

  12. Genetic Deletion of Neuronal PPARγ Enhances the Emotional Response to Acute Stress and Exacerbates Anxiety: An Effect Reversed by Rescue of Amygdala PPARγ Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domi, Esi; Uhrig, Stefanie; Soverchia, Laura; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C; Barbier, Estelle; Heilig, Markus; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo

    2016-12-14

    attention for its involvement in the regulation of CNS immune response and functions. Here, we demonstrate that neuronal PPARγ activation prevented the negative emotional effects of stress and exerted anxiolytic actions without influencing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. Conversely, pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of PPARγ enhanced anxiogenic responses and increased vulnerability to stress. These effects appear to be controlled by PPARγ neuronal-mediated mechanisms in the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612612-13$15.00/0.

  13. Surviving endoplasmic reticulum stress is coupled to altered chondrocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Yeung Tsang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling (ERSS protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs during endochondral bone formation. In transgenic mice expressing mutant collagen X as a consequence of a 13-base pair deletion in Col10a1 (13del, misfolded alpha1(X chains accumulate in HCs and elicit ERSS. Histological and gene expression analyses showed that these chondrocytes survived ER stress, but terminal differentiation is interrupted, and endochondral bone formation is delayed, producing a chondrodysplasia phenotype. This altered differentiation involves cell-cycle re-entry, the re-expression of genes characteristic of a prehypertrophic-like state, and is cell-autonomous. Concomitantly, expression of Col10a1 and 13del mRNAs are reduced, and ER stress is alleviated. ERSS, abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, and altered growth plate architecture also occur in mice expressing mutant collagen II and aggrecan. Alteration of the differentiation program in chondrocytes expressing unfolded or misfolded proteins may be part of an adaptive response that facilitates survival and recovery from the ensuing ER stress. However, the altered differentiation disrupts the highly coordinated events of endochondral ossification culminating in chondrodysplasia.

  14. Executive functioning performance predicts subjective and physiological acute stress reactivity: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Donny; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kimura, Motohiro; Murakami, Hiroki; Ohira, Hideki

    2012-06-01

    Individual differences in baseline executive functioning (EF) capacities have been shown to predict state anxiety during acute stressor exposure. However, no previous studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between EF and physiological measures of stress. The present study investigated the efficacy of several well-known EF tests (letter fluency, Stroop test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) in predicting both subjective and physiological stress reactivity during acute psychosocial stress exposure. Our results show that letter fluency served as the best predictor for both types of reactivity. Specifically, the higher the letter fluency score, the lower the acute stress reactivity after controlling for the baseline stress response, as indicated by lower levels of state anxiety, negative mood, salivary cortisol, and skin conductance. Moreover, the predictive power of the letter fluency test remained significant for state anxiety and cortisol indices even after further adjustments for covariates by adding the body mass index (BMI) as a covariate. Thus, good EF performance, as reflected by high letter fluency scores, may dampen acute stress responses, which suggests that EF processes are directly associated with aspects of stress regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  16. Family functioning and mental health in runaway youth: association with posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J; Cochran, Gerald; Barczyk, Amanda N

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the direct effects of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, poor family communication and worries concerning family relationships, depression, anxiety, and dissociation on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Runaway youth were recruited from emergency youth shelters in New York and Texas. Interviews were completed with 350 youth who averaged 15 years of age. Structural equation modeling was used to examine family functioning, maltreatment, depression, dissociation, and anxiety in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results indicated that direct effects of family relationship worry to dissociation, β = .77, p family communication and youth dissociation, β = .42, p stress symptoms, but depression was not. Findings underscore the critical role of family relationships in mental health symptoms experienced by runaway adolescents. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Work stress, anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure, and blood-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    -based biomarkers. Linear regression analyses before and after multivariable adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, depressive symptoms, health-related behaviours, and chronic conditions showed that work stress was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, alanine transaminase, white......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18......–72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood...

  18. Family functioning, burden and parenting stress 2 years after very preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    Examining rates of difficulties in family functioning following very preterm birth has been a relatively neglected area of research. To examine family functioning, burden and parenting stress in families with very preterm compared with term born children, and investigate influences of parental mental health problems and child neurodevelopmental disability on family outcomes in families with preterm children. Participants were 184 very preterm and 71 term children and their parents. Parents completed the Family Assessment Device, Parenting Stress Index and Impact on Family questionnaires when their children were 2 years old (corrected for prematurity). Parental mental health and social risk information were also collected. Children were assessed for neurodevelopmental disability. Families with very preterm children reported poorer family functioning (p=.03) compared with families with term born children, with less evidence for differences between families with very preterm and term born children in parenting stress and family burden. Within very preterm families, parental mental health problems were associated with higher levels of parenting stress (p=.001), and parents of children with a neurodevelopmental disability were more likely to report higher family burden (p=.04). For families with very preterm children, parental mental health symptoms and child neurodevelopmental disability may identify families at risk of greater stress and burden who may benefit from additional support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stress and resilience in functional somatic syndromes--a structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress has been suggested to play a role in the development and perpetuation of functional somatic syndromes. The mechanisms of how this might occur are not clear. PURPOSE: We propose a multi-dimensional stress model which posits that childhood trauma increases adult stress reactivity (i.e., an individual's tendency to respond strongly to stressors and reduces resilience (e.g., the belief in one's competence. This in turn facilitates the manifestation of functional somatic syndromes via chronic stress. We tested this model cross-sectionally and prospectively. METHODS: Young adults participated in a web survey at two time points. Structural equation modeling was used to test our model. The final sample consisted of 3'054 participants, and 429 of these participated in the follow-up survey. RESULTS: Our proposed model fit the data in the cross-sectional (χ2(21  = 48.808, p<.001, CFI  = .995, TLI  = .992, RMSEA  = .021, 90% CI [.013.029] and prospective analyses (χ2(21  =  32.675, p<.05, CFI  = .982, TLI  = .969, RMSEA  = .036, 90% CI [.001.059]. DISCUSSION: Our findings have several clinical implications, suggesting a role for stress management training in the prevention and treatment of functional somatic syndromes.

  20. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  1. Four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in N=4 superconformal theories

    CERN Document Server

    Korchemsky, G P

    2015-01-01

    We derive the explicit expression for the four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in four-dimensional N=4 superconformal theory. We show that it has a remarkably simple and suggestive form allowing us to predict a large class of four-point correlation functions involving the stress-energy tensor and other conserved currents. We then apply the obtained results on the correlation functions to computing the energy-energy correlations, which measure the flow of energy in the final states created from the vacuum by a source. We demonstrate that they are given by a universal function independent of the choice of the source. Our analysis relies only on N=4 superconformal symmetry and does not use the dynamics of the theory.

  2. Neuroendocrine axis of stress, metabolic syndrome and psychiatric disorders in cushing's sindrome Ejes neuroendocrinos del estrés, síndrome metabólico y alteraciones psiquiátricas del síndrome de Cushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Alexandra Lezcano Tobón

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of abnormalities of the hypophysishypothalamus- adrenal gland axis (HHA in the ongoing stress and depression is analyzed. Besides, it is evidenced that some problems, until recently considered merely endocrine-metabolic such as Cushing's syndrome (either clinical or subclinical and obesity (mainly when it is part of the metabolic syndrome may have a common etiological basis, be it a primary event, a comorbidity or a trigger in individuals with genetic susceptibility to states of maladaptative chronic stress. Some harmful effects of severe and/or ongoing hypercortisolism on some brain areas and the possibility of permanent alterations in some neuronal circuits are described. Finally, and according to some clinical evidences, the potential therapeutic role of antiglucocorticoids in the management of refractory depression is explored, as well as the role that early psychiatric intervention and antidepressant pharmacological treatment may play in some patients with the metabolic syndrome or increased cardiovascular risk. Se analiza el papel de las anormalidades del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-adrenales (HHA en el estrés sostenido y la depresión. Además se pone en evidencia que algunos problemas hasta hace poco considerados puramente endocrino-metabólicos como el síndrome de Cushing (SC (clínico o subclínico y la obesidad, principalmente cuando hace parte del síndrome metabólico (SM, pueden tener una base etiológica común, como evento primario, comorbilidad o disparador en individuos con susceptibilidad genética a los estados de estrés crónico maladaptativo. Se describen algunas acciones lesivas del hipercortisolismo severo y/o sostenido en algunas áreas cerebrales y la posibilidad de producir alteraciones permanentes en algunos circuitos neuronales. Por último se explora, de acuerdo con algunas evidencias clínicas, el papel terapéutico potencial de fármacos antiglucocorticoides en el manejo de la depresión refractaria y

  3. Hypothesis: NDL proteins function in stress responses by regulating microtubule organization

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Nisha; Mudgil, Yashwanti

    2015-01-01

    N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE proteins (NDL), members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily were recently rediscovered as interactors of G-protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the precise molecular function of NDL proteins is still elusive, in animals these proteins play protective role in hypoxia and expression is induced by hypoxia and nickel, indicating role in stress. Homology of NDL1 with animal counterpart N-MYC DOWNREGULATED GENE (NDRG) suggests similar functions in animals...

  4. [Effect of emotional-algesic stress on the hormonal function of thyroid and parathyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuripka, V I; Belokon', L E; Iakushev, V S

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on 215 Wistar rats have revealed that the state of the endured stress is an essential factor inducing disturbance in functioning of the hypothalamus-adenohypophysis-thyroid gland system accompanied by disturbance in regulation of the thyrotropin and triiodothyronine formation under conditions of myocardium necrosis development.

  5. Grandmother Support, Family Functioning, and Parenting Stress in Families with a Child with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbarello, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among grandparent support, family functioning, and parental stress on families with children with and without disabilities between the ages of 2 and 12 years. Families are viewed as an ever-changing complex system with reciprocal interactions. One possible stressor on the family system is the birth of a child…

  6. Emotional-volitional components of operator reliability. [sensorimotor function testing under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileryan, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sensorimotor function testing in a tracking task under stressfull working conditions established a psychological characterization for a successful aviation pilot: Motivation significantly increased the reliability and effectiveness of their work. Their acitivities were aimed at suppressing weariness and the feeling of fear caused by the stress factors; they showed patience, endurance, persistence, and a capacity for lengthy volitional efforts.

  7. Oxidative stress response in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1: a functional genomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Control of activity and functionality of microbial starter and probiotic cultures under industrial fermentation conditions is essential in order to provide a tasty, appealing, healthy, and safe product. Oxidative stress is one of the harsh conditions that fermentative microbes have managed to endure

  8. Assessing impact of differential symptom functioning on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Qiwei; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the generalizability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to various subpopulations. Besides identifying the differential symptom functioning (also referred to as

  9. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Porębowicz-Dörsmann, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls) completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  10. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  11. Investigating the effect of acute sleep deprivation on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2017-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been previously identified as one potential mechanism that may explain the link between sleep deprivation and negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the direct association between sleep deprivation and HPA-axis functioning, particularly in the context of stress. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between acute sleep deprivation and HPA-axis reactivity to a psychosocial stressor. Participants included 40 healthy, young adults between the ages of 18-29. The current protocol included spending two nights in the laboratory. After an adaptation night (night 1), participants were randomized into either a sleep deprivation condition (29 consecutive hours awake) or a control condition (night 2). Following the second night, all participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was collected before, during, and after the TSST. Results indicated that there were significant group differences in cortisol stress reactivity. Specifically, compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the sleep deprivation condition had greater baseline (i.e., pre-stress) cortisol, yet a blunted cortisol response to the TSST. Taken together, a combination of elevated baseline cortisol (and its subsequent effect on HPA-axis regulatory processes) and a relative 'ceiling' on the amount of cortisol a laboratory stressor can produce may explain why participants in the sleep deprivation condition demonstrated blunted cortisol responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Essential Function for PDLIM2 in Cell Polarization in Three-Dimensional Cultures by Feedback Regulation of the β1-Integrin–RhoA Signaling Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran Deevi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available PDLIM2 is a cytoskeletal and nuclear PDZ-LIM domain protein that regulates the stability of Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NFκB and other transcription factors, and is required for polarized cell migration. PDLIM2 expression is suppressed by methylation in different cancers, but is strongly expressed in invasive breast cancer cells that have undergone an Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT. PDLIM2 is also expressed in non-transformed breast myoepithelial MCF10A cells and here we asked whether it is important for maintaining the polarized, epithelial phenotype of these cells. Suppression of PDLIM2 in MCF10A cells was sufficient to disrupt cell polarization and acini formation with increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis in the luminal space compared to control acini with hollow lumina. Spheroids with suppressed PDLIM2 exhibited increased expression of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion proteins including beta 1 (β1 integrin. Interestingly, levels of the Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1 R and Receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1, which scaffolds IGF-1R to β1 integrin, were also increased, indicating a transformed phenotype. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK and cofilin phosphorylation, and RhoA Guanosine Triphosphatase (GTPase activity were all enhanced in these spheroids compared to control acini. Importantly, inhibition of either FAK or Rho Kinase (ROCK was sufficient to rescue the polarity defect. We conclude that PDLIM2 expression is essential for feedback regulation of the β1-integrin-RhoA signalling axis and integration of cellular microenvironment signals with gene expression to control the polarity of breast epithelial acini structures. This is a mechanism by which PDLIM2 could mediate tumour suppression in breast epithelium.

  13. Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. It is important, therefore, to examine these two areas and to determine whether contextual factors (chewing habit, type of gum, and personality) modify such effects. The aims of the present study were: (i) to determine whether chewing gum improved mood and mental performance; (ii) to determine whether chewing gum had benefits in stressed individuals; and (iii) to determine whether chewing habit, type of gum and level of anxiety modified the effects of gum. A cross-over study involving 133 volunteers was carried out. Each volunteer carried out a test session when they were chewing gum and without gum, with order of gum conditions counterbalanced across subjects. Baseline sessions were conducted prior to each test session. Approximately half of the volunteers were tested in 75 dBA noise (the stress condition) and the rest in quiet. Volunteers were stratified on chewing habit and anxiety level. Approximately, half of the volunteers were given mint gum and half fruit gum. The volunteers rated their mood at the start and end of each session and had their heart rate monitored over the session. Saliva samples were taken to allow cortisol levels (good indicator of alertness and stress) to be assayed. During the session, volunteers carried out tasks measuring a range of cognitive functions (aspects of memory, selective and sustained attention, psychomotor speed and accuracy). Chewing gum was associated with greater alertness and a more positive mood. Reaction times were quicker in the gum condition, and this effect became bigger as the task became more difficult. Chewing gum also improved selective and sustained attention. Heart rate and cortisol levels were higher when chewing which confirms the alerting effect of chewing gum. Overall, the results suggest that chewing gum produces a number of benefits that are

  14. Evaluating Effects of Heat Stress on Cognitive Function among Workers in a Hot Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloumi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Mahmood Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Zeinab; Hosseini, Mostafa; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress, as one of the most common occupational health problems, can impair operators' cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on cognitive function among workers in a hot industry. In this cross-sectional study conducted in Malibel Saipa Company in 2013, workers were assigned into two groups: one group were exposed to heat stress (n=35), working in casting unit and the other group working in machining unit (n=35) with a normal air conditioning. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature was measured at three heights of ankle, abdomen, and head. In order to evaluate the effects of heat stress on attention and reaction time, Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3 were conducted before starting the work and during the work. A significant positive correlation was observed between WBGT and test duration (P=0.01) and reaction time of Stroop test 3 (P=0.047), and between number of errors in Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3, during the work (P= 0.001). Moreover, Stroop test 3 showed a significant higher score for both test duration and reaction time of workers in case group. RESULTS of the present study, conducted in a real work environment, confirmed the impairment of cognitive functions, including selective attention and reaction time, under heat stress conditions.

  15. Stress assessment based on EEG univariate features and functional connectivity measur