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Sample records for streptomyces species strain

  1. Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of various plant species grown in Taif region, KSA, having antagonistic activities against some microbial tissue ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Keywords: Taxonomy, Streptomyces, microbial tissue culture contaminants, antagonistic activities, 16S rRNA

  2. Structured morphological modeling as a framework for rational strain design of Streptomyces species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celler, K.; Picioreanu, C.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Wezel, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of a computational model for rational design of industrial Streptomyces exploitation requires a better understanding of the relationship between morphology—dictated by microbial growth, branching, fragmentation and adhesion—and product formation. Here we review the

  3. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  4. Characterization of Streptomyces strain SLO-105 isolated from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... produce a vivid yellow pigment on most media except on the ISP5. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the isolate were compared with known Actinomycetes species described in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology and they suggested that SLO-105 strain belong to Streptomyces ...

  5. New and bioactive compounds from Streptomyces strains residing in the wood of Celastraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Christian; Schmitz, Petra; Meurer, Kristina; Bamberg, Daniel D v; Lohmann, Stephanie; De Castro França, Suzelei; Groth, Ingrid; Schlegel, Brigitte; Möllmann, Ute; Gollmick, Friedrich; Gräfe, Udo; Leistner, Eckhard

    2002-11-01

    Wood from three different plants of the Celastraceae growing in their natural habitats in Brazil (Maytenus aquifolia Mart.) and South Africa [Putterlickia retrospinosa van Wyk and Mostert, P. verrucosa (E. Meyer ex Sonder) Szyszyl.] was established as a source of endophytic bacteria using a medium selective for actinomycetes. Two isolates were identified as Streptomyces setonii and S. sampsonii whereas two others were not assignable to any of the known Streptomyces species. They were preliminarily named Streptomyces Q21 and Streptomyces MaB-QuH-8. The latter strain produces a new chloropyrrol and chlorinated anthracyclinone. The chloropyrrol showed high activity against a series of multiresistent bacteria and mycobacteria.

  6. Lignocellulose-Adapted Endo-Cellulase Producing Streptomyces Strains for Bioconversion of Cellulose-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Ionata, Elena; Birolo, Leila; Montella, Salvatore; Marcolongo, Loredana; de Chiaro, Addolorata; Espresso, Francesco; Faraco, Vincenza; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four Actinobacteria strains, isolated from Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra biomass during natural biodegradation and with potential enzymatic activities specific for the degradation of lignocellulosic materials, were identified by a polyphasic approach. All strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces ( S .) and in particular, the most highly represented species was Streptomyces argenteolus representing 50% of strains, while 8 strains were identified as Streptomyces flavogriseus (synonym S. flavovirens ) and Streptomyces fimicarius (synonyms Streptomyces acrimycini, Streptomyces baarnensis, Streptomyces caviscabies , and Streptomyces flavofuscus ), and the other four strains belonged to the species Streptomyces drozdowiczii, Streptomyces rubrogriseus, Streptomyces albolongus , and Streptomyces ambofaciens . Moreover, all Streptomyces strains, tested for endo and exo-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, ligninase, peroxidase, and laccase activities using qualitative and semi-quantitative methods on solid growth medium, exhibited multiple enzymatic activities (from three to six). The 24 strains were further screened for endo-cellulase activity in liquid growth medium and the four best endo-cellulase producers ( S. argenteolus AE58P, S. argenteolus AE710A, S. argenteolus AE82P, and S. argenteolus AP51A) were subjected to partial characterization and their enzymatic crude extracts adopted to perform saccharification experiments on A. donax pretreated biomass. The degree of cellulose and xylan hydrolysis was evaluated by determining the kinetics of glucose and xylose release during 72 h incubation at 50°C from the pretreated biomass in the presence of cellulose degrading enzymes (cellulase and β-glucosidase) and xylan related activities (xylanase and β-xylosidase). The experiments were carried out utilizing the endo-cellulase activities from the selected S. argenteolus strains supplemented with commercial β-gucosidase and

  7. Development of a gene cloning system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species and heterologous expression of Streptomyces antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptomyces species are a major source of antibiotics. They usually grow slowly at their optimal temperature and fermentation of industrial strains in a large scale often takes a long time, consuming more energy and materials than some other bacterial industrial strains (e.g., E. coli and Bacillus). Most thermophilic Streptomyces species grow fast, but no gene cloning systems have been developed in such strains. Results We report here the isolation of 41 fast-growing (about twice the rate of S. coelicolor), moderately thermophilic (growing at both 30°C and 50°C) Streptomyces strains, detection of one linear and three circular plasmids in them, and sequencing of a 6996-bp plasmid, pTSC1, from one of them. pTSC1-derived pCWH1 could replicate in both thermophilic and mesophilic Streptomyces strains. On the other hand, several Streptomyces replicons function in thermophilic Streptomyces species. By examining ten well-sporulating strains, we found two promising cloning hosts, 2C and 4F. A gene cloning system was established by using the two strains. The actinorhodin and anthramycin biosynthetic gene clusters from mesophilic S. coelicolor A3(2) and thermophilic S. refuineus were heterologously expressed in one of the hosts. Conclusions We have developed a gene cloning and expression system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species. Although just a few plasmids and one antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster from mesophilic Streptomyces were successfully expressed in thermophilic Streptomyces species, we expect that by utilizing thermophilic Streptomyces-specific promoters, more genes and especially antibiotic genes clusters of mesophilic Streptomyces should be heterologously expressed. PMID:22032628

  8. Molecular studies on some soil-Streptomyces strains of western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Random amplified polymorphic of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis of the DNA extracted from seven Streptomyces strains of western region, KSA was the aim of this study. Partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces polychromogenes was also attempted. Results show that.

  9. Molecular studies on some soil- Streptomyces strains of western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis of the DNA extracted from seven Streptomyces strains of western region, KSA was the aim of this study. Partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces polychromogenes was also attempted. Results show that a total number of ...

  10. Two new species of the genus Streptomyces: Streptomyces camponoti sp. nov. and Streptomyces cuticulae sp. nov. isolated from the cuticle of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chenyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Li, Yao; Liu, Chongxi; Jin, Liying; Song, Wei; Yan, Kai; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2017-09-01

    Two novel actinomycetes, designated strains 2C-SSA16(2) T and 1C-GS8 T , were isolated from the cuticle of Camponotus japonicus Mayr, collected from Northeast Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Province, north China. Both of them contained genes (involved in antibiotics biosynthesis) of the ketosynthase (KS) and methyl malonyl transferase domains (PKS-I) and the adenylation domain (NRPS). A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of these strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two novel isolates 2C-SSA16(2) T and 1C-GS8 T exhibited 98.8% similarity with each other and that they are most closely related to Streptomyces umbrinus JCM 4521 T (99.0, 98.6%), Streptomyces ederensis JCM 4958 T (98.9, 98.7%), Streptomyces aurantiacus JCM 4453 T (98.6, 98.2%), Streptomyces glomeroaurantiacus JCM 4677 T (98.6, 98.1%), Streptomyces tauricus JCM4837 T (98.2, 98.0%) and Streptomyces phaeochromogenes JCM 4070 T (98.2, 99.2%). The corresponding phylogenetic analysis based on partial gyrB gene sequences showed that strains 2C-SSA16(2) T and 1C-GS8 T formed a cluster with the above-mentioned strains. The DNA-DNA hybridization data and phenotypic characteristics indicated that strains 2C-SSA16(2) T and 1C-GS8 T could be readily distinguished from each other and their closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, these two strains are suggested to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces camponoti sp. nov. and Streptomyces cuticulae sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are 2C-SSA16(2) T (=CGMCC 4.7276 T  = DSM 100522 T ) and 1C-GS8 T (=CGMCC 4.7348 = DSM 103127 T ), respectively.

  11. Multilocus sequence analysis of phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 validly described species and this number increases every year. The value of the application of multilocus sequence analysis scheme to the systematics of Streptomyces species h...

  12. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

  13. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  14. 'Streptomyces caelicus', an antibiotic-producing species of the genus Streptomyces, and Streptomyces canchipurensis Li et al. 2015 are later heterotypic synonyms of Streptomyces muensis Ningthoujam et al. 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Joachim; Schumann, Peter; Atasayar, Ewelina; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zaburannyi, Nestor; Westermann, Martin; Martin, Karin; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kämpfer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    'Streptomyces caelicus' DSM 40835 was first reported as the producer of the antibiotic griselimycin by some coworkers of Rhone Poulenc in 1971. The project on isolation of the antibiotic compound was stopped because of the bad solubility and selectivity of the compound towards Mycobacteria. At Sanofi-Aventis, Germany, the project was re-evaluated in 2007 and the gene cluster of griselimycin could be identified, characterized and was patented in 2013. At this time, 'S. caelicus' was an invalid name. During the strain characterization work, it was found that 'S. caelicus' belongs to the group of species of the genus Streptomyces which show an unusual heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Streptomyces muensis JCM 17576T and Streptomyces canchipurensis JCM 17575T were obvious. Here, we present a comparative description of 'Streptomyces caelicus' DS 9461 (=DSM 40835=NCCB 100592) with S. muensis and S. canchipurensis by use of a polyphasic taxonomy approach and additional comparison of some housekeeping genes by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). An emended description of Streptomyces muensis is provided as a result of this work.

  15. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces hirsutus and related species using multi-locus sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phylogenetic analyses of species of Streptomyces based on 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in a statistically well-supported clade (100% bootstrap value) containing 8 species having very similar gross morphology. These species, including Streptomyces bambergiensis, Streptomyces chlorus, Streptomyces...

  16. Streptomyces lunalinharesii Strain 235 Shows the Potential to Inhibit Bacteria Involved in Biocorrosion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco da Rosa, Juliana; Korenblum, Elisa; Franco-Cirigliano, Marcella Novaes; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Soares, Rosângela M. A.; Macrae, Andrew; Seldin, Lucy; Coelho, Rosalie R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with...

  17. Antimicrobial activities of the Streptomyces ceolicolor strain AOB KF977550 isolated from a tropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele T. Odumosu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen for important antibiotic producing species of the genus Streptomyces from a tropical estuary. Five bacterial strains were isolated from the Lagos lagoon and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Streptomyces albogriseolus, S. aureus, S. coelicolor, S. albus, and S. pseudogriseolus. Ethyl acetate extracts of Streptomyces spp. fermented broths were evaluated against laboratory strains of MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA 144 m, Bacillus coagulans UL001, and Escherichia coli as well as the standard strains Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 8308, Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 27853 and Salmonella typhi ATCC 13311 using the well diffusion method. The presence of secondary metabolites was determined and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A broad spectrum of activity was only observed for S. coelicolor on all of the tested bacteria except S. typhi, ant GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 16 secondary metabolites with relevant antibiotic properties. The result of this study suggest that Lagos Lagoon is a potential source and reservoir of novel antibiotics. Keywords: Streptomyces, Antibiotics, Resistance, Secondary Metabolites

  18. Taxonomic evaluation of putative Streptomyces scabiei strains held in the ARS (NRRL) Culture Collection using multi-locus sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-locus sequence analysis has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for identification of Streptomyces species and was previously applied to phylogenetically differentiate the type strains of species pathogenic on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) contains 43 str...

  19. Discovering potential Streptomyces hormone producers by using disruptants of essential biosynthetic genes as indicator strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen B; Kitani, Shigeru; Nitta, Hiroko; Tomioka, Toshiya; Nihira, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Autoregulators are low-molecular-weight signaling compounds that control the production of many secondary metabolites in actinomycetes and have been referred to as 'Streptomyces hormones'. Here, potential producers of Streptomyces hormones were investigated in 40 Streptomyces and 11 endophytic actinomycetes. Production of γ-butyrolactone-type (IM-2, VB) and butenolide-type (avenolide) Streptomyces hormones was screened using Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5 (ΔfarX), Streptomyces virginiae (ΔbarX) and Streptomyces avermitilis (Δaco), respectively. In these strains, essential biosynthetic genes for Streptomyces hormones were disrupted, enabling them to respond solely to the externally added hormones. The results showed that 20% of each of the investigated strains produced IM-2 and VB, confirming that γ-butyrolactone-type Streptomyces hormones are the most common in actinomycetes. Unlike the γ-butyrolactone type, butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones have been discovered in recent years, but their distribution has been unclear. Our finding that 24% of actinomycetes (12 of 51 strains) showed avenolide activity revealed for the first time that the butenolide-type Streptomyces hormone is also common in actinomycetes.

  20. Field efficacy of nonpathogenic Streptomyces species against potato common scab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of potato fields suppressive to common scab (CS) and of association of non-pathogenic streptomycetes with CS resistance suggest that non-pathogenic strains have potential to control or modulate CS disease. Biocontrol potential of non-pathogenic Streptomyces was examined in field experiments ...

  1. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these oth...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1120 - Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1120 Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biological pesticide Streptomyces sp. strain K61 is exempted from the requirement...

  3. [Antibacterial activity of rare Streptomyces species against clinical resistant bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughachiche, Faiza; Reghioua, Sihem; Zerizer, Habiba; Boulahrouf, Abderrahmane

    2012-01-01

    In the search for new antibiotics from Steptomyces, investigating extremes habitats enhances the probability of isolating novel producers. In this context, the antibacterial activity of four Streptomyces strains isolated from Ezzmoul saltpans was studied. Two of them showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic's resistant bacteria (Bacillus cereus: β-lactamines and sulfamides resistant, Streptococcus faecalis: penicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole resistant, and Staphylococcus aureus Mu 50: vancomycine resistant). The most active Streptomyces strain produces one type of polar bioactive molecules that resists to temperature variation and light exposition. Its activity appears in the first culture day and reaches its maximal value in the fourth day. The second strain presents themoresistant activity that reaches its maximal value in the first culture day. It produces two types of bioactive molecules, one is polar and the second is non polar (according to thin layer chromatography technique results).

  4. Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

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    Boknam Jung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed.

  5. Isolation and molecular identification chitinase-producing Streptomyces strains and examination of their in-vitro antagonistic effects

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    Alireza Dehnad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chemical fungicides are used widely in the world. To reduce the application of synthetic fungicides in treating plant diseases, biological methods are considered as an alternative way to control plant diseases. Many actinomycetes, particularly Streptomyces species are biological agents against a broad spectrum of fungal plant pathogens. The purpose of this study was using the kitinolitik actinomycetes isolated from soil of Eastern Azerbaijan province In order to produce biological pesticides. Materials and methods: Soil samples were taken from different areas of Eastern Azerbaijan province. According to Streptomyces morphological features, single colonies were isolated. To identify the bacteria by molecular characteristic, the genomic DNA was extracted and then the sequences of 16S rDNA were replicated. By using specific primers the bacterial isolates containing chitinase gene were screened. The isolates consisted Chitinase enzyme and were antagonistically cultured with Alternaria genus which is a fungal plant pathogen. Results: Out of 60 soil collected samples, 31 Streptomyces bacterial isolates were separated. Four isolates showed positive results to selectivity action of the chitinase enzyme. Treatment of 3 bacterial isolates with 2 pathogenic fungi showed that AE09 is the most effective anti-fungal isolates. Discussion and conclusion: Soils in Eastern Azerbaijan province are rich of Streptomyces bacteria which generate antifungal compounds. Obtaining the Streptomyces bacteria which have chitinase gene, can lead to identification of very effective strains as anti-fungal.

  6. Isolation of salt stress gene(s) from some haloterant streptomyces strains using polymerase chain reaction (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We studied salt tolerance range in sixteen halotolerant streptomyces strains to isolate salt regulated genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. A group of these strains was isolated from Sedi-creer (S. niveus Sc-2 and S. sendenensis Sc-II); El-Malahat (Alexndria) (S. graminofaciens Ma-13): Qaroon's lake (S. albovinaceus QA-44, S. luteofluorescens Qa-51, S. albidoflavous Qa-53 and S. erthaeus QA-84). The other group represents the strains isolated from different soils from Damaaita (S. violans Da-3). Ismailia (S. alboflavus-Is-10). Port said (S. bobili Ps-12) and Sinai sandy soil (streptomyces species Si-1, S. truirus Si-4, S. lateritius Si-6, S. hawaiiensis Si-8, S. muavecolor Si-9 and S. melanogenes Si-11). These strains were varied in their salt tolerance range in particular, with increasing NaCl concentration in the growth medium up to 14%. It was also noted that all the applied Streptomyces strains appeared abundant growth at NaCl concentrations of 0.05, 3.5 and 7.0%. When NaCl was added at concentration of 10.5%, all of them except S. melanogenes Si-II strain gave moderate growth. On the contrary, NaCl at concentration of 14% inhibited the growth of 50% of strains under investigation. But the other 50% of these strains gave moderate growth at the same NaCl concentration. At the molecular level, the PCR was successfully used for isolating the mtlD and P5CS genes from 3 (S. alboinaceus Qa-44, S. albidoflavus Qa-53, S. erthraeus QA-84) and 4 (S. albovunaecaus Qa-44, Streptomyces species Si-I, S. luteofluorescens Qa-51, S. latritius Si-6) strains, respectively. As PCR fragments with a size of about 1095 and 2100 bp were amplified from the DNA genome of these strains using the primer pairs (P1 and P2) and (P3 and P4), respectively. These results confirmed the ability to use PCR for isolation or detection of any gene based on its nucleotide sequencing in any microorganism. Furthermore, one can recommended the use of the applied halotolerant

  7. Genome Content and Phylogenomics Reveal both Ancestral and Lateral Evolutionary Pathways in Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet-Tapia, Jose C.; Lefebure, Tristan; Badger, Jonathan H.; Guan, Dongli; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are highly differentiated actinomycetes with large, linear chromosomes that encode an arsenal of biologically active molecules and catabolic enzymes. Members of this genus are well equipped for life in nutrient-limited environments and are common soil saprophytes. Out of the hundreds of species in the genus Streptomyces, a small group has evolved the ability to infect plants. The recent availability of Streptomyces genome sequences, including four genomes of pathogenic species, provided an opportunity to characterize the gene content specific to these pathogens and to study phylogenetic relationships among them. Genome sequencing, comparative genomics, and phylogenetic analysis enabled us to discriminate pathogenic from saprophytic Streptomyces strains; moreover, we calculated that the pathogen-specific genome contains 4,662 orthologs. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that Streptomyces scabies and S. ipomoeae share an ancestor but that their biosynthetic clusters encoding the required virulence factor thaxtomin have diverged. In contrast, S. turgidiscabies and S. acidiscabies, two relatively unrelated pathogens, possess highly similar thaxtomin biosynthesis clusters, which suggests that the acquisition of these genes was through lateral gene transfer. PMID:26826232

  8. Discoloration of Ancient Egyptian Mural Paintings by Streptomyces Strains and Methods of Its Removal

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    Akmal Ali SAKR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces isolated from mural paintings at Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing method. These Streptomyces strains caused discoloration of mural paintings with irreversible red stains of carotenoid pigment. A mixture of n-hexan and acetone (92:8 v/v was the best solvent for extracting and purification of red pigment from biomass of Streptomyces. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF were the most effective in treatment of these red stains without changing the paintings or stone surfaces.

  9. Aminopeptidases in Mycelium and Growth Medium of Streptomyces rimosus Strains

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    Jasminka Špoljarić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminopeptidases (APs of the same substrate specificities have been detected in the mycelia and culture filtrate of Streptomyces rimosus. To compare extracellular and intracellular prolyl, leucyl and arginyl AP, dynamics of their biosynthesis, excretion and localization were analyzed during submerged cultivation of two S. rimosus strains, T55 and ZGL3, in several media. AP activity in mycelia reached maximum in the stationary phase, and decreased to different extent at a later stage. The accumulation of APs, except prolyl aminopeptidase (ProAP, in the culture filtrate followed the growth of bacteria and decreased later on, when peptide-richer medium was used. When S. rimosus was grown in glucose-richer medium, the accumulation of APs in the medium started at the late log phase and continued to the end of cultivation, due to cell lysis. The combined addition of calcium and ammonium salts to tryptone soy broth increased the AP activity in S. rimosus ZGL3 culture filtrates up to two times. The AP intracellular activity was significantly higher compared to its intercellular activity (2 to 24 times. Mycelium/medium AP activity ratio decreased with the age of the culture, its change being dependent on the S. rimosus strain, growth medium composition and AP specificity. Leucyl AP (LeuAP was the most prone to be released from the mycelium, suggesting that part of the enzyme could be excreted by active transport. Determination of AP distribution within cell compartments has confirmed that the three APs are intracellular enzymes residing in cytosol, but also suggested their partial association with cytoplasmic membrane.

  10. Improvement of FK506 Production in the High-Yielding Strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by Engineering the Supply of Allylmalonyl-CoA Through a Combination of Genetic and Chemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, SangJoon; Lee, Sung-Kwon; Jin, Ying-Yu; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-02-01

    FK506, a widely used immunosuppressant, is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that is produced by several Streptomyces species. FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 was developed from the discovered Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P by random mutagenesis in our previous study. The results of transcript expression analysis showed that the transcription levels of tcsA, B, C, and D were increased in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by 2.1-, 3.1-, 3.3-, and 4.1- fold, respectively, compared with Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P. The overexpression of tcsABCD genes in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 gave rise to approximately 2.5-fold (238.1 μg/ml) increase in the level of FK506 production compared with that of Streptomyces sp. RM7011. When vinyl pentanoate was added into the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011, the level of FK506 production was approximately 2.2-fold (207.7 μg/ml) higher than that of the unsupplemented fermentation. Furthermore, supplementing the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011 expressing tcsABCD genes with vinyl pentanoate resulted in an additional 1.7-fold improvement in the FK506 titer (498.1 μg/ml) compared with that observed under nonsupplemented condition. Overall, the level of FK506 production was increased approximately 5.2-fold by engineering the supply of allylmalonyl-CoA in the high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011, using a combination of overexpressing tcsABCD genes and adding vinyl pentanoate, as compared with Streptomyces sp. RM7011 (95.3 μg/ml). Moreover, among the three precursors analyzed, pentanoate was the most effective precursor, supporting the highest titer of FK506 in the FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011.

  11. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T formed a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these ot...

  12. ISOLASI STREPTOMYCES SPP. PADA KAWASAN HUTAN PROVINSI BALI SERTA UJI DAYA HAMBATNYA TERHADAP LIMA STRAIN DIARRHEAGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN EKA DHARMAWAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An exploration study of natural resources soil bacteria antibiotic-producer, Streptomyces spp. was done in two steps. The first step was isolation of Streptomyces and the second involved testing their inhibition activities against five strains diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Soil samples were collected from ten forest areas in Bali. As many as 55 isolates were collected with various macroscopic dan microscopic characters. Most isolates (eight Streptomyces isolates were collected from forest area in Penulisan, Kintamani (RTK. 20. The diversities of isolates are influenced by environment condition. All Streptomyces isolated were tested against five strains diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to check antibiotic activity for inhibit growth of E. coli. Streptomycine was used as a control. The result showed that the largest inhibition zones of Streptomyces against E. coli strains EHEC, ETEC, EIEC, EPEC and DAEC were produced by Streptomyces PK5 (48,67 ± 0,58 mm, Streptomyces GAA4 (29,00 ± 2,00 mm, Streptomyces GBK3 (42,67 ± 2,08 mm, Streptomyces SkBB5 (29,00 ± 2,65 mm and Streptomyces GM3 (33,67 ± 3,21 mm respectively.

  13. Obtaining mutants of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339, producers of glucose isomerase, following gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhedzheva, G.; Stoeva, N.; Stojchev, M.

    1990-01-01

    A water suspension of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores of a density of 8.7.10 6 spores/cm 3 is gamma irradiated ( 60 Co, RHM-γ-20, 30.3 Gy/min). The survival of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores was determined depending on radiation doses, exposure times and incubation temperature. Five major morphological types of colonies were isolated, characterized by different levels of glucose isomerase activity. Maximum specific glucose isomerase activity (GIU/g) was attained after the third gamma irradiation step using a dose of 3000 Gy. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 7 refs

  14. Role of Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Oleaginous Streptomyces sp. Strain G25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Strittmatter, Carl Simon; Schauer, Jennifer; Hiessl, Sebastian; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, we isolated a novel Streptomyces strain which can accumulate extraordinarily large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) and consists of 64% fatty acids (dry weight) when cultivated with glucose and 50% fatty acids (dry weight) when cultivated with cellobiose. To identify putative gene products responsible for lipid storage and cellobiose utilization, we analyzed its draft genome sequence. A single gene encoding a wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) was identified and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme AtfG25 showed acyltransferase activity with C12- or C16-acyl-CoA, C12 to C18 alcohols, or dipalmitoyl glycerol. This acyltransferase exhibits 24% amino acid identity to the model enzyme AtfA from Acinetobacter baylyi but has high sequence similarities to WS/DGATs from other Streptomyces species. To investigate the impact of AtfG25 on lipid accumulation, the respective gene, atfG25, was inactivated in Streptomyces sp. strain G25. However, cells of the insertion mutant still exhibited DGAT activity and were able to store TAG, albeit in lower quantities and at lower rates than the wild-type strain. These findings clearly indicate that AtfG25 has an important, but not exclusive, role in TAG biosynthesis in the novel Streptomyces isolate and suggest the presence of alternative metabolic pathways for lipid accumulation which are discussed in the present study. IMPORTANCE A novel Streptomyces strain was isolated from desert soil, which represents an extreme environment with high temperatures, frequent drought, and nutrient scarcity. We believe that these harsh conditions promoted the development of the capacity for this strain to accumulate extraordinarily large amounts of lipids. In this study, we present the analysis of its draft genome sequence with a special focus on enzymes potentially involved in its lipid storage. Furthermore, the activity and importance of the detected

  15. Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2016-09-01

    Three novel isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces, designated JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T, were isolated from bamboo forest soil in Damyang, Korea. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains JR-35T and JR-46 showed highest similarities with Streptomyces olivochromogenes NBRC 3178T (99.1 %), Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.9 %), Streptomyces chartreusis NBRC 12753T (98.9 %), Streptomyces resistomycificus NRRL ISP-5133T (98.9 %) and Streptomyces bobili JCM 4627T (98.8 %), and strain WH-9Tshowed highest sequence similarities with Streptomyces. bobili JCM 4627T (99.2 %), Streptomyces phaeoluteigriseus NRRL ISP-5182T (99.2 %), Streptomyces alboniger NBRC 12738T (99.2 %), Streptomyces galilaeus JCM 4757T (99.1 %) and Streptomyces pseudovenezuelae NBRC 12904T (99.1 %). The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 for strains JR-35T and JR-46 and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 for strain WH-9T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strains JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T were 69.4, 74.4 and 74.1 mol%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the three strains are assigned to two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. (type stain JR-35T=KACC 17181T=NBRC 109807T) and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov. (type strain WH-9T=KACC 17197T=NBRC 109810T) are proposed.

  16. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces species continue to attract attention as a source of novel medicinal compounds. Despite a long history of studies on these microorganisms, they still have many biochemical mysteries to be elucidated. Investigations of novel secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters...... collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species....

  17. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wei, Chia-Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

  18. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 ºC after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  19. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  20. Strain improvement in Streptomyces galilaeus, a producer of anthracycline antibiotics galirubins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralovcova, E.; Blumauerova, M.; Vanek, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The production of epsilon-pyrromycinone glycosides in Streptomyces galilaeus increased 12-fold, with respect to the wild strain, as a result of a sequential procedure including both natural selection and treatment with mutagens (nitrous acid, UV light and γ irradiation). Nitrous acid exhibited the highest mutagenic effect, both in increasing the productivity and in inducing blocked mutants. A mutant strain blocked in the biosynthesis of glycosides and accumulating free epsilon-pyrromycinone as the principal metabolite was obtained. (author)

  1. Novel Pathway of Salicylate Degradation by Streptomyces sp. Strain WA46

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiyama, Daisuke; Vujaklija, Dusica; Davies, Julian

    2004-01-01

    A novel salicylate-degrading Streptomyces sp., strain WA46, was identified by UV fluorescence on solid minimal medium containing salicylate; trace amounts of gentisate were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography when strain WA46 was grown with salicylate. PCR amplification of WA46 DNA with degenerate primers for gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GDO) genes produced an amplicon of the expected size. Sequential PCR with nested GDO primers was then used to identify a salicylate degradation gen...

  2. Streptomyces lunalinharesii Strain 235 Shows the Potential to Inhibit Bacteria Involved in Biocorrosion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pacheco da Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with proteinase K and trypsin. The antimicrobial substances present in the concentrated supernatant from growth media were partially characterized by SDS-PAGE and extracellular polypeptides were seen. Bands in the size range of 12 to 14.4 kDa caused antimicrobial activity. Transmission electron microscopy of D. alaskensis cells treated with the concentrated supernatant containing the antimicrobial substances revealed the formation of prominent bubbles, the spherical double-layered structures on the cell membrane, and the periplasmic space completely filled with electron-dense material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances by actinomycetes against bacteria involved in biocorrosion processes, and these findings may be of great relevance as an alternative source of biocides to those currently employed in the petroleum industry.

  3. Streptomyces lunalinharesii strain 235 shows the potential to inhibit bacteria involved in biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Rosa, Juliana; Korenblum, Elisa; Franco-Cirigliano, Marcella Novaes; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Soares, Rosângela M A; Macrae, Andrew; Seldin, Lucy; Coelho, Rosalie R R

    2013-01-01

    Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with proteinase K and trypsin. The antimicrobial substances present in the concentrated supernatant from growth media were partially characterized by SDS-PAGE and extracellular polypeptides were seen. Bands in the size range of 12 to 14.4 kDa caused antimicrobial activity. Transmission electron microscopy of D. alaskensis cells treated with the concentrated supernatant containing the antimicrobial substances revealed the formation of prominent bubbles, the spherical double-layered structures on the cell membrane, and the periplasmic space completely filled with electron-dense material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances by actinomycetes against bacteria involved in biocorrosion processes, and these findings may be of great relevance as an alternative source of biocides to those currently employed in the petroleum industry.

  4. Variable antibiotic susceptibility patterns among Streptomyces species causing actinomycetoma in man and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamed E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy is recommended in conjunction with surgery in treatment of actinomycetoma. The specific prescription depends on the type of bacteria (actinomycetoma or fungi (eumycetoma causing the disease and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Streptomyces spp. isolated from cases of actinomycetoma in man and animals in Sudan. Methods Streptomyces strains (n = 18 isolated from cases of actinomycetoma were tested in vitro against 15 commonly prescribed antibacterial agents using MIC agar dilution method as per standard guidelines. Results Streptomyces strains isolated from actinomycetoma fall into various phenotypic groups. All of the strains were inhibited by novobiocin (8 μg/mL, gentamycin (8, 32 μg/mL and doxycycline (32 μg/mL. Fusidic acid (64 μg/mL inhibited 94.4% of the strains; bacitracin, streptomycin, cephaloridine, clindamycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline (64 μg/mL inhibited between 61.1 and 77.8% of the strains. All strains were found resistant to amphotericin B (64 μg/mL, penicillin (20 μg/mL and sulphamethoxazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusions Saprophytic Streptomyces spp. cause actinomycetoma in man and animal belong to separate phenotypes and have a wide range of susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents, which pose a lot of difficulties in selecting effective in vivo treatment for actinomycetoma.

  5. Systematics of Plant-Pathogenic and Related Streptomyces Species Based on Phylogenetic Analyses of Multiple Gene Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 10 species of Streptomyces implicated as the etiological agents in scab disease of potatoes or soft rot disease of sweet potatoes are distributed among 7 different phylogenetic clades in analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, but high sequence similarity of this gene among Streptomyces speci...

  6. Taxonomic analyses of members of the Streptomyces cinnabarinus cluster, description of Streptomyces cinnabarigriseus sp. nov. and Streptomyces davaonensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Wiebke; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Mack, Matthias; Schumann, Peter; Atasayar, Ewelina; Hahnke, Richard L; Rohde, Manfred; Martin, Karin; Stadler, Marc; Wink, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Roseoflavin is the only known riboflavin (vitamin B2) analog with antibiotic properties. It is actively taken up by many micro-organisms and targets flavinmononucleotide riboswitches and flavoproteins. It is described as the product of the tentatively named 'Streptomyces davawensis' JCM 4913. Taxonomic analysis of this strain with a polyphasic approach showed that it is very closely related to Streptomyces cinnabarinus (DSM 40467). The two Streptomyces isolates were obtained from different geographical locations (the Philippines and the Kamchatka Peninsula, respectively), their genomes have been sequenced and the question was whether or not the two isolates were representatives of the same species. As we also worked with another isolate of Streptomyces cinnabarinus JS 360, the producer of the cinnabaramides, we wanted to clarify the taxonomic position of the three isolates by using a polyphasic approach. After analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, we found in total 23 species of the genus Streptomyces that showed a similarity higher than 98.5 % to the three strains. We showed that 'S. davawensis' JCM 4913 and S. cinnabarinus DSM 40467 were very closely related but belong to two different species. Hence, we validate 'S. davawensis' as Streptomyces davaonensis sp. nov. with the type strain JCM 4913 T (=DSM 101723 T ). In addition, the cinnabaramide producer can be clearly differentiated from S. davaonensis and this isolate is described as Streptomyces cinnabarigriseus sp. nov. with strain JS360 T (=NCCB 100590 T =DSM 101724 T ) as the type strain.

  7. VIABILITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF STREPTOMYCES STRAINS FROM NCNM AFTER LYOPHILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg CHISELIŢA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the aspects related to lyophilization of streptomycetes strains, preserved in the National Collection of Nonpathogenic Microorganisms (NCNM. Was determined that lyophilization do not significantly modify the antimicrobial activity of streptomycetes. Maximum viability of strains of genus Streptomyces (83,2-90,2% is ensured after lyophilization at initial titer by 9-11 log10UFC ml-1 in protective medium (gelatin 2,5% + glucose 7,5% by rehydra­tion with distillate water.VIABILITATEA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTIMICROBIANĂ A TULPINELOR DE STREPTOMYCES DIN CNMN DUPĂ LIOFILIZAREAcest articol prezintă aspecte legate de liofilizarea tulpinilor de streptomicete, depozitate în Colecţia Naţională de Microorganisme Nepatogene (CNMN. A fost stabilit că liofilizarea nu modifică esenţial activitatea antimicrobiană a streptomicetelor. Viabilitatea maximă a tulpinilor genului Streptomyces (83,2-90,2% este asigurată după liofilizarea la titrul iniţial 9-11 log10UFC ml-1 în mediu protectiv (gelatină 2,5% + glucosă 7,5% şi la rehidratarea cu apă distilată. 

  8. Influence of Mode of Fermentation on Production of Polygalacturonase by a Novel Strain of Streptomyces lydicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicemol Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of different pectinolytic enzymes was attempted using the actinomycete strain Streptomyces lydicus in submerged fermentation. Polygalacturonase and pectin lyase activities were detected in the culture supernatant, but the strain was not able to produce pectin esterase. Polygalacturonase production was studied in submerged, slurry-state and solid-state fermentation systems. All the experiments were carried out under static and shaking conditions. Solid-state fermentation under static condition was found to be promising. Various agroindustrial residues were tried as substrates for solid-state fermentation. Wheat bran was proved to be the best substrate.

  9. Characterization of replication and conjugation of plasmid pWTY27 from a widely distributed Streptomyces species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptomyces species are widely distributed in natural habitats, such as soils, lakes, plants and some extreme environments. Replication loci of several Streptomyces theta-type plasmids have been reported, but are not characterized in details. Conjugation loci of some Streptomyces rolling-circle-type plasmids are identified and mechanism of conjugal transferring are described. Results We report the detection of a widely distributed Streptomyces strain Y27 and its indigenous plasmid pWTY27 from fourteen plants and four soil samples cross China by both culturing and nonculturing methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of pWTY27 consisted of 14,288 bp. A basic locus for plasmid replication comprised repAB genes and an adjacent iteron sequence, to a long inverted-repeat (ca. 105 bp of which the RepA protein bound specifically in vitro, suggesting that RepA may recognize a second structure (e.g. a long stem-loop of the iteron DNA. A plasmid containing the locus propagated in linear mode when the telomeres of a linear plasmid were attached, indicating a bi-directional replication mode for pWTY27. As for rolling-circle plasmids, a single traA gene and a clt sequence (covering 16 bp within traA and its adjacent 159 bp on pWTY27 were required for plasmid transfer. TraA recognized and bound specifically to the two regions of the clt sequence, one containing all the four DC1 of 7 bp (TGACACC and one DC2 (CCCGCCC and most of IC1, and another covering two DC2 and part of IC1, suggesting formation of a high-ordered DNA-protein complex. Conclusions This work (i isolates a widespread Streptomyces strain Y27 and sequences its indigenous theta-type plasmid pWTY27; (ii identifies the replication and conjugation loci of pWTY27 and; (iii characterizes the binding sequences of the RepA and TraA proteins.

  10. Characterization of replication and conjugation of plasmid pWTY27 from a widely distributed Streptomyces species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptomyces species are widely distributed in natural habitats, such as soils, lakes, plants and some extreme environments. Replication loci of several Streptomyces theta-type plasmids have been reported, but are not characterized in details. Conjugation loci of some Streptomyces rolling-circle-type plasmids are identified and mechanism of conjugal transferring are described. Results We report the detection of a widely distributed Streptomyces strain Y27 and its indigenous plasmid pWTY27 from fourteen plants and four soil samples cross China by both culturing and nonculturing methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of pWTY27 consisted of 14,288 bp. A basic locus for plasmid replication comprised repAB genes and an adjacent iteron sequence, to a long inverted-repeat (ca. 105 bp) of which the RepA protein bound specifically in vitro, suggesting that RepA may recognize a second structure (e.g. a long stem-loop) of the iteron DNA. A plasmid containing the locus propagated in linear mode when the telomeres of a linear plasmid were attached, indicating a bi-directional replication mode for pWTY27. As for rolling-circle plasmids, a single traA gene and a clt sequence (covering 16 bp within traA and its adjacent 159 bp) on pWTY27 were required for plasmid transfer. TraA recognized and bound specifically to the two regions of the clt sequence, one containing all the four DC1 of 7 bp (TGACACC) and one DC2 (CCCGCCC) and most of IC1, and another covering two DC2 and part of IC1, suggesting formation of a high-ordered DNA-protein complex. Conclusions This work (i) isolates a widespread Streptomyces strain Y27 and sequences its indigenous theta-type plasmid pWTY27; (ii) identifies the replication and conjugation loci of pWTY27 and; (iii) characterizes the binding sequences of the RepA and TraA proteins. PMID:23134842

  11. Genome Sequences of the Oxytetracycline Production Strain Streptomyces rimosus R6-500 and Two Mutants with Chromosomal Rearrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Baranasic, Damir

    2014-07-17

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces rimosus R6-500, an industrially improved strain which produces high titers of the important antibiotic oxytetracycline, is reported, as well as the genome sequences of two derivatives arising due to the genetic instability of the strain.

  12. Genome Sequences of the Oxytetracycline Production Strain Streptomyces rimosus R6-500 and Two Mutants with Chromosomal Rearrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Baranasic, Damir; Zucko, Jurica; Nair, Mridul; Pain, Arnab; Long, Paul F.; Hranueli, Daslav; Cullum, John; Starcevic, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces rimosus R6-500, an industrially improved strain which produces high titers of the important antibiotic oxytetracycline, is reported, as well as the genome sequences of two derivatives arising due to the genetic instability of the strain.

  13. Targeted Gene Disruption of the Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro Biosynthetic Pathway in Streptomyces sp. US24 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously isolated a new actinomycete strain from Tunisian soil called Streptomyces sp. US24, and have shown that it produces two bioactive molecules including a Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro diketopiperazine (DKP. To identify the structural genes responsible for the synthesis of this DKP derivative, a PCR amplification (696 bp was carried out using the Streptomyces sp. US24 genomic DNA as template and two degenerate oligonucleotides designed by analogy with genes encoding peptide synthetases (NRPS. The detection of DKP derivative biosynthetic pathway of the Streptomyces sp. US24 strain was then achieved by gene disruption via homologous recombination using a suicide vector derived from the conjugative plasmid pSET152 and containing the PCR product. Chromatography analysis, biological tests and spectroscopic studies of supernatant cultures of the wild-type Streptomyces sp. US24 strain and three mutants obtained by this gene targeting disruption approach showed that the amplified DNA fragment is required for Cyclo (L-Phe, L-Pro biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. US24 strain. This DKP derivative seems to be produced either directly via a nonribosomal pathway or as a side product in the course of nonribosomal synthesis of a longer peptide.

  14. Antifungal activity of terrestrial Streptomyces rochei strain HF391 against clinical azole -resistant Aspergillus fumigatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, S; Forootanfar, H; Shahidi Bonjar, GH; Falahati Nejad, M; Karamy Robati, A; Ayatollahi Mousavi, SA; Amirporrostami, S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Actinomycetes have been discovered as source of antifungal compounds that are currently in clinical use. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) due to Aspergillus fumigatus has been identified as individual drug-resistant Aspergillus spp. to be an emerging pathogen opportunities a global scale. This paper described the antifungal activity of one terrestrial actinomycete against the clinically isolated azole-resistant A. fumigatus. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from various locations of Kerman, Iran. Thereafter, the actinomycetes were isolated using starch-casein-nitrate-agar medium and the most efficient actinomycetes (capable of inhibiting A. fumigatus) were screened using agar block method. In the next step, the selected actinomycete was cultivated in starch-casein- broth medium and the inhibitory activity of the obtained culture broth was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. Results: The selected actinomycete, identified as Streptomyces rochei strain HF391, could suppress the growth of A. fumigatus isolates which was isolated from the clinical samples of patients treated with azoles. This strain showed higher inhibition zones on agar diffusion assay which was more than 15 mm. Conclusion: The obtained results of the present study introduced Streptomyces rochei strain HF391 as terrestrial actinomycete that can inhibit the growth of clinically isolated A. fumigatus. PMID:28680984

  15. Streptomyces xylanilyticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmangmee, Duangtip; Kanchanasin, Pawina; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Moonmangmee, Somporn

    2017-10-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain SR2-123 T , belonging to the genus Streptomyces, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of the strain was characterized using a polyphasic study. Strain SR2-123 T contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose and ribose in whole-cell hydrolysates. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. Menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid, unknown glycolipids, an unknown aminophospholipid, unknown lipids and an unknown aminolipid. The DNA G+C content was 74.8 mol%. The strain was closely related to Streptomyces coeruleorubidus JCM 4359 T (98.5 %), Streptomyces flavofungini JCM 4753 T (98.5 %), Streptomyces coerulescens NBRC 12758 T (98. 5 %) and Streptomyces alboflavus JCM 4615 T (98.4 %), based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The novel strain exhibited low DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains (11.4-25.0 %) of closely related species. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain SR2-123 T could be distinguished from closely related species of the genus Streptomyces and represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces xylanilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR2-123 T (=TISTR 2493 T =KCTC 39909 T ).

  16. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296 bp and G + C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria.

  17. Isolation and partial characterization of antimicrobial compounds from a new strain Streptomyces sp. CN207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, Nedra; Lazim, Hadeer; Barkallah, Insaf; Limam, Ferid

    2008-01-01

    A distinct streptomyces strains were isolated from Tunisian soil. the isolate designed CN207, was assigned to the genus streptomyces on the basis of morphological and chemotaxonomic criteria. A 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate was determined. Streptomyces sp CN207 secreted large amount antibiotic against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungi on his barley (HB) medium. (HB) medium was found to be suitable substrate of the medium for CN207 production. Maximum yield of CN207 product (700 mg/ml) after optimize fermentation process. Bioactive molecules from strain CN207 were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by PTLC using silica gel plates.The separated compounds were visualiszed under UV at 254 nm and the active spots were detected by bioautography on silica gel plates using salmonella thyphimurium NRRL B4420 and Staphylococcus aureus CDC 103 as indicator microorganisms. The crude extract (8.36 g) was fractionated on Sep-pack column (C18 cartridge) and elution was performed using a discontinue gradient of methanol-water. Two active fractions eluted by 20% and 40% of methanol were obtained. The bioactive compounds were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 reversed phase column and eluted with a linear gradient of acetonitrile -water in presence of 0.1% formic acid. The peaks were collected separately, concentrated and bioassayed against the routine indicator microorganisms. The absorption spectrum of the active molecules was determined with a shimadzu UV-160 a spectrophotometer. Determination of the chemical structure of these compounds on the basis on their IR, COSY and H 1: C13 is in progress

  18. Biodegradation of degradable plastic polyethylene by phanerochaete and streptomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B; Pometto, A L; Fratzke, A; Bailey, T B

    1991-03-01

    The ability of lignin-degrading microorganisms to attack degradable plastics was investigated in pure shake flask culture studies. The degradable plastic used in this study was produced commercially by using the Archer-Daniels-Midland POLYCLEAN masterbatch and contained pro-oxidant and 6% starch. The known lignin-degrading bacteria Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii 75Vi2 and fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used. Pro-oxidant activity was accelerated by placing a sheet of plastic into a drying oven at 70 degrees C under atmospheric pressure and air for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 days. The effect of 2-, 4-, and 8-week longwave UV irradiation at 365 nm on plastic biodegradability was also investigated. For shake flask cultures, plastics were chemically disinfected and incubated-shaken at 125 rpm at 37 degrees C in 0.6% yeast extract medium (pH 7.1) for Streptomyces spp. and at 30 degrees C for the fungus in 3% malt extract medium (pH 4.5) for 4 weeks along with an uninoculated control for each treatment. Weight loss data were inconclusive because of cell mass accumulation. For almost every 70 degrees C heat-treated film, the Streptomyces spp. demonstrated a further reduction in percent elongation and polyethylene molecular weight average when compared with the corresponding uninoculated control. Significant (P < 0.05) reductions were demonstrated for the 4- and 8-day heat-treated films by all three bacteria. Heat-treated films incubated with P. chrysosporium consistently demonstrated higher percent elongation and molecular weight average than the corresponding uninoculated controls, but were lower than the corresponding zero controls (heat-treated films without 4-week incubation). The 2- and 4-week UV-treated films showed the greatest biodegradation by all three bacteria. Virtually no degradation by the fungus was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating bacterial degradation of these oxidized polyethylenes in

  19. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Kinetics of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid and byproduct formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bruheim, P.; Nielsen, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The production kinetics of a transformed strain of Penicillium chrysogenum expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was investigated in chemostat cultivations. The recombinant strain produces adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) as the major product; however...

  20. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by actinomycete Streptomyces viridogens strain HM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagurunathan, R; Radhakrishnan, M; Rajendran, R Babu; Velmurugan, D

    2011-10-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Streptomycetes from Himalayan Mountain was undertaken for the first time. Out of 10 actinomycete strains tested, four strains (D10, HM10, ANS2 and MSU) showed evidence for the intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles, among which the strain HM10 showed high potency. Presence of spherical and rod shaped gold nanoparticles in mycelium of the strain HM10 was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis. The average particle size ranged from 18-20 nm. UV spectral analysis indicated that the reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) occurred within 24 h of reaction period. Further, the strain HM10 showed enhanced growth at 1 and 10 mM concentration of HAuCl4. The gold nanoparticles synthesized by the strain HM10 showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli in well-diffusion method. The potential actinomycete HM10 strain was phenotypically characterized and identified as Streptomyces viridogens (HM10). Thus, actinomycete strain HM10 reported in this study is a newly added source for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles.

  1. A whole genome analysis reveals the presence of a plant PR1 sequence in the potato pathogen Streptomyces scabies and other Streptomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos-Jaramillo, Vinicio; Santander-Gordón, Daniela; Soria, Rosa; Pazmiño-Betancourth, Mauro; Echeverría, María Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Streptomyces scabies is a common soil bacterium that causes scab symptoms in potatoes. Strong evidence indicates horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among bacteria has influenced the evolution of this plant pathogen and other Streptomyces spp. To extend the study of the HGT to the Streptomyces genus, we explored the effects of the inter-domain HGT in the S. scabies genome. We employed a semi-automatic pipeline based on BLASTp searches and phylogenetic reconstruction. The data show low impact of inter-domain HGT in the S. scabies genome; however, we found a putative plant pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) sequence in the genome of S. scabies and other species of the genus. It is possible that this gene could be used by S. scabies to out-compete other soil organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of endoglucanase by the native strains of Streptomyces isolates in submerged fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chellapandi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase is a complex enzyme system, commercially produced by filamentous fungi under solid-state and submerged cultivation. It has wide applicability in textile, food and beverage industry for effective saccharification process. In this study, cellulolytic enzyme activity, particularly endoglucanase of 26 Streptomyces strains isolated from garden soil was examined, including two isolates selected on the basis of potential cellulolytic activity on Bennett's agar medium. To enhance the endoglucanase formation in broth culture, different conditions including carbon and nitrogen sources, and growth conditions were tested. The maximum endoglucanase activity (11.25-11.90 U/mL was achieved within 72-88 h in fermentation medium containing Tween-80, followed by phosphate sources. Both cellulolytic Streptomyces isolates gave almost equal quantity of enzyme in all trials. However the effect of medium ingredients on endoglucanase induction diverged with strains in some extent.A celulase é um sistema enzimático complexo, produzido comercialmente a partir de fungos filamentosos através de cultivo em estádio sólido e submerso. Tem uma grande aplicação na indústria têxtil e de alimentos e bebidas no processo de sacarificação. Nesse estudo, examinou-se a atividade celulolítica, especialmente de englucanase, de 26 cepas de Streptomyces isoladas de solo, incluindo duas cepas selecionadas por sua atividade celulolítica no ágar Bennett. Para estimular a produção de englucanase em meio de cultura, diferentes condições de cultivo, incluindo fonte de carbono e nitrogênio e condições de crescimento, foram avaliadas. A atividade máxima de glucanase (11,25 a 11,90 U/mL foi obtida em 72-88h em meio de cultura contendo Tween-80, seguido por fontes de fosfato. Ambas as cepas celulolíticas de Streptomyces produziram quase a mesma quantidade de enzima em todos os experimentos. Entretanto, o efeito dos ingredientes do meio na indução da glucanase

  3. Butenolides from Streptomyces albus J1074 Act as External Signals To Stimulate Avermectin Production in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao Bich; Kitani, Shigeru; Shimma, Shuichi; Nihira, Takuya

    2018-05-01

    In streptomycetes, autoregulators are important signaling compounds that trigger secondary metabolism, and they are regarded as Streptomyces hormones based on their extremely low effective concentrations (nM) and the involvement of specific receptor proteins. Our previous distribution study revealed that butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones, including avenolide, are a general class of signaling molecules in streptomycetes and that Streptomyces albus strain J1074 may produce butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones. Here, we describe metabolite profiling of a disruptant of the S. albus aco gene, which encodes a key biosynthetic enzyme for butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones, and identify four butenolide compounds from S. albus J1074 that show avenolide activity. The compounds structurally resemble avenolide and show different levels of avenolide activity. A dual-culture assay with imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis for in vivo metabolic profiling demonstrated that the butenolide compounds of S. albus J1074 stimulate avermectin production in another Streptomyces species, Streptomyces avermitilis , illustrating the complex chemical interactions through interspecies signals in streptomycetes. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms produce external and internal signaling molecules to control their complex physiological traits. In actinomycetes, Streptomyces hormones are low-molecular-weight signals that are key to our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of Streptomyces secondary metabolism. This study reveals that acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase is a common and essential biosynthetic enzyme for butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones. Moreover, the diffusible butenolide compounds from a donor Streptomyces strain were recognized by the recipient Streptomyces strain of a different species, resulting in the initiation of secondary metabolism in the recipient. This is an interesting report on the chemical interaction between two different streptomycetes via Streptomyces

  4. Occurrence of Streptomyces aurantiacus in Mangroves of Bhitarkanika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen strains of Streptomyces were isolated from phyllosphere of nine mangrove tree species found in Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem of Orissa. According to physiological, biochemical data, all 13 of the isolates were taxonomically identified to the genus Streptomyces as aurantiacus species. All strains are grayish, spirals and forming amorphous colony. Almost all utilized araginose, produced H2S, resistant towards rifampicin and penicillin, urea except few strains. However, they exhibited different extracellular activity like phosphate solubilization, lipase and L asparaginase production. This is a unique report from this mangrove ecosystem as far as Streptomyces occurrence is concerned.

  5. Analysis and optimization of triacylglycerol synthesis in novel oleaginous Rhodococcus and Streptomyces strains isolated from desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Hauschild, Philippa; Madkour, Mohamed H; Al-Ansari, Ahmed M; Almakishah, Naief H; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-05-10

    As oleaginous microorganisms represent an upcoming novel feedstock for the biotechnological production of lipids or lipid-derived biofuels, we searched for novel, lipid-producing strains in desert soil. This was encouraged by the hypothesis that neutral lipids represent an ideal storage compound, especially under arid conditions, as several animals are known to outlast long periods in absence of drinking water by metabolizing their body fat. Ten lipid-accumulating bacterial strains, affiliated to the genera Bacillus, Cupriavidus, Nocardia, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces, were isolated from arid desert soil due to their ability to synthesize poly(β-hydroxybutyrate), triacylglycerols or wax esters. Particularly two Streptomyces sp. strains and one Rhodococcus sp. strain accumulate significant amounts of TAG under storage conditions under optimized cultivation conditions. Rhodococcus sp. A27 and Streptomyces sp. G49 synthesized approx. 30% (w/w) fatty acids from fructose or cellobiose, respectively, while Streptomyces isolate G25 reached a cellular fatty acid content of nearly 50% (w/w) when cultivated with cellobiose. The stored triacylglycerols were composed of 30-40% branched fatty acids, such as anteiso-pentadecanoic or iso-hexadecanoic acid. To date, this represents by far the highest lipid content described for streptomycetes. A biotechnological production of such lipids using (hemi)cellulose-derived raw material could be used to obtain sustainable biodiesel with a high proportion of branched-chain fatty acids to improve its cold-flow properties and oxidative stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Streptomyces aridus sp. nov., isolated from a high altitude Atacama Desert soil and emended description of Streptomyces noboritoensis Isono et al. 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Hamidah; Labeda, David P; Nouioui, Imen; Castro, Jean Franco; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Bull, Alan T; Asenjo, Juan A; Goodfellow, Michael

    2017-05-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic status of a Streptomyces strain which had been isolated from a high altitude Atacama Desert soil and shown to have bioactive properties. The strain, isolate H9 T , was found to have chemotaxonomic, cultural and morphological properties that place it in the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that the isolate forms a distinct branch at the periphery of a well-delineated subclade in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree together with the type strains of Streptomyces crystallinus, Streptomyces melanogenes and Streptomyces noboritoensis. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on five house-keeping gene alleles showed that isolate H9 T is closely related to the latter two type strains and to Streptomyces polyantibioticus NRRL B-24448 T . The isolate was distinguished readily from the type strains of S. melanogenes, S. noboritoensis and S. polyantibioticus using a combination of phenotypic properties. Consequently, the isolate is considered to represent a new species of Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces aridus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is H9 T (=NCIMB 14965 T =NRRL B65268 T ). In addition, the MLSA and phenotypic data show that the S. melanogenes and S. noboritoensis type strains belong to a single species, it is proposed that S. melanogenes be recognised as a heterotypic synonym of S. noboritoensis for which an emended description is given.

  7. Western Bats as a Reservoir of Novel Streptomyces Species with Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Paris S; Caimi, Nicole A; Northup, Diana E; Valdez, Ernest W; Buecher, Debbie C; Dunlap, Christopher A; Labeda, David P; Lueschow, Shiloh; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    At least two-thirds of commercial antibiotics today are derived from Actinobacteria , more specifically from the genus Streptomyces Antibiotic resistance and new emerging diseases pose great challenges in the field of microbiology. Cave systems, in which actinobacteria are ubiquitous and abundant, represent new opportunities for the discovery of novel bacterial species and the study of their interactions with emergent pathogens. White-nose syndrome is an invasive bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans , which has killed more than six million bats in the last 7 years. In this study, we isolated naturally occurring actinobacteria from white-nose syndrome (WNS)-free bats from five cave systems and surface locations in the vicinity in New Mexico and Arizona, USA. We sequenced the 16S rRNA region and tested 632 isolates from 12 different bat species using a bilayer plate method to evaluate antifungal activity. Thirty-six actinobacteria inhibited or stopped the growth of P. destructans , with 32 (88.9%) actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces Isolates in the genera Rhodococcus , Streptosporangium , Luteipulveratus , and Nocardiopsis also showed inhibition. Twenty-five of the isolates with antifungal activity against P. destructans represent 15 novel Streptomyces spp. based on multilocus sequence analysis. Our results suggest that bats in western North America caves possess novel bacterial microbiota with the potential to inhibit P. destructans IMPORTANCE This study reports the largest collection of actinobacteria from bats with activity against Pseudogymnoascus destructans , the fungal causative agent of white-nose syndrome. Using multigene analysis, we discovered 15 potential novel species. This research demonstrates that bats and caves may serve as a rich reservoir for novel Streptomyces species with antimicrobial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Detoxification of Jatropha curcas kernel cake by a novel Streptomyces fimicarius strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Hong; Ou, Lingcheng; Fu, Liang-Liang; Zheng, Shui; Lou, Ji-Dong; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Changhe

    2013-09-15

    A huge amount of kernel cake, which contains a variety of toxins including phorbol esters (tumor promoters), is projected to be generated yearly in the near future by the Jatropha biodiesel industry. We showed that the kernel cake strongly inhibited plant seed germination and root growth and was highly toxic to carp fingerlings, even though phorbol esters were undetectable by HPLC. Therefore it must be detoxified before disposal to the environment. A mathematic model was established to estimate the general toxicity of the kernel cake by determining the survival time of carp fingerling. A new strain (Streptomyces fimicarius YUCM 310038) capable of degrading the total toxicity by more than 97% in a 9-day solid state fermentation was screened out from 578 strains including 198 known strains and 380 strains isolated from air and soil. The kernel cake fermented by YUCM 310038 was nontoxic to plants and carp fingerlings and significantly promoted tobacco plant growth, indicating its potential to transform the toxic kernel cake to bio-safe animal feed or organic fertilizer to remove the environmental concern and to reduce the cost of the Jatropha biodiesel industry. Microbial strain profile essential for the kernel cake detoxification was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the glycosyltransferase from a marine Streptomyces species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Liping; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Li, Sumei; Zhang, Changsheng; Liu, Jinsong

    2010-01-01

    The recombinant glycosyltransferase ElaGT from the elaiophylin-producing marine Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 01934 has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. ElaGT is a glycosyltransferase from a marine Streptomyces species that is involved in the biosynthesis of elaiophylin. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of ElaGT are reported. The rod-shaped crystals belonged to space group P2 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.7, b = 131.7, c = 224.6 Å, α = 90, β = 90, γ = 90°. Data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. A preliminary molecular-replacement solution implied the presence of two ElaGT molecules in the asymmetric unit

  10. Production and characterization of biosurfactant from marine Streptomyces species B3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopade, Abhijit; Ren, Biao; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Mahadik, Kakasaheb; Zhang, Lixin; Kokare, Chandrakant

    2012-02-01

    The present study demonstrates the production and properties of a biosurfactant isolated from marine Streptomyces species B3. The production of the biosurfactant was found to be higher in medium containing sucrose and lower in the medium containing glycerol. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source for the production of the biosurfactant. The isolated biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water to 29 mN/m. The purified biosurfactant was shown critical micelle concentrations of 110 mg/l. The emulsifying activity and stability of the biosurfactant was investigated at different salinities, pH, and temperature. The biosurfactant was effective at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperature, pH, and salt concentration. The purified biosurfactant was shown strong antimicrobial activity. The biosurfactant was produced from the marine Streptomyces sp. using non-hydrocarbon substrates such as sucrose that was readily available and not required extensive purification procedure. Streptomyces species B3 can be used for microbially enhanced oil recovery process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ricardo Rodrigues de; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Ruller, Roberto; Sato, Helia Harumi

    Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296bp and G+C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic segregation in a high-yielding streptomycin-producing strain of Streptomyces griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M; Schwalenberg, B; Reiche, R; Noack, D; Geuther, R; Eritt, I

    1982-01-01

    The streptomycin-producing Streptomyces griseus HP spontaneously segregated non-reverting derivatives with altered phenotypes. Clones characterized by increased spore formation and decreased streptomycin production were found. Two other types of derivatives were defective in aerial mycelium and streptomycin formation as well, but differed in the capacity to synthesize a yellow pigment. These derivatives were examined with respect to further properties. The stability of S. griseus HP was investigated in relation to conditions of continuous culture. Both at 26 and 30 degrees C, under glycerol and NH4Cl limitation a rapid segregation and enrichment of streptomycin-non-producing derivatives occurred. At 34 degrees C and glycerol limitation segregation began only after about 35 generations of continuous culture. In NH4Cl-limited chemostats the original strain was stable during 80 generations. In the course of the continuous culture experiments it was shown that the onset of genetic segregation within mycelia can be detected before it becomes obvious in colonies grown from the mycelia. This was achieved by fractionation of the mycelia by protoplast formation and subsequent plating on regeneration medium allowing colony growth and differentiation.

  13. The study of variability and strain selection in Streptomyces atroolivaceus. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumauerova, M.; Lipavska, H.; Stajner, K.; Vanek, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Mutants of Streptomyces atroolivaceus blocked in the biosynthesis of mithramycin were isolated both by natural selection and after treatment with mutagenic factors (UV and gamma rays, nitrous acid). Both physical factors were more effective than nitrous acid. The selection was complicated by the high instability of isolates, out of which 20 to 80%=. (depending on their origin) reversed spontaneously to the parent type. Primary screening (selection of morphological variants and determination of their activity using the method of agar blocks) made it possible to detect only potentially non-productive strains; however, the final selection always had to be made under submerged conditions. Fifty-four stable non-productive mutants were divided, according to results of the chromatographic analysis, into five groups differing in the production of the six biologically inactive metabolites. The mutants did not accumulate chromomycinone, chromocyclomycin and chromocyclin. On mixed cultivation none of the pairs of mutants was capable of the cosynthesis of mithramycin or of new compounds differing from standard metabolites. Possible causes of the above results are discussed. (author)

  14. Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pesic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea, from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean, and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea. The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a. As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a, additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2. Champacyclin (1a is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, because of its high content of (d-amino acids. The compound (1a showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants.

  15. Streptomyces capitiformicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete producing angucyclinone antibiotics isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanwen; Piao, Chenyu; Yu, Yang; Cao, Peng; Li, Chenxu; Yang, Fan; Li, Mutong; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2018-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-SSA4 T , was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and was found to produce angucyclinone antibiotics. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic status of strain 1H-SSA4 T . The DNA G+C content of the draft genome sequence, consisting of 11.4 Mbp, was 70.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-SSA4 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ossamyceticus NBRC 13983 T (98.9 %), and phylogenetically clustered with this species, Streptomyces torulosus LMG 20305 T (98.8 %), Streptomyces ipomoeae NBRC 13050 T (98.5 %) and Streptomyces decoyicus NRRL 2666 T (98.4 %). The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain were also consistent with those members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-SSA4 T and the above-mentioned strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-SSA4 T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces capitiformicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-SSA4 T (=CGMCC 4.7403 T =DSM 104537 T ).

  16. Optimization of biosynthesis conditions and catalitic behavior evaluation of cellulase-free xylanase produced by a new Streptomyces sp. strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA BAHRIM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase-free xylanase by Streptomyces sp.P12-137 was obtained bycultivation on the wheat bran as the sole carbon source. The effect of carbon and nitrogen sources and a ratio of them on the cellulase-free xylanase production was investigated. The new isolate Streptomyces sp. strain was able to grow in submerged system and to produce an increased level of xylanase. Wheat bran induced xylanase biosynthesis yield at a high level (9.27 UA/ml. For economical reasons cultivation was achieved on a cheap fermentative medium represented by agro-industrial wastes. The optima of the pH and temperature of the crude xylanase activity were 5.5 and 70°C,respectively.

  17. High-yield production of herbicidal thaxtomins and analogs in a nonpathogenic Streptomyces strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangde; Zhang, Yucheng; Powell, Magan M; Zhang, Peilan; Zuo, Ran; Zhang, Yi; Kallifidas, Dimitrios; Tieu, Albert M; Luesch, Hendrik; Loria, Rosemary; Ding, Yousong

    2018-03-30

    Thaxtomins are virulence factors of most plant pathogenic Streptomyces strains. Due to their potent herbicidal activity, attractive environmental compatibility and inherent biodegradability, thaxtomins are key active ingredients of bioherbicides approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the low yield of thaxtomins in native Streptomyces producers limits their wide agricultural applications. Here, we describe the high-yield production of thaxtomins in a heterologous host. The thaxtomin gene cluster from S. scabiei 87.22 was cloned and expressed in S. albus J1074 after chromosomal integration. The production of thaxtomins and nitro-tryptophan analogs were observed using LC-MS analysis. When culturing the engineered S. albus J1074 in the minimal medium TMDc, the yield of the most abundant and herbicidal analog, thaxtomin A, was 10 times higher than S. scabiei 87.22, and optimization of the medium resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomin analogs at about 222 mg/L. Further engineering of the thaxtomin biosynthetic gene cluster through gene deletion led to the production of multiple biosynthetic intermediates important to the chemical synthesis of new analogs. Additionally, the versatility of the thaxtomin biosynthetic system in S. albus J1074 was capitalized to produce one unnatural fluorinated analog 5-F-thaxtomin A, whose structure was elucidated by a combination of MS and 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Natural and unnatural thaxtomins demonstrated potent herbicidal activity in radish seedling assays. These results indicated that S. albus J1074 has the potential to produce thaxtomins and thereof with high yield, fostering their agricultural applications. IMPORTANCE Thaxtomins are agriculturally valuable herbicidal natural products but the productivity of native producers is limiting. Heterologous expression of thaxtomin gene cluster in S. albus J1074 resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomins ever reported, representing a significant leap

  18. Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes. Results Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose following a Michaelis

  19. Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amore Antonella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes. Results Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose

  20. Phenotypic Diversity of Causal agent Strains of Potato Common Scab (Streptomyces sp. in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fadaei Tehrani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Common scab is one of the most important diseases in the potato fields caused by several species of bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Symptoms and severity of common scab of potato caused by different factors, is different. The control also will be different. Materials and Methods: About 500 samples of potato tubers with common scab symptoms were collected from different regions in Charmahal VA Bakhtiari province during 2009 and 2010. Isolation of causal agent was performed by standard methods, then the isolates were studied, using biochemical, physiological and nutritional standard test. Thus, the color of the colony and spore mass color YMEA medium after 10 to 14 days were examined. The Gram staining reaction was conducted by Suslow et al. (34. Aerobic and anaerobic growth test (O / F in the presence of glucose was done by Hugh and Leifson (14. The isolates ability to use sugars (L-arabinose, D-fructose, D-glucose, D-mannitol, raffinose, sucrose, cellulose, D-xylose, rhamnose and mesoinositol and amino acids were investigated by Faucher et al method (6. Toxic substances inhibiting bacterial growth were evaluated in culture medium malt and yeast extract containing potassium tellurite (10 and 100 micrograms per ml, thallium acetate (10 and 100 micrograms per ml, crystal violet (0.5 g ml and phenol (0.1% by Lambert and Loria method (23. Using lysosomes, total protein of 14 isolates representing of different phenotypes groups and two reference strains of S. acidiscabies and S. scabies, were extracted by Paradis et al. (29, and their diversity was investigated by acrylamide gel electrophoresis contain dodecyl sulfate (SDS according to Laemmeli (22 The pathogenicity of isolates was evaluated by inoculation of radish and potato tubers Schaad et al. (30 method. Isolates were amplified by spore inoculation in the flask containing 100 grams of vermiculite saturated with nutrient solutions (20 g of sucrose, 2.1 grams of L-asparagine, 0

  1. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying; He, Hongping; Schulz, Stefan; Liu, Xin; Fusetani, Nobushino; Xiong, Hairong; Xiao, Xiang; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared

  2. Phenolic compounds as antioxidants and chemopreventive drugs from Streptomyces cellulosae strain TES17 isolated from rhizosphere of Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Riveka; Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Jeevanjot; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

    2018-03-09

    Oxidative stress in an intracellular environment created by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species results in oxidative damage to biomolecules which ultimately become a hallmark for severe diseases like cancer, aging, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Various in vitro assays were employed to assess the antioxidant potential of strain, DNA protective activity was demonstrated using DNA nicking assay and cytotoxicity of the extract was evaluated using MTT assay. Further identification of the compounds was done using UPLC analysis. The extract of Streptomyces cellulosae strain TES17 demonstrated significant antioxidant activity with percentage inhibition of 78.47 ± 0.23, 91.08 ± 0.98 and 82.08 ± 0.93 for DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical assays at 5 mg/mL, respectively. Total antioxidant and reducing power were found to be 76.93 ± 0.76 and 231.96 ± 0.51 mg AAE/100 mg of dry extract, respectively. Moreover, the extract was shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation upto 67.18 ± 1.9% at 5 mg/mL. TPC and TFC measured in the extract was 55 mg GAE/100 mg and 11.17 ± 4.05 mg rutin/100 mg, respectively. The protective nature of the TES17 extract to oxidative stress induced damaged DNA was shown by percentage of supercoiled DNA i.e. Form I was increased from 26.38 to 38.20% at concentrations ranging from 2 μg to 10 μg. TES17 extract also showed the cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell line with 74.7 ± 1.33% inhibition whereas, limited toxicity was observed against normal cell line with percentage viability of 87.71 ± 6.66 at same concentration (30 μg/mL) tested. The antioxidant capacity of extract was well correlated with its TPC and TFC and this in turn was in keeping with the UPLC analysis which also revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that were responsible for the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of S. cellulosae strain TES17. The present study describes that S. cellulosae

  3. Identification of three homologous latex-clearing protein (lcp) genes from the genome of Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthini, Jayaram; Ong, Su Yean; Sudesh, Kumar

    2017-09-10

    Rubber materials have greatly contributed to human civilization. However, being a polymeric material does not decompose easily, it has caused huge environmental problems. On the other hand, only few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, with studies pertaining them being intensively focusing on the mechanism involved in microbial rubber degradation. The Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, which was previously confirmed to possess rubber-degrading ability, was subjected to whole genome sequencing using the single molecule sequencing technology of the PacBio® RS II system. The genome was further analyzed and compared with previously reported rubber-degrading bacteria in order to identify the potential genes involved in rubber degradation. This led to the interesting discovery of three homologues of latex-clearing protein (Lcp) on the chromosome of this strain, which are probably responsible for rubber degrading activities. Genes encoding oxidoreductase α-subunit (oxiA) and oxidoreductase β-subunit (oxiB) were also found downstream of two lcp genes which are located adjacent to each other. In silico analysis reveals genes that have been identified to be involved in the microbial degradation of rubber in the Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7. This is the first whole genome sequence of a clear-zone-forming natural rubber- degrading Streptomyces sp., which harbours three Lcp homologous genes with the presence of oxiA and oxiB genes compared to the previously reported Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 (with two Lcp homologous genes) and Nocardia nova SH22a (with only one Lcp gene). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Taxonomic evaluation of species in the Streptomyces hirsutus clade using multi-locus sequence analysis and proposals to reclassify several species in this clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous phylogenetic analyses of species of Streptomyces based on 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in a statistically well-supported clade (100% bootstrap value) containing 8 species that exhibited very similar gross morphology in producing open looped (Retinaculum-Apertum) to spiral (Spira) chains...

  5. Streptomyces palmae sp. nov., isolated from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarit, Kanaporn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2016-10-01

    Actinomycete strain CMU-AB204T was isolated from oil palm rhizosphere soil collected in Chiang Mai University (Chiang Mai, Thailand). Based on morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the organism was considered to belong to the genus Streptomyces. Whole cell-wall hydrolysates consisted of ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-9(H2) and MK-8(H4). The fatty acid profile contained iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major components. The principal phospholipids detected were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain CMU-AB204T was 70.9 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain CMU-AB204T was closely related to Streptomyces orinoci JCM 4546T (98.7 %), Streptomyces lilacinus NBRC 12884T (98.5 %), Streptomyces abikoensis CGMCC 4.1662T (98.5 %), Streptomyces griseocarneus JCM 4905T (98.4 %) and Streptomyces xinghaiensis JCM 16958T (98.3 %). Phylogenetic trees revealed that the new strain had a distinct taxonomic position from closely related type strains of the genus Streptomyces. Spiny to hairy spores clearly differentiated strain CMU-AB204T from the five most closely related Streptomyces species, which produced smooth spores. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, it is proposed that strain CMU-AB204T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces palmae sp. nov. The type strain is CMU-AB204T (=JCM 31289T=TBRC 1999T).

  6. Laboratory Course on "Streptomyces" Genetics and Secondary Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siitonen, Vilja; Räty, Kaj; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The "'Streptomyces' genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria "Streptomyces" and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of "Streptomyces"; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid…

  7. Streptomyces solisilvae sp. nov., isolated from tropical forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangqing; Yang, Xiaobo; Huang, Dongyi; Huang, Xiaolong

    2017-09-01

    A novel streptomycete (strain HNM0141T) was isolated from tropical forest soil collected from Bawangling mountain of Hainan island, PR China and its taxonomic position was established in a polyphasic study. The organism had chemical and morphological properties consistent with its classification as a member of the Streptomyces violaceusnigerclade. On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, HNM0141T showed highest similarity to Streptomyces malaysiensisCGMCC4.1900T (99.4 %), Streptomyces samsunensis DSM 42010T (98.9 %), Streptomyces yatensis NBRC 101000T (98.3 %), Streptomyces rhizosphaericus NBRC 100778T (98.0 %) and Streptomyces sporoclivatus NBRC 100767T (97.9 %). The strain formed a well-delineated subclade with S. malaysiensis CGMCC4.1900T and S. samsunensis DSM 42010T. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between HNM0141T and S. malaysiensis CGMCC4.1900T and S. samsunensis DSM 42010T were 62 and 44 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, HNM0141T represents a novel species in the S. violaceusnigerclade for which the name Streptomyces solisilvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HNM0141 T (=CCTCC AA 2016045T=KCTC 39905T).

  8. Bioremediation of acid fast red dye by Streptomyces globosus under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two different azo dyes known as acid fast red (AFR) and Congo red (CR) were examined for their decolorization by five strains of actinomycetes (Streptomyces globosus, Streptomyces alanosinicus, Streptomyces ruber, Streptomyces gancidicus, and Nocardiopsis aegyptia) under shake and static conditions. Streptomyces ...

  9. Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tamura, Tomohiko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2017-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KC-035T, was isolated from soil collected from Krung Ching Waterfall National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. Its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Streptomyces: flexuous spore chain; ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan; MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4) as menaquinones; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside as phospholipids; anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids; and DNA G+C content of 72 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KC-035T showed high similarity to Streptomyces albiflavescens n20T (99.16 %) and Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.43 %) as well as formed a monophyletic clade with them in the phylogenetic tree. On the basis of comparison of phenotypic properties and the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness, strain KC-035T could be distinguished from its closely related Streptomyces species and is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC-035T (=NBRC 110087T=KCTC 29503T=TISTR 2402T).

  10. Physiological characterisation of Penicillium chrysogenum strains expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus during batch cultivations. Growth and adipoyl-7- aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Jakobsen, M.; Beyer, M.

    2001-01-01

    The production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) was studied, using two recombinant strains of Penicillium chrysogenum carrying the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus. The adipoyl-side chain of this compound may easily be removed using an amidase; and this pr......The production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) was studied, using two recombinant strains of Penicillium chrysogenum carrying the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus. The adipoyl-side chain of this compound may easily be removed using an amidase...

  11. Strain and culture medium optimization for production enhancement of prodiginines from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. GQQ-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueping; Zhang, Guojian; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun

    2012-09-01

    A mutant (GQQ-M6) of a Sponge-Derived streptomyces sp. GQQ-10 obtained by UV-induced mutation was used for producing prodiginines (PGs). Single factor experiments and orthogonal array design (OAD) methods were employed for medium optimization. In the single factor method, the effects of soluble starch, glucose, soybean flour, yeast extract and sodium acetate on PGs production were investigated individually. In the subsequent OAD experiments, the concentrations of these 5 key nutritional components combined with salinity were further adjusted. The mutant strain GQQ-M6 gave a 2.2-fold higher PGs production than that of the parent strain; OAD experiments offered a PGs yield of 61mg L-1, which was 10 times higher than that of the initial GQQ-10 strain under the original cultivation mode.

  12. High-Efficiency Genome Editing of Streptomyces Species by an Engineered CRISPR/Cas System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Cobb, R E; Zhao, H

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have rapidly expanded the genomic information of numerous organisms and revealed a rich reservoir of natural product gene clusters from microbial genomes, especially from Streptomyces, the largest genus of known actinobacteria at present. However, genetic engineering of these bacteria is often time consuming and labor intensive, if even possible. In this chapter, we describe the design and construction of pCRISPomyces, an engineered Type II CRISPR/Cas system, for targeted multiplex gene deletions in Streptomyces lividans, Streptomyces albus, and Streptomyces viridochromogenes with editing efficiency ranging from 70% to 100%. We demonstrate pCRISPomyces as a powerful tool for genome editing in Streptomyces. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Lop Nur region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cong; Li, Yu-Qian; Asem, Mipeshwaree Devi; Lu, Chun-Yan; Shi, Xiao-Han; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Di An, Deng-; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated LPA192(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Lop Nur, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China. A polyphasic approach was used to investigate the taxonomic position of strain LPA192(T). The isolate showed morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H4). Polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. Major cellular fatty acids consist of C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C18:1 ω9c. The sugar in whole-cell hydrolysates was mannose. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain LPA192(T) is closely related to Streptomyces tanashiensis LMG 20274(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces gulbargensis DAS131(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces nashvillensis NBRC 13064(T) (99.3 %), Streptomyces roseolus NBRC 12816(T) (99.2 %) and Streptomyces filamentosus NBRC 12767(T) (99.1 %) while showing below 98.5 % sequencing similarities with other validly published Streptomyces species. However, DNA-DNA relatedness values between LPA192(T) and the closely related type strains were below 40 %, which are much lower than 70 % threshold value for species delineation. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain LPA192(T) was 69.3 mol %. Based on the differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics from the closely related strains, strain LPA192(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPA192(T) (=KCTC 39601(T) = CGMCC 4.7288(T)).

  14. Streptomyces fuscichromogenes sp. nov., an actinomycete from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Jimei; Zhuang, Junli; Xin, Yuhua; Zheng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jianli

    2017-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain m16T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna, a prefecture in Yunnan Province, south-west China, and characterized by using polyphasic taxomomy. Cells were aerobic and Gram-reaction-positive, and spore chains were observed to be of the helical type, with elliptical spores and smooth spore surfaces. The novel strain grew over a temperature range of 15-35 °C, at pH 5.0-11.0 and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content of strain m16T was 70.0 mol%. The main fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 (29.3 %), iso-C15: 0 (15.4 %) and anteiso-C15:0 (14.6 %), and the predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain m16T was most closely related to Streptomyces jiujiangensis KCTC 29262T (98.7 %), Streptomyces panaciradicis KACC 17632T (98.7 %), Streptomyces rhizophilus NBRC 108885T (98.5 %), Streptomyces shenzhenensis DSM 42034T (98.4 %), Streptomyces graminisoli JR-19T (98.4 %) and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T (98.3 %). Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses indicated that strain m16T represents a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces fuscichromogenes is proposed. The type strain is m16T (=CGMCC 4.7110T=KCTC 29195T).

  15. Isolation and characterization of bioactive metabolites producing marine Streptomyces parvulus strain sankarensis-A10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Shaik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The significance and frequency of marine microorganisms as producers of bioactive metabolites-a natural source of drug discovery had varied significantly during the last decades, making marine ecosystem a huge treasure trove of novel isolates and novel compounds. Among the twelve actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment sample (Lat. 17°41′962″N, Long. 83°19′633″E, amylase, protease, lipase and cellulase activities were exhibited by 8,7,4,3 isolates respectively. Five isolates exhibited l-asparaginase activity, while 5, 6, 2 isolates exhibited antibacterial, antifungal and antimicrobial activities respectively. One isolate VMS-A10 efficiently producing alpha-amylase (25.53 ± 0.50 U/mL, protease (19.26 ± 0.25 U/mL, lipase (36.25 ± 0.10 U/mL, cellulase (14.43 ± 0.513 U/mL, l-asparaginase (0.125 ± 0.004 U/mL, antimicrobial metabolites against B. subtilis (503.33 ± 5.77 U/mL, S. aureus (536.66 ± 5.77 U/mL, E. coli (533.33 ± 5.77 U/mL, P. aeruginosa (500.00 ± 10.0 U/mL, MRSA (538.33 ± 5.77 U/mL, C. albicans (353.33 ± 11.54 U/mL and A. niger (443.33 ± 15.27 U/mL was selected, identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties together with 16S rDNA sequence, designated as Streptomyces parvulus strain sankarensis-A10 and sequencing product (1490 bp was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number KT906299, Culture Deposit No: NCIM-5601. Isolation and characterization of each potential actinobacteria having immense industrial and therapeutic value on an unprecedented scale from marine sediments of Visakhapatnam coast will have a burgeoning effect.

  16. Extracellular enzyme activities during lignocellulose degradation by Streptomyces spp.: a comparative study of wild-type and genetically manipulated strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra, M.; Crawford, D.L.; Pometto, A.L. III

    1987-01-01

    The wild-type ligninolytic actinomycete Streptomyces viridosporus T7A and two genetically manipulated strains with enhanced abilities to produce a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate, an acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL), were grown on lignocellulose in solid-state fermentation cultures. Culture filtrates were periodically collected, analyzed for APPL, and assayed for extracellular lignocellulose-catabolizing enzyme activities. Two APPL-overproducing strains, UV irradiation mutant T7A-81 and protoplast fusion recombinant SR-10, had higher and longer persisting peroxidase, esterase, and endoglucanase activities than did the wild-type strain T7A. Results implicated one or more of these enzymes in lignin solubilization. Only mutant T7A-81 had higher xylanase activity than the wild type. The peroxidase was induced by both lignocellulose and APPL. This extracellular enzyme has some similarities to previously described ligninases in fungi. This is the first report of such an enzyme in Streptomyces spp. Four peroxidase isozymes were present, and all catalyzed the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, while one also catalyzed hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation of homoprotocatechuic acid and caffeic acid. Three constitutive esterase isozymes were produced which differed in substrate specificity toward α-naphthyl acetate and α-naphthyl butyrate. Three endoglucanase bands, which also exhibited a low level of xylanase activity, were identified on polyacrylamide gels as was one xylanase-specific band. There were no major differences in the isoenzymes produced by the different strains. The probable role of each enzyme in lignocellulose degradation is discussed

  17. Streptomyces tremellae sp. nov., isolated from a culture of the mushroom Tremella fuciformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Bingzhi; Li, Xiao; Li, Bing-Bing; Li, Cheng-Huan; Huang, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Dai, Wei-Hao; Jiang, Yu-Ji

    2016-12-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated Js-1T, was isolated from Tremella fuciformis collected from Gutian, Fujian Province, in southeastern China. The taxonomic status of this strain was determined by a polyphasic approach, which demonstrated that the novel strain was a member of the genus Streptomyces. The cell walls of this strain were found to contain ll-diaminopimelic acid, muramic acid and glycine. An analysis of whole-cell hydrolysates revealed that no characteristic sugar was present. The key identified menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8), while the diagnostic polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The main cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. An analysis of an almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain shared the highest levels of sequence similarity with Streptomyces sannanensisKC-7038T (97.87 %), Streptomyces hebeiensis YIM 001T (97.84 %), Streptomyces pathocidini NBRC 13812T (97.80 %), Streptomyces cocklensis BK168T (97.25 %), Streptomyces coerulescens NBRC 12758T (97.12 %), Streptomyces aurantiogriseus NBRC 12842T (97.06 %) and Streptomyces rimosussubsp. rimosus ATCC 10970T (97.04 %). The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Js-1T was 70.1 mol%. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization tests revealed that the relatedness values between strain Js-1T and the most closely related species ranged from 15.10 to 47.20 %. Based on its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain Js-1T (=CCTCC M 2011365T=JCM 30846T) is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, which we classified as Streptomycestremellae sp. nov.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Wb2n-11, a Desert Isolate with Broad-Spectrum Antagonism against Soilborne Phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes. The 8.2 Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants.

  19. Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces kanchanamycin, isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lan; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, Yao; Jiang, Shanwen; Zhao, Yue; Li, Jinmeng; Yan, Kai; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2017-05-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a kanchanamycin-producing actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 3H-HV17(2)T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 3H-HV17(2)T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424T (98.90 %, with which it phylogenetically clustered, Streptomyces alboflavus NRRL B-2373T (98.65 %) and Streptomyces flavofungini NBRC 13371T (98.36 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene also supported the close relationship of these strains. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain are also consistent with those members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 3H-HV17(2)T and its phylogenetically closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 3H-HV17(2)T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, strain 3H-HV17(2)T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3H-HV17(2)T (=CGMCC 4.7349T=DSM 103124T).

  20. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)).

  1. Identification and statistical optimization of fermentation conditions for a newly isolated extracellular cholesterol oxidase-producing Streptomyces cavourensis strain NEAE-42

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; El-Shweihy, Nancy M.; El-Ewasy, Sara M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to broad range of clinical and industrial applications of cholesterol oxidase, isolation and screening of bacterial strains producing extracellular form of cholesterol oxidase is of great importance. Results One hundred and thirty actinomycete isolates were screened for their cholesterol oxidase activity. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-42 is displayed the highest extracellular cholesterol oxidase activity. It was selected and identified as Streptomyces cavourensis...

  2. Streptomyces effect on the bacterial microbiota associated to Crassostrea sikamea oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Bernal, M; Trabal Fernández, N; Saucedo Lastra, P E; Medina Marrero, R; Mazón-Suástegui, J M

    2017-03-01

    To determine the composition and diversity of the microbiota associated to Crassostrea sikamea treated during 30 days with Streptomyces strains N7 and RL8. DNA was extracted from oysters followed by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing. The highest and lowest species diversity richness was observed in the initial and final control group, whereas Streptomyces-treated oysters exhibited intermediate values. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (81·4-95·1%), followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The genera Anderseniella, Oceanicola, Roseovarius, Ruegeria, Sulfitobacter, Granulosicoccus and Marinicella encompassed the core microbiota of all experimental groups. The genus Bacteriovorax was detected in all groups except in the final control and the depurated N7, whereas Vibrio remained undetected in all Streptomyces-treated groups. RL8 was the only group that harboured the genus Streptomyces in its microbiota. Principal component analysis showed that Streptomyces strains significantly changed oyster microbiota with respect to the initial and final control. Crassostrea sikamea treated with Streptomyces showed high species diversity and a microbiota composition shift, characterized by keeping the predator genus Bacteriovorax and decreasing the pathogenic Vibrio. This is the first culture-independent study showing the effect of Streptomyces over the oyster microbiota. It also sheds light about the potential use of Streptomyces to improve mollusc health and safety for consumers after the depuration process. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Streptomyces ciscaucasicus Sveshnikova et al. 1983 is a later subjective synonym of Streptomyces canus Heinemann et al. 1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Rückert, Christian; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Wink, Joachim; Kalinowski, Jörn; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2018-01-01

    Streptomyces canuswas described in 1953 and the name was listed in the Approved List of Bacterial Names in 1980. Three years later, Streptomyces ciscaucasicus was published and the name was subsequently validated in Validation List no. 22 in 1986. On the basis of genome comparison and multilocus sequence analysis of the type strains of Streptomyces canus and Streptomyces ciscaucasicus it can now be shown that these two species despite some phenotypic differences are subjective synonyms. In such a case Rule 24 of the Bacteriological Code applies, in which priority of names is determined by the date of the original publication. Hence, we propose that S. ciscaucasicus is a later subjective synonym of S. canus.

  4. Streptomyces verrucosisporus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-09-01

    Five actinomycete isolates, CPB1-1T, CPB2-10, BM1-4, CPB3-1 and CPB1-18, belonging to the genus Streptomyces were isolated from marine sediments collected from Chumphon Province, Thailand. They produced open loops of warty spore chains on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid, glucose and ribose were found in their whole-cell hydrolysates. Polar lipids found were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8), MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H8). Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The taxonomic position of the strains was described using a polyphasic approach. blastn analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that these five strains exhibited the highest similarities with 'Streptomyces mangrovicola' GY1 (99.0 %), Streptomyces fenghuangensisGIMN4.003T (98.6 %), Streptomyces barkulensisRC 1831T (98.5 %) and Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (98.3 %). However, their phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as DNA-DNA relatedness differentiated these five strains from the other species of the genus Streptomyces. Here, we propose the novel actinomycetes all being representatives of the same novel species, Streptomyces verrucosisporus, with type strain CPB1-1T (=JCM 18519T=PCU 343T=TISTR 2344T).

  5. Strain comparisons in aquaculture species: a manual

    OpenAIRE

    Ponzoni, R.W.; James, J.W.; Nguyen, N.H.; Mekkawy, W.; Khaw, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    When different strains or breeds of a particular species are available, the best choice is seldom immediately obvious for producers. Scientists are also interested in the relative performance of different strains because it provides a basis for recommendations to producers and it often stimulates the conduct of work aimed at unraveling the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the expression of such differences. Hence, strain or breed comparisons of some sort are frequently conducted. ...

  6. Streptomyces bryophytorum sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Jin, Pinjiao; Liu, Chongxi; Ma, Zhaoxu; Zhao, Junwei; Li, Jiansong; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-HZ10(T) was isolated from moss and characterised using a polyphasic approach. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Streptomyces. Strain NEAU-HZ10(T) formed grayish aerial mycelia, which differentiated into straight to flexuous chains of cylindrical spores. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid. Predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile was found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and two unidentified phospholipids. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces and exhibits high sequence similarity to Streptomyces cocklensis DSM 42063(T) (98.9 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) clustered with S. cocklensis DSM 42063(T), Streptomyces yeochonensis CGMCC 4.1882(T) (98.7 %), Streptomyces paucisporeus CGMCC 4.2025(T) (98.4 %) and Streptomyces yanglinensis CGMCC 4.2023(T) (98.1 %). However, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridisation results and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) can be distinguished from its phylogenetically closely related strains. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-HZ10(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-HZ10(T) (= CGMCC 4.7151(T) = DSM 42138(T)).

  7. Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Ye, Lan; Liu, Chongxi; Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Zheng, Weiwei; Sun, Pengyu; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2017-04-01

    During an investigation exploring potential sources of novel species and natural products, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-Gz11 T , was isolated from a soil sample, which was collected from Gama, Chad. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-Gz11 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T (98.0 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. However, the physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness could differentiate the isolate genotypically and phenotypically from S. hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T . Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz11 T (=CGMCC 4.7304 T =DSM 101531 T ).

  8. Streptomyces lacrimifluminis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium that produces antibacterial compounds, isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binglin; Tang, Shukun; Chen, Ximing; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Gaoseng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guangxiu; Chen, Tuo; Li, Shiweng; Dyson, Paul

    2016-12-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated Z1027T, was isolated from a soil sample collected near the Tuotuo River, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (China). The strain exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The taxonomic position of strain Z1027T was determined using a polyphasic approach. The organism had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the 16S rRNA gene tree, together with Streptomyces turgidiscabies ATCC 700248T (99.19 % similarity), Streptomyces graminilatus JL-6T (98.84 %) and Streptomyces reticuliscabiei CFBP 4531T (98.36 %). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Z1027T was 74±1 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain Z1027T and Streptomyces turgidiscabies ATCC 700248T and Streptomyces reticuliscabiei CFBP 4531T were 38.5±0.4 and 26.2±1.2 %, respectively, both of them significantly lower than 70 %. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain Z1027T possessed MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8) as the major menaquinones, ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose as a whole-cell sugar. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatydilinositol and seven other unknown polar lipids were detected; iso-C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. On the basis of these genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that isolate Z1027T (=CGMCC 4.7272T=JCM 31054T) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces,Streptomyces lacrimifluminis sp. nov.

  9. Streptomyces ovatisporus sp. nov., isolated from deep marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Cetin, Demet; Inan Bektas, Kadriye; Guven, Kiymet; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-staining-positive strain, designated strain S4702T was isolated from a marine sediment collected from the southern Black Sea coast, Turkey, determined using a polyphasic approach. The isolate was found to have chemotaxonomic, morphological and phylogenetic properties consistent with its classification as representing a member of the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the 16S rRNA gene tree. S4702T was found to be most closely related to the type strains of Streptomyces marinus(DSM 41968T; 97.8 % sequence similarity) and Streptomyces abyssalis (YIM M 10400T; 97.6 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with other members of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 97.5 %. DNA-DNA relatedness of S4702T and the most closely related strain S. marinus DSM 41968T was 21.0 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.5 mol%. The cell wall of the strain contained l,l-diaminopimelic acid and the cell-wall sugars were glucose and ribose. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile of S4702T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. S4702T could be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours using a combination of chemotaxonomic, morphological and physiological properties. Consequently, it is proposed that S4702T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces ovatisporus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S4702T (DSM 42103T=KCTC 29206T=CGMCC 4.7357T).

  10. Evolutionary Relationships among Actinophages and a Putative Adaptation for Growth in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Roger W.; Dedrick, Rebekah; Mitchell, Kaitlin; Ko, Ching-Chung; Russell, Daniel; Bell, Emma; Gregory, Matthew; Bibb, Maureen J.; Pethick, Florence; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Herron, Paul; Buttner, Mark J.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2013-01-01

    The genome sequences of eight Streptomyces phages are presented, four of which were isolated for this study. Phages R4, TG1, ϕHau3, and SV1 were isolated previously and have been exploited as tools for understanding and genetically manipulating Streptomyces spp. We also extracted five apparently intact prophages from recent Streptomyces spp. genome projects and, together with six phage genomes in the database, we analyzed all 19 Streptomyces phage genomes with a view to understanding their relationships to each other and to other actinophages, particularly the mycobacteriophages. Fifteen of the Streptomyces phages group into four clusters of related genomes. Although the R4-like phages do not share nucleotide sequence similarity with other phages, they clearly have common ancestry with cluster A mycobacteriophages, sharing many protein homologues, common gene syntenies, and similar repressor-stoperator regulatory systems. The R4-like phage ϕHau3 and the prophage StrepC.1 (from Streptomyces sp. strain C) appear to have hijacked a unique adaptation of the streptomycetes, i.e., use of the rare UUA codon, to control translation of the essential phage protein, the terminase. The Streptomyces venezuelae generalized transducing phage SV1 was used to predict the presence of other generalized transducing phages for different Streptomyces species. PMID:23995638

  11. Streptomyces castaneus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuyu; Li, Zhilei; Bai, Lu; Yan, Kai; Zhao, Junwei; Lu, Chang; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    During an investigation of microbial diversity in medicinal herbs, a novel actinomycete, strain NEAU-QHHV11 T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn collected from Xianglu Mountain in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have typical characteristics of the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence also indicated that strain NEAU-QHHV11 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces and was most closely related to Streptomyces graminilatus NBRC 108882 T (98.7 % sequence similarity) and Streptomyces turgidiscabies NBRC 16080 T (98.7 % sequence similarity). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-QHHV11 T could be distinguished from its close phylogenetic relatives. Thus, strain NEAU-QHHV11 T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces castaneus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-QHHV11 T (=CGMCC 4.7235 T  = DSM 100520 T ).

  12. Transposition of Tn5096 from a temperature-sensitive transducible plasmid in Streptomyces spp.

    OpenAIRE

    McHenney, M A; Baltz, R H

    1991-01-01

    Transposon Tn5096 was inserted into a derivative of the temperature-sensitive plasmid pMT660 containing the bacteriophage FP43 pac site. The resulting plasmid, pRHB126, was transduced by FP43 into several Streptomyces species. Tn5096 transposed from pRHB126 into different sites in the genomes of Streptomyces ambofaciens, Streptomyces cinnamonensis, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces fradiae, Streptomyces griseofuscus, and Streptomyces thermotolerans.

  13. Production of α-amylase from Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain using agro-industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édilla Ribeiro dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.5 trillion tons are the estimated yearly biomass production, making it an essentially unlimited source of raw material for environmentally friendly and biocompatible products transformed by microorganism, specially fungi and actinomycetes. Several lignocellulosic residues, such as sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse contain starch in their structures which could become important sources for the production of amylases. This study evaluated the production of amylolytic enzymes using Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain, isolated from a semi-arid soil, according to their ability to grow on soluble starch as the sole carbon source. The effect of the carbon source (sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse on α-amylase production was studied using submerged cultivations at 30 ºC. The highest level of α-amylase activity corresponded to 10.1 U. mL-1 and was obtained using sisal waste (2.7% and urea (0.8% in submerged fermentation after 3 days of cultivation. The partial characterization showed the best α-amylase activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0. These results are of great importance for the use of sisal waste as a substrate for biotechnological proposes.

  14. Streptomyces euryhalinus sp. nov., a new actinomycete isolated from a mangrove forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Choudhury, Jayanta D; Mahansaria, Riddhi; Saha, Malay; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2017-06-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete (strain MS 3/20 T ) was isolated from the sediment of the Sundarbans mangrove forest in India. On International Streptomyces Project (ISP) medium 2, the isolate produced yellowish brown to red aerial hyphae that carried spiny-surfaced spores in a retinaculum-apertum arrangement. Whole-cell hydrolysate of the strain contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and galactose. Predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H 8 ) and MK-9(H 6 ). Diagnostic polar lipids were glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, unidentified phospholipid and unidentified amino lipid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C 15:0 (17.53%), iso-C 16:0 (23.89%) and anteiso-C 17:0 (10.29%). The strain showed 100% 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces variabilis NBRC 12825 T , Streptomyces erythrogriseus LMG 19406 T , Streptomyces griseoincarnatus LMG 19316 T and Streptomyces labedae NBRC 15864 T . However, strain MS 3/20 T could be distinguished from these and seven other closely related species based on low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (27.2-53.8%), supported by the unique banding pattern obtained from random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR amplification and the distinctive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) profile of whole-cell proteins acquired for strain MS 3/20 T in comparison with its phylogenetic relatives. Disparate morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic features, principally growth in NaCl, further corroborated the distinction of strain MS 3/20 T from other phylogenetic relatives. Strain MS 3/20 T is therefore suggested to be a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces euryhalinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MS 3/20 T (=CICC 11032 T =DSM 103378 T ).

  15. Streptomyces jeddahensis sp. nov., an oleaginous bacterium isolated from desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Atasayar, Ewelina; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan Philipp; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Schauer, Jennifer; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A novel strain, G25T, was isolated from desert soil collected near Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. The strain could accumulate nearly 65 % of its cell dry weight as fatty acids, grow on a broad range of carbon sources and tolerate temperatures of up to 50 °C. With respect to to its 16S rRNA gene sequence, G25T is most closely related to Streptomyces massasporeus DSM 40035T, Streptomyces hawaiiensis DSM 40042T, Streptomyces indiaensis DSM 43803T, Streptomyces luteogriseus DSM 40483T and Streptomyces purpurascens DSM 40310T. Conventional DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values ranged from 18.7 to 46.9 % when G25T was compared with these reference strains. Furthermore, digital DDH values between the draft genome sequence of G25T and the genome sequences of other species of the genus Streptomyces were also significantly below the threshold of 70 %. The DNA G+C content of the draft genome sequence, consisting of 8.46 Mbp, was 70.3 %. The prevalent cellular fatty acids of G25T comprised anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The polar lipids profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides as well as unidentified phospholipids and phosphoaminolipids. The cell wall contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. Whole-cell sugars were predominantly glucose with small traces of ribose and mannose. The results of the polyphasic approach confirmed that this isolate represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces jeddahensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this species is G25T (=DSM 101878T =LMG 29545T =NCCB 100603T).

  16. The mutagenesis and breeding of high productive strains of streptomyces jingyangensis '5406'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Hongyan; Yin Xinyun

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of these experiments is to explore the mutagenesis rhythm and breed high productive strains of actinomycete '5406'. The single colony agar pieces of strain F 358 were treated with fast neutron and 60 Co-γ ray irradiation Two mutants have been selected from 20025 treated single colonies. The output of cytokinins from them is higher than from strain F 358 . The original strain 'Mu-Tan-al' rejuvenated by freezing was treated with several physical and chemical mutagens. The mutagenesis rhythm has been summed up tentatively. Eight mutants obtained from 93014 treated single colonies produced more '5406' antibiotics than that of strain 'Mu-Tan-al,. The effect of mutant 'N2-10-Ra3' was the best

  17. (melanin) production in Streptomyces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Nine strains among 180 Streptomyces isolates produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar. They also show the positive reaction to L- tyrosine or L-dopa substrates. The pigment has been referred to be as merely as dark brown water- soluble pigment, as melanoid ...

  18. Streptomyces cerasinus sp. nov., isolated from soil in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanasin, Pawina; Moonmangmee, Duangtip; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Moonmangmee, Somporn

    2017-10-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain SR3-134 T , belonging to the genus Streptomyces, was isolated from soil collected from the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of the strain was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. ll-Diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose and ribose were detected in its whole-cell hydrolysates. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6), MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. blast analysis of the almost-complete 16S rRNA gene showed 98.7 % sequence similarities to Streptomyces lanatus JCM 4588 T and Streptomyces psammoticus JCM 4434 T . The DNA G+C content was 71.4 mol%. Strain SR3-134 T showed low DNA-DNA relatedness (12.9±4.0-44.1±1.0 %) to S. lanatus JCM 4588 T and S. psammoticus JCM 4434 T . The new strain could also be distinguished from its closely related strains by differences in their phenotypic characteristics. The results of taxonomic analysis suggested that strain SR3-134 T represented a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces cerasinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR3-134 T (=TISTR 2494 T =KCTC 39910 T ).

  19. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry.

  20. Biodegradation of Degradable Plastic Polyethylene by Phanerochaete and Streptomyces Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byungtae; Pometto, Anthony L.; Fratzke, Alfred; Bailey, Theodore B.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of lignin-degrading microorganisms to attack degradable plastics was investigated in pure shake flask culture studies. The degradable plastic used in this study was produced commercially by using the Archer-Daniels-Midland POLYCLEAN masterbatch and contained pro-oxidant and 6% starch. The known lignin-degrading bacteria Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii 75Vi2 and fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used. Pro-oxidant activity was accelerated by placing a sheet of plastic into a drying oven at 70°C under atmospheric pressure and air for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 days. The effect of 2-, 4-, and 8-week longwave UV irradiation at 365 nm on plastic biodegradability was also investigated. For shake flask cultures, plastics were chemically disinfected and incubated-shaken at 125 rpm at 37°C in 0.6% yeast extract medium (pH 7.1) for Streptomyces spp. and at 30°C for the fungus in 3% malt extract medium (pH 4.5) for 4 weeks along with an uninoculated control for each treatment. Weight loss data were inconclusive because of cell mass accumulation. For almost every 70°C heat-treated film, the Streptomyces spp. demonstrated a further reduction in percent elongation and polyethylene molecular weight average when compared with the corresponding uninoculated control. Significant (P < 0.05) reductions were demonstrated for the 4- and 8-day heat-treated films by all three bacteria. Heat-treated films incubated with P. chrysosporium consistently demonstrated higher percent elongation and molecular weight average than the corresponding uninoculated controls, but were lower than the corresponding zero controls (heat-treated films without 4-week incubation). The 2- and 4-week UV-treated films showed the greatest biodegradation by all three bacteria. Virtually no degradation by the fungus was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating bacterial degradation of these oxidized polyethylenes in pure culture. PMID:16348434

  1. A single Streptomyces symbiont makes multiple antifungals to support the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F Seipke

    Full Text Available Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds.

  2. A Single Streptomyces Symbiont Makes Multiple Antifungals to Support the Fungus Farming Ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F.; Barke, Jörg; Brearley, Charles; Hill, Lionel; Yu, Douglas W.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Hutchings, Matthew I.

    2011-01-01

    Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s) to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds. PMID:21857911

  3. Streptomyces kronopolitis sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces phoslactomycins isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongxi; Ye, Lan; Li, Yao; Jiang, Shanwen; Liu, Hui; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-12-01

    A phoslactomycin-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ML8T, was isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-ML8T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces lydicus NBRC 13058T (99.39 %) and Streptomyces chattanoogensis DSM 40002T (99.25 %). The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with NBRC 13058T and S. chattanoogensis DSM 40002T. This branching pattern was also supported by the tree rconstructed with the neighbour-joining method. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain NEAU-ML8T and its phylogenetically closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that NEAU-ML8T could be distinguished from NBRC 13058T and S. chattanoogensis DSM 40002T. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-ML8T can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces kronopolitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ML8T (=DSM 101986T=CGMCC 4.7323T).

  4. MDN-0170, a New Napyradiomycin from Streptomyces sp. Strain CA-271078

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Lacret

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new napyradiomycin, MDN-0170 (1, was isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete strain CA-271078, together with three known related compounds identified as 4-dehydro-4a-dechloronapyradiomycin A1 (2, napyradiomycin A1 (3 and 3-chloro-6,8-dihydroxy-8-α-lapachone (4. The structure of the new compound was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS. The relative configuration of compound 1, which contains two independent stereoclusters, has been established by molecular modelling in combination with nOe and coupling constant analyses. Biosynthetic arguments also allowed us to propose its absolute stereochemistry. The antimicrobial properties of the compounds isolated were evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida albicans. The potent bioactivity previously reported for compounds 2 and 3 against methicillin-sensitive S. aureus has been extended to methicillin-resistant strains in this report.

  5. MDN-0170, a New Napyradiomycin from Streptomyces sp. Strain CA-271078

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacret, Rodney; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Oves-Costales, Daniel; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Domingo, Elizabeth; Martín, Jesús; Díaz, Caridad; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Reyes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A new napyradiomycin, MDN-0170 (1), was isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived actinomycete strain CA-271078, together with three known related compounds identified as 4-dehydro-4a-dechloronapyradiomycin A1 (2), napyradiomycin A1 (3) and 3-chloro-6,8-dihydroxy-8-α-lapachone (4). The structure of the new compound was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). The relative configuration of compound 1, which contains two independent stereoclusters, has been established by molecular modelling in combination with nOe and coupling constant analyses. Biosynthetic arguments also allowed us to propose its absolute stereochemistry. The antimicrobial properties of the compounds isolated were evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida albicans. The potent bioactivity previously reported for compounds 2 and 3 against methicillin-sensitive S. aureus has been extended to methicillin-resistant strains in this report. PMID:27763545

  6. Streptomyces pini sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from phylloplane of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needle-like leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Saravanan, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Pragatheswari, Dhandapani; Santhanakrishnan, Palani; Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-10-01

    A novel siderophore-producing actinomycete, designated PL19T, was isolated from the Scots-pine needle-like leaves collected from TNAU campus, Coimbatore, India. The isolate was chemoorganotrophic in nutrition and able to grow at 30 °C, and the optimum pH and NaCl facilitated the growth pH 6-11 and 0-8 % (w/v), respectively. The cells are filamentous and the mycelia formed are basically of wide and intricately branched substrate mycelium from which aerial mycelia arises, later gets differentiated into spores that are warty and arranged spirally. The 16S rRNA gene of strain PL19T was sequenced and was highly similar to the type strains of species of the genus Streptomyces, including Streptomyces barkulensis RC1831T (98.8 % pairwise similarity), Streptomyces fenghuangensis GIMN4.003T (98.2 %), Streptomyces nanhaiensis SCSIO 01248T (98.0 %), Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (97.9 %), Streptomyces atacamensis C60T (97.8 %) and Streptomyces macrosporus NBRC 14749T (97.2 %), all of which were subjected to taxonomical characterization using a polyphasic approach. The strains showed unique carbon utilization patterns, and it possesses iso-C16 : 0 anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as a major cellular fatty acids. The cell-wall was dominated with ll-type diaminopimelic acid, and the menaquinone type was MK-9(H6, H8). These chemotaxonomic evidences placed strain PL19T within the genus Streptomyces. The determination of G+C ratio (69.5 mol%) and DNA-DNA hybridization values (13.4-31.8 % with the phylogenetically related species) helped in further hierarchical classification of strain PL19T. Based on morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data as well as DNA-DNA hybridization values, strain PL19T could be distinguished from the evolutionarily closest species currently available. All these collective data show that strain PL19T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces pini sp. nov. is proposed

  7. Focused Review: Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Potentials of Mangrove-Derived Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi-Leng Ser

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human life expectancy is rapidly increasing with an associated increasing burden of chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, there is limited progress in finding effective treatment for these conditions. For this reason, members of the genus Streptomyces have been explored extensively over the past decades as these filamentous bacteria are highly efficient in producing bioactive compounds with human health benefits. Being ubiquitous in nature, streptomycetes can be found in both terrestrial and marine environments. Previously, two Streptomyces strains (MUSC 137T and MUM 256 isolated from mangrove sediments in Peninsular Malaysia demonstrated potent antioxidant and cytotoxic activities against several human cancer cell lines on bioactivity screening. These results illustrate the importance of streptomycetes from underexplored regions aside from the terrestrial ecosystem. Here we provide the insights and significance of Streptomyces species in the search of anticancer and/or chemopreventive agents and highlight the impact of next generation sequencing on drug discovery from the Streptomyces arsenal.

  8. Focused Review: Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Potentials of Mangrove-Derived Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chan, Kok-Gan; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Saokaew, Surasak; Pusparajah, Priyia; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Human life expectancy is rapidly increasing with an associated increasing burden of chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, there is limited progress in finding effective treatment for these conditions. For this reason, members of the genus Streptomyces have been explored extensively over the past decades as these filamentous bacteria are highly efficient in producing bioactive compounds with human health benefits. Being ubiquitous in nature, streptomycetes can be found in both terrestrial and marine environments. Previously, two Streptomyces strains (MUSC 137T and MUM 256) isolated from mangrove sediments in Peninsular Malaysia demonstrated potent antioxidant and cytotoxic activities against several human cancer cell lines on bioactivity screening. These results illustrate the importance of streptomycetes from underexplored regions aside from the terrestrial ecosystem. Here we provide the insights and significance of Streptomyces species in the search of anticancer and/or chemopreventive agents and highlight the impact of next generation sequencing on drug discovery from the Streptomyces arsenal. PMID:29163380

  9. Sequence analysis and heterologous expression of the lincomycin biosynthetic cluster of the type strain Streptomyces lincolnensis ATCC 25466

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koběrská, Markéta; Kopecký, Jan; Olšovská, Jana; Jelínková, Markéta; Ulanová, Dana; Man, Petr; Flieger, Miroslav; Janata, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2008), s. 395-401 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0616; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces lincolnensis * cosmid * lincomycin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  10. HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R; Falardeau, J; Avis, T J; Tambong, J T

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay targeting the trpB gene for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. Four primer pairs and a fluorescent probe were designed and evaluated for specificity in identifying S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens. The specificity of the HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay was evaluated using 46 bacterial strains, 23 Streptomyces strains and 23 non-Streptomyces bacterial species. Specific and strong fluorescence signals were detected from all nine strains of S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. No fluorescence signal was detected from 14 strains of other Streptomyces species and all non-Streptomyces strains. The identification was corroborated by the melting curve analysis that was performed immediately after the amplification step. Eight of the nine S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains exhibited a unique melting peak, at Tm of 69·1°C while one strain, Warba-6, had a melt peak at Tm of 65·4°C. This difference in Tm peaks could be attributed to a guanine to cytosine mutation in strain Warba-6 at the region spanning the donor HybProbe. The reported HybProbes assay provides a more specific tool for accurate identification of S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains. This study reports a novel assay based on HybProbes chemistry for rapid and accurate identification of the potato common scab pathogens. Since the HybProbes chemistry requires two probes for positive identification, the assay is considered to be more specific than conventional PCR or TaqMan real-time PCR. The developed assay would be a useful tool with great potential in early diagnosis and detection of common scab pathogens of potatoes in infected plants or for surveillance of potatoes grown in soil environment. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Tamura, Tomohiko; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Zhang, Wen-Di; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2013-08-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated KLBMP 1284(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour. collected from the city of Nantong, Jiangsu Province, east China. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KLBMP 1284(T) revealed that the strain formed a distinct clade within the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the highest sequence similarity (99.43 %) was to Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other species of the genus Streptomyces was lower than 97 %. Based on DNA-DNA hybridization values and comparison of morphological and phenotypic data, KLBMP 1284(T) could be distinguished from the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). Thus, based on these data, it is evident that strain KLBMP 1284(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP 1284(T) (= KCTC 19890(T) = NBRC 108770(T)).

  12. Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ye, Lan; Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Ma, Zhaoxu; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2016-10-01

    A novel single-spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain 2H-TWYE14T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2H-TWYE14T belongs to the genus Streptomyces, with highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces niveus NRRL 2466T (98.84 %). Analysis based on the gyrB gene also indicated that strain 2H-TWYE14T should be assigned to the genus Streptomyces. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain 2H-TWYE14T were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 2H-TWYE14T and its phylogenetically closely related strain S. niveus JCM 4251T, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that 2H-TWYE14T could be distinguished from S. niveus. Therefore, it is concluded that strain 2H-TWYE14T can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2H-TWYE14T (=DSM 100523T=CGMCC 4.7275T).

  13. Streptomyces phyllanthi sp. nov., isolated from the stem of Phyllanthus amarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klykleung, Nattaporn; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-10-01

    The novel endophytic actinomycete strain PA1-07T was isolated from the stem of Phyllanthus amarus. The strain displayed the consistent characteristics of members of the genus Streptomyces. The strain produced short spiral spore chains on aerial mycelia. It grew at pH 5-9, at 40 °C and with a maximum of 5 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose and ribose in the whole-cell hydrolysate. The major cellular menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), while the major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and four unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 71 mol%. The strain showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces curacoi JCM 4219T (98.77 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain PA1-07T and S. curacoi JCM 4219T were lower than 70 %, the cut-off level for assigning strains to the same species. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, the strain could be distinguished from closely related species of the genus Streptomyces and thus represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces phyllanthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PA1-07T (=JCM 30865T=KCTC 39785T=TISTR 2346T).

  14. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon-flux distribution within Streptomyces coelicolor metabolism: a comparison between the actinorhodin-producing strain M145 and its non-producing derivative M1146.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Coze

    Full Text Available Metabolic Flux Analysis is now viewed as essential to elucidate the metabolic pattern of cells and to design appropriate genetic engineering strategies to improve strain performance and production processes. Here, we investigated carbon flux distribution in two Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2 strains: the wild type M145 and its derivative mutant M1146, in which gene clusters encoding the four main antibiotic biosynthetic pathways were deleted. Metabolic Flux Analysis and (13C-labeling allowed us to reconstruct a flux map under steady-state conditions for both strains. The mutant strain M1146 showed a higher growth rate, a higher flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and a higher flux through the anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In that strain, glucose uptake and the flux through the Krebs cycle were lower than in M145. The enhanced flux through the pentose phosphate pathway in M1146 is thought to generate NADPH enough to face higher needs for biomass biosynthesis and other processes. In both strains, the production of NADPH was higher than NADPH needs, suggesting a key role for nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase for redox homeostasis. ATP production is also likely to exceed metabolic ATP needs, indicating that ATP consumption for maintenance is substantial.Our results further suggest a possible competition between actinorhodin and triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathways for their common precursor, acetyl-CoA. These findings may be instrumental in developing new strategies exploiting S. coelicolor as a platform for the production of bio-based products of industrial interest.

  16. Catabolic fate of Streptomyces viridosporus T7A-Produced, acid precipitable polymeric lignin upon incubation with ligninolytic Streptomyces species and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pometto, A.L. III; Crawford, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Degradation of ground and hot-water-extracted corn stover (Zea mays) lignocellulose by Streptomyces viridosporus T7A generates a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate termed acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL). The further catabolism of T7A-APPL by S. viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii75Vi2 was followed for 3 weeks. APPL catabolism by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was followed in stationary cultures in a low-nitrogen medium containing 1% (wt/vol) glucose and 0.05% (wt/vol) T7A-APPL. Metabolism of the APPL was followed by turbidometric assay (600 nm) and by direct measurement of APPL recoverable from the medium. Accumulation and disappearance of soluble low-molecular-weight products of APPL catabolism were followed by gas-liquid chromatography and by high-pressure liquid chromatography, utilizing a diode array detector. Mineralization of a [ 14 C-lignin]APPL was also followed. The percent 14 C recovered as 14 CO 2 , 14 C-APPL, 14 C-labeled water-soluble products, and cell mass-associated radioactivity, were determined for each microorganism after 1 and 3 weeks of incubation in bubbler tube cultures at 37 0 C. P. chrysosporium evolved the most 14 CO 2 , and S. viridosporus gave the greatest decrease in recoverable 14 C-APPL. The results show that S. badius was not able to significantly degrade the APPL, while the other microorganisms demonstrated various APPL-degrading abilities

  17. Streptomyces songpinggouensis sp. nov., a Novel Actinomycete Isolated from Soil in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuejiao; Li, Wenchao; Liu, Chongxi; Jin, Pinjiao; Guo, Siyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-12-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria, a novel actinobacteria with weak antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-Spg19 T , was isolated from a soil sample collected from pine forest in Songpinggou, Sichuan, southwest China. The strain was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 10-30 °C, pH 5.0-11.0 and NaCl concentrations of 0-5 %. The cell wall peptidoglycan consisted of LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H 6 ), MK-9(H 8 ) and MK-9(H 4 ). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were iso-C 15:0 , iso-C 16:0 , and C 16:0 . 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-Spg19 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces tauricus JCM 4837 T (98.6 %) and Streptomyces rectiviolaceus JCM 9092 T (98.3 %). Some physiological and biochemical properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. tauricus JCM 4837 T and S. rectiviolaceus JCM 9092 T . Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NEAU-Spg19 T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces songpinggouensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Spg19 T (=CGMCC 4.7140 T =DSM 42141 T ).

  18. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

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    Cheryl P. Andam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift.

  19. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183 T (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475 T (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103 T (=NRRL B-65309 T  = CMAA 1378 T ) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  20. A Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Terrestrial Bacteria of the Genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Doroghazi, James R.; Campbell, Ashley N.; Kelly, Peter J.; Choudoir, Mallory J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We show that Streptomyces biogeography in soils across North America is influenced by the regional diversification of microorganisms due to dispersal limitation and genetic drift. Streptomyces spp. form desiccation-resistant spores, which can be dispersed on the wind, allowing for a strong test of whether dispersal limitation governs patterns of terrestrial microbial diversity. We employed an approach that has high sensitivity for determining the effects of genetic drift. Specifically, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeography of physiologically similar Streptomyces strains isolated from geographically distributed yet ecologically similar habitats. We found that Streptomyces beta diversity scales with geographic distance and both beta diversity and phylogenetic diversity manifest in a latitudinal diversity gradient. This pattern of Streptomyces biogeography resembles patterns seen for diverse species of plants and animals, and we therefore evaluated these data in the context of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses proposed to explain latitudinal diversity gradients. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that niche conservatism limits dispersal, and historical patterns of glaciation have limited the time for speciation in higher-latitude sites. Most notably, higher-latitude sites have lower phylogenetic diversity, higher phylogenetic clustering, and evidence of range expansion from lower latitudes. In addition, patterns of beta diversity partition with respect to the glacial history of sites. Hence, the data support the hypothesis that extant patterns of Streptomyces biogeography have been driven by historical patterns of glaciation and are the result of demographic range expansion, dispersal limitation, and regional diversification due to drift. PMID:27073097

  1. Presence of antioxidative agent, Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- in newly isolated Streptomyces mangrovisoli sp. nov.

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    Hooi-Leng eSer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Streptomyces, strain MUSC 149T was isolated from mangrove soil. A polyphasic approach was used to study the taxonomy of MUSC 149T, which shows a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. The diamino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK9(H8 and MK9(H6. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that closely related strains include Streptomyces rhizophilus NBRC 108885T (99.2 % sequence similarity, Streptomyces gramineus NBRC 107863T (98.7 % and Streptomyces graminisoli NBRC 108883T (98.5 %. The DNA–DNA relatedness values between MUSC 149T and closely related type strains ranged from 12.4 ± 3.3 % to 27.3 ± 1.9 %. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 72.7 mol%. The extract of MUSC 149T exhibited strong antioxidant activity and chemical analysis reported identification of an antioxidant agent, Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-. These data showed that metabolites of MUSC 149T shall be useful as preventive agent against free-radical associated diseases. Based on the polyphasic study of MUSC 149T, the strain merits assignment to a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces mangrovisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 149T (= MCCC 1K00699T = DSM 100438T.

  2. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  3. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovez, Viviane; Carrion, Victor J; Etalo, Desalegn W; Mumm, Roland; Zhu, Hua; van Wezel, Gilles P; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2015-01-01

    In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogs of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures.

  4. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane eCordovez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs. VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogues of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures.

  5. Genome plasticity and systems evolution in Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptomycetes are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria. They are best known as the producers of a great variety of natural products such as antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and anticancer agents and the decomposers of organic substances for carbon recycling. They are also model organisms for the studies of gene regulatory networks, morphological differentiation, and stress response. The availability of sets of genomes from closely related Streptomyces strains makes it possible to assess the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity and systems adaptation. Results We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of five Streptomyces species with distinct phenotypes. These streptomycetes have a pan-genome comprised of 17,362 orthologous families which includes 3,096 components in the core genome, 5,066 components in the dispensable genome, and 9,200 components that are uniquely present in only one species. The core genome makes up about 33%-45% of each genome repertoire. It contains important genes for Streptomyces biology including those involved in gene regulation, secretion, secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified, with 4%-11% of the whole genomes composed of lineage-specific expansions (LSEs), suggesting that frequent gene duplication or lateral gene transfer events play a role in shaping the genome diversification within this genus. Two patterns of expansion, single gene expansion and chromosome block expansion are observed, representing different scales of duplication. Conclusions Our results provide a catalog of genome components and their potential functional roles in gene regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The core genome components reveal the minimum requirement for streptomycetes to sustain a successful lifecycle in the soil environment, reflecting the effects of both genome evolution and environmental stress acting upon the expressed phenotypes. A

  6. Antagonistic Activities of Streptomyces against Root Knot Nematode of Kiwifruit

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    S. Bashiri

    2016-02-01

    .47% had good performance. Results showed Streptomyces can be considered as an alternative for control of root-knot nematode. This is the first report of biocontrol of root-knot nematode in Kiwifruit by Streptomyces. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important so the Streptomyces spp. can compete with other microorganisms that may come in contact, or even within the same genus. Another important process involving the production of antibiotics is the symbiosis between Streptomyces and plants, as the antibiotic protects the plant against pathogens and plant exudates allows the development of Streptomyces. Almost 80% of the world’s antibiotics are known to come from Actinomycetes, mostly from the genus Streptomyces. Conclusion: The present study clearly indicates that the use of Streptomyces sp9. And Streptomyces sp4. that significantly enhanced kiwifruit growth and reduced root-knot nematode populations and that it could be proposed for eco-friendly bionematicide use. Strains belonging to genus Streptomyces can, therefore, act as biocontrol agent with plant growth promoting ability. Furthermore, their potential metabolic diversity, mycelia growth habit, rapid growth rate, colonization of semi-selective substrates and ability to be genetically manipulated make them well-suited for soil inoculation. Additionally, ability to form desiccation-resistant spores which assists their spread, persistence and formulation make them preferred biocontrol agents. Biological control agents offer one of the best alternatives to reduce the use of pesticides.

  7. Identification of FadAB Complexes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Streptomyces coelicolor and Construction of a Triacylglycerol Overproducing strain

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    Simón Menendez-Bravo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microorganisms represent possible platforms for the sustainable production of oleochemicals and biofuels due to their metabolic robustness and the possibility to be engineered. Streptomyces coelicolor is among the narrow group of prokaryotes capable of accumulating triacylglycerol (TAG as carbon and energy reserve. Although the pathways for TAG biosynthesis in this organism have been widely addressed, the set of genes required for their breakdown have remained elusive so far. Here, we identified and characterized three gene clusters involved in the β-oxidation of fatty acids (FA. The role of each of the three different S. coelicolor FadAB proteins in FA catabolism was confirmed by complementation of an Escherichia coliΔfadBA mutant strain deficient in β-oxidation. In S. coelicolor, the expression profile of the three gene clusters showed variation related with the stage of growth and the presence of FA in media. Flux balance analyses using a corrected version of the current S. coelicolor metabolic model containing detailed TAG biosynthesis reactions suggested the relevance of the identified fadAB genes in the accumulation of TAG. Thus, through the construction and analysis of fadAB knockout mutant strains, we obtained an S. coelicolor mutant that showed a 4.3-fold increase in the TAG content compared to the wild type strain grown under the same culture conditions.

  8. Atmospheric Precipitations, Hailstone and Rainwater, as a Novel Source of Streptomyces Producing Bioactive Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Espadas, Julia; Martín, Jesús; Braña, Alfredo F.; Reyes, Fernando; García, Luis A.; Blanco, Gloria

    2018-01-01

    A cultivation-dependent approach revealed that highly diverse populations of Streptomyces were present in atmospheric precipitations from a hailstorm event sampled in February 2016 in the Cantabrian Sea coast, North of Spain. A total of 29 bioactive Streptomyces strains isolated from small samples of hailstone and rainwater, collected from this hailstorm event, were studied here. Taxonomic identification by 16S rRNA sequencing revealed more than 20 different Streptomyces species, with their closest homologs displaying mainly oceanic but also terrestrial origins. Backward trajectory analysis revealed that the air-mass sources of the hailstorm event, with North Western winds, were originated in the Arctic Ocean (West Greenland and North Iceland) and Canada (Labrador), depending on the altitude. After traveling across the North Atlantic Ocean during 4 days the air mass reached Europe and precipitated as hailstone and rain water at the sampling place in Spain. The finding of Streptomyces species able to survive and disperse through the atmosphere increases our knowledge of the biogeography of genus Streptomyces on Earth, and reinforces our previous dispersion model, suggesting a generalized feature for the genus which could have been essential in his evolution. This unique atmospheric-derived Streptomyces collection was screened for production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Analyses of isolates ethyl acetate extracts by LC-UV-MS and further database comparison revealed an extraordinary diversity of bioactive natural products. One hundred molecules were identified, mostly displaying contrasted antibiotic and antitumor/cytotoxic activities, but also antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotector, and insecticide properties. More interestingly, 38 molecules not identified in natural products databases might represent new natural products. Our results revealed for the first time an extraordinary diversity of Streptomyces species in the atmosphere able to

  9. Streptomyces xiangtanensis sp. nov., isolated from a manganese-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ping; Yu, Yi-Zun; Zhao, Jia-Rong; Gao, Jian

    2017-03-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated strain LUSFXJ T , was isolated from a soil sample obtained near the Xiangtan Manganese Mine, Central-South China and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The DNA-DNA relatedness between this strain and two closely related type strains, Streptomyces echinatus CGMCC 4.1642 T and Streptomyces lanatus CGMCC 4.137 T , were 28.7 ± 0.4 and 19.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, values which are far lower than the 70% threshold for the delineation of a novel prokaryotic species. The DNA G+C content of strain LUSFXJ T is 75.0 mol%. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that the menaquinones of strain LUSFXJ T are MK-9(H 6 ), MK-9(H 8 ), MK-9(H 2 ) and MK-8(H 8 ). The polar lipid profile of strain LUSFXJ T was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified polar lipid. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C 15:0 , anteiso-C 15:0 , iso-C 16:0 , C 16:0 and Summed feature 3. Strain LUSFXJ T was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic cell wall diamino acid and the whole cell hydrolysates were found to be rich in ribose, mannose and glucose. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it is concluded that strain LUSFXJ T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name S. xiangtanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LUSFXJ T (=GDMCC 4.133 T  = KCTC 39829 T ).

  10. Biocontrol Potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16 Towards Alternaria brassicicola to Control Damping Off and Black Leaf Spot of Raphanus sativus

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    Rajesh Kumari Manhas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola, causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Microscopic examination of the fungal growth showed severe morphological abnormalities in the mycelium caused by antifungal metabolites. In vivo studies showed the efficacy of streptomycete cells and culture supernatant as seed dressings to control damping off of Raphanus sativus seedlings. Treatment of pathogen infested seeds with culture supernatant (10% and streptomycete cells significantly improved seed germination (75-80% and vigour index (1167-1538. Furthermore, potential of cells and culture supernatant as foliar treatment to control black leaf spot was also evaluated. Clearly visible symptoms of disease were observed in the control plants with 66.81% disease incidence and retarded growth of root system. However, disease incidence reduced to 6.78 and 1.47% in plants treated with antagonist and its metabolites, respectively. Additionally, treatment of seeds and plants with streptomycete stimulated various growth traits of plants over uninoculated control plants in the absence of pathogen challenge. These results indicate that S. hydrogenans and its culture metabolites can be developed as biofungicides as seed dressings to control seed borne pathogens, and as sprays to control black leaf spot of crucifers.

  11. Biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities of a Streptomyces corchorusii strain UCR3-16 and preparation of powder formulation for application as biofertilizer agents for rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamreihao, K; Ningthoujam, Debananda S; Nimaichand, Salam; Singh, Elangbam Shanta; Reena, Pascal; Singh, Salam Herojeet; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2016-11-01

    Streptomyces corchorusii strain UCR3-16, obtained from rice rhizospheric soils showed antifungal activities against 6 major rice fungal pathogens by diffusible and volatile compounds production. The strain was found positive for production of fungal cell wall degrading enzymes such as chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase, lipase and protease. The strain was also positive for plant growth promoting traits. It produced up to 30.5μg/ml of IAA and solubilized a significant amount of inorganic phosphate (up to 102μg/ml). It also produced 69% siderophore units. The strain also produced ammonia and gave positive result for ACC deaminase activity. Highest vigor index of inoculated seedlings was observed when rice seeds were treated with cell suspension of UCR3-16 corresponding to 4.5×10(8)cfu/ml. Bioinoculant-treated seeds also showed similar results under pathogen challenged conditions. In pot trial experiments, UCR3-16-treated rice plants showed significantly increased growth and grain yield production. Powder formulation of the strain was developed using talcum and corn starch as carriers and the shelf-lives were monitored. Talcum formulation showed higher cell-count than corn starch even after 6 months of storage, and optimum condition for storage of the powder formulation were found to be at 4°C. Pot trial experiments using talcum powder formulation also showed significant positive effects on growth of rice plants. Field trial using talcum powder formulation also exhibited significant enhancement in shoot length and weight of shoot and root, and total grain yield and weight of grains in rice plants. Talcum formulation also significantly reduced the sheath blight disease in rice leaves. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Streptomyces amphotericinicus sp. nov., an amphotericin-producing actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tingting; Mu, Shan; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2017-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-SSA8 T , was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and was found to produce amphotericin. A polyphasic approach was employed to determine the status of strain 1H-SSA8 T . Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The menaquinones detected were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain 1H-SSA8 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL B-2714 T (99.2 %). Two tree-making algorithms based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a phyletic line with Streptomyces himastatinicus ATCC 53653 T (98.7 %). The MLSA utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB) also supported the position. However, evolutionary distances were higher than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. Moreover, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic differences allowed the novel isolate to be differentiated from its most closely related strain S. ramulosus NRRL B-2714 T and strain S. himastatinicus ATCC 53653 T . It is concluded that the organism can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces amphotericinicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-SSA8 T (=CGMCC 4.7350 T =DSM 103128 T ).

  13. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O’Brien, Ciarán; O’Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  14. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Viegelmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8 isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1, 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2, and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3 that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont.

  15. Streptomyces capparidis sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinobacterium isolated from fruits of Capparis spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Xiao, Min; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Duan, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A novel endophytic actinobacterial strain, designated EGI 6500195T, was isolated from fruits of Capparis spinosa. Growth occurred at 10-45 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6-8 (optimum pH 7) and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain EGI 6500195T shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.74 %) with Streptomyces vitaminophilus DSM 41686T and less than 97 % sequence similarity with other members of the genus Streptomyces. The diagnostic amino acid in the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained glucose, ribose, fructose and mannose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile of strain EGI 6500195T included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, three unknown phospholipids, an unknown aminophospholipid and an unknown aminolipid. The cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 1ω9c, summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B) and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of strain EGI 6500195T was 74.1 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain EGI 6500195T and Streptomyces. vitaminophilus DSM 41686T was 14.1±3.5 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain EGI 6500195T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces capparidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 6500195T (=DSM 42145T=JCM 30089T).

  16. Streptomyces thermoviolaceus SRC3 strain as a novel source of the antibiotic adjuvant streptazolin: A statistical approach toward the optimized production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djinni, Ibtissem; Djoudi, Warda; Souagui, Samiha; Rabia, Farida; Rahmouni, Sihem; Mancini, Ines; Kecha, Mouloud

    2018-04-14

    Streptomyces thermoviolaceus SRC3, a newly isolated actinobacterial strain from Algerian river sediments, exhibited a broad activity against various bacterial and yeast human pathogens (Salmonella Typhi ATCC 14028, Vibrio cholerae ATCC 14035, MRSA ATCC 43300 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231). The strain SRC3 was selected from thirty nine actinobacterial isolates and identified as S. thermoviolaceus based on morphology, cultural properties, physiological analyses and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Culture parameters for the antibiotic production were optimized by sequential statistical strategy including Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). In PBD experiments, KCl, K 2 HPO 4 , MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O, pH value and incubation time emerged as the most significant in affecting the output of antimicrobial activities. These factors were further optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD). The best achieved conditions were: KCl (0.01%), K 2 HPO 4 (0.1%), MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O (0.02%) and 9 days incubation for anti-S. Typhi compounds, KCl (0.051%), MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O (0.05%) and 5 days incubation for C. albicans inhibitors. The metabolite responsible for the bioactivities was purified, structurally characterized (by NMR, MS, UV and IR analyses) and identified as streptazolin, recently reported as a promising antibiotic adjuvant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Foliar Application of Extract from an Azalomycin-Producing Streptomyces malaysiensis Strain MJM1968 Suppresses Yam Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Woh

    2016-06-28

    Yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C.g) is the most devastating disease of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In the present study, we evaluated the culture filtrate extract (CFE) of azalomycin-producing Streptomyces malaysiensis strain MJM1968 for the control of yam anthracnose. MJM1968 showed strong antagonistic activity against C.g in vitro. Furthermore, the MJM1968 CFE was tested for inhibition of spore germination in C.g, where it completely inhibited spore germination at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. To assess the in planta efficacy of the CFE and spores of MJM1968 against C.g, a detached leaf bioassay was conducted, which showed both the treatments suppressed anthracnose development on detached yam leaves. Furthermore, a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the CFE from MJM1968 as a fungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. The CFE non-treated plants showed a disease severity of >92% after 90 days of artificial inoculation with C.g, whereas the disease severity of CFE-treated and benomyl-treated yam plants was reduced to 26% and 15%, respectively, after 90 days. Analysis of the yam tubers from the CFE-treated and non-treated groups showed that tubers from the CFE-treated plants were larger than that of non-treated plants, which produced abnormal smaller tubers typical of anthracnose. This study demonstrated the utility of the CFE from S. malaysiensis strain MJM1968 as a biofungicide for the control of yam anthracnose.

  18. Influence of the adipate and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the beta-lactam production during continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bonneau, S.; Schipper, D.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of adipate concentration and dissolved oxygen on production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) by a recombinant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was studied in glucose-limited continuous cultures....... from 15 to 7%AS, r(p) (total) increased to 25 mumol g DW-1 h(-1), mainly due to a two-fold increase in the adipoyl-6-aminopenicillanic acid (ad-6-APA) specific productivity....

  19. Streptomyces sp. MC10 SUŞUNUN ALFA AMİLAZ ÜRETİM KABİLİYETİNİN BELİRLENMESİ - DETERMINATION OF ABILITY OF ALPHA AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY Streptomyces sp. MC10 STRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Ali; SIDAL, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. MC10 SUŞUNUN ALFA AMİLAZ ÜRETİM KABİLİYETİNİN BELİRLENMESİAmilazlar en önemli endüstriyel enzimlerden biridir. Amilaz üreticisi olan Streptomyces MC10 suşu Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesinden alınan toprak örneklerinden izole edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada Streptomyces MC10 suşundan α-amilaz üretimi ve karakterizasyonu gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu amaçla suşun besiyerinde üremesi ve α-amilaz üretme yeteneği ve aktivite gösterdiği optimum sıcaklık, pH, inkübasyon süresi ve substrat kons...

  20. Streptomyces luozhongensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renwen; Han, Xiaoxue; Xia, Zhanfeng; Luo, Xiaoxia; Wan, Chuanxing; Zhang, Lili

    2017-02-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605 T , was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated strain TRM 49605 T to the genus Streptomyces. Strain TRM 49605 T shows high sequence similarities to Streptomyces roseolilacinus NBRC 12815 T (98.62 %), Streptomyces flavovariabilis NRRL B-16367 T (98.45 %) and Streptomyces variegatus NRRL B-16380 T (98.45 %). Whole cell hydrolysates of strain TRM 49605 T were found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose as the major whole cell sugars. The major fatty acids in strain TRM 49605 T were identified as iso C 16:0 , anteiso C 15:0 , C 16:0 and Summed Feature 5 as defined by MIDI. The main menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H 4 ), MK-9(H 6 ), MK-9(H 8 ) and MK-10(H 6 ). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 71.2 %. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain TRM 49605 T and the phylogenetically related strain S. roseolilacinus NBRC 12815 T was 60.12 ± 0.06 %, which is lower than the 70 % threshold value for delineation of genomic prokaryotic species. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain TRM 49605 T (=CCTCC AA2015026 T  = KCTC 39666 T ) should be designated as the type strain of a novel species of the genus

  1. Streptomyces humi sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from soil of a mangrove forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Nurullhudda; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tee, Kok-Keng; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-03-01

    A novel Streptomyces strain, MUSC 119(T), was isolated from a soil collected from a mangrove forest. Cells of MUSC 119(T) stained Gram-positive and formed light brownish grey aerial mycelium and grayish yellowish brown substrate mycelium on ISP 2 medium. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic status of strain MUSC 119(T), which shows a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall peptidoglycan consisted of LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, glycolipids, diphosphatidylglycerol and four phospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The cell wall sugars were glucose, mannose, ribose and rhamnose. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain MUSC119(T) to be closely related to Streptomyces rhizophilus JR-41(T) (99.0 % sequence similarity), S. panaciradicis 1MR-8(T) (98.9 %), S. gramineus JR-43(T) (98.8 %) and S. graminisoli JR-19(T) (98.7 %). These results suggest that MUSC 119(T) should be placed within the genus Streptomyces. DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 119(T) to closely related strains ranged from 14.5 ± 1.3 to 27.5 ± 0.7 %. The G+C content was determined to be 72.6 mol %. The polyphasic study of MUSC 119(T) showed that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. humi is MUSC 119(T) (=DSM 42174(T) = MCCC 1K00505(T)).

  2. Protoplasting impact on polyketide activity and characterization of the interspecific fusants from Streptomyces spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, N.; Lazim, H.; Barkallah, Insaf; Abbassi, M.; Ben Hassen, A.; Limam, F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptomycetes are gram-positive, soil-inhabiting bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. These organisms exhibit an unusual, developmentally complex life cycle and produce many economically important secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressants, insecticides, and antitumor agents. Streptomyces species have been the subject of genetic investigation for over 50 years, with many studies focusing on the production of bioactives compounds. The protoplast formation and regeneration are important processes, and they are a major step following genetic manipulations such as fusion and DNA-mediated transformation, which can improve antibiotic production. The protoplast fusion, transformation and improved fermentation features can be used to regenerate strains with increased antibiotic activity. Local Streptomyces spp. CN207 produce a broad range of secondary metabolites which is active against bacteria and fungi. This strain was used as a donor and S. coelicolor strain M145 was used as a recipient host for protoplast fusion. The protoplast fusion resulted in increased isolation of variants with higher antibiotic activity. Recombinant Streptomyces coelicolor PF04 was increased 10 times more than the wild strain. The antimicrobial activity from PF04 strain was studied using the disc method agar. TLC analysis confirmed that the Rf of cell extract for PF04 strain is identical to antimicrobial compound of Streptomyces CN207. Our results confirm the possibility of transferring antibiotics cluster genes by fusion. In fact, many of the selective markers such as Ticarcillin, Cefalotin, Oxacillin and Cefotaxim were transferred during the protoplast fusion. PFGE analysis and DNA-hybridization confirmed the presence of homologous fragments between a wild-type Streptomyces CN207 and a recombinant S. coelicolor PF04

  3. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo nematicidal potential of a multifunctional streptomycete, Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16 against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Jasrotia, Shivam; Ohri, Puja; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

    2016-11-01

    The present work demonstrated the nematicidal potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16 (a strain with strong antagonism against fungal phytopathogens and insect pest) against Meloidogyne incognita. The culture supernatant and solvent extract significantly inhibited egg hatching (almost 100%) along with J2 mortality of more than 95% after 96h. The nematicidal activity of 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic acid methyl ester (SH2; a new antifungal compound) purified from this streptomycete was also evaluated using different concentrations. The juvenile mortality of the nematode increased with increasing concentration and exposure time and reached the maximum (95%) after 96h at concentration of 100μg/ml. After 160h of incubation, egg hatch of 16% was observed at concentration of 100μg/ml as compared to control where 100% egg hatching was achieved. However, at the highest concentration of the compound (200μg/ml), 100% J2 mortality and 0% egg hatching were observed after 72 and 160h of incubation, respectively. In vivo pot experiments further revealed the nematicidal potential of S. hydrogenans where soil drenching with its culture supernatant and cells effectively controlled root galls, egg masses in nematode infested tomato plants and at the same time promoted the growth of tomato plants. Additionally, in the absence of nematodes, soil drenching with culture supernatant and cells significantly enhanced the various agronomic traits of plants as compared to control plants. Thus, the outcomes of the current study endorse the potential of S. hydrogenans strain DH16 and its metabolites to be developed as safe nematicidal and plant growth promoting agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Abigail K P; Williamson, Neil R; Slater, Holly

    2004-01-01

    The prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster (pig cluster) from two strains of Serratia (S. marcescens ATCC 274 and Serratia sp. ATCC 39006) has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts. Sequence analysis of the respective pig clusters revealed 14 ORFs in S. marcescens ATCC 274...... and 15 ORFs in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006. In each Serratia species, predicted gene products showed similarity to polyketide synthases (PKSs), non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) and the Red proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Comparisons between the two Serratia pig clusters and the red cluster...... from Str. coelicolor A3(2) revealed some important differences. A modified scheme for the biosynthesis of prodigiosin, based on the pathway recently suggested for the synthesis of undecylprodigiosin, is proposed. The distribution of the pig cluster within several Serratia sp. isolates is demonstrated...

  5. Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov., a Geldanamycin Producer That Promotes Theobroma cacao Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeko, Thaddée; Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Zitouni, Mina; Nana, Joëlle Aimée Vera Tchatchou; Lerat, Sylvain; Beaulieu, Carole

    2017-03-31

    The taxonomy of an actinobacterial strain, designated JJY4 T , was established using a polyphasic approach. JJY4 T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Chromolaena odorata in Yaoundé (Cameroon) during a project for the selection of biological control agents. Strain JJY4 T exhibited antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Strain JJY4 T also exhibited the traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria such as the solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. In planta assays performed on cocoa plantlets confirmed that strain JJY4 T exhibited strong abilities to promote plant growth and protect against Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of cocoa pod rot. The formation of rugose-ornamented spores in spiral spore chains by strain JJY4 T is a typical feature of members found in the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade and, similar to some members of the clade, strain JJY4 T produces geldanamycin. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed this classification and suggests that strain JJY4 T be added to the subclade constituted of the type strains Streptomyces malaysiensis DSM 41697 T and Streptomyces samsunensis DSM 42010 T . However, DNA-DNA relatedness and physiological characteristics allowed for the differentiation of strain JJY4 T from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Based on these results, strain JJY4 T (=NRRL B-65369, =NBRC 112705) appears to represent a novel species in the S. violaceusniger clade for which the proposed name is Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov.

  6. RibM from Streptomyces davawensis is a riboflavin/roseoflavin transporter and may be useful for the optimization of riboflavin production strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is not a natural riboflavin overproducer, has been converted into an excellent production strain by classical mutagenesis and metabolic engineering. To our knowledge, the enhancement of riboflavin excretion from the cytoplasm of overproducing cells has not yet been considered as a target for (further) strain improvement. Here we evaluate the flavin transporter RibM from Streptomyces davawensis with respect to improvement of a riboflavin production strain. Results The gene ribM from S. davawensis, coding for a putative facilitator of riboflavin uptake, was codon optimized (ribMopt) for expression in B. subtilis. The gene ribMopt was functionally introduced into B. subtilis using the isopropyl-β-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible expression plasmid pHT01: Northern-blot analysis of total RNA from IPTG treated recombinant B. subtilis cells revealed a ribMopt specific transcript. Western blot analysis showed that the his6-tagged heterologous gene product RibM was present in the cytoplasmic membrane. Expression of ribM in Escherichia coli increased [14C]riboflavin uptake, which was not affected by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Expression of ribMopt supported growth of a B. subtilis ΔribB::Ermr ΔribU::Kanr double mutant deficient in riboflavin synthesis (ΔribB) and also deficient with respect to riboflavin uptake (ΔribU). Expression of ribMopt increased roseoflavin (a toxic riboflavin analog produced by S. davawensis) sensitivity of a B. subtilis ΔribU::Kanr strain. Riboflavin synthesis by a model riboflavin B. subtilis production strain overproducing RibM was increased significantly depending on the amount of the inducer IPTG. Conclusions The energy independent flavin facilitator RibM could in principle catalyze riboflavin export and thus may be useful to increase the riboflavin yield in a riboflavin production process using a recombinant RibM overproducing B. subtilis strain

  7. Streptomyces colonosanans sp. nov., A Novel Actinobacterium Isolated from Malaysia Mangrove Soil Exhibiting Antioxidative Activity and Cytotoxic Potential against Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Saokaew, Surasak; Bukhari, Sarah I.; Khan, Tahir M.; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces colonosanans MUSC 93JT, a novel strain isolated from mangrove forest soil located at Sarawak, Malaysia. The bacterium was noted to be Gram-positive and to form light yellow aerial and vivid yellow substrate mycelium on ISP 2 agar. The polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomy of strain MUSC 93JT and the strain showed a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that closely related strains include Streptomyces malachitofuscus NBRC 13059T (99.2% sequence similarity), Streptomyces misionensis NBRC 13063T (99.1%), and Streptomyces phaeoluteichromatogenes NRRL 5799T (99.1%). The DNA–DNA relatedness values between MUSC 93JT and closely related type strains ranged from 14.4 ± 0.1 to 46.2 ± 0.4%. The comparison of BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated MUSC 93JT exhibits a unique DNA profile. The genome of MUSC 93JT consists of 7,015,076 bp. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 69.90 mol%. The extract of strain MUSC 93JT was demonstrated to exhibit potent antioxidant activity via ABTS, metal chelating, and SOD assays. This extract also exhibited anticancer activity against human colon cancer cell lines without significant cytotoxic effect against human normal colon cells. Furthermore, the chemical analysis of the extract further emphasizes the strain is producing chemo-preventive related metabolites. Based on this polyphasic study of MUSC 93JT, it is concluded that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces colonosanans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 93JT (= DSM 102042T = MCCC 1K02298T). PMID:28559892

  8. Streptomyces colonosanans sp. nov., A Novel Actinobacterium Isolated from Malaysia Mangrove Soil Exhibiting Antioxidative Activity and Cytotoxic Potential against Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Woan-Fei Law

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces colonosanans MUSC 93JT, a novel strain isolated from mangrove forest soil located at Sarawak, Malaysia. The bacterium was noted to be Gram-positive and to form light yellow aerial and vivid yellow substrate mycelium on ISP 2 agar. The polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomy of strain MUSC 93JT and the strain showed a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that closely related strains include Streptomyces malachitofuscus NBRC 13059T (99.2% sequence similarity, Streptomyces misionensis NBRC 13063T (99.1%, and Streptomyces phaeoluteichromatogenes NRRL 5799T (99.1%. The DNA–DNA relatedness values between MUSC 93JT and closely related type strains ranged from 14.4 ± 0.1 to 46.2 ± 0.4%. The comparison of BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated MUSC 93JT exhibits a unique DNA profile. The genome of MUSC 93JT consists of 7,015,076 bp. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 69.90 mol%. The extract of strain MUSC 93JT was demonstrated to exhibit potent antioxidant activity via ABTS, metal chelating, and SOD assays. This extract also exhibited anticancer activity against human colon cancer cell lines without significant cytotoxic effect against human normal colon cells. Furthermore, the chemical analysis of the extract further emphasizes the strain is producing chemo-preventive related metabolites. Based on this polyphasic study of MUSC 93JT, it is concluded that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces colonosanans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 93JT (= DSM 102042T = MCCC 1K02298T.

  9. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans ATCC 10231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheir DH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients worldwide. Biofilm formation by Candida species is a significant virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. Keeping in view the importance of Streptomyces' metabolites, the present study was initiated during the bioprospecting programme of Egyptian Streptomyces carried by the authors since 2013. Native Streptomyces isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from different governorates. Antifungal activity of forty isolates of Streptomyces were performed against planktonic (free cells of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and resistant clinical Candida isolates. Streptomyces isolates showed high inhibition activity against free cells of Candida were further assayed against biofilm of C. albicans reference strain. The most active Streptomyces sp. (no.6 was identified phenotypically, biochemically and by using 16S rRNA. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number KM052378 as S. toxytricini Fz94. Screening of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract capability in prevention and destruction of C. albicans reference strain biolfilm was assessed by resazurin dye adopted technique. In the pre-exposure scheme, the lowest concentration of 5 gL-1 showed biofilm viability inhibition of 92% after 120 min, while Ketoconazole® gave 90 % inhibition at concentration of 2 gL-1. In post exposure, the concentration of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract 7gL-1 caused 82 % inhibition of biofilms viability after 120 min, while Ketoconazole did not show any destruction capability. The cytotoxicity of S. toxytricini Fz94 crude extract results showed that it was nontoxic at 10 gL-1. S. toxytricini Fz94 is maintained in the Fungarium of Arab Society for Fungal Conservation (ASFC with accession number FSCU-2017-1110.

  10. Genome based analysis of type-I polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters in seven strains of five representative Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Hosoyama, Akira; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Gonoi, Tohru

    2014-04-30

    Actinobacteria of the genus Nocardia usually live in soil or water and play saprophytic roles, but they also opportunistically infect the respiratory system, skin, and other organs of humans and animals. Primarily because of the clinical importance of the strains, some Nocardia genomes have been sequenced, and genome sequences have accumulated. Genome sizes of Nocardia strains are similar to those of Streptomyces strains, the producers of most antibiotics. In the present work, we compared secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters of type-I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) among genomes of representative Nocardia species/strains based on domain organization and amino acid sequence homology. Draft genome sequences of Nocardia asteroides NBRC 15531(T), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum IFM 11049, Nocardia brasiliensis NBRC 14402(T), and N. brasiliensis IFM 10847 were read and compared with published complete genome sequences of Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica GUH-2, and N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1. Genome sizes are as follows: N. farcinica, 6.0 Mb; N. cyriacigeorgica, 6.2 Mb; N. asteroides, 7.0 Mb; N. otitidiscaviarum, 7.8 Mb; and N. brasiliensis, 8.9 - 9.4 Mb. Predicted numbers of PKS-I, NRPS, and PKS-I/NRPS hybrid clusters ranged between 4-11, 7-13, and 1-6, respectively, depending on strains, and tended to increase with increasing genome size. Domain and module structures of representative or unique clusters are discussed in the text. We conclude the following: 1) genomes of Nocardia strains carry as many PKS-I and NRPS gene clusters as those of Streptomyces strains, 2) the number of PKS-I and NRPS gene clusters in Nocardia strains varies substantially depending on species, and N. brasiliensis strains carry the largest numbers of clusters among the species studied, 3) the seven Nocardia strains studied in the present work have seven common PKS-I and/or NRPS clusters, some of whose products are yet to be studied

  11. Streptomyces tritici sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junwei; Shi, Linlin; Li, Wenchao; Wang, Jiabin; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2018-02-01

    Two novel actinomycete isolates, designated strains NEAU-A4 T and NEAU-A3, were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the two strains coincided with those of the genus Streptomyces. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two isolates exhibited 99.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and that they were most closely related to Streptomyces violaceorectus DSM 40279 T (98.8, 99.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains clustered together and formed a separate subclade. Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some physiological and biochemical properties demonstrated that the two strains could be distinguished from its closest relative. Therefore, it is proposed that strains NEAU-A4 T and NEAU-A3 should be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomycestritici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-A4 T (=CGMCC 4.7393 T =DSM 104540 T ).

  12. Streptomyces zhihengii sp. nov., isolated from rhizospheric soil of Psammosilene tunicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Juan; Fei, Jing-Jing; Salam, Nimaichand; Kim, Chang-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Xiao, Min; Huang, Hai-Quan; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated YIM T102(T), was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Psammosilene tunicoides W. C. Wu et C. Y. Wu collected from Lijiang, Yunnan Province, China. The taxonomic position of the new isolate was investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM T102(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Strain YIM T102(T) was most closely related to Streptomyces eurocidicus NRRL B-1676(T) with a pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.9 %. However, DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YIM T102(T) and S. eurocidicus NBRC 13491(T) was found to be 37.8 ± 1.8 %. The menaquinone composition detected for strain YIM T102(T) was MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8), while the major fatty acids were summed feature 4 (38.0 %), anteiso-C15:0 (13.1 %), iso-C16:0 (10.1 %), summed feature 3 (9.8 %) and C16:0 (9.0 %) and iso-C15:0 (5.2 %). The whole-cell hydrolysates contained galactose, glucose, ribose and mannose, along with LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 70.7 mol%. Strain YIM T102(T) also exhibited antagonistic activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae and Colletotrichum nicotianae Averna, based on the findings from the comparative analyses of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics; it is proposed that strain YIM T102 represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces zhihengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM T102(T) (=KCTC 39115(T) = DSM 42176(T) = CGMCC 4.7248(T)).

  13. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2016-02-01

    A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)).

  14. Streptomyces odonnellii sp. nov., a proteolytic streptomycete isolated from soil under cerrado (savanna) vegetation cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; Macrae, Andrew; Reinert, Fernanda; de Souza, Rodrigo Fonseca; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues; Pötter, Gabrielle; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Labeda, David P

    2017-12-01

    A novel streptomycete, strain 594 T , isolated from Brazilian soil collected under cerrado (savanna) vegetation cover is described. Strain 594 T produced thermophilic chitinolytic proteases in assays containing feather meal and corn steep liquor as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. The strain produced white to grey aerial mycelium and spiral chains of spiny-surfaced spores on the aerial mycelium and did not produce diffusible pigments. The ll-isomer of diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell wall and menaquinones were predominantly MK-9(H6) (52 %) and MK-9(H8) (30 %) with 6 % MK-9(H4) and slightly less than 1 % MK-9(H2). Polar lipids present were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown phospholipid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C14 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it differed from described Streptomyces species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, rpoB, recA and trpB) comparing Streptomyces type strains showed that the MLSA distance of strain 594 T to the most closely related species was greater than the 0.007 threshold. The in silico DNA-DNA relatedness between the genome sequence of strain 594 T and that of the phylogenetically nearest species was well below the species level recommendation. There was thus multiple evidence justifying the description of this strain as representing a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces odonnellii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 594 T (=IMPPG 594 T =DSM 41949 T =NRRL B-24891 T ).

  15. Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani, Kotli, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Osman, Ghenijan; Khan, Inam Ullah; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase positive and oxidase negative bacterium, designated NCCP-1331 T , was isolated from a hot water spring soil collected from Tatta Pani, Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The isolate grew at a temperature range of 18-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0) and with 0-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 % NaCl (w/v)). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NCCP-1331 T belonged to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces brevispora BK160 T with 97.9 % nucleotide similarity, followed by Streptomyces drosdowiczii NRRL B-24297 T with 97.8 % nucleotide similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1331 T with S. brevispora KACC 21093 T and S. drosdowiczii CBMAI 0498 T were 42.7 and 34.7 %, respectively. LL-DAP was detected as diagnostic amino acid along with alanine, glycine, leucine and glutamic acid. The isolate contained MK-9(H 8 ) as the predominant menaquinone. Major polar lipids detected in NCCP-1331 T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified phospholipids. Major fatty acids were iso-C 16: 0 , summed feature 8 (18:1 ω7c/18:1 ω6c), anteiso-C 15:0 and C 16:0 . The genomic DNA G + C content was 69.8 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, it is concluded that strain NCCP-1331 T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NCCP-1331 T (=KCTC 39537 T  = CPCC 204147 T ).

  16. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance clavulanic acid production using UV-mutagenesis on Streptomyces sp. NRC77. Methods: UV-mutagenesis was used to study the effect of Streptomyces sp. NRC77 on CA production. Phenotypic and genotypic identification methods of the promising mutant strain were characterized. Optimization of the ...

  17. Diverse and Abundant Secondary Metabolism Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in the Genomes of Marine Sponge Derived Streptomyces spp. Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Jackson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Streptomyces produces secondary metabolic compounds that are rich in biological activity. Many of these compounds are genetically encoded by large secondary metabolism biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGCs such as polyketide synthases (PKS and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS which are modular and can be highly repetitive. Due to the repeats, these gene clusters can be difficult to resolve using short read next generation datasets and are often quite poorly predicted using standard approaches. We have sequenced the genomes of 13 Streptomyces spp. strains isolated from shallow water and deep-sea sponges that display antimicrobial activities against a number of clinically relevant bacterial and yeast species. Draft genomes have been assembled and smBGCs have been identified using the antiSMASH (antibiotics and Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell web platform. We have compared the smBGCs amongst strains in the search for novel sequences conferring the potential to produce novel bioactive secondary metabolites. The strains in this study recruit to four distinct clades within the genus Streptomyces. The marine strains host abundant smBGCs which encode polyketides, NRPS, siderophores, bacteriocins and lantipeptides. The deep-sea strains appear to be enriched with gene clusters encoding NRPS. Marine adaptations are evident in the sponge-derived strains which are enriched for genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of compatible solutes and for heat-shock proteins. Streptomyces spp. from marine environments are a promising source of novel bioactive secondary metabolites as the abundance and diversity of smBGCs show high degrees of novelty. Sponge derived Streptomyces spp. isolates appear to display genomic adaptations to marine living when compared to terrestrial strains.

  18. The Biocontrol Efficacy of Streptomyces pratensis LMM15 on Botrytis cinerea in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Qinggui Lian; Jing Zhang; Liang Gan; Qing Ma; Zhaofeng Zong; Yang Wang

    2017-01-01

    LMM15, an actinomycete with broad spectrum antifungal activity, was isolated from a diseased tomato leaf using the baiting technique. A phylogenetic tree analysis based on similarity percentage of 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacterium was 97.0% affiliated with the species Streptomyces pratensis. This strain was therefore coded as S. pratensis LMM15. The ferment filtrate of LMM15 had ability to inhibit mycelia growth of Botrytis cinerea and reduce lesion expansion of gray mold on detach...

  19. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Growth yields and morphological characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Lettier, G.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    and the mean total hyphal length and mean number of tips both increased with an increase in dilution rate from 0.015 to 0.065 h(-1). Both variables decreased when the dilution rate was increased above 0.065 h(-1). A correlation between mean total hyphal length and productivity of ad-7-ADCA was found....... it is fed with adipic acid. The biomass yield and maintenance coefficients for the strain were similar to those found for penicillin-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The maximum specific growth rate in the chemostat was found to be 0.11 h(-1). Metabolic degradation of adipate was found to take...... place in significant amounts only at dilution rates below 0.03 h(-1). After three to five residence times, adipate degradation and ad-7-ADCA production disappeared, and this allowed determination of the biomass yield coefficient on adipate. The morphology was measured at different dilution rates...

  20. Isolation, Characterization and Bioactivities of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced from Streptomyces sp. MOE6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa O. Elnahas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio of 1:4.1, as was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, HPLC and 1H-NMR. The antioxidant activities of the partially purified MOE6-EPS were determined by measuring the hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity and the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radicals. In addition, the partially purified MOE6-EPS showed high ferrous ion (Fe2+ chelation activity which is another antioxidant activity. Interestingly, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays that were colorimetric assays for NAD(PH-dependent cellular oxidoreductases and a proxy of the number of viable cells, showed that the partially purified MOE6-EPS inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231. The scratch wound assay showed that MOE6-EPS reduced the migration of mouse breast cancer cells (4T1. This study reports the production of EPS from Streptomyces species with promising antioxidant, metal chelating and mammalian cell inhibitory activities.

  1. Isolation, Characterization and Bioactivities of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced from Streptomyces sp. MOE6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnahas, Marwa O; Amin, Magdy A; Hussein, Mohamed M D; Shanbhag, Vinit C; Ali, Amal E; Wall, Judy D

    2017-08-24

    A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio of 1:4.1, as was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), HPLC and ¹H-NMR. The antioxidant activities of the partially purified MOE6-EPS were determined by measuring the hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity and the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. In addition, the partially purified MOE6-EPS showed high ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) chelation activity which is another antioxidant activity. Interestingly, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays that were colorimetric assays for NAD(P)H-dependent cellular oxidoreductases and a proxy of the number of viable cells, showed that the partially purified MOE6-EPS inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The scratch wound assay showed that MOE6-EPS reduced the migration of mouse breast cancer cells (4T1). This study reports the production of EPS from Streptomyces species with promising antioxidant, metal chelating and mammalian cell inhibitory activities.

  2. Irradiation studies of local Streptomyces strains for higher antibiotic producing capacity. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintanar, Q.L.

    1978-06-01

    The 14 mutants produced by sequential exposure to gamma and ultraviolet irradiation were found to belong to different fundamental types of variants differing in morphology, stability, and metabolite spectra from the parent strain. The first hour mutants, M-1 to M-4 could be considered as belonging to the first category of mutants. Metabolites produced were the same as the parent but differ only in quantity. One was a morphological mutant, M-4 which differed from the parent strain in the production of a brown pigment and conidia, and lack of aerial mycelium. It was found to be most stable and capable of producing high antibiotic yield. The rest of the mutants, M-5 to M-14 could be grouped in the second category. The synthesis of one or more metabolites of the parent strain has been lost by mutation. Unexpectedly, a mutant, M-9 instead of synthesizing either oxytetracycline or tetracycline produced chlortetracycline. Coconut water was found inhibitory to the production of antibiotics by the parent strain and the high and low producing mutants. Modifying the medium by incorporating phosphate and adjusting the initial pH to 4.75 raised the antibiotic yield of the 10% coconut water supplemented medium of M-4 more than the control. Higher pH than the optimum shortened the lag phase but reduced the antibiotic yield while a lower initial pH prevented the growth of the organism giving negligible yield. A reduction of pH to pH 4.5 for the initial 48 hours lengthened the lag phase with almost no adverse effect on the yield. The incorporation of large amounts of coconut water aggravated the amino acid imbalance of the medium

  3. Molecular relationships between closely related strains and species of nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M. H.; Wall, S. M.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Hecht, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrophoretic comparisons have been made for 24 enzymes in the Bergerac and Bristol strains of Caenorhabditis elegans and the related species, Caenorhabditis briggsae. No variation was detected between the two strains of C. elegans. In contrast, the two species, C. elegans and C. briggsae exhibited electrophoretic differences in 22 of 24 enzymes. A consensus 5S rRNA sequence was determined for C. elegans and found to be identical to that from C. briggsae. By analogy with other species with relatively well established fossil records it can be inferred that the time of divergence between the two nematode species is probably in the tens of millions of years. The limited anatomical evolution during a time period in which proteins undergo extensive changes supports the hypothesis that anatomical evolution is not dependent on overall protein changes.

  4. Analysis of the Pho regulon in Streptomyces tsukubaensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Robles, María; Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F

    2017-12-01

    Phosphate regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces has been studied due to the importance of this genus as a source of secondary metabolites with biological activity. Streptomyces tsukubaensis is the main producer of tacrolimus (or FK506), an immunosuppressant macrolide that generates important benefits for the pharmaceutical market. However, the production of tacrolimus is under a negative control by phosphate and, therefore, is important to know the molecular mechanism of this regulation. Despite its important role, there are no reports about the Pho regulon in S. tsukubaensis. In this work we combined transcriptional studies on the response to phosphate starvation with the search for PHO boxes in the whole genome sequence of S. tsukubaensis. As a result, we identified a set of genes responding to phosphate starvation and containing PHO boxes that include common Pho regulon members but also new species-specific candidates. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the functional activity of PhoP from S. tsukubaensis through complementation studies in a Streptomyces coelicolor ΔphoP strain. For this purpose, we developed an anhydrotetracycline inducible system that can be applied to the controlled expression of target genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic network model guided engineering ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway to improve ascomycin production in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Wang, Cheng; Song, Kejing; Wen, Jianping

    2017-10-03

    Ascomycin is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide with high immunosuppressant and antifungal activity. As the lower production in bio-fermentation, global metabolic analysis is required to further explore its biosynthetic network and determine the key limiting steps for rationally engineering. To achieve this goal, an engineering approach guided by a metabolic network model was implemented to better understand ascomycin biosynthesis and improve its production. The metabolic conservation of Streptomyces species was first investigated by comparing the metabolic enzymes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) with those of 31 Streptomyces strains, the results showed that more than 72% of the examined proteins had high sequence similarity with counterparts in every surveyed strain. And it was found that metabolic reactions are more highly conserved than the enzymes themselves because of its lower diversity of metabolic functions than that of genes. The main source of the observed metabolic differences was from the diversity of secondary metabolism. According to the high conservation of primary metabolic reactions in Streptomyces species, the metabolic network model of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus was constructed based on the latest reported metabolic model of S. coelicolor A3(2) and validated experimentally. By coupling with flux balance analysis and using minimization of metabolic adjustment algorithm, potential targets for ascomycin overproduction were predicted. Since several of the preferred targets were highly associated with ethylmalonyl-CoA biosynthesis, two target genes hcd (encoding 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase) and ccr (encoding crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase) were selected for overexpression in S. hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus FS35. Both the mutants HA-Hcd and HA-Ccr showed higher ascomycin titer, which was consistent with the model predictions. Furthermore, the combined effects of the two genes were evaluated and the strain HA

  6. Performance of different strains of Pleurotus species under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. citrinopileatus strain PCB did not produce any fruiting bodies during the period of study. Significant differences (P<0.05) in yield of the different species of mushrooms were recorded. Keywords: Mushrooms, flushes, biological efficiency. J Food Tech in Africa (2002) 7, 98-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfta.v7i3.19240.

  7. Whole genome sequence of two Rathayibacter toxicus strains reveals a tunicamycin biosynthetic cluster similar to Streptomyces chartreusis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathayibacter toxicus is a forage grass associated Gram-positive bacterium of major concern to food safety and agriculture. The species is listed by USDA-APHIS as a plant pathogen select agent due to the fact that it produces a tunicamycin-like toxin that is lethal to livestock. The complete genomes...

  8. A Novel Insecticidal Peptide SLP1 Produced by Streptomyces laindensis H008 against Lipaphis erysimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are major insect pests for crops, causing damage by direct feeding and transmission of plant diseases. This paper was completed to discover and characterize a novel insecticidal metabolite against aphids from soil actinobacteria. An insecticidal activity assay was used to screen 180 bacterial strains from soil samples against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. The bacterial strain H008 showed the strongest activity, and it was identified by the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and physiological traits as a novel species of genus Streptomyces (named S. laindensis H008. With the bioassay-guided method, the insecticidal extract from S. laindensis H008 was subjected to chromatographic separations. Finally, a novel insecticidal peptide was purified from Streptomyces laindensis H008 against L. erysimi, and it was determined to be S-E-P-A-Q-I-V-I-V-D-G-V-D-Y-W by TOF-MS and amino acid analysis.

  9. Computational identification of strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Rathi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of unique proteins at different taxonomic levels has both scientific and practical value. Strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins can provide insight into the criteria that define an organism and its relationship with close relatives. Such proteins can also serve as taxon-specific diagnostic targets. Description A pipeline using a combination of computational and manual analyses of BLAST results was developed to identify strain-, species-, and genus-specific proteins and to catalog the closest sequenced relative for each protein in a proteome. Proteins encoded by a given strain are preliminarily considered to be unique if BLAST, using a comprehensive protein database, fails to retrieve (with an e-value better than 0.001 any protein not encoded by the query strain, species or genus (for strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins respectively, or if BLAST, using the best hit as the query (reverse BLAST, does not retrieve the initial query protein. Results are manually inspected for homology if the initial query is retrieved in the reverse BLAST but is not the best hit. Sequences unlikely to retrieve homologs using the default BLOSUM62 matrix (usually short sequences are re-tested using the PAM30 matrix, thereby increasing the number of retrieved homologs and increasing the stringency of the search for unique proteins. The above protocol was used to examine several food- and water-borne pathogens. We find that the reverse BLAST step filters out about 22% of proteins with homologs that would otherwise be considered unique at the genus and species levels. Analysis of the annotations of unique proteins reveals that many are remnants of prophage proteins, or may be involved in virulence. The data generated from this study can be accessed and further evaluated from the CUPID (Core and Unique Protein Identification system web site (updated semi-annually at http://pir.georgetown.edu/cupid. Conclusion CUPID

  10. Genetic sexing strains for four species of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Genetic sexing strains were assembled by using classical genetic and cytogenetic techniques for four medically important species of insects. Male linked reciprocal translocations were used to impose pseudolinkage of sex and selectable genes (shown in parentheses) for Anopheles albimanus (propoxur resistance), Anopheles quadrimaculatus sp. A (malathion resistance), Stomoxys calcitrans (dieldrin resistance; malathion resistance, and black pupa), and Musca domestica (black pupa). These strains would be of great value in implementation of the sterile insect technique for control of these species because the females can either be killed in the egg stage (in the case of insecticide resistance as the selectable gene) or they can be separated from the males and thus excluded from releases. (author). 13 refs

  11. Streptomyces roietensis sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from the surface-sterilized stem of jasmine rice, Oryza sativa KDML 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkla, Onuma; Franco, Christopher Milton Mathew

    2017-11-01

    An endophytic actinobacterium, strain WES2 T , was isolated from the stem of a jasmine rice plant collected from a paddy field in Thung Gura Rong Hai, Roi Et province, Thailand. As a result of a polyphasic study, this strain was identified as representing a novel member of the genus Streptomyces. This strain was a Gram-stain-positive, aerobic actinobacterium with well-developed substrate mycelia and forming chains of looped spores. The closest phylogenetic relations, which shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, were Streptomyces nogalater JCM 4799 T and Streptomyces lavenduligriseus NRRL-ISP 5487 T at 99.1 and 99.0 %, respectively. Chemotaxonomic data, including major fatty acids, cell wall components and major menaquinones, confirmed the affiliation of WES2 T to the genus Streptomyces. The data from the phylogenetic analysis, including physiological and biochemical studies and DNA-DNA hybridization, revealed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of WES2 T from the most closely related species with validly published names. The name proposed for the novel species is Streptomycesroietensis sp. nov. The type strain is WES2 T (=DSM 101729=NRRL B-65344).

  12. Recent advances in understanding Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Keith F.

    2016-01-01

    About 2,500 papers dated 2014–2016 were recovered by searching the PubMed database for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of antibiotics. This review integrates around 100 of these papers in sections dealing with evolution, ecology, pathogenicity, growth and development, stress responses and secondary metabolism, gene expression, and technical advances. Genomic approaches have greatly accelerated progress. For example, it has been definitively shown that interspecies recombination of conserved genes has occurred during evolution, in addition to exchanges of some of the tens of thousands of non-conserved accessory genes. The closeness of the association of Streptomyces with plants, fungi, and insects has become clear and is reflected in the importance of regulators of cellulose and chitin utilisation in overall Streptomyces biology. Interestingly, endogenous cellulose-like glycans are also proving important in hyphal growth and in the clumping that affects industrial fermentations. Nucleotide secondary messengers, including cyclic di-GMP, have been shown to provide key input into developmental processes such as germination and reproductive growth, while late morphological changes during sporulation involve control by phosphorylation. The discovery that nitric oxide is produced endogenously puts a new face on speculative models in which regulatory Wbl proteins (peculiar to actinobacteria) respond to nitric oxide produced in stressful physiological transitions. Some dramatic insights have come from a new model system for Streptomyces developmental biology, Streptomyces venezuelae, including molecular evidence of very close interplay in each of two pairs of regulatory proteins. An extra dimension has been added to the many complexities of the regulation of secondary metabolism by findings of regulatory crosstalk within and between pathways, and even between species, mediated by end products. Among many outcomes from the application of chromosome

  13. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  14. Bioactive benzopyrone derivatives from new recombinant fusant of marine Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Shaaban, M; El-Bondkly, A M; Shaaban, K A

    2008-07-01

    In our searching program for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine Streptomycetes, three microbial benzopyrone derivatives (1-3), 7-methylcoumarin (1) and two flavonoides, rhamnazin (2) and cirsimaritin (3), were obtained during the working up of the ethyl acetate fraction of a marine Streptomyces fusant obtained from protoplast fusion between Streptomyces strains Merv 1996 and Merv 7409. The structures of the three compounds (1-3) were established by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass, UV spectra, and by comparison with literature data. Marine Streptomyces strains were identified based on their phenotypic and chemotypic characteristics as two different bioactive strains of the genus Streptomyces. We described here the fermentation, isolation, as well as the biological activity of these bioactive compounds. The isolated compounds (1-3) are reported here as microbial products for the first time.

  15. Comparative genomics of Streptomyces avermitilis, Streptomyces cattleya, Streptomyces maritimus and Kitasatospora aureofaciens using a Streptomyces coelicolor microarray system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Nai-hua; Kirby, Ralph

    DNA/DNA microarray hybridization was used to compare the genome content of Streptomyces avermitilis, Streptomyces cattleya, Streptomyces maritimus and Kitasatospora aureofaciens with that of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The array data showed an about 93% agreement with the genome sequence data

  16. Ammonia Released by Streptomyces aburaviensis Induces Droplet Formation in Streptomyces violaceoruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kathrin; Spiteller, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Streptomyces violaceoruber grown in co-culture with Streptomyces aburaviensis produces an about 17-fold higher volume of droplets on its aerial mycelium than in single-culture. Physical separation of the Streptomyces strains by either a plastic barrier or by a dialysis membrane, which allowed communication only by the exchange of volatile compounds or diffusible compounds in the medium, respectively, still resulted in enhanced droplet formation. The application of molecular sieves to bioassays resulted in the attenuation of the droplet-inducing effect of S. aburaviensis indicating the absorption of the compound. 1 H-NMR analysis of molecular-sieve extracts and the selective indophenol-blue reaction revealed that the volatile droplet-inducing compound is ammonia. The external supply of ammonia in biologically relevant concentrations of ≥8 mM enhanced droplet formation in S. violaceoruber in a similar way to S. aburaviensis. Ammonia appears to trigger droplet production in many Streptomyces strains because four out of six Streptomyces strains exposed to ammonia exhibited induced droplet production.

  17. Response surface methodology: A non-conventional statistical tool to maximize the throughput of Streptomyces species biomass and their bioactive metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Selvanathan; Sivaranjani, Govindhan; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai

    2017-09-01

    Among diverse actinobacteria, Streptomyces is a renowned ongoing source for the production of a large number of secondary metabolites, furnishing immeasurable pharmacological and biological activities. Hence, to meet the demand of new lead compounds for human and animal use, research is constantly targeting the bioprospecting of Streptomyces. Optimization of media components and physicochemical parameters is a plausible approach for the exploration of intensified production of novel as well as existing bioactive metabolites from various microbes, which is usually achieved by a range of classical techniques including one factor at a time (OFAT). However, the major drawbacks of conventional optimization methods have directed the use of statistical optimization approaches in fermentation process development. Response surface methodology (RSM) is one of the empirical techniques extensively used for modeling, optimization and analysis of fermentation processes. To date, several researchers have implemented RSM in different bioprocess optimization accountable for the production of assorted natural substances from Streptomyces in which the results are very promising. This review summarizes some of the recent RSM adopted studies for the enhanced production of antibiotics, enzymes and probiotics using Streptomyces with the intention to highlight the significance of Streptomyces as well as RSM to the research community and industries.

  18. Identification of Two Novel Anti-Fibrotic Benzopyran Compounds Produced by Engineered Strains Derived from Streptomyces xiamenensis M1-94P that Originated from Deep-Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The benzopyran compound obtained by cultivating a mangrove-derived strain, Streptomyces xiamenensis strain 318, shows multiple biological effects, including anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophic scar properties. To increase the diversity in the structures of the available benzopyrans, by means of biosynthesis, the strain was screened for spontaneous rifampicin resistance (Rif, and a mutated rpsL gene to confer streptomycin resistance (Str, was introduced into the S. xiamenensis strain M1-94P that originated from deep-sea sediments. Two new benzopyran derivatives, named xiamenmycin C (1 and D (2, were isolated from the crude extracts of a selected Str-Rif double mutant (M6 of M1-94P. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified by analyzing extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibit the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (WI26, and 1 exhibits better anti-fibrotic activity than xiamenmycin. Our study presents the novel bioactive compounds isolated from S. xiamenensis mutant strain M6 constructed by ribosome engineering, which could be a useful approach in the discovery of new anti-fibrotic compounds.

  19. Streptomyces communities in soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.

    2009-02-01

    The contents of differently mobile heavy metal compounds and their influence on the formation of microbial cenoses (particularly, streptomyces communities) in technogenically disturbed soils are considered. Elevated concentrations of mobile Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Fe compounds are shown to determine structural-functional changes in microbial cenoses that are displayed in a decreasing number of microorganisms and a narrower spectrum of the streptomyces species. Some specific features of the formation of streptomyces communities in technogenic soils were revealed on the basis of the analysis of their species structure with the use of the Margalef, Berger-Parker, and Sorensen indices of biodiversity.

  20. In Search of the E. coli Compounds that Change the Antibiotic Production Pattern of Streptomyces coelicolor During Inter-species Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavituna, Ferda; Luti, Khalid Jaber Kadhum; Gu, Lixing

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the interaction between E.coli and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) for the increased production of undecylprodigiosin and identify the E. coli actives mediating this inter-species interaction. The antibiotics of interest were the red-pigmented undecylprodigiosin and blue-pigmented actinorhodin. Pure cultures of S. coelicolor in a defined medium produced higher concentrations of actinorhodin compared to those of undecylprodigiosin. The latter however, is more important due to its immunosuppressive and antitumor properties. As a strategy to increase undecylprodigiosin production, we added separately, live cells and heat-killed cells of E. coli C600, and the cell-free supernatant of E. coli culture to S. coelicolor cultures in shake flasks. The interaction with live cells of E. coli altered the antibiotic production pattern and undecylprodigiosin production was enhanced by 3.5-fold compared to the pure cultures of S. coelicolor and actinorhodin decreased by 15-fold. The heat-killed cells of E. coli however, had no effect on antibiotic production. In all cases, growth and glucose consumption of S. coelicolor remained almost the same as those observed in the pure culture indicating that the changes in antibiotic production were not due to nutritional stress. Results with cell-free supernatant of E. coli culture indicated that the interaction between S. coelicolor and E. coli was mediated via diffusible molecule(s). Using a set of extraction procedures and agar-well diffusion bioassays, we isolated and preliminarily identified a class of compounds. For the preliminary verification, we added the compound which was the common chemical structural moiety in this class of compounds to the pure S. coelicolor cultures. We observed similar effects on antibiotic production as with the live E. coli cells and their supernatant indicating that this class of compounds secreted by E. coli indeed could act as actives during interspecies

  1. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eBonaldi; Xiaoyulong eChen; Andrea eKunova; Cristina ePizzatti; Marco eSaracchi; Paolo eCortesi

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plas...

  2. Pre-sporulation stages of Streptomyces differentiation: state-of-the-art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Paula; López-García, Maria T.; Rioseras, Beatriz; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycetes comprise very important industrial bacteria, producing two-thirds of all clinically relevant secondary metabolites. They are mycelial microorganisms with complex developmental cycles that include programmed cell death (PCD) and sporulation. Industrial fermentations are usually performed in liquid cultures (large bioreactors), conditions in which Streptomyces strains generally do not sporulate, and it was traditionally assumed that there was no differentiation. In this work, we review the current knowledge on Streptomyces pre-sporulation stages of Streptomyces differentiation. PMID:23496097

  3. Production of gold nanoparticles by Streptomyces djakartensis isolate B-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Biglari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objective(s: Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (NGPs is environmentally safer than chemical and physical procedures. This method requires no use of toxic solvents and synthesis of dangerous products and is environmentally safe. In this study, we report the biosynthesis of NGPs using Streptomyces djakartensis isolate B-5. Materials and Methods: NGPs were biosynthesized by reducing aqueous gold chloride solution via a Streptomyces isolate without the need for any additive for protecting nanoparticles from aggregation. We characterized the responsible Streptomycete; its genome DNA was isolated, purified and 16S rRNA was amplified by PCR. The amplified isolate was sequenced; using the BLAST search tool from NCBI, the microorganism was identified to species level. Results: Treating chloroauric acid solutions with this bacterium resulted in reduction of gold ions and formation of stable NGPs. TEM and SEM electro micrographs of NGPs indicated size range from 2- 25 nm with average of 9.09 nm produced intracellular by the bacterium. SEM electro micrographs revealed morphology of spores and mycelia. The amplified PCR fragment of 16S rRNA gene was cloned and sequenced from both sides; it consisted of 741 nucleotides. According to NCBI GenBank, the bacterium had 97.1% homology with Streptomyces djakartensis strain RT-49. The GenBank accession number for partial 16S rRNA gene was recorded as JX162550. Conclusion: Optimized application of such findings may create applications of Streptomycetes for use as bio-factories in eco-friendly production of NGPs to serve in demanding industries and related biomedical areas. Research in this area should also focus on the unlocking the full mechanism of NGPs biosynthesis by Streptomycetes.

  4. Amide-transforming activity of Streptomyces: possible application to the formation of hydroxy amides and aminoalcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinya; Miyagawa, Taka-Aki; Yamada, Ren; Shiratori-Takano, Hatsumi; Sayo, Noboru; Saito, Takao; Takano, Hideaki; Beppu, Teruhiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    To develop an efficient bioconversion process for amides, we screened our collection of Streptomyces strains, mostly obtained from soil, for effective transformers. Five strains, including the SY007 (NBRC 109343) and SY435 (NBRC 109344) of Streptomyces sp., exhibited marked conversion activities from the approximately 700 strains analyzed. These strains transformed diverse amide compounds such as N-acetyltetrahydroquinoline, N-benzoylpyrrolidine, and N-benzoylpiperidine into alcohols or N,O-acetals with high activity and regioselectivity. N,O-acetal was transformed into alcohol by serial tautomerization and reduction reactions. As such, Streptomyces spp. can potentially be used for the efficient preparation of hydroxy amides and aminoalcohols.

  5. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  6. Genome sequence of the thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the type strain of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  7. Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the Type Strain of the Species

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  8. Streptomyces kalpinensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a salt water beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guo-Quan; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhang, Yao; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2017-12-01

    A novel actinobacterium designated TRM 46509 T was isolated from a salt water beach at Kalpin, Xinjiang, north-west China. The strain was aerobic and Gram-stain-positive, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 1 % (w/v). The isolate formed sparse aerial mycelium and produced spiral spores at the end of the aerial mycelium on Gauze's No. 1 medium. The isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and ribose as the major whole-cell sugar. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids were C16:0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA was 69.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain TRM 46509 T shared 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.6 % with the closest described species Streptomyces tacrolimicus ATCC 55098 T . On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, strain TRM 46509 T should be designated as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces kalpinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 46509 T (=CCTCC AA 2015028 T =KCTC 39667 T ).

  9. Construction of an engineering strain which knocked out the gene of thioesterase for Streptomyces parvus HCCB10043 and the reach of metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Fang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The major metabolites of Streptomyces parvus HCCB10043 is lipopeptide compounds A21978C,its genome sequence includes the non ribosomal peptide synthetase(NRPS,polyketide synthases(PKS and hybrid NRPS-PKS multi-enzyme system gene clusters,they do have a their common feature in the metabolite biosynthetic cluster,which is called TE domain as well.Thioesterase can synthesized the synthesis of compounds of the chain termination,and with functions to release mature lipopeptide hydrolysis and cyclized peptide chain aliphatic linear.This study,we knockout the TE domain of a gene cluster,which guide the biosynthesis of bipyridine,to obtain engineered bacteria.The fermentation results demonstrates reduced yields for metabolites 2,2′-Bipyridine (2,2′-BP.

  10. Plant Community Richness Mediates Inhibitory Interactions and Resource Competition between Streptomyces and Fusarium Populations in the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essarioui, Adil; LeBlanc, Nicholas; Kistler, Harold C; Kinkel, Linda L

    2017-07-01

    Plant community characteristics impact rhizosphere Streptomyces nutrient competition and antagonistic capacities. However, the effects of Streptomyces on, and their responses to, coexisting microorganisms as a function of plant host or plant species richness have received little attention. In this work, we characterized antagonistic activities and nutrient use among Streptomyces and Fusarium from the rhizosphere of Andropogon gerardii (Ag) and Lespedeza capitata (Lc) plants growing in communities of 1 (monoculture) or 16 (polyculture) plant species. Streptomyces from monoculture were more antagonistic against Fusarium than those from polyculture. In contrast, Fusarium isolates from polyculture had greater inhibitory capacities against Streptomyces than isolates from monoculture. Although Fusarium isolates had on average greater niche widths, the collection of Streptomyces isolates in total used a greater diversity of nutrients for growth. Plant richness, but not plant host, influenced the potential for resource competition between the two taxa. Fusarium isolates had greater niche overlap with Streptomyces in monoculture than polyculture, suggesting greater potential for Fusarium to competitively challenge Streptomyces in monoculture plant communities. In contrast, Streptomyces had greater niche overlap with Fusarium in polyculture than monoculture, suggesting that Fusarium experiences greater resource competition with Streptomyces in polyculture than monoculture. These patterns of competitive and inhibitory phenotypes among Streptomyces and Fusarium populations are consistent with selection for Fusarium-antagonistic Streptomyces populations in the presence of strong Fusarium resource competition in plant monocultures. Similarly, these results suggest selection for Streptomyces-inhibitory Fusarium populations in the presence of strong Streptomyces resource competition in more diverse plant communities. Thus, landscape-scale variation in plant species richness may be

  11. Streptomyces asenjonii sp. nov., isolated from arid Atacama Desert soils and emended description of Streptomyces viridosporus Pridham et al. 1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic status of Streptomyces strains isolated from arid Atacama Desert soils. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates showed that they formed a well-defined lineage that was loosely associated with the type strains of several Str...

  12. Comparative Genomics Revealed Genetic Diversity and Species/Strain-Level Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Three Probiotic Bifidobacterial Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Odamaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium animalis are widely used as probiotics in the food industry. Although numerous studies have revealed the properties and functionality of these strains, it is uncertain whether these characteristics are species common or strain specific. To address this issue, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 49 strains belonging to these three bifidobacterial species to describe their genetic diversity and to evaluate species-level differences. There were 166 common clusters between strains of B. breve and B. longum, whereas there were nine common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. longum and four common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. breve. Further analysis focused on carbohydrate metabolism revealed the existence of certain strain-dependent genes, such as those encoding enzymes for host glycan utilisation or certain membrane transporters, and many genes commonly distributed at the species level, as was previously reported in studies with limited strains. As B. longum and B. breve are human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB, whereas B. animalis is a non-HRB species, several of the differences in these species’ gene distributions might be the result of their adaptations to the nutrient environment. This information may aid both in selecting probiotic candidates and in understanding their potential function as probiotics.

  13. DNA Phosphorothioate Modification Plays a Role in Peroxides Resistance in Streptomyces lividans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daofeng Dai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA phosphorothioation, conferred by dnd genes, was originally discovered in the soil-dwelling bacterium Streptomyces lividans, and thereafter found to exist in various bacterial genera. However, the physiological significance of this sulfur modification of the DNA backbone remains unknown in S. lividans. Our studies indicate that DNA phosphorothioation has a major role in resistance to oxidative stress in the strain. Although Streptomyces species express multiple catalase/peroxidase and organic hydroperoxide resistance genes to protect them against peroxide damage, a wild type strain of S. lividans exhibited two-fold to 10-fold higher survival, compared to a dnd- mutant, following treatment with peroxides. RNA-seq experiments revealed that, catalase and organic hydroperoxide resistance gene expression were not up-regulated in the wild type strain, suggesting that the resistance to oxidative stress was not due to the up-regulation of these genes by DNA phosphorothioation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was conducted to trace the expression of the catalase and the organic hydroperoxide resistance genes after peroxides treatments. A bunch of these genes were activated in the dnd- mutant rather than the wild type strain in response to peroxides. Moreover, the organic hydroperoxide peracetic acid was scavenged more rapidly in the presence than in the absence of phosphorothioate modification, both in vivo and in vitro. The dnd gene cluster can be up-regulated by the disulfide stressor diamide. Overall, our observations suggest that DNA phosphorothioate modification functions as a peroxide resistance system in S. lividans.

  14. Optimization Conditions of Extracellular Proteases Production from a Newly Isolated Streptomyces Pseudogrisiolus NRC-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed E. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial protease represents the most important industrial enzymes, which have an active role in biotechnological processes. The objective of this study was to isolate new strain of Streptomyces that produce proteolytic enzymes with novel properties and the development of the low-cost medium. An alkaline protease producer strain NRC-15 was isolated from Egyptian soil sample. The cultural, morphological, physiological characters and chemotaxonomic evidence strongly indicated that the NRC-15 strain represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, hence the name Strptomyces pseudogrisiolus NRC-15. The culture conditions for higher protease production by NRC-15 were optimized with respect to carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions, pH and temperature. Maximum protease production was obtained in the medium supplemented with 1% glucose, 1% yeast extract, 6% NaCl and 100 μmol/L of Tween 20, initial pH 9.0 at 50 °C for 96 h. The current results confirm that for this strain, a great ability to produce alkaline proteases, which supports the use of applications in industry.

  15. Strain, clone and species : comments on three basic concepts of bacteriology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursing, BM; Ursing, JB

    Different aspects of the terms strain, clone and species are discussed. The term strain is commonly used to denote a pure culture - here called 'the strain in the taxonomic sense' - but does also refer to a natural concept closely related to the clone. The term clone on the other hand is used both

  16. Reducing the variability of antibiotic production in Streptomyces by cultivation in 24-square deepwell plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenberg, S.; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudhan; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Highly reproducible production values of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin were achieved by cultivation of a heterologous Streptomyces producer strain in commercially available square deepwell plates consisting of 24 wells of 3 ml culture volume each. Between parallel cultivation batches...

  17. Evaluation of the toxicity of Streptomyces aburaviensis (R9) towards various agricultural pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culture filtrate fraction extracted with dichloromethane from Streptomyces aburaviensis -R9 strain grown on glucose-peptone-molasses (GPM) broth was bioassayed for its effect on phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, C. gloeosoprioids, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum,...

  18. What difference does it make if viruses are strain-, rather than species-specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tron Frede Thingstad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical work has suggested an important role of lytic viruses in controlling the diversity of their prokaryotic hosts. Yet, providing strong experimental or observational support (or refutation for this has proven evasive. Such models have usually assumed host groups to correspond to the species level, typically represented by 16S rDNA data. Recent model developments take into account the resolution of species into strains with differences in their susceptibility to viral attack. With strains as the host groups, the models will have explicit viral control of abundance at strain level, combined with explicit predator or resource control at community level, but the direct viral control at species level then disappears. Abundance of a species therefore emerges as the combination of how many strains, and at what abundance, this species can establish in competition with other species from a seeding community. We here discuss how species diversification and strain diversification may introduce competitors and defenders, respectively, and that the balance between the two may be a factor in the control of species diversity in mature natural communities. These models suggest that the balance between the two may be a factor in the control of species diversity in mature natural communities. These models can also give a dominance of individuals from strains with high cost of resistance; suggesting that the high proportion of dormant cells among pelagic heterotrophic prokaryotes may reflect their need for expensive defense rather than the lack of suitable growth substrates in their environment.

  19. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9...

  20. Natalamycin A, an ansamycin from a termite-associated Streptomyces sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2014-01-01

    We report a preliminary functional and complete structural characterization of a highly unusual geldanamycin analog, natalamycin A, that was isolated from Streptomyces strain M56 recovered from a South African nest of Macrotermes natalensis termites. Bioassay-guided fractionation based on antifun......We report a preliminary functional and complete structural characterization of a highly unusual geldanamycin analog, natalamycin A, that was isolated from Streptomyces strain M56 recovered from a South African nest of Macrotermes natalensis termites. Bioassay-guided fractionation based...

  1. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  2. Establishment of a real-time PCR method for quantification of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffret, Marc; Pilote, Alexandre; Proulx, Emilie; Proulx, Daniel; Vandenberg, Grant; Villemur, Richard

    2011-12-15

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) have been associated with off-flavour problems in fish and seafood products, generating a strong negative impact for aquaculture industries. Although most of the producers of geosmin and MIB have been identified as Streptomyces species or cyanobacteria, Streptomyces spp. are thought to be responsible for the synthesis of these compounds in indoor recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The detection of genes involved in the synthesis of geosmin and MIB can be a relevant indicator of the beginning of off-flavour events in RAS. Here, we report a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) protocol targeting geoA sequences that encode a germacradienol synthase involved in geosmin synthesis. New geoA-related sequences were retrieved from eleven geosmin-producing Actinomycete strains, among them two Streptomyces strains isolated from two RAS. Combined with geoA-related sequences available in gene databases, we designed primers and standards suitable for qPCR assays targeting mainly Streptomyces geoA. Using our qPCR protocol, we succeeded in measuring the level of geoA copies in sand filter and biofilters in two RAS. This study is the first to apply qPCR assays to detect and quantify the geosmin synthesis gene (geoA) in RAS. Quantification of geoA in RAS could permit the monitoring of the level of geosmin producers prior to the occurrence of geosmin production. This information will be most valuable for fish producers to manage further development of off-flavour events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. DNA-based identification of Lentinula edodes strains with species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phe

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... Received 7 November, 2015; Accepted 25 January, 2016. Lentinula edodes is among the five globally cultivated ... through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a prelude to additional nutritional and .... Eleven (11) strains of shiitake, namely LE005 (ATTC #28759),. LE006 (ATTC# 28760), LE 008 (ATTC# ...

  4. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Dept., Pharmaceutical Industries Div., National Research Centre, 33 EL ... enzymes produced by many pathogenic bacteria, ... produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces ... enzymes, hence avoiding loss of the beta-lactam ...... strain will explore the economic outcome of.

  5. A non-polyene antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces albidoflavus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Out of these, 22% of the isolates exhibited activity against fungi. One promising strain, Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23 with strong antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi was selected for further studies. Antibiotic was extracted and purified from the isolate. Aspergillus spp. was most sensitive to the antibiotic followed by ...

  6. Production of high fructose corn syrup Streptomyces sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, M; Prabhu, K A

    1978-01-01

    A Streptomyces strain exhibiting considerable glucose isomerase activity was isolated from soil. The cell free extract of the culture was able to convert glucose to fructose in a period of 48 ha and gave 40% conversion. With acid hydrolyzates of corn and bagasse as substrates, the cell-free extract gave glucose to fructose conversions of 39.8 and 29%, respectively.

  7. A non-polyene antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces albidoflavus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    One promising strain, Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23 with strong anti- fungal activity against pathogenic fungi was selected for further studies. Antibiotic was extracted and purified from the isolate. Aspergillus spp. was most sensitive to the antibiotic followed by other molds and yeasts. The antibiotic was stable at different ...

  8. Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii sp. nov., the producer of chaxalactins and chaxamycins, forms a distinct branch in Streptomyces gene trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic status of an Atacama Desert isolate, Streptomyces strain C34T, which synthesises novel antibiotics, the chaxalactins and chaxamycins. The organism was shown to have chemotaxonomic, cultural, and morphological properties consistent with it...

  9. Genome sequences of three tunicamycin-producing Streptomyces strains; S. chartreusis NRRL 12338, S. chartreusis NRRL 3882, and S. lysosuperificus ATCC 31396

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. chartreusis strains NRRL 12338 and NRRL 3882, S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585, and S. lysosuperificus ATCC 31396, are known producers of tunicamycins, and also of charteusins, clavulinate, cephalosporins, holomycins, and calcimycin. Here we announce the sequencing of the S. lysosuperificus and the two...

  10. Genetics of hybrid male sterility among strains and species in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2011-07-01

    Taxa in the early stages of speciation may bear intraspecific allelic variation at loci conferring barrier traits in hybrids such as hybrid sterility. Additionally, hybridization may spread alleles that confer barrier traits to other taxa. Historically, few studies examine within- and between-species variation at loci conferring reproductive isolation. Here, we test for allelic variation within Drosophila persimilis and within the Bogota subspecies of D. pseudoobscura at regions previously shown to contribute to hybrid male sterility. We also test whether D. persimilis and the USA subspecies of D. pseudoobscura share an allele conferring hybrid sterility in a D. pseudoobscura bogotana genetic background. All loci conferred similar hybrid sterility effects across all strains studied, although we detected some statistically significant quantitative effect variation among D. persimilis alleles of some hybrid incompatibility QTLs. We also detected allelism between D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA at a second chromosome hybrid sterility QTL. We hypothesize that either the QTL is ancestral in D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA and lost in D. pseudoobscura bogotana, or gene flow transferred the QTL from D. persimilis to D. pseudoobscura USA. We discuss our findings in the context of population features that may contribute to variation in hybrid incompatibilities. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Identification and strain differentiation of 'Bacteroides fragilis group' species and Prevotella bivia by PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, M; Schönian, G; Gräser, Y; Montag, T; Rodloff, A C; Citron, D M; Goldstein, E J

    1995-08-01

    Using single consensus primers of genomic nucleotide sequences, PCR-generated fingerprints were used for identification and differentiation of the Bacteroides fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus, B. distasonis, B. vulgatus) and Prevotella bivia (B. bivius) by comparing the DNA profiles with those of reference strains from the American Type Culture Collection and German Culture Collection. When primed by a single primer phage M13 core sequence, intra-species specific differences and species-specific bands were detected. Using primers derived from the evolutionarily conserved tRNA gene sequence, species-specific patterns were produced. A computer program, GelManager, was used to analyze the profiles and generate dendrograms. The correlation coefficients determined from the DNA fingerprint profiles of the clinical isolates (using the M13 core primer) fell within a narrow range, reflecting a high level of homology within the species. Based on the dendrograms, strains of one species were clearly differentiated from strains of other species. For comparison, SDS-PAGE analysis of whole cell extracts was also performed to obtain protein band patterns of various strains. Because of the simplicity of the PCR fingerprinting method and the ease of performance of computerized evaluation of data, this technique is a useful method for both species and strain differentiation, as well as for characterization of Bacteroides species and Prevotella bivia.

  12. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  13. Streptomyces sp. MUM212 as a Source of Antioxidants with Radical Scavenging and Metal Chelating Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Teng-Hern Tan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species and other radicals potentially cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA which may ultimately lead to various complications including mutations, carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, aging, and inflammatory disease. Recent reports demonstrate that Streptomyces bacteria produce metabolites with potent antioxidant activity that may be developed into therapeutic drugs to combat oxidative stress. This study shows that Streptomyces sp. MUM212 which was isolated from mangrove soil in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia, could be a potential source of antioxidants. Strain MUM212 was characterized and determined as belonging to the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The MUM212 extract demonstrated significant antioxidant activity through DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays and also metal-chelating activity of 22.03 ± 3.01%, 61.52 ± 3.13%, 37.47 ± 1.79%, and 41.98 ± 0.73% at 4 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, MUM212 extract was demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation up to 16.72 ± 2.64% at 4 mg/mL and restore survival of Vero cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damages. The antioxidant activities from the MUM212 extract correlated well with its total phenolic contents; and this in turn was in keeping with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis which revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that could be responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract. Other chemical constituents detected included hydrocarbons, alcohols and cyclic dipeptides which may have contributed to the overall antioxidant capacity of MUM212 extract. As a whole, strain MUM212 seems to have potential as a promising source of novel molecules for future development of antioxidative therapeutic agents against oxidative stress-related diseases.

  14. [Progress in developing and applying Streptomyces chassis - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liping; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-03-04

    Natural products and their derivatives play an important role in modern healthcare. Their diversity in bioactivity and chemical structure inspires scientists to discover new drug entities for clinical use. However, chemical synthesis of natural compounds has insurmountable difficulties in technology and cost. Also, many original-producing bacteria have disadvantages of needing harsh cultivation conditions, having low productivity and other shortcomings. In addition, some gene clusters responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are silence in the original strains. Therefore, it is of great significance to exploit strategy for the heterologous expression of natural products guided by synthetic biology. Recently, researchers pay more attention on using actinomycetes that are the main source of many secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, anticancer agents, and immunosuppressive drugs. Especially, with huge development of genome sequencing, abundant resources of natural product biosynthesis in Streptomyces have been discovered, which highlight the special advantages on developing Streptomyces as the heterologous expression chassis cells. This review begins with the significance of the development of Streptomyces chassis, focusing on the strategies and the status in developing Streptomyces chassis cells, followed by examples to illustrate the practical applications of a variety of Streptomyces chassis.

  15. Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained culti­vation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.

  16. Inhibitory potential of nine mentha species against pathogenic bacteria strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmad, N.; Rashid, M.; Ikram, A. U.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce secondary metabolites, which are used in their growth and defense against pathogenic agents. These plant based metabolites can be used as natural antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. Synthetic antibiotics caused different side effects and become resistant to bacteria. Therefore the main objective of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory potential of nine Mentha species extracts against pathogenic bacteria. The methanolic leaves extracts of nine Mentha species (Mentha arvensis, Mentha longifolia, Mentha officinalis, Mentha piperita, Mentha citrata, Mentha pulegium, Mentha royleana, Mentha spicata and Mentha suareolens) were compared for antimicrobial activities. These Mentha species showed strong antibacterial activity against four microorganisms tested. Mentha arvensis showed 25 mm and 30 mm zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Enterobacter aerogens. Moreover, Mentha longifolia showed 24 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. Mentha officinalis showed 30 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. 25 mm inhibitory zone was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus by Mentha piperita. Mentha royleana showed 25 mm zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera, while Mentha spicata showed 21 mm, 22 mm and 23 mm zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Enterobacter aerogens. Moreover most of the Mentha species showed zone of inhibition in the range of 10-20 mm. (author)

  17. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Rv0577, a Protein Associated with Neutral Red Staining of Virulent Tuberculosis Strains and Homologue of the Streptomyces coelicolor Protein KbpA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Flynn, E. M.; Ng, Ho-Leung; Stephenson, Sam; Kim, Heungbok; Myler, Peter J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Alber, Tom; Kim, Chang Y.

    2017-07-25

    The 261-residue Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv0577 is a prominent antigen in tuberculosis patients, the responsible component for neutral red staining of virulent strains of M. tuberculosis, a putative component in a methylglyoxal detoxification pathway, and an agonist of toll-like receptor 2. It also has 36% sequence identity to AfsK-binding protein A (KbpA), a component in the complex secondary metabolite pathways in the Streptomycetes genus from which many commercial antibiotics are derived. To gain insight into the biological function of Rv0577 and the family of KpbA kinase regulators, the crystal structure for Rv0577 was determined to a resolution of 1.75 Å (3OXH), binding properties with neutral red and deoxyadenosine (Ado) surveyed, backbone dynamics measured, and thermal stability assayed by CD spectroscopy. The protein is composed of four approximate repeats with an topology arranged radially in consecutive pairs to form two continuous eight-strand -sheets capped on both ends with an -helix. The two -sheets intersect in the center at roughly a right angle and form an asymmetric deep “saddle” on both sides of the protein, saddle one (P11 to A129) and saddle two (L143 to A258), that may serve to bind ligands. NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments show that neutral red binds to Rv0577, further cementing the role of Rv0577 in the neutral red staining of virulent strains of M. tuberculosis. Similar experiments show that adenosine also bind to Rv0577, although less tightly, with estimated dissociation constants of 4.1 ± 0.3 mM for saddle one and > 1 M for saddle two. Heteronuclear steady-state {1H}-15N NOE, T1, and T2 values were generally uniform through-out the sequence with only a few modest pockets of differences suggestive of slightly different motion in loops between -strands in saddle 1. Circular dichroism spectroscopy characterization of the thermal stability of Rv0577 indicated irreversible unfolding upon heating with an estimated

  18. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus geothermalis Strain GSsed3, a Novel Thermophilic Endospore-Forming Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Jaussi, Marion; Junier, Thomas; Wunderlin, Tina; Roussel-Delif, Ludovic; Jeanneret, Nicole; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Vetter, Alexandra; Regenspurg, Simona; McMurry, Kim; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Lo, Chien-Chi; Li, Paul; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Anoxybacillus geothermalis strain GSsed3 is an endospore-forming thermophilic bacterium isolated from filter deposits in a geothermal site. This novel species has a larger genome size (7.2 Mb) than that of any other Anoxybacillus species, and it possesses genes that support its phenotypic metabolic characterization and suggest an intriguing link to metals. PMID:26067952

  19. Lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on Streptomyces griseus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorskaya, M.E.; Tulina, G.G.; Serdechnaya, A.I.; Matselyukh, B.P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on spores of prototrophic and auxotrophic strains of Streptomyces griseus. Relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons is higher than that of γ-rays and depends on beam energy. Neutrons of 22-50 MeV induce Streptomyces griseus mutations more frequently (by one order of magnitude) than neutrons of 1.4-1.6 MeV do. The obtained mutants can be used in studying Streptomyces griseus genetics

  20. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  1. Waste to wealth: Production of oxytetracycline using streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces speibonae OXS1 in solid-state fermentation from cocoyam peels (household kitchen wastes of agricultural produce) was investigated. The proximate analyses of peels of the two cocoyam species showed that Colocasia esculenta had higher protein (1.39%) and fibre ...

  2. Enzymology of lignocellulose bioconversion by Streptomyces viridosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra, M.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in lignin biodegradation research since 1983, when lignin peroxidases were discovered in fungi. A similar breakthrough in bacterial lignin biodegradation research is anticipated. Several laboratories have successfully demonstrated the ability of bacteria to mineralize [ 14 C]-lignin lignocelluloses as well as 14 C-labelled synthetic lignins. Attempts are being made to identify the key enzymes involved. In this dissertation, two studies are presented which address the enzymology of lignin biodegradation by Streptomyces viridosporus. The first study compares selected extracellular enzyme of wild-type and genetically manipulated strains with enhanced abilities to produced a water soluble lignin degradation intermediate, designated acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL). UV irradiation mutant T7A-81 and protoplast fusion recombinant SR-10 had higher and longer persisting peroxidase, esterase, and endoglucanase activity than did the wild type strain T7A. An extracellular lignocellulose-induced peroxidase with some similarities to fungal ligninases was described for the first time in Streptomyces. The second study describes purification and characterization of an extracellular lignin peroxidase produced by S. viridosporus T7A. This is the first report of a lignin peroxidase in any bacterium

  3. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening of wild type Streptomyces isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Viana Marques

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE. Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture.

  5. Development and application of a T7 RNA polymerase-dependent expression system for antibiotic production improvement in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junhong; Tian, Jinjin; Pan, Guoqing; Xie, Jie; Bao, Jialing; Zhou, Zeyang

    2017-06-01

    To develop a reliable and easy to use expression system for antibiotic production improvement of Streptomyces. A two-compound T7 RNA polymerase-dependent gene expression system was developed to fulfill this demand. In this system, the T7 RNA polymerase coding sequence was optimized based on the codon usage of Streptomyces coelicolor. To evaluate the functionality of this system, we constructed an activator gene overexpression strain for enhancement of actinorhodin production. By overexpression of the positive regulator actII-ORF4 with this system, the maximum actinorhodin yield of engineered strain was 15-fold higher and the fermentation time was decreased by 48 h. The modified two-compound T7 expression system improves both antibiotic production and accelerates the fermentation process in Streptomyces. This provides a general and useful strategy for strain improvement of important antibiotic producing Streptomyces strains.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Novel Low-Abundance Species Strains Isolated from Kefir Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongkyu; Blasche, Sonja; Patil, Kiran R

    2017-09-28

    We report here the genome sequences of three novel bacterial species strains- Bacillus kefirresidentii Opo, Rothia kefirresidentii KRP, and Streptococcus kefirresidentii YK-isolated from kefir grains collected in Germany. The draft genomes of these isolates were remarkably dissimilar (average nucleotide identities, 77.80%, 89.01%, and 92.10%, respectively) to those of the previously sequenced strains. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

  7. Species attribution and strain typing of Oenococcus oeni (formerly Leuconostoc oenos) with restriction endonuclease fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, C; Giovannetti, L; Granchi, L; Ventura, S

    1996-10-01

    In several wines, malolactic fermentation is required to improve the organoleptic characters and to stabilize the final product. In order to establish a controlled malolactic fermentation in wine, easy identification and sensitive typing of strains of Oenococcus oeni (new name of the malolactic bacterium Leuconostoc oenos) used as starter cultures are necessary. To accomplish these tasks, several strains of Oenococcus oeni isolated from wines of the Chianti region (Italy), along with reference strains and strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, L. carnosum, L. fallax, L. pseudomesenteroides, L. lactis and Weisella paramesenteroides, were studied with RFLP of ribosomal genes and ultrasensitive total DNA restriction pattern analysis performed on polyacrylamide gel. With each of four restriction endonucleases used, identical restriction profiles of ribosomal genes were obtained for all strains of O. oeni. These ribopatterns, being strongly dissimilar to profiles of the other lactic acid bacteria tested, appear to be well suited for the attribution of wine lactic acid bacteria to the species O. oeni. Cluster analysis performed on two total DNA restriction profile data sets showed that the species O. oeni possesses a good degree of genomic homogeneity. Very sensitive typing of strains of O. oeni was obtained with total DNA restriction profiles. The potential of an integrated approach using restriction profiles for species assignment and typing of selected malolactic bacteria is demonstrated.

  8. Endophytic Streptomyces spp. as Biocontrol Agents of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIH DEWI HASTUTI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, a causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BLB, is one of the most important pathogens of rice. The effectiveness of ten Streptomyces spp. isolates in suppressing Xoo disease was assessed in planta and in vitro. In planta experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and arranged in a randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replications. Twenty treatments were tested which included plants inoculated with both Streptomyces spp. and Xoo, and plants inoculated with only Streptomyces spp. Plants inoculated with Xoo and sprayed with a chemical bactericide, and plants inoculated with only Xoo served as positive controls, whereas plants not inoculated with either Streptomyces spp. or Xoo were used as negative controls. The results showed that the effect of endophytic Streptomyces spp. on BLB disease expressed as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was not significantly different to that on control plants (P > 0.05. However, plants inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. were significantly taller and produced higher tiller number than control plants (P < 0.05. Streptomyces spp. isolate AB131-1 gave the highest plant height. In vitro studies on biocontrol mechanisms of selected Streptomyces spp. isolates showed that isolate LBR02 gave the highest inhibition activity on Xoo growth, followed by AB131-1 and AB131-2. Two isolates (AB131-1 and LBR02 were able to produce chitinase, phosphatase, and siderophore which included biocontrol characteristics. Morphological and colonization studies under SEM and light microscopy confirmed that the three isolates were endophytic Streptomyces spp. from different species. These studies found that the paddy plant which was inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. AB131-1 and infected by Xoo could increase the height of plant and number of tillers.

  9. Plant growth-promoting activities of Streptomyces spp. in sorghum and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Sree Vidya, Meesala; Rathore, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-24, CAI-121, CAI-127, KAI-32 and KAI-90) were earlier reported by us as biological control agents against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FOC). In the present study, the Streptomyces were characterized for enzymatic activities, physiological traits and further evaluated in greenhouse and field for their plant growth promotion (PGP) of sorghum and rice. All the Streptomyces produced lipase, β-1-3-glucanase and chitinase (except CAI-121 and CAI-127), grew in NaCl concentrations of up to 6%, at pH values between 5 and 13 and temperatures between 20 and 40°C and were highly sensitive to Thiram, Benlate, Captan, Benomyl and Radonil at field application level. When the Streptomyces were evaluated in the greenhouse on sorghum all the isolates significantly enhanced all the agronomic traits over the control. In the field, on rice, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced stover yield (up to 25%; except CAI-24), grain yield (up to 10%), total dry matter (up to 18%; except CAI-24) and root length, volume and dry weight (up to 15%, 36% and 55%, respectively, except CAI-24) over the control. In the rhizosphere soil, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon (except CAI-24), nitrogen, dehydrogenase (except CAI-24), total N, available P and organic carbon (up to 41%, 52%, 75%, 122%, 53% and 13%, respectively) over the control. This study demonstrates that the selected Streptomyces which were antagonistic to FOC also have PGP properties.

  10. Revelation and cloning of valinomycin synthetase genes in Streptomyces lavendulae ACR-DA1 and their expression analysis under different fermentation and elicitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Jamwal, Vijaylakshmi; Singh, Varun P; Wazir, Priya; Awasthi, Praveen; Singh, Deepika; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G; Chaubey, Asha

    2017-07-10

    Streptomyces species are amongst the most exploited microorganisms due to their ability to produce a plethora of secondary metabolites with bioactive potential, including several well known drugs. They are endowed with immense unexplored potential and substantial efforts are required for their isolation as well as characterization for their bioactive potential. Unexplored niches and extreme environments are host to diverse microbial species. In this study, we report Streptomyces lavendulae ACR-DA1, isolated from extreme cold deserts of the North Western Himalayas, which produces a macrolactone antibiotic, valinomycin. Valinomycin is a K + ionophoric non-ribosomal cyclodepsipeptide with a broad range of bioactivities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and cytotoxic/anticancer activities. Production of valinomycin by the strain S. lavendulae ACR-DA1 was studied under different fermentation conditions like fermentation medium, temperature and addition of biosynthetic precursors. Synthetic medium at 10°C in the presence of precursors i.e. valine and pyruvate showed enhanced valinomycin production. In order to assess the impact of various elicitors, expression of the two genes viz. vlm1 and vlm2 that encode components of heterodimeric valinomycin synthetase, was analyzed using RT-PCR and correlated with quantity of valinomycin using LC-MS/MS. Annelid, bacterial and yeast elicitors increased valinomycin production whereas addition of fungal and plant elicitors down regulated the biosynthetic genes and reduced valinomycin production. This study is also the first report of valinomycin biosynthesis by Streptomyces lavendulae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular Regulation of Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes. PMID:23471619

  12. Development of a Terpenoid-Production Platform in Streptomyces reveromyceticus SN-593.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Ammara; Takagi, Hiroshi; Panthee, Suresh; Muroi, Makoto; Chappell, Joe; Osada, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shunji

    2017-12-15

    Terpenoids represent the largest class of natural products, some of which are resources for pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and fuels. Generally, mass production of valuable terpenoid compounds is hampered by their low production levels in organisms and difficulty of chemical synthesis. Therefore, the development of microbial biosynthetic platforms represents an alternative approach. Although microbial terpenoid-production platforms have been established in Escherichia coli and yeast, an optimal platform has not been developed for Streptomyces species, despite the large capacity to produce secondary metabolites, such as polyketide compounds. To explore this potential, we constructed a terpenoid-biosynthetic platform in Streptomyces reveromyceticus SN-593. This strain is unique in that it harbors the mevalonate gene cluster enabling the production of furaquinocin, which can be controlled by the pathway specific regulator Fur22. We simultaneously expressed the mevalonate gene cluster and subsequent terpenoid-biosynthetic genes under the control of Fur22. To achieve improved fur22 gene expression, we screened promoters from S. reveromyceticus SN-593. Our results showed that the promoter associated with rvr2030 gene enabled production of 212 ± 20 mg/L botryococcene to levels comparable to those previously reported for other microbial hosts. Given that the rvr2030 gene encodes for an enzyme involved in the primary metabolism, these results suggest that optimized expression of terpenoid-biosynthetic genes with primary and secondary metabolism might be as important for high yields of terpenoid compounds as is the absolute expression level of a target gene(s).

  13. Genotypic and Phenotypic Assessment of Hyaluronidase among Type Strains of a Select Group of Staphylococcal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Hart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronidases degrade hyaluronic acid, a major polysaccharide of the extracellular matrix of tissues, and are considered important for virulence in a number of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hyaluronidase among clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and among other Staphylococcus species. Spent media and chromosomal DNA were assessed for hyaluronidase activity and the absence or presence of a hyaluronidase gene (hysA by Southern analysis, respectively. All S. aureus strains examined exhibited at least one hybridizing band (half of the strains exhibited two or more hybridizing bands when probed for hysA and all but three of these strains produced hyaluronidase. In contrast, none of the type strains of 19 other species exhibited either hyaluronidase activity or hybridizing bands when probed for hysA. These data support the hypothesis that among members of the Staphylococcus genus only strains of S. aureus possess the enzyme hyaluronidase. This would suggest that hyaluronidase represents yet another potential virulence factor employed by S. aureus to cause disease and may represent a diagnostically important characteristic for distinguishing S. aureus from other members of this genus.

  14. Streptomyces phaeopurpureus Shinobu 1957 (Approved Lists 1980) and Streptomyces griseorubiginosus (Ryabova and Preobrazhenskaya 1957) Pridham et al. 1958 (Approved Lists 1980) are heterotypic subjective synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Rückert, Christian; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Wink, Joachim; Kalinowski, Jörn; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of whole genome comparisons of Streptomyces griseorubiginosus and Streptomyces phaeopurpureus it could by shown that these two species are subjective synonyms. The names of both species have been published in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and, in such a case, normally Rule 24b (1) of the Prokaryotic Code applies, which reads: 'If two names compete for priority and if both names date from 1 January 1980 on an Approved List, the priority shall be determined by the date of the original publication of the name before 1 January 1980'. Streptomyces griseorubiginosus and Streptomyces phaeopurpureus were both effectively published in 1957, and for both publications, the exact date cannot be obtained. In this case a further statement of Rule 24 applies, which reads: 'If the names or epithets are of the same date, the author who first unites the taxa has the right to choose one of them, and his choice must be followed.' Hence we propose that Streptomyces phaeopurpureus is a later heterotypic subjective synonym of Streptomyces griseorubiginosus.

  15. Algal bioremediation of waste waters from land-based aquaculture using ulva: selecting target species and strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Lawton

    Full Text Available The optimised reduction of dissolved nutrient loads in aquaculture effluents through bioremediation requires selection of appropriate algal species and strains. The objective of the current study was to identify target species and strains from the macroalgal genus Ulva for bioremediation of land-based aquaculture facilities in Eastern Australia. We surveyed land-based aquaculture facilities and natural coastal environments across three geographic locations in Eastern Australia to determine which species of Ulva occur naturally in this region and conducted growth trials at three temperature treatments on a subset of samples from each location to determine whether local strains had superior performance under local environmental conditions. DNA barcoding using the markers ITS and tufA identified six species of Ulva, with U. ohnoi being the most common blade species and U. sp. 3 the most common filamentous species. Both species occurred at multiple land-based aquaculture facilities in Townsville and Brisbane and multiple strains of each species grew well in culture. Specific growth rates of U. ohnoi and U. sp. 3 were high (over 9% and 15% day(-1 respectively across temperature treatments. Within species, strains of U. ohnoi had higher growth in temperatures corresponding to local conditions, suggesting that strains may be locally adapted. However, across all temperature treatments Townsville strains had the highest growth rates (11.2-20.4% day(-1 and Sydney strains had the lowest growth rates (2.5-8.3% day(-1. We also found significant differences in growth between strains of U. ohnoi collected from the same geographic location, highlighting the potential to isolate and cultivate fast growing strains. In contrast, there was no clearly identifiable competitive strain of filamentous Ulva, with multiple species and strains having variable performance. The fast growth rates and broad geographical distribution of U. ohnoi make this an ideal species to

  16. Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: Programmed cell death, differentiation, and lysis are closely linked to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production

    OpenAIRE

    Rioseras de Bustos, Beatriz; López García, María Teresa (Bio); Yagüe Menéndez, Paula; Sánchez Martín, Jesús; Manteca Fernández, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or direct...

  17. Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host-plant variants: two host strains or two distinct species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Legeai, Fabrice; Lemaitre, Claire; Scaon, Erwan; Orsucci, Marion; Labadie, Karine; Gimenez, Sylvie; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Henri, Hélène; Vavre, Fabrice; Aury, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Philippe; Kergoat, Gael J; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    The moth Spodoptera frugiperda is a well-known pest of crops throughout the Americas, which consists of two strains adapted to different host-plants: the first feeds preferentially on corn, cotton and sorghum whereas the second is more associated with rice and several pasture grasses. Though morphologically indistinguishable, they exhibit differences in their mating behavior, pheromone compositions, and show development variability according to the host-plant. Though the latter suggest that both strains are different species, this issue is still highly controversial because hybrids naturally occur in the wild, not to mention the discrepancies among published results concerning mating success between the two strains. In order to clarify the status of the two host-plant strains of S. frugiperda, we analyze features that possibly reflect the level of post-zygotic isolation: (1) first generation (F1) hybrid lethality and sterility; (2) patterns of meiotic segregation of hybrids in reciprocal second generation (F2), as compared to the meiosis of the two parental strains. We found a significant reduction of mating success in F1 in one direction of the cross and a high level of microsatellite markers showing transmission ratio distortion in the F2 progeny. Our results support the existence of post-zygotic reproductive isolation between the two laboratory strains and are in accordance with the marked level of genetic differentiation that was recovered between individuals of the two strains collected from the field. Altogether these results provide additional evidence in favor of a sibling species status for the two strains.

  18. Production of actinorhodin-related ''blue pigments'' by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrykh, LV; FernandezMoreno, MA; Herrema, JK; Malpartida, F; Hopwood, DA; Dijkhuizen, L

    The genetically well-known strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) produces the pH indicator (red/blue) antibiotic actinorhodin, but not all the ''blue pigment'' produced by this strain is actinorhodin. When the organism was subjected to various nutrient limitations (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, or

  19. The Cellular Mechanisms that Ensure an Efficient Secretion in Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gullón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive soil bacteria included in the genus Streptomyces produce a large variety of secondary metabolites in addition to extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. From the industrial and commercial viewpoints, the S. lividans strain has generated greater interest as a host bacterium for the overproduction of homologous and heterologous hydrolytic enzymes as an industrial application, which has considerably increased scientific interest in the characterization of secretion routes in this bacterium. This review will focus on the secretion machinery in S. lividans.

  20. Genotype-driven isolation of enterocin with novel bioactivities from mangrove-derived Streptomyces qinglanensis 172205.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Bo; Ma, Min; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2015-07-01

    The type II polyketide synthase (PKS) natural product enterocin (1) was isolated from a mangrove-derived novel species Streptomyces qinglanensis 172205 guided by genome sequence, and its putative biosynthetic gene cluster was revealed. Its natural analogues 5-deoxyenterocin (2) and wailupemycin A-C (3-5) were also identified by tandem mass spectrometry. By feeding experiments with aryl acids, strain 172205 was proved to incorporate partial exogenous starter units into enterocin- and wailupemycin-based analogues, thus being a new and suitable microorganism for engineering unnatural enc-derived polyketide metabolites. In addition, biological assays indicated that enterocin showed obvious inhibitory activity against β-amyloid protein (Aβ1-42) fibrillation and moderate cytotoxicity against HeLa and HepG2 for the first time.

  1. Species Identification, Strain Differentiation, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophyte Species Isolated From Clinically Infected Arabian Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Damaty, Hend M; Tartor, Yasmine H; Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Arabian horses, the eldest equine breeds, have great economic and social significance for its long, unique, and storied history. Molecular characterization of dermatophyte species affecting Arabian horses is a crucial necessity for epidemiologic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study...... are more effective against T. mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP technique is a reliable tool for the identification of dermatophyte species from Arabian horses. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing provides a precise and useful technique for the identification and differentiation...

  2. Differential impact of some Aspergillus species on Meloidogyne javanica biocontrol by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S; Khan, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of some Aspergillus species on the production of nematicidal agent(s) in vitro and biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CHA0 and CHA0/pME3424. Six species of Aspergillus, isolated from the rhizosphere of certain crops, produced a variety of secondary metabolites in vitro. Culture filtrate (CF) obtained from Ps. fluorescens strain CHA0 and its2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol overproducing mutant CHA0/pME3424 grown in King's B liquid medium caused significant mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Bacterial growth medium amended with CF of A. niger enhanced nematicidal and beta-galactosidase activities of fluorescent pseudomonads while A. quadrilineatus repressed such activities. Methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of the CF of A. niger markedly optimized bacterial efficacy to cause nematode deaths while hexane extract of the fungus had no influence on the nematicidal activity of the bacterial strains. A. niger applied alone or in conjunction with the bacterial inoculants inhibited root-knot nematode galling in tomato. On the other hand, A. quadrilineatus used alone or together with CHA0 did not inhibit nematode galling but when used in combination with strain CHA0/pME3424 did reduce galling intensity. Aspergillus niger enhances the production of nematicidal compounds by Ps. fluorescensin vitro and improves biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants in tomato while A. quadrilineatus reduces bacterial performance to suppress root-knot nematodes. Rhizosphere harbours a variety of micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous in most agricultural soils and generally produce a variety of secondary metabolites. Such metabolites synthesized by Aspergillus species may influence the production of nematicidal agents and subsequent biocontrol performance of the bacterial inoculants against plant-parasitic nematodes. This fact needs to be taken into

  3. LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2001-01-01

    These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present

  4. LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-10-28

    These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present.

  5. Lateral Gene Transfer Dynamics in the Ancient Bacterial Genus Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bradon R; Currie, Cameron R

    2017-06-06

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates. Calibrating LGT rate to this geologic time span, we find that on average only 10 genes per million years were acquired and subsequently maintained. Over that same time span, Streptomyces accumulated thousands of point mutations. By explicitly incorporating evolutionary timescale into our analyses, we provide a dramatically different view on the dynamics of LGT and its impact on bacterial evolution. IMPORTANCE Tree-based phylogenetics and the use of species as units of diversity lie at the foundation of modern biology. In bacteria, these pillars of evolutionary theory have been called into question due to the observation of thousands of lateral gene transfer (LGT) events within and between lineages. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are exceedingly rare in the bacterial genus Streptomyces , with merely one gene acquired in Streptomyces lineages every 100,000 years. These findings stand in contrast to the current assumption of rampant genetic exchange, which has become the dominant hypothesis used to explain bacterial diversity. Our results support a more nuanced understanding of genetic exchange, with LGT impacting evolution over short timescales but playing a significant role over long timescales. Deeper understanding of LGT provides new

  6. Systematics of the Trichoderma harzianum species complex and the re-identification of commercial biocontrol strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter; Gazis, Romina; Degenkolb, Thomas; Samuels, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. It is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving Trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. While various studies have suggested that T. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. In the present study the taxonomy of the T. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. Previously named species included in the complex are T. guizhouense, T. harzianum, and T. inhamatum. Two new combinations are proposed, T. lentiforme and T. lixii. Nine species are described as new, T. afarasin, T. afroharzianum, T. atrobrunneum, T. camerunense, T. endophyticum, T. neotropicale, T. pyramidale, T. rifaii and T. simmonsii. We isolated Trichoderma cultures from four commercial biocontrol products reported to contain T. harzianum. None of the biocontrol strains were identified as T. harzianum s. str. In addition, the widely applied culture ‘T. harzianum T22’ was determined to be T. afroharzianum. Some species in the T. harzianum complex appear to be exclusively endophytic, while others were only isolated from soil. Sexual states are rare. Descriptions and illustrations are provided. A secondary barcode, nuc translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) is needed to identify species in this complex. PMID:25661720

  7. Systematics of the Trichoderma harzianum species complex and the re-identification of commercial biocontrol strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Priscila; Branco-Rocha, Fabiano; Jaklitsch, Walter; Gazis, Romina; Degenkolb, Thomas; Samuels, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. It is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving Trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. While various studies have suggested that T. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. In the present study the taxonomy of the T. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. Previously named species included in the complex are T. guizhouense, T. harzianum, and T. inhamatum. Two new combinations are proposed, T. lentiforme and T. lixii. Nine species are described as new, T. afarasin, T. afroharzianum, T. atrobrunneum, T. camerunense, T. endophyticum, T. neotropicale, T. pyramidale, T. rifaii and T. simmonsii. We isolated Trichoderma cultures from four commercial biocontrol products reported to contain T. harzianum. None of the biocontrol strains were identified as T. harzianum s. str. In addition, the widely applied culture 'T. harzianum T22' was determined to be T. afroharzianum. Some species in the T. harzianum complex appear to be exclusively endophytic, while others were only isolated from soil. Sexual states are rare. Descriptions and illustrations are provided. A secondary barcode, nuc translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) is needed to identify species in this complex. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  8. Overproduction of lactimidomycin by cross-overexpression of genes encoding Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Dong; Yan, Yijun; Pan, Guohui; Xiang, Wensheng; Shen, Ben

    2016-03-01

    The glutarimide-containing polyketides represent a fascinating class of natural products that exhibit a multitude of biological activities. We have recently cloned and sequenced the biosynthetic gene clusters for three members of the glutarimide-containing polyketides-iso-migrastatin (iso-MGS) from Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993, lactimidomycin (LTM) from Streptomyces amphibiosporus ATCC 53964, and cycloheximide (CHX) from Streptomyces sp. YIM56141. Comparative analysis of the three clusters identified mgsA and chxA, from the mgs and chx gene clusters, respectively, that were predicted to encode the PimR-like Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins (SARPs) but failed to reveal any regulatory gene from the ltm gene cluster. Overexpression of mgsA or chxA in S. platensis NRRL 18993, Streptomyces sp. YIM56141 or SB11024, and a recombinant strain of Streptomyces coelicolor M145 carrying the intact mgs gene cluster has no significant effect on iso-MGS or CHX production, suggesting that MgsA or ChxA regulation may not be rate-limiting for iso-MGS and CHX production in these producers. In contrast, overexpression of mgsA or chxA in S. amphibiosporus ATCC 53964 resulted in a significant increase in LTM production, with LTM titer reaching 106 mg/L, which is five-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. These results support MgsA and ChxA as members of the SARP family of positive regulators for the iso-MGS and CHX biosynthetic machinery and demonstrate the feasibility to improve glutarimide-containing polyketide production in Streptomyces strains by exploiting common regulators.

  9. SIGNALS AND REGULATORS THAT GOVERN STREPTOMYCES DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joseph R.; Flärdh, Klas

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is the genetically best characterized species of a populous genus belonging to the Gram-positive Actinobacteria. Streptomycetes are filamentous soil organisms, well known for the production of a plethora of biologically active secondary metabolic compounds. The Streptomyces developmental life cycle is uniquely complex, and involves coordinated multicellular development with both physiological and morphological differentiation of several cell types, culminating in production of secondary metabolites and dispersal of mature spores. This review presents a current appreciation of the signaling mechanisms used to orchestrate the decision to undergo morphological differentiation, and the regulators and regulatory networks that direct the intriguing development of multigenomic hyphae, first to form specialized aerial hyphae, and then to convert them into chains of dormant spores. This current view of S. coelicolor development is destined for rapid evolution as data from “-omics” studies shed light on gene regulatory networks, new genetic screens identify hitherto unknown players, and the resolution of our insights into the underlying cell biological processes steadily improve. PMID:22092088

  10. Mutants of Streptomyces coeruleorubidus impaired in the biosynthesis of daunomycinone glycosides and related metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumauerova, M.; Stajner, K.; Pokorny, V.; Hostalek, Z.; Vanek, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Mutants of Streptomyces coeruleorubidus, blocked in the biosynthesis of anthracycline antibiotics of the daunomycine complex, were isolated from the production strains after treatment with UV light, γ-radiation, nitrous acid, and after natural selection; according to their different biosynthetic activity the mutants were divided into five phenotypic groups. Mutants of two of these groups produced compounds that had not yet been described in Streptomyces coeruleorubidus (aklavinone, 7-deoxyaklavinone, zeta-rhodomycinone and glycosides of epsilon-rhodomycinone). The mutants differed from the parent strains and also mutually in morphological characteristics but no direct correlation between these changes and the biosynthetic activity could be observed in most cases. (author)

  11. Microtermolides A and B from termite-associated Streptomyces sp. and structural revision of vinylamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Gavin; Poulsen, Michael; Klassen, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Microtermolides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from a Streptomyces sp. strain associated with fungus-growing termites. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Structural elucidation of 1 led to the re-examination of the struct......Microtermolides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from a Streptomyces sp. strain associated with fungus-growing termites. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Structural elucidation of 1 led to the re...

  12. Cardiobacterium valvarum infective endocarditis and phenotypic/molecular characterization of 11 Cardiobacterium species strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Kemp, Michael; Bruun, Niels E

    2011-01-01

    Cardiobacterium valvarum is a newly recognized human pathogen related to infective endocarditis. Cardiobacterium species are, however, only rarely the aetiology of infective endocarditis. An infective endocarditis case is presented and, additionally, phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison...... of a further 10 collection strains, representing the two species within the genus, was performed. C. valvarum was isolated from the blood and DNA was present in valvular tissue (partial 16S rRNA gene analysis) from a 64-year-old man with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, rupture of chordae...

  13. The new strains Brucella inopinata BO1 and Brucella species 83-210 behave biologically like classic infectious Brucella species and cause death in murine models of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de Bagüés, María P; Iturralde, María; Arias, Maykel A; Pardo, Julián; Cloeckaert, Axel; Zygmunt, Michel S

    2014-08-01

    Recently, novel atypical Brucella strains isolated from humans and wild rodents have been reported. They are phenotypically close to Ochrobactrum species but belong to the genus Brucella, based on genetic relatedness, although genetic diversity is higher among the atypical Brucella strains than between the classic species. They were classified within or close to the novel species Brucella inopinata. However, with the exception of Brucella microti, the virulence of these novel strains has not been investigated in experimental models of infection. The type species B. inopinata strain BO1 (isolated from a human) and Brucella species strain 83-210 (isolated from a wild Australian rodent) were investigated. A classic infectious Brucella reference strain, B. suis 1330, was also used. BALB/c, C57BL/6, and CD1 mice models and C57BL/6 mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used as infection models. Strains BO1 and 83-210 behaved similarly to reference strain 1330 in all mouse infection models: there were similar growth curves in spleens and livers of mice and similar intracellular replication rates in BMDMs. However, unlike strain 1330, strains BO1 and 83-210 showed lethality in the 3 mouse models. The novel atypical Brucella strains of this study behave like classic intracellular Brucella pathogens. In addition, they cause death in murine models of infection, as previously published for B. microti, another recently described environmental and wildlife species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Synthetic Biology in Streptomyces Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    Actinomycete bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are major producers of bioactive compounds for the biotechnology industry. They are the source of most clinically used antibiotics, as well as of several widely used drugs against common diseases, including cancer . Genome sequencing has revealed that

  15. New carbasugars from Streptomyces lincolnensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmera, Petr; Halada, Petr; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2009), s. 519-522 ISSN 0749-1581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : H-1 NMR * C-13 NMR * Streptomyces lincolnensis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2009

  16. Antibiotic Properties of the endophytic Streptomyces Spp. Isolated from the Leaves of Myanmar Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Pe; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Maung

    2002-02-01

    Three medicinal plants of Myanmar are selected in the study of endophytic microorganisms and are taxonomically classified and identified to be Sa-ba-lin (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.), Shazaungtinga- neah (Euphorbia splendens Bojer. ex Hooker) and Ma-shaw (Sauropus grandifolius Pax. and Hoffm.). The screening of endophytic microorganisms is performed according to the ISP method (International Streptomyces Projects 1993). The morphological and physicochemical properties of isolated strains are studied and identified to be the Genus Streptomyces. The test of apparent antimicrobial activity of isolated Streptomyces is done on 18 strains of pathogenic bacteria. It is found that the isolated endophytic Sireptomyces showed the significant antibacterial activity on most of the test organisms. (author)

  17. Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosuknia, Sean M.; Zink, Steven D.; Brecher, Matthew; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Morrissette, Madeline N.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2017-01-01

    In the Western Hemisphere, Zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To determine the extent to which Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the United States are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative Zika virus strains in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infectivity in mosquitoes. We calculated 50% infectious doses to be 6.1–7.5 log10 PFU/mL; minimum infective dose was 4.2 log10 PFU/mL. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but transmission efficiency was higher for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, indicating a transmission barrier in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results suggest that, although Zika virus transmission is relatively inefficient overall and dependent on virus strain and mosquito species, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes could become major vectors in the Americas. PMID:28430564

  18. Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Bialosuknia, Sean M; Zink, Steven D; Brecher, Matthew; Ehrbar, Dylan J; Morrissette, Madeline N; Kramer, Laura D

    2017-07-01

    In the Western Hemisphere, Zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To determine the extent to which Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the United States are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative Zika virus strains in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infectivity in mosquitoes. We calculated 50% infectious doses to be 6.1-7.5 log 10 PFU/mL; minimum infective dose was 4.2 log 10 PFU/mL. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but transmission efficiency was higher for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, indicating a transmission barrier in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results suggest that, although Zika virus transmission is relatively inefficient overall and dependent on virus strain and mosquito species, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes could become major vectors in the Americas.

  19. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBonaldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  20. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldi, Maria; Chen, Xiaoyulong; Kunova, Andrea; Pizzatti, Cristina; Saracchi, Marco; Cortesi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  1. Isolation and characterization of mesophilic, oxalate-degrading Streptomyces from plant rhizosphere and forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin

    2004-10-01

    The present work was aimed at the isolation of additional new pure cultures of oxalate-degrading Streptomyces and its preliminary characterization for further work in the field of oxalate metabolism and taxonomic studies. Mesophilic, oxalate-degrading Streptomyces were enriched and isolated from plant rhizosphere and forest soil samples. Strains were examined for cultural, morphological (spore chain morphology, spore mass colour, diffusible and melanin pigment production), physiological (antibiosis, growth in the presence of inhibitory compounds, assimilation of organic acids and enzyme substrates) and chemotaxonomic characters (cellular lipid components and diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid). The taxonomic data obtained were analysed by using the simple matching (SSM) and Jaccard (SJ) coefficients, clustering was achieved using the UPGMA algorithm. All strains were able to utilize sodium-, potassium-, calcium- and ammonium-oxalate salts. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, isolates were grouped into five cluster groups with a ≥70% SSM similarity level. Streptomyces rochei was the most common of the cluster groups, with a Willcox probability of P>0.8. Streptomyces antibioticus, S. anulatus, S. fulvissimus, S. halstedii and S. violaceusniger are newly reported as oxalate-utilizing Streptomyces.

  2. Simultaneous discrimination of species and strains in Lactobacillus rhamnosus using species-specific PCR combined with multiplex mini-sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Lina; Chu, Wen-Shen

    2015-12-01

    This study described the use of species-specific PCR in combination with SNaPshot mini-sequencing to achieve species identification and strain differentiation in Lactobacillus rhamnosus. To develop species-specific PCR and strain subtyping primers, the dnaJ gene was used as a target, and its corresponding sequences were analyzed both in Lb. rhamnosus and in a subset of its phylogenetically closest species. The results indicated that the species-specific primer pair was indeed specific for Lb. rhamnosus, and the mini-sequencing assay was able to unambiguously distinguish Lb. rhamnosus strains into different haplotypes. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a rapid, accurate and cost-effective assay for inter- and intraspecies discrimination of Lb. rhamnosus, which can be applied to achieve efficient quality control of probiotic products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Systematic determination of the mosaic structure of bacterial genomes: species backbone versus strain-specific loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendrault-Jacquemard A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public databases now contain multitude of complete bacterial genomes, including several genomes of the same species. The available data offers new opportunities to address questions about bacterial genome evolution, a task that requires reliable fine comparison data of closely related genomes. Recent analyses have shown, using pairwise whole genome alignments, that it is possible to segment bacterial genomes into a common conserved backbone and strain-specific sequences called loops. Results Here, we generalize this approach and propose a strategy that allows systematic and non-biased genome segmentation based on multiple genome alignments. Segmentation analyses, as applied to 13 different bacterial species, confirmed the feasibility of our approach to discern the 'mosaic' organization of bacterial genomes. Segmentation results are available through a Web interface permitting functional analysis, extraction and visualization of the backbone/loops structure of documented genomes. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we performed a precise analysis of the mosaic organization of three E. coli strains and functional characterization of the loops. Conclusion The segmentation results including the backbone/loops structure of 13 bacterial species genomes are new and available for use by the scientific community at the URL: http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/mosaic.

  4. Recent advances in understanding Streptomyces [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith F. Chater

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available About 2,500 papers dated 2014–2016 were recovered by searching the PubMed database for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of antibiotics. This review integrates around 100 of these papers in sections dealing with evolution, ecology, pathogenicity, growth and development, stress responses and secondary metabolism, gene expression, and technical advances. Genomic approaches have greatly accelerated progress. For example, it has been definitively shown that interspecies recombination of conserved genes has occurred during evolution, in addition to exchanges of some of the tens of thousands of non-conserved accessory genes. The closeness of the association of Streptomyces with plants, fungi, and insects has become clear and is reflected in the importance of regulators of cellulose and chitin utilisation in overall Streptomyces biology. Interestingly, endogenous cellulose-like glycans are also proving important in hyphal growth and in the clumping that affects industrial fermentations. Nucleotide secondary messengers, including cyclic di-GMP, have been shown to provide key input into developmental processes such as germination and reproductive growth, while late morphological changes during sporulation involve control by phosphorylation. The discovery that nitric oxide is produced endogenously puts a new face on speculative models in which regulatory Wbl proteins (peculiar to actinobacteria respond to nitric oxide produced in stressful physiological transitions. Some dramatic insights have come from a new model system for Streptomyces developmental biology, Streptomyces venezuelae, including molecular evidence of very close interplay in each of two pairs of regulatory proteins. An extra dimension has been added to the many complexities of the regulation of secondary metabolism by findings of regulatory crosstalk within and between pathways, and even between species, mediated by end products. Among many outcomes from the application of

  5. Isolation and identification of oedogonium species and strains for biomass applications.

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    Rebecca J Lawton

    Full Text Available Freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium have recently been targeted for biomass applications; however, strains of Oedogonium for domestication have not yet been identified. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of isolates of Oedogonium collected from multiple geographic locations under varying environmental conditions. We collected and identified wild-type isolates of Oedogonium from three geographic locations in Eastern Australia, then measured the growth of these isolates under a range of temperature treatments corresponding to ambient conditions in each geographic location. Our sampling identified 11 isolates of Oedogonium that could be successfully maintained under culture conditions. It was not possible to identify most isolates to species level using DNA barcoding techniques or taxonomic keys. However, there were considerable genetic and morphological differences between isolates, strongly supporting each being an identifiable species. Specific growth rates of species were high (>26% day-1 under 7 of the 9 temperature treatments (average tested temperature range: 20.9-27.7°C. However, the variable growth rates of species under lower temperature treatments demonstrated that some were better able to tolerate lower temperatures. There was evidence for local adaptation under lower temperature treatments (winter conditions, but not under higher temperature treatments (summer conditions. The high growth rates we recorded across multiple temperature treatments for the majority of species confirm the suitability of this diverse genus for biomass applications and the domestication of Oedogonium.

  6. Morphological differentiation of Streptomyces viridochromogenes E-219 on solid culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinle; Zhu Jing; Jin Yingyan

    2012-01-01

    The Streptomyces viridochromogenes E-219 was derived from Streptomyces viridochromogenes CGMCC4.1119 treated with 60 Co γ-rays irradiation and protoplast fusion. With the help of fluorescent probes, fluorescence microscope and electron microscopy, the morphology and development of E-219 on solid surface culture were investigated in this study. The effect of agarslant culture time on the production of Avilamycin was also studied to provide theoretical basis for industrial fermentation of selecting the appropriate seed to culture on the agarslant culture medium. The results implied that the development of colonies of Streptomyces viridochromogenes accompanied the intermittent hyhae apoptosis, and the production of spores was from the active mycelium. The colonial morphology of strain E-219 was significantly different from the original strain CGMCC4h1119. There were variegated hyphae formation in the stage of spore germination and initial hyphae development (10 h) with the live and dead segments alternated in a highly regular fashion within the same hypha. After the early single colony formation, the third phase was followed by profuse growth of the live segments derived from the variegated hypha, then the second apoptosis of the mycelia (48 h) was occurred with another quick growth, and sporulation was occurred at 96 h. Strain CGMCC4.1119 had spiral sporotrichial and round conidiophores with spike, whereas strain E-219 had linear sporotrichial, smooth and dylindrical conidiophore. The results of shake flask experiments indicated that the spores of E-219 had that highest activity when cultured on agarslant culture medium and incubated for 106 h with the production of avilamycin up to 1200 mg/L. (authors)

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Pestivirus Strain PG-2, a Second Member of the Tentative Pestivirus Species Giraffe

    OpenAIRE

    Becher, Paul; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias; Postel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of bovine pestivirus strain PG-2. The sequence data from this virus showed that PG-2 is closely related to the giraffe pestivirus strain H138. PG-2 and H138 belong to one pestivirus species that should be considered an approved member of the genus Pestivirus.

  8. Risk analysis of inter-species reassortment through a Rift Valley fever phlebovirus MP-12 vaccine strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoai J Ly

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The causative agent, Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV, belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Phenuiviridae and causes high rates of abortions in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral maintenance by mosquito vectors has led to sporadic RVF outbreaks in ruminants and humans in endemic countries, and effective vaccination of animals and humans may minimize the impact of this disease. A live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine strain is one of the best characterized RVFV strains, and was conditionally approved as a veterinary vaccine in the U.S. Live-attenuated RVF vaccines including MP-12 strain may form reassortant strains with other bunyavirus species. This study thus aimed to characterize the occurrence of genetic reassortment between the MP-12 strain and bunyavirus species closely related to RVFV. The Arumowot virus (AMTV and Gouleako goukovirus (GOLV, are transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa. The results of this study showed that GOLV does not form detectable reassortant strains with the MP-12 strain in co-infected C6/36 cells. The AMTV also did not form any reassortant strains with MP-12 strain in co-infected C6/36 cells, due to the incompatibility among N, L, and Gn/Gc proteins. A lack of reassortant formation could be due to a functional incompatibility of N and L proteins derived from heterologous species, and due to a lack of packaging via heterologous Gn/Gc proteins. The MP-12 strain did, however, randomly exchange L-, M-, and S-segments with a genetic variant strain, rMP12-GM50, in culture cells. The MP-12 strain is thus unlikely to form any reassortant strains with AMTV or GOLV in nature.

  9. The Biocontrol Efficacy of Streptomyces pratensis LMM15 on Botrytis cinerea in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggui Lian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available LMM15, an actinomycete with broad spectrum antifungal activity, was isolated from a diseased tomato leaf using the baiting technique. A phylogenetic tree analysis based on similarity percentage of 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacterium was 97.0% affiliated with the species Streptomyces pratensis. This strain was therefore coded as S. pratensis LMM15. The ferment filtrate of LMM15 had ability to inhibit mycelia growth of Botrytis cinerea and reduce lesion expansion of gray mold on detached leaves and fruits. In greenhouse experiments, both the fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings were significantly increased with the increased concentrations of total chlorophyll. The incidence of tomato gray mold decreased by 46.35%; this was associated with the increase of proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA and the changes in defense-related enzymes on tomato leaves when the strain was sprayed on the tomato leaves 24 h prior to inoculation with pathogens. This study showed that the strain S. pratensis LMM15 could be a potential agent for controlling tomato gray mold.

  10. The Biocontrol Efficacy of Streptomyces pratensis LMM15 on Botrytis cinerea in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qinggui; Zhang, Jing; Gan, Liang; Ma, Qing; Zong, Zhaofeng; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    LMM15, an actinomycete with broad spectrum antifungal activity, was isolated from a diseased tomato leaf using the baiting technique. A phylogenetic tree analysis based on similarity percentage of 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacterium was 97.0% affiliated with the species Streptomyces pratensis . This strain was therefore coded as S. pratensis LMM15. The ferment filtrate of LMM15 had ability to inhibit mycelia growth of Botrytis cinerea and reduce lesion expansion of gray mold on detached leaves and fruits. In greenhouse experiments, both the fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings were significantly increased with the increased concentrations of total chlorophyll. The incidence of tomato gray mold decreased by 46.35%; this was associated with the increase of proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the changes in defense-related enzymes on tomato leaves when the strain was sprayed on the tomato leaves 24 h prior to inoculation with pathogens. This study showed that the strain S. pratensis LMM15 could be a potential agent for controlling tomato gray mold.

  11. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium.

  12. Fibrinolytic protease production by new Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1576 from Amazon lichens

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    Germana M.M. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results show that the optimization of the culture medium can enhance protease production, thus becoming a good process for further research. In addition, Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1576, isolated from Amazon lichens, might be a potential strain for fibrinolytic protease production.

  13. Biological control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in yam by Streptomyces sp.MJM5763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Yang, S H; Cheng, J H; Meng, L; Suh, J-W

    2011-08-01

    To find a suitable biocontrol agent for yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. An actinobacterial strain, MJM5763, showing strong antifungal activity, multiple biocontrol and plant growth-promoting traits was isolated from a yam cultivation field in Yeoju, South Korea. Based on morphological and physiological characteristics and analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence, strain MJM5763 was identified as a novel strain of Streptomyces and was designated as Streptomyces sp. MJM5763. Treatment with MJM5763 and the crude culture filtrate extract (CCFE) was effective in suppressing anthracnose in detached yam leaves in vitro and reduced incidence and severity of anthracnose in yam plants under greenhouse conditions. The CCFE treatment was the most effective of all the treatments and reduced the anthracnose severity by 85-88% and the incidence by 79-81%, 90 days after inoculation with the pathogen. CCFE treatment was also effective under field conditions and showed a reduction of 86 and 75% of anthracnose severity and incidence, respectively. Streptomyces sp. strain MJM5763 was effective in biocontrolling anthracnose in yam caused by C. gloeosporioides. Streptomyces sp. MJM5763 is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides for reducing yield losses to anthracnose in yam. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Antioxidative Potential of a Streptomyces sp. MUM292 Isolated from Mangrove Soil

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    Loh Teng-Hern Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove derived microorganisms constitute a rich bioresource for bioprospecting of bioactive natural products. This study explored the antioxidant potentials of Streptomyces bacteria derived from mangrove soil. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, strain MUM292 was identified as the genus Streptomyces. Strain MUM292 showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.54% with S. griseoruber NBRC12873T. Furthermore, strain MUM292 was also characterized and showed phenotypic characteristics consistent with Streptomyces bacteria. Fermentation and extraction were performed to obtain the MUM292 extract containing the secondary metabolites of strain MUM292. The extract displayed promising antioxidant activities, including DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide radical scavenging and also metal-chelating activities. The process of lipid peroxidation in lipid-rich product was also retarded by MUM292 extract and resulted in reduced MDA production. The potential bioactive constituents of MUM292 extract were investigated using GC-MS and preliminary detection showed the presence of pyrazine, pyrrole, cyclic dipeptides, and phenolic compound in MUM292 extract. This work demonstrates that Streptomyces MUM292 can be a potential antioxidant resource for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. FK506 biosynthesis is regulated by two positive regulatory elements in Streptomyces tsukubaensis

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    Goranovič Dušan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FK506 (Tacrolimus is an important immunosuppressant, produced by industrial biosynthetic processes using various Streptomyces species. Considering the complex structure of FK506, it is reasonable to expect complex regulatory networks controlling its biosynthesis. Regulatory elements, present in gene clusters can have a profound influence on the final yield of target product and can play an important role in development of industrial bioprocesses. Results Three putative regulatory elements, namely fkbR, belonging to the LysR-type family, fkbN, a large ATP-binding regulator of the LuxR family (LAL-type and allN, a homologue of AsnC family regulatory proteins, were identified in the FK506 gene cluster from Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL 18488, a progenitor of industrial strains used for production of FK506. Inactivation of fkbN caused a complete disruption of FK506 biosynthesis, while inactivation of fkbR resulted in about 80% reduction of FK506 yield. No functional role in the regulation of the FK506 gene cluster has been observed for the allN gene. Using RT-PCR and a reporter system based on a chalcone synthase rppA, we demonstrated, that in the wild type as well as in fkbN- and fkbR-inactivated strains, fkbR is transcribed in all stages of cultivation, even before the onset of FK506 production, whereas fkbN expression is initiated approximately with the initiation of FK506 production. Surprisingly, inactivation of fkbN (or fkbR does not abolish the transcription of the genes in the FK506 gene cluster in general, but may reduce expression of some of the tested biosynthetic genes. Finally, introduction of a second copy of the fkbR or fkbN genes under the control of the strong ermE* promoter into the wild type strain resulted in 30% and 55% of yield improvement, respectively. Conclusions Our results clearly demonstrate the positive regulatory role of fkbR and fkbN genes in FK506 biosynthesis in S. tsukubaensis NRRL 18488. We

  16. Identification and analysis of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and titer improvement of the paulomycins in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115.

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    Jine Li

    Full Text Available The paulomycins are a group of glycosylated compounds featuring a unique paulic acid moiety. To locate their biosynthetic gene clusters, the genomes of two paulomycin producers, Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115 and Streptomyces sp. YN86, were sequenced. The paulomycin biosynthetic gene clusters were defined by comparative analyses of the two genomes together with the genome of the third paulomycin producer Streptomyces albus J1074. Subsequently, the identity of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed by inactivation of two genes involved in biosynthesis of the paulomycose branched chain (pau11 and the ring A moiety (pau18 in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115. After determining the gene cluster boundaries, a convergent biosynthetic model was proposed for paulomycin based on the deduced functions of the pau genes. Finally, a paulomycin high-producing strain was constructed by expressing an activator-encoding gene (pau13 in S. paulus, setting the stage for future investigations.

  17. Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression Ability of a Streptomyces sp. CB-75 from Banana Rhizosphere Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufeng; Zhou, Dengbo; Qi, Dengfeng; Gao, Zhufen; Xie, Jianghui; Luo, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, CB-75, was isolated from the soil of a diseased banana plantation in Hainan, China. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and 99.93% sequence similarity with Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424 (AB184393), the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against 11 plant pathogenic fungi. Type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) were detected, which were indicative of the antifungal compounds that Streptomyces sp. CB-75 could produce. An ethyl acetate extract from the strain exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Colletotrichum musae (ATCC 96167) (0.78 μg/ml) and yielded the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (ATCC 16330) (50.0 μg/ml). Also, spore germination was significantly inhibited by the crude extract. After treatment with the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. CB-75 at the concentration 2 × MIC, the pathogenic fungi showed deformation, shrinkage, collapse, and tortuosity when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the crude extract, 18 chemical constituents were identified; (Z)-13-docosenamide was the major constituent. Pot experiments showed that the incidence of banana seedlings was reduced after using Streptomyces sp. CB-75 treatment. The disease index was 10.23, and the prevention and control effect was 83.12%. Furthermore, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 had a growth-promoting effect on banana plants. The chlorophyll content showed 88.24% improvement, the leaf area, root length, root diameter, plant height, and stem showed 88.24, 90.49, 136.17, 61.78, and 50.98% improvement, respectively, and the shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight showed 82.38, 72.01, 195.33, and 113.33% improvement, respectively, compared with treatment of fermentation broth without Streptomyces sp. CB-75

  18. genetic overexpression of NR2B subunit enhances social recognition memory for different strains and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie A; Tsien, Joe Z

    2012-01-01

    The ability to learn and remember conspecifics is essential for the establishment and maintenance of social groups. Many animals, including humans, primates and rodents, depend on stable social relationships for survival. Social learning and social recognition have become emerging areas of interest for neuroscientists but are still not well understood. It has been established that several hormones play a role in the modulation of social recognition including estrogen, oxytocin and arginine vasopression. Relatively few studies have investigated how social recognition might be improved or enhanced. In this study, we investigate the role of the NMDA receptor in social recognition memory, specifically the consequences of altering the ratio of the NR2B:NR2A subunits in the forebrain regions in social behavior. We produced transgenic mice in which the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor was overexpressed postnatally in the excitatory neurons of the forebrain areas including the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. We investigated the ability of both our transgenic animals and their wild-type littermate to learn and remember juvenile conspecifics using both 1-hr and 24-hr memory tests. Our experiments show that the wild-type animals and NR2B transgenic mice preformed similarly in the 1-hr test. However, transgenic mice showed better performances in 24-hr tests of recognizing animals of a different strain or animals of a different species. We conclude that NR2B overexpression in the forebrain enhances social recognition memory for different strains and animal species.

  19. Strains of bacterial species induce a greatly varied acute adaptive immune response: The contribution of the accessory genome.

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    Uri Sela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in human susceptibility to bacterial infections is to what extent variability is a function of differences in the pathogen species or in individual humans. To focus on the pathogen species, we compared in the same individual the human adaptive T and B cell immune response to multiple strains of two major human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. We found wide variability in the acute adaptive immune response induced by various strains of a species, with a unique combination of activation within the two arms of the adaptive response. Further, this was also accompanied by a dramatic difference in the intensity of the specific protective T helper (Th response. Importantly, the same immune response differences induced by the individual strains were maintained across multiple healthy human donors. A comparison of isogenic phage KO strains, demonstrated that of the pangenome, prophages were the major contributor to inter-strain immune heterogeneity, as the T cell response to the remaining "core genome" was noticeably blunted. Therefore, these findings extend and modify the notion of an adaptive response to a pathogenic bacterium, by implying that the adaptive immune response signature of a bacterial species should be defined either per strain or alternatively to the species' 'core genome', common to all of its strains. Further, our results demonstrate that the acquired immune response variation is as wide among different strains within a single pathogenic species as it is among different humans, and therefore may explain in part the clinical heterogeneity observed in patients infected with the same species.

  20. Production of Actinorhodin-Related ‘‘Blue Pigments’’ by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrykh, Leonid V.; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel A.; Herrema, Jan K.; Malpartida, Francisco; Hopwood, David A.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1996-01-01

    The genetically well-known strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) produces the pH indicator (red/blue) antibiotic actinorhodin, but not all the ‘‘blue pigment’’ produced by this strain is actinorhodin. When the organism was subjected to various nutrient limitations (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, or

  1. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...... phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest....

  2. Proposals for revival of Streptomyces setonii and reclassification of S. fimicarius as a later synonym of S. setonii and S. albovinaceus as a later synonym of S. globisporus based on combined 16S rRNA-gyrB gene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 16S rRNA and gyrB genes of 22 Streptomyces species belonging to the Streptomyces griseus cluster were sequenced, and their taxonomic positions were re-evaluated. For correct analysis, all of the publicly available sequences of the species were collected and compared with those obtained in this s...

  3. Comparative analyses of Legionella species identifies genetic features of strains causing Legionnaires' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Valero, Laura; Rusniok, Christophe; Rolando, Monica; Neou, Mario; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Demirtas, Jasmin; Rouy, Zoe; Moore, Robert J; Chen, Honglei; Petty, Nicola K; Jarraud, Sophie; Etienne, Jerome; Steinert, Michael; Heuner, Klaus; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Médigue, Claudine; Glöckner, Gernot; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The genus Legionella comprises over 60 species. However, L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae alone cause over 95% of Legionnaires’ disease. To identify the genetic bases underlying the different capacities to cause disease we sequenced and compared the genomes of L. micdadei, L. hackeliae and L. fallonii (LLAP10), which are all rarely isolated from humans. We show that these Legionella species possess different virulence capacities in amoeba and macrophages, correlating with their occurrence in humans. Our comparative analysis of 11 Legionella genomes belonging to five species reveals highly heterogeneous genome content with over 60% representing species-specific genes; these comprise a complete prophage in L. micdadei, the first ever identified in a Legionella genome. Mobile elements are abundant in Legionella genomes; many encode type IV secretion systems for conjugative transfer, pointing to their importance for adaptation of the genus. The Dot/Icm secretion system is conserved, although the core set of substrates is small, as only 24 out of over 300 described Dot/Icm effector genes are present in all Legionella species. We also identified new eukaryotic motifs including thaumatin, synaptobrevin or clathrin/coatomer adaptine like domains. Legionella genomes are highly dynamic due to a large mobilome mainly comprising type IV secretion systems, while a minority of core substrates is shared among the diverse species. Eukaryotic like proteins and motifs remain a hallmark of the genus Legionella. Key factors such as proteins involved in oxygen binding, iron storage, host membrane transport and certain Dot/Icm substrates are specific features of disease-related strains.

  4. In vitro evaluation of single- and multi-strain probiotics: Inter-species inhibition between probiotic strains, and inhibition of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C M C; Gibson, G R; Rowland, I

    2012-08-01

    Many studies comparing the effects of single- and multi-strain probiotics on pathogen inhibition compare treatments with different concentrations. They also do not examine the possibility of inhibition between probiotic strains with a mixture. We tested the ability of 14 single-species probiotics to inhibit each other using a cross-streak assay, and agar spot test. We then tested the ability of 15 single-species probiotics and 5 probiotic mixtures to inhibit Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium, using the agar spot test. Testing was done with mixtures created in two ways: one group contained component species incubated together, the other group of mixtures was made using component species which had been incubated separately, equalised to equal optical density, and then mixed in equal volumes. Inhibition was observed for all combinations of probiotics, suggesting that when used as such there may be inhibition between probiotics, potentially reducing efficacy of the mixture. Significant inter-species variation was seen against each pathogen. When single species were tested against mixtures, the multi-species preparations displayed significantly (p probiotic species will inhibit each other when incubated together in vitro, in many cases a probiotic mixture was more effective at inhibiting pathogens than its component species when tested at approximately equal concentrations of biomass. This suggests that using a probiotic mixture might be more effective at reducing gastrointestinal infections, and that creating a mixture using species with different effects against different pathogens may have a broader spectrum of action that a single provided by a single strain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of ionophore antibiotics nactins produced by fecal Streptomyces from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tan, Hongming; Lu, Yu; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the correlation between fecal actinobacteria and host animals, Streptomyces was isolated from fresh faeces of healthy sheep and secondary metabolites were analyzed. The most frequently isolated strain S161 with antibiotic activity against bacteria and fungi were analyzed. The S161 showed the highest 99 % similarity to Streptomyces canus DSB17 based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Metabolite analysis based on MS and NMR spectra showed that S161 produces nactins, cyclotetralactones derived from nonactic acid and homononactic acid as building units of ionophoretic character. Due to ionophores are antimicrobial compounds that are commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency, stable beneficial interactions between Streptomyces bacteria and vertebrates have been demonstrated.

  6. Mutation effect of streptomyces kitasatoensis after exposure to heavy ions radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Chen Jihong; Wang Shuyang; Li Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    To define the optimum dose of heavy ion beams for selecting high productive strains, we should study mortality and mutation effects of Streptomyces kitasatoensis irradiated by heavy ion beams in different doses. In this research, spores of Streptomyces kitasatoensis were irradiated by heavy ion beams with different doses. And survival rate, mortality rate, positive mutation and negative mutation were analyzed statistically. The results showed that high mortality rate appeared from 5 Gy and then the mortality rate curve became gently. Compared the positive and negative mutations in different doses, highest positive mutation was obtained in 40 Gy, while the negative mutation was lower in this dose, and the survival rate was 0.92%. So we defined that optimum dose of heavy ions radiation for Streptomyces kitasatoensis selection was 40 Gy in this experiment. (authors)

  7. Engineering the work function of armchair graphene nanoribbons using strain and functional species: a first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xihong; Tang Fu; Copple, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    First principles density functional theory calculations were performed to study the effects of strain, edge passivation, and surface functional species on the structural and electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs), with a particular focus on the work function. The work function was found to increase with uniaxial tensile strain and decrease with compression. The variation of the work function under strain is primarily due to the shift of the Fermi energy with strain. In addition, the relationship between the work function variation and the core level shift with strain is discussed. Distinct trends of the core level shift under tensile and compressive strain were discovered. For AGNRs with the edge carbon atoms passivated by oxygen, the work function is higher than for nanoribbons with the edge passivated by hydrogen under a moderate strain. The difference between the work functions in these two edge passivations is enlarged (reduced) under a sufficient tensile (compressive) strain. This has been correlated to a direct-indirect bandgap transition for tensile strains of about 4% and to a structural transformation for large compressive strains at about - 12%. Furthermore, the effect of the surface species decoration, such as H, F, or OH with different covering density, was investigated. It was found that the work function varies with the type and coverage of surface functional species. Decoration with F and OH increases the work function while H decreases it. The surface functional species were decorated on either one side or both sides of AGNRs. The difference in the work functions between one-sided and two-sided decorations was found to be relatively small, which may suggest an introduced surface dipole plays a minor role. (paper)

  8. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S.; Lal, B.

    2004-01-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Center of Bioresources and Biotechnology, New Delhi (India); Lal, B. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Microbial Biotechnology Division, New Delhi (India)

    2004-06-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Protoplast fusion in Streptomyces: fusions involving ultraviolet-irradiated protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, D.A.; Wright, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    Protoplasts of Streptomyces coelicolor showed the same ultraviolet killing kinetics as spores. Irradiated protoplasts gave rise to recombinants when they were fused with unirradiated protoplasts of a strain carrying complementary genetic markers. The decline with u.v. fluence in the capacity of irradiated protoplasts to yield recombinants inheriting individual markers was some six times less steep than the survival of unfused protoplasts; thus, for example, protoplasts reduced to only 0.01% survival still yielded 10% as many recombinants as unirradiated protoplasts. Each of six widely separated markers of the irradiated parent was inherited independently of the others, with a frequency falling exponentially with u.v. fluence. (author)

  11. Lateral Gene Transfer Dynamics in the Ancient Bacterial Genus Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradon R. McDonald

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateral gene transfer (LGT profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces. Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates. Calibrating LGT rate to this geologic time span, we find that on average only 10 genes per million years were acquired and subsequently maintained. Over that same time span, Streptomyces accumulated thousands of point mutations. By explicitly incorporating evolutionary timescale into our analyses, we provide a dramatically different view on the dynamics of LGT and its impact on bacterial evolution.

  12. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kealy Peak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition.

  13. Lipase-Secreting Bacillus Species in an Oil-Contaminated Habitat: Promising Strains to Alleviate Oil Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are of great interest for different industrial applications due to their diversity and versatility. Among different lipases, microbial lipases are preferable due to their broad substrate specificity, and higher stability with lower production costs compared to the lipases from plants and animals. In the past, a vast number of bacterial species have been reported as potential lipases producers. In this study, the lipases-producing bacterial species were isolated from an oil spillage area in the conventional night market. Isolated species were identified as Bacillus species by biochemical tests which indicate their predominant establishment, and further screened on the agar solid surfaces using lipid and gelatin as the substrates. Out of the ten strains tested, four potential strains were subjected to comparison analysis of the lipolytic versus proteolytic activities. Strain 10 exhibited the highest lipolytic and proteolytic activity. In all the strains, the proteolytic activity is higher than the lipolytic activity except for strain 8, suggesting the possibility for substrate-based extracellular gene induction. The simultaneous secretion of both the lipase and protease is a mean of survival. The isolated bacterial species which harbour both lipase and protease enzymes could render potential industrial-based applications and solve environmental issues.

  14. Identification and activation of novel biosynthetic gene clusters by genome mining in the kirromycin producer Streptomyces collinus Tü 365

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Kulik, Andreas; Härtner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Streptomycetes are prolific sources of novel biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential. S. collinus Tü 365 is a Streptomyces strain, isolated 1972 from Kouroussa (Guinea). It is best known as producer of the antibiotic kirromycin, an inhibitor of the protein biosynth......Streptomycetes are prolific sources of novel biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential. S. collinus Tü 365 is a Streptomyces strain, isolated 1972 from Kouroussa (Guinea). It is best known as producer of the antibiotic kirromycin, an inhibitor of the protein...

  15. Improvement of oxytetracycline production mediated via cooperation of resistance genes in Streptomyces rimosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shouliang; Wang, Xuefeng; Shi, Mingxin; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Huizhuan; Jia, Xiaole; Yuan, Fang; Sun, Jinliang; Liu, Tiejun; Yang, Keqian; Zhang, Yuxiu; Fan, Keqiang; Li, Zilong

    2017-09-01

    Increasing the self-resistance levels of Streptomyces is an effective strategy to improve the production of antibiotics. To increase the oxytetracycline (OTC) production in Streptomyces rimosus, we investigated the cooperative effect of three co-overexpressing OTC resistance genes: one gene encodes a ribosomal protection protein (otrA) and the other two express efflux proteins (otrB and otrC). Results indicated that combinational overexpression of otrA, otrB, and otrC (MKABC) exerted a synergetic effect. OTC production increased by 179% in the recombinant strain compared with that of the wild-type strain M4018. The resistance level to OTC was increased by approximately two-fold relative to the parental strain, thereby indicating that applying the cooperative effect of self-resistance genes is useful to improve OTC production. Furthermore, the previously identified cluster-situated activator OtcR was overexpressed in MKABC in constructing the recombinant strain MKRABC; such strain can produce OTC of approximately 7.49 g L -1 , which represents an increase of 19% in comparison with that of the OtcR-overexpressing strain alone. Our work showed that the cooperative overexpression of self-resistance genes is a promising strategy to enhance the antibiotics production in Streptomyces.

  16. Characterization of Streptomyces isolates causing colour changes of mural paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haliem, M E F; Sakr, A A; Ali, M F; Ghaly, M F; Sohlenkamp, C

    2013-08-25

    Paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs often suffer colour changes due to microbial growth and colonization. Streptomyces strains were isolated from mural paintings of Tell Basta and Tanis tombs (East of Nile Delta, Egypt) and were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. The16S rDNA sequences data indicated that isolated strains were closely related to S. coelicolor, S. albidofuscus, S. ambofaciens, S. canarius, S. parvullus, S. corchorusii, S. albidofuscus and S. nigrifaciens. It could be shown that Streptomyces strains are involved on a large scale in the colour changes of paintings and stone support by producing a wide range of metabolites such as acids (oxalic, citric and sulphuric acids), biopigments of melanin, carotenoids, and hydrogen sulphide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Martinomycin, a new polyether antibiotic produced by Streptomyces salvialis. I. Taxonomy, fermentation and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernan, V S; Montenegro, D A; Goodman, J J; Alluri, M R; Carter, G T; Abbanat, D R; Pearce, C J; Maiese, W M; Greenstein, M

    1994-12-01

    Actinomycete culture LL-D37187 has been found to produce the new polyether antibiotic martinomycin. Taxonomic studies, including morphological, physiological, and cell wall chemistry analyses, revealed that culture LL-D37187 is a novel streptomycete species, and the proposed name is Streptomyces salvialis. Martinomycin exhibits activity against the Southern Army Worm (Spodoptera eridania) and Gram-positive bacteria.

  18. First report of Streptomyces stelliscabiei causing potato common scab in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptomyces scabies has been reported as the predominant cause of potato scab in Michigan. In a 2007 survey of common scab in Michigan, however, isolates were collected from a field that did not fit the description for S. scabies. Tests using species-specific PCR primers indicated isolates were S. ...

  19. A molecular key for building hyphae aggregates: the role of the newly identified Streptomyces protein HyaS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Ilona; Overbeck, Jens; Piepmeyer, Sophie; Meschke, Holger; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2009-05-01

    Streptomycetes produce many metabolites with medical and biotechnological applications. During fermentations, their hyphae build aggregates, a process in which the newly identified protein HyaS plays an important role. The corresponding hyaS gene is present within all investigated Streptomyces species. Reporter fusions indicate that transcription of hyaS occurs within substrate hyphae of the Streptomyces lividans wild type (WT). The HyaS protein is dominantly associated with the substrate hyphae. The WT strain forms cylindrically shaped clumps of densely packed substrate hyphae, often fusing to higher aggregates (pellets), which remain stably associated during shaking. Investigations by electron microscopy suggest that HyaS induces tight fusion-like contacts among substrate hyphae. In contrast, the pellets of the designed hyaS disruption mutant ΔH are irregular in shape, contain frequently outgrowing bunches of hyphae, and fuse less frequently. ΔH complemented with a plasmid carrying hyaS resembles the WT phenotype. Biochemical studies indicate that the C-terminal region of HyaS has amine oxidase activity. Investigations of ΔH transformants, each carrying a specifically mutated gene, lead to the conclusion that the in situ oxidase activity correlates with the pellet-inducing role of HyaS, and depends on the presence of certain histidine residues. Furthermore, the level of undecylprodigiosin, a red pigment with antibiotic activity, is influenced by the engineered hyaS subtype within a strain. These data present the first molecular basis for future manipulation of pellets, and concomitant production of secondary metabolites during biotechnological processes. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Investigations of sensitivity to antibiotics of salmonella strain species originating from poultry from different epizootiological areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1666 samples were examined, of which 512 samples of parenchymatous organs of dead or deliberately sacrtificed animals, 60 samples of non-hatched fertilized eggs, 202 samples of feces, 652 samples of cloacal smears, 221 samples of smears from walls of maintenance objects, incubator stations, and transport vehicles, 19 samples of beddings and shavings. The samples originated from poultry farms and which were taken to a laboratory immediately on sampling and sown the same day. A total of 104 strains of Salmonella were isolated: 94 strains from samples of parenchymatous organs of dead chicks, 1 strain from non-hatched eggs, 3 strains from feces samples, 1 strain from samples of cloacal smears, 4 strains from samples of surface smears of maintenance objects and transport vehicles, and 1 strain from samples of beddings and shavings. Serological typization established the presence of the following serovarieties: Salmonella Enteritidis 79 strains, Salmonella Hartford 17 strains, Salmonella Typohimurium 5 strains, Salmonella Mbandaka 2 strains, and Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain. We examined the sensitivity of Salmonella strains to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, enrofloxacine, norfloxacine, flumequin, erythromycin, lincospectin, colistin, fluorphenicol, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. In S. Enteritidis strains, no resistence was established to colistin, fluorphenicol and sulphamethoxasole+trimethoprim, in fact, the sensitivity to these antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was 100%. Prevalence resitence of 0.96%, in only one strain, was established for enrofloxacine. A high prevalence resistence of 33.6% was established for neomycin, while prevalence resistence of 3.86% was established for the related aminoglycozide antibiotic gentamycin. The highest prevalence resistance in S.Hartford strains was established for erythromycin, 15.38%, and streptomycin, 7.6%. Resistence of S. Tyohimurium was

  1. Establishing a high yielding streptomyces-based cell-free protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, He; Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful platform for applied biotechnology and synthetic biology, with a range of applications in synthesizing proteins, evolving proteins, and prototyping genetic circuits. To expand the current CFPS repertoire, we report here the development and optimization of a Streptomyces-based CFPS system for the expression of GC-rich genes. By developing a streamlined crude extract preparation protocol and optimizing reaction conditions, we were able to achieve active enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) yields of greater than 50 μg/mL with batch reactions lasting up to 3 h. By adopting a semi-continuous reaction format, the EGFP yield could be increased to 282 ± 8 μg/mL and the reaction time was extended to 48 h. Notably, our extract preparation procedures were robust to multiple Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor strains, although expression yields varied. We show that our optimized Streptomyces lividans system provides benefits when compared to an Escherichia coli-based CFPS system for increasing percent soluble protein expression for four Streptomyces-originated high GC-content genes that are involved in biosynthesis of the nonribosomal peptides tambromycin and valinomycin. Looking forward, we believe that our Streptomyces-based CFPS system will contribute significantly towards efforts to express complex natural product gene clusters (e.g., nonribosomal peptides and polyketides), providing a new avenue for obtaining and studying natural product biosynthesis pathways. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1343-1353. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ralstonia syzygii, the Blood Disease Bacterium and Some Asian R. solanacearum Strains Form a Single Genomic Species Despite Divergent Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Gilles; Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Mangenot, Sophie; Barbe, Valérie; Lajus, Aurélie; Vallenet, David; Medigue, Claudine; Fegan, Mark; Allen, Caitilyn; Prior, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes R. solanacearum, R. syzygii, and the Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB). All colonize plant xylem vessels and cause wilt diseases, but with significant biological differences. R. solanacearum is a soilborne bacterium that infects the roots of a broad range of plants. R. syzygii causes Sumatra disease of clove trees and is actively transmitted by cercopoid insects. BDB is also pathogenic to a single host, banana, and is transmitted by pollinating insects. Sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that despite their phenotypic differences, these three plant pathogens are actually very closely related, falling into the Phylotype IV subgroup of the R. solanacearum species complex. To better understand the relationships among these bacteria, we sequenced and annotated the genomes of R. syzygii strain R24 and BDB strain R229. These genomes were compared to strain PSI07, a closely related Phylotype IV tomato isolate of R. solanacearum, and to five additional R. solanacearum genomes. Whole-genome comparisons confirmed previous phylogenetic results: the three phylotype IV strains share more and larger syntenic regions with each other than with other R. solanacearum strains. Furthermore, the genetic distances between strains, assessed by an in-silico equivalent of DNA-DNA hybridization, unambiguously showed that phylotype IV strains of BDB, R. syzygii and R. solanacearum form one genomic species. Based on these comprehensive data we propose a revision of the taxonomy of the R. solanacearum species complex. The BDB and R. syzygii genomes encoded no obvious unique metabolic capacities and contained no evidence of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria occupying similar niches. Genes specific to R. syzygii and BDB were almost all of unknown function or extrachromosomal origin. Thus, the pathogenic life-styles of these organisms are more probably due to ecological adaptation and genomic convergence during vertical

  3. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... Key words: Characterization, streptomyces, antimicrobial activity, hot ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... chain reaction (PCR) which is currently used as a sen-.

  4. Streptomyces development in colonies and soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces development was analyzed under conditions resembling those in soil. The mycelial growth rate was much lower than that in standard laboratory cultures, and the life span of the previously named first compartmentalized mycelium was remarkably increased.......Streptomyces development was analyzed under conditions resembling those in soil. The mycelial growth rate was much lower than that in standard laboratory cultures, and the life span of the previously named first compartmentalized mycelium was remarkably increased....

  5. Pathogenicity of fumonisin-producing and nonproducing strains of Aspergillus species in section Nigri to maize ears and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are commonly associated with maize kernels, and some strains can produce fumonisin mycotoxins. However, there is little information about the extent to which these fungi contribute to fumonisin contamination in grain, the damage they cause to maize ears, or their...

  6. Experimental infection of nontarget species of rodents and birds with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszewski, M.C.; Olsen, S.C.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2001-01-01

    The Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 (SRB51) is being considered for use in the management of bnucellosis in wild bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in the Greater Yellowstone Area (USA). Evaluation of the vaccines safety in non-target species was considered necessary prior to field use. Between June 1998 and December 1999, ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii, n = 21), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, n = 14), prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster, n = 21), and ravens (Corvus corax, n = 13) were orally inoculated with SRB51 or physiologic saline. Oral and rectal swabs and blood samples were collected for bacteriologic evaluation. Rodents were necropsied at 8 to 10 wk and 12 to 21 wk post inoculation (PI), and ravens at 7 and 11 wk PI. Spleen, liver and reproductive tissues were collected for bacteriologic and histopathologic evaluation. No differences in clinical signs, appetite, weight loss or gain, or activity were observed between saline- and SRB51-inoculated animals in all four species. Oral and rectal swabs from all species were negative throughout the study. In tissues obtained from SRB51-inoculated animals, the organism was isolated from six of seven (86%) ground squirrels, one of six (17%) deer mice, none of seven voles, and one of five (20%) ravens necropsied at 8, 8, 10, and 7 wk PI, respectively. Tissues from four of seven (57%) SRB51-inoculated ground squirrels were culture positive for the organism 12 wk PI; SRB51 was not recovered from deer mice, voles. or ravens necropsied 12, 21, or 11 wk, respectively, PI. SRB51 was not recovered from saline-inoculated ground squirrels, deer mice, or voles at any time but was recovered from one saline-inoculated raven at necropsy, 7 wk PI, likely attributable to contact with SRB51-inoculated ravens in an adjacent aviary room. Spleen was time primary tissue site of colonization in ground squirrels, followed by the liver and reproductive organs. The results indicate oral exposure to

  7. Induction of hairy roots by various strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in different types of Capsicum species explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Setamam, Nursuria; Jaafar Sidik, Norrizah; Abdul Rahman, Zainon; Che Mohd Zain, Che Radziah

    2014-06-30

    Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens, also known as "chilies", belong to the Solanaceae family and have tremendous beneficial properties. The application of hairy root culture may become an alternative method for future development of these species by adding value, such as by increasing secondary metabolites and improving genetic and biochemical stability compared with normal Capsicum plants. Therefore, in this research, different types of explants of both species were infected with various Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains to provide more information about the morphology and induction efficiency of hairy roots. After 2 weeks of in vitro seed germination, young seedling explants were cut into three segments; the cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radical. Then, the explants were co-cultured with four isolated A. rhizogenes strains in Murashige & Skoog culture media (MS) containing decreasing carbenicillin disodium concentrations for one month. In this experiment, thick and short hairy roots were induced at all induction sites of C. annuum while thin, elongated hairy roots appeared mostly at wound sites of C. frutescens. Overall, the hairy root induction percentages of C. frutescens were higher compared with C. annuum. Hairy root initiation was observed earliest using radicles (1st week), followed by cotyledons (2nd week), and hypocotyls (3rd week). Cotyledon explants of both species had the highest induction frequency with all strains compared with the other explants types. Strains ATCC 13333 and ATCC 15834 were the most favourable for C. frutescens while ATCC 43056 and ATCC 43057 were the most favourable for C. annuum. The interactions between the different explants and strains showed significant differences with p-values Capsicum species. Both Capsicum species were amenable to A. rhizogenes infection and hairy root induction is recommended for use as an alternative explants in future plant-based studies.

  8. Extracellular proteases from Streptomyces phaeopurpureus ExPro138 inhibit spore adhesion, germination and appressorium formation in Colletotrichum coccodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Yang, S H; Suh, J-W

    2013-07-01

    To study the antifungal mechanism of proteases from Streptomyces phaeopurpureus strain ExPro138 towards Colletotrichum coccodes and to evaluate its utilization as biofungicide. We screened proteolytic Streptomyces strains from the yam rhizosphere with antifungal activity. Forty proteolytic Streptomyces were isolated, among which eleven isolates showed gelatinolytic activity and antagonistic activity on C. coccodes. Of the 11 isolates, protease preparation from an isolate designated ExPro138 showed antifungal activity. 16S rDNA sequence analysis of the strain showed 99% similarity with Streptomyces phaeopurepureus (EU841588.1). Zymography analysis of the ExPro138 culture filtrate revealed that the strain produced several extracellular proteases. The protease preparation inhibited spore germination, spore adhesion to polystyrene surface and appressorium formation. Microscopic study of the interaction between ExPro138 and C. coccodes revealed that ExPro138 was mycoparasitic on C. coccodes. The protease preparation also reduced anthracnose incidence on tomato fruits compared with untreated control. This study demonstrates possibility of utilizing antifungal proteases derived from antagonistic microbes as biofungicide. Microbial proteases having the ability to inhibit spore adhesion and appressorium formation could be used to suppress infection establishment by foliar fungal pathogens at the initial stages of the infection process. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Changes of in vivo fluxes through central metabolic pathways during the production of nystatin by Streptomyces noursei in batch culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsbu, E.; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The central carbon metabolism of the nystatin-producing strain Streptomyces noursei ATCC 11455 was evaluated by C-13-labelling experiments. A batch fermentation was examined during the idiophase by GC-MS measurements of the labelling patterns of amino acids in the biomass. The labelling patterns...

  10. Cadmium biosorption by Streptomyces sp. F4 isolated from former uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siñeriz, Manuel Louis; Kothe, Erika; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2009-09-01

    46 actinomycetes were isolated from two polluted sites and one unpolluted site. One strain, F4, was selected through primary qualitative screening assays because of its cadmium resistance, and physiologically and taxonomically characterized. F4 was able to grow at 7.5% NaCl and 100 microg/ml lysozyme and at a pH between 6 and 10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that F4 was closely related to Streptomyces tendae. Growth of Streptomyces sp. F4 on culture medium with 8 mg/l Cd(2+) for 8 days showed 80% inhibition. Maximum specific biosorption was 41.7 mg Cd(2+)/g dry weight after 7 days of growth and highest Cd(2+ )concentration was found in the cell wall (41.2%). The exopolysaccharide layer only contained 7.4%, whereas 39.4% of Cd(2+) was found in the cytosolic fraction. Twelve % was found in the ribosomes and membrane fraction. This was verified with TEM, showing Streptomyces sp. F4 cytoplasm with dark granulate appearance. This study could present the potential capacity of Streptomyces sp. F4 for Cd(2+) bioremediation. Copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effects of Strain and Species on the Septo-Temporal Distribution of Adult Neurogenesis in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Wiget

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional septo-temporal (dorso-ventral differentiation of the hippocampus is accompanied by gradients of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN in laboratory rodents. An extensive septal AHN in laboratory mice suggests an emphasis on a relation of AHN to tasks that also depend on the septal hippocampus. Domestication experiments indicate that AHN dynamics along the longitudinal axis are subject to selective pressure, questioning if the septal emphasis of AHN in laboratory mice is a rule applying to rodents in general. In this study, we used C57BL/6 and DBA2/Crl mice, wild-derived F1 house mice and wild-captured wood mice and bank voles to look for evidence of strain and species specific septo-temporal differences in AHN. We confirmed the septal > temporal gradient in C57BL/6 mice, but in the wild species, AHN was low septally and high temporally. Emphasis on the temporal hippocampus was particularly strong for doublecortin positive (DCX+ young neurons and more pronounced in bank voles than in wood mice. The temporal shift was stronger in female wood mice than in males, while we did not see sex differences in bank voles. AHN was overall low in DBA and F1 house mice, but they exhibited the same inversed gradient as wood mice and bank voles. DCX+ young neurons were usually confined to the subgranular zone and deep granule cell layer. This pattern was seen in all animals in the septal and intermediate dentate gyrus. In bank voles and wood mice however, the majority of temporal DCX+ cells were radially dispersed throughout the granule cell layer. Some but not all of the septo-temporal differences were accompanied by changes in the DCX+/Ki67+ cell ratios, suggesting that new neuron numbers can be regulated by both proliferation or the time course of maturation and survival of young neurons. Some of the septo-temporal differences we observe have also been found in laboratory rodents after the experimental manipulation of the molecular mechanisms

  12. Molecular Identification of Streptomyces producing antibiotics and their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa A. Al_husnan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five strains of Streptomyces, namely S, N, W, E and C (designations should be mentioned in detail here isolated from the rhizosphere soil cultivated with palm Alajua (date, pressed dates, AlMedina city, Saudi Arabia, were induced to produce antibiotics. Antimicrobial activities were determined on solid medium supplemented with starch. The detection was based on the formation of transparent zones around colonies. The results indicated that isolates had antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and also showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. DNA extracted from five isolates was used as template for 16s rDNA gene amplification. The expected PCR size was 1.5 kbp;1.6 kbp; 1.25 kbp; 1.25kbp and 1.0 k bp for S, N, W, E and C isolates respectively using universal 16s rDNA gene primers using direct PCR. The isolates varied morphologically on the basis of spore color, aerial and substrate mycelium formation, and production of diffusible pigment. Isolates were tested under a microscope by using slide culture technique. The results indicate that the soil of this region is source of Streptomyces having antibacterial and antifungal activity and thus better utilization of these microorganisms as biological control agents.

  13. Improvement of clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus F613-1 by using a claR-neo reporter strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghuo Qin

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that neo can be effectively used as a reporter for the expression of late-stage biosynthetic genes when screening for high-yield strains and that this approach has strong potential for improving Streptomyces strains of industrial value.

  14. Reveromycins A and B from Streptomyces sp. 3–10: Antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi in vitro and in a strawberry food model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the antifungal activity of the metabolites from Streptomyces sp. 3–10, and to purify and identify the metabolites. Meanwhile, the taxonomic status of strain 3–10 was re-evaluated. The cultural filtrates of strain 3–10 in potato dextrose broth were extract...

  15. Intra-species Genomic and Physiological Variability Impact Stress Resistance in Strains of Probiotic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jason W; Simpson, Joshua B; Roach, Jeffrey; Kwintkiewicz, Jakub; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010) of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance. The strains showed differences with known probiotic strains ( L. rhamnosus GG, Lc705, and HN001) at the genomic level, including nucleotide polymorphisms, mutations in non-coding regulatory regions, and rearrangements of genomic architecture. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that gene expression profiles differed between strains when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal stresses, suggesting the presence of unique regulatory systems in each strain. In vitro physiological assays to test resistance to conditions mimicking the gut environment (acid, alkali, and bile stress) showed that growth of L. rhamnosus AMC143 was inhibited upon exposure to alkaline pH, while AMC010 and control strain LGG were unaffected. AMC143 also showed a significant survival advantage compared to the other strains upon bile exposure. Reverse transcription qPCR targeting the bile salt hydrolase gene ( bsh ) revealed that AMC143 expressed bsh poorly (a consequence of a deletion in the bsh promoter and truncation of bsh gene in AMC143), while AMC010 had significantly higher expression levels than AMC143 or LGG. Insertional inactivation of the bsh gene in AMC010 suggested that bsh could be detrimental to bacterial survival during bile stress. Together, these findings show that coupling of classical microbiology with functional genomics methods for the

  16. Intra-species Genomic and Physiological Variability Impact Stress Resistance in Strains of Probiotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Arnold

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010 of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance. The strains showed differences with known probiotic strains (L. rhamnosus GG, Lc705, and HN001 at the genomic level, including nucleotide polymorphisms, mutations in non-coding regulatory regions, and rearrangements of genomic architecture. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that gene expression profiles differed between strains when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal stresses, suggesting the presence of unique regulatory systems in each strain. In vitro physiological assays to test resistance to conditions mimicking the gut environment (acid, alkali, and bile stress showed that growth of L. rhamnosus AMC143 was inhibited upon exposure to alkaline pH, while AMC010 and control strain LGG were unaffected. AMC143 also showed a significant survival advantage compared to the other strains upon bile exposure. Reverse transcription qPCR targeting the bile salt hydrolase gene (bsh revealed that AMC143 expressed bsh poorly (a consequence of a deletion in the bsh promoter and truncation of bsh gene in AMC143, while AMC010 had significantly higher expression levels than AMC143 or LGG. Insertional inactivation of the bsh gene in AMC010 suggested that bsh could be detrimental to bacterial survival during bile stress. Together, these findings show that coupling of classical microbiology with functional genomics methods for the

  17. Frenolicins C–G, Pyranonaphthoquinones from Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiachang; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Elshahawi, Sherif I.; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Sunkara, Manjula; Zhang, Yinan; Copley, Gregory C.; Hower, James C.; Morris, Andrew J.; Kharel, Madan K.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    Appalachian active coal fire sites were selected for the isolation of bacterial strains belonging to the class actinobacteria. A comparison of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption profiles from isolate extracts to natural product databases suggested Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15 to produce unique metabolites. Four new pyranonaphthoquinones, frenolicins C–F (1–4), along with three known analogues, frenolicin (6), ...

  18. Gene expression variation resolves species and individual strains among coral-associated dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium

    KAUST Repository

    Parkinson, John Everett

    2016-02-11

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages (“Clades A-I”) and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades—the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups—making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ~20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e. cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host-symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and inter-individual variation in non-model organisms.

  19. Gene expression variation resolves species and individual strains among coral-associated dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium

    KAUST Repository

    Parkinson, John Everett; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Michell, Craig; Baums, Iliana B.; LaJeunesse, Todd C.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages (“Clades A-I”) and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades—the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups—making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ~20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e. cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host-symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and inter-individual variation in non-model organisms.

  20. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  1. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-12-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  2. Plant growth and resistance promoted by Streptomyces spp. in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maila P; Bastos, Matheus S; Xavier, Vanessa B; Cassel, Eduardo; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R

    2017-09-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) represent an alternative to improve plant growth and yield as well as to act as agents of biocontrol. This study characterized isolates of Streptomyces spp. (Stm) as PGPR, determined the antagonism of these isolates against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis (Pcb), evaluated the ability of Stm on promoting growth and modulating the defense-related metabolism of tomato plants, and the potential of Stm isolates on reducing soft rot disease in this species. The VOC profile of Stm was also verified. Promotion of plant growth was assessed indirectly through VOC emission and by direct interaction with Stm isolates in the roots. Evaluation of soft rot disease was performed in vitro on plants treated with Stm and challenged with Pcb. Enzymes related to plant defense were then analyzed in plants treated with three selected isolates of Stm, and PM1 was chosen for further Pcb-challenging experiment. Streptomyces spp. isolates displayed characteristics of PGPR. PM3 was the isolate with efficient antagonism against Pcb by dual-culture. Most of the isolates promoted growth of root and shoot of tomato plants by VOC, and PM5 was the isolate that most promoted growth by direct interaction with Stm. Soft rot disease and mortality of plants were significantly reduced when plants were treated with StmPM1. Modulation of secondary metabolism was observed with Stm treatment, and fast response of polyphenoloxidases was detected in plants pretreated with StmPM1 and challenged with Pcb. Peroxidase was significantly activated three days after infection with Pcb in plants pretreated with StmPM1. Results suggest that Streptomyces sp. PM1 and PM5 have the potential to act as PGPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Activity of some aminoglycoside antibiotics against true fungi, Phytophthora and Pythium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H B; Kim, Y; Kim, J C; Choi, G J; Park, S-H; Kim, C-J; Jung, H S

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro antifungal and antioomycete activities of some aminoglycosides against true fungi and Phytophthora and Pythium species and to evaluate the potential of the antibiotics against Phytophthora late blight on plants. Antifungal and antioomycete activities of aminoglycoside antibiotics (neomycin, paromomycin, ribostamycin and streptomycin) and a paromomycin-producing strain (Streptomyces sp. AMG-P1) against Phytophthora and Pythium species and 10 common fungi were measured in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and on seedlings in pots. Paromomycin was the most active against Phytophthora and Pythium species with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 1-10 microg ml(-1) in PDB, but displayed low to moderate activities towards other common fungi at the same concentration. Paromomycin also showed potent in vivo activity against red pepper and tomato late blight diseases with 80 and 99% control value, respectively, at 100 microg ml(-1). In addition, culture broth of Streptomyces sp. AMG-P1 as a paromomycin producer exhibited high in vivo activity against late blight at 500 microg freeze-dried weight per millilitre. Among tested aminoglycoside antibiotics, paromomycin was the most active against oomycetes both in vitro and in vivo. Data from this study show that aminoglycoside antibiotics have in vitro and in vivo activities against oomycetes, suggesting that Streptomyces sp. AMG-P1 may be used as a biocontrol agent against oomycete diseases.

  4. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Five Active Diketopiperazine Derivatives from Endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaibani, Muhanna; Zin, Noraziah; Jalil, Juriyati; Sidik, Nik; Ahmad, Siti Junaidah; Kamal, Nurkhalida; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie

    2017-07-28

    In our search for new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites from Streptomyces sp., the ethyl acetate extracts from endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 afforded five active diketopiperazine (DKP) compounds. The aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds isolated from endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 and evaluate their bioactivity against multiple drug resistance (MDR) bacteria such as Enterococcus raffinosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp., and their cytotoxic activities against the human hepatoma (HepaRG) cell line. The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thornton's medium. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and cryopreserved HepaRG cells were selected to test the cytotoxicity. The results showed that endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 produces four active DKP compounds and an acetamide derivative, which were elucidated as cyclo -( L -Val- L -Pro), cyclo -( L -Leu- L -Pro), cyclo -( L -Phe- L -Pro), cyclo -( L -Val- L -Phe), and N -(7-hydroxy-6-methyl-octyl)-acetamide. These active compounds exhibited activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and Enterococcus raffinosus , with low toxicity against human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 has the ability to produce DKP derivatives biologically active against some MDR bacteria with relatively low toxicity against HepaRG cells line.

  5. Antagonistic effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Salmonella species in meat and fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine of influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 7 Salmonella spp. strains in model set-ups, and in meat and ripened fermented sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus spp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The ratio between lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella strains studied was, depending on the alternate, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1, respectively. The investigations also covered the water activity (a(w)) and pH of the tested products. The results obtained are shown in 12 figures and suggest that all the lactic acid bacteria strains used within the framework of the model set-ups showed antagonistic effect on all the Salmonella spp. strains. However, these abilities were not observed with respect to some lactic acid bacteria strains in meat and fermented sausage. The temperature and length of the incubation period of sausages, but not a(w) and pH, were found to have a distinct influence on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria.

  6. Differentiation of Microbial Species and Strains in Coculture Biofilms by Multivariate Analysis of Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Illinois at Chicago; Montana State University; Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Cui, Yang; Hofstetter, Theresa; Liu, Suet Yi; Bernstein, Hans C.; Carlson, Ross P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Hanley, Luke

    2013-04-01

    7.87 to 10.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon energies were used in laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to analyze biofilms comprised of binary cultures of interacting microorganisms. The effect of photon energy was examined using both tunable synchrotron and laser sources of VUV radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the MS data to differentiate species in Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae coculture biofilms. PCA of LDPI-MS also differentiated individual E. coli strains in a biofilm comprised of two interacting gene deletion strains, even though these strains differed from the wild type K-12 strain by no more than four gene deletions each out of approximately 2000 genes. PCA treatment of 7.87 eV LDPI-MS data separated the E. coli strains into three distinct groups two ?pure? groups and a mixed region. Furthermore, the ?pure? regions of the E. coli cocultures showed greater variance by PCA when analyzed by 7.87 eV photon energies than by 10.5 eV radiation. Comparison of the 7.87 and 10.5 eV data is consistent with the expectation that the lower photon energy selects a subset of low ionization energy analytes while 10.5 eV is more inclusive, detecting a wider range of analytes. These two VUV photon energies therefore give different spreads via PCA and their respective use in LDPI-MS constitute an additional experimental parameter to differentiate strains and species.

  7. The Use of Gamma Irradiation in the Sterilization of Streptomyces Colonizing the Tempra Paintings in Ancient Egyptian Tombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Ali SAKR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight out of forty six Streptomyces strains from mural paintings at the Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were exposed to increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 25kGy of gamma irradiation. These strains varied in their resistance profile. S. canarius was the most resistant to gamma irradiation doses, as it was totally eliminated at 25kGy, whereas S. chibaensis and S. albidofuscus resisted to 20kGy and S. ambofaciens resisted 15kGy. The other strains under investigation showed a lower resistance to gamma irradiation. Tricyclazole (5, 7, 10 µg/mL inhibited melanin production after gamma irradiation at doses lower than lethal dose. Gamma irradiation with the previous doses enhanced the chitinease activity of irradiated Streptomyces strains, but S. canarius was the exception. No color change was observed either for pigments or for binding media, after gamma irradiation at the same doses.

  8. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Candice M; Hovis, Kelley M; Bavoil, Patrik M; Myers, Garry SA; Carrasco, Jose A; Timms, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity) C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183), providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species. Results We performed individual gene-by-gene comparisons of the recently sequ...

  9. Streptomyces bacteria as potential probiotics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  10. Streptomyces exploration is triggered by fungal interactions and volatile signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie E; Ho, Louis; Rees, Christiaan A; Hill, Jane E; Nodwell, Justin R; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-01-03

    It has long been thought that the life cycle of Streptomyces bacteria encompasses three developmental stages: vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae and spores. Here, we show interactions between Streptomyces and fungi trigger a previously unobserved mode of Streptomyces development. We term these Streptomyces cells 'explorers', for their ability to adopt a non-branching vegetative hyphal conformation and rapidly transverse solid surfaces. Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). These results reveal that interkingdom interactions can trigger novel developmental behaviours in bacteria, here, causing Streptomyces to deviate from its classically-defined life cycle. Furthermore, this work provides evidence that VOCs can act as long-range communication signals capable of propagating microbial morphological switches.

  11. Cross-species genetic exchange between visceral and cutaneous strains of Leishmania in the sand fly vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Audrey; Inbar, Ehud; Debrabant, Alain; Charmoy, Melanie; Lawyer, Phillip; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flavia; Barhoumi, Mourad; Grigg, Michael; Shaik, Jahangheer; Dobson, Deborah; Beverley, Stephen M; Sacks, David L

    2014-11-25

    Genetic exchange between Leishmania major strains during their development in the sand fly vector has been experimentally shown. To investigate the possibility of genetic exchange between different Leishmania species, a cutaneous strain of L. major and a visceral strain of Leishmania infantum, each bearing a different drug-resistant marker, were used to coinfect Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Eleven double-drug-resistant progeny clones, each the product of an independent mating event, were generated and submitted to genotype and phenotype analyses. The analysis of multiple allelic markers across the genome suggested that each progeny clone inherited at least one full set of chromosomes from each parent, with loss of heterozygosity at some loci, and uniparental retention of maxicircle kinetoplast DNA. Hybrids with DNA contents of approximately 2n, 3n, and 4n were observed. In vivo studies revealed clear differences in the ability of the hybrids to produce pathology in the skin or to disseminate to and grow in the viscera, suggesting polymorphisms and differential inheritance of the gene(s) controlling these traits. The studies, to our knowledge, represent the first experimental confirmation of cross-species mating in Leishmania, opening the way toward genetic linkage analysis of important traits and providing strong evidence that genetic exchange is responsible for the generation of the mixed-species genotypes observed in natural populations.

  12. Defense responses in plants of Eucalyptus elicited by Streptomyces and challenged with Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Tamiris D; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R

    2016-04-01

    Elicitation of E. grandis plants with Streptomyces PM9 reduced the gray-mold disease, through increasing the levels of enzymes directly related to the induction of plant defense responses, and accumulation of specific phenolic compounds. Members of Eucalyptus are economically important woody species, especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of this genus are susceptible to pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). Biological control of plant diseases using rhizobacteria is one alternative to reduce the use of pesticides and pathogen attack. This study evaluated the metabolic and phenotypic responses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus plants treated with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenged with the pathogenic fungus B. cinerea. Metabolic responses were evaluated by assessing the activities of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The incidence and progression of the fungal disease in PM9-treated plants and challenged with B. cinerea were evaluated. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenge with B. cinerea led to changes in the activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds in the plants at different time points. Alterations in enzymes of PM9-treated plants were related to early defense responses in E. grandis. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were on average more abundant, although caffeic acid, benzoic acid and catechin were induced at specific time points during the culture period. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 significantly delayed the establishment of gray mold in E. grandis plants. These results demonstrate the action of Streptomyces sp. PM9 in inducing plant responses against B. cinerea, making this organism a potential candidate for biological control in Eucalyptus.

  13. A novel multiplex PCR discriminates Bacillus anthracis and its genetically related strains from other Bacillus cereus group species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Ogawa

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an important zoonotic disease worldwide that is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming pathogenic bacterium. A rapid and sensitive method to detect B. anthracis is important for anthrax risk management and control in animal cases to address public health issues. However, it has recently become difficult to identify B. anthracis by using previously reported molecular-based methods because of the emergence of B. cereus, which causes severe extra-intestinal infection, as well as the human pathogenic B. thuringiensis, both of which are genetically related to B. anthracis. The close genetic relation of chromosomal backgrounds has led to complexity of molecular-based diagnosis. In this study, we established a B. anthracis multiplex PCR that can screen for the presence of B. anthracis virulent plasmids and differentiate B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group species. Six sets of primers targeting a chromosome of B. anthracis and B. anthracis-like strains, two virulent plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, a bacterial gene, 16S rRNA gene, and a mammalian gene, actin-beta gene, were designed. The multiplex PCR detected approximately 3.0 CFU of B. anthracis DNA per PCR reaction and was sensitive to B. anthracis. The internal control primers also detected all bacterial and mammalian DNAs examined, indicating the practical applicability of this assay as it enables monitoring of appropriate amplification. The assay was also applied for detection of clinical strains genetically related to B. anthracis, which were B. cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infections in Japan, and field strains isolated in Zambia, and the assay differentiated B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group strains. Taken together, the results indicate that the newly developed multiplex PCR is a sensitive and practical method for detecting B. anthracis.

  14. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bradon R.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Fox, Brian G.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology. PMID:27276034

  15. Expression by Streptomyces lividans of the Rat α Integrin CD11b A-Domain as a Secreted and Soluble Recombinant Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Zouari Ayadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We already reported the use of a long synthetic signal peptide (LSSP to secrete the Streptomyces sp. TO1 amylase by Streptomyces lividans strain. We herein report the expression and secretion of the rat CD11b A-domain using the same LSSP and S. lividans as host strain. We have used the Escherichia coli/Streptomyces shuttle vector pIJ699 for the cloning of the A-domain DNA sequence downstream of LSSP and under the control of the constitutive ermE-up promoter of Streptomyces erythraeus. Using this construct and S. lividans as a host strain, we achieved the expression of 8 mg/L of soluble secreted recombinant form of the A-domain of the rat leukocyte β2 integrin CD11/CD18 alpha M subunit (CD11b. This secreted recombinant CD11b A-domain reacted with a function blocking antibody showing that this protein is properly folded and probably functional. These data support the capability of Streptomyces to produce heterologous recombinant proteins as soluble secreted form using the “LSSP” synthetic signal peptide.

  16. Characterization of Foodborne Strains of Staphylococcus aureus by Shotgun Proteomics: Functional Networks, Virulence Factors and Species-Specific Peptide Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Böhme, Karola; Gallardo, José M.; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Cañas, Benito; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we applied a shotgun proteomics approach for the fast and easy characterization of 20 different foodborne strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), one of the most recognized foodborne pathogenic bacteria. A total of 644 non-redundant proteins were identified and analyzed via an easy and rapid protein sample preparation procedure. The results allowed the differentiation of several proteome datasets from the different strains (common, accessory, and unique datasets), which were used to determine relevant functional pathways and differentiate the strains into different Euclidean hierarchical clusters. Moreover, a predicted protein-protein interaction network of the foodborne S. aureus strains was created. The whole confidence network contains 77 nodes and 769 interactions. Most of the identified proteins were surface-associated proteins that were related to pathways and networks of energy, lipid metabolism and virulence. Twenty-seven virulence factors were identified, and most of them corresponded to autolysins, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases, phenol-soluble modulins, extracellular fibrinogen-binding proteins and virulence factor EsxA. Potential species-specific peptide biomarkers were screened. Twenty-one species-specific peptide biomarkers, belonging to eight different proteins (nickel-ABC transporter, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, autolysin, clumping factor A, gram-positive signal peptide YSIRK, cysteine protease/staphopain, transcriptional regulator MarR, and transcriptional regulator Sar-A), were proposed to identify S. aureus. These results constitute the first major dataset of peptides and proteins of foodborne S. aureus strains. This repository may be useful for further studies, for the development of new therapeutic treatments for S. aureus food intoxications and for microbial source-tracking in foodstuffs. PMID:29312172

  17. Comparative genomic hybridizations reveal absence of large Streptomyces coelicolor genomic islands in Streptomyces lividans

    OpenAIRE

    Jayapal, Karthik P; Lian, Wei; Glod, Frank; Sherman, David H; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The genomes of Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans bear a considerable degree of synteny. While S. coelicolor is the model streptomycete for studying antibiotic synthesis and differentiation, S. lividans is almost exclusively considered as the preferred host, among actinomycetes, for cloning and expression of exogenous DNA. We used whole genome microarrays as a comparative genomics tool for identifying the subtle differences between these two chromosomes. Res...

  18. Clostridium species strain BOH3 tolerates and transforms inhibitors from horticulture waste hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; He, Jianzhong

    2017-08-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to biofuels is impeded by the toxic effects of inhibitors that are generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis processes. Here we describe a wild-type Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 with high tolerance to the lignocellulose-derived inhibitors and its capability to transform these inhibitors. Strain BOH3 is capable of tolerating over 60 mM furfural, 60 mM hydroxymethylfurfural, and 6.6 mM vanillin, respectively, and is able to convert 53.74 ± 0.37 mM furfural into furfuryl alcohol within 90 h. The high furfural tolerance and its biotransformation by strain BOH3, which is correlated to the high transcription levels of two short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases, enable strain BOH3 to produce 5.15 ± 0.52 g/L butanol from dilute sulfuric acid pretreated horticultural waste hydrolysate (HWH) that bypassed the detoxification step. The capability of strain BOH3 to produce butanol from un-detoxified HWH lays the foundation of cost-effective biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity and Morphological Changes of Streptomyces Ascendable and Streptomyces Eighty-three's as Affected by Environmental Conditions and Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, L.A.A.; Abou El-Nour, S.A.M.; Mansour, F.A.; Serag, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen actinomycetes out of thirty isolates were recovered from different Egyptian soils and exhibited antimicrobial activities. Streptomyces ascendable and Streptomyces eighty-three's used in the present work showed the most active antimicrobial potentialities against bacteria, moulds and yeasts. The optimum temperature and acidity for their growth and production of microbial activity were 50 degree and ph 7.0, while the maximum biomass yield and the highest antimicrobial activity were attained 10 days of incubation. Among carbon sources starch at 30 gm/L highly supported the growth and antimicrobial activity by the two species, while sodium nitrate (3 gm/L) and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (0.75 gm/L) were the most favorable for both isolates. The presence of microelements such as manganese chloride, zinc sulphate, ferrous sulphate and copper sulphate in the growth medium at a concentration of 1 mg/L for each had a good stimulatory effect on the growth and antimicrobial activity for both Streptomyces species. As different irradiation doses were used (up to 5.0 kGy), the high levels clearly affected the morphological characteristics of both tested isolates either in the first or second generation

  20. Localized hydroxylamine mutagenesis, and cotransduction of threonine and lysine genes, in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttard, C

    1983-01-01

    A lysate of the generalized transducing phage SV1, grown on the prototrophic type strain 10712 of Streptomyces venezuelae, was mutagenized with hydroxylamine and used to transduce a lysineless auxotroph to lysine independence on supplemented minimal agar. A complex threonine mutant, strain VS95, was isolated from among the transductants and was shown to be carrying at least two different thr mutations. These were about 50% cotransducible with alleles of four independently isolated lysA mutations, as were two other independently isolated threonine mutations, thr-1 and hom-5. The location of thr genes close to lysA occurs in at least three other streptomycetes, but apparently not in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), in which the lysA and thr loci are at diametrically opposite locations on the linkage map. This first observation of cotransduction between loci governing the biosynthesis of different amino acids in the genus Streptomyces demonstrates the feasibility of fine-structure genetic analysis by transduction in these antibiotic-producing bacteria. PMID:6411685

  1. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9111; Escherichia coli, NCTC 10416; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 10145; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763; Candida albicans, IMRU 3669; Aspergillus flavus, IMI 111023; Aspergillus niger IMI 31276; Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 16424; Fusarium oxysporum; Rhizoctonia solani; Alternaria alternata; Botrytis fabae and Penicillium chrysogenium. The production media were optimized for maximum yield of secondary metabolites. The metabolites were extracted using n-butanol (1:1, v/v at pH 7.0. The chemical structural analysis with UV, IR, and MS spectral analyses confirmed that the compound produced by Streptomyces torulosus, T-4 is tunicamycin antibiotic.

  2. The Glutaminase-Dependent System Confers Extreme Acid Resistance to New Species and Atypical Strains of Brucella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Freddi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neutralophilic bacteria have developed specific mechanisms to cope with the acid stress encountered in environments such as soil, fermented foods, and host compartments. In Escherichia coli, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad-dependent system is extremely efficient: it requires the concerted action of glutamate decarboxylase (GadA/GadB and of the glutamate (Glu/γ-aminobutyrate antiporter, GadC. Notably, this system is operative also in new strains/species of Brucella, among which Brucella microti, but not in the “classical” species, with the exception of marine mammals strains. Recently, the glutaminase-dependent system (named AR2_Q, relying on the deamination of glutamine (Gln into Glu and on GadC activity, was described in E. coli. In Brucella genomes, a putative glutaminase (glsA-coding gene is located downstream of the gadBC genes. We found that in B. microti these genes are expressed as a polycistronic transcript. Moreover, using a panel of Brucella genus-representative strains, we show that the AR2_Q system protects from extreme acid stress (pH ≤2.5, in the sole presence of Gln, only the Brucella species/strains predicted to have functional glsA and gadC. Indeed, mutagenesis approaches confirmed the involvement of glsA and gadC of B. microti in AR2_Q and that the acid-sensitive phenotype of B. abortus can be ascribed to a Ser248Leu substitution in GlsA, leading to loss of glutaminase activity. Furthermore, we found that the gene BMI_II339, of unknown function and downstream of the gadBC–glsA operon, positively affects Gad- and GlsA-dependent AR. Thus, we identified novel determinants that allow newly discovered and marine mammals Brucella strains to be better adapted to face hostile acidic environments. As for significance, this work may contribute to the understanding of the host preferences of Brucella species and opens the way to alternative diagnostic targets in epidemiological surveillance of brucellosis.

  3. Mitochondrial genomes of Australian chicken Eimeria support the presence of ten species with low genetic diversity among strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jess A T; Godwin, Rosamond M

    2017-08-30

    Modern molecular approaches have vastly improved diagnostic capabilities for differentiating among species of chicken infecting Eimeria. Consolidating information from multiple genetic markers, adding additional poultry Eimeria species and increasing the size of available data-sets is improving the resolving power of the DNA, and consequently our understanding of the genus. This study adds information from 25 complete mitochondrial DNA genomes from Australian chicken Eimeria isolates representing all 10 species known to occur in Australia, including OTU-X, -Y and -Z. The resulting phylogeny provides a comprehensive view of species relatedness highlighting where the OTUs align with respect to others members of the genus. All three OTUs fall within the Eimeria clade that contains only chicken-infecting species with close affinities to E. maxima, E. brunetti and E. mitis. Mitochondrial genetic diversity was low among Australian isolates likely reflecting their recent introduction to the country post-European settlement. The lack of observed genetic diversity is a promising outcome as it suggests that the currently used live vaccines should continue to offer widespread protection against Eimeria outbreaks in all states and territories. Flocks were frequently found to host multiple strains of the same species, a factor that should be considered when studying disease epidemiology in the field. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New hybrids between Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species found among wine and cider production strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masneuf, I; Hansen, J.; Groth, C

    1998-01-01

    Two yeast isolates, a wine-making yeast first identified as a Mel(+) strain (ex. S. uvarum) and a cider-making yeast, were characterized for their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, Electrophoretic karyotyping analyses, restriction fragment length polymorphism maps of PCR-amplified MET2 gene...

  5. Central Carbon Metabolic Pathways in Streptomyces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Siebring, Jeroen; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dyson, Paul

    Streptomyces and other actinomycetes are fascinating soil bacteria of major economic importance. They produce 70% of antibiotics known to man and numerous other pharmaceuticals for treatment of, e.g. cancer, a range of infections, high cholesterol, or have immunosuppressive activity. It is not

  6. Streptopyrrole: An antimicrobial metabolite from Streptomyces armeniacus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, J.; Gürtler, Hanne; Kjær, Anders

    1998-01-01

    A colourless, crystalline metabolite, C14H12ClNO4, named streptopyrrole, has been isolated from submerged fermentation cultures of Streptomyces armeniacus by extraction, followed by chromatographic purification. Its tricyclic molecular framework, seemingly without natural product precedents. as w...

  7. The small laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Ostergaard, P. R.; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1a (2009), b4-b5 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /7./. 12.03.2009-14.03.2009, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : laccase * Streptomyces coelicolor * enzymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. Streptomyces Somalinesiscausing Mycetomas in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Taralakshmi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy specimens from 102 patients with mycetoma were examined histologically; Streptomyces somaliensis was found in 5 cases. The clinical features, radiology and histology of actinomycotic mycetoma due to S. somaliensis ar ′ e described. The geographic distribution of the organism, its incidence and prevalence in India and the importance of histological examination in the diagnosis of the infection are discussed.

  9. Phosphoproteome analysis of streptomyces development reveals extensive protein phosphorylation accompanying bacterial differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Ye, Juanying; Sánchez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Streptomycetes are bacterial species that undergo a complex developmental cycle that includes programmed cell death (PCD) events and sporulation. They are widely used in biotechnology because they produce most clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Although Streptomyces coelicolor is one...... events were detected during the presporulation and sporulation stages (80%). Most of these phosphorylations were not reported before in Streptomyces, and included sporulation factors, transcriptional regulators, protein kinases and other regulatory proteins. Several of the identified phosphorylated...... proteins, FtsZ, DivIVA, and FtsH2, were previously demonstrated to be involved in the sporulation process. We thus established for the first time the widespread occurrence and dynamic features of Ser/Thr/Tyr protein phosphorylation in a bacteria species and also revealed a previously unrecognized...

  10. Antifungal performance of extracellular chitinases and culture supernatants of Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Benjamín Moreno; Dunn, Michael F; Navarro, Karina Guillén; Meléndez, Francisco Holguín; Ortiz, Magdalena Hernández; Guevara, Sergio Encarnación; Palacios, Graciela Huerta

    2016-03-01

    The tropical and mycoparasite strain Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 was evaluated as an antagonist of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, causal agent of the Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) of banana. On zymograms of CFFSUR-B12 culture supernatants, we detected four chitinases of approximately 32 kDa (Chi32), 20 kDa (Chi20), and two with masses well over 170 kDa (ChiU) that showed little migration during denaturing electrophoresis at different concentrations of polyacrylamide. The thymol-sulphuric acid assay showed that the ChiU were glycosylated chitinases. Moreover, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS analysis revealed that the ChiU are the same protein and identical to a family 18 chitinase from Streptomyces sp. S4 (gi|498328075). Chi32 was similar to an extracellular protein from Streptomyces albus J1074 (gi|478687481) and Chi20 was non-significantly similar to chitinases from five different strains of Streptomyces (P > 0.05). Subsequently, Chi32 and Chi20 were partially purified by anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and tested against M. fijiensis. Chitinases failed to inhibit ascospore germination, but inhibited up to 35 and 62% of germ tube elongation and mycelial growth, respectively. We found that crude culture supernatant and living cells of S. galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 were the most effective in inhibiting M. fijiensis and are potential biocontrol agents of BSD.

  11. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

    2013-09-01

    An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco Jose A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183, providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species. Results We performed individual gene-by-gene comparisons of the recently sequenced C. pneumoniae koala genome and four C. pneumoniae human genomes to identify species-specific genes, and more importantly, to gain an insight into the genetic diversity and evolution of the species. We selected genes dispersed throughout the chromosome, representing genes that were specific to C. pneumoniae, genes with a demonstrated role in chlamydial biology and/or pathogenicity (n = 49, genes encoding nucleotide salvage or amino acid biosynthesis proteins (n = 6, and extrachromosomal elements (9 plasmid and 2 bacteriophage genes. Conclusions We have identified strain-specific differences and targets for detection of C. pneumoniae isolates from both human and animal origin. Such characterisation is necessary for an improved understanding of disease transmission and intervention.

  13. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Candice M; Hovis, Kelley M; Bavoil, Patrik M; Myers, Garry S A; Carrasco, Jose A; Timms, Peter

    2010-07-21

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity) C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183), providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species. We performed individual gene-by-gene comparisons of the recently sequenced C. pneumoniae koala genome and four C. pneumoniae human genomes to identify species-specific genes, and more importantly, to gain an insight into the genetic diversity and evolution of the species. We selected genes dispersed throughout the chromosome, representing genes that were specific to C. pneumoniae, genes with a demonstrated role in chlamydial biology and/or pathogenicity (n = 49), genes encoding nucleotide salvage or amino acid biosynthesis proteins (n = 6), and extrachromosomal elements (9 plasmid and 2 bacteriophage genes). We have identified strain-specific differences and targets for detection of C. pneumoniae isolates from both human and animal origin. Such characterisation is necessary for an improved understanding of disease transmission and intervention.

  14. Characterisation of inhibitory substances produced by two Pseudoalteromonas species and the cyanobacterial strain Flo1

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the inhibitory substances of P. aurantia NCIMB 2052T and P. citrea NCIMB 1889T were investigated with respect to their substantial and functional nature, their inhibitory potential, their stability against various treatments as well as the growth phases and incubation conditions when the substances are produced. In addition, an inhibitory substance produced by strain Flo1 was examined regarding its structure, function, and inhibitory potential. Furthermore, its taxonomic ...

  15. Killing curve activity of ciprofloxacin is comparable to synergistic effect of beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations against Haemophilus species endocarditis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gutschik, E

    1992-01-01

    Nine Haemophilus species strains, all beta-lactamase negative, isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested in killing curve experiments. Antibiotics used were penicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam alone and in combination with tobramycin, as well as ciprofloxacin alone. Synergism between beta...

  16. [Identification and analysis of an actinomycete strain suppressing Clavibacter michiganensis subsp, michiganensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Weihong; Wang, Songhong; Li, Yaning; Zhao, Zhiquan; Liu, Daqun; Yang, Wenxiang

    2009-07-01

    To identify and analyze bioactive compounds of an actinomycete strain Z-L-22 suppressing Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. Morphological, biological and biochemical characterization, chemotaxonomy analysis and 16S rDNA sequences homology analysis were performed to identify the strain Z-L-22. Bioactive compounds were separated and retrieved by thin layer chromatography. Paper chromatography and confirmation tests were used to identify the antibiotic. PCR was carried out using the primers targeted to synthetase of the antibiotic. Strain Z-L-22 belonged to Streptomyces sp. and was similar to Streptomyces setonii. Two main bioactive components were isolated by thin layer chromatography, which were all identified as actinomycin. New actinomycin synthetase gene was cloned using the primers designed from actinomycin synthetase conserve domain. Strain Z-L-22 was classified as Streptomyces setonii. Actinomycin produced by Streptomyces setonii was first reported.

  17. TOF-SIMS investigation of Streptomyces coelicolor, a mycelial bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Fletcher, John S.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a mycelial microorganism that produces several secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. The physiology of the organism has largely been investigated in liquid cultures due to ease of monitoring different physiological parameters and more homogeneous culture conditions. However, solid cultures reflect the natural physiology of the microorganism better, given that in its natural state it grows in the soil. Imaging mass spectrometry with TOF-SIMS and C 60 + primary ion beams offers a potential route to studying chemical changes at the molecular level, both intracellular and extracellular that can help in understanding the natural physiology of the microorganism. Here, we report the application of the technique for studying the lateral distribution of the chemical species detected in a population, grown in both liquid and solid cultures. The capability of the technique for studying biological systems with minimal system intervention is demonstrated.

  18. TOF-SIMS investigation of Streptomyces coelicolor, a mycelial bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Fletcher, John S.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.

    2008-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a mycelial microorganism that produces several secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. The physiology of the organism has largely been investigated in liquid cultures due to ease of monitoring different physiological parameters and more homogeneous culture conditions. However, solid cultures reflect the natural physiology of the microorganism better, given that in its natural state it grows in the soil. Imaging mass spectrometry with TOF-SIMS and C 60+ primary ion beams offers a potential route to studying chemical changes at the molecular level, both intracellular and extracellular that can help in understanding the natural physiology of the microorganism. Here, we report the application of the technique for studying the lateral distribution of the chemical species detected in a population, grown in both liquid and solid cultures. The capability of the technique for studying biological systems with minimal system intervention is demonstrated.

  19. Development of an antibiotic marker-free platform for heterologous protein production in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Laura; Díaz, Margarita; Santamaría, Ramón I

    2017-09-26

    The industrial use of enzymes produced by microorganisms is continuously growing due to the need for sustainable solutions. Nevertheless, many of the plasmids used for recombinant production of proteins in bacteria are based on the use of antibiotic resistance genes as selection markers. The safety concerns and legal requirements surrounding the increased use of antibiotic resistance genes have made the development of new antibiotic-free approaches essential. In this work, a system completely free of antibiotic resistance genes and useful for the production of high yields of proteins in Streptomyces is described. This system is based on the separation of the two components of the yefM/yoeBsl (antitoxin/toxin) operon; the toxin (yoeBsl) gene, responsible for host death, is integrated into the genome and the antitoxin gene (yefMsl), which inactivates the toxin, is located in the expression plasmid. To develop this system, the toxin gene was integrated into the genome of a strain lacking the complete operon, and the antibiotic resistance gene integrated along with the toxin was eliminated by Cre recombinase to generate a final host strain free of any antibiotic resistance marker. In the same way, the antibiotic resistance gene from the final expression plasmid was removed by Dre recombinase. The usefulness of this system was analysed by checking the production of two hydrolases from different Streptomyces. Production of both proteins, with potential industrial use, was high and stable over time after strain storage and after serial subcultures. These results support the robustness and stability of the positive selection system developed. The total absence of antibiotic resistance genes makes this system a powerful tool for using Streptomyces as a host to produce proteins at the industrial level. This work is the first Streptomyces antibiotic marker-free system to be described. Graphical abstract Antibiotic marker-free platform for protein expression in Streptomyces

  20. An unusual case of chronic nonhealing periorbital ulceration due to a new species of Corynebacterium sp. strain UCL557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasa Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondiphtherial Corynebacterium (diphtheroids has been related to blood and wound infections but are an uncommon cause for soft tissue infection. We report a case of periorbital soft tissue infection with ulceration caused by multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium spp. in a 9-year-old girl who is apparently immunocompetant. Computed tomography scan showed soft tissue involvement of right periorbital region with no bony destructions or focal calcifications. Vision remained unaffected. Patient was treated by debridement and skin grafting, but condition did not improve. Pus collected from the periorbital ulcerated area was cultured in blood agar and Corynebacterium spp. was isolated from the pure culture, which was identified as a new species Corynebacterium sp. strain UCL557 using 16S rDNA- based molecular technique based on nucleotide homology and phylogenetic analysis. Antibiogram showed multiresistance pattern with sensitivity to ceftriaxone-sulbactum vancomycin and linezolid. After initiation of treatment with vancomycin infusion and oral linezolid, the patient responded well and lesion started to heal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case report of periorbital ulceration by new species of Corynebacterium sp. strain UCL557.

  1. Safety study of the Bio-10-SAD Bern strain of the rabies virus on the rhesus macaque monkey species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vrzal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a WHO recommendation, residual pathogenicity of the Bio-10-SAD Bern rabies virus strain (component of the Lysvulpen por. ad us. vet. vaccine was tested on rhesus macaque monkeys. Each of the ten monkeys, females, two years old, was administered orally 2 ml × 109 TCID50 of the Bio-10-SAD Bern rabies strain. The animals were monitored for 90 days. Subsequently, the animals were sacrificed and their brains were examined for presence of the vaccination rabies virus by the immunofluorescence and PCR methods. The occurrence of anti-rabies antibodies prior to and following administration of the vaccination rabies virus was also evaluated. No clinical signs of rabies were observed nor did any of the animals die of rabies following application of the virus. No rabies was detected in the study animals by post mortem examination. All of the 10 animals developed anti-rabies antibodies during the 90 days following administration of the rabies virus. It can be concluded, that Bio-10-SAD Bern virus administered at a dose equal to the tenfold maximum dose specified for field uses is safe to monkeys of the rhesus macaque species. This study is the first of its type performed in rhesus macaque monkey species.

  2. Characteristics of cesium accumulation in the filamentous soil bacterium Streptomyces sp. K202

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Chikako; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Nishina, Masami; Sugiyama, Hideo; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    A filamentous soil bacterium, strain K202, was isolated from soil where an edible mushroom (Boletopsis leucomelas) was growing and identified as belonging to the genus Streptomyces on the basis of its morphological characteristics and the presence of LL-2, 6-diaminopimelic acid. We studied the existence states of Cs and its migration from extracellular to intracellular fluid in the mycelia of Streptomyces sp. K202. The results indicated that Cs accumulated in the cells through at least 2 steps: in the first step, Cs + was immediately and non-specifically adsorbed on the negatively charged cell surface, and in the second step, this adsorbed Cs + was taken up into the cytoplasm, and a part of the Cs entering the cytoplasm was taken up by an energy-dependent transport system(s). Further, we confirmed that a part of the Cs + was taken up into the mycelia competitively with K + , because K + uptake into the intact mycelia of the strain was significantly inhibited by the presence of Cs + in the culture media. This suggested that part of the Cs is transported by the potassium transport system. Moreover, 133 Cs-NMR spectra and SEM-EDX spectra of the mycelia that accumulated Cs showed the presence of at least 2 intracellular Cs states: Cs + trapped by intercellular materials such as polyphosphate and Cs + present in a cytoplasmic pool. - Research highlights: → Cs was taken up into the cells of Streptomyces sp. K202 via 2 steps. → The existence states of Cs accumulated in strain K202 were at least 2 types. → The localized Cs in the cells would be trapped by granules such as polyphosphate. → The localized Cs in the cells might involve in Cs detoxification of strain K202.

  3. Streptomyces sanglieri which colonised and enhanced the growth of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. seedlings was antagonistic to Ganoderma boninense in in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Azura, A B; Yusoff, M; Tan, G Y A; Jegadeesh, R; Appleton, D R; Vikineswary, S

    2016-04-01

    Actinomycete strain AUM 00500 was 99.5 % similar to Streptomyces sanglieri NBRC 100784(T) and was evaluated for antagonistic activity towards Ganoderma boninense, the causative fungus of basal stem rot of oil palm. The strain showed strong antifungal activity towards G. boninense in in vitro and SEM analysis showed various modes of inhibition of the fungus. Ethyl acetate extracts of single culture and inhibition zone of cross-plug culture by HPLC indicated that strain AUM 00500 produced two different antibiotics of the glutarimide group namely cycloheximide and actiphenol. In greenhouse trials, oil palm seed treated with spores of S. sanglieri strain AUM 00500 at 10(9) cfu/ml showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in oil palm seedlings growth when compared to the control. Streptomyces sanglieri strain AUM 00500 successfully colonised the epidermal surface of the roots of treated oil palm seedlings and it was recovered from root fragments plated on starch casein agar.

  4. Detection of Wolbachia pipientis, including a new strain containing the wsp gene, in two sister species of Paraphlebotomus sandflies, potential vectors of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Parvizi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual, naturally occurring Phlebotomus mongolensis and Phlebotomus caucasicus from Iran were screened for infections with the maternally inherited intracellular Rickettsia-like bacterium Wolbachia pipientis via targeting a major surface protein gene (wsp. The main objective of this study was to determine if W. pipientis could be detected in these species. The sandflies were screened using polymerase chain reaction to amplify a fragment of the Wolbachia surface protein gene. The obtained sequences were edited and aligned with database sequences to identify W. pipientis haplotypes. Two strains of Wolbachia were found. Strain Turk 54 (accession EU780683 is widespread and has previously been reported in Phlebotomus papatasi and other insects. Strain Turk 07 (accession KC576916 is a novel strain, found for first time in the two sister species. A-group strains of W. pipientis occur throughout much of the habitat of these sandflies. It is possible that Wolbachia is transferred via horizontal transmission. Horizontal transfer could shed light on sandfly control because Wolbachia is believed to drive a deleterious gene into sandflies that reduces their natural population density. With regard to our findings in this study, we can conclude that one species of sandfly can be infected with different Wolbachia strains and that different species of sandflies can be infected with a common strain.

  5. Studies on Optimization of Growth Parameters for L-Asparaginase Production by Streptomyces ginsengisoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A species of Streptomyces, Streptomyces ginsengisoli, a river isolate, was evaluated for production of an enzyme, L-asparaginase, with multiple functions mainly anticancer activity. The actinomycete was subjected to submerged fermentation by “shake flask” method. The quantity of L-asparaginase produced was estimated as 3.23 μmol/mL/min. The effect of various culture conditions on L-asparaginase production was studied by adopting a method of variation in one factor at a time. Of the various conditions tested, glucose (followed by starch and peptone served as good carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for maximal production of enzyme at pH 8. The temperature of 30°C and an incubation period of 5 days with 0.05 g% asparagine concentration were found to be optimum for L-asparaginase production.

  6. Streptomyces rimosus GDS(L Lipase: Production, Heterologous Overexpression and Structure-Stability Relationship

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    Marija Abramić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces rimosus lipase gene has been overexpressed in a heterologous host, S. lividans TK23. The maximal lipase activity was determined in the culture filtrates of the late stationary phase. Time course of lipase production was monitored by a modified plate assay. S. rimosus lipase gene has been located on the AseI B fragment approximately 2 Mb far from the left end of the S. rimosus linear chromosome. Out of eight examined streptomycetes, the presence of this rare type of bacterial lipase gene was detected in two belonging to the S. rimosus taxonomic cluster, and in one non-related species. Comparison of protein sequences of the Streptomyces lipolytic enzymes was performed. The result indicated the best structural stability of the putative S. coelicolor lipase-2.

  7. Streptomyces plicatus as a model biocontrol agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, E F

    2001-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy two isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces were isolated and screened for chitinase production. Streptomyces plicatus was found to be the best producer. The highest chitinase production were incubated for 3 d at 30 degrees C on buffered culture medium (pH 8.0) containing chitin plus sucrose and calcium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources. S. plicatus chitinase had a highly significant inhibitory effect on spore germination, germ tube elongation and radial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Altrernaria alternata and Verticillium albo-atrum, the causal organisms of Fusarium wilt, stem canker and Verticillium wilt diseases of tomato. Application of S. plicatus to the root system of tomato plants before transplantation markedly protected tomato plants against the tested phytopathogenic fungi in vivo.

  8. Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurm, Viola; van der Putten, Wim H; Pineda, Ana; Hol, W H Gera

    2018-02-12

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence of rare soil microbe reduction on induced systemic resistance (ISR) in a wild ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana against the aphid Myzus persicae was investigated. To create a gradient of microbial abundances, soil was inoculated with a serial dilution of a microbial community and responses of Arabidopsis plants that originated from the same site as the soil microbes were tested. Plant biomass, transcription of genes involved in plant defences, and insect performance were measured. In addition, the effects of the PGPR strain Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 on plant and insect performance were tested under the influence of the various soil dilution treatments. Plant biomass showed a hump-shaped relationship with soil microbial community dilution, independent of aphid or Pseudomonas treatments. Both aphid infestation and inoculation with Pseudomonas reduced plant biomass, and led to downregulation of PR1 (salicylic acid-responsive gene) and CYP79B3 (involved in synthesis of glucosinolates). Aphid performance and gene transcription were unaffected by soil dilution. Neither the loss of rare microbial species, as caused by soil dilution, nor Pseudomonas affect the resistance of A. thaliana against M. persicae. However, both Pseudomonas survival and plant biomass respond to rare species loss. Thus, loss of rare soil microbial species can have a significant impact on both above- and below-ground organisms. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Voice Prosthetic Biofilm Formation and Candida Morphogenic Conversions in Absence and Presence of Different Bacterial Strains and Species on Silicone-Rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henny C.; Buijssen, Kevin J. D. A.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Ovchinnikova, Ekatarina; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Busscher, Henk J.

    2014-01-01

    Morphogenic conversion of Candida from a yeast to hyphal morphology plays a pivotal role in the pathogenicity of Candida species. Both Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, in combination with a variety of different bacterial strains and species, appear in biofilms on silicone-rubber voice

  10. Characterization of the Antibiotic Compound No. 70 Produced by Streptomyces sp. IMV-70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenozhnikova, Lyudmila P.; Khasenova, Almagul K.; Balgimbaeva, Assya S.; Fedorova, Galina B.; Katrukha, Genrikh S.; Tokareva, Nina L.; Kwa, Boo H.; Azizan, Azliyati

    2012-01-01

    We describe the actinomycete strain IMV-70 isolated from the soils of Kazakhstan, which produces potent antibiotics with high levels of antibacterial activity. After the research of its morphological, chemotaxonomic, and cultural characteristics, the strain with potential to be developed further as a novel class of antibiotics with chemotherapeutics potential was identified as Streptomyces sp. IMV-70. In the process of fermentation, the strain Streptomyces spp. IMV-70 produces the antibiotic no. 70, which was isolated from the culture broth by extraction with organic solvents. Antibiotic compound no. 70 was purified and separated into individual components by HPLC, TLC, and column chromatography methods. The main component of the compound is the antibiotic 70-A, which was found to be identical to the peptolide etamycin A. Two other antibiotics 70-B and 70-C have never been described and therefore are new antibiotics. The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of these preparations were described and further researched. Determination of the optimal growth conditions to cultivate actinomycete-producer strain IMV-70 and development of methods to isolate, purify, and accumulate preparations of the new antibiotic no. 70 enable us to research further the potential of this new class of antibiotics. PMID:22536145

  11. Characterization of the Antibiotic Compound No. 70 Produced by Streptomyces sp. IMV-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila P. Trenozhnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the actinomycete strain IMV-70 isolated from the soils of Kazakhstan, which produces potent antibiotics with high levels of antibacterial activity. After the research of its morphological, chemotaxonomic, and cultural characteristics, the strain with potential to be developed further as a novel class of antibiotics with chemotherapeutics potential was identified as Streptomyces sp. IMV-70. In the process of fermentation, the strain Streptomyces spp. IMV-70 produces the antibiotic no. 70, which was isolated from the culture broth by extraction with organic solvents. Antibiotic compound no. 70 was purified and separated into individual components by HPLC, TLC, and column chromatography methods. The main component of the compound is the antibiotic 70-A, which was found to be identical to the peptolide etamycin A. Two other antibiotics 70-B and 70-C have never been described and therefore are new antibiotics. The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of these preparations were described and further researched. Determination of the optimal growth conditions to cultivate actinomycete-producer strain IMV-70 and development of methods to isolate, purify, and accumulate preparations of the new antibiotic no. 70 enable us to research further the potential of this new class of antibiotics.

  12. Genome Mining of the Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. DUT11 and Discovery of Tunicamycins as Anti-complement Agents

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    Xiao-Na Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine actinobacteria are potential producers of various secondary metabolites with diverse bioactivities. Among various bioactive compounds, anti-complement agents have received great interest for drug discovery to treat numerous diseases caused by inappropriate activation of the human complement system. However, marine streptomycetes producing anti-complement agents are still poorly explored. In this study, a marine-derived strain Streptomyces sp. DUT11 showing superior anti-complement activity was focused, and its genome sequence was analyzed. Gene clusters showing high similarities to that of tunicamycin and nonactin were identified, and their corresponding metabolites were also detected. Subsequently, tunicamycin I, V, and VII were isolated from Streptomyces sp. DUT11. Anti-complement assay showed that tunicamycin I, V, VII inhibited complement activation through the classic pathway, whereas no anti-complement activity of nonactin was detected. This is the first time that tunicamycins are reported to have such activity. In addition, genome analysis indicates that Streptomyces sp. DUT11 has the potential to produce novel lassopeptides and lantibiotics. These results suggest that marine Streptomyces are rich sources of anti-complement agents for drug discovery.

  13. Fabrication of biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102 as eco-friendly nanofactory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A M; Darwesh, Osama M M

    2014-04-01

    The current research was focused on the extracellular biosynthesis of bactericidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cell-free supernatant of a local isolate previously identified as a novel Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102 was quite fast and required far less time than previously published strains. The produced particles showed a single surface plasmon resonance peak at 400 nm by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Response surface methodology was chosen to evaluate the effects of four process variables (AgNO3 concentration, incubation period, pH levels, and inoculum size) on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic effects of incubation period, initial pH, and inoculum size had a significant effect (p silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. The maximum silver nanoparticles biosynthesis (2.5 OD, at 400 nm ) was achieved in runs number 5 and 14 under the conditions of 1 mM AgNO3 (1-1.5% (v/v)), incubation period (72-96 h), initial pH (9-10), and inoculum size (2-4% (v/v)). An overall 4-fold increase in AgNPs biosynthesis was obtained as compared with that of unoptimized conditions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-VIS spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, in addition to antimicrobial properties. The biosynthesized AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of medically important pathogenic gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans).

  14. The tylosin resistance gene tlrB of Streptomyces fradiae encodes a methyltransferase that targets G748 in 23S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, M; Kirpekar, F; Van Wezel, G P

    2000-01-01

    tlrB is one of four resistance genes encoded in the operon for biosynthesis of the macrolide tylosin in antibiotic-producing strains of Streptomyces fradiae. Introduction of tlrB into Streptomyces lividans similarly confers tylosin resistance. Biochemical analysis of the rRNA from the two...... is dependent on the presence of the methyl group donor, S-adenosyl methionine. Analysis of the 74-mer RNA substrate by biochemical and mass spectrometric methods shows that TlrB adds a single methyl group to the base of G748. Homologues of TlrB in other bacteria have been revealed through database searches...

  15. Studies on biological reduction of chromate by Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poopal, Ashwini C.; Laxman, R. Seeta

    2009-01-01

    Chromium is a toxic heavy metal used in various industries and leads to environmental pollution due to improper handling. The most toxic form of chromium Cr(VI) can be converted to less toxic Cr(III) by reduction. Among the actinomycetes tested for chromate reduction, thirteen strains reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), of which one strain of Streptomyces griseus (NCIM 2020) was most efficient showing complete reduction within 24 h. The organism was able to use a number of carbon sources as electron donors. Sulphate, nitrate, chloride and carbonate had no effect on chromate reduction during growth while cations such as Cd, Ni, Co and Cu were inhibitory to varying degrees. Chromate reduction was associated with the bacterial cells and sonication was the best method of cell breakage to release the enzyme. The enzyme was constitutive and did not require presence of chromate during growth for expression of activity. Chromate reduction with cell free extract (CFE) was observed without added NADH. However, addition of NAD(P)H resulted in 2-3-fold increase in activity. Chromate reductase showed optimum activity at 28 deg. C and pH 7.

  16. Streptopyridines, volatile pyridine alkaloids produced by Streptomyces sp. FORM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Groenhagen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. FORM5 is a bacterium that is known to produce the antibiotic streptazolin and related compounds. We investigated the strain for the production of volatiles using the CLSA (closed-loop stripping analysis method. Liquid and agar plate cultures revealed the formation of new 2-alkylpyridines (streptopyridines, structurally closely related to the already known 2-pentadienylpiperidines. The structures of the streptopyridines A to E were confirmed by total synthesis. The analysis of the liquid phase by solvent extraction or extraction with an Oasis adsorbent showed that streptazolin and 2-pentadienylpiperidine are the major compounds, while the streptopyridines are only minor components. In the gas phase, only the streptopyridines could be detected. Therefore, an orthogonal set of analysis is needed to assess the metabolic profile of bacteria, because volatile compounds are obviously overlooked by traditional analytical methods. The streptopyridines are strain specific volatiles that are accompanied by a broad range of headspace constituents that occur in many actinomycetes. Volatiles might be of ecological importance for the producing organism, and, as biosynthetic intermediates or shunt products, they can be useful as indicators of antibiotic production in a bacterium.

  17. A rare case of silicone mammary implant infection by Streptomyces spp. in a patient with breast reconstruction after mastectomy: taxonomic characterization using molecular techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Pelaez, Ana Isabel; del Mar Garcia-Suarez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    A Streptomyces sp. isolated from a patient who had had breast reconstruction after a mastectomy was identified at the species level by comparative sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the hypervariable alpha-region of the 16S rDNA.......A Streptomyces sp. isolated from a patient who had had breast reconstruction after a mastectomy was identified at the species level by comparative sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the hypervariable alpha-region of the 16S rDNA....

  18. Bioactive metabolite production by Streptomyces albolongus in favourable environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myn Uddin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Demand for new antibiotic is rising up due to continuous resistance risk against conventional antibiotic.This attempt was taken to find out a novel antimicrobial metabolite.Methods: Chili field antagonistic actinomycetes Streptomyces albolongus was isolated and tested for optimum antimicrobialmetabolite production. Primary screening was done by selective media and antibiotic assay was done by agarcup plate method. Fermented product was recovered by separating funnel using suitable solvent.Results: Maximum antimicrobial metabolite production was found at temperature 35°C and pH 9.0 and on 6th day ofincubation. The medium consisting of corn steep liquor (0.2%, glucose (1.0%, NaCl (0.5%, K2HPO4 (0.1% was screenedout as suitable medium for maximum antimicrobial production. Sucrose was found as the best carbon source amongfour sources. The antimicrobial metabolite was found to be stable at pH and temperature up to 11.0 and 100°C respectively.The active agent was best extracted with chloroform. The antimicrobial spectrum of the metabolite was wideand shows activity against Shigella dysenteriae (AE14612, Shigella sonnei (CRL, ICDDR, B, Salmonella typhi (AE14296,Vibrio cholerae (AE14748, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRL, ICDDR, B, Bacillus cereus (BTCC19, Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC6538, Bacillus subtilis (BTTC17 and Bacillus megaterium (BTTC18.Conclusions: The findings of antibacterial activity of S. albolongus against several species of human pathogens includingboth Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria indicated that our produced material might be an alternative antimicrobialsubstance to control human diseases. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(2: 75-82Key words: Streptomyces albolongus, antimicrobial metabolite, optimum production, antimicrobial spectrum

  19. Overproduction and identification of butyrolactones SCB1-8 in the antibiotic production superhost Streptomyces M1152.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidda, John D; Poon, Vincent; Song, Lijiang; Wang, Weishan; Yang, Keqian; Corre, Christophe

    2016-07-06

    Gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) are signalling molecules that control antibiotic production in Streptomyces bacteria. The genetically engineered strain S. coelicolor M1152 was found to overproduce GBLs SCB1-3 as well as five novel GBLs named SCB4-8. Incorporation experiments using isotopically-labelled precursors confirmed the chemical structures of SCB1-3 and established those of SCB4-8.

  20. Overproduction and identification of butyrolactones SCB1-8 in the antibiotic production superhost Streptomyces M1152

    OpenAIRE

    Sidda, John D.; Poon, Vincent; Song, Lijang; Wang, Weishan; Yang, Keqian; Corre, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) are signalling molecules that control antibiotic production in Streptomyces bacteria. The genetically engineered strain S. coelicolor M1152 was found to overproduce GBLs SCB1-3 as well as five novel GBLs named SCB4-8. Incorporation experiments using isotopically-labelled precursors confirmed the chemical structures of SCB1-3 and established those of SCB4-8.\\ud

  1. 1,3-Oxazin-6-one Derivatives and Bohemamine-Type Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces spinoverrucosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peng; La, Scott; MacMillan, John B

    2016-03-25

    Two new 1,3-oxazin-6-one derivatives (1 and 2) and six new bohemamine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids (3-8) were isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces spinoverrucosus strain SNB-048. Their structures including the absolute configurations were fully elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, ECD spectra, quantum chemical calculations, and chemical methods. Compounds 1 and 2 possess a γ-lactam moiety and a 1,3-oxazin-6-one system.

  2. Characterization of the binding capacity of mercurial species in Lactobacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Cristina; Jadán-Piedra, Carlos; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Zúñiga, Manuel; Monedero, Vicente

    2017-12-01

    Metal sequestration by bacteria has been proposed as a strategy to counteract metal contamination in foodstuffs. Lactobacilli can interact with metals, although studies with important foodborne metals such as inorganic [Hg(II)] or organic (CH 3 Hg) mercury are lacking. Lactobacilli were evaluated for their potential to bind these contaminants and the nature of the interaction was assessed by the use of metal competitors, chemical and enzymatical treatments, and mutants affected in the cell wall structure. Lactobacillus strains efficiently bound Hg(II) and CH 3 Hg. Mercury binding by Lactobacillus casei BL23 was independent of cell viability. In BL23, both forms of mercury were cell wall bound. Their interaction was not inhibited by cations and it was resistant to chelating agents and protein digestion. Lactobacillus casei mutants affected in genes involved in the modulation of the negative charge of the cell wall anionic polymer lipoteichoic acid showed increased mercury biosorption. In these mutants, mercury toxicity was enhanced compared to wild-type bacteria. These data suggest that lipoteichoic acid itself or the physicochemical characteristics that it confers to the cell wall play a major role in mercury complexation. This is the first example of the biosorption of Hg(II) and CH 3 Hg in lactobacilli and it represents a first step towards their possible use as agents for diminishing mercury bioaccessibility from food at the gastrointestinal tract. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. ­Genomic data mining of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveils insights into multi-stress related genes and metabolic pathways involved in antimicrobial synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Undabarrena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is an actinobacterial strain isolated from marine sediments of a Chilean Patagonian fjord. Morphological characterization together with antibacterial activity was assessed in various culture media, revealing a carbon-source dependent activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. Genome mining of this antibacterial-producing bacterium revealed the presence of 26 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs for secondary metabolites, where among them, 81% have low similarities with known BGCs. In addition, a genomic search in Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 unveiled the presence of a wide variety of genetic determinants related to heavy metal resistance (49 genes, oxidative stress (69 genes and antibiotic resistance (97 genes. This study revealed that the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 bacterium has the capability to tolerate a diverse set of heavy metals such as copper, cobalt, mercury, chromate and nickel; as well as the highly toxic tellurite, a feature first time described for Streptomyces. In addition, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 possesses a major resistance towards oxidative stress, in comparison to the soil reference strain Streptomyces violaceoruber A3(2. Moreover, Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 showed resistance to 88% of the antibiotics tested, indicating overall, a strong response to several abiotic stressors. The combination of these biological traits confirms the metabolic versatility of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a genetically well-prepared microorganism with the ability to confront the dynamics of the fjord-unique marine environment.

  4. A biotransformation process for the production of cucurbitacin B from its glycoside using a selected Streptomyces sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jianfeng; Li, Sha; Jin, Hang; Tang, Lan; Yi, Yu; Wang, Hong; Ying, Guoqing

    2016-09-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB) and its glycoside, cucurbitacin B 2-o-β-D-glucoside (CuBg), abundantly occur in the pedicels of Cucumis melo. Compared with CuB, CuBg is not efficiently extracted from the pedicels. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of CuBg is lower than that of the aglycone. A process for CuBg biotransformation to CuB was developed for the first time. A strain of Streptomyces species that converts CuBg into CuB was isolated from an enrichment culture of C. melo pedicels. After optimization of conditions for enzyme production and biotransformation, a maximum conversion rate of 92.6 % was obtained at a CuBg concentration of 0.25 g/L. When biotransformation was performed on C. melo pedicel extracts, the CuB concentration in the extracts increased from 1.50 to 3.27 g/L. The conversion rate was almost 100 %. The developed process may be an effective biotransformation method for industrial production CuB from C. melo pedicels for pharmaceuticals.

  5. Antimicrobial activities of Streptomyces pulcher, S. canescens and S. citreofluorescens against fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Abyad, M S; el-Sayed, M A; el-Shanshoury, A R; el-Sabbagh, S M

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-seven actinomycete species isolated from fertile cultivated soils in Egypt were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds against a variety of test organisms. Most of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, with special attention to fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato. On starch-nitrate agar, 14 strains were active against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (the cause of Fusarium wilt), 18 against Verticillium albo-atrum (the cause of Verticillium wilt), and 18 against Alternaria solani (the cause of early blight). In liquid media, 14 isolates antagonized Pseudomonas solanacearum (the cause of bacterial wilt) and 20 antagonized Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (the cause of bacterial canker). The most active antagonists of the pathogenic microorganisms studied were found to be Streptomyces pulcher, S. canescens (syn. S. albidoflavus) and S. citreofluorescens (syn. S. anulatus). The antagonistic activities of S. pulcher and S. canescens against pathogenic fungi were assessed on solid media, and those of S. pulcher and S. citreofluorescens against pathogenic bacteria in liquid media under shaking conditions. The optimum culture conditions were determined.

  6. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces and its relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Merlo, Maria Elena; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    Motivation: Streptomyces is one of the best-studied genera of the order Actinomycetales due to its great importance in medical science, ecology and the biotechnology industry. A comprehensive, detailed and robust phylogeny of Streptomyces and its relatives is needed for understanding how this group

  7. Genotyping of Leptospira directly in urine samples of cattle demonstrates a diversity of species and strains in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamond, C; Pestana, C P; Medeiros, M A; Lilenbaum, W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Leptospira in urine samples of cattle by direct sequencing of the secY gene. The validity of this approach was assessed using ten Leptospira strains obtained from cattle in Brazil and 77 DNA samples previously extracted from cattle urine, that were positive by PCR for the genus-specific lipL32 gene of Leptospira. Direct sequencing identified 24 (31·1%) interpretable secY sequences and these were identical to those obtained from direct DNA sequencing of the urine samples from which they were recovered. Phylogenetic analyses identified four species: L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. noguchii, and L. santarosai with the most prevalent genotypes being associated with L. borgpetersenii. While direct sequencing cannot, as yet, replace culturing of leptospires, it is a valid additional tool for epidemiological studies. An unexpected finding from this study was the genetic diversity of Leptospira infecting Brazilian cattle.

  8. Exposure-related effects of formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A to glochidia from seven unionid mussel species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.; Eckert, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The study was completed to evaluate the exposure-related effects of a biopesticide for dreissenid mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, zebra mussel and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, quagga mussel) control on glochidia from unionid mussels endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. The commercially prepared biopesticide was either a spray-dried powder (SDP) or freeze-dried powder (FDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A. Glochidia of the unionid mussel species Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea,Lampsilis higginsii, Ligumia recta, Obovaria olivaria, and Actinonaias ligamentina were exposed to SDP-formulated P. fluorescens andLampsilis cardium and Megalonaias nervosa were exposed to FDP-formulated P. fluorescens.

  9. Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Candice L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria affects large parts of the developing world and is responsible for almost 800,000 deaths annually. As climates change, concerns have arisen as to how this vector-borne disease will be impacted by changing rainfall patterns and warming temperatures. Despite the importance and controversy surrounding the impact of climate change on the potential spread of this disease, little information exists on the tolerances of several of the vector species themselves. Methods Using a ramping protocol (to assess critical thermal limits - CT and plunge protocol (to assess lethal temperature limits - LT information on the thermal tolerance of two of Africa’s important malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus was collected. The effects of age, thermal acclimation treatment, sex and strain (laboratory versus wild adults were investigated for CT determinations for each species. The effects of age and sex for adults and life stage (larvae, pupae, adults were investigated for LT determinations. Results In both species, females are more tolerant to low and high temperatures than males; larvae and pupae have higher upper lethal limits than do adults. Thermal acclimation of adults has large effects in some instances but small effects in others. Younger adults tend to be more tolerant of low or high temperatures than older age groups. Long-standing laboratory colonies are sufficiently similar in thermal tolerance to field-collected animals to provide reasonable surrogates when making inferences about wild population responses. Differences between these two vectors in their thermal tolerances, especially in larvae and pupae, are plausibly a consequence of different habitat utilization. Conclusions Limited plasticity is characteristic of the adults of these vector species relative to others examined to date, suggesting limited scope for within-generation change in thermal tolerance. These findings and the greater tolerance

  10. Structure of a putative fluorinated natural product from Streptomyces sp. TC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Hülya; Kohlhepp, Stefanie V; Gulder, Tanja; Gulder, Tobias A M

    2014-11-26

    Fluorine-containing natural products are extremely rare. The recent report on the isolation and biological activity of the bacterial secondary metabolite 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-fluorophenyl)propionic acid was thus highly remarkable. The compound contained the first aromatic fluorine substituent known to date in any natural product. The promise to discover an enzyme capable of aromatic fluorination in the producing strain Streptomyces sp. TC1 prompted our immediate interest. A close inspection of the originally reported analytical data of the fluoro metabolite revealed inconsistencies that triggered us to validate the reported structure. The results of these efforts are presented in this communication.

  11. Development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as an emerging chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-derived natural products are important in both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. As the metabolic potential of original producer especially Streptomyces is often limited by slow growth rate, complicated cultivation profile, and unfeasible genetic manipulation, so exploring a Streptomyces as a super industrial chassis is valuable and urgent. Streptomyces sp. FR-008 is a fast-growing microorganism and can also produce a considerable amount of macrolide candicidin via modular polyketide synthase. In this study, we evaluated Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as a potential industrial-production chassis. First, PacBio sequencing and transcriptome analyses indicated that the Streptomyces sp. FR-008 genome size is 7.26 Mb, which represents one of the smallest of currently sequenced Streptomyces genomes. In addition, we simplified the conjugation procedure without heat-shock and pre-germination treatments but with high conjugation efficiency, suggesting it is inherently capable of accepting heterologous DNA. In addition, a series of promoters selected from literatures was assessed based on GusA activity in Streptomyces sp. FR-008. Compared with the common used promoter ermE*-p, the strength of these promoters comprise a library with a constitutive range of 60–860%, thus providing the useful regulatory elements for future genetic engineering purpose. In order to minimum the genome, we also target deleted three endogenous polyketide synthase (PKS gene clusters to generate a mutant LQ3. LQ3 is thus an “updated” version of Streptomyces sp. FR-008, producing fewer secondary metabolites profiles than Streptomyces sp. FR-008. We believe this work could facilitate further development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 for use in biotechnological applications.

  12. Characterization of a Native Algae Species Chlamydomonas debaryana: Strain Selection, Bioremediation Ability, and Lipid Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Native microalgal species may offer a favorable combination of both wastewater treatment and biofuel production. In this research, a green microalgae, Chlamydomonas debaryana, was isolated from a local lagoon, screened for its lipid content using flow cytometry, and further identified with microscopic observations and DNA sequence analysis. When using swine wastewater as a medium, the biomass yields were between 0.6 and 1.62 g/L, giving a median value of 1.11 g/L. By increasing mass transfer rates and providing sufficient light intensity, the microalgal growth was intrinsically enhanced. The growth of C. debaryana reduced most nutritional contents of the wastewater except iron. When combining the microalgal growth and nutrient removal, C. debaryana was able to utilize 1.3 to 1.6×103 mg COD (chemical oxygen demand/g biomass, 55 to 90 ppm ammonia/g biomass, and 48 to 89 ppm phosphorous/g biomass, The lipid content of C. debaryana was 19.9 ± 4.3% of cell dry weight. The transesterified microalgal oil mostly consisted of 14 kinds of fatty acids, ranging from C5 to C22, which can be refined into renewable jet fuel or used as sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

  13. Phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits explains dispersal limitation and genomic differentiation of Streptomyces sister-taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudoir, Mallory J; Buckley, Daniel H

    2018-06-07

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a pattern of biogeography observed broadly in plants and animals but largely undocumented in terrestrial microbial systems. Although patterns of microbial biogeography across broad taxonomic scales have been described in a range of contexts, the mechanisms that generate biogeographic patterns between closely related taxa remain incompletely characterized. Adaptive processes are a major driver of microbial biogeography, but there is less understanding of how microbial biogeography and diversification are shaped by dispersal limitation and drift. We recently described a latitudinal diversity gradient of species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity in Streptomyces by using a geographically explicit culture collection. Within this geographically explicit culture collection, we have identified Streptomyces sister-taxa whose geographic distribution is delimited by latitude. These sister-taxa differ in geographic distribution, genomic diversity, and ecological traits despite having nearly identical SSU rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomic analysis reveals genomic differentiation of these sister-taxa consistent with restricted gene flow across latitude. Furthermore, we show phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits between the sister-taxa suggesting that thermal trait adaptation limits dispersal and gene flow across climate regimes as defined by latitude. Such phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits is commonly associated with latitudinal diversity gradients for plants and animals. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that the Streptomyces latitudinal diversity gradient was formed as a result of historical demographic processes defined by dispersal limitation and driven by paleoclimate dynamics.

  14. Growth of desferrioxamine-deficient Streptomyces mutants through xenosiderophore piracy of airborne fungal contaminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Anthony Argüelles; Lambert, Stéphany; Martinet, Loïc; Adam, Delphine; Tenconi, Elodie; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Ongena, Marc; Rigali, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    Due to the necessity of iron for housekeeping functions, nutrition, morphogenesis and secondary metabolite production, siderophore piracy could be a key strategy in soil and substrate colonization by microorganisms. Here we report that mutants of bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor unable to produce desferrioxamine siderophores could recover growth when the plates were contaminated by indoor air spores of a Penicillium species and Engyodontium album. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the HPLC fractions with the extracellular 'resuscitation' factors of the Penicillium isolate were only those that contained siderophores, i.e. Fe-dimerum acid, ferrichrome, fusarinine C and coprogen. The restored growth of the Streptomyces mutants devoid of desferrioxamine is most likely mediated through xenosiderophore uptake as the cultivability depends on the gene encoding the ABC-transporter-associated DesE siderophore-binding protein. That a filamentous fungus allows the growth of desferrioxamine non-producing Streptomyces in cocultures confirms that xenosiderophore piracy plays a vital role in nutritional interactions between these taxonomically unrelated filamentous microorganisms. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Streptomyces flavogriseus HS1: isolation and characterization of extracellular proteases and their compatibility with laundry detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Sofiane; Kammoun, Maher; Soltana, Hala; Nasri, Moncef; Hmidet, Noomen

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the isolation of a new protease producing Streptomyces strain HS1 and the biochemical characterization of the secreted proteases. By sequencing of its noted 16S rDNA, HS1 strain was found to have a 100% identity with Streptomyces flavogriseus. The highest protease production was found using FermII media. In these conditions maximum protease production (99 U/mL) was obtained after 96 h incubation at 30°C and 150 rpm. HS1 strain produced at least five proteases as revealed by zymogram technique. The enzyme preparation exhibited activity over a broad range of pH (5-11) and temperature (25-70°C). Optimum activity was observed at a pH of 7.0 and a temperature of 50°C. Proteolytic activity was significantly unaffected by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). EDTA and PMSF highly decreased the original activity. The crude extracellular proteases showed high stability when used as a detergent additive. These properties offer an interesting potential for enzymatic hydrolysis at the industrial level.

  16. Refining the Roots of the Beewolf-Streptomyces Symbiosis: Antennal Symbionts in the Rare Genus Philanthinus (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Erol; Gürbüz, M. Faruk; Herzner, Gudrun; Strohm, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    Insects engage in symbiotic associations with a large diversity of beneficial microorganisms. While the majority of well-studied symbioses have a nutritional basis, several cases are known in which bacteria protect their host from pathogen infestation. Solitary wasps of the genera Philanthus and Trachypus (beewolves; Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) cultivate the actinomycete “Candidatus Streptomyces philanthi” in specialized antennal gland reservoirs. The symbionts are transferred to the larval cocoon, where they provide protection against pathogenic fungi by producing at least nine different antibiotics. Here we investigated the closest relatives of Philanthus and Trachypus, the rare genus Philanthinus, for the presence of antennal gland reservoirs and symbiotic streptomycetes. Molecular analyses identified “Ca. Streptomyces philanthi” in reservoirs of Philanthinus quattuordecimpunctatus. Phylogenies based on the 16S rRNA gene suggest that P. quattuordecimpunctatus may have acquired “Ca. Streptomyces philanthi” by horizontal transfer from other beewolf species. In histological sections and three-dimensional reconstructions, the antennal gland reservoirs were found to occupy six antennal segments (as opposed to only five in Philanthus and Trachypus) and to be structurally less complex than those of the evolutionarily more derived genera of beewolves. The presence of “Ca. Streptomyces philanthi” in antennal glands of Philanthinus indicates that the symbiosis between beewolves and Streptomyces bacteria is much older than previously thought. It probably evolved along the branch leading to the monophyletic tribe Philanthini, as it seems to be confined to the genera Philanthus, Trachypus, and Philanthinus, which together comprise 172 described species of solitary wasps. PMID:22113914

  17. Interaction between bovine-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci species and strains and bovine mammary epithelial cells reflects differences in ecology and epidemiological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, F N; Piepers, S; Della Libera, A M M P; Heinemann, M B; Cerqueira, M M O P; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria adherence seems to be an essential first stage for the internalization of bacteria into the cytoplasm of the host cell, which is considered an important virulence strategy enabling bacteria to occupy a microenvironment separated from host defense mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to explore the difference in the capacity of 4 bovine-associated staphylococci species or strains to adhere to and internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Three different isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were used: one strain of Staphylococcus fleurettii isolated from sawdust and considered an environmental opportunistic bacterium, and 2 dissimilar Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates, one cultured from a heifer's teat apex (Staph. chromogenes TA) and the other originating from a chronic intramammary infection (Staph. chromogenes IM). Also, one well-characterized strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Newbould 305) was used for comparison with a major mastitis pathogen. The CNS species and strains adhered to and internalized into MEC slower than did Staph. aureus. Still, we observed high variation in adhesion and internalization capacity among the different CNS, with Staph. chromogenes IM showing a greater ability to adhere to and internalize into MEC than the 2 CNS strains isolated from extramammary habitats. In conclusion, the 3 well-characterized bovine-associated CNS species and strains originating from distinct habitats showed clear differences in their capacity to adhere to and internalize into MEC. The observed differences might be related to their diversity in ecology and epidemiological behavior. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome Sequence of the Bacterium Streptomyces davawensis JCM 4913 and Heterologous Production of the Unique Antibiotic Roseoflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowitsch, Frank; Schwarz, Julia; Rückert, Christian; Gust, Bertolt; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Blom, Jochen; Pelzer, Stefan; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces davawensis JCM 4913 synthesizes the antibiotic roseoflavin, a structural riboflavin (vitamin B2) analog. Here, we report the 9,466,619-bp linear chromosome of S. davawensis JCM 4913 and a 89,331-bp linear plasmid. The sequence has an average G+C content of 70.58% and contains six rRNA operons (16S-23S-5S) and 69 tRNA genes. The 8,616 predicted protein-coding sequences include 32 clusters coding for secondary metabolites, several of which are unique to S. davawensis. The chromosome contains long terminal inverted repeats of 33,255 bp each and atypical telomeres. Sequence analysis with regard to riboflavin biosynthesis revealed three different patterns of gene organization in Streptomyces species. Heterologous expression of a set of genes present on a subgenomic fragment of S. davawensis resulted in the production of roseoflavin by the host Streptomyces coelicolor M1152. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. davawensis is a close relative of Streptomyces cinnabarinus, and much to our surprise, we found that the latter bacterium is a roseoflavin producer as well. PMID:23043000

  19. Genetic sexing strains in Mediterranean fruit fly, an example for other species amenable to large-scale rearing for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species that transmit disease, the removal of females is mandatory. For the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing systems have been developed; they are stable enough to be used in operational programmes for extended periods of time. Until recently, the only way to generate such strains was through Mendelian genetics. In this chapter, the basic principle of translocation-based sexing strains is described, and Mediterranean fruit fly strains are used as examples to indicate the problems encountered in such strains. Furthermore, the strategies used to solve these problems are described. The advantages of following molecular strategies in the future development of sexing strains are outlined, especially for species where little basic knowledge of genetics exists. (author)

  20. Heterologous expression of pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster using Streptomyces artificial chromosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyeon, Hye-Rim; Nah, Hee-Ju; Kang, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Si-Sun; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2017-05-31

    Heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters of natural microbial products has become an essential strategy for titer improvement and pathway engineering of various potentially-valuable natural products. A Streptomyces artificial chromosomal conjugation vector, pSBAC, was previously successfully applied for precise cloning and tandem integration of a large polyketide tautomycetin (TMC) biosynthetic gene cluster (Nah et al. in Microb Cell Fact 14(1):1, 2015), implying that this strategy could be employed to develop a custom overexpression scheme of natural product pathway clusters present in actinomycetes. To validate the pSBAC system as a generally-applicable heterologous overexpression system for a large-sized polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces, another model polyketide compound, the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster, was preciously cloned and heterologously expressed using the pSBAC system. A unique HindIII restriction site was precisely inserted at one of the border regions of the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster within the chromosome of Streptomyces venezuelae, followed by site-specific recombination of pSBAC into the flanking region of the pikromycin gene cluster. Unlike the previous cloning process, one HindIII site integration step was skipped through pSBAC modification. pPik001, a pSBAC containing the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster, was directly introduced into two heterologous hosts, Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor, resulting in the production of 10-deoxymethynolide, a major pikromycin derivative. When two entire pikromycin biosynthetic gene clusters were tandemly introduced into the S. lividans chromosome, overproduction of 10-deoxymethynolide and the presence of pikromycin, which was previously not detected, were both confirmed. Moreover, comparative qRT-PCR results confirmed that the transcription of pikromycin biosynthetic genes was significantly upregulated in S. lividans containing tandem

  1. Identification and functional analysis of cytochrome P450 complement in Streptomyces virginiae IBL14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background As well known, both natural and synthetic steroidal compounds are powerful endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) which can cause reproductive toxicity and affect cellular development in mammals and thus are generally regarded as serious contributors to water pollution. Streptomyces virginiae IBL14 is an effective degradative strain for many steroidal compounds and can also catalyze the C25 hydroxylation of diosgenin, the first-ever biotransformation found on the F-ring of diosgenin. Results To completely elucidate the hydroxylation function of cytochrome P450 genes (CYPs) found during biotransformation of steroids by S. virginiae IBL14, the whole genome sequencing of this strain was carried out via 454 Sequencing Systems. The analytical results of BLASTP showed that the strain IBL14 contains 33 CYPs, 7 ferredoxins and 3 ferredoxin reductases in its 8.0 Mb linear chromosome. CYPs from S. virginiae IBL14 are phylogenetically closed to those of Streptomyces sp. Mg1 and Streptomyces sp. C. One new subfamily was found as per the fact that the CYP Svu001 in S. virginiae IBL14 shares 66% identity only to that (ZP_05001937, protein identifer) from Streptomyces sp. Mg1. Further analysis showed that among all of the 33 CYPs in S. virginiae IBL14, three CYPs are clustered with ferredoxins, one with ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase and three CYPs with ATP/GTP binding proteins, four CYPs arranged with transcriptional regulatory genes and one CYP located on the upstream of an ATP-binding protein and transcriptional regulators as well as four CYPs associated with other functional genes involved in secondary metabolism and degradation. Conclusions These characteristics found in CYPs from S. virginiae IBL14 show that the EXXR motif in the K-helix is not absolutely conserved in CYP157 family and I-helix not absolutely essential for the CYP structure, too. Experimental results showed that both CYP Svh01 and CYP Svu022 are two hydroxylases, capable of bioconverting

  2. Craniocervical mycetoma caused bu Streptomyces somaliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramboer, J.H.; De Graaf, A.S.; Hewlett, R.H.; Kirby, P.A.; Robson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computerized tomography (CT) and clinical-pathological findings are described in a case of craniocervical mycetoma caused by the actinomycete Streptomyces somaliensis. Clinical features includes epilepsy, visual and hearing disturbance, quadriplegia and incontinence. CT revealed a hyperdense, diffusely enhancing intra-extracranial mass, further defined by MR to involve the oropharyngeal region, skull base, cranial-cervical peridural spaces and brain. On treatment with Dapsone, the lesion decreased in size, with recovery of spinal cord function. The combined plain film, CT and MR images are considered to be diagnostic of this form of mycetoma. (author). 10 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Craniocervical mycetoma caused bu Streptomyces somaliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramboer, J.H.; De Graaf, A.S. (Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Internal Medicine); Hewlett, R.H. (Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Radiology); Kirby, P.A. (Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Department of Anatomical Pathology); Robson, R.A. (Tygerberg Hospital, Capetown (South Africa). Department of Microbiology)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computerized tomography (CT) and clinical-pathological findings are described in a case of craniocervical mycetoma caused by the actinomycete Streptomyces somaliensis. Clinical features includes epilepsy, visual and hearing disturbance, quadriplegia and incontinence. CT revealed a hyperdense, diffusely enhancing intra-extracranial mass, further defined by MR to involve the oropharyngeal region, skull base, cranial-cervical peridural spaces and brain. On treatment with Dapsone, the lesion decreased in size, with recovery of spinal cord function. The combined plain film, CT and MR images are considered to be diagnostic of this form of mycetoma. (author). 10 refs.; 4 figs.

  4. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  5. Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1992-03-01

    Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving

  6. Regioselective hydroxylation of isoflavones by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Seo, Su-Hyun; Choi, Kwon-Young; Cha, Minho; Pandey, Bishnu Prasad; Kim, June-Hyung; Park, Jun-Seong; Kim, Duck Hee; Chang, Ih Seop; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2009-07-01

    Screening of bacterial whole cells was performed for regioselective hydroxylation of daidzein and genistein. Among the strains examined, Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 showed high ortho-dihydroxylation activity to produce 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone and 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone from daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), respectively. Using 100 mg cells (wet wt.) and 1% (v/v) Triton X100 in 1 ml of total reaction volume, where 100 microl of the substrate solution (0.5 mM in 10% (v/v) mixed solvent of DMSO:MeOH = 3:7) was added to 900 microl of potassium phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.2), a 16% molar conversion yield of 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone was obtained from 0.5 mM daidzein after 24 h of reaction time at 28 degrees C and 200 rpm. Ketoconazole significantly (ca. 90%) inhibited the ortho-hydroxylation activity of daidzein, suggesting that cytochrome P450 enzymes putatively play roles in regiospecific daidzein hydroxylation. The analysis of the reaction products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and (1)H NMR.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidative and cytotoxic activities of Streptomyces pluripotens MUSC 137 isolated from mangrove soil in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi-Leng eSer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A well characterized strain, Streptomyces pluripotens MUSC 137 was isolated from mangrove soil at Tanjung Lumpur, Malaysia. The biological activities of this particular strain of Streptomyces were then explored. For experimentation, the extract of fermentation was prepared by using solvent extraction method. The antioxidant activity was examined by using DPPH assay. The cytotoxicity activity of extract was assessed against selected human cancer cell lines, namely colon cancer cells (HCT-116, Caco-2, SW480 & HT-29, breast cancer cell (MCF-7, lung cancer cell (A549, prostate cancer cell (DU145 and cervical cancer cell (Ca Ski. The results showed MUSC 137 extract possessed significant antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect against some of the tested cancer cell lines. Lowest IC50 was recorded in MCF-7 cells (61.33 ± 17.10 µg/mL, followed by HCT-116 and A549. Subsequently, the extract was subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS, which led to the identification of chemical constituents present in the extract of MUSC 137. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including deferoxamine and pyrrolizidines related-compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities observed. The result of the present investigation is the first report on the potential antioxidative and cytotoxic activities of Streptomyces pluripotens MUSC 137.

  8. Characterization of Ethanolic Extract of Streptomyces sp. as a Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors Produced by Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12

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    Lenni Fitri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 isolated from Zingiber cassumunar (Bangle is known to produce pancreatic lipase inhibitory compound. However, the characteristics of this active compound has not been reported yet. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of pancreatics inhibitory compound produced by Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 and to assess the role of endophytic actinobacteria in producing pancreatic lipase inhibitor using endophytic-free bangle tissue culture, wild bangle and compared with the activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 endophytes. Supernatant of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was extracted using ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane solvents. Toxicity test was performed using larvae of shrimp Artemia salina. The results showed that the best solvent to obtain pancreatic lipase inhibitor compounds was ethanol. Phytochemical analysis showed that ethanolic extract of endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 contained flavonoids. IC50 value of ethanol extract was 180.83 µg/ml. The result of TLC showed that ethanolic extract of Streptomyces AEBg12 had a blue luminescence band indicated that there were either flavone, flavanones, flavonols or isoflavones. Inhibitory activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was higher than wild bangle and bangle tissue culture. The information from this study can be be used as a basic data for further characterization of the active compound, which might be developed as an antiobesity agent through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.

  9. Multi-omics Quantification of Species Variation of Escherichia coli Links Molecular Features with Strain Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monk, Jonathan M; Koza, Anna; Campodonico, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains are widely used in academic research and biotechnology. New technologies for quantifying strain-specific differences and their underlying contributing factors promise greater understanding of how these differences significantly impact physiology, synthetic biology, metabo...

  10. Metabolic effect of streptomyces avermitilis irradiated by ion beam of "1"2C"6"+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyang; Chen Jihong; Li Wenjian; Liang Jianping; Liu Jing; Bo Yongheng; Wang Lihua

    2013-01-01

    pH value, mycelium concentration, carbon source and nitrogen metabolism in flask fermentation of the mutant high-producing strain ZJAV-Yl-203 and the original strain ZJAV-A1 have been investigated, in order to show the metabolic effect of avermitilis irradiated by ion beam of "1"2C"6"+. In early stage (48 h) of the fermentation, pH value of the original fermentation was lower than that of the mutant strains. In 96∼196 h of fermentation, the nitrogen utilization in the strains ZJAV-Y1-203 was higher than that in the original strains, its reproductive was fast, and its growing was vigorous. The mycelium concentration of ZJAV-Yl-203 was greater than the original strain, and the pH value of fermentation were stable, so its metabolism was relatively more stable. In 144∼240 h of fermentation, the strain ZJAV-Y1-203 on sugar consumption was less than the original strains. The effect of "1"2C"6"+ ion irradiation on metabolism of Streptomyces avermitilis is conducive to the synthesis of avermectin. (authors)

  11. Silver nanoparticle biosynthesis from newly isolated streptomyces genus from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman Adiguzel, Ali; Könen Adiguzel, Serpil; Mazmanci, Birgül; Tunçer, Münir; Mazmanci, Mehmet Ali

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by cell lysates of actinobacterial strains isolated from Mersin soils. Also, free-radical scavenging potential, the inhibitory effect, and genotoxicity of synthesized AgNPs were investigated. As a result of the screening study, it was detected that cell lysate from isolate AOA21, which were classified in Streptomyces genus according to 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison, showed higher potential for AgNPs synthesis. The optimum pH, AgNO3 and cell lysate concentration for AgNPs synthesis were found to be pH 9.0, 1 mM AgNO3 and 2-fold diluted cell lysate, respectively. The FESEM analysis revealed that the size and shape of AgNPs were 35–60 nm and spherical. The x-ray diffraction patterns displayed typical peaks of crystalline AgNPs at 34.07°, 44.04°, 64.45°, 77.40° and 81.36°. The size of cubic crystalline AgNPs was found to be 9.35 nm. The FTIR analysis showed that the especially protein, peptide and amino acid component in the cell lysates of Streptomyces sp. AOA21 may be responsible in reduction of AgNO3 and stabilization of synthesized AgNPs. The MIC values of synthesized AgNPs for Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were found to be 8 μg ml‑1, 16 μg ml‑1, 16 μg ml‑1 and 32 μg ml‑1, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity of synthesized AgNPs was 8.54%–55.58% at a concentration range of 800–2000 μg ml‑1. Furthermore, comet assay showed that synthesized AgNPs did not cause significant DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a concentration of 12.5 μg ml‑1 and 25 μg ml‑1.

  12. Formulation of economical microbial feed using degraded chicken feathers by a novel Streptomyces sp: mitigation of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayapradha Ramakrishnan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new Streptomyces sp. IF 5 was isolated from the feather dumped soil and found to have a tremendous keratinase activity. The strain enabled the degradation of the chicken feathers very effectively in 60 h. The 16S rRNA sequence of 1474 bp long was submitted to the National centre for Biotechnological information. The keratinolytic activity in the culture medium was 1181 U/ml. The release and analyses of sulphydryl groups in the culture medium evident the degradation activity by the Streptomyces sp. IF 5. The idea of the present study was to use the degraded chicken feathers as the substrate for the growth and cultivation of microorganisms. We have designed a very economical culture medium that includes the usage of some basal salts alone and degraded chicken feathers (10 g/l. The results of the specific growth rate of the tested microbes confirm the usage of the new designed medium for microbial culturing.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of Iranian wild Pleurotus eryngii species-complex strains revealed by URP-PCR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behnamian, Mahdi; Mohammadi, Seyed A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Goltapeh, Ebrahim M.; Hendrickx, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a set of 68 P. eryngii wild strains collected from nine locations in northwest and west of Iran along with six commercial strains were studied using universal rice primers (URP). The wild strains were isolated from Ferula ovina, F. haussknechtii, Cachrys ferulacea, Kellusia

  14. Identification of species and geographical strains of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais using the visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Zhang, Chaojie; Chen, Quansheng; Li, Yanyu; Qi, Shuai; Tian, Lin; Ren, YongLin

    2015-08-01

    Identifying stored-product insects is essential for granary management. Automated, computer-based classification methods are rapidly developing in many areas. A hyperspectral imaging technique could potentially be developed to identify stored-product insect species and geographical strains. This study tested and adapted the technique using four geographical strains of each of two insect species, the rice weevil and maize weevil, to collect and analyse the resultant hyperspectral data. Three characteristic images that corresponded to the dominant wavelengths, 505, 659 and 955 nm, were selected by multivariate image analysis. Each image was processed, and 22 morphological and textural features from regions of interest were extracted as the inputs for an identification model. We found the backpropagation neural network model to be the superior method for distinguishing between the insect species and geographical strains. The overall recognition rates of the classification model for insect species were 100 and 98.13% for the calibration and prediction sets respectively, while the rates of the model for geographical strains were 94.17 and 86.88% respectively. This study has demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging, together with the appropriate recognition method, could provide a potential instrument for identifying insects and could become a useful tool for identification of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais to aid in the management of stored-product insects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Investigation of antioxidative and anticancer potentials of Streptomyces sp. MUM256 isolated from Malaysia mangrove soil

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    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3, 2.0 and 1.8 folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29 and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic towards colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents.

  16. Characterization of naphthalene degradation by Streptomyces sp. QWE-5 isolated from active sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, QWE-5, which utilized naphthalene as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated and identified as Streptomyces sp. It was a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium with a flagellum, with whole, smooth, convex and wet colonies. The optimal temperature and pH for QWE-5 were 35 °C and 7.0, respectively. The QWE-5 strain was capable of completely degrading naphthalene at a concentration as high as 100 mg/L. At initial naphthalene concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 mg/L, complete degradation was achieved within 32, 56, 96, 120 and 144 h, respectively. Kinetics of naphthalene degradation was described using the Andrews equation. The kinetic parameters were as follows: qmax (maximum specific degradation rate) = 1.56 h⁻¹, Ks (half-rate constant) = 60.34 mg/L, and KI (substrate-inhibition constant) = 81.76 mg/L. Metabolic intermediates were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, allowing a new degradation pathway for naphthalene to be proposed. In this pathway, monooxygenation of naphthalene yielded naphthalen-1-ol. Further degradation by Streptomyces sp. QWE-5 produced acetophenone, followed by adipic acid, which was produced as a combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation processes.

  17. Elimination of indigenous linear plasmids in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. jinggangensis and Streptomyces sp. FR008 to increase validamycin A and candicidin productivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenyang; Wu, Hang; Su, Xiurong; Bai, Linquan

    2017-05-01

    Giant linear plasmids, which replicate independently of the chromosomes, widely exist in actinobacteria. Previous studies mostly focused on the replication and evolution of the linear plasmids or the secondary metabolite gene clusters and the resistance gene clusters therein. However, the relationships of the linear plasmids to the productivities of secondary metabolites have not been studied. In this work, we developed a method to eliminate the indigenous linear plasmid pSHJG1 in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. jinggangensis, and validamycin A titer increased by 12.5% (from 19.16 ± 1.93 to 21.56 ± 2.25 g/L) in the high-yielding strain TL01 and 43.7% (from 4.67 ± 0.05 to 6.71 ± 0.21 g/L) in the wild-type strain 5008, whereas the cellular growth of the plasmid-cured mutant was reduced. Subsequently, the plasmid-cured mutant was complemented with three structure genes involved in cellular growth in pSHJG1 under the control of a strong PvalA promoter. Among them, the complementation of genes pSHJG1.069 and pSHJG1.072, encoding a putative hydrolase and putative P-loop ATPase, respectively, resulted in the restoration of cellular growth and validamycin A titer. Furthermore, the elimination of indigenous linear plasmid pHZ228 in the candicidin producer Streptomyces sp. FR008 also led to enhanced candicidin production and reduced cellular growth. Because of the wide distribution of indigenous linear plasmids in actinobacteria, the engineering strategy described here could be implemented in a variety of strains for the overproduction of various natural products.

  18. Isolation of a new broad spectrum antifungal polyene from Streptomyces sp. MTCC 5680.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, A; Mutalik, V; Parab, R R; Shanbhag, P; Bhave, S; Mishra, P D; Mahajan, G B

    2014-06-01

    A new polyene macrolide antibiotic PN00053 was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. wild-type strain MTCC-5680. The producer strain was isolated from fertile mountain soil of Naldehra region, Himachal Pradesh, India. The compound PN00053 was purified through various steps of chromatographic techniques and bio-activity guided fractionation followed by its characterization using physiochemical properties, spectral data ((1) H-NMR, (13) C-NMR, HMBC, HSQC, and COSY) and MS analysis. PN00053 exhibited broad spectrum in vitro antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (HMR), A. fumigatus ATCC 16424, Candida albicans (I.V.), C. albicans ATCC 14503, C. krusei GO6, C. glabrata HO4, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton sp. as well as fluconazole resistant strains C. krusei GO3 and C. glabrata HO5. It did not inhibit growth of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, displaying its specificity against fungi. PN00053 is a novel polyene macrolide isolated from a wild strain of Streptomyces sp. PM0727240 (MTCC5680), an isolate from the mountainous rocky regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. The compound is a new derivative of the antibiotic Roflamycoin [32, 33-didehydroroflamycoin (DDHR)]. It displayed broad spectrum antifungal activity against yeast and filamentous fungi. However, it did not show any antibacterial activity. The in vitro study revealed that PN00053 has better potency as compared to clinical gold standard fluconazole. The development of pathogenic resistance against the polyenes has been seldom reported. Hence, we envisage PN00053 could be a potential antifungal lead. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Korean indigenous bacterial species with valid names belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung Sook; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Ji Hee; Kang, Joo Won; Kim, Dae In; Lee, Ji Hee; Seong, Chi Nam

    2016-12-01

    To understand the isolation and classification state of actinobacterial species with valid names for Korean indigenous isolates, isolation source, regional origin, and taxonomic affiliation of the isolates were studied. At the time of this writing, the phylum Actinobacteria consisted of only one class, Actinobacteria, including five subclasses, 10 orders, 56 families, and 330 genera. Moreover, new taxa of this phylum continue to be discovered. Korean actinobacterial species with a valid name has been reported from 1995 as Tsukamurella inchonensis isolated from a clinical specimen. In 1997, Streptomyces seoulensis was validated with the isolate from the natural Korean environment. Until Feb. 2016, 256 actinobacterial species with valid names originated from Korean territory were listed on LPSN. The species were affiliated with three subclasses (Acidimicrobidae, Actinobacteridae, and Rubrobacteridae), four orders (Acidimicrobiales, Actinomycetales, Bifidobacteriales, and Solirubrobacterales), 12 suborders, 36 families, and 93 genera. Most of the species belonged to the subclass Actinobacteridae, and almost of the members of this subclass were affiliated with the order Actinomycetales. A number of novel isolates belonged to the families Nocardioidaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Intrasporangiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae as well as the genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, and Microbacterium. Twenty-six novel genera and one novel family, Motilibacteraceae, were created first with Korean indigenous isolates. Most of the Korean indigenous actionobacterial species were isolated from natural environments such as soil, seawater, tidal flat sediment, and fresh-water. A considerable number of species were isolated from artificial resources such as fermented foods, wastewater, compost, biofilm, and water-cooling systems or clinical specimens. Korean indigenous actinobacterial species were isolated from whole territory of Korea, and especially a large number of species were from Jeju

  20. Streptomyces Exploration: Competition, Volatile Communication and New Bacterial Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie E; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-07-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are prolific producers of specialized metabolites, and have a well studied, complex life cycle. Recent work has revealed a new type of Streptomyces growth termed 'exploration' - so named for the ability of explorer cells to rapidly traverse solid surfaces. Streptomyces exploration is stimulated by fungal interactions, and is associated with the production of an alkaline volatile organic compound (VOC) capable of inducing exploration by other streptomycetes. Here, we examine Streptomyces exploration from the perspectives of interkingdom interactions, pH-induced morphological switches, and VOC-mediated communication. The phenotypic diversity that can be revealed through microbial interactions and VOC exposure is providing us with insight into novel modes of microbial development, and an opportunity to exploit VOCs to stimulate desired microbial behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolates from vegetable plantation soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Streptomyces isolates were isolated from soil in some different location on vegetable plantation at agriculture standard condition. The isolates were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB ATCC H37RV and mycobacterial which isolated from Dr. Soetomo Hospital patients in Surabaya. The International Streptomyces Project 4 (ISP4 and Middlebrook 7H9 (MB7H9 wwere used as growth or fermentation medium. The screening of inhibition activity was performed using turbidimetry and spot-test on agar medium. Results shown that 33.3% of the isolates (5 isolates have anti-mycobacterial activities. The first line anti tuberculosis drug rifampicin, (RIF, ethambutol (EMB, isoniazid (INH, and pyrazinamide (PZA were used as standards or positive controls with concentration 20 ppm. Optical density of crude fermentation broth concentrated from five isolates relatively lower than five anti-tuberculosis drug activity standard, although their activities against some microbial were similar to the standard at spot-test. The most efficient isolate shown anti-mycobacterial activity was Streptomyces B10 which identified as Streptomyces violaceousniger. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profile of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram of each isolates were studied and compared to Streptomyces spp. Keywords: Anti-mycobacterial, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomyces spp.

  2. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matouš Čihák

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spore awakening is a series of actions that starts with purely physical processes and continues via the launching of gene expression and metabolic activities, eventually achieving a vegetative phase of growth. In spore-forming microorganisms, the germination process is controlled by intra- and inter-species communication. However, in the Streptomyces clade, which is capable of developing a plethora of valuable compounds, the chemical signals produced during germination have not been systematically studied before. Our previously published data revealed that several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes are expressed during germination. Therefore, we focus here on the secondary metabolite production during this developmental stage. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that the sesquiterpenoid antibiotic albaflavenone, the polyketide germicidin A, and chalcone are produced during germination of the model streptomycete, S. coelicolor. Interestingly, the last two compounds revealed an inhibitory effect on the germination process. The secondary metabolites originating from the early stage of microbial growth may coordinate the development of the producer (quorum sensing and/or play a role in competitive microflora repression (quorum quenching in their nature environments.

  3. Sensitivity of Bemisia Tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Several New Insecticides in China: Effects of Insecticide Type and Whitefly Species, Strain, and Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC 50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC 50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. PMID:25434040

  4. Production of Antimicrobial Agent by Streptomyces violachromogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Arwa A.

    2007-01-01

    The isolation of antibiotics from microorganisms improved the discovery of novel antibiotics, which is relatively easy as compared to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial agents. This study starts from isolation and purification of the antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes obtained from soil habitat of Yemen. The good antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes isolate was selected from a batch of Sterptomycetes isolates then identified. This isolate has bioactivity against some G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The antimicrobial agent isolated from Streptomyces violachromogenes (isolate no.YA118) was extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 3. The residue was applied to a silica gel column chromatography and eluted stepwise with many solvent systems. The active fractions were tested with B. subtilis NCTC10400. The purification of the antibiotic has been carried out by thin layer chromatography then the physical and chemical properties were studied to identify the antimicrobial agent. The isolated antimicrobial agent is an antibiotic belonging to the neomycin group. (author)

  5. Highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Yoshiko; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2011-01-05

    We introduce a highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces omiyaensis (SOT), which belongs to the trypsin family. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT was examined using in vitro assays and was compared with those of known fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, and nattokinase. Compared to other enzymes, SOT showed remarkably higher hydrolytic activity toward mimic peptides of fibrin and plasminogen. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT is about 18-fold higher than that of plasmin, and is comparable to that of t-PA by fibrin plate assays. Furthermore, SOT had some plasminogen activator-like activity. Results show that SOT and nattokinase have very different fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic modes, engendering significant synergetic effects of SOT and nattokinase on fibrinolysis. These results suggest that SOT presents important possibilities for application in the therapy of thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Y. enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis. The objective of the article was a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ystB gene fragments of 88 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wild ducks. HRM analysis revealed 14 different melting profiles - 4 of them were defined as regular genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4), whereas 10 as variations. 24 of the examined Y. enterocolitica strains were classified as G1, 18 strains as a G2, 21 strains as a G3, and 15 strains as a G4. Nucleotide sequences classified as G1 revealed 100% similarity with the Y. enterocolitica D88145.1 sequence (NCBI). Analysis of G2 revealed one point mutation - transition T111A. One mutation was also found in G3, but SNP was placed in a different gene region - transition G193A. Two SNPs - transitions G92C and T111A - were identified in G4. Direct sequencing of 10 variations revealed 5 new variants of the ystB nucleotide sequence: V1 - transition G129A (3 strains); V2 - transitions T111A and G193A (2 strains); V3 - transitions C118T and G193A (1 strain); V4 - transitions C141A and G193A (2 strains); and V5 characterized by 19 SNPs: G83A, T93A, A109G, G114T, C116T, A123G, T134C, T142G, T144C, A150C, G162A, T165G, T170G, T174A, T177G, G178A, A179G, A184G and G193A (2 strains). The predominant genotype in isolates from wild ducks was G1; in red deer G2; in wild boar G3; in roe deer G1 and G4. The proposed HRM method could be used to analyze Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from different sources, including humans.

  7. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance molecules of embryonic stem cells through elevation of intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifpanah, Fatemeh; Behr, Sascha; Wartenberg, Maria; Sauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells may be regulated by mechanical strain. Herein, signaling molecules underlying mechanical stimulation of vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance cues were investigated in ES cell-derived embryoid bodies. Treatment of embryoid bodies with 10% static mechanical strain using a Flexercell strain system significantly increased CD31-positive vascular structures and the angiogenesis guidance molecules plexinB1, ephrin B2, neuropilin1 (NRP1), semaphorin 4D (sem4D) and robo4 as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as evaluated by Western blot and real time RT-PCR. In contrast ephrin type 4 receptor B (EphB4) expression was down-regulated upon mechanical strain, indicating an arterial-type differentiation. Robo1 protein expression was modestly increased with no change in mRNA expression. Mechanical strain increased intracellular calcium as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Mechanical strain-induced vasculogenesis was abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS2870, upon chelation of intracellular calcium by BAPTA as well as upon siRNA inactivation of ephrin B2, NRP1 and robo4. BAPTA blunted the strain-induced expression of angiogenic growth factors, the increase in NO and ROS as well as the expression of NRP1, sem4D and plexinB1, whereas ephrin B2, EphB4 as well as robo1 and robo4 expression were not impaired. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis of ES cells by the intracellular messengers ROS, NO and calcium as well as by upregulation of angiogenesis guidance molecules and the angiogenic growth factors VEGF, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEASES FROM STREPTOMYCES CLAVULIGERUS USING AN INEXPENSIVE MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Keila Aparecida

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial characterization of extracellular proteases from Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and 644 mutant was investigated. The enzyme production was carried out in batch fermentation using soy bean filtrate as nitrogen source. Maximum activity was obtained after 96h of fermentation with an initial pH of 7.0. The enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Enzymes from the two strains retained 37% of their initial activities at pH 8.0 after 2 h incubation at 25ºC. Enzyme half-life at pH 8.0 and 60ºC was 40.30 and 53.32 min, respectively for both strains (partially purified extract. The optimum pH was obtained at pH 7.0-8.0 and 8.4 for enzymes produced for 3585 and 644 strains (crude extract, respectively, and 8.4 and 8.0 for enzymes from the partially purified extract 3585 and 644 strains, respectively. The optimum temperature for the crude extract was 21ºC for both strains. However, for the partially preparation the optimum temperature was 50ºC and 40°C for S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and 644 strains respectively.

  9. Characterization of Staphylococcus spp. strains in milk from buffaloes with mastitis in Brazil: the need to identify to species level to avoid misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coimbra-e-Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that affects dairy cattle worldwide causing economic losses. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are the predominant cause of this type of infection. We have recently showed that coagulase-positive staphylococci could be misidentified. So, the aim of this study was to characterize the Staphylococcus spp. strains initially classified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci, isolated from buffalo with subclinical mastitis. Milk of buffaloes with mastitis in herds was collected and 9 strains were identified as CNS by phenotypic tests. Molecular methodologies latter identified the strains as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus chromogenes (5, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus (2 and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus (2. Our results strongly support the need to identify the isolates to a species level in order to avoid misidentification and to be aware of the classification using the coagulase test alone.

  10. Diversity and characterization of ramie-degumming strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwen Duan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ramie (Boehmeria nivea and Boehmeria tenacissima is a widely used fiber crop. Traditional water retting or chemical boiling method performed in order to extract ramie fiber seriously pollute the environment and severely damage the fiber, so biological method is the general trend of the fiber-extracting industry. Some strains (687, involving 26 genera and 43 species, were collected from the three samples, which produce hydrolyzed circles in the selective culture medium in order to detect the degumming effect and to compare the enzyme activity. Among these strains, 13 of them did not produce cellulase and had a ramie decreasing weight rate above 25 %, which were regarded as efficient ramie-degumming strains named from R1 to R13. R1 to R13 belonged to Amycolata autotrobutylicun, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Bacillus subtilis, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacteroides finegoldii, Streptomyces lividans, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Pectobacterium wasabiae respectively. Bacteroides sp., Rhizobium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were firstly reported to be used in ramie-degumming. At the same time, the pectinase was the key enzyme in the ramie-degumming process.

  11. 40 CFR 180.1253 - Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1253 Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108 when used in or on all agricultural commodities...

  12. Complete genome sequence of two tomato-infecting begomoviruses in Venezuela: evidence of a putative novel species and a novel recombinant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay, Gustavo; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques; Bragard, Claude

    2018-02-01

    At least six begomovirus species have been reported infecting tomato in Venezuela. In this study the complete genomes of two tomato-infecting begomovirus isolates (referred to as Trujillo-427 and Zulia-1084) were cloned and sequenced. Both isolates showed the typical genome organization of New World bipartite begomoviruses, with DNA-A genomic components displaying 88.8% and 90.3% similarity with established begomoviruses, for isolates Trujillo-427 and Zulia-1084, respectively. In accordance to the guidelines for begomovirus species demarcation, the Trujillo-427 isolate represents a putative new species and the name "Tomato wrinkled mosaic virus" is proposed. Meanwhile, Zulia-1084 represents a putative new strain classifiable within species Tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus, for which a recombinant origin is suggested.

  13. Construction of ivermectin producer by domain swaps of avermectin polyketide synthase in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Zhi; Li, Meng; Wen, Ying; Song, Yuan; Li, Jilun

    2006-10-01

    Ivermectin, 22, 23-dihydroavermectin B1, is commercially important in human, veterinary medicine, and pesticides. It is currently synthesized by chemical reduction of the double bond between C22 and C23 of avermectins B1, which are a mixture of B1a (>80%) and B1b (produced by fermentation of Streptomyces avermitilis. The cost of ivermectin is much higher than that of avermectins B1 owing to the necessity of region-specific hydrogenation at C22-C23 of avermectins B1 with rhodium chloride as the catalyst for producing ivermectin. Here we report that ivermectin can be produced directly by fermentation of recombinant strains constructed through targeted genetic engineering of the avermectin polyketide synthase (PKS) in S. avermitilis Olm73-12, which produces only avermectins B and not avermectins A and oligomycin. The DNA region encoding the dehydratase (DH) and ketoreductase (KR) domains of module 2 from the avermectin PKS in S. avermitilis Olm73-12 was replaced by the DNA fragment encoding the DH, enoylreductase, and KR domains from module 4 of the pikromycin PKS of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439 using a gene replacement vector pXL211. Twenty-seven of mutants were found to produce a small amount of 22, 23-dihydroavermectin B1a and avermectin B1a and B2a by high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. This study might provide a route to the low-cost production of ivermectin by fermentation.

  14. Ultrastructural studies on variants of Streptomyces SP-765 obtained after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasova, D.I.; Krystev, Kh.I.; Todorov, I.O.; Dzhedzheva, G.M.; Popov, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The study has been carried out with two variants of Streptomyces SP-765, gray and olygosporous, obtained after 1000 Gy gamma irradiation of spore suspension from the initial strain. The gray variant has chains of spores which are oval or oblong with rounded-off edges. Sporulation is highly inhibited in the olygosporous variant. Eleven electron-microscopic pictures of ultrathin sections from colonies of the two variants are presented. The gray variant reveals the presence of a large number of lyzed cells, spores, and scarce vegetative cells; typical of the lyzed cells are the spherical and highly osmiophilic formations on the outer and inner surface of their cytoplasmic membrane. The oligosporous variant shows lyzed cells of various sizes, cells void of content with thick walls, relativelly small number of vegetative cells and individual wall-less cells, shperoplast and protoplast formation, lamellar membrane structure of nearly all cells. Both lyzed and vegetable cells have individual anomalous form containing daughter cells. The conclusion is made that gray and oligosporous variants of Streptomyces SP-765, obtained after irradiation of its spores, possess different ultrastructural organization

  15. Comparison of growth methods and biological activities of brazilian marine Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Granato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the study of the growth and the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of the extracts of the marine microorganisms Streptomyces acrymicini and Streptomyces cebimarensis, the latter a new strain. Both microorganisms were collected from coastal marine sediments of the north coast of São Paulo state. Growth was performed in a shaker and in a bioreactor using Gym medium and the broths of both microorganisms were extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Three extracts, two organic and one aqueous, from each microorganism were obtained and tested for cytotoxic and antitumor activity using the SF-295 (Central Nervous System, HCT-8 (Colon cell lines, and the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The growth methods were compared and show that, although the shaker presented reasonable results, the bioreactor represents the best choice for growth of these microorganisms. The biological activity of the different extracts was evaluated and it was demonstrated that the growth methodology may influence the secondary metabolite production and the biological activity.

  16. Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GC/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak; Marek Siwulski; Sylwia Mildner-Szkudlarz; Erwin Wąsowicz

    2009-01-01

    The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas ...

  17. Discrimination of Aspergillus isolates at the species and strain level by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Justin M; Green, Brett J; Buskirk, Amanda D; Kashon, Michael L; Slaven, James E; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

    2008-09-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to generate highly reproducible mass spectral fingerprints for 12 species of fungi of the genus Aspergillus and 5 different strains of Aspergillus flavus. Prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis, the fungi were subjected to three 1-min bead beating cycles in an acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid solvent. The mass spectra contain abundant peaks in the range of 5 to 20kDa and may be used to discriminate between species unambiguously. A discriminant analysis using all peaks from the MALDI-TOF MS data yielded error rates for classification of 0 and 18.75% for resubstitution and cross-validation methods, respectively. If a subset of 28 significant peaks is chosen, resubstitution and cross-validation error rates are 0%. Discriminant analysis of the MALDI-TOF MS data for 5 strains of A. flavus using all peaks yielded error rates for classification of 0 and 5% for resubstitution and cross-validation methods, respectively. These data indicate that MALDI-TOF MS data may be used for unambiguous identification of members of the genus Aspergillus at both the species and strain levels.

  18. Effects of xylitol on xylitol-sensitive versus xylitol-resistant Streptococcus mutans strains in a three-species in vitro biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttinen, Aino M; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Saari, Markku A; Ihalin, Riikka A; Söderling, Eva M

    2012-09-01

    We studied the effects of xylitol on biofilms containing xylitol-resistant (Xr) and xylitol-sensitive (Xs) Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and S. sanguinis. The biofilms were grown for 8 and 24 h on hydroxyapatite discs. The viable microorganisms were determined by plate culturing techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed using a S. mutans-specific probe. Extracellular cell-bound polysaccharides (EPS) were determined by spectrofluorometry from single-species S. mutans biofilms. In the presence of 5 % xylitol, the counts of the Xs S. mutans decreased tenfold in the young (8 h) biofilm (p Xr strains, and FISH confirmed these results. No differences were detected in the EPS production of the Xs S. mutans grown with or without xylitol, nor between Xr and Xs S. mutans strains. Thus, it seems that xylitol did not affect the EPS synthesis of the S. mutans strains. Since the Xr S. mutans strains, not inhibited by xylitol, showed no xylitol-induced decrease in the biofilms, we conclude that growth inhibition could be responsible for the decrease of the counts of the Xs S. mutans strains in the clinically relevant young biofilms.

  19. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656 reveals the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of acarviostatin family α-amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Geng, P; Bai, F; Bai, G; Sun, T; Li, X; Shi, L; Zhong, Q

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study are to obtain the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656, which produces novel acarviostatin family α-amylase inhibitors, and then to reveal the putative acarviostatin-related gene cluster and the biosynthetic pathway. The draft genome sequence of S. coelicoflavus ZG0656 was generated using a shotgun approach employing a combination of 454 and Solexa sequencing technologies. Genome analysis revealed a putative gene cluster for acarviostatin biosynthesis, termed sct-cluster. The cluster contains 13 acarviostatin synthetic genes, six transporter genes, four starch degrading or transglycosylation enzyme genes and two regulator genes. On the basis of bioinformatic analysis, we proposed a putative biosynthetic pathway of acarviostatins. The intracellular steps produce a structural core, acarviostatin I00-7-P, and the extracellular assemblies lead to diverse acarviostatin end products. The draft genome sequence of S. coelicoflavus ZG0656 revealed the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of acarviostatins and a putative pathway of acarviostatin production. To our knowledge, S. coelicoflavus ZG0656 is the first strain in this species for which a genome sequence has been reported. The analysis of sct-cluster provided important insights into the biosynthesis of acarviostatins. This work will be a platform for producing novel variants and yield improvement. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Accumulation of thorium and uranium by microbes. The effect of pH, concentration of metals, and time course on the accumulation of both elements using streptomyces levoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takehiko

    2006-01-01

    The accumulation of thorium and uranium by various microorganisms from a solution containing both metals at pH 3.5 was examined. Among the tested species, a high accumulation ability for thorium was exhibited by strains of gram-positive bacteria, such as Arthrobacter nicotianae, Bacillus megaterium, B. subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Rhodococcus erythropolis, and Streptomyces levoris. Though uranium was accumulated in small amounts by most of microorganisms. A. nicotianae, S. flavoviridis, and S. levoris had relatively high uranium accumulation abilities. In these high performance thorium- and uranium-accumulating microorganisms, S. levoris, which accumulated the largest amount of uranium from the solution containing only uranium at pH 3.5, accumulated about 300 μmol thorium and 133 μmol uranium per gram dry weight of microbial cells from a solution containing both thorium and uranium at pH 3.5. The amount and time course of the thorium accumulation were almost unaffected by the co-existing uranium, while those of uranium were strongly affected by the co-existing thorium. The effects of pH, the thorium and uranium concentrations, and time course on both metal accumulations were also evaluated by numerical formulas. (author)

  1. Overexpression of afsR and Optimization of Metal Chloride to Improve Lomofungin Production in Streptomyces lomondensis S015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Huasheng; Hu, Hongbo; Peng, Huasong; Zhang, Xuehong

    2015-05-01

    As a global regulatory gene in Streptomyces, afsR can activate the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. The effect of afsR on the biosynthesis of a phenazine metabolite, lomofungin, was studied in Streptomyces lomondensis S015. There was a 2.5-fold increase of lomofungin production in the afsR-overexpressing strain of S. lomondensis S015 N1 compared with the wild-type strain. Meanwhile, the transcription levels of afsR and two important genes involved in the biosynthesis of lomofungin (i.e., phzC and phzE) were significantly upregulated in S. lomondensis S015 N1. The optimization of metal chlorides was investigated to further increase the production of lomofungin in the afsR-overexpressing strain. The addition of different metal chlorides to S. lomondensis S015 N1 cultivations showed that CaCl2, FeCl2, and MnCl2 led to an increase in lomofungin biosynthesis. The optimum concentrations of these metal chlorides were obtained using response surface methodology. CaCl2 (0.04 mM), FeCl2 (0.33 mM), and MnCl2 (0.38 mM) gave a maximum lomofungin production titer of 318.0 ± 10.7 mg/l, which was a 4.1-fold increase compared with that of S. lomondensis S015 N1 without the addition of a metal chloride. This work demonstrates that the biosynthesis of phenazine metabolites can be induced by afsR. The results also indicate that metal chlorides addition might be a simple and useful strategy for improving the production of other phenazine metabolites in Streptomyces.

  2. Differential Biofilm Formation and Chemical Disinfection Resistance of Sessile Cells of Listeria monocytogenes Strains under Monospecies and Dual-Species (with Salmonella enterica) Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostaki, Maria; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Braxou, Elli; Nychas, George-John

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible influence of bacterial intra- and interspecies interactions on the ability of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to develop mixed-culture biofilms on an abiotic substratum, as well as on the subsequent resistance of sessile cells to chemical disinfection. Initially, three strains from each species were selected and left to attach and form biofilms on stainless steel (SS) coupons incubated at 15°C for 144 h, in periodically renewable tryptone soy broth (TSB), under either monoculture or mixed-culture (mono-/dual-species) conditions. Following biofilm formation, mixed-culture sessile communities were subjected to 6-min disinfection treatments with (i) benzalkonium chloride (50 ppm), (ii) sodium hypochlorite (10 ppm), (iii) peracetic acid (10 ppm), and (iv) a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (5 ppm) and peracetic acid (5 ppm). Results revealed that both species reached similar biofilm counts (ca. 105 CFU cm−2) and that, in general, interspecies interactions did not have any significant effect either on the biofilm-forming ability (as this was assessed by agar plating enumeration of the mechanically detached biofilm bacteria) or on the antimicrobial resistance of each individual species. Interestingly, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis clearly showed that the three L. monocytogenes strains did not contribute at the same level either to the formation of mixed-culture sessile communities (mono-/dual species) or to their antimicrobial recalcitrance. Additionally, the simultaneous existence inside the biofilm structure of S. enterica cells seemed to influence the occurrence and resistance pattern of L. monocytogenes strains. In sum, this study highlights the impact of microbial interactions taking place inside a mixed-culture sessile community on both its population dynamics and disinfection resistance. PMID:22307304

  3. Kinetic analysis and modeling of daptomycin batch fermentation by Streptomyces roseosporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenyu; Fan, Jinghua; Wen, Jianping; Xia, Zhendong; Caiyin, Qinggele

    2011-02-01

    In this study, Streptomyces roseosporus was subjected to helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation to improve the production ability of extracellular antibiotic daptomycin. Under the optimum irradiation dosage of 18 mW for 22 min, a stable positive mutant strain S. roseosporus LC-54 was obtained. The maximum A21978C (daptomycin is a semisynthetic antimicrobial substance derived from the A21978C complex) yield of this mutant strain was 296 mg/l, which was 146% higher than that of the wild strain. The mutant strain grew more quickly and utilized carbohydrate sources more efficiently than the wild strain. The batch culture kinetics was investigated in a 7 l bioreactor. The logistic equation for growth, the Luedeking-Piret equation for daptomycin production, and Luedeking-Piret-like equations for carbon substrate consumption were established. This model appeared to provide a reasonable description for each parameter during the growth phase and fitted fairly well with the experiment data.

  4. DNAs from Brucella strains activate efficiently murine immune system with production of cytokines, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Zahra; Ardestani, Sussan K; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Kariminia, Amina; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi; Tavassoli, Nasser

    2009-09-01

    Brucellosis is an infectious disease with high impact on innate immune responses which is induced partly by its DNA. In the present study the potential differences of wild type and patients isolates versus attenuated vaccine strains in terms of cytokines, ROS and NO induction on murine splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. This panel varied in base composition and included DNA from B. abortus, B. melitensis, B.abortus strain S19 and melitensis strain Rev1, as attenuated live vaccine. Also we included Escherichia coli DNA, calf thymus DNA (a mammalian DNA), as controls. These DNA were evaluated for their ability to stimulate IL-12, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IFN-gamma and ROS production from spleenocytes as well as NO production from peritoneal macrophages. Spleen cells were cultured in 24 well at a concentration of 106 cells/ ml with subsequent addition of 10 microg/ml of Brucella or Ecoli DNAs. These cultures were incubated at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 for 5 days. Supernatants were harvested and cytokines, ROS and NOx were evaluated. It was observed that TNF-alpha was induced in days 1,3,5 by all Brucella strains DNAs and E. coli DNA, IL-10 only was induced in day 1, IFN- gamma was induced only in day 5 and IL-12 not induced. ROS and NOx were produced by all strains; however, we observed higher production of NOx which were stimulated by DNA of B. melitensis.

  5. Cephamycins, a New Family of β-Lactam Antibiotics I. Production by Actinomycetes, Including Streptomyces lactamdurans sp. n1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, E. O.; Jackson, M.; Hernandez, S.; Zimmerman, S. B.; Currie, S. A.; Mochales, S.; Mata, J. M.; Woodruff, H. B.; Hendlin, D.

    1972-01-01

    A number of actinomycetes isolated from soil were found to produce one or more members of a new family of antibiotics, the cephamycins, which are structurally related to cephalosporin C. The cephamycins were produced in submerged fermentation in a wide variety of media by one or more of eight different species of Streptomyces, including a newly described species, S. lactamdurans. These antibiotics exhibit antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria which includes many that are resistant to the cephalosporins and penicillins. PMID:4790552

  6. Characterization of the psychrotolerant acetogen strain SyrA5 and the emended description of the species Acetobacterium carbinolicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarup, Maiken; Friedrich, Michael W; Tindall, Brian J; Finster, Kai

    2006-01-01

    A psychrotolerant, obligate anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium designated strain SyrA5 was isolated from black anoxic sediment of a brackish fjord. Cells were Gram-positive, non-sporeforming rods. The isolate utilized H(2)/CO(2), CO, fructose, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, pyruvate, lactate, betaine and the methyl-groups of several methoxylated benzoic derivatives such as syringate, trimethoxybenzoate and vallinate. The optimum temperature for growth was 29 degrees C, whilst slow growth occurred at 2 degrees C. The strain grew optimally with NaCl concentrations below 2.7% (w/v), but growth occurred up to 4.3% (w/v) NaCl. Growth was observed in the range from pH 5.9 to 8.5, optimum at pH 8. The G+C content was 44.1 mol%. Based upon 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA reassociation studies, the organism was classified in the genus Acetobacterium. Strain SyrA5 shared a 16S rRNA sequence similarity with A. carbinolicum of 100%, a fthfs gene (which codes for the N5,N10 tetrahydrofolate synthetase) sequence identity of 98.5-98.7% (amino acid sequence similarities were 99.4-100%) and a RNA-DNA hybridization homology of 64-68%. Despite a number of phenotypic differences between strain SyrA5 and A. carbinolicum we propose including strain SyrA5 as a subspecies of A. carbinolicum for which we propose the name Acetobacterium carbinolicum subspecies kysingense. The type strain is SyrA5 (=DSM 16427(T), ATCC BAA-990).

  7. Sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to several new insecticides in China: effects of insecticide type and whitefly species, strain, and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Functional Genome Mining for Metabolites Encoded by Large Gene Clusters through Heterologous Expression of a Whole-Genome Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wang, Yemin; Zhao, Zhilong; Gao, Guixi; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Kang, Qianjin; He, Xinyi; Lin, Shuangjun; Pang, Xiuhua; Deng, Zixin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome sequencing projects in the last decade revealed numerous cryptic biosynthetic pathways for unknown secondary metabolites in microbes, revitalizing drug discovery from microbial metabolites by approaches called genome mining. In this work, we developed a heterologous expression and functional screening approach for genome mining from genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries in Streptomyces spp. We demonstrate mining from a strain of Streptomyces rochei, which is known to produce streptothricins and borrelidin, by expressing its BAC library in the surrogate host Streptomyces lividans SBT5, and screening for antimicrobial activity. In addition to the successful capture of the streptothricin and borrelidin biosynthetic gene clusters, we discovered two novel linear lipopeptides and their corresponding biosynthetic gene cluster, as well as a novel cryptic gene cluster for an unknown antibiotic from S. rochei. This high-throughput functional genome mining approach can be easily applied to other streptomycetes, and it is very suitable for the large-scale screening of genomic BAC libraries for bioactive natural products and the corresponding biosynthetic pathways. IMPORTANCE Microbial genomes encode numerous cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters for unknown small metabolites with potential biological activities. Several genome mining approaches have been developed to activate and bring these cryptic metabolites to biological tests for future drug discovery. Previous sequence-guided procedures relied on bioinformatic analysis to predict potentially interesting biosynthetic gene clusters. In this study, we describe an efficient approach based on heterologous expression and functional screening of a whole-genome library for the mining of bioactive metabolites from Streptomyces. The usefulness of this function-driven approach was demonstrated by the capture of four large biosynthetic gene clusters for metabolites of various chemical types, including

  9. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF STREPTOMYCES SPP. PRODUCING VANCOMYCIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-KABBANY, H.M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples obtained from different governments in Egypt were analyzed to determine the presence of types of antibiotic producing actinomycetes using starch-nitrite agar, starch-casein nitrate agar and Czapek's Dox agar as culture media. Different Streptomyces spp. were isolated. The Streptomyces (S.) isolates encountered were S. violochromogens, S. violaceus-nigar and S. orientalis and known as standard Vancomycin producers. The optimum conditions of S. orientalis; incubation period, initial pH and incubation temperature, were determined. In addition, physical properties; appearance, melting point, solubility, mass spectrophotometer of ultra violet (UV) and the effect of gamma rays, were also determined

  10. Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurm, Viola; van der Putten, W.H.; Pineda, A.M.; Hol, W.H.G.

    2018-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant–insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence

  11. Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurm, Viola; Putten, Van Der Wim H.; Pineda, Ana; Hol, G.W.H.

    2018-01-01

    • Background and Aims: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence

  12. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.Ya.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Pataraya, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO 3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO 3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  13. Genome Sequencing of Streptomyces atratus SCSIOZH16 and Activation Production of Nocardamine via Metabolic Engineering

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    Yan Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Actinomycetes are metabolically flexible microorganisms capable of producing a wide range of interesting compounds, including but by no means limited to, siderophores which have high affinity for ferric iron. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of marine-derived Streptomyces atratus ZH16 and the activation of an embedded siderophore gene cluster via the application of metabolic engineering methods. The S. atratus ZH16 genome reveals that this strain has the potential to produce 26 categories of natural products (NPs barring the ilamycins. Our activation studies revealed S. atratus SCSIO ZH16 to be a promising source of the production of nocardamine-type (desferrioxamine compounds which are important in treating acute iron intoxication and performing ecological remediation. We conclude that metabolic engineering provides a highly effective strategy by which to discover drug-like compounds and new NPs in the genomic era.

  14. Improved yields of daunomycinone glycosides in developmental mutants of Streptomyces coeruleorubidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumauerova, M.; Pokorny, V.; Stastna, J.; Hostalek, Z.; Vanek, Z.

    1978-01-01

    When improving Streptomyces coeruleorubidus JA 10092, a producer of antibiotics of the daunomycinone complex, the most active variants were found among isolates of morphological types bld-1 (with a suppressed production of the aerial mycelium on organic media containing glucose) and whi (with an asporogenic aerial mycelium on glucose media and with the bald phenotype on media containing starch). Submerged cultures of the whi mutants produced increased quantities of daunomycinone glycosides in the antibiotic complex, the amount of free anthracyclinones being simultaneously decreased. The whi strains differed from the wild type also in higher demands for aeration, concentration of glucose and in an increased production capacity in starch media. The overall antibiotic activity increased more than 40 times after a six-step selection (application of UV light, γ-radiation, nitrous acid and natural spreads) combined with an altered fermentation technology. (author)

  15. Plasticity of Streptomyces coelicolor membrane composition under different growth conditions and during development

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    Mario eSandoval-Calderón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces coelicolor is a model actinomycete that is well known for the diversity of its secondary metabolism and its complex life cycle. As a soil inhabitant, it is exposed to heterogeneous and frequently changing environmental circumstances. In the present work, we studied the effect of diverse growth conditions and phosphate depletion on its lipid profile and the relationship between membrane lipid composition and development in S. coelicolor. The lipid profile from cultures grown on solid media, which is closer to the natural habitat of this microorganism, does not resemble the previously reported lipid composition from liquid grown cultures of S. coelicolor. Wide variations were also observed across different media, growth phases, and developmental stages indicating active membrane remodeling. Ornithine lipids (OL are phosphorus-free polar lipids that were accumulated mainly during sporulation stages, but were also major components of the membrane under phosphorus limitation. In contrast, phosphatidylethanolamine, which had been reported as one of the major polar lipids in the genus Streptomyces, is almost absent under these conditions. We identified one of the genes responsible for the synthesis of OL (SCO0921 and found that its inactivation causes the absence of OL, precocious morphological development and actinorhodin production. Our observations indicate a remarkable plasticity of the membrane composition in this bacterial species, reveal a higher metabolic complexity than expected, and suggest a relationship between cytoplasmic membrane components and the differentiation programs in S. coelicolor.

  16. Differences in sexual size dimorphism among farmed tilapia species and strains undergoing genetic improvement for body weight

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    C.E. Lind

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many tilapia (Oreochromis spp. farmers produce all-male populations because of the superior growth rate of males compared to females. To investigate differences in body weight at harvest of males and females among different tilapia strains, we analyzed data from 62,787 individuals collected from pedigreed breeding programs of O. niloticus (GIFT from Malaysia, the Abbassa line from Egypt, and the Akosombo line from Ghana, O. shiranus (the Bunda College-Domasi selection line, O. aureus (a selection line under development in Abbassa, Egypt, and a selection line from Israel and a synthetic selection line of Red tilapia under development in Jitra, Malaysia, derived from stock from Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand (O. sp.. Mixed models were separately fitted to the data from each selection line. There was a significant sex effect in all strains (P < 0.001. A significant (P < 0.001 sex by generation interaction was observed in all strains (scale effect, not reversal of rankings, except Red tilapia and O. shiranus. Least squares means showed a large range in the magnitude of body weight differences between sexes across the seven strains. The largest percentage difference between females and males was in O. aureus from Egypt (female body weight was 52.2% that of males at harvest, whereas the smallest difference was observed in the GIFT strain of O. niloticus (female body weight 84.7% that of males. Female to male body weight percentages for Red tilapia, O. shiranus, Egypt O. niloticus, Israeli O. aureus and Ghana O. niloticus were 81.3, 81.0, 69.1, 61.7 and 61.0, respectively. We discuss the results in relation to the potential productivity improvements due to superior growth rates of all-male culture compared to mixed-sex culture in tilapia populations differing in the female to male body weight ratio.

  17. Cuevaenes C–E: Three new triene carboxylic derivatives from Streptomyces sp. LZ35ΔgdmAI

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    Jing-Jing Deng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two pairs of geometrical isomers – cuevaenes A (1 and C (3 as well as cuevaenes D (4 and E (5 – and cuevaene B (2 were isolated from gdmAI-disrupted Streptomyces sp. LZ35. The constitution of cuevaene C (3 was found to be identical to cuevaene A (1 by means of NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. However, the relative configurations of the triene side chain moieties were determined to be different. It was established on the basis of spectroscopic data that cuevaenes D (4 and E (5 are amides and geometrical isomers. Cuevaenes A–C (1–3 displayed moderate activity against Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC 11060 and modest activity against fungi (e.g., Fusarium verticillioides strain S68 and Rhizoctonia solani strain GXE4. However, cuevaenes D (4 and E (5 showed no inhibitory activity against any of the tested microbes.

  18. Genome-wide comparison and taxonomic relatedness of multiple Xylella fastidiosa strains reveal the occurrence of three subspecies and a new Xylella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    A total of 21 Xylella fastidiosa strains were assessed by comparing their genomes to infer their taxonomic relationships. The whole-genome-based average nucleotide identity and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficient analyses were performed. In addition, a consensus tree based on comparisons of 956 core gene families, and a genome-wide phylogenetic tree and a Neighbor-net network were constructed with 820,088 nucleotides (i.e., approximately 30-33 % of the entire X. fastidiosa genome). All approaches revealed the occurrence of three well-demarcated genetic clusters that represent X. fastidiosa subspecies fastidiosa, multiplex and pauca, with the latter appeared to diverge. We suggest that the proposed but never formally described subspecies 'sandyi' and 'morus' are instead members of the subspecies fastidiosa. These analyses support the view that the Xylella strain isolated from Pyrus pyrifolia in Taiwan is likely to be a new species. A widely used multilocus sequence typing analysis yielded conflicting results.

  19. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Clement, Suzette; Peacock, Beth; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure ('die-off'), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex were isolated from these soils and found to be pathogenic on B. tectorum seeds. One of these strains was produced in cheatgrass seed culture to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxins. Six metabolites were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods (essentially 1D and 2D NMR and ESIMS) as acuminatopyrone (1), blumenol A (2), chlamydosporol (3), isochlamydosporol (4), ergosterol (5) and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (6). Upon testing against B. tectorum in a seedling bioassay, (6) the coleoptile and radicle length of cheatgrass seedlings were significantly reduced. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate activity, while 3-5 were not significantly different from the control.

  20. Petroleum degradation by endophytic Streptomyces spp. isolated from plants grown in contaminated soil of southern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoune, Hafida; Ould El Hadj-Khelil, Aminata; Pucci, Graciela; Sineli, Pedro; Loucif, Lotfi; Polti, Marta Alejandra

    2018-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are well known by their high toxicity and recalcitrant properties. Their increasing utilization around worldwide led to environmental contamination. Phytoremediation using plant-associated microbe is an interesting approach for petroleum degradation and actinobacteria have a great potential for that. For this purpose, our study aimed to isolate, characterize, and assess the ability of endophytic actinobacteria to degrade crude petroleum, as well as to produce plant growth promoting traits. Seventeen endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from roots of plants grown naturally in sandy contaminated soil. Among them, six isolates were selected on the basis of their tolerance to petroleum on solid minimal medium and characterized by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. All petroleum-tolerant isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus. Determination by crude oil degradation by gas chromatorgraph-flame ionization detector revealed that five strains could use petroleum as sole carbon and energy source and the petroleum removal achieved up to 98% after 7 days of incubation. These isolates displayed an important role in the degradation of the n-alkanes (C 6 -C 30 ), aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All strains showed a wide range of plant growth promoting features such as siderophores, phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, nitrogen fixation and indole-3-acetic acid production as well as biosurfactant production. This is the first study highlighting the petroleum degradation ability and plant growth promoting attributes of endophytic Streptomyces. The finding suggests that the endophytic actinobacteria isolated are promising candidates for improving phytoremediation efficiency of petroleum contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation, screening and partial purification of antimicrobial antibiotics from soil Streptomyces sp. SCA 7

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    P. Saravana Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven actinomycetes strains were isolated from soil samples collected from an agriculture field in Vengodu, Thiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, India (latitude: 12° 54′ 0033″, North; longitude: 79° 78′ 5216″, East; elevation: 228.6/70.0 ft/m. The isolates were assessed for antagonistic activity against five Gram-positive bacteria, seven Gram-negative bacteria, and two pathogenic fungi. During the initial screening, 43% of the strains showed weak activity, 16% showed moderate activity, 5% showed good activity, and 35% showed no antagonistic activity. Among the strains tested, SCA 7 showed strong antimicrobial activity. Maximum biological activity was obtained on modified nutrient glucose agar (MNGA medium. The mycelia of SCA 7 were extracted with methanol and tested against microbial pathogens using the disc diffusion method. The crude extract was purified partially using column chromatography and assessed for antimicrobial activity. Fraction 10 showed good activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (31.25 μg/mL and Malassezia pachydermatis (500 μg/mL and the active principle (fraction 10 was identified as 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl phenol. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, cultural, and molecular characteristics (16S rDNA sequencing, this strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. SCA 7. It could be used in the development of new substances for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.