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Sample records for streptococcus mutans streptococcus

  1. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  2. Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    763512/715242 Final Report U VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS U Samuel Rosen Department of Oral Biology For the Period April 1, 1983 - June 30...00 FINAL REPORT VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS Sam Rosen, Irving Shklair, E. X. Beck and F. M. Beck Ohio State University Columbus,Oh and...206-212. Johnson CP, Gorss S, Hillman JD (1978). Cariogenic properties of LDH deficient mutants of streptococcus mutans . J Dent Res 57, Special Issue

  3. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-29

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Streptococcus oligofermentans inhibits Streptococcus mutans in biofilms at both neutral pH and cariogenic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; de Soet, J.J.; Tong, H.; Gao, X.; He, L.; van Loveren, C.; Deng, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide

  5. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6- 3 H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  6. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase on planktonic Streptococcus mutans cells and Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Crielaard, W.; ten Cate, J.M.; Wever, R.; Hartog, A.F.; Renirie, R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase (VCPO) reaction products on planktonic and biofilm cellsof Streptococcus mutans C180-2. Planktonic and biofilm cells were incubated in a buffered reaction mixture containing VCPO, halide (either chloride

  8. Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, FC; Assev, S; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Scheie, AA

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the

  9. Acidogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoesser, L.; Kneist, S.; Tumovec, M.; Katzmann, M.

    1988-01-01

    The growth kinetic parameters of S. mutans OMZ 176 culture as well as the 32 PO 4 uptake, as a measure of living cell mass, and the acid production rate by germ suspensions in a pH-stat technique were estimated. Subsequently, the acidogenicity of 20 S. mutans strains, other oral streptococci and dental plaque was measured and compared taking into consideration the growth kinetic dependence of studied activities. The strains OMZ 176 and OMZ 65 exhibited the most acidogenic properties whereas FA 1 produced 3.6 times less acid. (author)

  10. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Functional amyloid formation by Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oli, M. W.; Otoo, H. N.; Crowley, P. J.; Heim, K. P.; Nascimento, M. M.; Ramsook, C. B.; Lipke, P. N.

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a common infectious disease associated with acidogenic and aciduric bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. Organisms that cause cavities form recalcitrant biofilms, generate acids from dietary sugars and tolerate acid end products. It has recently been recognized that micro-organisms can produce functional amyloids that are integral to biofilm development. We now show that the S. mutans cell-surface-localized adhesin P1 (antigen I/II, PAc) is an amyloid-forming protein. This conclusion is based on the defining properties of amyloids, including binding by the amyloidophilic dyes Congo red (CR) and Thioflavin T (ThT), visualization of amyloid fibres by transmission electron microscopy and the green birefringent properties of CR-stained protein aggregates when viewed under cross-polarized light. We provide evidence that amyloid is present in human dental plaque and is produced by both laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S. mutans. We provide further evidence that amyloid formation is not limited to P1, since bacterial colonies without this adhesin demonstrate residual green birefringence. However, S. mutans lacking sortase, the transpeptidase enzyme that mediates the covalent linkage of its substrates to the cell-wall peptidoglycan, including P1 and five other proteins, is not birefringent when stained with CR and does not form biofilms. Biofilm formation is inhibited when S. mutans is cultured in the presence of known inhibitors of amyloid fibrillization, including CR, Thioflavin S and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which also inhibited ThT uptake by S. mutans extracellular proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that S. mutans is an amyloid-forming organism and suggest that amyloidogenesis contributes to biofilm formation by this oral microbe. PMID:23082034

  12. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2007-01-01

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

  13. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

  14. Novel metabolic activity indicator in Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, D.M.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of micro-organisms in biofilms requires novel strategies to evaluate the efficacy of caries preventive agents in actual biofilms. Hence we investigated fluorescence intensity (FI) in Streptococcus mutans biofilms constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

  15. Interactions between Oral Bacteria: Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bing-Yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacterio...

  16. Lactam inhibiting Streptococcus mutans growth on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, J.G.; Geremias, T.C.; Montero, J.F.D. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Vahey, B.R. [Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, 925 W 34 St, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Benfatti, C.A.M.; Souza, J.C.M.; Magini, R.S. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Pimenta, A.L., E-mail: andrea@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Biologia, ERRMECe, Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2, Av. Adolphe Chauvin 95302 Cergy, Pontoise (France); Integrated Laboratories Technologies (InteLab), Dept. Chemical and Food Engineering (EQA), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-970 (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of novel synthetic lactams on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. Titanium (Ti6Al4V) samples were exposed to Streptococcus mutans cultures in the presence or absence of a synthetic lactam. After 48 h incubation, planktonic growth was determined by spectrophotometry. Biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and colony forming units (CFU·ml{sup −1}), followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the average of adhered viable cells was approximately 1.5 × 10{sup 2} CFU/ml in the presence of lactam and 4 × 10{sup 2} CFU/ml in its absence. This novel compound was considerable active in reducing biofilm formation over titanium surfaces, indicating its potential for the development of antimicrobial drugs targeting the inhibition of the initial stages of bacterial biofilms on dental implants abutments. - Highlights: • A novel synthetic compound is tested on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces • Biofilm inhibition has been achieved on titanium surfaces containing the novel compound. • Planktonic growth of S. mutans was not affected by the presence of lactams on titanium.

  17. Lactam inhibiting Streptococcus mutans growth on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, J.G.; Geremias, T.C.; Montero, J.F.D.; Vahey, B.R.; Benfatti, C.A.M.; Souza, J.C.M.; Magini, R.S.; Pimenta, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of novel synthetic lactams on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. Titanium (Ti6Al4V) samples were exposed to Streptococcus mutans cultures in the presence or absence of a synthetic lactam. After 48 h incubation, planktonic growth was determined by spectrophotometry. Biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and colony forming units (CFU·ml −1 ), followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the average of adhered viable cells was approximately 1.5 × 10 2 CFU/ml in the presence of lactam and 4 × 10 2 CFU/ml in its absence. This novel compound was considerable active in reducing biofilm formation over titanium surfaces, indicating its potential for the development of antimicrobial drugs targeting the inhibition of the initial stages of bacterial biofilms on dental implants abutments. - Highlights: • A novel synthetic compound is tested on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces • Biofilm inhibition has been achieved on titanium surfaces containing the novel compound. • Planktonic growth of S. mutans was not affected by the presence of lactams on titanium.

  18. Comparing the cariogenic species Streptococcus sobrinus and S. mutans on whole genome level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrads, G.; de Soet, J.J.; Song, L.; Henne, K.; Sztajer, H.; Wagner-Döbler, I.; Zeng, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two closely related species of mutans streptococci, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, are associated with dental caries in humans. Their acidogenic and aciduric capacity is directly associated with the cariogenic potential of these bacteria. To survive acidic and

  19. Interactions between oral bacteria: inhibition of Streptococcus mutans bacteriocin production by Streptococcus gordonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing-Yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacteriocin production both in broth and in biofilms. The inhibition of S. mutans bacteriocin production by oral bacteria was stronger in biofilms than in broth. Using transposon Tn916 mutagenesis, we identified a gene (sgc; named for Streptococcus gordonii challisin) responsible for the inhibition of S. mutans bacteriocin production by S. gordonii Challis. Interruption of the sgc gene in S. gordonii Challis resulted in attenuated inhibition of S. mutans bacteriocin production. The supernatant fluids from the sgc mutant did not inactivate the exogenous S. mutans CSP as did those from the parent strain Challis. S. gordonii Challis did not inactivate bacteriocin produced by S. mutans GS5. Because S. mutans uses quorum sensing to regulate virulence, strategies designed to interfere with these signaling systems may have broad applicability for biological control of this caries-causing organism.

  20. Cariogenicity features of Streptococcus mutans in presence of rubusoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jinpu; Zhang, Tieting; He, Kexin

    2016-05-11

    One promising way of reducing caries is by using sucrose substitutes in food. rubusoside is a prototype sweet substance isolated from the leaves of the plant Rubrus suavissimus S. Lee. (Rosaceae), and is rated sweeter than sucrose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rubusoside on Streptococcus mutans growth, acidogenicity, and adherence to glass in vitro. The effects of rubusoside on the growth and glass surface adhering of Streptococcus mutans were investigated by measuring the optical density of the culture at 540 nm with a spectrophotometer. Rubusoside influence on Streptococcus mutans acidogenicity was determined by measuring the pH of the culture. Sucrose, glucose, maltose, fructose and xylitol were designed to compare with rubusoside. S. mutans growth in the rubusoside-treated group was significantly lower than that in the sucrose, glucose, maltose and fructose groups (p  0.05). Sucrose-treated S. mutans exhibited the highest adherence to glass, and rubusoside-treated S. mutans exhibited the lowest. S. mutans adherence to a glass surface and acidogenicity with sucrose were significantly reduced by rubusoside. Rubusoside may have some potential as a non-cariogenic, non-caloric sweetener.

  1. Magnetic response in cultures of Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, V W; Bassous, C; Morency, D; Lorrain, P; Lepage, J L

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607 produces exopolysaccharides that adhere to glass. In the normal geomagnetic field about 50% more polysaccharide adhere preferentially to glass surfaces facing North as compared to South facing surfaces. Reversal of the direction of the magnetic field by 180 degrees produces a similar reversal in the direction of the preferential accumulation. Reduction of the field by 90% abolishes the preferential accumulation.

  2. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  3. Influence of pH on inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chu, Lei; Wu, Fei; Guo, Lili; Li, Mengci; Wang, Yinghui; Wu, Ligeng

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is a novel strain of oral streptococcus that can specifically inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The aims of this study were to assess the growth of S. oligofermentans and the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans at different pH values. Growth inhibition was investigated in vitro using an interspecies competition assay. The 4-aminoantipyine method was used to measure the initial production rate and the total yield of hydrogen peroxide in S. oligofermentans. S. oligofermentans grew best at pH 7.0 and showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect when it was inoculated earlier than S. mutans. In terms of the total yield and the initial production rate of hydrogen peroxide by S. oligofermentans, the effects of the different culture pH values were as follows: pH 7.0 > 6.5 > 6.0 > 7.5 > 5.5 = 8.0 (i.e. there was no significant difference between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0). Environmental pH and the sequence of inoculation significantly affected the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit the growth of S. mutans. The degree of inhibition may be attributed to the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Distribusi Streptococcus mutans pada Tepi Tumpatan Glass Ionomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muthalib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries always occurs as a result of the filling not being hermetically. Purposes of this research is to prove whether there is a leak on the border of the tooth enamel and border between the Glass-ionomer filling with the Streptococcus mutans infection with parameter of SMAAPPI (Simplified S. mutans Approximal Plaque Index by Keeni et al, 1981. The subject of the research were 20 patients who came to the Dental Clinic at University of Indonesia with criteria possessing Glass-ionomer filling at the lower jaws. Collection of the samples were dental plaque gathered using a 1.5 mm excavator to scrape one way direction from the enamel, along the border between the enamel and Glass-ionomer filling and Glass-ionomer filling's surface. Isolation with medium transport sem-synthetic Cariostat and TSY20B and identification by using biochemical test. isolated colony strain local Streptococcus mutans from enamel, the border enamel and Glass-ionomer and the surface of the Glass-ionomer. The results were Streptococcus mutans were found from enamel 3006 colonies, on the border between the enamel and Glass-ionomer 143 colonies and on the surface of the Glss-ionomer 7291 colonies. Amoung of Streptococcus mutans colony obtained on the border of the enamel and Glass-ionomer were smaller compared to the surface of the Glass-ionomer and tooth enamel. Concluded that the leak of the filling was not caused by the number of distributed Streptooccus mutans colonies on the side, because the fluoroapatite fastener occurred due to the Glass-ionomer releasing in fluor along the border of the filling.

  5. Inhibitory effects of antiseptic mouthrinses on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A; Leishman, S J; Walsh, L J; Seow, W K

    2015-06-01

    Oral antiseptics are valuable in controlling oral infections caused by cariogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mouthrinses and pure antiseptic compounds on Streptococcus mutans and non-mutans bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus). The agar diffusion assay was employed to determine bacterial growth inhibition. Commercial mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05%) and sodium fluoride (0.05%) produced statistically similar growth inhibition of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus (with zones of inhibition ranging from 7.56 ± 0.52 mm to 7.39 ± 0.53 mm, 17.44 ± 0.94 mm to 18.31 ± 0.62 mm and 8.61 ± 1.43 to 8.67 ± 1.43 mm respectively, p > 0.05). The chlorhexidine mouthwash produced the greatest mean growth inhibition of S. sanguinis and S. mutans compared to all other mouthrinses tested (p mutans could be detected were chlorhexidine gluconate at 0.005% (wt/vol), cetylpyridinium chloride 0.01% (wt/ vol), povidone iodine 10% (wt/vol) and sodium hypochlorite 0.5% (vol/vol). Chlorhexidine (0.01%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.01%), povidone iodine (10%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) are effective at inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Transcriptional Analysis of the bgIP Gene from Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-21

    bglP gene from Streptococcus mutans Christopher K Cote1,2 and Allen L Honeyman*1,3 Address: 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology... Streptococcus mutans . A potential ribonucleic antitermination (RAT) site to which the LicT protein would potentially bind has been identified immediately...longisporum [3], Lactobacillus plantarium [4], Bacillus subtilis [5,6], and Streptococcus mutans [7]. All of these organisms rely on the phosphoe

  7. Preventive measures to reduce the transfer of Streptococcus mutans from pregnant women to their babies†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Güler

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Streptococcus mutans is commonly transferred from mothers to their babies, and the preventive program applied to the pregnant women reduced both the amount of plaque and S. mutans colonization and thus had a positive effect.

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid inhibits biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Bum; Baik, Jung Eun; Park, Ok-Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-dependent oral disease and Streptococcus mutans is the known primary etiologic agent of dental caries that initiates biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. Although some Lactobacillus strains inhibit biofilm formation of oral pathogenic bacteria, the molecular mechanisms by which lactobacilli inhibit bacterial biofilm formation are not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA) inhibited the biofilm formation of S. mutans on polystyrene plates, hydroxyapatite discs, and dentin slices without affecting the bacterial growth. Lp.LTA interferes with sucrose decomposition of S. mutans required for the production of exopolysaccharide, which is a main component of biofilm. Lp.LTA also attenuated the biding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran to S. mutans, which is known to have a high affinity to exopolysaccharide on S. mutans. Dealanylated Lp.LTA did not inhibit biofilm formation of S. mutans implying that D-alanine moieties in the Lp.LTA structure were crucial for inhibition. Collectively, these results suggest that Lp.LTA attenuates S. mutans biofilm formation and could be used to develop effective anticaries agents. PMID:29420616

  9. Corrosion of dental alloys in artificial saliva with Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunhui; Zheng, Yuanli; Zhong, Qun

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study of the corrosion resistance of CoCr and NiCr alloys in artificial saliva (AS) containing tryptic soy broth (Solution 1) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) species (Solution 2) was performed by electrochemical methods, including open circuit potential measurements, impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization. The adherence of S. mutans to the NiCr and CoCr alloy surfaces immersed in Solution 2 for 24 h was verified by scanning electron microscopy, while the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed the importance of biofilm formation for the corrosion process. The R(QR) equivalent circuit was successfully used to fit the data obtained for the AS mixture without S. mutans, while the R(Q(R(QR))) circuit was found to be more suitable for describing the biofilm properties after treatment with the AS containing S. mutans species. In addition, a negative shift of the open circuit potential with immersion time was observed for all samples regardless of the solution type. Both alloys exhibited higher charge transfer resistance after treatment with Solution 2, and lower corrosion current densities were detected for all samples in the presence of S. mutans. The obtained results suggest that the biofilm formation observed after 24 h of exposure to S. mutans bacteria might enhance the corrosion resistance of the studied samples by creating physical barriers that prevented oxygen interactions with the metal surfaces.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Bixa orellana L. (achiote) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dyanne Medina-Flores; Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Rosella Camere-Colarossi; Stefany Caballero-Garca; Frank Mayta-Tovalino; Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of Bixa orellana L. (B. orellana) (achiote) methanol extract against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods: Two methanol extracts of B. orellana were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and leaves. The antibacterial activity of extracts against S. mutans and S. sanguinis was evaluated using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concen-tration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method and the cytotoxic activity was determinated by using the cell line MDCK. Results: A stronger antibacterial effect was observed with the leaves methanolic extract with an inhibition zone of (19.97 ± 1.31) mm against S. mutans and (19.97 ± 1.26) mm against S. sanguinis. The methanolic extract of the seeds had an activity of (15.11 ± 1.03) mm and (16.15 ± 2.15) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The MIC of the leaf and the seed extracts against S. sanguinis was 62.5 and 125 mg/mL, respectively, and the MIC of the leaf extract against S. mutans was 62.5 mg/mL, and for the seed extract it was 31.25 mg/mL. The 50%cytotoxic concentration was 366.45 and 325.05 mg/mL for the leaves and seeds extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanolic extract of B. orellana (achiote) on S. mutans and S. sanguinis. The extract of this plant is cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  11. Streptococcus oligofermentans Inhibits Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms at Both Neutral pH and Cariogenic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xudong; de Soet, Johannes Jacob; Tong, Huichun; Gao, Xuejun; He, Libang; van Loveren, Cor; Deng, Dong Mei

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (HP). Since pH is a critical factor in caries formation, we aimed to study the influence of pH on the competition between S. oligofermentans and S. mutans in biofilms. To this end, S. mutans and S. oligofermentans were inoculated alone or mixed at 1:1 ratio in buffered biofilm medium in a 96-well active attachment model. The single- and dual-species biofilms were grown under either constantly neutral pH or pH-cycling conditions. The latter includes two cycles of 8 h neutral pH and 16 h pH 5.5, used to mimic cariogenic condition. The 48 h biofilms were analysed for the viable cell counts, lactate and HP production. The last two measurements were carried out after incubating the 48 h biofilms in buffers supplemented with 1% glucose (pH 7.0) for 4 h. The results showed that S. oligofermentans inhibited the growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms under both tested pH conditions. The lactic acid production of dual-species biofilms was significantly lower than that of single-species S. mutans biofilms. Moreover, dual-species and single-species S. oligofermentans biofilms grown under pH-cycling conditions (with a 16 h low pH period) produced a significantly higher amount of HP than those grown under constantly neutral pH. In conclusion, S. oligofermentans inhibited S. mutans in biofilms not only under neutral pH, but also under pH-cycling conditions, likely through HP production. S. oligofermentans may be a compelling probiotic candidate against caries.

  12. Role of Streptococcus mutans surface proteins for biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiyo Matsumoto-Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as a primary causative agent of dental caries in humans. An important virulence property of the bacterium is its ability to form biofilm known as dental plaque on tooth surfaces. In addition, this organism also produces glucosyltransferases, multiple glucan-binding proteins, protein antigen c, and collagen-binding protein, surface proteins that coordinate to produce dental plaque, thus inducing dental caries. Bacteria utilize quorum-sensing systems to modulate environmental stress responses. A major mechanism of response to signals is represented by the so called two-component signal transduction system, which enables bacteria to regulate their gene expression and coordinate activities in response to environmental stress. As for S. mutans, a signal peptide-mediated quorum-sensing system encoded by comCDE has been found to be a regulatory system that responds to cell density and certain environmental stresses by excreting a peptide signal molecule termed CSP (competence-stimulating peptide. One of its principal virulence factors is production of bacteriocins (peptide antibiotics referred to as mutacins. Two-component signal transduction systems are commonly utilized by bacteria to regulate bacteriocin gene expression and are also related to biofilm formation by S. mutans. Keywords: Streptococcus mutans, Surface proteins, Biofilm, Signal transduction

  13. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  14. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20. Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  15. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianhui; Huang Jun; Lv Guohua; Liu Xiaodi; Peng Lei; Guo Lihong; Chen Wei; Feng Kecheng; Yang Size

    2009-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O 2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals

  16. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Huang, Jun; Liu, Xiaodi; Peng, Lei; Guo, Lihong; Lv, Guohua; Chen, Wei; Feng, Kecheng; Yang, Si-ze

    2009-03-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals.

  17. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C-C; Lin, C-T; Wu, C-Y; Peng, W-S; Lee, M-J; Tsai, Y-C

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries arises from an imbalance of metabolic activities in dental biofilms developed primarily by Streptococcus mutans. This study was conducted to isolate potential oral probiotics with antagonistic activities against S. mutans biofilm formation from Lactobacillus salivarius, frequently found in human saliva. We analysed 64 L. salivarius strains and found that two, K35 and K43, significantly inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation with inhibitory activities more pronounced than those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a prototypical probiotic that shows anti-caries activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that co-culture of S. mutans with K35 or K43 resulted in significantly reduced amounts of attached bacteria and network-like structures, typically comprising exopolysaccharides. Spot assay for S. mutans indicated that K35 and K43 strains possessed a stronger bactericidal activity against S. mutans than LGG. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of genes encoding glucosyltransferases, gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD was reduced when S. mutans were co-cultured with K35 or K43. However, LGG activated the expression of gtfB and gtfC, but did not influence the expression of gtfD in the co-culture. A transwell-based biofilm assay indicated that these lactobacilli inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation in a contact-independent manner. In conclusion, we identified two L. salivarius strains with inhibitory activities on the growth and expression of S. mutans virulence genes to reduce its biofilm formation. This is not a general characteristic of the species, so presents a potential strategy for in vivo alteration of plaque biofilm and caries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Kamuthachad, Ludthawun; Anthapanya, Methinee; Samakchan, Natthapon; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Potup, Pachuen; Ferrante, Antonio; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2016-04-01

    Although kaffir lime has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antileukemic activity, little is known about the antimicrobial effect of kaffir lime extract. Because Streptococcus mutans has been known to cause biofilm formation, it has been considered the most important causative pathogen of dental caries. Thus, the effective control of its effects on the oral biofilm is the key to the prevention of dental caries. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on biofilm formation and its antibacterial activity on S. mutans. We examined the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. For the investigation we used a kaffir lime extract with high phenolic content. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract was determined by broth microdilution assay. The inhibitory effect of the test substances on biofilm formation was also investigated by biofilm formation assay and qRT-PCR of biofilm formation-associated genes. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits the growth of S. mutans, corresponding to the activity of an antibiotic, ampicillin. Formation of biofilm by S. mutans was also inhibited by the extract. These results were confirmed by the down-regulation of genes associated with the biofilm formation. The findings highlight the ability of kaffir lime leaves extract to inhibit S. mutans activity, which may be beneficial in the prevention of biofilm formation on dental surface, reducing dental plaque and decreasing the chance of dental carries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In silico analysis of the competition between Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans in the dental biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdebenito, B; Tullume-Vergara, P O; González, W; Kreth, J; Giacaman, R A

    2018-04-01

    During dental caries, the dental biofilm modifies the composition of the hundreds of involved bacterial species. Changing environmental conditions influence competition. A pertinent model to exemplify the complex interplay of the microorganisms in the human dental biofilm is the competition between Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans. It has been reported that children and adults harbor greater numbers of S. sanguinis in the oral cavity, associated with caries-free teeth. Conversely, S. mutans is predominant in individuals with a high number of carious lesions. Competition between both microorganisms stems from the production of H 2 O 2 by S. sanguinis and mutacins, a type of bacteriocins, by S. mutans. There is limited evidence on how S. sanguinis survives its own H 2 O 2 levels, or if it has other mechanisms that might aid in the competition against S. mutans, nonetheless. We performed a genomic and metabolic pathway comparison, coupled with a comprehensive literature review, to better understand the competition between these two species. Results indicated that S. sanguinis can outcompete S. mutans by the production of an enzyme capable of metabolizing H 2 O 2 . S. mutans, however, lacks the enzyme and is susceptible to the peroxide from S. sanguinis. In addition, S. sanguinis can generate energy through gluconeogenesis and seems to have evolved different communication mechanisms, indicating that novel proteins may be responsible for intra-species communication. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of Lectins on initial attachment of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Yasuyoshi; Ito, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2018-02-01

    Oral bacteria initiate biofilm formation by attaching to tooth surfaces via an interaction of a lectin-like bacterial protein with carbohydrate chains on the pellicle. This study aimed to find naturally derived lectins that inhibit the initial attachment of a cariogenic bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), to carbohydrate chains in saliva in vitro. Seventy kinds of lectins were screened for candidate motifs that inhibit the attachment of S. mutans ATCC 25175 to a saliva-coated culture plate. The inhibitory effect of the lectins on attachment of the S. mutans to the plates was quantified by crystal violet staining, and the biofilm was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis was performed to examine the binding of S. mutans to carbohydrate chains and the binding of candidate lectins to carbohydrate chains, respectively. Moreover, binding assay between the biotinylated-lectins and the saliva components was conducted to measure the lectin binding. Lectins recognizing a salivary carbohydrate chain, Galβ1-3GalNAc, inhibited the binding of S. mutans to the plate. In particular, Agaricus bisporus agglutinin (ABA) markedly inhibited the binding. This inhibition was confirmed by SEM observation. SPR analysis indicated that S. mutans strongly binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc, and ABA binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc. Finally, the biotinylated Galβ1-3GalNAc-binding lectins including ABA demonstrated marked binding to the saliva components. These results suggest that ABA lectin inhibited the attachment of S. mutans to Galβ1-3GalNAc in saliva and ABA can be useful as a potent inhibitor for initial attachment of oral bacteria and biofilm formation.

  1. Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Beom-Su; Keum, Ki-Suk; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoi; Chang, Byoung-Soo; Ra, Ji-Young; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Seo, Bo-Ra; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) has been used as a spice in foods and as an antimicrobial in Oriental medicine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation. First, the inhibitory effects of C. longa essential oil on the growth and acid production of S. mutans were tested. Next, the effect of C. longa essential oil on adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) was investigated. C. longa essential oil inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL. The essential oil also exhibited significant inhibition of S. mutans adherence to S-HAs at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. The essential oil of C. longa inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. The components of C. longa essential oil were then analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the major components were α-turmerone (35.59%), germacrone (19.02%), α-zingiberene (8.74%), αr-turmerone (6.31%), trans-β-elemenone (5.65%), curlone (5.45%), and β-sesquiphellandrene (4.73%). These results suggest that C. longa may inhibit the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. In-vitro efficacy of different morphology zinc oxide nanopowders on Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Bakhori, Siti Khadijah; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ling, Chuo Ann; Sirelkhatim, Amna Hassan; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Abd Rahman, Rosliza

    2017-09-01

    ZnO with two different morphologies were used to study the inhibition of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans which are closely associated with tooth cavity. Rod-like shaped ZnO-A and plate-like shaped ZnO-B were produced using a zinc boiling furnace. The nanopowders were characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to confirm the properties of the ZnO polycrystalline wurtzite structures. XRD results show that the calculated crystallite sizes of ZnO-A and ZnO-B were 36.6 and 39.4nm, respectively, whereas DLS revealed particle size distributions of 21.82nm (ZnO-A) and 52.21nm (ZnO-B). PL spectra showed ion vacancy defects related to green and red luminescence for both ZnO particles. These defects evolved during the generation of reactive oxygen species which contributed to the antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was investigated using microdilution technique towards S. sobrinus and S. mutans at different nanopowder concentrations. Results showed that ZnO-A exhibited higher inhibition on both bacteria compared with ZnO-B. Moreover, S. mutans was more sensitive compared with S. sobrinus because of its higher inhibition rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Different bacteriocin activities of Streptococcus mutans reflect distinct phylogenetic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, M; Simmonds, RS; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A-D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism...... described by Caufield and co-workers. One of the New Zealand isolates of group A (S. mutans strain N) appeared to produce inhibitory activity similar to that of the group I prototype strain UA140. Four other New Zealand isolates of group B (S. mutans strains M19, M34, B34 and D14) had mutacin II......-like activity. The group B mutacin producers differed from the group A mutacin producers in their additional activity against Staph. aureus 46. Seven S. mutans strains (M46, B46, B57, M12, M28, B28 and 13M) were distinguished from the group A and group B mutacin producers in that they inhibited E. faecium TE1...

  4. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Ren, Biao; He, Jinzhi; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans , and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers.

  5. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A.; Wiener, Howard W.; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S.; Ruby, John D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Childers, Noel K.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5 and 6 yr-old children, considered being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping with repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs/DMFS) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity) and 13 genotypes were shared by at least 2 children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and was negatively associated with p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high caries risk community, which suggest fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  6. Antibacterial activity of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosella Camere-Colarossi; Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Dyanne Medina-Flores; Stefany Caballero-Garca; Frank Mayta-Tovalino; Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) (M. dubia) methanol extract, against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods: Two methanol extracts of M. dubia were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and pulp. Ten independent tests were prepared for each type of extract, using 0.12% chlor-hexidine solution as positive control. Agar diffusion test was used by preparing wells with the experimental solutions cultivated in anaerobic conditions for 48 h at 37 ° C. Mean-while, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the cytotoxic effect over MDCK cell line was found. Results: A higher antibacterial effect was observed with the methanol seed extract with an inhibitory halo of (21.36 ± 6.35) mm and (19.21 ± 5.18) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The methanol extract of the pulp had an effect of (16.20 ± 2.08) mm and (19.34 ± 2.90) mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the pulp extract was 62.5μg/mL for both strains, whereas for the seed antibacterial activity was observed even at low concentrations. The CC50 of the seeds extract was at a higher con-centration than 800μg/mL and 524.37μg/mL for the pulp extract. Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanol extract of M. dubia against S. mutans and S. sanguinis. These extracts were not cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  7. Streptococcus mutans attachment on a cast titanium surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicknan Soares da Rocha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and the corrosion of cast commercially pure titanium, used in dental dentures. The sample discs were cast in commercially pure titanium using the vacuum-pressure machine (Rematitan System. The surfaces of each metal were ground and polished with sandpaper (#300-4000 and alumina paste (0.3 µm. The roughness of the surface (Ra was measured using the Surfcorder rugosimeter SE 1700. Four coupons were inserted separately into Falcon tubes contained Mueller Hinton broth inoculated with S. mutans ATCC 25175 (10(9 cuf and incubated at 37 °C. The culture medium was changed every three days during a 365-day period, after which the falcons were prepared for observations by SEM. The mean Ra value of CP Ti was 0.1527 µm. After S. mutans biofilm removal, pits of corrosion were observed. Despite the low roughness, S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation was observed, which induced a surface corrosion of the cast pure titanium.

  8. Collagen-binding proteins of Streptococcus mutans and related streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Reyes, A; Miller, J H; Lemos, J A; Abranches, J

    2017-04-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms used by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Collagen Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans and Related Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Miller, James H.; Lemos, José A.; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms utilized by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. PMID:26991416

  10. Comparative analysis of prophages in Streptococcus mutans genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tiwei; Fan, Xiangyu; Long, Quanxin; Deng, Wanyan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    Prophages have been considered genetic units that have an intimate association with novel phenotypic properties of bacterial hosts, such as pathogenicity and genomic variation. Little is known about the genetic information of prophages in the genome of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of human dental caries. In this study, we identified 35 prophage-like elements in S. mutans genomes and performed a comparative genomic analysis. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses of prophage sequences revealed that the prophages could be classified into three main large clusters: Cluster A, Cluster B, and Cluster C. The S. mutans prophages in each cluster were compared. The genomic sequences of phismuN66-1, phismuNLML9-1, and phismu24-1 all shared similarities with the previously reported S. mutans phages M102, M102AD, and ϕAPCM01. The genomes were organized into seven major gene clusters according to the putative functions of the predicted open reading frames: packaging and structural modules, integrase, host lysis modules, DNA replication/recombination modules, transcriptional regulatory modules, other protein modules, and hypothetical protein modules. Moreover, an integrase gene was only identified in phismuNLML9-1 prophages. PMID:29158986

  11. Cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates with sortase defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapirattanakul, Jinthana; Takashima, Yukiko; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen; Maudcheingka, Thaniya; Leelataweewud, Pattarawadee; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo

    2017-09-01

    In Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive pathogen of dental caries, several surface proteins are anchored by the activity of sortase enzyme. Although various reports have shown that constructed S. mutans mutants deficient of sortase as well as laboratory reference strains with a sortase gene mutation have low cariogenic potential, no known studies have investigated clinical isolates with sortase defects. Here, we examined the cariogenic properties of S. mutans clinical isolates with sortase defects as well as caries status in humans harboring such defective isolates. Sortase-defective clinical isolates were evaluated for biofilm formation, sucrose-dependent adhesion, stress-induced dextran-dependent aggregation, acid production, and acid tolerance. Additionally, caries indices of subjects possessing such defective isolates were determined. Our in vitro results indicated that biofilm with a lower quantity was formed by sortase-defective as compared to non-defective isolates. Moreover, impairments of sucrose-dependent adhesion and stress-induced dextran-dependent aggregation were found among the isolates with defects, whereas no alterations were seen in regard to acid production or tolerance. Furthermore, glucan-binding protein C, a surface protein anchored by sortase activity, was predominantly detected in culture supernatants of all sortase-defective S. mutans isolates. Although the sortase-defective isolates showed lower cariogenic potential because of a reduction in some cariogenic properties, deft/DMFT indices revealed that all subjects harboring those isolates had caries experience. Our findings suggest the impairment of cariogenic properties in S. mutans clinical isolates with sortase defects, though the detection of these defective isolates seemed not to imply low caries risk in the subjects harboring them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [A novel TaqMan® MGB probe for specifically detecting Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Lin, Jiu-Xiang; DU, Ning; Chen, Feng

    2013-10-18

    To design a new TaqMan® MGB probe for improving the specificity of Streptococcus mutans's detection. We extracted six DNA samples from different streptococcal strains for PCR reaction. Conventional nested PCR and TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR were applied independently. The first round of nested PCR was carried out with the bacterial universal primers, while a second PCR was conducted by using primers specific for the 16S rRNA gene of Streptococcus mutans. The TaqMan® MGB probe for Streptococcus mutans was designed from sequence analyses, and the primers were the same as nested PCR. Streptococcus mutans DNA with 2.5 mg/L was sequentially diluted at 5-fold intervals to 0.16 μg/L. Standard DNA samples were used to generate standard curves by TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR. In the nested PCR, the primers specific for Streptococcus mutans also detected Streptococcus gordonii with visible band of 282 bp, giving false-positive results. In the TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR reaction, only Streptococcus mutans was detected. The detection limitation of TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR for Streptococcus mutans 16S rRNA gene was 20 μg/L. We designed a new TaqMan® MGB probe, and successfully set up a PCR based method for detecting oral Streptococcus mutans. TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR is a both specific and sensitive bacterial detection method.

  13. Sensing of Streptococcus mutans by microscopic imaging ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleel, Mai Ibrahim; Chen, Yu-Da; Chien, Ching-Hang; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2017-05-01

    Microscopic imaging ellipsometry is an optical technique that uses an objective and sensing procedure to measure the ellipsometric parameters Ψ and Δ in the form of microscopic maps. This technique is well known for being noninvasive and label-free. Therefore, it can be used to detect and characterize biological species without any impact. Microscopic imaging ellipsometry was used to measure the optical response of dried Streptococcus mutans cells on a glass substrate. The ellipsometric Ψ and Δ maps were obtained with the Optrel Multiskop system for specular reflection in the visible range (λ=450 to 750 nm). The Ψ and Δ images at 500, 600, and 700 nm were analyzed using three different theoretical models with single-bounce, two-bounce, and multibounce light paths to obtain the optical constants and height distribution. The obtained images of the optical constants show different aspects when comparing the single-bounce analysis with the two-bounce or multibounce analysis in detecting S. mutans samples. Furthermore, the height distributions estimated by two-bounce and multibounce analyses of S. mutans samples were in agreement with the thickness values measured by AFM, which implies that the two-bounce and multibounce analyses can provide information complementary to that obtained by a single-bounce light path.

  14. The antibacterial effect of four mouthwashes against streptococcus mutans and escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghapanchi, Janan; Lavaee, Fatemeh; Moattari, Afagh; Shakib, Mahmood

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of several mouthwash concentrations on oral Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli. The study was conducted at Shiraz Medicine School in 2011. Serial dilutions of Chlorohexidin, Oral B and Persica and Irsha (2,4,8,16,64,128) were prepared in Muller-Hinton media. Minimum inhibitory concentration was visually determined and defined as the lowest concentration of each oral washing which inhibited > 95% growth reduction compared to the growth control well. Chlorhexidine, Oral B and Irsha mouthwash inhibited Streptococcus mutans even with diluted concentrations. Also, Chlorhexidine and Oral B prohibited Escherichia coli with different potencies. But Persica had no antimicrobial activity against either Escherichia coli or Streptococcus mutans. Chlorhexidine, Irsha, and Oral B mouthwashes can be used for antimicrobial effects, especially on Streptococcus mutans. This chemical activity of mouthwashes is an adjuvant for mechanical removing of plaque. However, the antimicrobial effect of Persicaremains controversial.

  15. Effects of Salts and Metal Oxides on Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Nagame, Seigo; Kambara, Masaki; Yoshino, Katsumi

    1994-10-01

    The effects of calcium salts and metal oxide powders on electrochemical, optical and biological properties of Streptococcus mutans have been studied as a novel method to determine the strain. Electrochemical signals of Streptococcus mutans show remarkable decrease in the presence of saturated calcium salts such as CaHPO4, Ca3(PO4)2, and Ca5(PO4)3OH depending on the strains of Streptococcus mutans: Ingbritt, NCTC-10449, or GS-5. The number of viable cells also decreases upon addition of these powders. The effects of metal oxides such as ZnO and BaTiO3 on the electrochemical characteristics and photoluminescence of Streptococcus mutans have also been studied.

  16. Antimicrobial effects of herbal extracts on Streptococcus mutans and normal oral streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is associated with dental caries. A cariogenic biofilm, in particular, has been studied extensively for its role in the formation of dental caries. Herbal extracts such as Cudrania tricuspidata, Sophora flavescens, Ginkgo biloba, and Betula Schmidtii have been used as a folk remedy for treating diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against normal oral streptococci, planktonic and biofilm of S. mutans. Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, and S. mutans were cultivated with brain heart infusion broth and susceptibility assay for the herbal extracts was performed according to the protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Also, S. mutans biofilm was formed on a polystyrene 12-well plate and 8-well chamber glass slip using BHI broth containing 2% sucrose and 1% mannose after conditioning the plate and the glass slip with unstimulated saliva. The biofilm was treated with the herbal extracts in various concentrations and inoculated on Mitis-Salivarius bacitracin agar plate for enumeration of viable S. mutans by counting colony forming units. Planktonic S. mutans showed susceptibility to all of the extracts and S. mutans biofilm exhibited the highest level of sensitivity for the extracts of S. flavescens. The normal oral streptococci exhibited a weak susceptibility in comparison to S. mutans. S. oralis, however, was resistant to all of the extracts. In conclusion, the extract of S. flavescens may be a potential candidate for prevention and management of dental caries.

  17. Comparison of Streptokinase Activity from Streptococcus mutans using Different Substrates

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    Muhammad Anjum Zia*, Rana Faisal, Rao Zahid Abbas1, Gull-e-Faran, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Junaid Ali Khan3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptokinase is a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme that binds and activates plasminogen and is produced by several species of Streptococci. Streptococcus mutans was selected for optimum production of streptokinase using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass in liquid state fermentation. Substrates were applied in different concentrations ranging from 0.1-0.8%. Maximum fibrinolytic activity was observed by 0.3% corn steep liquor, 0.5% molasses and rice polishing and 0.4% by sugarcane bagass. The fibrinolytic activity achieved by fibrin clot lysis method was 5.5, 5.08, 5.16 and 4.75 units using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass, respectively.

  18. Antibacterial efficacy of Mimosa Pudica (Lajavanti against streptococcus mutans

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    Swati V Balsaraf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mimosa pudica plant also known as "touch me not" plant, "shame" plant or laajvanti is a widely grown perennial herb as a show plant because of the mysterious action of its leaves which closes when touched. Mimosa pudica is also known for various medicinal purposes such as treatment of depression, piles, insomnia and many more. It has also been used for dental purposes. Literature shows evidence of its use for dental decay, bleeding gums throughout India and worldwide. Materials and Methods: Mimosa pudica plant whole aqueous extract in 10%, 20% and 5% concentration, chlorhexidine mouth wash as control, Streptococcus mutans (Microbial Type Culture Collection. Using agar well method the efficacy of Mimosa pudica extract was tested. Results: The plant extract couldn′t show efficacy as the microorganisms didn′t show any growth. Conclusion: The potential of this drug needs further investigation.

  19. Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. inhibit growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of caries-inducing Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Reham; Abd El-Rahman, Ola A; Zafer, Mai M; Ashour, Hossam M

    2018-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans contributes significantly to dental caries, which arises from homoeostasic imbalance between host and microbiota. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus sp. inhibits growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of Streptococcus mutans. Antibacterial (agar diffusion method) and antibiofilm (crystal violet assay) characteristics of probiotic Lactobacillus sp. against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) were evaluated. We investigated whether Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 393), Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272), Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 14917) or Lactobacillus salivarius (ATCC 11741) inhibit expression of Streptococcus mutans genes involved in biofilm formation, quorum sensing or stress survival using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Growth changes (OD600) in the presence of pH-neutralized, catalase-treated or trypsin-treated Lactobacillus sp. supernatants were assessed to identify roles of organic acids, peroxides and bacteriocin. Susceptibility testing indicated antibacterial (pH-dependent) and antibiofilm activities of Lactobacillus sp. against Streptococcus mutans. Scanning electron microscopy revealed reduction in microcolony formation and exopolysaccharide structural changes. Of the oral normal flora, L. salivarius exhibited the highest antibiofilm and peroxide-dependent antimicrobial activities. All biofilm-forming cells treated with Lactobacillus sp. supernatants showed reduced expression of genes involved in exopolysaccharide production, acid tolerance and quorum sensing. Thus, Lactobacillus sp. can inhibit tooth decay by limiting growth and virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Intracerebral hemorrhage and deep microbleeds associated with cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans; a hospital cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonomura, Shuichi; Ihara, Masafumi; Kawano, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Okuno, Yoshinori; Saito, Satoshi; Friedland, Robert P; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nomura, Ryota; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-05

    Oral infectious diseases are epidemiologically associated with stroke. We previously showed that oral Streptococcus mutans with the cnm gene encoding a collagen-binding Cnm protein induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) experimentally and was also associated with cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in our population-based cohort study. We therefore investigated the roles of cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans in this single hospital-based, observational study that enrolled 100 acute stroke subjects. The cnm gene in Streptococcus mutans isolated from saliva was screened using PCR techniques and its collagen-binding activities examined. CMBs were evaluated on T2* gradient-recalled echo MRI. One subject withdrew informed consent and 99 subjects (63 males) were analyzed, consisting of 67 subjects with ischemic stroke, 5 with transient ischemic attack, and 27 with ICH. Eleven cases showed Streptococcus mutans strains positive for cnm. The presence of cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans was significantly associated with ICH [OR vs. ischemic stroke, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.17-19.1] and increased number of deep CMBs [median (IQR), 3 (2-9) vs. 0 (0-1), p = 0.0002]. In subjects positive for Streptococcus mutans, collagen binding activity was positively correlated with the number of deep CMBs (R(2) = 0.405; p < 0.0001). These results provide further evidence for the key role of oral health in stroke.

  1. Live and heat-killed Lactobacillus spp. interfere with Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis during biofilm development on titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, E; Campana, R; Baffone, W

    2017-06-01

    This research investigates the ability of live and heat-killed (HK) Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) to interfere with Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 during biofilm formation. Eight Lactobacillus spp. and two oral colonizers, pathogenic Streptococcus mutans and resident Streptococcus oralis, were characterized for their aggregation abilities, cell surface properties and biofilm formation ability on titanium surface. Then, the interference activity of selected live and HK Lactobacillus spp. during S. mutans and S. oralis biofilm development were performed. The cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) anti-biofilm activity was also determined. LAB possess good abilities of auto-aggregation (from 14.19 to 28.97%) and of co-aggregation with S. oralis. The cell-surfaces characteristics were most pronounced in S. mutans and S. oralis, while the highest affinities to xylene and chloroform were observed in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (56.37%) and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 (43.83%). S. mutans and S. oralis developed a biofilm on titanium surface, while LAB showed a limited or no ability to create biofilm. Live and HK L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 and L. paracasei B21060 inhibited streptococci biofilm formation by competition and displacement mechanisms with no substantial differences. The CFCSs of both LAB strains, particularly the undiluted one of L. paracasei B21060, decreased S. mutans and S. oralis biofilm formation. This study evidenced the association of LAB aggregation abilities and cell-surface properties with the LAB-mediated inhibition of S. mutans and S. oralis biofilm formation. Lactobacilli showed different mechanisms of action and peculiar strain-specific characteristics, maintained also in the heat-killed LAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of storage temperature on Streptococcus mutans viability

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    Ana Lídia Soares COTA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Proper storage conditions and maintenance of viable biological material plays an important role in microbiological research, allowing for the opportunity to conduct future studies. Objective To evaluate the viability of Streptococcus mutans strains that were previously grown and stored under different temperatures for approximately eight years. Material and method In this study, we evaluated 393 bacterial isolates that were stored in a freezer at -80°C (G1 and 200 isolates stored in a freezer at -20°C (G2. Aliquots of each sample were plated on blood agar and mitis-salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar-solidified medium. After incubating under microaerophilic conditions in an incubator at 37°C for 72 hours, the presence, morphology and purity of bacterial growth was observed. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. Result Microbial viability was observed in almost all samples (99.7% in G1, whereas all isolates stored at -20°C were considered inviable. Conclusion The viability of S. mutans is influenced by the storage temperature of the samples, and the strains remain viable when stored under ideal temperature conditions (-80°C, even when stored for a long period of time.

  3. Binding of fluorine-18 by the oral bacterium, Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotis, W.W.; Mante, S.; Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.; Glendenin, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    The binding of carrier-free fluorine-18 by resting cells of the cariogenic microorganism Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was assessed. A Ge(Li)..gamma..-ray spectrometer attached to a 4096 channel pulse-height analyzer was used to measure the /sup 18/F bound and to check the radiochemical purity of /sup 18/F. The binding was dependent on time, pH, the amount of /sup 18/F used, the cell status and the fluoride concentration. The adherence of /sup 18/F to Strep. mutans did not require addition of an exogenous energy source, such as glucose, and proceeded equally well at 4 to 37/sup 0/C or at varying oxygen tensions. Under optimal conditions, resting cells of the strain bound approximately 10/sup 9/ atoms of /sup 18/F and more than 10/sup 13/ atoms of total fluoride in the presence of 10 parts/10/sup 6/ NaF per mg dry weight of cells that were not removed by repeated washings.

  4. Streptococcus mutans: a new Gram-positive paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quivey, Robert G.; Koo, Hyun; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous contributions of the bacterial paradigms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to basic and applied research, it is well known that no single organism can be a perfect representative of all other species. However, given that some bacteria are difficult, or virtually impossible, to cultivate in the laboratory, that some are recalcitrant to genetic and molecular manipulation, and that others can be extremely dangerous to manipulate, the use of model organisms will continue to play an important role in the development of basic research. In particular, model organisms are very useful for providing a better understanding of the biology of closely related species. Here, we discuss how the lifestyle, the availability of suitable in vitro and in vivo systems, and a thorough understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans have greatly advanced our understanding of important areas in the field of bacteriology such as interspecies biofilms, competence development and stress responses. In this article, we provide an argument that places S. mutans, an organism that evolved in close association with the human host, as a novel Gram-positive model organism. PMID:23393147

  5. Effects of Carbohydrate Source on Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D; Son, Minjun; Rosa-Alberty, Ariana E; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Hagen, Stephen J; Burne, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    The capacity to internalize and catabolize carbohydrates is essential for dental caries pathogens to persist and cause disease. The expression of many virulence-related attributes by Streptococcus mutans, an organism strongly associated with human dental caries, is influenced by the peptide signaling pathways that control genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between the efficiency of competence signaling and carbohydrate source. A significant increase in the activity of the promoters for comX, comS, and comYA after exposure to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was observed in cells growing on fructose, maltose, sucrose, or trehalose as the primary carbohydrate source, compared to cells growing on glucose. However, only cells grown in the presence of trehalose or sucrose displayed a significant increase in transformation frequency. Notably, even low concentrations of these carbohydrates in the presence of excess glucose could enhance the expression of comX, encoding a sigma factor needed for competence, and the effects on competence were dependent on the cognate sugar:phosphotransferase permease for each carbohydrate. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusions, we observed that growth in fructose or trehalose resulted in a greater proportion of the population activating expression of comX and comS, encoding the precursor of comX-inducing peptide (XIP), after addition of CSP, than growth in glucose. Thus, the source of carbohydrate significantly impacts the stochastic behaviors that regulate subpopulation responses to CSP, which can induce competence in S. mutans The signaling pathways that regulate development of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans are intimately intertwined with the pathogenic potential of the organism, impacting biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and expression of known virulence determinants. Induction of the gene for the master regulator of competence, ComX, by competence-stimulating peptide (CSP

  6. Effects of Carbohydrate Source on Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D.; Son, Minjun; Rosa-Alberty, Ariana E.; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capacity to internalize and catabolize carbohydrates is essential for dental caries pathogens to persist and cause disease. The expression of many virulence-related attributes by Streptococcus mutans, an organism strongly associated with human dental caries, is influenced by the peptide signaling pathways that control genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between the efficiency of competence signaling and carbohydrate source. A significant increase in the activity of the promoters for comX, comS, and comYA after exposure to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was observed in cells growing on fructose, maltose, sucrose, or trehalose as the primary carbohydrate source, compared to cells growing on glucose. However, only cells grown in the presence of trehalose or sucrose displayed a significant increase in transformation frequency. Notably, even low concentrations of these carbohydrates in the presence of excess glucose could enhance the expression of comX, encoding a sigma factor needed for competence, and the effects on competence were dependent on the cognate sugar:phosphotransferase permease for each carbohydrate. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusions, we observed that growth in fructose or trehalose resulted in a greater proportion of the population activating expression of comX and comS, encoding the precursor of comX-inducing peptide (XIP), after addition of CSP, than growth in glucose. Thus, the source of carbohydrate significantly impacts the stochastic behaviors that regulate subpopulation responses to CSP, which can induce competence in S. mutans. IMPORTANCE The signaling pathways that regulate development of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans are intimately intertwined with the pathogenic potential of the organism, impacting biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and expression of known virulence determinants. Induction of the gene for the master regulator of competence, ComX, by competence

  7. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  8. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

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    Michele BARNABÉ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  9. Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sara R.; Miller, James H.; Abranches, Jacqueline; Zeng, Lin; Lefebure, Tristan; Richards, Vincent P.; Lemos, José A.; Stanhope, Michael J.; Burne, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    High coverage, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of 57 geographically- and genetically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans from individuals of known dental caries status was recently completed. Of the 57 sequenced strains, fifteen isolates, were selected based primarily on differences in gene content and phenotypic characteristics known to affect virulence and compared with the reference strain UA159. A high degree of variability in these properties was observed between strains, with a broad spectrum of sensitivities to low pH, oxidative stress (air and paraquat) and exposure to competence stimulating peptide (CSP). Significant differences in autolytic behavior and in biofilm development in glucose or sucrose were also observed. Natural genetic competence varied among isolates, and this was correlated to the presence or absence of competence genes, comCDE and comX, and to bacteriocins. In general strains that lacked the ability to become competent possessed fewer genes for bacteriocins and immunity proteins or contained polymorphic variants of these genes. WGS sequence analysis of the pan-genome revealed, for the first time, components of a Type VII secretion system in several S. mutans strains, as well as two putative ORFs that encode possible collagen binding proteins located upstream of the cnm gene, which is associated with host cell invasiveness. The virulence of these particular strains was assessed in a wax-worm model. This is the first study to combine a comprehensive analysis of key virulence-related phenotypes with extensive genomic analysis of a pathogen that evolved closely with humans. Our analysis highlights the phenotypic diversity of S. mutans isolates and indicates that the species has evolved a variety of adaptive strategies to persist in the human oral cavity and, when conditions are favorable, to initiate disease. PMID:23613838

  10. Phenotypic heterogeneity of genomically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R Palmer

    Full Text Available High coverage, whole genome shotgun (WGS sequencing of 57 geographically- and genetically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans from individuals of known dental caries status was recently completed. Of the 57 sequenced strains, fifteen isolates, were selected based primarily on differences in gene content and phenotypic characteristics known to affect virulence and compared with the reference strain UA159. A high degree of variability in these properties was observed between strains, with a broad spectrum of sensitivities to low pH, oxidative stress (air and paraquat and exposure to competence stimulating peptide (CSP. Significant differences in autolytic behavior and in biofilm development in glucose or sucrose were also observed. Natural genetic competence varied among isolates, and this was correlated to the presence or absence of competence genes, comCDE and comX, and to bacteriocins. In general strains that lacked the ability to become competent possessed fewer genes for bacteriocins and immunity proteins or contained polymorphic variants of these genes. WGS sequence analysis of the pan-genome revealed, for the first time, components of a Type VII secretion system in several S. mutans strains, as well as two putative ORFs that encode possible collagen binding proteins located upstream of the cnm gene, which is associated with host cell invasiveness. The virulence of these particular strains was assessed in a wax-worm model. This is the first study to combine a comprehensive analysis of key virulence-related phenotypes with extensive genomic analysis of a pathogen that evolved closely with humans. Our analysis highlights the phenotypic diversity of S. mutans isolates and indicates that the species has evolved a variety of adaptive strategies to persist in the human oral cavity and, when conditions are favorable, to initiate disease.

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity of adhesive systems on Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of three adhesive systems -- Prime & Bond 2.1 (PB), Clearfil SE Bond (CS) and One Up Bond F (OU) -- on Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Adherence and agar disk-diffusion tests were performed. For the adherence testing, 40 human enamel specimens (4 mm2) were sterilized and the adhesive sytems were applied (n = 10). The control group did not receive the application of any adhesive system. Specimens were immersed in brain heart infusion broth (BHI) inoculated with S. mutans standardized suspension (10(6) cells/ml) for 48 h at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2. The number of S. mutans cells adhered to each specimen was evaluated by the plating method on BHI agar. For agar disk-diffusion testing, adhesive disks and disks soaked in distilled water (negative control) or 0.2% chlorexidine (positive control) were incubated with S. mutans for 48 h. The diameters of the zones of bacterial inhibition were measured. Adherence data were transformed in logarithms of base 10 (log10). Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Neuman-Keuls tests at the 5% level of significance. The results of the adherence test showed that One Up Bond F (OU) and Clearfil SE Bond (CS) did not differ significantly from one another, but allowed significantly less adherence than Prime & Bond 2.1 (PB) and control [mean log10 (standard deviation) values: PB 6.10 (0.19); CS primer 4.55 (0.98); OU 4.65 (0.54); control group 6.34 (0.27)]. The disk-diffusion test showed no significant difference between OU (diameter in mm: 3.02 +/- 0.13) and CS (3.0 +/- 0.12), but both were significantly more effective in inhibiting bacterial growth than PB (1.0 +/- 0.10). The self-etching systems Clearfil SE Bond and One Up Bond F presented a greater inhibitory effect against S. mutans, also in terms of adherence, than did the conventional system, Prime & Bond 2.1.

  12. Investigation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth on modified Au(111)-surfaces using AFM and electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans constitute perhaps the most important direct cause of human dental caries formation. We have studied S. mutans biofilm formation and properties on Au(111)-surfaces modified by self-assembled molecular monolayers (SAMs) of different thiol-based molecu...

  13. Interaction forces between salivary proteins and Streptococcus mutans with and without antigen I/II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.P.; Belt-Gritter, van de B.; Dijkstra, R.J.B.; Norde, W.; Mei, van der H.C.; Busscher, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The antigen I/II family of surface proteins is expressed by oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, and mediates specific binding to, among others, salivary films. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction forces between salivary proteins and S. mutans with (LT11) and

  14. Influence of fluoride on the bacterial composition of a dual-species biofilm composed of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Eun; Cai, Jian-Na; Cho, Sung-Dae; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2016-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries, few studies have demonstrated the effects of fluoride on the bacterial composition of dental biofilms. This study investigated whether fluoride affects the proportion of Streptococcus mutans and S. oralis in mono- and dual-species biofilm models, via microbiological, biochemical, and confocal fluorescence microscope studies. Fluoride did not affect the bacterial count and bio-volume of S. mutans and S. oralis in mono-species biofilms, except for the 24-h-old S. mutans biofilms. However, fluoride reduced the proportion and bio-volume of S. mutans but did not decrease those of S. oralis during both S. oralis and S. mutans dual-species biofilm formation, which may be related to the decrease in extracellular polysaccharide formation by fluoride. These results suggest that fluoride may prevent the shift in the microbial proportion to cariogenic bacteria in dental biofilms, subsequently inhibiting the cariogenic bacteria dominant biofilm formation.

  15. Antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Rianti, Devi; Yogyarti, Sri

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experimental study conducted on antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium Infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Effective concentration of Coleus amboinicus, Lour to decrease the quantities Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies is expected to be found out in this study. This study was using Coleus Amboinicus, Lour folium infusum with 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% concentrations. Sterilized aquadest used as a control. Candida al...

  16. Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Lucja M; Deng, Dong Mei; van der Mei, Henny C; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2009-11-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the human oral cavity, where it interacts with S. mutans. C. albicans is a polymorphic fungus, and the yeast-to-hypha transition is involved in virulence and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to investigate interkingdom communication between C. albicans and S. mutans based on the production of secreted molecules. S. mutans UA159 inhibited C. albicans germ tube (GT) formation in cocultures even when physically separated from C. albicans. Only S. mutans spent medium collected in the early exponential phase (4-h-old cultures) inhibited the GT formation of C. albicans. During this phase, S. mutans UA159 produces a quorum-sensing molecule, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP). The role of CSP in inhibiting GT formation was confirmed by using synthetic CSP and a comC deletion strain of S. mutans UA159, which lacks the ability to produce CSP. Other S. mutans strains and other Streptococcus spp. also inhibited GT formation but to different extents, possibly reflecting differences in CSP amino acid sequences among Streptococcus spp. or differences in CSP accumulation in the media. In conclusion, CSP, an S. mutans quorum-sensing molecule secreted during the early stages of growth, inhibits the C. albicans morphological switch.

  17. PERBEDAAN DAYA HAMBAT PASTA GIGI BERBAHAN HERBAL TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Susi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKaries gigi dan penyakit periodontal dapat dicegah dengan mengontrol pembentukan plak secara teratur. Penggunaan pasta gigi herbal dapat memberikan efek kimia untuk mengontrol pembentukan plak. Studi terdahulu mendapatkan bahwa pasta gigi herbal dapat mengurangi jumlah bakteri utama pada rongga mulut yaitu Streptococcus mutans. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti perbedaan daya hambat beberapa pasta gigi herbal (mengandung siwak, cengkeh, dan daun sirih terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans. Metode penelitian adalah eksperimental dengan meletakkan cakram yang sudah direndam dengan pasta gigi ke medium agar darah yang mengandung koloni Streptococcus mutans. Uji daya hambat bakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi. Terbentuknya zona bening di sekitar koloni bakteri menunjukkan adanya penghambatan pertumbuhan bakteri uji. Hasil uji satu arah ANOVA menunjukkan adanya perbedaan daya hambat yang bermakna antar pasta gigi herbal yang digunakan (p<0.05. Ketiga pasta gigi didapakan memiliki kemampuan antibakteri kuat dengan rata-rata zona hambat 16.075 mm, 13.375 mm dan 11.080 mm. Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa pasta gigi herbal mempunyai efek anti bakteri terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans dengan efek anti bakteri terkuat di tunjukkan oleh pasta gigi mengandung cengkeh.AbstractDental caries and periodontal disease can be eliminated by regularly control plaque formation. The usage of herbal toothpaste is able to give chemical effect toward plaque control. Previous studies shown that the usage of herbal toothpaste was able to reduce the growth of Streptococcus mutans, the main bacteria in the mouth. The study aimed at investigating the difference of zone of inhibition of several herbal toothpastes (siwak- , cloves- , and betel leaves- contained toward the growth of Streptococcus mutans.This study was experimental research using disc that had been immersed and subsequently put it onto Blood agar medium that contain Streptococcus mutans

  18. Effect of Teucrium Polium-Containing Chewing Gum on Reducing Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Counts

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    Somayeh Khoramian Tusi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have reported the antibacterial effect of Teucrium polium extract. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 20 dental students were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group received a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium, and the control group received a chewing gum without any plant extract. Each person chewed the gum for 20 minutes three times a day (after each meal for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment before the use of the gums and one day after the final gum consumption. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR technique was employed to determine the bacterial level. The colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans was compared between the two groups by using t-test in SPSS, version 21. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of Streptococcus mutans counts before the intervention (P>0.05. The consumption of Teucrium polium extract-containing chewing gum in comparison with the placebo gum significantly diminished the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies (P=0.002. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium significantly lowered the colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans in human saliva.

  19. Inhibiting effects of Streptococcus salivarius on competence-stimulating peptide-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, S; Yonezawa, H; Motegi, M; Nakao, R; Yoneda, S; Watanabe, H; Yamazaki, T; Senpuku, H

    2009-04-01

    The effects of Streptococcus salivarius on the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans were investigated. Biofilms were grown on 96-well microtiter plates coated with salivary components in tryptic soy broth without dextrose supplemented with 0.25% sucrose. Biofilm formations were stained using safranin and quantification of stained biofilms was performed by measuring absorbance at 492 nm. S. mutans formed substantial biofilms, whereas biofilms of S. salivarius were formed poorly in the medium conditions used. Furthermore, in combination cultures, S. salivarius strongly inhibited biofilm formation when cultured with S. mutans. This inhibition occurred in the early phase of biofilm formation and was dependent on inactivation of the CSP of S. mutans, which is associated with competence, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial activity of the bacterium, and is induced by expression of the comC gene. Comparisons between the S. mutans clinical strains FSC-3 and FSC-3DeltaglrA in separate dual-species cultures with S. salivarius indicated that the presence of the bacitracin transport ATP-binding protein gene glrA caused susceptibility to inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation by S. salivarius, and was also associated with the regulation of CSP production by com gene-dependent quorum sensing systems. It is considered that regulation of CSP by glrA in S. mutans and CSP inactivation by S. salivarius are important functions for cell-to-cell communication between biofilm bacteria and oral streptococci such as S. salivarius. Our results provide useful information for understanding the ecosystem of oral streptococcal biofilms, as well as the competition between and coexistence of multiple species in the oral cavity.

  20. Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13. Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo, foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amostras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os

  1. [Construction of a low-pH-sensing system in Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Kang; Yuqing, Li; Xuedong, Zhou

    2017-06-01

    To construct a low-pH-sensing system in Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and to visually detect the pH in situ. Promoter of ureaseⅠ(PureⅠ) and green fluorescence protein (gfp) DNA fragments were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the genome of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I and S. mutans containing the gfp fragment. The two amplified DNA fragments were ligated together and further integrated into pDL278 to construct the recombinant plasmid pDL278-pureⅠ-gfp. This recombinant plasmid was then transformed into S. mutans UA159 cells. Subsequently, the intensity of the optical density per unit area of the low-pH-sensing system was measured and compared under different pH conditions and different processing times. PureⅠ and gfp DNA fragments were amplified successfully with the correct molecule sizes (450 and 717 bp, respectively). The recombinant plasmid pDL278-pureⅠ-gfp was constructed and further verified by PCR and sequencing. The intensity of the optical density per unit area of the low-pH-sensing system increased with decreasing pH and increasing processing time. A low-pH-sensing system was constructed successfully in S. mutans. Our research verified that pureⅠ of Streptococcus salivarius can function well in S. mutans as an acid induced promoter, and provided a new method of detecting the pH of plaque biofilms in situ.

  2. Association between salivary level of infection with Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacilli and caries-risk factors in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi-Xhemajli, B; Véronneau, J; Begzati, A; Bytyci, A; Kutllovci, T; Rexhepi, A

    2016-03-01

    Understanding factors in mothers associated with high and low salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli is an important strategy for early childhood caries prevention. Aim of the study was to identify the association between salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus and potential caries risk factors in mothers. Cross-sectional design used a voluntary sample of 300 mothers of young children. Close-ended questions and observations were used to identify mothers' potential caries risk factors. The presence of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli was determined using the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent). All collected information was converted into frequency and proportion describing the prevalence factor in correlation with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli cariogenic bacteria levels of infection. Results Sample participants showed a high caries risk based on socioeconomic, behavioural and clinical factors. also showed high levels (>105) of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections among 28% of mothers. Three factors were significantly associated with Streptococcus mutans infection: level of education, past caries experiences, and observable dental plaque, whereas, a fourth factor, frequency of daily tooth brushing, was associated to Lactobacilli infection. This study showed that easily collectible informations such as maternal level of education, frequency of daily tooth brushing and past clinical factors tend to be associated with high level of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli infections in caregivers.

  3. Antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rianti

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experimental study conducted on antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium Infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Effective concentration of Coleus amboinicus, Lour to decrease the quantities Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies is expected to be found out in this study. This study was using Coleus Amboinicus, Lour folium infusum with 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% concentrations. Sterilized aquadest used as a control. Candida albicans and S. mutans quantities was enumerated by counting the amount of Candida albicans and S. mutans growth in the Sabouraud ,s dextrose agar and Tryptone and yeast Agar media, using Colony Forming Unit per milliliter (CFU/ ml unit. Data analysis was using a One-Way ANOVA and LSD with 5% degree of significance. The result showed 22.5% concentration of CAL folium infusum was the most effective in decreasing the quantity Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies.

  4. Antibacterial Effects of Natural Herbal Extracts on Streptococcus mutans: Can They Be Potential Additives in Dentifrices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoorthi Banavar Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many plants or herbs exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. They have no side effects and presumably act against and modulate the factors that are crucial for microbial survival or their activity. Streptococcus mutans is a pioneer bacteria implicated in dental caries. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of garlic bulbs, pudina leaves, and mango and eucalyptus twig extracts on Streptococcus mutans by evaluating their zone of inhibition and determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Methods. Microbiological assay (well diffusion method to determine zone of inhibition against pure forms of Streptococcus mutans was performed. The antibacterial effects of methanolic extracts of mango twigs, eucalyptus twigs, pudina leaves, and garlic bulbs were studied. Test compounds were further evaluated for their MIC. Results. Extracts derived from mango and eucalyptus twigs showed significant antibacterial effects at test concentrations. Pudina and garlic extracts did not show any significant antibacterial effects at similar concentrations. Upon further evaluation of the 2 positive compounds for their MIC, mango twigs demonstrated more antimicrobial potential than eucalyptus twigs at a lower concentration. Conclusion. Our observations indicated that the mango twig extracts possess higher antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans than other compounds at specific test concentration.

  5. Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, L.M.; Deng, D.M.; van der Mei, H.C.; Crielaard, W.; Krom, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the

  6. Streptococcus mutans Competence-Stimulating Peptide Inhibits Candida albicans Hypha Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, Lucja M.; Deng, Dong Mei; van der Mei, Henny C.; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the

  7. The decreased of Streptococcus Mutans growth after topical application of phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Faradina Araf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP paste is a topical application substance that consisted of a series of milk derivative peptide as a result of phosphorylation and has an antibacterial activity. The objective of this research was to find out the difference of Streptococcus mutans growth before and after CPP-ACP paste given topically to child's teeth. The method of the research was a quasi-experiment. Research samples were 10 students of MI Al Falah Islamic Boarding School, Jatinangor, West Jawa Indonesia and collected with purposive sampling technique. This research used dental plaque from child's teeth before and after applicated by CPP-ACP paste. The plaque was cultivated in selective media Tryptone Yeast Cysteine Sucrose Bacitracin (TYCSB with repeated twice. Streptococcus mutans colony in TYCSB were counted by Stuart colony counter and statistically analyzed based on paired t-test. The results showed the average of Streptococcus mutans growth before applicated CPP-ACP paste was 57.05, whereas after applicated CPP-ACP paste for 1 days was 9.4; for 3 days was 2.85, and for 14 days was 1.7 colony. The research concluded that there was a decrease of Streptococcus mutans growth in isolate plaque after CPP-ACP paste topically given to child's teeth.

  8. Structural investigation of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans strain UA159

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of an extracellular polysaccharide EPS159 produced from sucrose by Streptococcus mutans UA159 was investigated through the main oligosaccharides obtained from partial acid hydrolysis, monosaccharide/methylation analysis, and 1D/2D H-1 NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that EPS159

  9. Effect of acid shock on protein expression by biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welin, J; Wilkins, J C; Beighton, D

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a component of the dental plaque biofilm and a major causal agent of dental caries. Log-phase cells of the organism are known to induce an acid tolerance response (ATR) at sub-lethal pH values ( approximately 5.5) that enhances survival at lower pH values such as those...

  10. Multiple Two-Component Systems of Streptococcus mutans Regulate Agmatine Deiminase Gene Expression and Stress Tolerance▿

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yaling; Burne, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS) of Streptococcus mutans requires agmatine and is optimal at low pH. We show here that the VicRK, ComDE, and CiaRH two-component systems influence AgDS gene expression in response to acidic and thermal stresses.

  11. The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

  12. Improved method for rapid and accurate isolation and identification of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from human plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villhauer, Alissa L; Lynch, David J; Drake, David R

    2017-08-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS), specifically Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Streptococcus sobrinus (SS), are bacterial species frequently targeted for investigation due to their role in the etiology of dental caries. Differentiation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus is an essential part of exploring the role of these organisms in disease progression and the impact of the presence of either/both on a subject's caries experience. Of vital importance to the study of these organisms is an identification protocol that allows us to distinguish between the two species in an easy, accurate, and timely manner. While conducting a 5-year birth cohort study in a Northern Plains American Indian tribe, the need for a more rapid procedure for isolating and identifying high volumes of MS was recognized. We report here on the development of an accurate and rapid method for MS identification. Accuracy, ease of use, and material and time requirements for morphological differentiation on selective agar, biochemical tests, and various combinations of PCR primers were compared. The final protocol included preliminary identification based on colony morphology followed by PCR confirmation of species identification using primers targeting regions of the glucosyltransferase (gtf) genes of SM and SS. This method of isolation and identification was found to be highly accurate, more rapid than the previous methodology used, and easily learned. It resulted in more efficient use of both time and material resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial proteins of Snail mucus (Achatina fulica against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

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    Herluinus Mafranenda DN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achasin and mytimacin-AF are proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica which have antimicrobial activity. Snail mucus is suspected to have other proteins which have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the oral pathologic bacteria. Purpose: The study were aimed to characterize the proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica that have antimicrobial activities to Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and to compared the antimicrobial effect of achasin and mytimacin-AF. Methods: The sample of study was the mucus of snails which were taken from Yogyakarta Province. The isolation and characterization of protein were conducted by using SDS-PAGE method, electroelution, and dialysis. Nano drop test was conducted to determine protein concentration. The sensitivity test was conducted by using dilution test, and followed by spectrophotometry and paper disc diffusion tests. Results: The study showed that proteins successfully characterized from snail mucus (Achatina fulica were proteins with molecular weights of 83.67 kDa (achasin, 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa (full amino acid sequence of mytimacin-AF and 9.7 kDa (mytimacin-AF. Based on the dilution test, Achasin had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. But the paper disc diffusion test result showed that Achasin had antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, while mytimacin-AF had no antimicrobial activities. Conclusion: The proteins with molecular weights of 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa were considered as new antimicrobial proteins isolated from snail mucus. Achasin, had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

  14. D-Tagatose inhibits the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibul, Khaleque; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Ogawa, Takaaki; Waki, Junpei; Tada, Ayano; Yoneda, Saori; Tokuda, Masaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is an important global health concern and Streptococcus mutans has been established as a major cariogenic bacterial species. Reports indicate that a rare sugar, D-tagatose, is not easily catabolized by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans GS-5 were examined. Monitoring S. mutans growth over a 24 h period revealed that D-tagatose prolonged the lag phase without interfering with the final c...

  15. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Kasraei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30. The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683 and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643 were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37℃ for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05. The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus.

  16. Association Between Early Childhood Caries and Colonization with Streptococcus mutans Genotypes From Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Noel K; Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Cutter, Gary R; Wiener, Howard W; Ghazal, Tariq S; Ruby, John D; Moser, Stephen A

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus mutans genotypes (GT) between mother and child (M-C) in a high caries risk cohort to explore the association with early childhood caries (ECC). Sixty-nine infants (each approximately one year old) had periodic oral examinations (dmfs) and microbial samples collected from dental plaque, saliva, and other oral surfaces. Their mothers had an examination and plaque collected. S mutans isolates were genotyped using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR). Statistical analyses were conducted for associations of S mutans in M-C dyads with caries outcomes. Twenty-seven S mutans genotypes (GT) from 3,414 isolates were identified. M-C were categorized as GT match (n equals 40) or no-match (n equals 29). When modeling the severity of ECC at 36 months (approximately four years old), the estimated dmfs in the match group was 2.61 times that of the no-match group (P=.014). Colonization of children with Streptococcus mutans genotypes that matched with mothers was shown to be highly associated with early childhood caries. Although the data suggest vertical transmission of S mutans in 40 of 69 children that shared GT with their mother, it is possible that other individuals transmitted the S mutans. Nonetheless, these findings support the importance of the mother's oral microbial status as a contributing influence to their children's oral health.

  17. Genomewide Identification of Essential Genes and Fitness Determinants of Streptococcus mutans UA159

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Culp, David J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposon mutagenesis coupled with next-generation DNA sequencing (Tn-seq) is a powerful tool for discovering regions of the genome that are required for the survival of bacteria in different environments. We adapted this technique to the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159 and identified 11% of the genome as essential, with many genes encoding products required for replication, translation, lipid metabolism, and cell wall biogenesis. Comparison of the essential genome of S. mutans UA159 with those of selected other streptococci for which such information is available revealed several metabolic pathways and genes that are required in S. mutans, but not in some Streptococcus spp. We further identified genes that are essential for sustained growth in rich or defined medium, as well as for persistence in vivo in a rodent model of oral infection. Collectively, our results provide a novel and comprehensive view of the genes required for essential processes of S. mutans, many of which could represent potential targets for therapeutics. IMPORTANCE Tooth decay (dental caries) is a common cause of pain, impaired quality of life, and tooth loss in children and adults. It begins because of a compositional change in the microorganisms that colonize the tooth surface driven by repeated and sustained carbohydrate intake. Although several bacterial species are associated with tooth decay, Streptococcus mutans is the most common cause. Therefore, it is important to identify biological processes that contribute to the survival of S. mutans in the human mouth, with the aim of disrupting the processes with antimicrobial agents. We successfully applied Tn-seq to S. mutans, discovering genes that are required for survival, growth, and persistence, both in laboratory environments and in a mouse model of tooth decay. This work highlights new avenues for the control of an important human pathogen. PMID:29435491

  18. Fibrinogen-Induced Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Endothelial Cells

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    Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, the predominant bacterial species associated with dental caries, can enter the bloodstream and cause infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to investigate S. mutans biofilm formation and adherence to endothelial cells induced by human fibrinogen. The putative mechanism by which biofilm formation is induced as well as the impact of fibrinogen on S. mutans resistance to penicillin was also evaluated. Bovine plasma dose dependently induced biofilm formation by S. mutans. Of the various plasma proteins tested, only fibrinogen promoted the formation of biofilm in a dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of complex aggregates of bacterial cells firmly attached to the polystyrene support. S. mutans in biofilms induced by the presence of fibrinogen was markedly resistant to the bactericidal effect of penicillin. Fibrinogen also significantly increased the adherence of S. mutans to endothelial cells. Neither S. mutans cells nor culture supernatants converted fibrinogen into fibrin. However, fibrinogen is specifically bound to the cell surface of S. mutans and may act as a bridging molecule to mediate biofilm formation. In conclusion, our study identified a new mechanism promoting S. mutans biofilm formation and adherence to endothelial cells which may contribute to infective endocarditis.

  19. Curcumin reduces Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by inhibiting sortase A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Ping; Chen, Min Wei

    2013-10-01

    Sortase A is an enzyme responsible for the covalent attachment of Pac proteins to the cell wall in Streptococcus mutans. It has been shown to play a role in modulating the surface properties and the biofilm formation and influence the cariogenicity of S. mutans. Curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric, was reported to be an inhibitor for Staphylococcus aureus sortase A. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory ability of curcumin against S. mutans sortase A and the effect of curcumin for biofilm formation. The antimicrobial activity of the curcumin to the S. mutans and inhibitory ability of the curcumin against the purified sortase A in vitro were detected. Western-blot and real-time PCR were used to analysis the sortase A mediated Pac protein changes when the S. mutans was cultured with curcumin. The curcumin on the S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by biofilm formation analysis. Curcumin can inhibit purified S. mutans sortase A with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of (10.2±0.7)μmol/l, which is lower than minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 175μmol/l. Curcumin (15μmol/l) was found to release the Pac protein to the supernatant and reduce S. mutans biofilm formation. These results indicated that curcumin is an S. mutans sortase A inhibitor and has promising anti-caries characteristics through an anti-adhesion-mediated mechanism. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of propolis honey candy on Streptococcus mutans prevalence in caries and caries-free subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekanto, Sri Angky; Bachtiar, Endang W.; Jiwanakusuma, Pramodanti; Gladea, Zahara; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2018-02-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Propolis Honey candy on Streptococcus mutans prevalence in caries and caries-free subject. The subject of this research was caries and caries-free subjects. The Streptococcus mutans colony was counted in saliva samples before and after a 7-day period of consuming Propolis Honey candy, Honey candy, and "X" candy. The Streptococcus mutans was proliferated in a TYS20B gelatin medium for 48 hours. The number of Streptococcus mutans colonies was expressed in CFU/ml. Compared with the pre-treatment group, the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies in the treatment group tends to show a statistically significant reduction (pcaries-free subject. In caries subject, the result of Propolis honey candy were also lower (2.2×107 CFU/ml) than before (5.8×109 CFU/ml). The study showed a decrease in the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies from caries and caries-free subjects after propolis honey candy consumption.

  1. PRODUKSI ANTIBODI KUNING TELUR (IGY ANTI STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS SEBAGAI ANTI KARIES GIGI

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    Okti Nadia Poetri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore IgY anti Streptococcus mutan production and the ability of Igy Streptococcus mutans blocking adhesion process. The eggs was collected from Single Comb Brown Leghorn which have been immunized by S. mutan. Agar gel precipitation test was done to detect IgY anti S. mutans in serum and egg. Egg which Countain IgY anti S. mutans was collected. IgY anti S. mutans extracted from egg yolk by mean s PEG-Amonium sulfat and purified using fast protein liquid chromatography. The purity of Igy anti S. mutans was determined by UV spectropometer. Biological activities of Igy anti S. mutans to inhibit adhession process was learned by anti adhesion test. We use two dose of IgY, which is 100 ug and 500 ug. Igy anti S. mutans formen in serum five weeks after the first immunization while it formed in egg nine weeks after the first immunization. Igy anti S. mutanss still present in serum andegg until twelve weeks from the first immunization. Igy anti S. mutanss could decrease the amount of bacteria which attach the epithelial cell surface. The amount of sticky bacteria on epithelial cell (without IgY are 40 cell bacteria/epithelial cell. After blocked by IgY anti S. mutanss the amount of bacteria turn into 30 cell bacteria/epithelial cell (for dose of 100 ug IgY and 28 cell bacteria/epitheelial cell (for dose of 500 ug IgY. This research concluded that hens were capable producing IgY anti S. mutanss in egg yolk and it can be used to solve dental caries problem which caused by S. mutanss.

  2. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

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    Leticia Barrientos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anticancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 µgmL-1. Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

  3. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 μg mL(-1)). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

  4. Effect of dietary sugars on dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus – a pilot study

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    Rosa Virginia Dutra de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Frequent consumption of sugars and the presence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are correlated with higher caries experience. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to elucidate the effect of different fermentable carbohydrates on biomass formation and acidogenicity of S. mutans and S. sobrinus biofilms. Material and method Single and dual-species biofilms of S. mutans ATCC 25175 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 were grown at the bottom of microtiter plates at equal concentrations for 24 h at 37 °C under micro-aerobic atmosphere. Carbohydrates were added at 2% concentration: maltose, sucrose, glucose and lactose. BHI Broth (0.2% glucose was used as negative control. Acidogenicity was assessed by measuring the pH of spent culture medium after 24 h, immediately after refreshing the culture medium and for the next 1 h and 2 h. Crystal violet staining was used as an indicator of the total attached biofilm biomass after 24 h incubation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test. Significance level was set at 5%. Result All carbohydrates resulted in higher biomass formation in single- and dual-species biofilms when compared to the control group. Sucrose, lactose and maltose showed higher acidogenicity than the control group in both single- and dual-species biofilms after 24 h. Conclusion These findings indicate that the type of biofilm (single- or dual-species and the carbohydrate used may influence the amount of biomass formed and rate of pH reduction.

  5. The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius to colloidal solutions of different nanoparticles applied as mouthwashes

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    Farzaneh Ahrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metal nanoparticles have been recently applied in dentistry because of their antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial effects of colloidal solutions containing zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 and silver (Ag nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius and compare the results with those of chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthrinses. Materials and Methods: After adding nanoparticles to a water-based solution, six groups were prepared. Groups I to IV included colloidal solutions containing nanoZnO, nanoCuO, nanoTiO 2 and nanoAg, respectively. Groups V and VI consisted of 2.0% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes, respectively as controls. We used serial dilution method to find minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and with subcultures obtained minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of the solutions against S. mutans and S. sangius. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan test and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The sodium fluoride mouthrinse did not show any antibacterial effect. The nanoTiO 2 -containing solution had the lowest MIC against both microorganisms and also displayed the lowest MBC against S. mutans (P < 0.05. The colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO 2 and nanoZnO showed the lowest MBC against S. sangius (P < 0.05. On the other hand, chlorhexidine showed the highest MIC and MBC against both streptococci (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The nanoTiO 2 -containing mouthwash proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent and thus it can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride mouthrinses in the oral cavity provided the lack of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on biologic tissues.

  6. Hydroxychalcone inhibitors of Streptococcus mutans glucosyl transferases and biofilms as potential anticaries agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Casals, Luke; Zheng, Ruowen; Wu, Hui; Velu, Sadanandan E

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major etiological agent in the initiation and the development of dental caries due to its robust capacity to form tenacious biofilms. Ideal therapeutics for this disease will aim to selectively inhibit the biofilm formation process while preserving the natural bacterial flora of the mouth. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacies of flavonols on S. mutans biofilms and have suggested the mechanism of action through their effect on S. mutans glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). These enzymes metabolize sucrose into water insoluble and soluble glucans, which are an integral measure of the dental caries pathogenesis. Numerous studies have shown that flavonols and polyphenols can inhibit Gtf and biofilm formation at millimolar concentrations. We have screened a group of 14 hydroxychalcones, synthetic precursors of flavonols, in an S. mutans biofilm assay. Several of these compounds emerged to be biofilm inhibitors at low micro-molar concentrations. Chalcones that contained a 3-OH group on ring A exhibited selectivity for biofilm inhibition. Moreover, we synthesized 6 additional analogs of the lead compound and evaluated their potential activity and selectivity against S. mutans biofilms. The most active compound identified from these studies had an IC50 value of 44μM against biofilm and MIC50 value of 468μM against growth displaying >10-fold selectivity inhibition towards biofilm. The lead compound displayed a dose dependent inhibition of S. mutans Gtfs. The lead compound also did not affect the growth of two commensal species (Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii) at least up to 200μM, indicating that it can selectively inhibit cariogenic biofilms, while leaving commensal and/or beneficial microbes intact. Thus non-toxic compounds have the potential utility in public oral health regimes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Aktivitas antibakteri flavonoid propolis Trigona sp terhadap bakteri Streptococcus mutans (in vitro (In vitro antibacterial activity of flavonoids Trigona sp propolis against Streptococcus mutans

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    Ardo Sabir

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of investigations have shown a positive correlation between the number of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans in dental plaque and the prevalence of dental caries. Consequently, this microorganism has been the prime target for the prevention of dental caries. Propolis being a substance made by the honeybee, is a potent antibacterial agent. The main chemical class present in propolis is flavonoids. Flavonoids are well-known plant compounds that have antibacterial property. Because S. mutans is accepted to be one of the microorganisms responsible for dental caries and flavonoids in propolis are antibacterial, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial activity of flavonoids Trigona sp propolis against S. mutans as a first step in its possible use as an alternative anticaries agent. Extract flavonoids was purified from ethanol extract of propolis which was obtained from Bulukumba Regency South Sulawesi using thin layer chromatography. The purification of flavonoids was carried-out by UVradiation at λ max 254 nm and λmax 366 nm and treatment with ammonia. Extract flavonoids was diluted in aquadest to 0.05%; 0.075%; 0.1%; 0.25%; 0.5%; 0.75% concentrations. Aquadest and 10% Povidone iodine were also used as control solution. S mutans were grown in medium glucose nutrient agar and incubated with flavonoids for 24 and 48 hours, at 37° C. Antibacterial activity was reflected by the diameter of the inhibition zones around the stainless steel cylinder. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA followed by LSD test with significance level of 5%. The results of this study showed that after being incubated for 24 and 48 hours, all flavonoid concentrations significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited the growth of S mutans. 0.1% flavonoid was the most effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S mutans after 24 hours of incubation and 0.5% flavonoid after 48 hours of incubator.

  8. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Fangli; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ruan, Jing; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhenlong; Hu, Yulin; Li, Shentao

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (PurN) from Streptococcus mutans was expressed in E. coli, purified and studied crystallographically. Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (PurN) from Streptococcus mutans was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. An effective purification protocol was established. The purified protein, which had a purity of >95%, was identified by SDS–PAGE and MALDI–TOF MS. The protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method in hanging-drop mode with PEG 3350 as the primary precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Preliminary X-ray analysis indicated that the crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 52.25, b = 63.29, c = 131.81 Å

  9. Antibacterial Effect of Granati fructus Cortex Extract on Streptococcus mutans In Vitro

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    Cut R. Alfath

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 The rind of pomegranate fruit (Granati fructus cortex composed of antibacterial compounds such as alkaloid, flavonoid and tannin. Objective: To evaluate the bacterial effect of Granati fructus cortex extract against Streptococcus mutans. Methods: The study was laboratory experimental. The inhibition test was performed by agar diffusion method on MHA medium. Results: It showed the bacterial property of Granati fructus cortex on various concentration. The highest extract concentration of 30% extract has the largest of inhibition zones (15.4mm. The results showed a difference in the size of inhibition zones related to different extract concentrations. Conclusion: This study confirmed the antibacterial effect of Granati fructus cortex on the growth of Streptococcus mutans.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.126

  10. A Nuclease from Streptococcus mutans Facilitates Biofilm Dispersal and Escape from Killing by Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Sun, Luping; Liu, Wei; Guo, Lihong; Liu, Zhaohui; Wei, Xi; Ling, Junqi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and occasionally infective endocarditis, with the ability to form biofilms and disperse cells into distal sites to exacerbate and spread infection. In this study, we identified a nuclease (DeoC) as a S. mutans biofilm dispersal modulating factor through microarray analysis. In vitro assays revealed a dispersal defect of a deoC deletion mutant, and functional studies with purified protein were indicative of the biofilm dispersal activity of DeoC. Neutrophils are a key host response factor restraining bacterial spreading through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which consist of a nuclear DNA backbone associated with antimicrobial peptides. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dispersed S. mutans might utilize DeoC to degrade NETs and escape killing by the immune system. It was found that S. mutans induced NET formation upon contact with neutrophils, while the presence of NETs in turn enhanced the deoC expression of S. mutans . Fluorescence microscopy inspection showed that deoC deletion resulted in a decreased NET degradation ability of S. mutans and enhanced susceptibility to neutrophil killing. Data obtained from this study assigned two important roles for DeoC in S. mutans : contributing to the spread of infection through mediating biofilm dispersal, and facilitating the escape of S. mutans from neutrophil killing through NET degradation.

  11. Nutritionally Variant Streptococci Interfere with Streptococcus mutans Adhesion Properties and Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angius, Fabrizio; Madeddu, Maria Antonietta; Pompei, Raffaello

    2015-04-01

    The bacterial species Streptococcus mutans is known as the main cause of dental caries in humans. Therefore, much effort has focused on preventing oral colonization by this strain or clearing it from oral tissues. The oral cavity is colonized by several bacterial species that constitute the commensal oral flora, but none of these is able to interfere with the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. This paper describes the interfering ability of some nutritionally variant streptococcal strains (NVS) with S. mutans adhesion to glass surfaces and also to hydroxylapatite. In mixed cultures, NVS induce a complete inhibition of S. mutans microcolony formation on cover glass slides. NVS can also block the adherence of radiolabeled S. mutans to hydroxylapatite in the presence of both saliva and sucrose. The analysis of the action mechanism of NVS demonstrated that NVS are more hydrophobic than S. mutans and adhere tightly to hard surfaces. In addition, a cell-free culture filtrate of NVS was also able to interfere with S. mutans adhesion to hydroxylapatite. Since NVS are known to secrete some important bacteriolytic enzymes, we conclude that NVS can be a natural antagonist to the cariogenic properties of S. mutans.

  12. Relationship between Cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans and cerebral microbleeds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatani, F; Kuriyama, N; Watanabe, I; Nomura, R; Nakano, K; Matsui, D; Ozaki, E; Koyama, T; Nishigaki, M; Yamamoto, T; Mizuno, T; Tamura, A; Akazawa, K; Takada, A; Takeda, K; Yamada, K; Nakagawa, M; Ihara, M; Kanamura, N; Friedland, R P; Watanabe, Y

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage has been shown to occur in animals experimentally infected with Streptococcus mutans carrying the collagen-binding Cnm gene. However, the relationship between cerebral microbleeds and oral hygiene, with a focus on Cnm gene-positive S. mutans infection, remains unclear. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated. The presence or absence of Cnm-positive S. mutans and its collagen-binding activity were investigated using saliva samples, and relationship with cerebral microbleeds detected on MRI investigated, including clinical information and oral parameters. Fifty-one subjects were identified as Cnm-positive S. mutans carriers (36.7%), with cerebral microbleeds being detected in 43 (30.9%). A significantly larger number of subjects carried Cnm-positive S. mutans in the cerebral microbleeds (+) group. S. mutans with Cnm collagen-binding ability was detected in 39 (28.1%) of all subjects, and the adjusted odds ratio for cerebral microbleeds in the Cnm-positive group was 14.4. Regarding the presence of cerebral microbleeds, no significant differences were noted in the number of remaining teeth, dental caries, or in classic arteriosclerosis risk factors. The occurrence of cerebral microbleeds was higher in subjects carrying Cnm-positive S. mutans, indicating that the presence of Cnm-positive S. mutans increases cerebral microbleeds, and is an independent risk for the development of cerebrovascular disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of class-specific antibodies to Streptococcus mutans in monkey serum and saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.; Colman, G.; Huges, M.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure class-specific antibodies to Streptococcus mutans in the serum and saliva of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Antihuman immunoglobulin antibodies purified by affinity chromatography on immobilised monkey immoglobulins and labelled with 125 I were employed. Formalised cells of S. mutans and an extract of culture supernatant adsorbed to polystyrene wells were used as solid-phase antigens. The coefficients of variation of IgG, IgA, and IgM assays were less than or equal to 10% for both antigen systems. It is shown that this RIA is a sensitive, reproducible and quantitative method. (Auth.)

  14. pH and effects on Streptococcus mutans growth of denture adhesives: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengying; Mao, Tiantian; Cheng, Xiangrong

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the pH and effects on Streptococcus mutans growth of denture adhesives. There is little information regarding the pH of contemporary adhesives and their influences on S. mutans growth. The adhesives tested were Polident® cream, Protefix® cream and Protefix® powder. Samples of each adhesive were added to deionized water to produce solutions of 10.0, 5.0, 2.5 and 1.0% w/v (cream formulations) or 5.0, 2.5,1.0 and 0.5% (powder formulation). The pH values were measured immediately after preparation and at 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h intervals using a digital pH meter. Streptococcus mutans UA159 was inoculated in the Brain Heart Infusion medium with or without the adhesive extracts (control). Bacterial growth was observed by measuring absorption at 600 nm every 1 h for 12 h using a spectrophotometer. The tested adhesives generally remained relatively pH-stable over 24 h, ranging from 5.5 to 7.0. There were no statistically significant differences in S. mutans growth rates between the extract-treated and control cultures (p>0.5). Some adhesives produce a pH below the critical pH of hydroxyapatite and may not be suitable for patients with natural teeth. None of the tested adhesives significantly affect S. mutans growth. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Comparing the cariogenic species Streptococcus sobrinus and S. mutans on whole genome level

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    Georg Conrads

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two closely related species of mutans streptococci, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, are associated with dental caries in humans. Their acidogenic and aciduric capacity is directly associated with the cariogenic potential of these bacteria. To survive acidic and temporarily harsh conditions in the human oral cavity with hundreds of other microbial co-colonizers as competitors, both species have developed numerous mechanisms for adaptation. Objectives: The recently published novel genome information for both species is used to elucidate genetic similarities but especially differences and to discuss the impact on cariogenicity of the corresponding phenotypic properties including adhesion, carbohydrate uptake and fermentation, acid tolerance, signaling by two component systems, competence, and oxidative stress resistance. Conclusions: S. sobrinus can down-regulate the SpaA-mediated adherence to the pellicle. It has a smaller number of two-component signaling systems and bacteriocin-related genes than S. mutans, but all or even more immunity proteins. It lacks the central competence genes comC, comS, and comR. There are more genes coding for glucosyltransferases and a novel energy production pathway formed by lactate oxidase, which is not found in S. mutans. Both species show considerable differences in the regulation of fructan catabolism. However, both S. mutans and S. sobrinus share most of these traits and should therefore be considered as equally virulent with regard to dental caries.

  16. Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy = Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica

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    Vasconcelos, Laurylene César de S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. Metodologia: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstico positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. Resultados: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5% e II (53,5%. A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 104. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis

  17. Purification of a Streptococcus mutans protein that binds to heart tissue and glycosaminoglycans.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, S H; Stinson, M W

    1989-01-01

    Proteins of Streptococcus mutans MT703 were isolated by differential filtration from chemically defined culture medium following growth of the bacteria. Incubation of this preparation with cryostat-cut sections of fresh rabbit cardiac muscle resulted in deposition of streptococcal components on basement membranes of sarcolemmal sheaths and capillary walls, as indicated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Binding of radioiodinated streptococcal proteins to heart in vitro was time dependent a...

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Achyranthes aspera extract against Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Roma; Rai, Radhika; Yadav, Abhishek; Pahuja, Meetika; Solanki, Savita; Yadav, Himani

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal diseases have historically been considered the most important global oral health burdens. Many chemicals and synthetic drugs have marked the side effects. Hence, there has been a paradigm shift from the use of modern drugs to the age-old herbs. Achyranthes aspera is one such important plant with various established pharmaceutical properties. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of the A. aspera extract against Streptococcus mutans. Aqueo...

  19. The effect of oil pulling with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Komath Pavithran; Madhusudhan Krishna; Vinod A Kumar; Ashish Jaiswal; Arul K Selvan; Sudhir Rawlani

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Oil pulling as described in ancient Ayurveda involves the use of edible vegetable oils as oral antibacterial agents. It is a practice of swishing oil in the mouth for oral and systemic health benefits. Pure coconut oil has antimicrobial properties and is commonly available in all Indian households. Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of oil pulling therapy with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans count and to compare its efficacy against sesame oil and saline. Materia...

  20. Preventive measures to reduce the transfer of Streptococcus mutans from pregnant women to their babies†

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Eda; Köprülü, Hülya

    2011-01-01

    Background/purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the transfer of Streptococcus mutans to babies from prospective mothers in whom protective measures were carried out and who were trained in dental health care. Materials and methods: Pregnant women were given fluoride varnish and restoration of active caries once during their pregnancy. No application of fluoride or restoration was given to the control group. Microbiological samples were taken after delivery of the babies in the...

  1. Role of Streptococcus mutans two-component systems in antimicrobial peptide resistance in the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Approximately 100 trillion microorganisms exist in the oral cavity. For the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, it is important to adapt to environmental stimuli, including human- or bacteria-derived antimicrobial agents. Recently, bacterial-specific signal transduction regulatory systems, called two-component systems (TCSs), which appear to be focused on sensing and adapting to the environment, were discovered. Streptococcus mutans is an oral commensal bacteria and is also known a...

  2. Are self-ligating brackets related to less formation of Streptococcus mutans colonies? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Euler Andrade Gomes do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify, by means of a systematic review, whether the design of brackets (conventional or self-ligating influences adhesion and formation of Streptococcus mutans colonies. METHODS: Search strategy: four databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid ALL EMB Reviews, PubMed and BIREME were selected to search relevant articles covering the period from January 1965 to December 2012. Selection Criteria: in first consensus by reading the title and abstract. The full text was obtained from publications that met the inclusion criteria. Data collection and analysis: Two reviewers independently extracted data using the keywords: conventional, self-ligating, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans, and systematic review; and independently evaluated the quality of the studies. In case of divergence, the technique of consensus was adopted. RESULTS: The search strategy resulted in 1,401 articles. The classification of scientific relevance revealed the high quality of the 6 eligible articles of which outcomes were not unanimous in reporting not only the influence of the design of the brackets (conventional or self-ligating over adhesion and formation of colonies of Streptococcus mutans, but also that other factors such as the quality of the bracket type, the level of individual oral hygiene, bonding and age may have greater influence. Statistical analysis was not feasible because of the heterogeneous methodological design. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that there is no evidence for a possible influence of the design of the brackets (conventional or self-ligating over colony formation and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans.

  3. Quorum Sensing Regulation of Competence and Bacteriocins in Streptococcus pneumoniae and mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Erin; Federle, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence. Over the past two decades, effectors of cellular killing (i.e., fratricides) have been recognized as important targets of the pneumococcal competence QS pathway. Recently, direct interactions between the ComCDE and the paralogous BlpRH pathway, regulating bacteriocin production, were identified, further strengthening the interconnections between these two QS systems. Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S. mutans, the primary etiological agent of dental caries. This review compares the relationship between the bacteriocin and the competence QS pathways in both S. pneumoniae and S. mutans, and hopes to provide clues to regulatory pathways across the genus Streptococcus as a potential tool to efficiently investigate putative competence pathways in nontransformable streptococci. PMID:28067778

  4. Calorimetric comparison of the interactions between salivary proteins and Streptococcus mutans with and without antigen I/II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.P.; Belt-Gritter, van de B.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, van der H.C.; Norde, W.

    2007-01-01

    Antigen I/II can be found on streptococcal cell surfaces and is involved in their interaction with salivary proteins. In this paper, we determine the adsorption enthalpies of salivary proteins to Streptococcus mutans LT11 and S. mutans IB03987 with and without antigen I/II, respectively, using

  5. Calorimetric comparison of the interactions between salivary proteins and Streptococcus mutans with and without antigen I/II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Chun-Ping; Belt-Gritter, van de Betsy; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Norde, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Antigen I/II can be found on streptococcal cell surfaces and is involved in their interaction with salivary proteins. In this paper, we determine the adsorption enthalpies of salivary proteins to Streptococcus mutans LT 11 and S. mutans IB03987 with and without antigen I/II, respectively, using

  6. Streptococcus mutans Can Modulate Biofilm Formation and Attenuate the Virulence of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; de Alvarenga, Janaína Araújo; Velloso, Marisol dos Santos; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are found together in the oral biofilms on dental surfaces, but little is known about the ecological interactions between these species. Here, we studied the effects of S. mutans UA159 on the growth and pathogencity of C. albicans. Initially, the effects of S. mutans on the biofilm formation and morphogenesis of C. albicans were tested in vitro. Next, we investigate the influence of S. mutans on pathogenicity of C. albicans using in vivo host models, in which the experimental candidiasis was induced in G. mellonella larvae and analyzed by survival curves, C. albicans count in hemolymph, and quantification of hyphae in the host tissues. In all the tests, we evaluated the direct effects of S. mutans cells, as well as the indirect effects of the subproducts secreted by this microorganism using a bacterial culture filtrate. The in vitro analysis showed that S. mutans cells favored biofilm formation by C. albicans. However, a reduction in biofilm viable cells and inhibition of hyphal growth was observed when C. albicans was in contact with the S. mutans culture filtrate. In the in vivo study, injection of S. mutans cells or S. mutans culture filtrate into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, a reduction in hyphal formation was observed in larval tissues when C. albicans was associated with S. mutans culture filtrate. These findings suggest that S. mutans can secrete subproducts capable to inhibit the biofilm formation, morphogenesis and pathogenicity of C. albicans, attenuating the experimental candidiasis in G. mellonella model. PMID:26934196

  7. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM strip mutans test: a randomized controlled triple blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarathan, J; Deepti, A; Muthu, M S; Rathna Prabhu, V; Chamundeeswari, G S

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer's chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. The average Streptococcus mutans counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10(4)-10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/ml and <10(4) CFU/ml respectively. The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

  8. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathan J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer′s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

  9. Perbedaan daya hambat terhadap Streptococcus mutans dari beberapa pasta gigi yang mengandung herbal (The difference of inhibition zones toward Streptococcus mutans among several herbal toothpaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Pratiwi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease with health promotion has been the main goal of Dentistry, since the dental plaque is a common and predominating factor leading to loss of teeth both caused by both dental caries and periodontal disease. Most devices used for plaque removal and periodontal care are based on mechanical action, including toothbrushes, interdentally brushes and oral irrigators. Today, plaque control is facilitated by an increasing variety of active agents based on either natural ingredients or synthetic product. Alternative materials based on essential oil and plant extracts are therefore of particular interest. The aim of the present study was to investigate the different of zone inhibition of Streptococcus mutans of herbal toothpastes. Samples of the subjects were 4 types of herbal toothpastes and 1 herbal toothpaste as control. For inhibition zone trial toward Streptococcus mutans, agar diffusion method was used and the interpretation was done by measuring the widest inhibition zone. The result of the study indicated a statistical significance different on inhibition zone among the 5th toothpastes, but toothpaste containing siwak was the widest inhibition zone.

  10. Passive Immunization with Milk Produced from an Immunized Cow Prevents Oral Recolonization by Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Mitoma, Morihide; Oho, Takahiko; Nakano, Yoshio; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Okano, Kaoru; Nakano, Yutaka; Fukuyama, Masataka; Fujihara, Noboru; Nada, Youichi; Koga, Toshihiko

    2001-01-01

    Cell surface protein antigen (PAc) and water-insoluble glucan-synthesizing enzyme (GTF-I) produced by cariogenic Streptococcus mutans are two major factors implicated in the colonization of the human oral cavity by this bacterium. We examined the effect of bovine milk, produced after immunization with a fusion protein of functional domains of these proteins, on the recolonization of S. mutans. To prepare immune milk, a pregnant Holstein cow was immunized with the fusion protein PAcA-GB, a fusion of the saliva-binding alanine-rich region (PAcA) of PAc and the glucan-binding (GB) domain of GTF-I. After eight adult subjects received cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) treatment, one subgroup (n = 4) rinsed their mouths with immune milk and a control group (n = 4) rinsed with nonimmune milk. S. mutans levels in saliva and dental plaque decreased after CPC treatment in both groups. Mouth rinsing with immune milk significantly inhibited recolonization of S. mutans in saliva and plaque. On the other hand, the numbers of S. mutans cells in saliva and plaque in the control group increased immediately after the CPC treatment and surpassed the baseline level 42 and 28 days, respectively, after the CPC treatment. The ratios of S. mutans to total streptococci in saliva and plaque in the group that received immune milk were lower than those in the control group. These results suggest that milk produced from immunized cow may be useful for controlling S. mutans in the human oral cavity. PMID:11687453

  11. Genotypic characterization of initial acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in American Indian children

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    David J. Lynch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. Methods: We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR. Results: Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS scores (p=0.0007. Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. Conclusion: These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described ‘window of infectivity’ and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers.

  12. Reciprocal interaction between dental alloy biocorrosion and Streptococcus mutans virulent gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songmei; Qiu, Jing; Ren, Yanfang; Yu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Fuqiang; Liu, Xiuxin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of dental alloys is a major concern in dental restorations. Streptococcus mutans reduces the pH in oral cavity and induces demineralization of the enamel as well as corrosion of restorative dental materials. The rough surfaces of dental alloys induced by corrosion enhance the subsequent accumulation of plaque. In this study, the corrosion process of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in a nutrient-rich medium containing S. mutans was studied using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical corrosion test. Our results showed that the release of Ni and Co ions increased, particularly after incubation for 3 days. The electrochemical corrosion results showed a significant decrease in the corrosion resistance (Rp) value after the alloys were immersed in the media containing S. mutans for 3 days. Correspondingly, XPS revealed a reduction in the relative dominance of Ni, Co, and Cr in the surface oxides after the alloys were immersed in the S. mutans culture. After removal of the biofilm, the pre-corroded alloys were re-incubated in S. mutans medium, and the expressions of genes associated with the adhesion and acidogenesis of S. mutans, including gtfBCD, gbpB, fif and ldh, were evaluated by detecting the mRNA levels using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the gtfBCD, gbpB, ftf and Idh expression of S. mutans were noticeably increased after incubation with pre-corroded alloys for 24 h. This study demonstrated that S. mutans enhanced the corrosion behavior of the dental alloys, on the other hand, the presence of corroded alloy surfaces up-regulated the virulent gene expression in S. mutans. Compared with smooth surfaces, the rough corroded surfaces of dental alloys accelerated the bacteria-adhesion and corrosion process by changing the virulence gene expression of S. mutans.

  13. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans to Antibacterial Effect from Mammea americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Herrera Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of periodontal disease and dental caries is influenced by several factors, such as microorganisms of bacterial biofilm or commensal bacteria in the mouth. These microorganisms trigger inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Currently, medicinal plants are treatment options for these oral diseases. Mammea americana extracts have reported antimicrobial effects against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, this effect is unknown against oral bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of M. americana extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans. For this, an experimental study was conducted. Ethanolic extract was obtained from seeds of M. americana (one oil phase and one ethanolic phase. The strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were exposed to this extract to evaluate its antibacterial effect. Antibacterial activity was observed with the two phases of M. americana extract on P. gingivalis and S. mutans with lower MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration. Also, bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity was detected against S. mutans, depending on the concentration of the extract, while on M. americana extract presented only bacteriostatic activity against P. gingivalis. These findings provide important and promising information allowing for further exploration in the future.

  14. Pleiotropic Regulation of Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans by the Conserved Small Protein SprV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Hossain, Mohammad S; Biswas, Indranil

    2017-04-15

    Streptococcus mutans , an oral pathogen associated with dental caries, colonizes tooth surfaces as polymicrobial biofilms known as dental plaque. S. mutans expresses several virulence factors that allow the organism to tolerate environmental fluctuations and compete with other microorganisms. We recently identified a small hypothetical protein (90 amino acids) essential for the normal growth of the bacterium. Inactivation of the gene, SMU.2137, encoding this protein caused a significant growth defect and loss of various virulence-associated functions. An S. mutans strain lacking this gene was more sensitive to acid, temperature, osmotic, oxidative, and DNA damage-inducing stresses. In addition, we observed an altered protein profile and defects in biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, and natural competence development, possibly due to the fitness defect associated with SMU.2137 deletion. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that nearly 20% of the S. mutans genes were differentially expressed upon SMU.2137 deletion, thereby suggesting a pleiotropic effect. Therefore, we have renamed this hitherto uncharacterized gene as sprV ( s treptococcal p leiotropic r egulator of v irulence). The transcript levels of several relevant genes in the sprV mutant corroborated the phenotypes observed upon sprV deletion. Owing to its highly conserved nature, inactivation of the sprV ortholog in Streptococcus gordonii also resulted in poor growth and defective UV tolerance and competence development as in the case of S. mutans Our experiments suggest that SprV is functionally distinct from its homologs identified by structure and sequence homology. Nonetheless, our current work is aimed at understanding the importance of SprV in the S. mutans biology. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans employs several virulence factors and stress resistance mechanisms to colonize tooth surfaces and cause dental caries. Bacterial pathogenesis is generally controlled by regulators of fitness that are

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Achyranthes aspera extract against Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries and periodontal diseases have historically been considered the most important global oral health burdens. Many chemicals and synthetic drugs have marked the side effects. Hence, there has been a paradigm shift from the use of modern drugs to the age-old herbs. Achyranthes aspera is one such important plant with various established pharmaceutical properties. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of the A. aspera extract against Streptococcus mutans. Aqueous extract of A. aspera was prepared. Different concentrations of the root and stem extracts of A. aspera were transferred to the agar plates, which had been streaked with the bacterium S. mutans. The plates were incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24 h, and the zones of inhibition were measured using cup plate method. A. aspera extract showed statistically significant zones of inhibition. A. aspera showed marked antibacterial activity against S. mutans.

  16. Effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on Streptococcus mutans counts in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Flavia Cristina; Jeremias, Fabiano; Spolidório, Denise Madalena Palomari; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Valsecki Junior, Aylton; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral environment stabilization (OES) on the counting of Streptococcus mutans in high-caries-risk pregnant women participants of a prevention program in a public teaching institution. The sample was composed of 30 pregnant women aged 18 to 43 years, who looked for treatment at the Preventive Dentistry Clinic of the Araraquara Dental School, UNESP. Saliva samples were collected before and after the OES procedures and were forwarded to the pathology for observation and quantification of S. mutans CFU. There was a decrease in the number of S. mutans CFU, which was significantly different (pmutans CFU in the saliva of high-caries-risk pregnant women. This management is simple and effective, corresponding to the basic treatment needs of pregnant women that search dental care in this public service.

  17. Antibacterial efficacy of Salvadora persica as a cleansing teeth towards Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli colonies

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    Erlina Sih Mahanani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvadora persica is a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth that it is known Siwak. Several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effects of Salvadora persica. Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of Salvadora persica in several modified preparation against the salivary Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli. Methods: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial study with crossover design was used. The study comprised of 5 groups, per group consisted of 14 healthy dental students who had good oral hygiene. Each participant was given 5 intervention to clean their teeth using, electric toothbrush modified with siwak, electric toothbrush with siwak toothpaste (colgate kayu sugi toothpaste, electric toothbrush with general toothpaste (colgate total toothpaste, original siwak chewing stick and normal saline. The wash out periode each intervention was 3 days. Patients’ saliva was used to quantify the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli using caries risk test (CRT kit from Vivadent. Results: The results showed that there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli risk score after cleansing different intervention except electric toothbrush modified with siwak. However, there was no significant difference for Streptococcus mutans (p=0.158 and Lactobacilli (p=0.396 risk score reduction when comparison was done between the groups. Conclusion: The original siwak chewing stick has antimicrobial effects similar to toothbrushing with general toothpaste and salvadora persica toothpaste. However, electric toothbrush modified with siwak has no effect on microbial reduction.Latar belakang: Salvadora persica adalah pembersih gigi tradisional yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Siwak. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Salvadora persica memiliki daya antibakteri. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas Salvadora persica dalam berbagai bentuk sediaan untuk membersihkan

  18. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

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    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  19. D-Tagatose inhibits the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibul, Khaleque; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Ogawa, Takaaki; Waki, Junpei; Tada, Ayano; Yoneda, Saori; Tokuda, Masaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is an important global health concern and Streptococcus mutans has been established as a major cariogenic bacterial species. Reports indicate that a rare sugar, D-tagatose, is not easily catabolized by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans GS-5 were examined. Monitoring S. mutans growth over a 24 h period revealed that D-tagatose prolonged the lag phase without interfering with the final cell yield. This growth retardation was also observed in the presence of 1% sucrose, although it was abolished by the addition of D-fructose. S. mutans biofilm formation was significantly inhibited by growth in sucrose media supplemented with 1 and 4% D-tagatose compared with that in a culture containing sucrose alone, while S. mutans formed granular biofilms in the presence of this rare sugar. The inhibitory effect of D-tagatose on S. mutans biofilm formation was significantly more evident than that of xylitol. Growth in sucrose media supplemented with D-tagatose significantly decreased the expression of glucosyltransferase, exo-β-fructosidase and D-fructose-specific phosphotransferase genes but not the expression of fructosyltransferase compared with the culture containing sucrose only. The activity of cell-associated glucosyltransferase in S. mutans was inhibited by 4% D-tagatose. These results indicate that D-tagatose reduces water-insoluble glucan production from sucrose by inhibiting glucosyltransferase activities, which limits access to the free D-fructose released during this process and retards the growth of S. mutans. Therefore, foods and oral care products containing D-tagatose are anticipated to reduce the risk of caries by inhibiting S. mutans biofilm formation. PMID:29115611

  20. Adherence inhibition of Streptococcus mutans on dental enamel surface using silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Cristóbal, L.F.; Martínez-Castañón, G.A.; Téllez-Déctor, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans after being exposed to three different sizes of silver nanoparticles on healthy human dental enamel. Three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (9.3, 21.3 and 98 nm) were prepared, characterized and an adherence testing was performed to evaluate their anti-adherence activity on a reference strain of S. mutans on healthy dental enamel surfaces. Colony-Forming Unit count was made for adherence test and light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare qualitative characteristics of S. mutans. 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups did not show differences between them but statistical differences were found when 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups were compared with 98 nm and negative control groups (p < 0.05). Microscopy analysis shows a better inhibition of S. mutans adherence in 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups than the 98 nm group when compared with control group. Silver nanoparticles showed an adherence inhibition on S. mutans and the anti-adherence capacity was better when silver nanoparticles were smaller. Highlights: ► We examined how SNP can affect cellular adhesion from S. mutans. ► Several techniques were applied to analyzed S. mutans biofilm on enamel. ► All SNP sizes had an adhesion inhibition of S. mutans. ► Smaller SNP showed a better adhesion inhibition than larger SNP. ► Inhibition effect of SNP could be related with adhesion inhibition from S. mutans

  1. Adherence inhibition of Streptococcus mutans on dental enamel surface using silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Cristóbal, L.F. [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Martínez-Castañón, G.A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx [Doctorado Institucional en Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas en el Área de Odontología Integral Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava S/N, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78290 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Téllez-Déctor, E.J. [Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Veracruzana campus Río Blanco, Mariano Abasolo S/N. Col. Centro. Río Blanco, Veracruz (Mexico); and others

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans after being exposed to three different sizes of silver nanoparticles on healthy human dental enamel. Three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (9.3, 21.3 and 98 nm) were prepared, characterized and an adherence testing was performed to evaluate their anti-adherence activity on a reference strain of S. mutans on healthy dental enamel surfaces. Colony-Forming Unit count was made for adherence test and light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare qualitative characteristics of S. mutans. 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups did not show differences between them but statistical differences were found when 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups were compared with 98 nm and negative control groups (p < 0.05). Microscopy analysis shows a better inhibition of S. mutans adherence in 9.3 nm and 21.3 nm groups than the 98 nm group when compared with control group. Silver nanoparticles showed an adherence inhibition on S. mutans and the anti-adherence capacity was better when silver nanoparticles were smaller. Highlights: ► We examined how SNP can affect cellular adhesion from S. mutans. ► Several techniques were applied to analyzed S. mutans biofilm on enamel. ► All SNP sizes had an adhesion inhibition of S. mutans. ► Smaller SNP showed a better adhesion inhibition than larger SNP. ► Inhibition effect of SNP could be related with adhesion inhibition from S. mutans.

  2. Effect of LongZhang Gargle on Biofilm Formation and Acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, with the ability of high-rate acid production and strong biofilm formation, is considered the predominant bacterial species in the pathogenesis of human dental caries. Natural products which may be bioactive against S. mutans have become a hot spot to researches to control dental caries. LongZhang Gargle, completely made from Chinese herbs, was investigated for its effects on acid production and biofilm formation by S. mutans in this study. The results showed an antimicrobial activity of LongZhang Gargle against S. mutans planktonic growth at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 16% and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of 32%. Acid production was significantly inhibited at sub-MIC concentrations. Biofilm formation was also significantly disrupted, and 8% was the minimum concentration that resulted in at least 50% inhibition of biofilm formation (MBIC50. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed an effective disruption of LongZhang Gargle on S. mutans biofilm integrity. In addition, a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM suggested that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS synthesis could be inhibited by LongZhang Gargle at a relatively low concentration. These findings suggest that LongZhang Gargle may be a promising natural anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses planktonic growth, acid production, and biofilm formation against S. mutans.

  3. Enhanced adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite after exposure to saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Christian; Thewes, Nicolas; Nolle, Friederike; Faidt, Thomas; Umanskaya, Natalia; Hannig, Matthias; Bischoff, Markus; Jacobs, Karin

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans cells form robust biofilms on human teeth and are strongly related to caries incidents. Hence, understanding the adhesion of S. mutans in the human oral cavity is of major interest for preventive dentistry. In this study, we report on atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy measurements of S. mutans cells to hydroxyapatite surfaces. We observe for almost all measurements a significant difference in adhesion strength for S. mutans as well as for Staphylococcus carnosus cells. However, the increase in adhesion strength after saliva exposure is much higher for S. mutans cells compared to S. carnosus cells. Our results demonstrate that S. mutans cells are well adapted to their natural environment, the oral cavity. This ability promotes the biofilm-forming capability of that species and hence the production of caries-provoking acids. In consequence, understanding the fundamentals of this mechanism may pave a way towards more effective caries-reducing techniques. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effects of Cola-Flavored Beverages and Caffeine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsey, Roger P; Moser, Elizabeth A S; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    To examine the effects of cola-flavored beverages and caffeine on growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. This study was designed to determine if carbonated beverages or caffeine can increase S. mutans growth and biofilm formation and metabolic activity in vitro, potentially leading to increased S. mutans-associated cariogenicity in children that consume them. Six different cola-flavored products, plus pure caffeine, and pure high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), at different concentrations similar to those in the beverages were tested. A 16-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with different dilutions in bacteriological media. To test for the effect on biofilm formation, the biofilm was stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was determined to evaluate biofilm growth. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured based on biofilm having the ability to reduce XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. The inclusion of HFCS in the beverages, as well as pure HFCS, significantly enhanced bacterial biofilm formation and metabolic activity. Pure caffeine and the presence of caffeine in beverages did not significantly increase biofilm formation, but pure caffeine significantly increased metabolism, and Diet Coke had significantly greater metabolic activity than Caffeine-Free Diet Coke. HFCS increases both the biofilm formation and metabolism of S. mutans, and caffeine in some cases increases metabolism of S. mutans.

  5. Photo Inactivation of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm by Violet-Blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace F; Huang, Ruijie; MacPherson, Meoghan; Ferreira Zandona, Andrea G; Gregory, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    Among various preventive approaches, non-invasive phototherapy/photodynamic therapy is one of the methods used to control oral biofilm. Studies indicate that light at specific wavelengths has a potent antibacterial effect. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of violet-blue light at 380-440 nm to inhibit biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans or kill S. mutans. S. mutans UA159 biofilm cells were grown for 12-16 h in 96-well flat-bottom microtiter plates using tryptic soy broth (TSB) or TSB with 1 % sucrose (TSBS). Biofilm was irradiated with violet-blue light for 5 min. After exposure, plates were re-incubated at 37 °C for either 2 or 6 h to allow the bacteria to recover. A crystal violet biofilm assay was used to determine relative densities of the biofilm cells grown in TSB, but not in TSBS, exposed to violet-blue light. The results indicated a statistically significant (P mutans growth and reduce the formation of S. mutans biofilm. This in vitro study demonstrated that violet-blue light has the capacity to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. Potential clinical applications of light therapy in the future remain bright in preventing the development and progression of dental caries.

  6. Inactivation of glutamate racemase (MurI) eliminates virulence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi; Tong, Zhongchun; Fu, Yun; Liang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of enzymes required for bacterial cell wall synthesis is often lethal or leads to virulence defects. Glutamate racemase (MurI), an essential enzyme in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, has been an attractive target for therapeutic interventions. Streptococcus mutans, one of the many etiological factors of dental caries, possesses a series of virulence factors associated with cariogenicity. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which MurI influences pathogenesis of S. mutans. In this work, a stable mutant of S. mutans deficient in glutamate racemase (S. mutans FW1718) was constructed to investigate the impact of murI inactivation on cariogenic virulence in S. mutans UA159. Microscopy revealed that the murI mutant exhibited an enlarged cell size, longer cell chains, diminished cell⬜cell aggregation, and altered cell surface ultrastructure compared with the wild-type. Characterization of this mutant revealed that murI deficiency weakened acidogenicity, aciduricity, and biofilm formation ability of S. mutans (Pmutans virulence properties, making MurI a potential target for controlling dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial peptide GH12 suppresses cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufei; Wang, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wentao; Wang, Kun; Luo, Junyuan; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xuedong; Zhang, Linglin

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans include acidogenicity, aciduricity, and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis. The de novo designed antimicrobial peptide GH12 has shown bactericidal effects on S. mutans, but its interaction with virulence and regulatory systems of S. mutans remains to be elucidated. The objectives were to investigate the effects of GH12 on virulence factors of S. mutans, and further explore the function mechanisms at enzymatic and transcriptional levels. To avoid decrease in bacterial viability, we limited GH12 to subinhibitory levels. We evaluated effects of GH12 on acidogenicity of S. mutans by pH drop, lactic acid measurement and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, on aciduricity through survival rate at pH 5.0 and F1F0-ATPase assay, and on EPS synthesis using quantitative measurement, morphology observation, vertical distribution analyses and biomass calculation. Afterwards, we conducted quantitative real-time PCR to acquire the expression profile of related genes. GH12 at 1/2 MIC (4 mg/L) inhibited acid production, survival rate, EPS synthesis, and biofilm formation. The enzymatic activity of LDH and F1F0-ATPase was inhibited, and ldh, gtfBCD, vicR, liaR, and comDE genes were significantly downregulated. In conclusion, GH12 inhibited virulence factors of S. mutans, through reducing the activity of related enzymes, downregulating virulence genes, and inactivating specific regulatory systems. PMID:29503706

  8. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T P; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. A total of fifty female children aged 8-12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2-3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans . counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans . count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans .

  9. Chemotactic Activity on Human Neutrophils to Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemotactic activity o neutrophil to S. mutans. Chemotaxis assay was performed in blind well chambers. Materials and Methods: Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS containing 106 S. mutans,  108 S. mutans, 10-8 M fMLP, or HBSS alone were placed in the lower wells of the chamber and covered with polycorbonate membrane filter. Neutrophils suspension (2x105 cells was then placed in the upper compartment. After incubation for 60 mins at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2, the filters were removed and stained with Giemsa. Result: ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences among groups (p<0.05, indicating that S. mutans induced neutrophils chemotaxis. The number of neutrophils migration in response to 108 S. mutans and 106 S. mutans were signifiantly greater compared to fMLP (p<0.05. Conclusion: S. mutans may activate human neutrophils, resulting in the chemotaxis of the neutrophils.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.99

  10. Targeting of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms by a Novel Small Molecule Prevents Dental Caries and Preserves the Oral Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S S; Blackledge, M S; Michalek, S; Su, L; Ptacek, T; Eipers, P; Morrow, C; Lefkowitz, E J; Melander, C; Wu, H

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries is a costly and prevalent disease characterized by the demineralization of the tooth's enamel. Disease outcome is influenced by host factors, dietary intake, cariogenic bacteria, and other microbes. The cariogenic bacterial species Streptococcus mutans metabolizes sucrose to initiate biofilm formation on the tooth surface and consequently produces lactic acid to degrade the tooth's enamel. Persistence of S. mutans biofilms in the oral cavity can lead to tooth decay. To date, no anticaries therapies that specifically target S. mutans biofilms but do not disturb the overall oral microbiome are available. We screened a library of 2-aminoimidazole antibiofilm compounds with a biofilm dispersion assay and identified a small molecule that specifically targets S. mutans biofilms. At 5 µM, the small molecule annotated 3F1 dispersed 50% of the established S. mutans biofilm but did not disperse biofilms formed by the commensal species Streptococcus sanguinis or Streptococcus gordonii. 3F1 dispersed S. mutans biofilms independently of biofilm-related factors such as antigen I/II and glucosyltransferases. 3F1 treatment effectively prevented dental caries by controlling S. mutans in a rat caries model without perturbing the oral microbiota. Our study demonstrates that selective targeting of S. mutans biofilms by 3F1 was able to effectively reduce dental caries in vivo without affecting the overall oral microbiota shaped by the intake of dietary sugars, suggesting that the pathogenic biofilm-specific treatment is a viable strategy for disease prevention.

  11. Antibacterial activity of Bixa orellana L. (achiote against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyanne Medina-Flores

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanolic extract of B. orellana (achiote on S. mutans and S. sanguinis. The extract of this plant is cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  12. Antibacterial activity of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosella Camere-Colarossi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanol extract of M. dubia against S. mutans and S. sanguinis. These extracts were not cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  13. Oxidative Stressors Modify the Response of Streptococcus mutans to Its Competence Signal Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Furio, Matthew; Ahn, Sang Joon; Burne, Robert A; Hagen, Stephen J

    2017-11-15

    The dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is continually exposed to several types of stress in the oral biofilm environment. Oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species has a major impact on the establishment, persistence, and virulence of S. mutans Here, we combined fluorescent reporter-promoter fusions with single-cell imaging to study the effects of reactive oxygen species on activation of genetic competence in S. mutans Exposure to paraquat, which generates superoxide anion, produced a qualitatively different effect on activation of expression of the gene for the master competence regulator, ComX, than did treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), which can yield hydroxyl radical. Paraquat suppressed peptide-mediated induction of comX in a progressive and cumulative fashion, whereas the response to H 2 O 2 displayed a strong threshold behavior. Low concentrations of H 2 O 2 had little effect on induction of comX or the bacteriocin gene cipB , but expression of these genes declined sharply if extracellular H 2 O 2 exceeded a threshold concentration. These effects were not due to decreased reporter gene fluorescence. Two different threshold concentrations were observed in the response to H 2 O 2 , depending on the gene promoter that was analyzed and the pathway by which the competence regulon was stimulated. The results show that paraquat and H 2 O 2 affect the S. mutans competence signaling pathway differently, and that some portions of the competence signaling pathway are more sensitive to oxidative stress than others. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans inhabits the oral biofilm, where it plays an important role in the development of dental caries. Environmental stresses such as oxidative stress influence the growth of S. mutans and its important virulence-associated behaviors, such as genetic competence. S. mutans competence development is a complex behavior that involves two different signaling peptides and can exhibit cell

  14. RgpF Is Required for Maintenance of Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, C J; Faustoferri, R C; Quivey, R G

    2017-12-15

    Bacterial cell wall dynamics have been implicated as important determinants of cellular physiology, stress tolerance, and virulence. In Streptococcus mutans , the cell wall is composed primarily of a rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) linked to the peptidoglycan. Despite extensive studies describing its formation and composition, the potential roles for RGP in S. mutans biology have not been well investigated. The present study characterizes the impact of RGP disruption as a result of the deletion of rgpF , the gene encoding a rhamnosyltransferase involved in the construction of the core polyrhamnose backbone of RGP. The Δ rgpF mutant strain displayed an overall reduced fitness compared to the wild type, with heightened sensitivities to various stress-inducing culture conditions and an inability to tolerate acid challenge. The loss of rgpF caused a perturbation of membrane-associated functions known to be critical for aciduricity, a hallmark of S. mutans acid tolerance. The proton gradient across the membrane was disrupted, and the Δ rgpF mutant strain was unable to induce activity of the F 1 F o ATPase in cultures grown under low-pH conditions. Further, the virulence potential of S. mutans was also drastically reduced following the deletion of rgpF The Δ rgpF mutant strain produced significantly less robust biofilms, indicating an impairment in its ability to adhere to hydroxyapatite surfaces. Additionally, the Δ rgpF mutant lost competitive fitness against oral peroxigenic streptococci, and it displayed significantly attenuated virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella infection model. Collectively, these results highlight a critical function of the RGP in the maintenance of overall stress tolerance and virulence traits in S. mutans IMPORTANCE The cell wall of Streptococcus mutans , the bacterium most commonly associated with tooth decay, is abundant in rhamnose-glucose polysaccharides (RGP). While these structures are antigenically distinct to S. mutans

  15. Amino Sugars Enhance the Competitiveness of Beneficial Commensals with Streptococcus mutans through Multiple Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Farivar, Tanaz; Burne, Robert A

    2016-06-15

    Biochemical and genetic aspects of the metabolism of the amino sugars N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN) by commensal oral streptococci and the effects of these sugars on interspecies competition with the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans were explored. Multiple S. mutans wild-type isolates displayed long lag phases when transferred from glucose-containing medium to medium with GlcNAc as the primary carbohydrate source, but commensal streptococci did not. Competition in liquid coculture or dual-species biofilms between S. mutans and Streptococcus gordonii showed that S. gordonii was particularly dominant when the primary carbohydrate was GlcN or GlcNAc. Transcriptional and enzymatic assays showed that the catabolic pathway for GlcNAc was less highly induced in S. mutans than in S. gordonii Exposure to H2O2, which is produced by S. gordonii and antagonizes the growth of S. mutans, led to reduced mRNA levels of nagA and nagB in S. mutans When the gene for the transcriptional regulatory NagR was deleted in S. gordonii, the strain produced constitutively high levels of nagA (GlcNAc-6-P deacetylase), nagB (GlcN-6-P deaminase), and glmS (GlcN-6-P synthase) mRNA. Similar to NagR of S. mutans (NagRSm), the S. gordonii NagR protein (NagRSg) could bind to consensus binding sites (dre) in the nagA, nagB, and glmS promoter regions of S. gordonii Notably, NagRSg binding was inhibited by GlcN-6-P, but G-6-P had no effect, unlike for NagRSm This study expands the understanding of amino sugar metabolism and NagR-dependent gene regulation in streptococci and highlights the potential for therapeutic applications of amino sugars to prevent dental caries. Amino sugars are abundant in the biosphere, so the relative efficiency of particular bacteria in a given microbiota to metabolize these sources of carbon and nitrogen might have a profound impact on the ecology of the community. Our investigation reveals that several oral commensal bacteria have a much

  16. Influencia de la buccalina ® en la concentración de streptococcus mutans en saliva total

    OpenAIRE

    Guardia Mendez, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio longitudinal en 28 niños de 6 años de edad para determinar la influencia de la BUCCALINA ® en la concentración de Streptococcus mutans en saliva total. Se midió la concentración de Streptococcus mutans en saliva total de todos los niños antes del experimento. 14 niños escogidos al azar recibieron la vacuna y 14 recibieron placebo. A los 37 días se midió la concentración de Streptococcus mutans en saliva total de todos los niños. Se usó la “t” de student para determinar l...

  17. The ability of IgY to recognize surface proteins of Streptococcus mutans

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    Basri A. Gani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans are gram positive bacteria classified into viridians group, and have a role in pathogenesis of dental caries. It’s adhesion to the tooth surface is mediated by cell surface proteins, which interact with specific receptor located in tooth pellicle. Glucan binding protein, Glukosyltransferase, and antigen I/II are basic proteins of S. mutans, which have a role in initiating the interaction. A previous study showed that chicken’s IgY can interfere the interaction. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of IgY in recognizing the surface molecule of Streptococcus mutans expressed by various serotypes (c, d, e, f and a strain derived from IPB, Bogor. Method: Western blot was used as a method to determine such capability. Result: The result showed that IgY has a potency to recognize antigen I/II, but not the other proteins on the cell surface of all bacteria tested. Conclusion: The ability of IgY to bind the surface protein, antigen I/II, indicates that this avian antibody could be used as a candidate for anti-adhesion in preventing dental caries.

  18. Extracellular DNA and lipoteichoic acids interact with exopolysaccharides in the extracellular matrix of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Pedraza, Midian C.; Novais, Tatiana F.; Faustoferri, Roberta C.; Quivey, Robert G.; Terekhov, Anton; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Klein, Marlise I.

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans -derived exopolysaccharides are virulence determinants in the matrix of biofilms that cause caries. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are found in cariogenic biofilms, but their functions are unclear. Therefore, strains of S. mutans carrying single deletions that would modulate matrix components were used: eDNA – ΔlytS and ΔlytT; LTA – ΔdltA and ΔdltD; and insoluble exopolysaccharide – ΔgtfB. Single-species (parental strain S. mutans UA159 or individual mutant strains) and mixed-species (UA159 or mutant strain, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii) biofilms were evaluated. Distinct amounts of matrix components were detected, depending on the inactivated gene. eDNA was found to be cooperative with exopolysaccharide in early phases, while LTA played a larger role in the later phases of biofilm development. The architecture of mutant strains biofilms was distinct (vs UA159), demonstrating that eDNA and LTA influence exopolysaccharide distribution and microcolony organization. Thus, eDNA and LTA may shape exopolysaccharide structure, affecting strategies for controlling pathogenic biofilms. PMID:28946780

  19. Extracellular DNA and lipoteichoic acids interact with exopolysaccharides in the extracellular matrix of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Pedraza, Midian C; Novais, Tatiana F; Faustoferri, Roberta C; Quivey, Robert G; Terekhov, Anton; Hamaker, Bruce R; Klein, Marlise I

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans-derived exopolysaccharides are virulence determinants in the matrix of biofilms that cause caries. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are found in cariogenic biofilms, but their functions are unclear. Therefore, strains of S. mutans carrying single deletions that would modulate matrix components were used: eDNA - ∆lytS and ∆lytT; LTA - ∆dltA and ∆dltD; and insoluble exopolysaccharide - ΔgtfB. Single-species (parental strain S. mutans UA159 or individual mutant strains) and mixed-species (UA159 or mutant strain, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii) biofilms were evaluated. Distinct amounts of matrix components were detected, depending on the inactivated gene. eDNA was found to be cooperative with exopolysaccharide in early phases, while LTA played a larger role in the later phases of biofilm development. The architecture of mutant strains biofilms was distinct (vs UA159), demonstrating that eDNA and LTA influence exopolysaccharide distribution and microcolony organization. Thus, eDNA and LTA may shape exopolysaccharide structure, affecting strategies for controlling pathogenic biofilms.

  20. Polymers for binding of the gram-positive oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, Eugene P.; Francini, Nora; Mastrotto, Francesca; Catania, Rosa; Redhead, Martin; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Bradshaw, David; Churchley, David; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the most significant pathogenic bacterium implicated in the formation of dental caries and, both directly and indirectly, has been associated with severe conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease. Polymers able to selectively bind S. mutans and/or inhibit its adhesion to oral tissue in a non-lethal manner would offer possibilities for addressing pathogenicity without selecting for populations resistant against bactericidal agents. In the present work two libraries of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA)-based polymers were synthesized with various proportions of either N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium cationic- or sulfobetaine zwitterionic groups. These copolymers where initially tested as potential macromolecular ligands for S. mutans NCTC 10449, whilst Escherichia coli MG1655 was used as Gram-negative control bacteria. pDMAEMA-derived materials with high proportions of zwitterionic repeating units were found to be selective for S. mutans, in both isolated and S. mutans–E. coli mixed bacterial cultures. Fully sulfobetainized pDMAEMA was subsequently found to bind/cluster preferentially Gram-positive S. mutans and S. aureus compared to Gram negative E. coli and V. harveyi. A key initial stage of S. mutans pathogenesis involves a lectin-mediated adhesion to the tooth surface, thus the range of potential macromolecular ligands was further expanded by investigating two glycopolymers bearing α-mannopyranoside and β-galactopyranoside pendant units. Results with these polymers indicated that preferential binding to either S. mutans or E. coli can be obtained by modulating the glycosylation pattern of the chosen multivalent ligands without incurring unacceptable cytotoxicity in a model gastrointestinal cell line. Overall, our results allowed to identify a structure–property relationship for the potential antimicrobial polymers investigated, and suggest that preferential binding to Gram-positive S

  1. Streptococcus gordonii LuxS/autoinducer-2 quorum-sensing system modulates the dual-species biofilm formation with Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Xiaolan; Ling, Junqi

    2017-07-01

    Dental plaques are mixed-species biofilms that are related to the development of dental caries. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is an important cariogenic bacterium that forms mixed-species biofilms with Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii), an early colonizer of the tooth surface. The LuxS/autoinducer-2(AI-2) quorum sensing system is involved in the regulation of mixed-species biofilms, and AI-2 is proposed as a universal signal for the interaction between bacterial species. In this work, a S. gordonii luxS deficient strain was constructed to investigate the effect of the S. gordonii luxS gene on dual-species biofilm formed by S. mutans and S. gordonii. In addition, AI-2 was synthesized in vitro by incubating recombinant LuxS and Pfs enzymes of S. gordonii together. The effect of AI-2 on S. mutans single-species biofilm formation and cariogenic virulence gene expression were also assessed. The results showed that luxS disruption in S. gordonii altered dual-species biofilm formation, architecture, and composition, as well as the susceptibility to chlorhexidine. And the in vitro synthesized AI-2 had a concentration-dependent effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and virulence gene expression. These findings indicate that LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing system of S. gordonii plays a role in regulating the dual-species biofilm formation with S. mutans. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Bacitracin Resistance of Streptococcus mutans Regulated by Two Component System

    OpenAIRE

    北河, 憲雄

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus mutansは、主要なう蝕の原因細菌であり、バシトラシンに耐性を持つことが知られている。本研究では、この耐性メカニズムを解明するため、バシトラシン存在下で顕著に発現誘導される遺伝子をマイクロアレイを用いて探索した。4 倍以上発現誘導されていた8 つの遺伝子のうち、耐性に主に関与していたのは ABC トランスポーターをコードすると推定される 2 つの遺伝子、mbrA、mbrB であった。以前の研究から、mbrABCD 遺伝子群はバシトラシン耐性に関与することが分かっているが mbrABCD 遺伝子群による耐性のメカニズムの詳細は判明していない。アミノ酸配列のホモロジーより mbrCD は 二成分制御系 (TCS) の遺伝子と推測されており、mbrC、mbrD それぞれの欠損株を作製して検討したところ、推測通り、 mbrCD が mbrA の発現を制御していた。また、ゲルシフトアッセイにより MbrC はmbrA の発現調節領域と推定される部位と特異的に結合すること、及びリン酸化部位と予測される 54 番目のアスパラギン酸をアスパラギンに置換した変異 Mb...

  3. Subinhibitory concentrations of triclosan promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and adherence to oral epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran

    Full Text Available Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans.

  4. In Vitro Effects of Sports and Energy Drinks on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, LaQuia A; Goodlett, Amy K; Huang, Ruijie; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    2017-09-15

    Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours. The biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained. Biofilm growth was evaluated by reading absorbance of the crystal violet. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured by the biofilm-reducing XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Espresso Energy were found to significantly increase biofilm (30-fold and 22-fold, respectively) and metabolic activity (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively). However, most of the remaining drinks significantly inhibited biofilm growth and metabolic activity. Several sports and energy drinks, with sugars or sugar substitutes as their main ingredients inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. Among the drinks evaluated, Gatorade Protein Recovery Chocolate Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Energy appear to have cariogenic potential since they increased the biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans.

  5. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  6. Silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and their cytotoxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Mario Alberto; Boegli, Laura; James, Garth; Velasquillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Martínez-Martínez, Rita-Elizabeth; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

    2015-10-01

    Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans, antibiofilm activity against mature S. mutans biofilms and the compatibility with human fibroblasts. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against the planktonic clinical isolate was size and concentration dependent, with smaller AgNPs having a lower minimum inhibitory concentration. A reduction of 2.3 log in the number of colony-forming units of S. mutans was observed when biofilms grown in a CDC reactor were exposed to 100 ppm of AgNPs of 9.5±1.1 nm. However, AgNPs at high concentrations (>10 ppm) showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a planktonic S. mutans clinical isolate and killed established S. mutans biofilms, which suggests that AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into therapeutic and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia in planktonic cultures and biofilms of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane A; Costa, Anna Carolina B Pereira; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane S; Rego, Marcos A; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic microorganism, and alternative methods for its elimination are required. Different concentrations of Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil (EO) were tested to determine its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in planktonic cultures, and this concentration was used in S. mutans biofilms. Additionally, we assessed the effect of a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and saline solution in S. mutans biofilms. The biofilms were grown in discs of composite resin for 48h and exposed to B. dracunculifolia, CHX or saline solution for 5min. The viability of the biofilms was determined by counting the colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) in agar, which was statistically significant (Pmutans was 6%. In biofilms of S. mutans clinical isolates, B. dracunculifolia EO (6%) and CHX resulted in reductions of 53.3-91.1% and 79.1-96.6%, respectively. For the biofilm formed by the S. mutans reference strain, the reductions achieved with B. dracunculifolia EO and CHX were, respectively, 39.3% and 88.1%. It was concluded that B. dracunculifolia EO showed antibacterial activity and was able to control this oral microorganism, which otherwise causes dental caries. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide production, and virulence by an oxazole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lulu; Ren, Zhi; Zhou, Xuedong; Zeng, Jumei; Zou, Jing; Li, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, a biofilm-related oral disease, is a result of disruption of the microbial ecological balance in the oral environment. Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the primary cariogenic bacteria, produces glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) that synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). The EPSs, especially water-insoluble glucans, contribute to the formation of dental plaque, biofilm stability, and structural integrity, by allowing bacteria to adhere to tooth surfaces and supplying the bacteria with protection against noxious stimuli and other environmental attacks. The identification of novel alternatives that selectively inhibit cariogenic organisms without suppressing oral microbial residents is required. The goal of the current study is to investigate the influence of an oxazole derivative on S. mutans biofilm formation and the development of dental caries in rats, given that oxazole and its derivatives often exhibit extensive and pharmacologically important biological activities. Our data shows that one particular oxazole derivative, named 5H6, inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms and prevented synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides by antagonizing Gtfs in vitro, without affecting the growth of the bacteria. In addition, topical applications with the inhibitor resulted in diminished incidence and severity of both smooth and sulcal surface caries in vivo with a lower percentage of S. mutans in the animals' dental plaque compared to the control group (P mutans.

  9. Effect of Punica granatum on the virulence factors of cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulube, Zandiswa; Patel, Mrudula

    2016-09-01

    Dental caries is caused by acids produced by biofilm-forming Streptococcus mutans from fermentable carbohydrates and bacterial byproducts. Control of these bacteria is important in the prevention of dental caries. This study investigated the effect of the fruit peel of Punica granatum on biofilm formation, acid and extracellular polysaccharides production (EPS) by S. mutans. Pomegranate fruit peels crude extracts were prepared. The Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined against S. mutans. At 3 sub-bactericidal concentrations, the effect on the acid production, biofilm formation and EPS production was determined. The results were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests. The lowest MBC was 6.25 mg/mL. Punica granatum significantly inhibited acid production (p mutans. The crude extract of P. granatum killed cariogenic S. mutans at high concentrations. At sub-bactericidal concentrations, it reduced biofilm formation, acid and EPS production. This suggests that P. granatum extract has the potential to prevent dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bactericidal effect of the photocatalystic reaction of titanium dioxide using visible wavelengths on Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Lee, Eun-Song; Kang, Si-Mook; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalysis induced by the application of clinically acceptable visible light at 405nm on the growth of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were grown on a hydroxyapatite (HA) disk and deposited in a rutile-type TiO 2 solution at a concentration of 0.1mg/mL. TiO 2 photocatalysis was measured for exposure to visible light (405nm) and ultraviolet (UV) light (254nm) produced by light-emitting diodes for 10, 20, 30, and 40min. After two treatments, the number of colonies formed in the final S. mutans biofilm on the HA disk were measured to confirm their viability, and the morphological changes of S. mutans were evaluated using scanning electronic microscopy. The bactericidal effects of 254- and 405-nm light resulted in > 5-log and 4-log reductions, respectively (p7-log reduction after 40min of treatment in both treatment groups relative to the control group. It was confirmed that the antibacterial effect could be shown by causing the photocatalytic reaction of TiO 2 in S. mutans biofilm even at the wavelength of visible light (405nm) as at the wavelength of ultraviolet light (254nm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-ligating versus conventional metallic brackets on Streptococcus mutans retention: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Juliano N; Lopes, Beatriz M; Freires, Irlan A; Dutra, Kamile L; Franco, Ademir; Paranhos, Luiz R

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to review the literature systematically and assess comparatively whether self-ligating metallic brackets accumulate less Streptococcus mutans biofilm than conventional metallic brackets. The systematic search was performed following PRISMA guidelines and registration in PROSPERO. Seven electronic databases (Google Scholar, LILACS, Open Grey, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect, and Scopus) were consulted until April 2016, with no restriction of language and time of publication. Only randomized clinical studies verifying S. mutans colonization in metallic brackets (self-ligating and conventional) were included. All steps were performed independently by two operators. The search resulted in 546 records obtained from the electronic databases. Additionally, 216 references obtained from the manual search of eligible articles were assessed. Finally, a total of 5 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. In 1 study, the total bacterial count was not different among self-ligating and conventional brackets, whereas in 2 studies the amount was lower for self-ligating brackets. Regarding the specific count of S. mutans , 2 studies showed less accumulation in self-ligating than in conventional brackets. Based on the limited evidence, self-ligating metallic brackets accumulate less S. mutans than conventional ones. However, these findings must be interpreted in conjunction with particularities individual for each patient - such as hygiene and dietary habits, which are components of the multifactorial environment that enables S. Mutans to proliferate and keep retained in the oral cavity.

  12. In vitro study of Streptococcus mutans adhesion on composite resin coated with three surface sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Hye Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Although the coating of surface sealants to dental composite resin may potentially reduce bacterial adhesion, there seems to be little information regarding this issue. This preliminary in vitro study investigated the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans on the dental composite resins coated with three commercial surface sealants. Materials and Methods Composite resin (Filtek Z250 discs (8 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness were fabricated in a mold covered with a Mylar strip (control. In group PoGo, the surfaces were polished with PoGo. In groups PS, OG, and FP, the surfaces polished with PoGo were coated with the corresponding surface sealants (PermaSeal, PS; OptiGuard, OG; Fortify Plus, FP. The surfaces of the materials and S. mutans cells were characterized by various methods. S. mutans adhesion to the surfaces was quantitatively evaluated using flow cytometry (n = 9. Results Group OG achieved the lowest water contact angle among all groups tested (p 0.05 or significantly lower (group OG, p < 0.001 bacterial adhesion when compared with the control group. Conclusions The application of the surface sealants significantly reduced S. mutans adhesion to the composite resin polished with the PoGo.

  13. Effect of citrus lemon oil on growth and adherence of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Feifei; Yu, Zhifen; Wang, Li; Chen, Shuanglu; Guo, Maoding

    2013-07-01

    In order to exploit novel anticaries agents, we investigated the effects of citrus lemon oil (CLO), a type of natural product, on growth and adherence of the primary oral cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The growth inhibitory effect was explored with a micro-dilution assay. Adherence was analyzed by colony counts on the respective surfaces and the adherence inhibition rate (AIR). Real time-PCR was used to investigate the effects of CLO on transcription of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) encoding genes, gtfB, C and D. Neson-Somogyi method was used to measure the effects of CLO on Gtf activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CLO against S. mutans was 4.5 mg/ml. The CLO effectively reduced the adherence of S. mutans on glass surface (the AIR were from 98.3 to 100 %, P > 0.05) and saliva-coated enamel surface (the AIR were from 54.8 to 79.2 %, P < 0.05). CLO effectively reduced the activity of Gtf and the transcription of gtfs in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CLO can effectively inhibit the growth and the adherence to glass and saliva-coated enamel surfaces of S. mutans. It can also inhibit the transcription of gtfs, as well as the Gtf enzyme activity.

  14. Identification and Characterization of an Autolysin-Encoding Gene of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Yukie; Kawada, Miki; Nakano, Yoshio; Toyoshima, Kuniaki; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2005-01-01

    We identified a gene (atlA) encoding autolytic activity from Streptococcus mutans Xc. The AtlA protein predicted to be encoded by atlA is composed of 979 amino acids with a molecular weight of 107,279 and has a conserved β-1,4-N-acetylmuramidase (lysozyme) domain in the C-terminal portion. Sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of strain Xc showed two major bacteriolytic bands with molecular masses of 107 and 79 kDa, both of which were absent from a mutant with inactivated atlA. Western blot analysi...

  15. SMU.940 regulates dextran-dependent aggregation and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senpuku, Hidenobu; Yonezawa, Hideo; Yoneda, Saori; Suzuki, Itaru; Nagasawa, Ryo; Narisawa, Naoki

    2018-02-01

    The oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the principal agent in the development of dental caries. Biofilm formation by S. mutans requires bacterial attachment, aggregation, and glucan formation on the tooth surface under sucrose supplementation conditions. Our previous microarray analysis of clinical strains identified 74 genes in S. mutans that were related to biofilm morphology; however, the roles of almost all of these genes in biofilm formation are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of 21 genes randomly selected from our previous study regarding S. mutans biofilm formation, regulation by the complement pathway, and responses to competence-stimulating peptide. Eight competence-stimulating peptide-dependent genes were identified, and their roles in biofilm formation and aggregation were examined by mutational analyses of the S. mutansUA159 strain. Of these eight genes, the inactivation of the putative hemolysin III family SMU.940 gene of S. mutansUA159 promoted rapid dextran-dependent aggregation and biofilm formation in tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB) with 0.25% glucose and slightly reduced biofilm formation in TSB with 0.25% sucrose. The SMU.940 mutant showed higher expression of GbpC and gbpC gene than wild-type. GbpC is known to be involved in the dextran-dependent aggregation of S. mutans. An SMU.940-gbpC double mutant strain was constructed in the SMU.940 mutant background. The gbpC mutation completely abolished the dextran-dependent aggregation of the SMU.940 mutant. In addition, the aggregation of the mutant was abrogated by dextranase. These findings suggest that SMU.940 controls GbpC expression, and contributes to the regulation of dextran-dependent aggregation and biofilm formation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Alanine racemase is essential for the growth and interspecies competitiveness of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Qiu, Wei; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Ke; Wang, Shi-Da; Li, Yu-Qing; Cheng, Lei; Li, Ji-Yao; Xu, Xin; Li, Ming-Yun

    2016-12-16

    D-alanine (D-Ala) is an essential amino acid that has a key role in bacterial cell wall synthesis. Alanine racemase (Alr) is a unique enzyme that interconverts L-alanine and D-alanine in most bacteria, making this enzyme a potential target for antimicrobial drug development. Streptococcus mutans is a major causative factor of dental caries. The factors involved in the survival, virulence and interspecies interactions of S. mutans could be exploited as potential targets for caries control. The current study aimed to investigate the physiological role of Alr in S. mutans. We constructed alr mutant strain of S. mutans and evaluated its phenotypic traits and interspecies competitiveness compared with the wild-type strain. We found that alr deletion was lethal to S. mutans. A minimal supplement of D-Ala (150 μg·mL -1 ) was required for the optimal growth of the alr mutant. The depletion of D-alanine in the growth medium resulted in cell wall perforation and cell lysis in the alr mutant strain. We also determined the compromised competitiveness of the alr mutant strain relative to the wild-type S. mutans against other oral streptococci (S. sanguinis or S. gordonii), demonstrated using either conditioned medium assays or dual-species fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. Given the importance and necessity of alr to the growth and competitiveness of S. mutans, Alr may represent a promising target to modulate the cariogenicity of oral biofilms and to benefit the management of dental caries.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of argininosuccinate lyase from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yan-Li; Li, Gui-Lan; Wang, Kai-Tuo; Zhang, Hong-Yin; Li, Lan-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Crystals of argininosuccinate lyase from S. mutans were obtained and X-ray data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution in space group R3. Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is an important enzyme in arginine synthesis and the urea cycle, which are highly conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes. The gene encoding Streptococcus mutans ASL (smASL) was amplified and cloned into expression vector pET28a. The recombinant smASL protein was expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) and purified to homogeneity by two-step column chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis were obtained and X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 254.5, c = 78.3 Å

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SMU.1108c protein from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ming-Jing; Fu, Tian-Min; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lan-Fen

    2010-01-01

    SMU.1108c, a putative uncharacterized protein from S. mutans, was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Streptococcus mutans SMU.1108c (KEGG database) encodes a functionally uncharacterized protein consisting of 270 amino-acid residues. This protein is predicted to have a haloacid dehalogenase hydrolase-like domain and is a homologue of haloacid dehalogenase phosphatases that catalyze phosphoryl-transfer reactions. In this work, SMU.1108c was cloned into the pET28a vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). The protein was purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystal diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.1, b = 80.2, c = 47.9 Å, β = 99.5°

  19. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.573, a putative sugar kinase from Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan-Feng; Li, Lan-Fen [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, Cheng [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Rigaku/MSC Inc., 9009 New Trails Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381 (United States); Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: liangyh@pku.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Su, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: liangyh@pku.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2008-01-01

    SMU.573 from S. mutans was expressed in E. coli and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group I4 and 2.5 Å resolution diffraction data were collected at an in-house chromium radiation source. SMU.573 from Streptococcus mutans is a structurally and functionally uncharacterized protein that was selected for structural biology studies. Native and SeMet-labelled proteins were expressed with an N-His tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni{sup 2+}-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the SeMet-labelled protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and a 2.5 Å resolution diffraction data set was collected using an in-house chromium radiation source. The crystals belong to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.53, c = 56.26 Å, α = β = γ = 90°.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Streptococcus mutans dextran glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saburi, Wataru; Hondoh, Hironori, E-mail: hondoh@abs.agr.hokudai.ac.jp [Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589 (Japan); Unno, Hideaki [Faculty of Engineering, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide [Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589 (Japan); Nakada, Toshitaka [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Matsuura, Yoshiki [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kimura, Atsuo [Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589 (Japan)

    2007-09-01

    Dextran glucosidase from S. mutans was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. Dextran glucosidase from Streptococcus mutans is an exo-hydrolase that acts on the nonreducing terminal α-1,6-glucosidic linkage of oligosaccharides and dextran with a high degree of transglucosylation. Based on amino-acid sequence similarity, this enzyme is classified into glycoside hydrolase family 13. Recombinant dextran glucosidase was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 6000 as a precipitant. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.72, b = 86.47, c = 104.30 Å. A native data set was collected to 2.2 Å resolution from a single crystal.

  1. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.573, a putative sugar kinase from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yan-Feng; Li, Lan-Fen; Yang, Cheng; Liang, Yu-He; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2007-01-01

    SMU.573 from S. mutans was expressed in E. coli and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group I4 and 2.5 Å resolution diffraction data were collected at an in-house chromium radiation source. SMU.573 from Streptococcus mutans is a structurally and functionally uncharacterized protein that was selected for structural biology studies. Native and SeMet-labelled proteins were expressed with an N-His tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni 2+ -chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the SeMet-labelled protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and a 2.5 Å resolution diffraction data set was collected using an in-house chromium radiation source. The crystals belong to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.53, c = 56.26 Å, α = β = γ = 90°

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Streptococcus mutans dextran glucosidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saburi, Wataru; Hondoh, Hironori; Unno, Hideaki; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Nakada, Toshitaka; Matsuura, Yoshiki; Kimura, Atsuo

    2007-01-01

    Dextran glucosidase from S. mutans was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. Dextran glucosidase from Streptococcus mutans is an exo-hydrolase that acts on the nonreducing terminal α-1,6-glucosidic linkage of oligosaccharides and dextran with a high degree of transglucosylation. Based on amino-acid sequence similarity, this enzyme is classified into glycoside hydrolase family 13. Recombinant dextran glucosidase was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 6000 as a precipitant. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 72.72, b = 86.47, c = 104.30 Å. A native data set was collected to 2.2 Å resolution from a single crystal

  3. Streptococcus mutans Protein Synthesis during Mixed-Species Biofilm Development by High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marlise I.; Xiao, Jin; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M.; Yates, John R.; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v) was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA) and glucan-binding (gbpB) during this transition (Pmutans up-regulates specific adaptation mechanisms to cope with acidic environments (F1F0-ATPase system, fatty acid biosynthesis, branched chain amino acids metabolism), and molecular chaperones (GroEL). Interestingly, the protein levels and gene expression are in general augmented when S. mutans form mixed-species biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms) demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm maintenance in the presence of other

  4. Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Metanol Rumput Laut (Kappaphycus Alvarezii) Pada Berbagai Tingkat Konsentrasi Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Streptococcus Mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Saifuddin, Agus; Raharjo, Sapto; Eso, Amiruddin

    2015-01-01

    Red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii contain flavonoids compound which has activity as an anti bacterial. This study aims to determine the difference of inhibition zone of the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by seaweed methanol extract (K. alvarezii) at each concentrations. This research was conducted by post–test only design (one-shot case study) with a variable treatment of the seaweed methanol extract (K. alvarezii) against S. mutans. Extracts were then divided into 7 concentration of 5...

  5. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in dental plaque samples and its association with early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae

    2009-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC). Recently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used for rapid and accurate quantification of these bacterial species. This study aims to detect quantitatively the levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in plaque samples by qRT-PCR, and to assess their association with the prevalence of ECC in Korean preschool children. One hundred and five children (71 months old or younger) were examined and classified into three groups (caries-free, ECC, severe ECC). Dental plaque samples were collected and qRT-PCR was conducted using oligonucleotide primers specific for glucosyltransferase gene (S. mutans-gtfB, S. sobrinus-gtfU) and universal primer. Pearson's correlation test was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the dmfs (decayed, missing, or filled surfaces primary teeth) scores and the microbiological findings. There was a significant difference between the levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the plaque samples of the three groups (P plaque samples. The children with higher ratio of S. sobrinus to S. mutans in their dental plaque showed higher incidence of ECC.

  6. Detection of potentially cariogenic strains of Streptococcus mutans using the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Galaviz, Luis Alejandro; Aceves Medina, Ma del Carmen; Estrada García, Iris C

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a pathogen related to the occurrence of human dental caries. The determination of total amounts of mutans streptococci, as well as the proportion related to other oral bacteria, is of interest when assessing the risk of developing caries. In this context, it is better to use a sensitive, specific and non-time consuming method such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), than to use culture and biochemical identification methods. In this work we identified potentially cariogenic strains of S. mutans and assessed the relationship with the dmft, DMFT or dmft/DMFT index. Using DNA isolated from dental plaque, a 192 bp sequence was identified and amplified from the spaP gene and a 722 bp sequence from the dexA gene. The results suggest that it is important to evaluate the presence of cariogenic S. mutans strains in plaque content rather than the accumulation of plaque itself However, other factors like diet, hygiene, genetic background, the flow rate of saliva and the presence of specific antibodies, also play a key role in the development of caries.

  7. Effect of a propolis extract on Streptococcus mutans counts in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Alves de Carvalho Duailibe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial action of an extract of geopropolis produced by the bee Melipona compressipes fasciculata on the concentration of Streptococcus mutans colonizing the oral cavity of young patients. Forty-one young volunteers performed 21 mouth rinses divided into three rinses per day for 7 days, with no other changes in their oral hygiene and dietary habits. Saliva was collected at three time points: before the first rinse, and one hour and 7 days after the first rinse. A reduction in the concentration of S. mutans was observed in 49% of all samples collected after use of the extract, 26% showed no alterations, and an increasing in S. mutans was observed in 25%. Was performed with the Statistica for Windows 5.9 program using the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney U test, with the level of significance set at 5%. The propolis extract possesses in vivo antimicrobial activity against S. mutans present in the oral cavity and might be used as an alternative measure to prevent dental caries.

  8. Effect of a propolis extract on Streptococcus mutans counts in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duailibe, Silvana Alves de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Azizedite Guedes; Ahid, Fernando Jorge Mendes

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial action of an extract of geopropolis produced by the bee Melipona compressipes fasciculata on the concentration of Streptococcus mutans colonizing the oral cavity of young patients. Forty-one young volunteers performed 21 mouth rinses divided into three rinses per day for 7 days, with no other changes in their oral hygiene and dietary habits. Saliva was collected at three time points: before the first rinse, and one hour and 7 days after the first rinse. A reduction in the concentration of S. mutans was observed in 49% of all samples collected after use of the extract, 26% showed no alterations, and an increasing in S. mutans was observed in 25%. Was performed with the Statistica for Windows 5.9 program using the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney U test, with the level of significance set at 5%. The propolis extract possesses in vivo antimicrobial activity against S. mutans present in the oral cavity and might be used as an alternative measure to prevent dental caries.

  9. Comparison of SEM and VPSEM imaging techniques with respect to Streptococcus mutans biofilm topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kathryn; Delben, Juliana; Bromage, Timothy G; Duarte, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The study compared images of mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms captured at increasing magnification to determine which microscopy method is most acceptable for imaging the biofilm topography and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). In vitro S. mutans biofilms were imaged using (1) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which requires a dehydration process; (2) SEM and ruthenium red (SEM-RR), which has been shown to support the EPS of biofilms during the SEM dehydration; and (3) variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM), which does not require the intensive dehydration process of SEM. The dehydration process and high chamber vacuum of both SEM techniques devastated the biofilm EPS, removed supporting structures, and caused cracking on the biofilm surface. The VPSEM offered the most comprehensive representation of the S. mutans biofilm morphology. VPSEM provides similar contrast and focus as the SEM, but the procedure is far less time-consuming, and the use of hazardous chemicals associated with SEM dehydration protocol is avoided with the VPSEM. The inaccurate representations of the biofilm EPS in SEM experimentation is a possible source of inaccurate data and impediments in the study of S. mutans biofilms. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of γ-lactones and γ-lactams compounds on Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Beatriz Sordi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering oral diseases, antibiofilm compounds can decrease the accumulation of pathogenic species such as Streptococcus mutans at micro-areas of teeth, dental restorations or implant-supported prostheses. Objective To assess the effect of thirteen different novel lactam-based compounds on the inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation. Material and methods We synthesized compounds based on γ-lactones analogues from rubrolides by a mucochloric acid process and converted them into their corresponding γ-hydroxy-γ-lactams by a reaction with isobutylamine and propylamine. Compounds concentrations ranging from 0.17 up to 87.5 μg mL-1 were tested against S. mutans. We diluted the exponential cultures in TSB and incubated them (37°C in the presence of different γ-lactones or γ-lactams dilutions. Afterwards, we measured the planktonic growth by optical density at 630 nm and therefore assessed the biofilm density by the crystal violet staining method. Results Twelve compounds were active against biofilm formation, showing no effect on bacterial viability. Only one compound was inactive against both planktonic and biofilm growth. The highest biofilm inhibition (inhibition rate above 60% was obtained for two compounds while three other compounds revealed an inhibition rate above 40%. Conclusions Twelve of the thirteen compounds revealed effective inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation, with eight of them showing a specific antibiofilm effect.

  11. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effects of Various Methods to Disinfect Toothbrushes Contaminated with Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Amirabadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Toothbrushes sterilization has strongly taken into consideration in order of prohibiting of transmission and reinfection. The differences of materials, procedures and duration, made the problem more complicated. Our objective of the present research was assessment of antibacterial effects of different procedures which are used for disinfection of those toothbrushes which are infected to Streptococcus mutans. 144 fresh toothbrushes were immersed in a 0.5 McFarland culture of S. mutans for 15 minutes. The toothbrushes were then classified into 8 groups ( 6 in each group according to their disinfecting procedure including White vinegar 50%, Sodium hypochlorite %1, Ethyl alcohol and Povidone Iodine 10%. The disinfecting procedures which used were Microwave and Dishwasher. Bacterial cultivation was done and microbial colonies had been counted before toothbrushes were exposed to the above disinfectants. After exposure of toothbrushes to above disinfectants for 1, 5 and 10 minutes, the colonies were recounted. SPSS ver.19 (Kruskal–Wallis Test was used for statistical analysis. Bacterial cultures of samples at Chlorhexidine group (negative control were negative and White vinegar did not make a considerable sense. On the other hand, Sodium hypochlorite %1, Ethyl alcohol , Povidone Iodine 10% and dishwasher decreased the numbers of S. mutans considerably (p< %5. Microwave by increasing the time of exposition, decreased the numbers of microbes but it was not statistically significant. Povidone Iodine 10%, Sodium hypochlorite %1 and Ethyl alcohol, could be effective in disinfection of toothbrushes against S. mutans if be used for 10 minutes.

  12. Influence of sucrose and xylitol on an early Streptococcus mutans biofilm in a dental simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salli, K M; Forssten, S D; Lahtinen, S J; Ouwehand, A C

    2016-10-01

    In vitro methods to study dental biofilms are useful in finding ways to support a healthy microbial balance in the oral cavity. The effects of sucrose, xylitol, and their combination on three strains of Streptococcus mutans and one strain of Streptococcus sobrinus were studied using a dental simulator. A simulator was used to mimic the oral cavity environment. It provided a continuous-flow system using artificial saliva (AS), constant temperature, mixing, and hydroxyapatite (HA) surface in which the influence of xylitol was studied. The quantities of planktonic and adhered bacteria were measured by real-time qPCR. Compared against the untreated AS, adding 1% sucrose increased the bacterial colonization of HA (pmutans isolate 117. The combination of xylitol and sucrose decreased the bacterial quantities within the AS and the colonization on the HA by clinical S. mutans isolate 2366 was reduced (pmutans strains to adhere to the HA. Clinical studies have also shown that xylitol consumption decreases caries incidence and reduces the amount of plaque. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanism behind these clinical observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on Streptococcus mutans in an artificial biofilm model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martin; Kirfel, Gregor; Krause, Felix; Berthold, Michael; Brede, Olivier; Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of laser induced antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on the viability of Streptococcus mutans cells employing an aritificial biofilm model. Employing sterile chambered coverglasses, a salivary pellicle layer formation was induced in 19 chambers. Streptococcus mutans cells were inoculated in a sterile culture medium. Using a live/dead bacterial viability kit, bacteria with intact cell membranes stain fluorescent green. Test chambers containing each the pellicle layer and 0.5 ml of the bacterial culture were analyzed using a confocal laser scan microscope within a layer of 10 μm at intervals of 1 μm from the pellicle layer. A photosensitizer was added to the test chambers and irradiated with a diode laser (wavelength: 660 nm, output power: 100 mW, Helbo) for 2 min each. Comparing the baseline fluorescence (median: 13.8 [U], min: 3.7, max: 26.2) with the values after adding the photosensitizer (median: 3.7, min: 1.1, max: 9), a dilution caused decrease of fluorescence could be observed (p0.05). The present study indicates that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy can reduce living bacteria within a layer of 10 μm in an artificial biofilm model. Further studies have to evaluate the maximum biofilm thickness that still allows a toxic effect on microorganisms.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of S-ribosylhomocysteinase from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Hongyan; Zhu, Laikuan; Hong, Lihua; Zhang, Hong; Lin, Fanjing; Xu, Chunyan; Li, Shentao; Zhang, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) encoded by the LuxS gene from Streptococcus mutans was solubly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction by the crystal extended to 2.4 Å resolution. S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) encoded by the luxS gene from Streptococcus mutans plays a crucial role in the quorum-sensing system. LuxS was solubly expressed in Escherichia coli with high yield. The purity of the purified target protein, which was identified by SDS–PAGE and MALDI–TOF MS analysis, was >95%. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 as the primary precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Diffraction by the crystal extended to 2.4 Å resolution and the crystal belonged to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 55.3, b = 148.7, c = 82.8 Å

  15. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.2055 protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wang-Hong; Zhan, Xiu-Rong; Gao, Xiong-Zhuo; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Lin, Jiuxiang; Li, Lan-Fen; Wei, Shi-Cheng; Su, Xio-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The SMU.2055 gene from the major caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans was cloned and native and SeMet-labelled SMU.2055 proteins were expressed at a high level. Diffraction-quality crystals of SeMet-labelled SMU.2055 were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The SMU.2055 gene from the major caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is annotated as a putative acetyltransferase with 163 amino-acid residues. In order to identify its function via structural studies, the SMU.2055 gene was cloned into the expression vector pET28a. Native and SeMet-labelled SMU.2055 proteins with a His 6 tag at the N-terminus were expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) and purified to homogeneity by Ni 2+ -chelating affinity chromatography. Diffraction-quality crystals of SeMet-labelled SMU.2055 were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å on beamline BL17A at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 92.0, b = 95.0, c = 192.2 Å. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules, with a solvent content of 57.1%

  16. Penambahan xylitol dalam glukosa, sukrosa terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans (in vitro (The Additional xylitol in glucose and sucrose on growth of Mutans Streptococci (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Susilowati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Xylitol is a sugar alcohol group consisting of five-carbon chain and the sugar substitutes are recommended to prevent caries. Dietary sugars known as a good substrate for the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Two types of sugar, xylitol and dietary sugars have different effects on the growth of S.mutans. Purpose: The objective of this study were to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of xylitol on the growth of S.mutans and to determine the addition of xylitol in glucose and sucrose in the growth of S. mutans in vitro. Methods: The samples were divided into 3 groups: xylitol group, xylitol and sucrose combination group, and xylitol and glucose combination group . In all groups were tested against S.mutans growth in various concentrations. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration against S.mutans xylitol was equal to 0.625%. The addition of xylitol in sucrose the inhibition of S.mutans growth occurred at concentrations of 0.625 % and 2.5%. The addition of xylitol in glucose inhibited the growth of S.mutans at all concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that the combination of xylitol with dietary sugars could inhibit the growth of S.mutans.Latar belakang: Xylitol adalah golongan gula alkohol yang terdiri dari lima rantai karbon dan merupakan sugar substitutes yang dianjurkan untuk mencegah terjadinya karies. Dietary sugars diketahui sebagai substrat yang baik untuk pertumbuhan bakteri rongga mulut salah satunya Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Dua jenis gula yaitu xylitol dan dietary sugars memiliki pengaruh yang berbeda pada pertumbuhan S. mutans. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah meneliti konsentrasi hambat minimal (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration/ MIC xylitol terhadap pertumbuhan S mutans dan meneliti pengaruh penambahan xylitol dalam glukosa dan dalam sukrosa terhadap pertumbuhan S. mutans secara in vitro. Metode: Sampel dibagi dalam 3 kelompok: kelompok xylitol, kelompok kombinasi

  17. Silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and their cytotoxic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Díaz, Mario Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Boegli, Laura; James, Garth [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Velasquillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto [Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (Mexico); Martínez-Martínez, Rita-Elizabeth; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro [Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel, E-mail: fidel@uaslp.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2015-10-01

    Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans, antibiofilm activity against mature S. mutans biofilms and the compatibility with human fibroblasts. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against the planktonic clinical isolate was size and concentration dependent, with smaller AgNPs having a lower minimum inhibitory concentration. A reduction of 2.3 log in the number of colony-forming units of S. mutans was observed when biofilms grown in a CDC reactor were exposed to 100 ppm of AgNPs of 9.5 ± 1.1 nm. However, AgNPs at high concentrations (> 10 ppm) showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a planktonic S. mutans clinical isolate and killed established S. mutans biofilms, which suggests that AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into therapeutic and preventive strategies. - Highlights: • Biological activities of silver nanoparticles for dental caries purposes • Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs on planktonic cell was size and concentration dependent. • Reduction in the S. mutans biofilm formation was statistically significant. • AgNPs at high concentrations showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. • AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries.

  18. Consumption of Yogurt Containing Probiotic Bifidobacterium Lactis Reduces Streptococcus mutans in Orthodontic Patients

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    Armelia Sari Widyarman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic bacteria is commonly used as a food supplement intended to benefit the host by improving intestinal bacterial balance. Probiotics have also been investigated from the perspective of oral health. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of yogurt containing probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (B. lactis on salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans counts in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from each subject (n = 7; mean age, 21 years using spitting method in centrifuge tubes at baseline and two weeks after daily probiotic yogurt consumption. B. lactis BB-12 and S. mutans ATCC 25175 were cultured in BHI-broth (37ºC, anaerobic conditions. After 48-h incubation, the number of colonies on each dilution plate was used to extrapolate a standard curve. The total number of target DNA molecules were identified using real-time PCR followed by SYBR Green reagents and 16S rRNA gene specific primers S. mutans and B. lactis BB-12. Data were analyzed statistically using paired-sample t-tests. Results: Statistical evaluation indicated that there was a significant reduction in the presence of S. mutans before probiotic yogurt consumption, (4.73 ± 1.43 log10 CFU/mL and after two weeks of daily consumption of probiotic yogurt, (4.03 ± 0.77 log10 CFU/mL, p=0.001. Moreover, no B. lactis was found in the saliva of any of the subjects before probiotic consumption, but after two weeks of consumption, B. lactis was found in the saliva of four subjects. Conclusions: Consuming probiotic yogurt containing B. lactis reduced the quantity of S. mutans in the saliva of subjects during fixed orthodontic treatment. Thus, the probiotic bacteria could be beneficial in improving oral health.

  19. Scanning electron microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Thurairajah, Nalina

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1))]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (pPiper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL(-1) corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL(-1) of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.

  20. [Effects of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on the root surfaces and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhong, Li; Zhongcheng, Li; Mengqi, Luo; Daonan, Shen; Shu, Zhang; Shu, Meng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with different powers of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on root surfaces and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion. Extracted teeth because of severe periodontal disease were divided into the following four groups: control group, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3. After scaling and root planning, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3 were separately treated with Nd: YAG laser irradiation (4/6/8 W, 60 s); however, the control group did not receive the treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the morphology. S. mutans were cultured with root slices from each group. Colony forming unit per mL (CFU·mL⁻¹) was used to count and compare the amounts of bacteria adhesion among groups. SEM was used to observe the difference of bacteria adhesion to root surfaces between control group (scaling) and laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s), thereby indicating the different bacteria adhesions because of different treatments. Morphology alterations indicated that root surfaces in control group contain obvious smear layer, debris, and biofilm; whereas the root surfaces in laser group contain more cracks with less smear layer and debris. The bacteria counting indicated that S. mutans adhesion to laser group was weaker than that of control group (P0.05) was observed. Morphology alterations also verified that S. mutans adhesion to laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s) was weaker than that of control group (scaling). This study demonstrated that Nd: YAG laser irradiation treatment after scaling can reduce smear layer, debris, and biofilm on the root surfaces as compared with conventional scaling. The laser treatment reduces the adhesion of S. mutans as well. However, Nd: YAG laser irradiation can cause cracks on the root surfaces. In this experiment, the optimum laser power of 6 W can thoroughly remove the smear layer and debris, as well as relatively improve the control of thermal damagee.

  1. Genetic Diversity and Evidence for Transmission of Streptococcus mutans by DiversiLab rep-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Ghazal, Tariq; Moser, Stephen A; Childers, Noel K

    2016-09-01

    This two-part study investigated the genetic diversity and transmission of Streptococcus mutans using the DiversiLab repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) approach. For children with S. mutans and participating household members, analysis for evidence of unrelated child-to-child as well as intra-familial transmission was evaluated based on commonality of genotypes. A total of 169 index children and 425 household family members from Uniontown, Alabama were evaluated for genetic diversity using rep-PCR. Thirty-four unique rep-PCR genotypes were observed for 13,906 S. mutans isolates. For transmission, 117 child and household isolates were evaluated for shared genotype (by child and by genotype cases, multiple matches possible for each child). Overall, children had 1-9 genotypes and those with multiple genotypes were 2.3 times more likely to have caries experience (decayed, missing and filled teeth/surfaces>0). Only 28% of children shared all genotypes within the household, while 72% had at least 1 genotype not shared with anyone in the household. Children had genotype(s) not shared with any household members in 157 cases. In 158 cases children and household members shared a genotype in which 55% (87/158 cases) were shared with more than one family member. Children most frequently shared genotypes with their mothers (54%; 85/158), siblings (46%; 72/158) and cousins (23%; 37/158). A reference library for S. mutans for epidemiological surveillance using the DiversiLab rep-PCR approach is detailed. The genetic diversity of S. mutans in this population demonstrated frequent commonality of genotypes. Evidence for both child-to-child and intra-familial transmission of S. mutans was observed by rep-PCR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CovR Regulates Streptococcus mutans Susceptibility To Complement Immunity and Survival in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lívia A.; Nomura, Ryota; Mariano, Flávia S.; Harth-Chu, Erika N.; Stipp, Rafael N.; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, may promote systemic infections after accessing the bloodstream from oral niches. In this study, we investigate pathways of complement immunity against S. mutans and show that the orphan regulator CovR (CovRSm) modulates susceptibility to complement opsonization and survival in blood. S. mutans blood isolates showed reduced susceptibility to C3b deposition compared to oral isolates. Reduced expression of covRSm in blood strains was associated with increased transcription of CovRSm-repressed genes required for S. mutans interactions with glucans (gbpC, gbpB, and epsC), sucrose-derived exopolysaccharides (EPS). Consistently, blood strains showed an increased capacity to bind glucan in vitro. Deletion of covRSm in strain UA159 (UAcov) impaired C3b deposition and binding to serum IgG and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as phagocytosis through C3b/iC3b receptors and killing by neutrophils. Opposite effects were observed in mutants of gbpC, epsC, or gtfBCD (required for glucan synthesis). C3b deposition on UA159 was abolished in C1q-depleted serum, implying that the classical pathway is essential for complement activation on S. mutans. Growth in sucrose-containing medium impaired the binding of C3b and IgG to UA159, UAcov, and blood isolates but had absent or reduced effects on C3b deposition in gtfBCD, gbpC, and epsC mutants. UAcov further showed increased ex vivo survival in human blood in an EPS-dependent way. Consistently, reduced survival was observed for the gbpC and epsC mutants. Finally, UAcov showed an increased ability to cause bacteremia in a rat model. These results reveal that CovRSm modulates systemic virulence by regulating functions affecting S. mutans susceptibility to complement opsonization. PMID:27572331

  3. The SloR metalloregulator is involved in the Streptococcus mutans oxidative stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepps, S C; Fields, E E; Galan, D; Corbett, J P; Von Hasseln, E R; Spatafora, G A

    2016-12-01

    SloR, a 25-kDa metalloregulatory protein in Streptococcus mutans modulates the expression of multiple genes, including the sloABC operon that encodes essential Mn 2+ transport and genes that promote cariogenesis. In this study, we report on SloC- and SloR-deficient strains of S. mutans (GMS284 and GMS584, respectively) that demonstrate compromised survivorship compared with their UA159 wild-type progenitor and their complemented strains (GMS285 and GMS585, respectively), when challenged with streptonigrin and/or in growth competition experiments. The results of streptonigrin assays revealed significantly larger zones of inhibition for GMS584 than for either UA159 or GMS585, indicating weakened S. mutans survivorship in the absence of SloR. Competition assays revealed a compromised ability for GMS284 and GMS584 to survive peroxide challenge compared with their SloC- and SloR-proficient counterparts. These findings are consistent with a role for SloC and SloR in S. mutans aerotolerance. We also predicted differential expression of oxidative stress tolerance genes in GMS584 versus UA159 and GMS585 when grown aerobically. The results of quantitative RT-PCR experiments revealed S. mutans sod, tpx, and sloC expression that was upregulated in GMS584 compared with UA159 and GMS585, indicating that the impact of oxidative stress on S. mutans is more severe in the absence of SloR than in its presence. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that SloR does not bind to the sod or tpx promoter regions directly, implicating intermediaries that may arbitrate the SloR response to oxidative stress. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Symbiotic Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Synergizes Virulence of Plaque Biofilms In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsetta, Megan L.; Klein, Marlise I.; Colonne, Punsiri M.; Scott-Anne, Kathleen; Gregoire, Stacy; Pai, Chia-Hua; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Watson, Gene; Krysan, Damian J.; Bowen, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is often cited as the main bacterial pathogen in dental caries, particularly in early-childhood caries (ECC). S. mutans may not act alone; Candida albicans cells are frequently detected along with heavy infection by S. mutans in plaque biofilms from ECC-affected children. It remains to be elucidated whether this association is involved in the enhancement of biofilm virulence. We showed that the ability of these organisms together to form biofilms is enhanced in vitro and in vivo. The presence of C. albicans augments the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS), such that cospecies biofilms accrue more biomass and harbor more viable S. mutans cells than single-species biofilms. The resulting 3-dimensional biofilm architecture displays sizeable S. mutans microcolonies surrounded by fungal cells, which are enmeshed in a dense EPS-rich matrix. Using a rodent model, we explored the implications of this cross-kingdom interaction for the pathogenesis of dental caries. Coinfected animals displayed higher levels of infection and microbial carriage within plaque biofilms than animals infected with either species alone. Furthermore, coinfection synergistically enhanced biofilm virulence, leading to aggressive onset of the disease with rampant carious lesions. Our in vitro data also revealed that glucosyltransferase-derived EPS is a key mediator of cospecies biofilm development and that coexistence with C. albicans induces the expression of virulence genes in S. mutans (e.g., gtfB, fabM). We also found that Candida-derived β1,3-glucans contribute to the EPS matrix structure, while fungal mannan and β-glucan provide sites for GtfB binding and activity. Altogether, we demonstrate a novel mutualistic bacterium-fungus relationship that occurs at a clinically relevant site to amplify the severity of a ubiquitous infectious disease. PMID:24566629

  5. Streptococcus mutans SpaP binds to RadD of Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; Shokeen, Bhumika; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2017-10-01

    Adhesin-mediated bacterial interspecies interactions are important elements in oral biofilm formation. They often occur on a species-specific level, which could determine health or disease association of a biofilm community. Among the key players involved in these processes are the ubiquitous fusobacteria that have been recognized for their ability to interact with numerous different binding partners. Fusobacterial interactions with Streptococcus mutans, an important oral cariogenic pathogen, have previously been described but most studies focused on binding to non-mutans streptococci and specific cognate adhesin pairs remain to be identified. Here, we demonstrated differential binding of oral fusobacteria to S. mutans. Screening of existing mutant derivatives indicated SpaP as the major S. mutans adhesin specific for binding to Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum but none of the other oral fusobacteria tested. We inactivated RadD, a known adhesin of F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum for interaction with a number of gram-positive species, in F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum and used a Lactococcus lactis heterologous SpaP expression system to demonstrate SpaP interaction with RadD of F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. This is a novel function for SpaP, which has mainly been characterized as an adhesin for binding to host proteins including salivary glycoproteins. In conclusion, we describe an additional role for SpaP as adhesin in interspecies adherence with RadD-SpaP as the interacting adhesin pair for binding between S. mutans and F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. Furthermore, S. mutans attachment to oral fusobacteria appears to involve species- and subspecies-dependent adhesin interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and their cytotoxic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Díaz, Mario Alberto; Boegli, Laura; James, Garth; Velasquillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Martínez-Martínez, Rita-Elizabeth; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

    2015-01-01

    Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans, antibiofilm activity against mature S. mutans biofilms and the compatibility with human fibroblasts. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against the planktonic clinical isolate was size and concentration dependent, with smaller AgNPs having a lower minimum inhibitory concentration. A reduction of 2.3 log in the number of colony-forming units of S. mutans was observed when biofilms grown in a CDC reactor were exposed to 100 ppm of AgNPs of 9.5 ± 1.1 nm. However, AgNPs at high concentrations (> 10 ppm) showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a planktonic S. mutans clinical isolate and killed established S. mutans biofilms, which suggests that AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into therapeutic and preventive strategies. - Highlights: • Biological activities of silver nanoparticles for dental caries purposes • Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs on planktonic cell was size and concentration dependent. • Reduction in the S. mutans biofilm formation was statistically significant. • AgNPs at high concentrations showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. • AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries

  7. Contribution of the Collagen-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans to Bacterial Colonization of Inflamed Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryota; Ogaya, Yuko; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen of dental caries. Collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) (approximately 120 kDa), termed Cnm and Cbm, are regarded as important cell surface antigens related to the adherence of S. mutans to collagenous tissue. Furthermore, CBP-positive S. mutans strains are associated with various systemic diseases involving bacteremia, such as infective endocarditis. Endodontic infection is considered to be an important cause of bacteremia, but little is known regarding the presence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissue. In the present study, the distribution and virulence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissues were investigated by focusing on CBPs. Adhesion and invasion properties of various S. mutans strains were analyzed using human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPFs). CBP-positive strains had a significantly higher rate of adhesion to HDPFs compared with CBP-defective isogenic mutant strains (Ppulp. This could be a possible virulence factor for various systemic diseases.

  8. Singlet oxygen production by combining erythrosine and halogen light for photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracalossi, Camila; Nagata, Juliana Yuri; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Hioka, Noboru; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Sato, Francielle; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Caetano, Wilker; Fujimaki, Mitsue

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms is based on a photosensitizing substance which, in the presence of light and molecular oxygen, produces singlet oxygen, a toxic agent to microorganisms and tumor cells. This study aimed to evaluate singlet oxygen quantum yield of erythrosine solutions illuminated with a halogen light source in comparison to a LED array (control), and the photodynamic effect of erythrosine dye in association with the halogen light source on Streptococcus mutans. Singlet oxygen quantum yield of erythrosine solutions was quantified using uric acid as a chemical-probe in an aqueous solution. The in vitro effect of the photodynamic antimicrobial activity of erythrosine in association with the halogen photopolimerizing light on Streptococcus mutans (UA 159) was assessed during one minute. Bacterial cultures treated with erythrosine alone served as negative control. Singlet oxygen with 24% and 2.8% degradation of uric acid in one minute and a quantum yield of 0.59 and 0.63 was obtained for the erythrosine samples illuminated with the halogen light and the LED array, respectively. The bacterial cultures with erythrosine illuminated with the halogen light presented a decreased number of CFU mL(-1) in comparison with the negative control, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 0.312 and 0.156mgmL(-1). The photodynamic response of erythrosine induced by the halogen light was capable of killing S. mutans. Clinical trials should be conducted to better ascertain the use of erythrosine in association with halogen light source for the treatment of dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

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    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

  10. Contribution of chloride channel permease to fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Takatoshi; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Genes encoding fluoride transporters have been identified in bacterial and archaeal species. The genome sequence of the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans bacteria suggests the presence of a putative fluoride transporter, which is referred to as a chloride channel permease. Two homologues of this gene (GenBank locus tags SMU_1290c and SMU_1289c) reside in tandem in the genome of S. mutans The aim of this study was to determine whether the chloride channel permeases contribute to fluoride resistance. We constructed SMU_1290c- and SMU_1289c-knockout S. mutans UA159 strains. We also constructed a double-knockout strain lacking both genes. SMU_1290c or SMU_1289c was transformed into a fluoride transporter- disrupted Escherichia coli strain. All bacterial strains were cultured under appropriate conditions with or without sodium fluoride, and fluoride resistance was evaluated. All three gene-knockout S. mutans strains showed lower resistance to sodium fluoride than did the wild-type strain. No significant changes in resistance to other sodium halides were recognized between the wild-type and double-knockout strains. Both SMU_1290c and SMU_1289c transformation rescued fluoride transporter-disrupted E. coli cell from fluoride toxicity. We conclude that the chloride channel permeases contribute to fluoride resistance in S. mutans. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans colonization in patients wearing dental prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Monroy, Tania; Moreno-Maldonado, Víctor; Franco-Martínez, Fernando; Aldape-Barrios, Beatriz; Quindós, Guillermo; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    2005-04-01

    Denture stomatitis is associated to Candida albicans, different bacteria and other co-factors such as an acid pH, a carbohydrate ingestion increase, different systemic illnesses and pharmacological treatments. The aim of this study was to determine Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans prevalence in the mucous membrane and prosthesis of patients with and without atrophic denture stomatitis and its relationship with other potential clinical co-factors. Saliva was collected from 105 patients (62 female and 43 male) wearing dental prosthesis in order to measure their pH. Oral samples of the mucous membrane and the internal surface of dental prosthesis were taken with sterile cotton to proceed with the microbiological study. The identification of the isolated microorganisms was performed using conventional microbiological methods. Diabetes and Hypertension were the most frequent systemic illnesses. High carbohydrate ingestion was observed in numerous patients. Atrophic denture stomatitis was reported in 50 patients and the pH average in saliva was of 5.2. The presence of C albicans, S. aureus and S. mutans in the mucous membrane and prosthesis was of 51.4%, 52.4% and 67.6%, respectively. C. albicans was isolated in 66.7% from the prosthesis, whereas S. aureus and S. mutans were isolated in 49.5% of those same prosthesis. C. albicans was isolated in 86% of the patients with atrophic denture stomatitis and S. aureus was isolated in a similar percentage (84% of patients). The isolation of S. mutans was less frequent, and it was observed in 16% of the oral samples of these patients. C. albicans, S. aureus and S. mutans frequently colonize the oral mucous of patients wearing dental prosthesis. This illness-bearing condition is more frequent in patients with denture stomatitis, even though dental prosthesis colonization is lower than in the oral mucous.

  12. Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Eva-Maria; Klein, Christian; Schwindt, Dimitri; von Ohle, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown under different dietary conditions by using multifaceted methodological approaches to gain deeper insight into the cariogenic impact of carbohydrates. S. mutans biofilms were generated during a period of 24 h in the following media: Schaedler broth as a control medium containing endogenous glucose, Schaedler broth with an additional 5% sucrose, and Schaedler broth supplemented with 1% xylitol. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based analyses of the microbial vitality, respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, CTC) and production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were performed separately in the inner, middle and outer biofilm layers. In addition to the microbiological sample testing, the glucose/sucrose consumption of the biofilm bacteria was quantified, and the expression of glucosyltransferases and other biofilm-associated genes was investigated. Xylitol exposure did not inhibit the viability of S. mutans biofilms, as monitored by the following experimental parameters: culture growth, vitality, CTC activity and EPS production. However, xylitol exposure caused a difference in gene expression compared to the control. GtfC was upregulated only in the presence of xylitol. Under xylitol exposure, gtfB was upregulated by a factor of 6, while under sucrose exposure, it was upregulated by a factor of three. Compared with glucose and xylitol, sucrose increased cell vitality in all biofilm layers. In all nutrient media, the intrinsic glucose was almost completely consumed by the cells of the S. mutans biofilm within 24 h. After 24 h of biofilm formation, the multiparametric measurements showed that xylitol in the presence of glucose caused predominantly genotypic differences but did not induce metabolic differences compared to the control. Thus, the availability of dietary carbohydrates in either a pure or combined form seems to affect the

  13. Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva-Maria Decker; Christian Klein; Dimitri Schwindt; Christiane von Ohle

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown under different dietary conditions by using multifaceted methodological approaches to gain deeper insight into the cariogenic impact of carbohydrates. S. mutans biofilms were generated during a period of 24 h in the following media:Schaedler broth as a control medium containing endogenous glucose, Schaedler broth with an additional 5%sucrose, and Schaedler broth supplemented with 1%xylitol. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based analyses of the microbial vitality, respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, CTC) and production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were performed separately in the inner, middle and outer biofilm layers. In addition to the microbiological sample testing, the glucose/sucrose consumption of the biofilm bacteria was quantified, and the expression of glucosyltransferases and other biofilm-associated genes was investigated. Xylitol exposure did not inhibit the viability of S. mutans biofilms, as monitored by the following experimental parameters:culture growth, vitality, CTC activity and EPS production. However, xylitol exposure caused a difference in gene expression compared to the control. GtfC was upregulated only in the presence of xylitol. Under xylitol exposure, gtfB was upregulated by a factor of 6, while under sucrose exposure, it was upregulated by a factor of three. Compared with glucose and xylitol, sucrose increased cell vitality in all biofilm layers. In all nutrient media, the intrinsic glucose was almost completely consumed by the cells of the S. mutans biofilm within 24 h. After 24 h of biofilm formation, the multiparametric measurements showed that xylitol in the presence of glucose caused predominantly genotypic differences but did not induce metabolic differences compared to the control. Thus, the availability of dietary carbohydrates in either a pure or combined form seems to affect the cariogenic potential

  14. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

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    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans.

  15. Binding of 18F by cell membranes and cell walls of Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotis, W.W.; Zeb, M.; McNulty, J.; Kirchner, F.; Reilly, C.; Glendenin, L.

    1983-01-01

    The binding of 18 F to isolated cell membranes and cell walls of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 or other bacteria was assayed. The attachment of 18 F to these cell envelopes proceeded slowly and reached equilibrium within 60 min. 18 F binding was stimulated by Ca 2+ (1 mM). The binding of 18 F to cellular components was dependent upon the pH, as well as the amount of 18 F and dose of the binder employed. The binding of 18 F by cell walls prepared from fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-resistant cells of S. salivarius and S. mutans did not differ significantly. The pretreatment of cell walls or cell membranes for 60 min at 30 degrees C with 1 mg of RNase, DNase, or trypsin per ml did not influence the binding of 18 F by the walls and membranes of S. mutans GS-5. However, prior exposure of cell membranes to sodium dodecyl sulfate caused a significant reduction in the number of 18 F atoms bound by the membranes. In saturated assay systems, cell membranes of S. mutans GS-5 bound 10(15) to 10(16) atoms of 18 F per mg (dry weight), whereas cell walls from S. mutans GS-5, FA-1, and HS-6 or Actinomyces viscosus T14V and T14AV bound 10(12) to 10(13) atoms of 18 F per mg (dry weight). 18 F in this quantity (10(12) to 10(13) atoms) cannot be detected with the fluoride electrode. The data provide, for the first time, a demonstration of 18 F binding by cell membranes and walls of oral flora

  16. Genetic adaptation of Streptococcus mutans during biofilm formation on different types of surfaces

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    Aharoni Reuven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesion and successful colonization of bacteria onto solid surfaces play a key role in biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and the colonization of bacteria may differ between the various types of surfaces found in oral cavity. Therefore, it is conceivable that diverse biofilms are developed on those various surfaces. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular modifications occurring during in vitro biofilm development of Streptococcus mutans UA159 on several different dental surfaces. Results Growth analysis of the immobilized bacterial populations generated on the different surfaces shows that the bacteria constructed a more confluent and thick biofilms on a hydroxyapatite surface compared to the other tested surfaces. Using DNA-microarray technology we identified the differentially expressed genes of S. mutans, reflecting the physiological state of biofilms formed on the different biomaterials tested. Eight selected genes were further analyzed by real time RT-PCR. To further determine the impact of the tested material surfaces on the physiology of the bacteria, we tested the secretion of AI-2 signal by S. mutans embedded on those biofilms. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicated on changes in the S. mutans genome in biofilms formed onto different types of surfaces and enabled us to identify genes most differentially expressed on those surfaces. In addition, the levels of autoinducer-2 in biofilms from the various tested surfaces were different. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that gene expression of S. mutans differs in biofilms formed on tested surfaces, which manifest the physiological state of bacteria influenced by the type of surface material they accumulate onto. Moreover, the stressful circumstances of adjustment to the surface may persist in the bacteria enhancing intercellular signaling and surface dependent biofilm formation.

  17. Inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans and mechanical properties of the chitosan containing composite resin

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    Ji-Sun Kim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the antibacterial effect and mechanical properties of composite resins (LCR, MCR, HCR incorporating chitosan with three different molecular weights (L, Low; M, Medium; H, High. Materials and Methods Streptococcus (S. mutans 100 mL and each chitosan powder were inoculated in sterilized 10 mL Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI solution, and was centrifuged for 12 hr. Absorbance of the supernatent was measured at OD660 to estimate the antibacterial activities of chitosan. After S. mutans was inoculated in the disc shaped chitosan-containing composite resins, the disc was cleansed with BHI and diluted with serial dilution method. S. mutans was spread on Mitis-salivarius bacitracin agar. After then, colony forming unit (CFU was measured to verify the inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm. To ascertain the effect on the mechanical properties of composite resin, 3-point bending and Vickers hardness tests were done after 1 and 3 wk water storage, respectively. Using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Scheffe test, statistical analysis was done with 95% significance level. Results All chitosan powder showed inhibition effect against S. mutans. CFU number in chitosan-containing composite resins was smaller than that of control resin without chitosan. The chitosan containing composite resins did not show any significant difference in flexural strength and Vickers hardness in comparison with the control resin. However, the composite resin, MCR showed a slightly decreased flexural strength and the maximum load than those of control and the other composite resins HCR and LCR. Conclusions LCR and HCR would be recommended as a feasible antibacterial restorative due to its antibacterial nature and mechanical properties.

  18. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on composite resins containing ursolic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyeon; Song, Minju; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Park, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid (UA)-containing composites on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm. Materials and Methods Composite resins with five different concentrations (0.04, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) of UA (U6753, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared, and their flexural strengths were measured according to ISO 4049. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate source on biofilm formation, either glucose or sucrose was used as a nutrient source, and to investigate the effect of saliva treatment, the specimen were treated with either unstimulated whole saliva or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For biofilm assay, composite disks were transferred to S. mutans suspension and incubated for 24 hr. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed with PBS and sonicated. The colony forming units (CFU) of the disrupted biofilm cultures were enumerated. For growth inhibition test, the composites were placed on a polystyrene well cluster, and S. mutans suspension was inoculated. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was recorded by Infinite F200 pro apparatus (TECAN). One-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction were used for the data analyses. Results The flexural strength values did not show significant difference at any concentration (p > 0.01). In biofilm assay, the CFU score decreased as the concentration of UA increased. The influence of saliva pretreatment was conflicting. The sucrose groups exhibited higher CFU score than glucose group (p composite showed inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and growth. PMID:23741708

  19. Transcriptional Profiling of the Oral Pathogen Streptococcus mutans in Response to Competence Signaling Peptide XIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderska, Iwona B; Latos, Andrew; Pruitt, Benjamin; Palmer, Sara; Spatafora, Grace; Senadheera, Dilani B; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G

    2017-01-01

    In the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans , competence development is regulated by the ComRS signaling system comprised of the ComR regulator and the ComS prepeptide to the competence signaling peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). Aside from competence development, XIP signaling has been demonstrated to regulate cell lysis, and recently, the expression of bacteriocins, small antimicrobial peptides used by bacteria to inhibit closely related species. Our study further explores the effect of XIP signaling on the S. mutans transcriptome. RNA sequencing revealed that XIP induction resulted in a global change in gene expression that was consistent with a stress response. An increase in several membrane-bound regulators, including HdrRM and BrsRM, involved in bacteriocin production, and the VicRKX system, involved in acid tolerance and biofilm formation, was observed. Furthermore, global changes in gene expression corresponded to changes observed during the stringent response to amino acid starvation. Effects were also observed on genes involved in sugar transport and carbon catabolite repression and included the levQRST and levDEFG operons. Finally, our work identified a novel heat shock-responsive intergenic region, encoding a small RNA, with a potential role in competence shutoff. IMPORTANCE Genetic competence provides bacteria with an opportunity to increase genetic diversity or acquire novel traits conferring a survival advantage. In the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans , DNA transformation is regulated by the competence stimulating peptide XIP (ComX-inducing peptide). The present study utilizes high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to provide a greater understanding of how global gene expression patterns change in response to XIP. Overall, our work demonstrates that in S. mutans , XIP signaling induces a response that resembles the stringent response to amino acid starvation. We further identify a novel heat shock-responsive intergenic region with a

  20. Apolar Bioactive Fraction of Melipona scutellaris Geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

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    Marcos Guilherme da Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bioactive nonpolar fraction of geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The ethanolic extract of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition, thus obtaining the bioactive hexane fraction (HF possessing antimicrobial activity. The effects of HF on S. mutans UA159 biofilms generated on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were analyzed by inhibition of formation, killing assay, and glycolytic pH-drop assays. Furthermore, biofilms treated with vehicle control and HF were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. HF at 250 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL caused 38% and 53% reduction in the biomass of biofilm, respectively, when compared to vehicle control (P0.05. In conclusion, the bioactive HF of geopropolis was promising to control the S. mutans biofilm formation, without affecting the microbial population but interfering with its structure by reducing the biochemical content of biofilm matrix.

  1. PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in dental plaque samples from Haitian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoter, Walter J; Ge, Yao; Russell, Stefanie L; Chen, Zhou; Katz, Ralph V; Jean-Charles, Germain; Li, Yihong

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are oral pathogens associated with dental caries and periodontitis, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the colonization of these two microorganisms in the dental plaque of a group of Haitian adolescents using two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, standard PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. Fifty-four pooled supra-gingival plaque samples and 98 pooled sub-gingival plaque samples were obtained from 104 12- to19-year-old rural-dwelling Haitians. The total genomic DNA of bacteria was isolated from these samples, and all participants also received caries and periodontal examinations. Caries prevalence was 42.2%, and the mean decayed, missing, and filled surface (DMFS) was 2.67 ± 5.3. More than half of the adolescents (53.3%) experienced periodontal pockets (Community Periodontal Index score ≥3). S. mutans was detected in 67.3% by qPCR and 38.8% by PCR of the supra-gingival plaque samples (p plaque samples. Neither age nor gender was significantly correlated to the bacterial colonization. The results demonstrated a moderate-to-high prevalence of S. mutans and A. actinomycetemcomitans in the Haitian adolescent population, and qPCR is more sensitive than standard PCR in field conditions. These findings suggest that qPCR should be considered for field oral epidemiologic studies and may be necessary in investigations having major logistic challenges.

  2. Composition Analysis and Inhibitory Effect of Sterculia lychnophora against Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans

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    Yang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pangdahai is a traditional Chinese drug, specifically described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as the seeds of Sterculia lychnophora Hance. Here, we separated S. lychnophora husk and kernel, analyzed the nutrient contents, and investigated the inhibitory effects of S. lychnophora ethanol extracts on cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, important bacteria in dental caries and plaque formation. Ethanol extracts of S. lychnophora showed dose-dependent antibacterial activity against S. mutans with significant inhibition at concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/mL compared with the control group (p 0.03 mg/mL, while bacterial viability was decreased dose-dependently at high concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 mg/mL. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract revealed a strong presence of alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides while the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and organic acids was low. The S. lychnophora husk had higher moisture and ash content than the kernel, while the protein and fat content of the husk were lower (p<0.05 than those of the kernel. These results indicate that S. lychnophora may have antibacterial effects against S. mutans, which are likely related to the alkaloid, phenolics, glycosides, and peptides, the major components of S. lychnophora.

  3. Death and Survival in Streptococcus mutans: Differing Outcomes of a Quorum-Sensing Signalling Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eLeung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are considered ‘social’ organisms able to communicate with one another using small hormone-like molecules (pheromones in a process called quorum-sensing. These signalling molecules increase in concentration as a function of bacterial cell density. For most human pathogens, quorum-sensing is critical for virulence and biofilm formation, and the opportunity to interfere with bacterial quorum-sensing could provide a sophisticated means for manipulating the composition of pathogenic biofilms, and possibly eradicating the infection. Streptococcus mutans is a well-characterized resident of the dental plaque biofilm, and is the major pathogen of dental caries (tooth decay. In S. mutans, its CSP quorum-sensing signalling peptide does not act as a classical quorum-sensing signal by accumulating passively in proportion to cell density. In fact, particular stresses such as those encountered in the oral cavity, induces the production of the CSP pheromone, suggesting that the pheromone most probably functions as a stress-inducible alarmone by triggering the signalling to the bacterial population to initiate an adaptive response that results in different phenotypic outcomes. This mini-review discusses two different CSP-induced phenotypes, bacterial ‘suicide’ and dormancy, and the underlying mechanisms by which S. mutans utilizes the same quorum-sensing signalling peptide to regulate two opposite phenotypes.

  4. Apolar Bioactive Fraction of Melipona scutellaris Geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Franchin, Marcelo; Galvão, Lívia Câmara de Carvalho; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Ikegaki, Masaharu; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bioactive nonpolar fraction of geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The ethanolic extract of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition, thus obtaining the bioactive hexane fraction (HF) possessing antimicrobial activity. The effects of HF on S. mutans UA159 biofilms generated on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were analyzed by inhibition of formation, killing assay, and glycolytic pH-drop assays. Furthermore, biofilms treated with vehicle control and HF were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HF at 250  μ g/mL and 400  μ g/mL caused 38% and 53% reduction in the biomass of biofilm, respectively, when compared to vehicle control (P 0.05). In conclusion, the bioactive HF of geopropolis was promising to control the S. mutans biofilm formation, without affecting the microbial population but interfering with its structure by reducing the biochemical content of biofilm matrix.

  5. Effect of Violet-Blue Light on Streptococcus mutans-Induced Enamel Demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Gomez Felix Gomez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This in vitro study determined the effectiveness of violet-blue light (405 nm on inhibiting Streptococcus mutans-induced enamel demineralization. Materials and Methods: S. mutans UA159 biofilm was grown on human enamel specimens for 13 h in 5% CO2 at 37 °C with/without 1% sucrose. Wet biofilm was treated twice daily with violet-blue light for five minutes over five days. A six-hour reincubation was included daily between treatments excluding the final day. Biofilms were harvested and colony forming units (CFU were quantitated. Lesion depth (L and mineral loss (∆Z were quantified using transverse microradiography (TMR. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence Biluminator (QLF-D was used to determine mean fluorescence loss. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to compare differences in means. Results: The results demonstrated a significant reduction in CFUs between treated and non-treated groups grown with/without 1% sucrose. ∆Z was significantly reduced for specimens exposed to biofilms grown without sucrose with violet-blue light. There was only a trend on reduction of ∆Z with sucrose and with L on both groups. There were no differences in fluorescence-derived parameters between the groups. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, the results indicate that violet-blue light can serve as an adjunct prophylactic treatment for reducing S. mutans biofilm formation and enamel mineral loss.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yong-Zhi; Sheng, Yu [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Li, Lan-Fen [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tang, De-Wei [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liu, Xiang-Yu [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, Xiaojun, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)

    2007-09-01

    A potential target for antibiotic drug design, d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from S. mutans, was expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. d-Alanine-d-alanine ligase is encoded by the gene ddl (SMU-599) in Streptococcus mutans. This ligase plays a very important role in cell-wall biosynthesis and may be a potential target for drug design. To study the structure and function of this ligase, the gene ddl was amplified from S. mutans genomic DNA and cloned into the expression vector pET28a. The protein was expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Homogeneous protein was obtained using a two-step procedure consisting of Ni{sup 2+}-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified protein was crystallized and the cube-shaped crystal diffracted to 2.4 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.50, c = 108.97 Å. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  7. Microfluidic study of environmental control of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Minjun; Ghoreishilangroudi, Seyedehdelaram; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert; Hagen, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus mutans has the ability to enter a transient state of genetic competence in which it can integrate exogenous DNA. It regulates the competent state in response to several environmental inputs that include two quorum sensing peptides (CSP and XIP) as well as pH and other variables. However the interplay of these variables in regulating the competent state is poorly understood. We are using microfluidics to isolate and control environmental inputs and examine how the competence regulatory circuit responds at the single cell level. Our studies reveal that the pH of the growth environment plays a critical role in determining how cells respond to the quorum sensing signals: The response to both peptides is sharply tuned to a narrow window of near-neutral pH. Within this optimal pH range, a population responds unimodally to a XIP stimulus, and bimodally to CSP; outside this range the response to both signals is suppressed. Because a growing S. mutans culture acidifies its medium, our findings suggest that the passage of the pH through the sensitivity window transiently activates the competence circuit. In this way a sharply tuned environmental response gives S. mutans fine control over the duration of its competent state. This work is supported by the NIH under NIDCR awards R01 DE023339.

  8. In situ biosensing of the nanomechanical property and electrochemical spectroscopy of Streptococcus mutans-containing biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haochih Liu, Bernard; Li, Kun-Lin; Kang, Kai-Li; Huang, Wen-Ke; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2013-07-01

    This work presents in situ biosensing approaches to study the nanomechanical and electrochemical behaviour of Streptococcus mutans biofilms under different cultivation conditions and microenvironments. The surface characteristics and sub-surface electrochemistry of the cell wall of S. mutans were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based techniques to monitor the in situ biophysical status of biofilms under common anti-pathogenic procedures such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and alcohol treatment. The AFM nanoindentation suggested a positive correlation between nanomechanical strength and the level of UV radiation of S. mutans; scanning impedance spectroscopy of dehydrated biofilms revealed reduced electrical resistance that is distinctive from that of living biofilms, which can be explained by the discharge of cytoplasm after alcohol treatment. Furthermore, the localized elastic moduli of four regions of the biofilm were studied: septum (Z-ring), cell wall, the interconnecting area between two cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) area. The results indicated that cell walls exhibit the highest elastic modulus, followed by Z-ring, interconnect and EPS. Our approach provides an effective alternative for the characterization of the viability of living cells without the use of biochemical labelling tools such as fluorescence dyeing, and does not rely on surface binding or immobilization for detection. These AFM-based techniques can be very promising approaches when the conventional methods fall short.

  9. Effect of silver-loaded PMMA on Streptococcus mutans in a drip flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dustin L; Epperson, Richard Tyler; DeGrauw, Jeffery P; Nielsen, Mattias B; Taylor, Nicholas B; Jolley, Ryan D

    2017-09-01

    Orthodontic retention has been proposed as a life-long commitment for patients who desire to maintain straight teeth. However, the presence of foreign material increases risk of bacterial colonization and caries formation, of which Streptococcus mutans is a key contributor. Multiple studies have assessed the ability of silver to be added to base plate material and resist attachment of S. mutans. However, it does not appear that long-term washout in connection with biofilm growth under physiologically relevant conditions has been taken into consideration. In this study, silver was added to base plate material and exposed to short- or long-term washout periods. Materials were then assessed for their ability to resist biofilm formation of S. mutans using a drip flow reactor that modeled the human oral environment. Data indicated that silver was able to resist biofilm formation following short-term washout, but long-term washout periods resulted in a lack of ability to resist biofilm formation. These data will be important for future development of base plate materials to achieve long-term antimicrobial efficacy to reduce risk of caries formation and benefit patients in the long term. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2632-2639, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yong-Zhi; Sheng, Yu; Li, Lan-Fen; Tang, De-Wei; Liu, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Xiaojun; Liang, Yu-He; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2007-01-01

    A potential target for antibiotic drug design, d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from S. mutans, was expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. d-Alanine-d-alanine ligase is encoded by the gene ddl (SMU-599) in Streptococcus mutans. This ligase plays a very important role in cell-wall biosynthesis and may be a potential target for drug design. To study the structure and function of this ligase, the gene ddl was amplified from S. mutans genomic DNA and cloned into the expression vector pET28a. The protein was expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Homogeneous protein was obtained using a two-step procedure consisting of Ni 2+ -chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified protein was crystallized and the cube-shaped crystal diffracted to 2.4 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.50, c = 108.97 Å. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit

  11. Generation of human antibody fragments against Streptococcus mutans using a phage display chain shuffling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common oral diseases and dental caries can be prevented effectively by passive immunization. In humans, passive immunotherapy may require the use of humanized or human antibodies to prevent adverse immune responses against murine epitopes. Therefore we generated human single chain and diabody antibody derivatives based on the binding characteristics of the murine monoclonal antibody Guy's 13. The murine form of this antibody has been used successfully to prevent Streptococcus mutans colonization and the development of dental caries in non-human primates, and to prevent bacterial colonization in human clinical trials. Results The antibody derivatives were generated using a chain-shuffling approach based on human antibody variable gene phage-display libraries. Like the parent antibody, these derivatives bound specifically to SAI/II, the surface adhesin of the oral pathogen S. mutans. Conclusions Humanization of murine antibodies can be easily achieved using phage display libraries. The human antibody fragments bind the antigen as well as the causative agent of dental caries. In addition the human diabody derivative is capable of aggregating S. mutans in vitro, making it a useful candidate passive immunotherapeutic agent for oral diseases.

  12. In situ biosensing of the nanomechanical property and electrochemical spectroscopy of Streptococcus mutans-containing biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bernard Haochih; Li, Kun-Lin; Kang, Kai-Li; Huang, Wen-Ke; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2013-01-01

    This work presents in situ biosensing approaches to study the nanomechanical and electrochemical behaviour of Streptococcus mutans biofilms under different cultivation conditions and microenvironments. The surface characteristics and sub-surface electrochemistry of the cell wall of S. mutans were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based techniques to monitor the in situ biophysical status of biofilms under common anti-pathogenic procedures such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and alcohol treatment. The AFM nanoindentation suggested a positive correlation between nanomechanical strength and the level of UV radiation of S. mutans; scanning impedance spectroscopy of dehydrated biofilms revealed reduced electrical resistance that is distinctive from that of living biofilms, which can be explained by the discharge of cytoplasm after alcohol treatment. Furthermore, the localized elastic moduli of four regions of the biofilm were studied: septum (Z-ring), cell wall, the interconnecting area between two cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) area. The results indicated that cell walls exhibit the highest elastic modulus, followed by Z-ring, interconnect and EPS. Our approach provides an effective alternative for the characterization of the viability of living cells without the use of biochemical labelling tools such as fluorescence dyeing, and does not rely on surface binding or immobilization for detection. These AFM-based techniques can be very promising approaches when the conventional methods fall short. (paper)

  13. Korelasi Jumlah Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans dan Level Ekspresi Interlukin 8 (IL-8 pada Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Luthfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karies gigi pada anak usia dini merupakan masalah kesehatan yang sangat serius karena merupakan penyakit infeksi kronis yang menular. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir pandangan tentang neutrofil telah berubah secara dramatis. Neutrofil tidak hanya berperan sebagai pembunuh mikroba melalui proses fagositosis, pelepasan reactive oxigen species (ROS dan peptida antimikrobialnya tetapi neutrofil turut mengatur aktifasi respon imun. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 berfungsi sebagai aktivator kuat dan kemoatraktan neutrofil oleh karena itu IL-8 merupakan mediator kunci dalam migrasi neutrofil ke lokasi peradangan dan infeksi. Untuk menganalisis hubungan dari jumlah S. mutans dan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva pada anak usia dini bebas karies dan severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. Perlakuan dilakukan pada dua kelompok yaitu isolasi dan menghitung jumlah S. mutans pada sampel saliva dan sampel hasil kumur dengan NaCl 1,5% yang diisolasi neutrofilnya kemudian dianalisis ekspresi IL-8 menggunakan flow cytometry dari 20 anak bebas karies dan 20 anak severe early childhood caries. Hasil nilai rata-rata diketahui bahwa jumlah S. mutans anak usia dini bebas karies lebih rendah (513.500,00±185.565,28 CFU/ml dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (977.000,00±222.500,15 CFU/ml, sedangkan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva anak usia dini bebas karies lebih tinggi (3,31±0,50 dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (2,95+0,56. Penurunan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva kemungkinan sebagai penyebab meningkatnya jumlah S. mutans pada S-ECC. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans Level and Interleukin 8 (IL-8 Expressions of Salivary Neutrophils in Severe Early Childhood Caries. Early childhood caries is a very serious health problem because it is a chronic infectious disease that is contagious. Dental caries begins after the primary teeth grow and develop on the tooth surface very quickly and progressively. In recent years the views of neutrophils have changed dramatically. Neutrophils

  14. Frequency and expression of mutacin biosynthesis genes in isolates of Streptococcus mutans with different mutacin-producing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Regianne Umeko; Höfling, José Francisco; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency and expression of biosynthesis genes in 47 Streptococcus mutans isolates with different mutacin-producing phenotypes. Detection of the frequency and expression of genes encoding mutacin types I, II, III and IV were carried out by PCR and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively, using primers specific for each type of biosynthesis gene. In addition, a further eight genes encoding putative bacteriocins, designated bsm 283, bsm 299, bsm 423, bsm 1889c, bsm 1892c, bsm 1896, bsm 1906c and bsm 1914, were also screened. There was a high phenotypic diversity; some Streptococcus mutans isolates presented broad antimicrobial spectra against other Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates, including bacteria resistant to common antibiotics, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. The expression frequency of the bsm gene was higher than that of the previously characterized mutacins (I-IV). There was no positive correlation between the number of indicator strains inhibited (antimicrobial spectra) and the number of biosynthesis genes expressed (Spearman correlation test, r=-0.03, P>0.05). In conclusion, the high diversity of mutacin-producing phenotypes, associated with high frequency of expression of the biosynthesis genes screened, reveals a broad repertoire of genetic determinants encoding antimicrobial peptides that can act in different combinations.

  15. Differences of Streptococcus mutans adhesion between artificial mouth systems: a dinamic and static methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryan Morita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various materials have been used for treating dental caries. Dental caries is a disease that attacks hard tissues of the teeth. The initial phase of caries is a formation of bacterial biofilm, called as dental plaque. Dental restorative materials are expected for preventing secondary caries formation initiated by dental plaque. Initial bacterial adhesion is assumed to be an important stage of dental plaque formation. Bacteria that recognize the receptor for binding to the pellicle on tooth surface are known as initial bacterial colonies. One of the bacteria that plays a role in the early stage of dental plaque formation is Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Artificial mouth system (AMS used in bacterial biofilm research on the oral cavity provides the real condition of oral cavity and continous and intermittent supply of nutrients for bacteria. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the profile of S. mutans bacterial adhesion as the primary etiologic agent for dental caries between using static method and using artificial mouth system, a dinamic. method (AMS. Method: The study was conducted at Faculty of Dentistry and Integrated Research and testing laboratory (LPPT in Universitas Gadjah Mada from April to August 2015. Composite resin was used as the subject of this research. Twelve composite resins with a diameter of 5 mm and a width of 2 mm were divided into two groups, namely group using static method and group using dynamic method. Static method was performed by submerging the samples into a 100µl suspension of 1.5 x 108 CFU/ml S. mutans and 200µl BHI broth. Meanwhile AMS method was carried out by placing the samples at the AMS tube drained with 20 drops/minute of bacterial suspension and sterile aquadest. After 72 hours, five samples from each group were calculated for their biofilm mass using 1% crystal violet and read by a spectrofotometer with a wavelength of 570 nm. Meanwhile, one sample from each group was taken for its

  16. In-situ, time-lapse study of extracellular polymeric substance discharge in Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yu, Li-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus mutans is one of the main pathogens that cause tooth decay. By metabolizing carbohydrates, S. mutans emits extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that adheres to the tooth surface and forms layers of biofilm. Periodontal disease occurs due to the low pH environment created by S. mutans biofilm, and such an acidic environment gradually erodes tooth enamel. Since the existence of EPS is essential in the formation of biofilm, the in-situ investigation of its generation and distribution in real time is the key to the control and suppression of S. mutans biofilm. Prior studies of the biofilm formation process by fluorescence microscope, scanning electron microscope, or spectroscope have roughly divided the mechanism into three stages: (1) initial attachment; (2) microcolonies; and (3) maturation. However, these analytical methods are incapable to observe real-time changes in different locations of the extracellular matrix, and to analyze mechanical properties for single bacteria in micro and nanoscale. Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) operates by precise control of tip-sample interaction forces in liquid and in air, living microorganisms can be analyzed under near-physiological conditions. Thus, analytical techniques based on AFM constitute powerful tools for the study of biological samples, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this study, we used AFM to quantitatively track the changes of multiple nanomechanical properties of S. mutans, including dissipation energy, adhesion force, deformation, and elastic modulus at different metabolic stages. The data revealed that the bacterial extracellular matrix has a gradient distribution in stickiness, in which different stickiness indicates the variation of EPS compositions, freshness, and metabolic stages. In-situ, time-lapse AFM images showed the local generation and distribution of EPS at different times, in which the highest adhesion distributed along sides of the S. mutans cells. Through time

  17. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  18. Effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on Streptococcus mutans counts in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, Flavia Cristina; Jeremias, Fabiano; Spolidório, Denise Madalena Palomari; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Valsecki Junior, Aylton; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar o efeito da adequação do meio bucal sobre a contagem de Streptococcus mutans em gestantes de alto risco à cárie, participantes de um programa de prevenção em uma instituição de ensino público, antes e após adequação do meio bucal. Amostras de saliva de 30 gestantes (18 a 43 anos) que procuraram atendimento na Clínica de Odontologia Preventiva da FOAr-UNESP foram coletadas antes e após procedimentos de adequação do meio bucal, e examinadas para observaç...

  19. d-Alanine metabolism is essential for growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, W; Zheng, X; Wei, Y; Zhou, X; Zhang, K; Wang, S; Cheng, L; Li, Y; Ren, B; Xu, X; Li, Y; Li, M

    2016-10-01

    Part of the d-alanine (d-Ala) metabolic pathway in bacteria involves the conversion of l-alanine to d-Ala by alanine racemase and the formation of d-alanyl-d-alanine by d-alanine-d-alanine ligase, the product of which is involved in cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. At present, drugs that target the metabolic pathway of d-Ala are already in clinical use - e.g. d-cycloserine (DCS) is used as an antibiotic against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Streptococcus mutans is the main cariogenic bacterium in the oral cavity. Its d-Ala metabolism-associated enzymes alanine racemase and d-alanine-d-alanine ligase are encoded by the genes smu.1834 and smu.599, respectively, which may be potential targets for inhibitors. In this study, the addition of DCS blocked the d-Ala metabolic pathway in S. mutans, leading to bacterial cell wall defects, significant inhibition of bacterial growth and biofilm formation, and reductions in extracellular polysaccharide production and bacterial adhesion. However, the exogenous addition of d-Ala could reverse the inhibitory effect of DCS. Through the means of drug regulation, our study demonstrated, for the first time, the importance of d-Ala metabolism in the survival and biofilm formation of S. mutans. If the growth of S. mutans can be specifically inhibited by designing drugs that target d-Ala metabolism, then this may serve as a potential new treatment for dental caries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of hydroxyl radicals generated by hydrogen peroxide photolysis against Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Shirato, Midori; Kanno, Taro; Örtengren, Ulf; Lingström, Peter; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-10-01

    Prevention of dental caries with maximum conservation of intact tooth substance remains a challenge in dentistry. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of H2O2 photolysis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm, which may be a novel antimicrobial chemotherapy for treating caries. S. mutans biofilm was grown on disk-shaped hydroxyapatite specimens. After 1-24 h of incubation, growth was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and viable bacterial counting. Resistance to antibiotics (amoxicillin and erythromycin) was evaluated by comparing bactericidal effects on the biofilm with those on planktonic bacteria. To evaluate the effect of the antimicrobial technique, the biofilm was immersed in 3% H2O2 and was irradiated with an LED at 365 nm for 1 min. Viable bacterial counts in the biofilm were determined by colony counting. The thickness and surface coverage of S. mutans biofilm increased with time, whereas viable bacterial counts plateaued after 6 h. When 12- and 24-h-old biofilms were treated with the minimum concentration of antibiotics that killed viable planktonic bacteria with 3 log reduction, their viable counts were not significantly decreased, suggesting the biofilm acquired antibiotic resistance by increasing its thickness. By contrast, hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of 3% H2O2 effectively killed S. mutans in 24-h-old biofilm, with greater than 5 log reduction. The technique based on H2O2 photolysis is a potentially powerful adjunctive antimicrobial chemotherapy for caries treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Escape from the competence state in Streptococcus mutans is governed by the bacterial population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, D; Villemin, C; Perry, J A; Lévesque, C M

    2016-12-01

    Horizontal gene transfer through natural DNA transformation is an important evolutionary mechanism among bacteria. Transformation requires that the bacteria are physiologically competent to take and incorporate free DNA directly from the environment. Although natural genetic transformation is a remarkable feature of many naturally competent bacteria, the process is energetically expensive for the cells. Consequently, a tight control of the competence state is necessary. The objective of the present work was to help decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating the escape from the competence state in Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiological agent responsible for tooth decay in humans. Our results showed that the cessation of competence in S. mutans was abrupt, and did not involve the accumulation of a competence inhibitor nor the depletion of a competence activator in the extracellular environment. The competence state was repressed at high cell population density via concomitant repression of sigX gene encoding the master regulator of the competence regulon. Co-culture experiments performed with oral and non-oral bacteria showed that S. mutans assesses its own population density and also the microbial density of its surroundings to regulate its competence escape. Interestingly, neither the intra-species and extra-species quorum-sensing systems nor the other 13 two-component regulatory systems identified in S. mutans were involved in the cell-density-dependent escape of the competence state. Altogether, our results suggest a complex mechanism regulating the competence shut-off involving cell-density-dependent repression of sigX through an as yet undefined system, and possibly SigX protein stability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effect of oil pulling with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Komath Pavithran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil pulling as described in ancient Ayurveda involves the use of edible vegetable oils as oral antibacterial agents. It is a practice of swishing oil in the mouth for oral and systemic health benefits. Pure coconut oil has antimicrobial properties and is commonly available in all Indian households. Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of oil pulling therapy with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans count and to compare its efficacy against sesame oil and saline. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled concurrent parallel- triple blinded clinical trial was conducted. Thirty participants in age range of 20–23 years were randomly allocated into Group A (coconut oil, Group B (sesame oil, and Group C (saline, with 10 in each group. The participants were instructed to swish and pull 10 ml of oil on empty stomach, early morning for 10–15 min. Unstimulated saliva collected before and after oil pulling procedure was analyzed for colony forming units (CFU per ml saliva of S. mutans. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, ANOVA, and post hoc analysis using Tukey's honest significant difference. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A statistically significant reduction in S. mutans CFU count after oil pulling with pure coconut oil (P = 0.001 was found. There was no statistically significant difference between sesame oil and coconut oil (P = 0.97 and between sesame oil and saline (P = 0.061. When efficacy of coconut oil against saline was evaluated, a statistical significant difference (P = 0.039 was found. Conclusion: Oil pulling is an effective method for oral hygiene maintenance as it significantly reduces S. mutans count in the saliva.

  3. Acid-regulated proteins induced by Streptococcus mutans and other oral bacteria during acid shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, I R; Svensäter, G

    1998-10-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that with the more aciduric oral bacteria, an acid shock to sub-lethal pH values results in the induction of an acid tolerance response that protects the cells at extremely low pH (pH 3.0-4.0) that kills unadapted control cells maintained at pH 7.5 (Oral Microbiol Immunol 1997: 12: 266-273). In this study, we were interested in comparing the protein profiles of acid-shocked and control cells of nine organisms from three acid-ogenic genera that could be categorized as strong, weak and non-acid responders in an attempt to identify proteins that could be classified as acid-regulated proteins and which may be important in the process of survival at very low pH. For this, log-phase cultures were rapidly acidified from pH 7.5 to 5.5 in the presence of [14C]-amino acids for varying periods up to 2 h, the period previously shown to be required for maximum induction of the acid response. The cells were extracted for total protein and subjected to one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide chromatography with comparable control and acid-shocked protein profiles compared by scanning and computer analysis. Of particular interest were the proteins in the acid-shocked cells that showed enhanced labeling (i.e., synthesis) over the control cells, since these were considered acid-regulated proteins of importance in pH homeostasis. Streptococcus mutans LT11 generated the most rapid and complex pattern: a total of 36 acid-regulated proteins showing enhanced synthesis, with 25 appearing within the first 30 min of acid shock. The enhanced synthesis was transient with all proteins, with the exception of two with molecular weights of 50/49 and 33/32 kDa. Within the acid-regulated proteins were proteins having molecular weights comparable to the heat shock proteins and the various subunits of the membrane H+/ATPase. By comparison, the strong responder, Lactobacillus casei 151, showed the enhanced formation of only nine proteins within the

  4. CcpA and CodY Coordinate Acetate Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Burne, Robert A

    2017-04-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans , phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (Ack) convert pyruvate into acetate with the concomitant generation of ATP. The genes for this pathway are tightly regulated by multiple environmental and intracellular inputs, but the basis for differential expression of the genes for Pta and Ack in S. mutans had not been investigated. Here, we show that inactivation in S. mutans of ccpA or codY reduced the activity of the ackA promoter, whereas a ccpA mutant displayed elevated pta promoter activity. The interactions of CcpA with the promoter regions of both genes were observed using electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase protection assays. CodY bound to the ackA promoter region but only in the presence of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). DNase footprinting revealed that the upstream region of both genes contains two catabolite-responsive elements ( cre1 and cre2 ) that can be bound by CcpA. Notably, the cre2 site of ackA overlaps with a CodY-binding site. The CcpA- and CodY-binding sites in the promoter region of both genes were further defined by site-directed mutagenesis. Some differences between the reported consensus CodY binding site and the region protected by S. mutans CodY were noted. Transcription of the pta and ackA genes in the ccpA mutant strain was markedly different at low pH relative to transcription at neutral pH. Thus, CcpA and CodY are direct regulators of transcription of ackA and pta in S. mutans that optimize acetate metabolism in response to carbohydrate, amino acid availability, and environmental pH. IMPORTANCE The human dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is remarkably adept at coping with extended periods of carbohydrate limitation during fasting periods. The phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (Pta-Ack) pathway in S. mutans modulates carbohydrate flux and fine-tunes the ability of the organisms to cope with stressors that are commonly encountered in the oral cavity. Here, we

  5. Effects of missense mutations in sortase A gene on enzyme activity in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, P L; Yu, L X; Tao, Y; Zhou, Y; Zhi, Q H; Lin, H C

    2016-04-11

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major aetiological agent of dental caries, and the transpeptidase Sortase A (SrtA) plays a major role in cariogenicity. The T168G and G470A missense mutations in the srtA gene may be linked to caries susceptibility, as demonstrated in our previous studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of these missense mutations of the srtA gene on SrtA enzyme activity in S. mutans. The point mutated recombinant S.mutans T168G and G470A sortases were expressed in expression plasmid pET32a. S. mutans UA159 sortase coding gene srtA was used as the template for point mutation. Enzymatic activity was assessed by quantifying increases in the fluorescence intensity generated when a substrate Dabcyl-QALPNTGEE-Edans was cleaved by SrtA. The kinetic constants were calculated based on the curve fit for the Michaelis-Menten equation. SrtA△N40(UA159) and the mutant enzymes, SrtA△N40(D56E) and SrtA△N40(R157H), were expressed and purified. A kinetic analysis showed that the affinity of SrtA△N40(D56E) and SrtA△N40(R157H) remained approximately equal to the affinity of SrtA△N40(UA159), as determined by the Michaelis constant (K m ). However, the catalytic rate constant (k cat ) and catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m ) of SrtA△N40(D56E) were reduced compared with those of SrtA△N40(R157H) and SrtA△N40(UA159), whereas the k cat and k cat /K m values of SrtA△N40(R157H) were slightly lower than those of SrtA△N40(UA159). The findings of this study indicate that the T168G missense mutation of the srtA gene results in a significant reduction in enzymatic activity compared with S. mutans UA159, suggesting that the T168G missense mutation of the srtA gene may be related to low cariogenicity.

  6. Triethylene Glycol Up-Regulates Virulence-Associated Genes and Proteins in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghinejad, Lida; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G; Siqueira, Walter L; Santerre, J Paul; Finer, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) is a diluent monomer used pervasively in dental composite resins. Through hydrolytic degradation of the composites in the oral cavity it yields a hydrophilic biodegradation product, triethylene glycol (TEG), which has been shown to promote the growth of Streptococcus mutans, a dominant cariogenic bacterium. Previously it was shown that TEG up-regulated gtfB, an important gene contributing to polysaccharide synthesis function in biofilms. However, molecular mechanisms related to TEG's effect on bacterial function remained poorly understood. In the present study, S. mutans UA159 was incubated with clinically relevant concentrations of TEG at pH 5.5 and 7.0. Quantitative real-time PCR, proteomics analysis, and glucosyltransferase enzyme (GTF) activity measurements were employed to identify the bacterial phenotypic response to TEG. A S. mutans vicK isogenic mutant (SMΔvicK1) and its associated complemented strain (SMΔvicK1C), an important regulatory gene for biofilm-associated genes, were used to determine if this signaling pathway was involved in modulation of the S. mutans virulence-associated genes. Extracted proteins from S. mutans biofilms grown in the presence and absence of TEG were subjected to mass spectrometry for protein identification, characterization and quantification. TEG up-regulated gtfB/C, gbpB, comC, comD and comE more significantly in biofilms at cariogenic pH (5.5) and defined concentrations. Differential response of the vicK knock-out (SMΔvicK1) and complemented strains (SMΔvicK1C) implicated this signalling pathway in TEG-modulated cellular responses. TEG resulted in increased GTF enzyme activity, responsible for synthesizing insoluble glucans involved in the formation of cariogenic biofilms. As well, TEG increased protein abundance related to biofilm formation, carbohydrate transport, acid tolerance, and stress-response. Proteomics data was consistent with gene expression findings for the selected

  7. The effect of CPP-ACP containing fluoride on Streptococcus mutans adhesion and enamel roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulita Kristanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Direct contact between the bleaching agent and the enamel surface results in demineralization, alteration in surface roughness and bacterial adhesion. Many studies try to minimize this side effect through different way. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determined the effect of Calcium Phospho Peptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP containing fluoride application before and after bleaching procedure on the adhesion of S. Mutans and enamel roughness. Methods: The samples were 6 teeth which were divided into 4 groups, and each tooth was cut into four pieces. Group A and C were treated with CPP-ACP after bleaching, while group B and D were treated with CPP-ACP before and after bleaching. CPP-ACP used in group C and D was the one that contain fluoride. After treatment, all samples were sterilized, immersed in steril human saliva for one hour, then immersed into S. mutans suspension of 108 CFU. Samples were incubated overnight. On the next day the samples were put into steril BHI and vortexed for one minute to detach the bacteria. Fifteen ml BHI containing bacteria was poured into TYS agar then incubated 37°Cfor 48 hours. Bacterial colony was counted with colony counter. The SEM examination was done on all samples. Results: Application of desensitizing agent reduced the S.mutans adhesion significantly among groups (p<0.05 except between group A and C. SEM evaluation revealed significant differences among groups. Conclusion: The application of CPP-ACP containing fluoride before and after bleaching was effective to reduce the accumulation of S.mutans colony and enamel roughness.Latar belakang: Kontak langsung antara bahan bleaching dan permukaan enamel menyebabkan demineralisasi, perubahan kekasaran permukaan dan berpengaruh terhadap banyaknya bakteri Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans yang melekat. Banyak peneliti mencoba meminimalkan efek samping ini dengan cara yang beragam. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti efek

  8. Origins of heterogeneity in Streptococcus mutans competence: interpreting an environment-sensitive signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Stephen J.; Son, Minjun

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on chemical signaling and environmental cues to regulate disease-causing behavior in complex microenvironments. The human pathogen Streptococcus mutans employs a particularly complex signaling and sensing scheme to regulate genetic competence and other virulence behaviors in the oral biofilms it inhabits. Individual S. mutans cells make the decision to enter the competent state by integrating chemical and physical cues received from their microenvironment along with endogenously produced peptide signals. Studies at the single-cell level, using microfluidics to control the extracellular environment, provide physical insight into how the cells process these inputs to generate complex and often heterogeneous outputs. Fine changes in environmental stimuli can dramatically alter the behavior of the competence circuit. Small shifts in pH can switch the quorum sensing response on or off, while peptide-rich media appear to switch the output from a unimodal to a bimodal behavior. Therefore, depending on environmental cues, the quorum sensing circuitry can either synchronize virulence across the population, or initiate and amplify heterogeneity in that behavior. Much of this complex behavior can be understood within the framework of a quorum sensing system that can operate both as an intercellular signaling mechanism and intracellularly as a noisy bimodal switch.

  9. Fueling the caries process: carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation by Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary D. Moye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the oral cavity and host behaviors has mandated that the oral microbiota evolve mechanisms for coping with environmental fluctuations, especially changes in the type and availability of carbohydrates. In the case of human dental caries, the presence of excess carbohydrates is often responsible for altering the local environment to be more favorable for species associated with the initiation and progression of disease, including Streptococcus mutans. Some of the earliest endeavors to understand how cariogenic species respond to environmental perturbations were carried out using chemostat cultivation, which provides fine control over culture conditions and bacterial behaviors. The development of genome-scale methodologies has allowed for the combination of sophisticated cultivation technologies with genome-level analysis to more thoroughly probe how bacterial pathogens respond to environmental stimuli. Recent investigations in S. mutans and other closely related streptococci have begun to reveal that carbohydrate metabolism can drastically impact pathogenic potential and highlight the important influence that nutrient acquisition has on the success of pathogens; inside and outside of the oral cavity. Collectively, research into pathogenic streptococci, which have evolved in close association with the human host, has begun to unveil the essential nature of careful orchestration of carbohydrate acquisition and catabolism to allow the organisms to persist and, when conditions allow, initiate or worsen disease.

  10. Disinfection of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by a non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qing; Dong, Xiaoqing; Chen, Meng; Xu, Yuanxi; Sun, Hongmin; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the argon plasma treatment effect on disinfecting dental biofilm by using an atmospheric pressure plasma brush. Streptococcus mutans biofilms were developed for 3 days on the surfaces of hydroxyapatite (HA) discs, which were used to simulate human tooth enamel. After plasma treatment, cell viability in the S. mutans biofilms was characterized by using 3-(4,5-dimethylazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Compared with the untreated control group, about 90% bacterial reduction in the biofilms was observed after 1 min plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination indicated severe cell damages occurred on the top surface of the plasma treated biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that plasma treatment was effective as deep as 20 µm into the biofilms. When combined with antibiotic treatment using 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution, the plasma treatment became more effective and over 96% bacterial reduction was observed with 1 min plasma treatment.

  11. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chen; Fan, Xuexin; Cao, Xiaofang; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from S. mutans have been produced in E. coli and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to high resolutions suitable for crystallographic analyses. Study of the enzymes from sugar metabolic pathways may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the human oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Bioinformatics, biochemical and crystallization methods were used to characterize and understand the function of two putative ribose-5-phosphate isomerases: SMU1234 and SMU2142. The proteins were cloned and constructed with N-terminal His tags. Protein purification was performed by Ni 2+ -chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. The crystals of SUM1234 diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 48.97, b = 98.27, c = 101.09 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The optimized SMU2142 crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.7, b = 54.1, c = 86.5 Å, α = 74.2, β = 73.5, γ = 83.7°. Initial phasing of both proteins was attempted by molecular replacement; the structure of SMU1234 could easily be solved, but no useful results were obtained for SMU2142. Therefore, SeMet-labelled SMU2142 will be prepared for phasing

  12. Fueling the caries process: carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation by Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D.; Zeng, Lin; Burne, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the oral cavity and host behaviors has mandated that the oral microbiota evolve mechanisms for coping with environmental fluctuations, especially changes in the type and availability of carbohydrates. In the case of human dental caries, the presence of excess carbohydrates is often responsible for altering the local environment to be more favorable for species associated with the initiation and progression of disease, including Streptococcus mutans. Some of the earliest endeavors to understand how cariogenic species respond to environmental perturbations were carried out using chemostat cultivation, which provides fine control over culture conditions and bacterial behaviors. The development of genome-scale methodologies has allowed for the combination of sophisticated cultivation technologies with genome-level analysis to more thoroughly probe how bacterial pathogens respond to environmental stimuli. Recent investigations in S. mutans and other closely related streptococci have begun to reveal that carbohydrate metabolism can drastically impact pathogenic potential and highlight the important influence that nutrient acquisition has on the success of pathogens; inside and outside of the oral cavity. Collectively, research into pathogenic streptococci, which have evolved in close association with the human host, has begun to unveil the essential nature of careful orchestration of carbohydrate acquisition and catabolism to allow the organisms to persist and, when conditions allow, initiate or worsen disease. PMID:25317251

  13. Effect of xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Prevention of dental caries is one of the main strategies in contemporary pediatric dental practice. Mouth rinses are widely used as an adjunct to maintain oral hygiene. It is important for these products to be effective and safe for regular use in children. Objective : The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a newly introduced xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse in reducing levels of plaque Streptococcus mutans and to compare it with that of a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Materials and Methods : Thirty children were randomly divided into two groups of 15 children each. Group I (study group was given a mouth rinse containing xylitol (5%, sodium fluoride (0.05% and triclosan (0.03% and Group II (control group was given a chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse. Both mouth rinses were alcohol free. Mouth rinsing was carried out twice daily, half an hour after breakfast and half an hour following dinner, for a period of 21 days under the supervision of the investigator. Results: In both groups, there was a significant reduction in the mean S. mutans count at the end of 21 days (P < 0.001. No significant difference was observed between the two mouth rinses. Conclusion: The use of a low fluoride-xylitol based mouth rinse appears to be a suitable choice for regular use in children.

  14. Regulation of Recombination between gtfB/gtfC Genes in Streptococcus mutans by Recombinase A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Inagaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans produces 3 types of glucosyltransferases (GTFs, whose cooperative action is essential for cellular adhesion. The recombinase A (RecA protein is required for homologous recombination. In our previous study, we isolated several strains with a smooth colony morphology and low GTF activity, characteristics speculated to be derived from the GTF fusions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of those fusions. S. mutans strain MT8148 was grown in the presence of recombinant RecA (rRecA protein, after which smooth colonies were isolated. The biological functions and sequences of the gtfB and gtfC genes of this as well as other clinical strains were determined. The sucrose-dependent adherence rates of those strains were reduced as compared to that of MT8148. Determination of the sequences of the gtfB and gtfC genes showed that an approximately 3500 bp region was deleted from the area between them. Furthermore, expression of the recA gene was elevated in those strains as compared to MT8148. These results suggest that RecA has an important role in fusions of gtfB and gtfC genes, leading to alteration of colony morphology and reduction in sucrose-dependent adhesion.

  15. Betulin inhibits cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans by targeting vicRK and gtf genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Subramenium, Ganapathy Ashwinkumar; Radhika, Solai; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a multivirulent pathogen is considered the primary etiological agent in dental caries. Development of antibiotic resistance in the pathogen has created a need for novel antagonistic agents which can control the virulence of the organism and reduce resistance development. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-virulence potential of betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol), an abundantly available plant triterpenoid against S. mutans UA159. Betulin exhibited significant dose dependent antibiofilm activity without affecting bacterial viability. At 240 µg/ml (biofilm inhibitory concentration), betulin inhibited biofilm formation and adherence to smooth glass surfaces by 93 and 71 % respectively. It reduced water insoluble glucan synthesis by 89 %, in conjunction with down regulation of gtfBC genes. Microscopic analysis confirmed the disruption in biofilm architecture and decreased exopolysaccharide production. Acidogenicity and aciduricity, key virulence factors responsible for carious lesions, were also notably affected. The induced auto-aggregation of cells upon treatment could be due to the down regulation of vicK. Results of gene expression analysis demonstrated significant down-regulation of virulence genes upon betulin treatment. Furthermore, the nontoxic effect of betulin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells even after 72 h treatment makes it a strong candidate for assessing its suitability to be used as a therapeutic agent.

  16. The effect of five probiotic lactobacilli strains on the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Jiang, W; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of five probiotic lactobacilli strains on the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (MS). Five probiotic lactobacilli bacteria (LB), Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus casei LC01, Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, were used as test strains effecting on the Streptococci strain S. mutans UA159 in this study. The effect of LB strains and their supernatants on the viability of the MS was evaluated. Then, the effect of LB strains on the growth of MS biofilm formation was observed by fluorescence microscope. All of the LB strains inhibited the growth of MS at concentrations of 1 × 10(8) and 3 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1) (P strains inhibited the growth of MS (P strains inhibited the growth and biofilm formation of MS, likely through the production of an acid environment, bacteriocin-like poly peptides, or both, and the effects on MS were dependent on the LB strains used. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Streptococcus mutans copper chaperone, CopZ, is critical for biofilm formation and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S S; Du, Q; Wu, H

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is a dynamic environment characterized by hundreds of bacterial species, saliva, and an influx of nutrients and metal ions such as copper. Although there is a physiologic level of copper in the saliva, the oral cavity is often challenged with an influx of copper ions. At high concentrations copper is toxic and must therefore be strictly regulated by pathogens for them to persist and cause disease. The cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans manages excess copper using the copYAZ operon that encodes a negative DNA-binding repressor (CopY), the P1-ATPase copper exporter (CopA), and the copper chaperone (CopZ). These hypothetical roles of the copYAZ operon in regulation and copper transport to receptors led us to investigate their contribution to S. mutans virulence. Mutants defective in the copper chaperone CopZ, but not CopY or CopA, were impaired in biofilm formation and competitiveness against commensal streptococci. Characterization of the CopZ mutant biofilm revealed a decreased secretion of glucosyltransferases and reduced expression of mutacin genes. These data suggest that the function of copZ on biofilm and competitiveness is independent of copper resistance and CopZ is a global regulator for biofilm and other virulence factors. Further characterization of CopZ may lead to the identification of new biofilm pathways. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Levorotatory carbohydrates and xylitol subdue Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Eugenio; Ionescu, Andrei C; Cazzaniga, Gloria; Ottobelli, Marco; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Dietary carbohydrates and polyols affect the microbial colonization of oral surfaces by modulating adhesion and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a select group of l-carbohydrates and polyols on either Streptococcus mutans or Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation in vitro. S. mutans or C. albicans suspensions were inoculated on polystyrene substrata in the presence of Tryptic soy broth containing 5% of the following compounds: d-glucose, d-mannose, l-glucose, l-mannose, d- and l-glucose (raceme), d- and l-mannose (raceme), l-glucose and l-mannose, sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Microbial adhesion (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h) were evaluated using MTT-test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Xylitol and l-carbohydrates induced the lowest adhesion and biofilm formation in both the tested species, while sorbitol and mannitol did not promote C. albicans biofilm formation. Higher adhesion and biofilm formation was noted in both organisms in the presence of d-carbohydrates relative to their l-carbohydrate counterparts. These results elucidate, hitherto undescribed, interactions of the individually tested strains with l- and d-carbohydrates, and how they impact fungal and bacterial colonization. In translational terms, our data raise the possibility of using l-form of carbohydrates and xylitol for dietary control of oral plaque biofilms. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of penicillin on fatty acid synthesis and excretion in Streptococcus mutans BHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissette, J.L.; Pieringer, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of exponentially growing cultures of Streptococcus mutans BHT with growth-inhibitory concentrations (0.2 microgram/ml) of benzylpenicillin stimulates the incorporation of [2- 14 C] acetate into lipids excreted by the cells by as much as 69-fold, but does not change the amount of 14 C incorporated into intracellular lipids. At this concentration of penicillin cellular lysis does not occur. The radioactive label is incorporated exclusively into the fatty acid moieties of the glycerolipids. During a 4-hr incubation in the presence of penicillin, the extracellular fatty acid ester concentration increases 1.5 fold, even though there is no growth or cellular lysis. An indication of the relative rate of fatty acid synthesis was most readily obtained by placing S. mutans BHT in a buffer containing 14 C-acetate. Under these nongrowing conditions free fatty acids are the only lipids labeled, a factor which simplifies the assay. The addition of glycerol to the buffer causes all of the nonesterified fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipid. The cells excrete much of the lipid whether glycerol is present or not. Addition of penicillin to the nongrowth supporting buffer system does not stimulate the incorporation of [ 14 C]-acetate into fatty acids

  20. Extracellular matrix influence in Streptococcus mutans gene expression in a cariogenic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez Salamanca, E J; Klein, M I

    2018-04-01

    Caries etiology is biofilm-diet-dependent. Biofilms are highly dynamic and structured microbial communities enmeshed in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix. The study evaluated the expression dynamics of Streptococcus mutans genes associated with exopolysaccharides (EPS) (gtfBCD, gbpB, dexA), lipoteichoic acids (LTA) (dltABCD, SMU_775c) and extracellular DNA (eDNA) (lytST, lrgAB, ccpA) during matrix development within a mixed-species biofilm of S. mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii. Mixed-species biofilms using S. mutans strains UA159 or ΔgtfB formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were submitted to a nutritional challenge (providing an abundance of sucrose and starch). Biofilms were removed at eight developmental stages for gene expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The pH of spent culture media remained acidic throughout the experimental periods, being lower after sucrose and starch exposure. All genes were expressed at all biofilm developmental phases. EPS- and LTA-associated genes had a similar expression profile for both biofilms, presenting lower levels of expression at 67, 91 and 115 hours and a peak of expression at 55 hours, but having distinct expression magnitudes, with lower values for ΔgtfB (eg, fold-difference of ~382 for gtfC and ~16 for dltB at 43 hours). The eDNA-associated genes presented different dynamics of expression between both strains. In UA159 biofilms lrgA and lrgB genes were highly expressed at 29 hours (which were ~13 and ~5.4 times vs ΔgtfB, respectively), whereas in ΔgtfB biofilms an inverse relationship between lytS and lrgA and lrgB expression was detected. Therefore, the deletion of gtfB influences dynamics and magnitude of expression of genes associated with matrix main components. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  2. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa, E-mail: akasaka@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Matsuoka, Makoto [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Meijo Nano Carbon Co. Ltd., Otsubashi bldg. 4F, 3-4-10 Marunouchi, Naka-ku, Nagoya 460-0002 (Japan); Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  3. Deactivation of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms on a Tooth Surface Using He Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar Imola; Papp Judit; Simon Alpar; Anghel Sorin Dan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of the low temperature atmospheric helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the Streptococcus mutans biofilms formed on tooth surface. Pig jaws were also treated by plasma to detect if there is any harmful effect on the gingiva. The plasma was characterized by using optical emission spectroscopy. Experimental data indicated that the discharge is very effective in deactivating Streptococcus mutans biofilms. It can destroy them with an average decimal reduction time (D-time) of 19 s and about 98% of them were killed after a treatment time of 30 s. According to the survival curve kinetic an overall 32 s treatment time would be necessary to perform a complete sterilization. The experimental results presented in this study indicated that the helium dielectric barrier discharge, in plan-parallel electrode configuration, could be a very effective tool for deactivation of oral bacteria and might be a promising technique in various dental clinical applications.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Barbeiro, Roberto Henrique; Bernardo, Wagner Luis Carvalho; Pavan, Sabrina; Hoefling, Jose Francisco

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  5. Deactivation of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms on a Tooth Surface Using He Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imola, Molnar; Judit, Papp; Alpar, Simon; Sorin, Dan Anghel

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of the low temperature atmospheric helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the Streptococcus mutans biofilms formed on tooth surface. Pig jaws were also treated by plasma to detect if there is any harmful effect on the gingiva. The plasma was characterized by using optical emission spectroscopy. Experimental data indicated that the discharge is very effective in deactivating Streptococcus mutans biofilms. It can destroy them with an average decimal reduction time (D-time) of 19 s and about 98% of them were killed after a treatment time of 30 s. According to the survival curve kinetic an overall 32 s treatment time would be necessary to perform a complete sterilization. The experimental results presented in this study indicated that the helium dielectric barrier discharge, in plan-parallel electrode configuration, could be a very effective tool for deactivation of oral bacteria and might be a promising technique in various dental clinical applications.

  6. investigating acid production by Streptococcus mutans with a surface-displayed pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Guo

    Full Text Available Acidogenicity and aciduricity are the main virulence factors of the cavity-causing bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Monitoring at the individual cell level the temporal and spatial distribution of acid produced by this important oral pathogen is central for our understanding of these key virulence factors especially when S. mutans resides in multi-species microbial communities. In this study, we explored the application of pH-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (pHluorins to investigate these important features. Ecliptic pHluorin was functionally displayed on the cell surface of S. mutans as a fusion protein with SpaP. The resulting strain (O87 was used to monitor temporal and spatial pH changes in the microenvironment of S. mutans cells under both planktonic and biofilm conditions. Using strain O87, we revealed a rapid pH drop in the microenviroment of S. mutans microcolonies prior to the decrease in the macro-environment pH following sucrose fermentation. Meanwhile, a non-uniform pH distribution was observed within S. mutans biofilms, reflecting differences in microbial metabolic activity. Furthermore, strain O87 was successfully used to monitor the S. mutans acid production profiles within dual- and multispecies oral biofilms. Based on these findings, the ecliptic pHluorin allows us to investigate in vivo and in situ acid production and distribution by the cariogenic species S. mutans.

  7. Effects of oxygen on biofilm formation and the AtlA autolysin of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A

    2007-09-01

    The Streptococcus mutans atlA gene encodes an autolysin required for biofilm maturation and biogenesis of a normal cell surface. We found that the capacity to form biofilms by S. mutans, one of the principal causative agents of dental caries, was dramatically impaired by growth of the organism in an aerated environment and that cells exposed to oxygen displayed marked changes in surface protein profiles. Inactivation of the atlA gene alleviated repression of biofilm formation in the presence of oxygen. Also, the formation of long chains, a characteristic of AtlA-deficient strains, was less evident in cells grown with aeration. The SMu0629 gene is immediately upstream of atlA and encodes a product that contains a C-X-X-C motif, a characteristic of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases. Inactivation of SMu0629 significantly reduced the levels of AtlA protein and led to resistance to autolysis. The SMu0629 mutant also displayed an enhanced capacity to form biofilms in the presence of oxygen compared to that of the parental strain. The expression of SMu0629 was shown to be under the control of the VicRK two-component system, which influences oxidative stress tolerance in S. mutans. Disruption of vicK also led to inhibition of processing of AtlA, and the mutant was hyperresistant to autolysis. When grown under aerobic conditions, the vicK mutant also showed significantly increased biofilm formation compared to strain UA159. This study illustrates the central role of AtlA and VicK in orchestrating growth on surfaces and envelope biogenesis in response to redox conditions.

  8. Identification and characterization of an autolysin-encoding gene of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yukie; Kawada, Miki; Nakano, Yoshio; Toyoshima, Kuniaki; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2005-06-01

    We identified a gene (atlA) encoding autolytic activity from Streptococcus mutans Xc. The AtlA protein predicted to be encoded by atlA is composed of 979 amino acids with a molecular weight of 107,279 and has a conserved beta-1,4-N-acetylmuramidase (lysozyme) domain in the C-terminal portion. Sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of strain Xc showed two major bacteriolytic bands with molecular masses of 107 and 79 kDa, both of which were absent from a mutant with inactivated atlA. Western blot analysis revealed that the 79-kDa band was derived from the 107-kDa peptide by cleavage of its N-terminal portion. The inactivation of atlA resulted in a marked decrease in autolysis and the formation of very long chains of cells compared to the case for the parent strain. Although both the parent and mutant strains formed biofilms in the presence of sucrose, the biofilms formed by the mutant had a sponge-like architecture with large gaps and contained 30% less biomass than those formed by the parent strain. Furthermore, strain Xc formed glucose-dependent, loose biofilms in the absence of sucrose, but the mutant lost this ability. These results suggest that AtlA may play an important role in biofilm formation by S. mutans. The antibody produced against the C-terminal peptide containing the beta-1,4-N-acetylmuramidase domain drastically inhibited the autolytic activity of strain Xc. This inhibition was specific among the oral streptococci to S. mutans. These results indicate that the catalytic domain of AtlA is located at the C terminus, suggesting that further characterization of this domain may provide a means to control cariogenic dental plaque formation.

  9. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Twetman, Svante; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biofilms are tolerant to antibiotic treatment and therefore cause problematic infections. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance will aid the development of antibiofilm drugs. Screening of a Streptococcus mutans transposon mutant library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower than that of the wild-type. The minimum bactericidal concentration for planktonic cells (MBC-P) was only slightly reduced, indicating that the mechanism involved in the observed antimicrobial tolerance has a predominant role specifically in biofilms. Experiments with a knockout dltA mutant and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating that the reduced antimicrobial tolerance of the dltA mutant is not due to a defect in biofilm formation. The products of the dlt genes have been shown to mediate alanylation of teichoic acids, and in accordance the dltA mutant showed a more negatively charged surface than the wild-type, which likely is an important factor in the reduced tolerance of the dltA mutant biofilms towards the positively charged gentamicin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of killing of streptococcus mutans by light-activated drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Tracy; Wilson, Michael; Pearson, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cariogenic bacteria can be killed when exposed to low power laser light in the presence of a photosensitizing agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans can be killed by toluidine blue O and helium neon laser light. To determine whether membrane damage occurred, suspensions of sensitized S. mutans were exposed to a 7.3 mW HeNe laser for 30 mins and samples removed every 5 mins. Survivors were enumerated by viable counting on tryptone soya agar plates and cell free filtrates were assayed for phosphate and (beta) -galactosidase. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by assaying for malondialdehyde, a by- product of lipid peroxidation. The role of oxygen and reactive oxygen species was studied by exposing sensitized bacteria to laser light (1) under different atmospheric conditions, (2) in the presence of deuterium oxide, and (3) in the presence of inhibitors of reactive oxygen species. Following exposure of sensitizede S. mutans to 13.2 J of HeNe laser light, 2.6 nmoles of phosphate and 228 nmoles of (beta) -galactosidase were detected in the cell free filtrates. Ten micrometers oles of malondialdehyde were also detected. When the sensitized bacteria were exposed to laser light under anaerobic conditions there was no significant decrease in the viable count compared to a 60% kill in the presence of oxygen. In the presence of D2O there was a 15-fold increase in the numbers of bacteria killed. O.1 M methionine and 0.5 M sodium azide each afforded 98% protection from lethal photosensitization. These results imply that lethal photosensitization results from membrane damage due to lipid peroxidation and that reactive oxygen species are mediators of this process.

  11. Antimicrobial effect of pleomeleangustifolia pheophytin A activation with diode laser to streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfat Sunarko, Sinari; Ekasari, Wiwied; Dyah Astuti, Suryani

    2017-05-01

    The main purpose of this research is to identify potential of Pheophytin A. as photosensitizer a agent to inactivate Streptococcus muttans using laser diode of 405nm. Pheophytina is known as chlorophyll derivate that losses magnesium ion at the center of porphyrin ring structure. In this research, phrophytin was extracted from Suji leaf (Pleomeleangustifolia). To determine the antimicrobial effect of treatments on S. mutans, samples were divided into three groups as follows: (1) Groups A(treated with Pheophytin A. and laser 405 nm at varying energy density of 2.5; 5, 7.5; 10.0; 12.5; 15.0; 17.5 and 20.0 J/cm2), (2) Group C-(negative control, no treated), (3) Group C+ (treated only with pheophytin). The experiments were repeated at least three times for each group. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Tukey test. A P value ≤0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The decrement of percentage of number of bacterial colonyes growth was defined as: | (Σ sample colony - Σ control colony)/ Σ control colony | x 100%. The result showed that the incubation of Pheophytin A. using irradiation from laser diode of 405nm have a significant effect towards the decrement in bacterial growth. The most decreased percentage colony of S. mutans occurred on the incubation of pheophytin a treatment and laser irradiation 405nm with density 20 J/cm2 is 61.9%. This showed that pheophytin a functions as a photosesitizer activator to inactivate S. mutans bacteria.

  12. Antimicrobial effect of pleomeleangustifolia pheophytin A activation with diode laser to streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarko, Sinari Alfat; Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Ekasari, Wiwied

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to identify potential of Pheophytin A. as photosensitizer a agent to inactivate Streptococcus muttans using laser diode of 405nm. Pheophytina is known as chlorophyll derivate that losses magnesium ion at the center of porphyrin ring structure. In this research, phrophytin was extracted from Suji leaf (Pleomeleangustifolia). To determine the antimicrobial effect of treatments on S. mutans , samples were divided into three groups as follows: (1) Groups A(treated with Pheophytin A. and laser 405 nm at varying energy density of 2.5; 5, 7.5; 10.0; 12.5; 15.0; 17.5 and 20.0 J/cm 2 ), (2) Group C - (negative control, no treated), (3) Group C + (treated only with pheophytin). The experiments were repeated at least three times for each group. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Tukey test. A P value ≤0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The decrement of percentage of number of bacterial colonyes growth was defined as: | (Σ sample colony - Σ control colony)/ Σ control colony | x 100%. The result showed that the incubation of Pheophytin A. using irradiation from laser diode of 405nm have a significant effect towards the decrement in bacterial growth. The most decreased percentage colony of S. mutans occurred on the incubation of pheophytin a treatment and laser irradiation 405nm with density 20 J/cm 2 is 61.9%. This showed that pheophytin a functions as a photosesitizer activator to inactivate S. mutans bacteria. (paper)

  13. Efek antibakteri dan penghambatan biofilm ekstrak sereh (Cymbopogon nardus L. terhadap bakteri Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwista Yulia Dewi

    2015-12-01

    Antibacterial effect and biofilm inhibition Of Lemongrass extract (Cymbopogon nardus L. against the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Caries prevention can be carried out by several methods. One of them is by controlling the plaque accumulation on the surface of the teeth. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus L is containing certain compound that can inhibit the growth of bacteria and biofilm. The objective of this research is to observe the influence of antibacterial and biofilm inhibition of lemongrass extract against the growth of S. mutans. Subjects were S. mutans bacteria on KHM90 test as much as 6x108 CFU/ml and on biofilm inhibition test as much as 15x108 CFU/ml. Lemongrass was extracted using petroleum ether followed by using 70% ethanol. Antibacterial activity test carried out with KHM90 determination test using microdilution method on microplate flat bottom 96 wells. Bacteria were prepared by making a suspension in NB media and adjusted to McFarland II standard (6x108 CFU/ml. Biofilm inhibition activity test was performed using microdilution method of the biofilm formed on microplate flat flexible PVC U-bottom 96 wells which were stained using 1% of crystal violet. Bacteria were prepared by making a suspension in BHI media and adjusted to McFarland V standard (15 x108 CFU/ml. The result in the form of optical density (OD was read by Bio-rad microplate reader Benchmark at a wavelength of 595 nm. The value of IC50 was determined by probit method using SPSS version 15.The results of this study of measurements on KHM90 test showed that 108,36% w/v is capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Biofilm inhibitory activity showed IC50 lemongrass value was 0,137% w/v. The conclusion of this study is that lemongrass extract has antibacterial effect against bacteria S. mutans showed by KHM90 obtained at concentrations of 0,18% w/v and there is lemongrass extract biofilm inhibitory effect against the bacteria S. mutans indicated by IC50 value 0,137%

  14. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmi S Lakade; Preetam Shah; Dayanand Shirol

    2014-01-01

    Background: The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque...

  15. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: Dental Caries Onset Linked to Multiple Species by 16S rRNA Community Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Erin L.; Beall, Clifford J.; Kutsch, Stacey R.; Firestone, Noah D.; Leys, Eugene J.; Griffen, Ann L.

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have

  16. Interaction of Salivary alpha-Amylase and Amylase-Binding-Protein A (AbpA of Streptococcus gordonii with Glucosyltransferase of S. gordonii and Streptococcus mutans

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    Tanzer Jason M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucosyltransferases (Gtfs, enzymes that produce extracellular glucans from dietary sucrose, contribute to dental plaque formation by Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans. The alpha-amylase-binding protein A (AbpA of S. gordonii, an early colonizing bacterium in dental plaque, interacts with salivary amylase and may influence dental plaque formation by this organism. We examined the interaction of amylase and recombinant AbpA (rAbpA, together with Gtfs of S. gordonii and S. mutans. Results The addition of salivary alpha-amylase to culture supernatants of S. gordonii precipitated a protein complex containing amylase, AbpA, amylase-binding protein B (AbpB, and the glucosyltransferase produced by S. gordonii (Gtf-G. rAbpA was expressed from an inducible plasmid, purified from Escherichia coli and characterized. Purified rAbpA, along with purified amylase, interacted with and precipitated Gtfs from culture supernatants of both S. gordonii and S. mutans. The presence of amylase and/or rAbpA increased both the sucrase and transferase component activities of S. mutans Gtf-B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using anti-Gtf-B antibody verified the interaction of rAbpA and amylase with Gtf-B. A S. gordonii abpA-deficient mutant showed greater biofilm growth under static conditions than wild-type in the presence of sucrose. Interestingly, biofilm formation by every strain was inhibited in the presence of saliva. Conclusion The results suggest that an extracellular protein network of AbpA-amylase-Gtf may influence the ecology of oral biofilms, likely during initial phases of colonization.

  17. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis colonization and ex vivo hydrogen peroxide production in carious lesion-free and high caries adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Torres, Sebastián; Gómez, Yenifer; Muñoz-Sandoval, Cecilia; Kreth, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate oral colonization by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in adults with high and without any caries experience. Furthermore, differences in the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by S. sanguinis isolated from both groups were assessed. Forty adults were divided into: (i) carious lesion-free, without any carious lesion, assessed by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), or restoration, (CF) and (ii) high caries experience (HC). Saliva samples were collected and seeded on respective agar-plates for enumeration of total streptococci, S. mutans and S. sanguinis (CFU/mL) and compared between groups. Additionally, S. sanguinis colonies obtained from both groups were inoculated on Prussian blue agar for H2O2 detection. Production of H2O2 was quantified and compared between the two groups. S. sanguinis counts were significantly higher in CF than HC individuals (pmutans showed significantly higher levels in HC than CF subjects (pmutans in saliva of adults without caries experience. In those people, S. sanguinis produces more H2O2ex vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Streptococcus mutans Displays Altered Stress Responses While Enhancing Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus casei in Mixed-Species Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zezhang T.; Liao, Sumei; Bitoun, Jacob P.; De, Arpan; Jorgensen, Ashton; Feng, Shihai; Xu, Xiaoming; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Caufield, Page W.; Koo, Hyun; Li, Yihong

    2017-01-01

    Like Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli are commonly isolated from carious sites, although their exact role in caries development remains unclear. This study used mixed-species models to analyze biofilm formation by major groups of oral lactobacilli, including L. casei, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius ssp. salivarius, and L. gasseri. The results showed that lactobacilli did not form good biofilms when grown alone, although differences existed between different species. When grown together with S. mutans, biofilm formation by L. gasseri and L. rhamnosus was increased by 2-log (P 1-log (P mutans wild-type, but no such effects were observed with S. mutans deficient of glucosyltransferase GtfB and adhesin P1. Both S. mutans and L. casei in dual-species enhanced resistance to acid killing with increases of survival rate by >1-log (P mutans in dual-species with L. casei as either up- or down-regulated when compared to those grown alone. The up-regulated genes include those for superoxide dismutase, NADH oxidase, and members of the mutanobactin biosynthesis cluster. Among the down-regulated genes were those for GtfB and alternative sigma factor SigX. These results further suggest that interactions between S. mutans and oral lactobacilli are species-specific and may have significant impact on cariogenic potential of the community. PMID:29326887

  19. Trk2 Potassium Transport System in Streptococcus mutans and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis, Biofilm Formation, and Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binepal, Gursonika; Gill, Kamal; Crowley, Paula; Cordova, Martha; Brady, L. Jeannine; Senadheera, Dilani B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in the fluids of dental biofilm. The biochemical and biophysical functions of K+ and a variety of K+ transport systems have been studied for most pathogenic bacteria but not for oral pathogens. In this study, we establish the modes of K+ acquisition in Streptococcus mutans and the importance of K+ homeostasis for its virulence attributes. The S. mutans genome harbors four putative K+ transport systems that included two Trk-like transporters (designated Trk1 and Trk2), one glutamate/K+ cotransporter (GlnQHMP), and a channel-like K+ transport system (Kch). Mutants lacking Trk2 had significantly impaired growth, acidogenicity, aciduricity, and biofilm formation. [K+] less than 5 mM eliminated biofilm formation in S. mutans. The functionality of the Trk2 system was confirmed by complementing an Escherichia coli TK2420 mutant strain, which resulted in significant K+ accumulation, improved growth, and survival under stress. Taken together, these results suggest that Trk2 is the main facet of the K+-dependent cellular response of S. mutans to environment stresses. IMPORTANCE Biofilm formation and stress tolerance are important virulence properties of caries-causing Streptococcus mutans. To limit these properties of this bacterium, it is imperative to understand its survival mechanisms. Potassium is the most abundant cation in dental plaque, the natural environment of S. mutans. K+ is known to function in stress tolerance, and bacteria have specialized mechanisms for its uptake. However, there are no reports to identify or characterize specific K+ transporters in S. mutans. We identified the most important system for K+ homeostasis and its role in the biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and growth. We also show the requirement of environmental K+ for the activity of biofilm-forming enzymes, which explains why such high levels of K+ would favor biofilm formation. PMID:26811321

  20. The Fitness Cost of Fluoride Resistance for Different Streptococcus mutans Strains in Biofilms

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    Yanling Cai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans can develop stable resistance to fluoride through chromosomal mutations in vitro. Fluoride-resistant S. mutans has seldom been isolated in clinical settings, despite the wide application of fluoride in oral-care products. One explanation is that the fluoride-resistant S. mutans strains have decreased fitness. However, so far, there has been no conclusive evidence to support this idea. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness cost of 48-h biofilms of two fluoride-resistant S. mutans strains, UF35 and UA159-FR (UAFR, using the wild-type fluoride-sensitive strain UA159 as a reference. The engineered UF35 strain contains one point mutation, whereas UAFR, selected from NaF-containing agar plates, has multiple chromosomal mutations. All biofilms were formed for 48 h under a constantly neutral pH or a pH-cycling (8 h of neutral pH and 16 h of pH 5.5 condition in the absence of fluoride. The biomass of the biofilms was quantified with a crystal violet assay. The biofilms were also treated with chlorhexidine or solutions at pH 3.0, after which their lactic acid production was quantified. Compared to the UF35 and UA159 biofilms, the biomass of UAFR biofilms was two–four fold higher, and the UAFR biofilms were more resistant to chlorhexidine and low pH in terms of lactic acid production. No difference in biomass and lactic acid production was detected between UF35 and UA159 biofilms. The fluoride resistance of UAFR and UF35 strains in biofilms was further confirmed by treating the biofilms with NaF solutions. The level of NaF resistance of the three biofilms is generally ranked as follows: UAFR > UF35 > UA159. In conclusion, there is indeed a fitness consequence in UAFR, but surprisingly, this fluoride-resistant strain performs better than UF35 and UA159 under the described conditions. In addition, UF35 did not display a reduced fitness; it performed as well as the wild-type fluoride

  1. Streptococcus mutans forms xylitol-resistant biofilm on excess adhesive flash in novel ex-vivo orthodontic bracket model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cindy S F; Ming, Yue; Foong, Kelvin W C; Rosa, Vinicius; Thuyen, Truong; Seneviratne, Chaminda J

    2017-04-01

    During orthodontic bonding procedures, excess adhesive is invariably left on the tooth surface at the interface between the bracket and the enamel junction; it is called excess adhesive flash (EAF). We comparatively evaluated the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans on EAF produced by 2 adhesives and examined the therapeutic efficacy of xylitol on S mutans formed on EAF. First, we investigated the biofilm formation of S mutans on 3 orthodontic bracket types: stainless steel preadjusted edgewise, ceramic preadjusted edgewise, and stainless steel self-ligating. Subsequently, tooth-colored Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and green Grengloo (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) adhesives were used for bonding ceramic brackets to extracted teeth. S mutans biofilms on EAF produced by the adhesives were studied using the crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness and surface energy of the EAF were examined. The therapeutic efficacies of different concentrations of xylitol were tested on S mutans biofilms. Significantly higher biofilms were formed on the ceramic preadjusted edgewise brackets (P = 0.003). Transbond XT had significantly higher S mutans biofilms compared with Grengloo surfaces (P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in surface roughness between Transbond XT and Grengloo surfaces (P >0.05). Surface energy of Transbond XT had a considerably smaller contact angle than did Grengloo, suggesting that Transbond XT is a more hydrophilic material. Xylitol at low concentrations had no significant effect on the reduction of S mutans biofilms on orthodontic adhesives (P = 0.016). Transbond XT orthodontic adhesive resulted in more S mutans biofilm compared with Grengloo adhesive on ceramic brackets. Surface energy seemed to play a more important role than surface roughness for the formation of S mutans biofilm on EAF. Xylitol does not appear to have a therapeutic effect on mature S mutans biofilm. Copyright © 2017 American

  2. Assessment of the effect of probiotic curd consumption on salivary pH and streptococcus mutans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, R; Praveen, P; Anantharaj, A; Venkataraghavan, Karthik

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial methods of controlling dental caries that include probiotic agents can play a valuable role in establishing caries control in children at moderate to high risk for developing dental caries. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of use of various Probiotic products including curd. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of short-term consumption of probiotic curd containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and normal curd on salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts, as well as salivary pH. Forty, caries-free, 10-12 years old children were selected and randomly allocated to two groups. Test Group consisted of 20 children who consumed 200ml of probiotic curd daily for 30 days. Control Group consisted of 20 children who were given 200ml of regular curd for 30 days. Salivary pH and salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts were recorded at baseline and after 30 days and statistically compared using the Student's t-test. Consumption of probiotic curd resulted in a statistically significant reduction in S. Mutans colony counts (PpH (P>0.05) in both the groups. Short-term consumption of probiotic curds can reduce oral S. Mutans counts. However, this caused a slight reduction in salivary pH.

  3. Effects of commonly used food preservatives on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Follo, Marie; Braun, Gabriele; Hellwig, Elmar; Arweiler, Nicole Birgit

    2008-08-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB), potassium sorbate (PS) and sodium nitrite (SN) are commonly used food preservatives. In this in vitro study, the effects of these substances on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans were analysed. In addition to the microtiter plate test (MPT), a biofilm reactor containing bovine enamel slabs (BES) was used to study the influence of food preservatives on biofilm formation in 5 independent periods of 4 days each. These included one period with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) as a positive control as well as a period with growth medium alone as a negative control. The vitality of the biofilm on BES was detected using live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the number of colony forming units (CFU) was determined. In MPT 0.12% SN significantly reduced the biofilm formation. PS at a concentration of 0.4% tended to inhibit biofilm formation, whereas the inhibition for 0.8% PS was significant. Less inhibition was caused by 0.8% SB. In the biofilm reactor 0.06% of SN, 0.1% of SB and 0.1% PS significantly reduced the covering grade as well as the CFU of the biofilm. Biofilm vitality was reduced significantly by CHX to a level of 32.5% compared to the control. Only SB reduced the vitality to a level of 19.1%. SN and PS showed no influence on biofilm vitality. This study indicates the potential of food preservatives as inhibitory agents in S. mutans biofilm formation, which should be kept in mind when studying the effects of conserved food on dental plaque biofilm in situ.

  4. Reliability of organic mouthwash in comparison to chlorhexidine mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans in early phase of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Abrol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in Streptococcus mutans count in the early phase of orthodontic treatment between organic and chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were divided into two groups: Group I: Organic mouthwash and Group II: Chlorhexidine mouthwash. The gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, gingival bleeding index, pocket depths, and level of S. mutans counts were calculated at the different intervals of time. Paired t-test in SPSS software was used for statistical evaluations. Results: There was a significant difference in the values of GI, PI, gingival bleeding index, and pocket depth as well as in the level of streptococcal count (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Null hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that organic mouthwash showed the lesser level of S. mutans count as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash hence it is recommended to use organic mouthwash.

  5. The two-component system VicRK regulates functions associated with Streptococcus mutans resistance to complement immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Livia A; Harth-Chu, Erika N; Palma, Thais H; Stipp, Rafael N; Mariano, Flávia S; Höfling, José F; Abranches, Jacqueline; Mattos-Graner, Renata O

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a dental caries pathogen, can promote systemic infections upon reaching the bloodstream. The two-component system (TCS) VicRK Sm of S. mutans regulates the synthesis of and interaction with sucrose-derived exopolysaccharides (EPS), processes associated with oral and systemic virulence. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which VicRK Sm affects S. mutans susceptibility to blood-mediated immunity. Compared with parent strain UA159, the vicK Sm isogenic mutant (UAvic) showed reduced susceptibility to deposition of C3b of complement, low binding to serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), and low frequency of C3b/IgG-mediated opsonophagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells in a sucrose-independent way (Pmutans employs mechanisms of complement evasion through peptidases, which are controlled by VicRK Sm. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. IgA anti-Streptococcus mutans em crianças com e sem cárie dentária Anti-Streptococcus mutans IgA in children with and without dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Cristina YAZAKI

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A cárie dentária é uma doença infecciosa crônica que necessita pelo menos quatro componentes para desenvolver-se: hospedeiro suscetível, microbiota patogênica, dieta rica em sacarose e tempo. Este trabalho estuda as correlações existentes entre estreptococos salivares do grupo mutans, placa bacteriana e anticorpos IgA anti-Streptococcus mutans em crianças com e sem experiência de cárie. Para tanto, utilizou-se o meio Mitis Salivarius (DIFCO para determinar o número de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias (UFC/ml, o Índice de Higiene Oral Simplificado (IHOS para mensurar a quantidade de placa bacteriana e a técnica ELISA para detectar anticorpos anti-S. mutans. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que não existe uma correlação entre os níveis salivares de estreptococos (UFC/ml e IgA anti-S. mutans na população estudada. No grupo com cárie, uma correlação positiva, estatisticamente significante, foi observada entre o Índice de placa e IgA específica.Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease that needs at least four components to develop. As a susceptible host, a pathogenic microbiota, a high-sucrose diet and time. This work assess the relationships between Streptococcus mutans and dental plaque; Streptococcus mutans and IgA antibodies in children with and without caries experience. In order to achieve this goal we have used Mitis Salivarius bacitracin agar (DIFCO to determine the colony forming units (CFU/mL, the simplified oral hygiene index (SOHI for measuring bacterial plaque and ELISA for antibody detection. The results obtained have not shown any correlations between colony forming units of S. mutans and IgA antibodies. A significant correlation was found between bacterial plaque index and specific IgA in children with carious lesions.

  7. Characterization of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats sites in Streptococcus mutans isolated from early childhood caries patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Li, Tiancheng; Zhou, Xuedong; Cheng, Lei; Huo, Yuanyuan; Zou, Jing; Li, Yuqing

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) sites in 45 clinical Streptococcus mutans strains and their relationship to the clinical manifestations of early childhood caries (ECC). Forty-five S. mutans strains were isolated from the plaque samples taken from sixty-three children. CRISPR sites were sequenced and BLAST was used to compare these sites to those in the CRISPRTarget database. The association between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the manifestation of caries was analyzed by Chi-Square test. Further, biofilm formation (by crystal violet staining) and the synthesis of polysaccharide (by anthrone-sulfuric method) of all clinical isolated S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites and no CRISPR site were comapared. Finally, acidogenicity and acidurity of two typical strains were determined using pH drop and acid tolerance assays. Biofilm formation and EPS synthesis by two typical strains were compared by 3D CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope) assays and the expression of gtf genes were evaluated using qPCR. We found that most of the spacers in the clinical S. mutans strains were derived from Streptococcus phages APCM01 and M102. The number of CRISPR sites in these strains was associated with the clinical manifestations of ECC. Moreover, we found that the biofilm formation and EPS synthesis ability of the S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites was significant improved. An association was found between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the clinical manifestations of caries. The CRISPR sites might contribute to the cariogenic potential of S. mutans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiaggregation potential of berry fractions against pairs of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihinen, Kaisu; Ryynänen, Anu; Toivanen, Marko; Könönen, Eija; Törrönen, Riitta; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Coaggregation is an interspecies adhesion process, which is essential to the development of dental plaque. This is an in vitro study of the composition of the soluble solids in the berry juice molecular size fractions (100 kDa, FIII) derived from apple, bilberry, blackcurrant, cloudberry, crowberry and lingonberry and their ability to inhibit and reverse coaggregation of the pairs of common species in dental plaque: Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii. Inhibitory and reversal activity was found in the molecular size fractions FII and FIII of bilberry, blackcurrant, crowberry and lingonberry. The active fractions contained higher amounts of polyphenols (5-12% of soluble solids) than those without activity (juice fractions FII and FIII and also small amounts of anthocyanins were detected. Anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides were prevalent in FII and FIII fractions of bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices. Comparable amounts of sugars and titratable acids were present in the latter three berry juice fractions of different size. The results indicate that the high molecular size fractions of lingonberry, bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices have antiaggregation potential on common oral bacteria, the potential being associated with their polyphenolic content. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Time effect and aliquot concentration in Streptococcus mutans elimination by plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcantara, E.; López-Callejas, R.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Lagunas-Bernabé, S.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Barocio, S. R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; de la Piedad-Beneitez, A.

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric plasma needle systems are being intensively studied with a view to potential applications in medicine. The aim of this in vitro study is the improved elimination of Streptococcus Mutants (S. mutans) bacteria. A 5 ml volume of Luria-Bertani culture medium has been inoculated with a test bacterial population and incubated during 24 hours, followed by ten dilutions producing aliquots at 20, 50 and 100 micro l per dilution. Each aliquot is deposited on a paper filter and then exposed to a 2 W RF room pressure helium plasma needle discharge at a 1.5 l.p.m. rate for 1, 3, 5 or 7 minutes. Each sample paper is placed in a test tube, again containing Luria-Bertani fluid, in order to develop a new bacterium colony after a 24h incubation period. The plasma needle lethality has been evaluated from absorbance studies by means of a 6305 Jeway spectrophotometer at a 600 nm wavelength, indicating a clear correlation with exposure time. These studies validate the high disinfection efficacy of the plasma needle.

  10. Preliminary crystallographic studies of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Qiao-Ming; Liu, Xiang; Brostromer, Erik; Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), which is a pivotal enzyme in the nucleotide-salvage pathway, has been expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) in a soluble form at a high level. After purification of the PNP enzyme, the protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The punA gene of the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans encodes purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), which is a pivotal enzyme in the nucleotide-salvage pathway, catalyzing the phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides to generate purine bases and α-ribose 1-phosphate. In the present work, the PNP protein was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) in a soluble form at a high level. After purification of the PNP enzyme, the protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique; the crystals diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution at best. The crystals belonged to space group H3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 113.0, c = 60.1 Å

  11. Effect of acid shock on protein expression by biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welin, J; Wilkins, J C; Beighton, D

    2003-01-01

    suggested that surface growth itself triggered an ATR in biofilm cells, we were interested in comparing the effects of a pH change from 7.5 to 5.5 on protein synthesis by the two cell types. For this, cells were pulse labeled with [(14)C]-amino acids following the pH change to pH 5.5, the proteins extracted...... in control biofilm cells were significantly less downregulated and key enzymes, such as lactate dehydrogenase were upregulated during pH 5.5 incubation, suggesting that the enhanced acid resistance of biofilm cells is associated with the maintenance of pH homeostasis by H+ extrusion via membrane ATPase......Streptococcus mutans is a component of the dental plaque biofilm and a major causal agent of dental caries. Log-phase cells of the organism are known to induce an acid tolerance response (ATR) at sub-lethal pH values ( approximately 5.5) that enhances survival at lower pH values such as those...

  12. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children.

  13. Time effect and aliquot concentration in Streptococcus mutans elimination by plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Alcantara, E; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; Lagunas-Bernabé, S

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma needle systems are being intensively studied with a view to potential applications in medicine. The aim of this in vitro study is the improved elimination of Streptococcus Mutants (S. mutans) bacteria. A 5 ml volume of Luria-Bertani culture medium has been inoculated with a test bacterial population and incubated during 24 hours, followed by ten dilutions producing aliquots at 20, 50 and 100 micro l per dilution. Each aliquot is deposited on a paper filter and then exposed to a 2 W RF room pressure helium plasma needle discharge at a 1.5 l.p.m. rate for 1, 3, 5 or 7 minutes. Each sample paper is placed in a test tube, again containing Luria-Bertani fluid, in order to develop a new bacterium colony after a 24h incubation period. The plasma needle lethality has been evaluated from absorbance studies by means of a 6305 Jeway spectrophotometer at a 600 nm wavelength, indicating a clear correlation with exposure time. These studies validate the high disinfection efficacy of the plasma needle.

  14. Bioinformatics and structural characterization of a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans: implication of antibiotic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Nan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As an oral bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus mutans has been known as the aetiologic agent of human dental caries. Among a total of 1960 identified proteins within the genome of this organism, there are about 500 without any known functions. One of these proteins, SMU.440, has very few homologs in the current protein databases and it does not fall into any protein functional families. Phylogenetic studies showed that SMU.440 is related to a particular ecological niche and conserved specifically in some oral pathogens, due to lateral gene transfer. The co-occurrence of a MarR protein within the same operon among these oral pathogens suggests that SMU.440 may be associated with antibiotic resistance. The structure determination of SMU.440 revealed that it shares the same fold and a similar pocket as polyketide cyclases, which indicated that it is very likely to bind some polyketide-like molecules. From the interlinking structural and bioinformatics studies, we have concluded that SMU.440 could be involved in polyketide-like antibiotic resistance, providing a better understanding of this hypothetical protein. Besides, the combination of multiple methods in this study can be used as a general approach for functional studies of a protein with unknown function.

  15. Immunogenicity and prediction of epitopic region of antigen Ag I/II and glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi-Xi; Fan, Jian; Chen, Jiang; Li, Yu-Hong; Fan, Ming-Wen

    2016-06-01

    The levels of Streptococcus (S.) mutans infections in saliva were evaluated and a comparison for specific antibody levels among children with different levels of S. mutans infection was made. The promising epitopic regions of antigen AgI/II (PAc) and glucosyltransferase (GTF) for potential vaccine targets related to S. mutans adherence were screened. A total of 94 children aged 3-4 years were randomly selected, including 53 caries-negative and 41 caries-positive children. The values of S. mutans and those of salivary total secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), anti-PAc and anti-Glucan binding domain (anti-GLU) were compared to determine the correlation among them. It was found the level of s-IgA against specific antigens did not increase with increasing severity of S. mutans infection, and the complete amino acid sequence of PAc and GTFB was analyzed using the DNAStar Protean system for developing specific anti-caries vaccines related to S. mutans adherence. A significantly positive correlation between the amount of S. mutans and children decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was observed. No significant difference was detected in specific sIgA against PAc or GLU between any two groups. No significant correlation was found between such specific sIgA and caries index. A total of 16 peptides from PAc as well as 13 peptides from GTFB were chosen for further investigation. S. mutans colonization contributed to early children caries as an important etiological factor. The level of sIgA against specific antigens did not increase with increasing severity of S. mutans infection in children. The epitopes of PAc and GTF have been screened to develop the peptide-based or protein-based anti-caries vaccines.

  16. Streptococcus mutans Displays Altered Stress Responses While Enhancing Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus casei in Mixed-Species Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zezhang T; Liao, Sumei; Bitoun, Jacob P; De, Arpan; Jorgensen, Ashton; Feng, Shihai; Xu, Xiaoming; Chain, Patrick S G; Caufield, Page W; Koo, Hyun; Li, Yihong

    2017-01-01

    Like Streptococcus mutans , lactobacilli are commonly isolated from carious sites, although their exact role in caries development remains unclear. This study used mixed-species models to analyze biofilm formation by major groups of oral lactobacilli, including L. casei, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius ssp. salivarius , and L. gasseri . The results showed that lactobacilli did not form good biofilms when grown alone, although differences existed between different species. When grown together with S. mutans , biofilm formation by L. gasseri and L. rhamnosus was increased by 2-log ( P L. fermentum reduced by >1-log ( P L. casei enhanced biofilm formation by ~2-log when grown with S. mutans wild-type, but no such effects were observed with S. mutans deficient of glucosyltransferase GtfB and adhesin P1. Both S. mutans and L. casei in dual-species enhanced resistance to acid killing with increases of survival rate by >1-log ( P survival rates following exposure to hydrogen peroxide ( P L. casei as either up- or down-regulated when compared to those grown alone. The up-regulated genes include those for superoxide dismutase, NADH oxidase, and members of the mutanobactin biosynthesis cluster. Among the down-regulated genes were those for GtfB and alternative sigma factor SigX. These results further suggest that interactions between S. mutans and oral lactobacilli are species-specific and may have significant impact on cariogenic potential of the community.

  17. Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Propolis Reduces the Expression and Activity of Streptococcus mutans Glucosyltransferases at Subinhibitory Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Jesús Veloz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth decay is an infectious disease, whose main causative agent identified is Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Diverse treatments have been used to eradicate this microorganism, including propolis. To date, it has been shown that polyphenols from Chilean propolis inhibit S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are unclear. In the present study, we assessed the effect of Chilean propolis on the expression and activity of the glycosyltransferases enzymes and their related genes. Polyphenol-rich extract from propolis inhibited gene expression of glycosyltransferases (GtfB, GtfC, and GtfD and their related regulatory genes, for example, VicK, VicR, and CcpA. Moreover, the treatment inhibited glucosyltransferases activity measured by the formation of sucrose-derived glucans. Additionally, an inhibitory effect was observed in the expression of SpaP involved in sucrose-independent virulence of S. mutans. In summary, our results suggest that Chilean propolis has a dose-dependent effect on the inhibition of genes involved in S. mutans virulence and adherence through the inhibition of glucosyltransferases, showing an anticariogenic potential of polyphenols from propolis beyond S. mutans growth inhibition.

  18. The well-coordinated linkage between acidogenicity and aciduricity via insoluble glucans on the surface of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the principal cariogenic bacterium for dental caries. Despite the recognition of their importance for cariogenesis, the possible coordination among S. mutans’ main virulence factors, including glucan production, acidogenicity and aciduricity, has been less well studied. In the present study, using S. mutans strains with surface-displayed pH-sensitive pHluorin, we revealed sucrose availability- and Gtf functionality-dependent proton accumulation on S. mutans surface. Consistent with this, using a pH-sensitive dye, we demonstrated that both in vivo cell-produced and in vitro enzymatically synthesized insoluble glucans displayed proton-concentrating ability. Global transcriptomics revealed proton accumulation triggers the up-regulation of genes encoding functions involved in acid tolerance response in a glucan-dependent manner. Our data suggested that this proton enrichment around S. mutans could pre-condition the bacterium for acid-stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found S. mutans strains defective in glucan production were more acid sensitive. Our study revealed for the first time that insoluble glucans is likely an essential factor linking acidogenicity with aciduricity. The coordination of these key virulence factors could provide new insights on how S. mutans may have become a major cariogenic pathogen. PMID:26657939

  19. Efficacy of Chlorhexidine, Xylitol, and Chlorhexidine + Xylitol against Dental Plaque, Gingivitis, and Salivary Streptococcus mutans Load: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Taneja, Pratibha; Nagpal, Ruchi; Marya, Vandana; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Arora, Dimple

    To compare the antiplaque, antigingivitis and antibacterial efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX), XYL and a mouthwash combining CHX and XYL against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). A parallel design, randomised controlled trial was conducted among 75 dental students. Participants were randomised into CHX, CHX+XYL and XYL-only groups using the lottery method. Subjects were instructed to use 10 ml of the provided mouthwash for 15 s twice daily for 3 weeks. All the outcome measures, gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and number of salivary S. mutans CFU were recorded at baseline and 3 weeks post intervention. Nonparametric tests were used for inferential statistics. All outcome variables (GI, PI scores and log10 salivary S. mutans counts) decreased significantly from baseline compared to post intervention among all three groups. Intergroup comparison demonstrated that reduction in GI was not significantly different among the three groups. The decrease in PI scores was found to be significantly higher in the XYL group, while the decrease in the log10 salivary S. mutans count was significantly higher in the CHX+XYL group. The present study provided sufficient data to suggest that all the three mouthwashes are effective against plaque, gingivitis and S. mutans load in saliva. Further investigations should be carried out to confirm the results and develop strategies for using such products to prevent tooth decay.

  20. Combinatorial Effects of Aromatic 1,3-Disubstituted Ureas and Fluoride on In vitro Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Balamurugan, P; Uma Maheswari, C; Anitha, A; Princy, S Adline

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries occur as a result of disequilibrium between acid producing pathogenic bacteria and alkali generating commensal bacteria within a dental biofilm (dental plaque). Streptococcus mutans has been reported as a primary cariogenic pathogen associated with dental caries. Emergence of multidrug resistant as well as fluoride resistant strains of S. mutans due to over use of various antibiotics are a rising problem and prompted the researchers worldwide to search for alternative therapies. In this perspective, the present study was aimed to screen selective inhibitors against ComA, a bacteriocin associated ABC transporter, involved in the quorum sensing of S. mutans. In light of our present in silico findings, 1,3-disubstituted urea derivatives which had better affinity to ComA were chemically synthesized in the present study for in vitro evaluation of S. mutans biofilm inhibition. The results revealed that 1,3-disubstituted urea derivatives showed good biofilm inhibition. In addition, synthesized compounds exhibited potent synergy with a very low concentration of fluoride (31.25-62.5 ppm) in inhibiting the biofilm formation of S. mutans without affecting the bacterial growth. Further, the results were supported by confocal laser scanning microscopy. On the whole, from our experimental results we conclude that the combinatorial application of fluoride and disubstituted ureas has a potential synergistic effect which has a promising approach in combating multidrug resistant and fluoride resistant S. mutans in dental caries management.

  1. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi S Lakade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy children aged 8-10 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected. They were divided randomly into two groups: The control or chlorhexidine group and the study group or combination mouth rinse. Both the groups practiced rinsing with respective mouth wash for 1 min for 15 d twice a day. The plaque samples were collected and after incubation Mutans streptococcus count was estimated on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and evaluated using manufacture′s chart. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the findings. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the Mutans streptococci count in the plaque was seen in the control and study group from baseline level. But when both the groups were compared, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine was more.

  2. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, Stuart G; Catmull, Deanne V; Liu, Sze-Wei; Myroforidis, Helen; Zalizniak, Ilya; Palamara, Joseph E A; Huq, N Laila; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm) formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  3. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G Dashper

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  4. Characterization of Recombinant, Ureolytic Streptococcus mutans Demonstrates an Inverse Relationship between Dental Plaque Ureolytic Capacity and Cariogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, K. Anne; Pearson, Sylvia; Bowen, William H.; Burne, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Dental caries results from prolonged plaque acidification that leads to the establishment of a cariogenic microflora and demineralization of the tooth. Urease enzymes of oral bacteria hydrolyze urea to ammonia, which can neutralize plaque acids. To begin to examine the relationship between plaque ureolytic activity and the incidence of dental caries, recombinant, ureolytic strains of Streptococcus mutans were constructed. Specifically, the ureABCEFGD operon from Streptococcus salivarius 57.I was integrated into the S. mutans chromosome in such a way that the operon was transcribed from a weak, cognate promoter in S. mutans ACUS4 or a stronger promoter in S. mutans ACUS6. Both strains expressed NiCl2-dependent urease activity, but the maximal urease levels in ACUS6 were threefold higher than those in ACUS4. In vitro pH drop experiments demonstrated that the ability of the recombinant S. mutans strains to moderate a decrease in pH during the simultaneous metabolism of glucose and urea increased proportionately with the level of urease activity expressed. Specific-pathogen-free rats that were infected with ACUS6 and fed a cariogenic diet with drinking water containing 25 mM urea and 50 μM NiCl2 had relatively high levels of oral urease activity, as well as dramatic decreases in the prevalence of smooth-surface caries and the severity of sulcal caries, relative to controls. Urease activity appears to influence plaque biochemistry and metabolism in a manner that reduces cariogenicity, suggesting that recombinant, ureolytic bacteria may be useful to promote dental health. PMID:10768953

  5. Effect of Probiotic Curd on Salivary pH and Streptococcus mutans: A Double Blind Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivangi; Saha, Sabyasachi; Kumari, Minti; Mohd, Shafaat

    2016-02-01

    Dairy products like curd seem to be the most natural way to ingest probiotics which can reduce Streptococcus mutans level and also increase salivary pH thereby reducing the dental caries risk. To estimate the role of probiotic curd on salivary pH and Streptococcus mutans count, over a period of 7 days. This double blind parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted at the institution with 60 caries free volunteers belonging to the age group of 20-25 years who were randomly allocated into two groups. Test Group consisted of 30 subjects who consumed 100ml of probiotic curd daily for seven days while an equal numbered Control Group were given 100ml of regular curd for seven days. Saliva samples were assessed at baseline, after ½ hour 1 hour and 7 days of intervention period using pH meter and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to estimate salivary pH and S. mutans count. Data was statistically analysed using Paired and Unpaired t-test. The study revealed a reduction in salivary pH after ½ hour and 1 hour in both the groups. However after 7 days, normal curd showed a statistically significant (psalivary pH while probiotic curd showed a statistically significant (psalivary pH. Similarly with regard to S. mutans colony counts probiotic curd showed statistically significant reduction (psalivary pH elevation and reduction of salivary S. mutans counts and thus can be exploited for the prevention of enamel demineralization as a long-term remedy keeping in mind its cost effectiveness.

  6. Sublingual immunization with the phosphate-binding-protein (PstS) reduces oral colonization by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, E L; Batista, M T; Cavalcante, R C M; Pegos, V R; Passos, H M; Silva, D A; Balan, A; Ferreira, L C S; Ferreira, R C C

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a crucial role in the physiology and pathogenicity of different bacterial species. Components of ABC transporters have also been tested as target antigens for the development of vaccines against different bacterial species, such as those belonging to the Streptococcus genus. Streptococcus mutans is the etiological agent of dental caries, and previous studies have demonstrated that deletion of the gene encoding PstS, the substrate-binding component of the phosphate uptake system (Pst), reduced the adherence of the bacteria to abiotic surfaces. In the current study, we generated a recombinant form of the S. mutans PstS protein (rPstS) with preserved structural features, and we evaluated the induction of antibody responses in mice after sublingual mucosal immunization with a formulation containing the recombinant protein and an adjuvant derived from the heat-labile toxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. Mice immunized with rPstS exhibited systemic and secreted antibody responses, measured by the number of immunoglobulin A-secreting cells in draining lymph nodes. Serum antibodies raised in mice immunized with rPstS interfered with the adhesion of bacteria to the oral cavity of naive mice challenged with S. mutans. Similarly, mice actively immunized with rPstS were partially protected from oral colonization after challenge with the S. mutans NG8 strain. Therefore, our results indicate that S. mutans PstS is a potential target antigen capable of inducing specific and protective antibody responses after sublingual administration. Overall, these observations raise interesting perspectives for the development of vaccines to prevent dental caries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and cytotoxicity in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofiño-Rivera, A; Ortega-Cuadros, M; Galvis-Pareja, D; Jiménez-Rios, H; Merini, L J; Martínez-Pabón, M C

    2016-12-24

    Caries is a public health problem, given that it prevails in 60 to 90% of the school-age global population. Multiple factors interact in its etiology, among them dental plaque is necessary to have lactic acid producing microorganisms like Streptococcus from he Mutans group. Existing prevention and treatment measures are not totally effective and generate adverse effects, which is why it is necessary to search for complementary strategies for their management. The study sought to evaluate the eradication capacity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the toxicity on eukaryotic cells of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils. Essential oils were extracted from plant material through steam distillation and then its chemical composition was determined. The MBEC-high-throughput (MBEC-HTP) (Innovotech, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) assay used to determine the eradication concentration of S. mutans ATCC 35668 strain biofilms. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on CHO cells through the MTT cell proliferation assay. The major components in both oils were Geraniol and Citral; in L. alba 18.9% and 15.9%, respectively, and in C. citratus 31.3% and 26.7%. The L. alba essential oils presented eradication activity against S. mutans biofilms of 95.8% in 0.01mg/dL concentration and C. citratus essential oils showed said eradication activity of 95.4% at 0.1, 0.01mg/dL concentrations and of 93.1% in the 0.001mg/dL concentration; none of the concentrations of both essential oils showed toxicity on CHO cells during 24h. The L. alba and C. citratus essential oils showed eradication activity against S. mutans biofilms and null cytotoxicity, evidencing the need to conduct further studies that can identify their active components and in order to guide a safe use in treating and preventing dental caries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial action of chlorhexidine digluconate in self-ligating and conventional metal brackets infected with Streptococcus mutans biofilm

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    Dias AP

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ana Paula Dias, Marco Aurélio Benini Paschoal, Rafael Soares Diniz, Lucas Meneses Lage, Letícia Machado Gonçalves Department of Dentistry, CEUMA University, São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the adherence of Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown over conventional ligature (CL or self-ligating (SL metal brackets and their bacterial viability after 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX digluconate treatment. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 48 metallic orthodontic brackets divided randomly into two groups: CL (n=24 and SL brackets (n=24. S. mutans biofilms were grown over the bracket surface (96 h and treated with CHX (positive control or 0.9% phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (negative control for 1 min each. Quantitative analysis was assessed by colony-forming units, and fluorescence microscopy was performed aiming to illustrate the outcomes. The tests were done in triplicate at three different times (n=9. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0.05. Results: There were significant differences in brackets’ biofilm formation, being CL largely colonized compared with SL, which was observed by colony-forming unit counting (P<0.05 and microcopy images. Significant reduction in the viability of S. mutans was found in both brackets treated with CHX compared to PBS (P<0.05. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activities of CHX were similar for CL and SL brackets (P>0.05. In conclusion, a lower colonization was achieved in SL brackets and S. mutans biofilms were susceptible to CHX treatment to both studied brackets. Keywords: biofilm, chlorhexidine, orthodontic brackets, Streptococcus mutans

  9. Effect of aqueous and alcoholic Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) extracts against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Shamarao, Supreetha; Battur, Hemant; Tikare, Shreyas; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Al Sayed, Mohammed Sayed Al Esawy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stevia (S. rebaudiana) a herb which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Leaves of Stevia contain a high concentration of Stevioside and Rebaudioside which are supposed to be sweetening agents. Aim: To compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic S. rebaudiana extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In the first part of the study, various concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic Stevia extract were prepared in the laboratory of Pharmacy College. It was then subjected to microbiological assay to determine its zone of inhibition using Agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using serial broth dilution method against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Tukey post hoc for group wise comparisons. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous and ethnolic Stevia extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were 25% and 12.5% respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic Stevia extracts against Streptococcus mutans at 48 hours were 22.8 mm and 26.7 mm respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic Stevia extracts against Lactobacillus acidophilus at 48 hours were 14.4 mm and 15.1 mm respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus at 48 hours was 20.5 and 13.2 respectively. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect shown by alcoholic Stevia extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was superior when compared with that of aqueous form and was inferior when compared with Chlorhexidine. PMID:25558451

  10. Effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on the counts of salivary Streptococcus mutans in children with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Seraj, Bahman; Chiniforush, Nasim; Rokouei, Mehrak; Mousavi, Niloofar; Ghadimi, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a novel technique for reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aPDT on Streptococcus mutans reduction in children with severe early childhood caries. Twenty-two children with severe early childhood caries aged 3-6 years were treated with toluoidine blue O (TBO) for 1min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED; FotoSan, CMS Dental, Denmark) with the exposure time of 150s. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, 1h and 7 days after treatment. S. mutans counts were determined using the Dentocult SM Strip mutans. The counts of S. mutans in saliva decreased significantly after 1h (Pmutans counts in saliva was not significant between the baseline and 7 days after treatment (P>0.05). aPDT seems to be efficient to reduce salivary S. mutans immediately after treatment in children with severe early childhood caries. However, further research is needed to evaluate different doses and frequency of irradiation in combination with restoring carious teeth to find more durable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deficiency of PdxR in Streptococcus mutans affects vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Bitoun, J P; Nguyen, A H; Bozner, D; Yao, X; Wen, Z T

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of the human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in tenacious biofilms. The SMU864 locus, designated pdxR, is predicted to encode a member of the novel MocR/GabR family proteins, which are featured with a winged helix DNA-binding N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain highly homologous to the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aspartate aminotransferases. A pdxR-deficient mutant, TW296, was constructed using allelic exchange. PdxR deficiency in S. mutans had little effect on cell morphology and growth when grown in brain heart infusion. However, when compared with its parent strain, UA159, the PdxR-deficient mutant displayed major defects in acid tolerance response and formed significantly fewer biofilms (P mutans is known to require vitamin B6 to grow in defined medium, B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal, were strongly inhibitory at millimolar concentrations, against S. mutans growth and biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PdxR in S. mutans plays an important role in regulation of vitamin B6 metabolism, acid tolerance response and biofilm formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. GlmS and NagB regulate amino sugar metabolism in opposing directions and affect Streptococcus mutans virulence.

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    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic pathogen that produces an extracellular polysaccharide (glucan from dietary sugars, which allows it to establish a reproductive niche and secrete acids that degrade tooth enamel. While two enzymes (GlmS and NagB are known to be key factors affecting the entrance of amino sugars into glycolysis and cell wall synthesis in several other bacteria, their roles in S. mutans remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of GlmS and NagB in S. mutans sugar metabolism and determined whether they have an effect on virulence. NagB expression increased in the presence of GlcNAc while GlmS expression decreased, suggesting that the regulation of these enzymes, which functionally oppose one another, is dependent on the concentration of environmental GlcNAc. A glmS-inactivated mutant could not grow in the absence of GlcNAc, while nagB-inactivated mutant growth was decreased in the presence of GlcNAc. Also, nagB inactivation was found to decrease the expression of virulence factors, including cell-surface protein antigen and glucosyltransferase, and to decrease biofilm formation and saliva-induced S. mutans aggregation, while glmS inactivation had the opposite effects on virulence factor expression and bacterial aggregation. Our results suggest that GlmS and NagB function in sugar metabolism in opposing directions, increasing and decreasing S. mutans virulence, respectively.

  13. Comparison of Antibacterial Effects of ZnO and CuO Nanoparticles Coated Brackets against Streptococcus Mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanzadeh, Baratali; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Yaghoubi, Masoud; Shahtahmassbi, Nasser; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Shakeri, Mohammadtaghi; Shafaee, Hooman

    2015-09-01

    During the orthodontic treatment, microbial plaques may accumulate around the brackets and cause caries, especially in high-risk patients. Finding ways to eliminate this microbial plaque seems to be essential. The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of nano copper oxide (CuO) and nano zinc oxide (ZnO) coated brackets against Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) in order to decrease the risk of caries around the orthodontic brackets during the treatment. Sixty brackets were coated with nanoparticles of ZnO (n=20), CuO (n=20) and CuO-ZnO (n=20). Twelve uncoated brackets constituted the control group. The brackets were bonded to the crowns of extracted premolars, sterilized and prepared for antimicrobial tests (S.mutans ATCC35668). The samples taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours were cultured on agar plates. Colonies were counted 24 hours after incubation. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. In CuO and CuO-ZnO coated brackets, no colony growth was seen after two hours. Between 0-6 hours, the mean colony counts were not significantly different between the ZnO and the control group (p>0.05). During 6-24 hours, the growth of S.mutans was significantly reduced by ZnO nanoparticles in comparison with the control group (pbrackets have better antimicrobial effect on S.mutans than ZnO coated brackets.

  14. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group. Study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorski, Karla Zanini; de Souza, Daniela Martins; Yujra, Verônica Quispe; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG), 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG), and water (Control Group, CG). After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) of Streptococcus of the mutans group. The animals were sacrificed and the jaws were removed in order to assess the occurrence of dental caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces using stereomicroscopy. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. The average numbers of CFU/mL (10(3)) were: 8.17 (AG), 9.78 (IG), and 5.63 (CG). There was no significant difference among the groups for the occurrence of occlusal caries. Regarding smooth surface caries, in the upper jaw, the caries number in the IG (1.58) was similar to that in the AG (2.06) and in the CG (1.14), and the number of caries in the AG was higher than in the CG; in the lower jaw there was significant difference among the 3 groups: AG (1.14), IG (2.00) and CG (0.43). The diets with the alcohol and sucrose solutions presented a tendency of increasing the colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group and of increasing the occurrence of smooth surface dental caries in rat molars when compared to the control diet.

  15. Stannous Fluoride Effects on Gene Expression of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Li, R; White, D J; Biesbrock, A R

    2018-02-01

    A genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed to elucidate the bacterial cellular response of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus to NaF and SnF 2 . The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of SnF 2 were predetermined before microarray study. Gene expression profiling microarray experiments were carried out in the absence (control) and presence (experimental) of 10 ppm and 100 ppm Sn 2+ (in the form of SnF 2 ) and fluoride controls for 10-min exposures (4 biological replicates/treatment). These Sn 2+ levels and treatment time were chosen because they have been shown to slow bacterial growth of S. mutans (10 ppm) and A. viscosus (100 ppm) without affecting cell viability. All data generated by microarray experiments were analyzed with bioinformatics tools by applying the following criteria: 1) a q value should be ≤0.05, and 2) an absolute fold change in transcript level should be ≥1.5. Microarray results showed SnF 2 significantly inhibited several genes encoding enzymes of the galactose pathway upon a 10-min exposure versus a negative control: lacA and lacB (A and B subunits of the galactose-6-P isomerase), lacC (tagatose-6-P kinase), lacD (tagatose-1,6-bP adolase), galK (galactokinase), galT (galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase), and galE (UDP-glucose 4-epimerase). A gene fruK encoding fructose-1-phosphate kinase in the fructose pathway was also significantly inhibited. Several genes encoding fructose/mannose-specific enzyme IIABC components in the phosphotransferase system (PTS) were also downregulated, as was ldh encoding lactate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme involved in lactic acid synthesis. SnF 2 downregulated the transcription of most key enzyme genes involved in the galactose pathway and also suppressed several key genes involved in the PTS, which transports sugars into the cell in the first step of glycolysis.

  16. Contribution of glucan-binding protein A to firm and stable biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumi, Y; Fujita, K; Takashima, Y; Yanagida, K; Morikawa, Y; Matsumoto-Nakano, M

    2015-06-01

    Glucan-binding proteins (Gbps) of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, mediate the binding of glucans synthesized from sucrose by the action of glucosyltransferases (GTFs) encoded by gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD. Several stress proteins, including DnaK and GroEL encoded by dnaK and groEL, are related to environmental stress tolerance. The contribution of Gbp expression to biofilm formation was analyzed by focusing on the expression levels of genes encoding GTFs and stress proteins. Biofilm-forming assays were performed using GbpA-, GbpB-, and GbpC-deficient mutant strains and the parental strain MT8148. The expression levels of gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, dnaK, and groEL were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, the structure of biofilms formed by these Gbp-deficient mutant strains was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Biofilm-forming assay findings demonstrated that the amount formed by the GbpA-deficient mutant strain (AD1) was nearly the same as that by the parental strain, while the GbpB- and GbpC-deficient mutant strains produced lower amounts than MT8148. Furthermore, RT-qPCR assay results showed that the expressions of gtfB, dnaK, and groEL in AD1 were elevated compared with MT8148. CLSM also revealed that the structure of biofilm formed by AD1 was prominently different compared with that formed by the parental strain. These results suggest that a defect in GbpA influences the expression of genes controlling biofilm formation, indicating its importance as a protein for firm and stable biofilm formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Recolonization of the oral cavity by Streptococcus mutans after a combined mechanical/chemical antisepsis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, R; Squarzoni, M A; Calura, G; Trombelli, L

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial colonization of teeth by Streptococcus mutans (StrepM) represents a major risk factor for the development of dental caries. At present, no clinical studies have explored the effect of a combined mechanical-chemical antisepsis protocol in a periodontally-healthy population and the pattern of recolonization of StrepM in subjects whose StrepM infection was successfully eradicated. The present study was designed in order to 1) determine the salivary and plaque changes in StrepM content after a combined mechanical/chemical antisepsis protocol; and 2) evaluate the pattern of recolonization when StrepM was successfully eradicated from saliva and plaque. Thirty-five periodontally-healthy and caries-susceptible subjects successfully entered and concluded the study. At baseline, non-surgical periodontal therapy was performed according to the principles of full mouth disinfection. Adjunctive home-based rinsing with a 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse was requested for the following week. StrepM concentration was assessed in saliva and plaque at the initial contact appointment, at baseline, and 1-week, 1-month, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. A significant effect of ''time'' on StrepM concentration in saliva and plaque was observed (P<0.000). In subjects with successful eradication of StrepM at 1 week (N=17 plaque samples), StrepM infection recurrence occurred within 3-6 months. The results of the present study demonstrated that 1) the application of the investigated mechanical/chemical antisepsis protocol can effectively reduce StrepM colonies in saliva and plaque of periodontally healthy subjects; and 2) in plaque samples, StrepM infection recurrence tends to occur within 3-6 months.

  18. Expression analysis of CD63 in salivary neutrophils and the increased level of Streptococcus mutans in severe early childhood caries

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    Muhammad Luthfi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and decay exfoliation filling teeth (def-t >6 is a destructive disease that afflicts teeth, including maxillary anterior teeth. In Indonesia, the prevalence of this disease is still high, for instance in Semarang 2007, the rate reached 90.5% in urban areas and 95.9% in rural areas for early childhood caries which is caused by Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Neutrophils are effector cells of innate immunity which become the main component of the very first line of defense against microbes. Purpose: This study analyzed the effect caused by the change of CD63 expression on the surface of salivary neutrophils and the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC. Method: This study employs observational analytic and cross sectional approach by using T test analysis technique for forty cases of early childhood that had been divided into two groups, first group of twenty children positively diagnosed as S-ECC and second group of twenty children negatively diagnosed as the control group. The sample’s result of gargling with 1.5% NaCl was used for neutrophils isolation and analysis function of salivary neutrophils phagocytosis by using flow cytometry test, while the sample of saliva was used to isolate S. mutans and calculate the level of S. mutans. Result: The expression of CD63+ salivary neutrophils in S-ECC was lower (2.32% ± 0.57 than in caries-free (2.67% ± 0.46, while the level of S. mutans showed that the level was not higher than in S-ECC (9.78 ± 2.22x105 CFU/ml compared to in caries-free (5.13 ± 1.86x105 CFU/ml. Conclusion: The low expression of CD63 in salivary neutrophils can lead to the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC.

  19. Adherence of Streptococcus Mutans to Microhybrid and Nanohybrid Resin Composites and Dental Amalgam: An In Vitro Study

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    Fariba Motevasselian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans is a cariogenic microorganism. The restorative materials which harbor a biofilm with high levels of S. mutans can accelerate the occurrence of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different restorative materials on S. mutans colonization in a simple in-vitro biofilm formation model.Materials and Methods: Thirteen discs of each material (nanohybrid resin composite, microhybrid resin composite, and amalgam were prepared, polished, and sterilized in a gamma radiation chamber. The saliva-free specimens were exposed to the S. mutans bacterial suspension (0.5 McFarland and were incubated for 4 hours. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed and sonicated in normal saline. 10µl of the obtained suspension was cultured in a sterile blood agar medium. After 24 hours, the number of colony forming units (CFU of S. mutans was counted. A sterility test control was considered for each group of materials. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA at 5% significance level.Results: The means and standard deviations of the logarithmic values of the colonies on the surfaces of amalgam, microhybrid, and nanohybrid resin composites were equal to 3.76±0.64, 3.91±0.52 and 3.34±0.74, respectively.Conclusions: There were no significant differences between the restorative materials in terms of S. mutans adhesion rate. The evaluated resin composites showed comparable numbers of CFUs, which could imply the importance of the polishing procedures.

  20. Identification of ssDNA aptamers specific to clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans strains with different cariogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Liu, Jiaojiao; Su, Donghua; Hu, Danyang; Hou, Shuai; Hu, Tongnan; Yang, Jiyong; Luo, Yanping; Xi, Qing; Chu, Bingfeng; Wang, Chenglong

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium, is considered to be a major etiological factor for dental caries. In this study, plaques from dental enamel surfaces of caries-active and caries-free individuals were obtained and cultivated for S. mutans isolation. Morphology examination, biochemical characterization, and polymerase chain reaction were performed to identify S. mutans The cariogenicity of S. mutans strains isolated from clinical specimens was evaluated by testing the acidogenicity, aciduricity, extracellular polysaccharide production, and adhesion ability of the bacteria. Finally, subtractive SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology targeting whole intact cells was used to screen for ssDNA aptamers specific to the strains with high cariogenicity. After nine rounds of subtractive SELEX, sufficient pool enrichment was achieved as shown by radioactive isotope analysis. The enriched pool was cloned and sequenced randomly, followed by MEME online and RNA structure software analysis of the sequences. Results from the flow cytometry indicated that aptamers H1, H16, H4, L1, L10, and H19 could discriminate highly cariogenic S. mutans strains from poorly cariogenic strains. Among these, Aptamer H19 had the strongest binding capacity with cariogenic S. mutans strains with a dissociation constant of 69.45 ± 38.53 nM. In conclusion, ssDNA aptamers specific to highly cariogenic clinical S. mutans strains were successfully obtained. These ssDNA aptamers might be used for the early diagnosis and treatment of dental caries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztajer, Helena; Szafranski, Szymon P; Tomasch, Jürgen; Reck, Michael; Nimtz, Manfred; Rohde, Manfred; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Polymicrobial biofilms are of large medical importance, but relatively little is known about the role of interspecies interactions for their physiology and virulence. Here, we studied two human pathogens co-occuring in the oral cavity, the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans and the caries-promoting bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Dual-species biofilms reached higher biomass and cell numbers than mono-species biofilms, and the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) by S. mutans was strongly suppressed, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and transcriptome analysis. To detect interkingdom communication, C. albicans was co-cultivated with a strain of S. mutans carrying a transcriptional fusion between a green fluorescent protein-encoding gene and the promoter for sigX, the alternative sigma factor of S. mutans, which is induced by quorum sensing signals. Strong induction of sigX was observed in dual-species biofilms, but not in single-species biofilms. Conditioned media from mixed biofilms but not from C. albicans or S. mutans cultivated alone activated sigX in the reporter strain. Deletion of comS encoding the synthesis of the sigX-inducing peptide precursor abolished this activity, whereas deletion of comC encoding the competence-stimulating peptide precursor had no effect. Transcriptome analysis of S. mutans confirmed induction of comS, sigX, bacteriocins and the downstream late competence genes, including fratricins, in dual-species biofilms. We show here for the first time the stimulation of the complete quorum sensing system of S. mutans by a species from another kingdom, namely the fungus C. albicans, resulting in fundamentally changed virulence properties of the caries pathogen. PMID:24824668

  2. Streptococcus mutans Displays Altered Stress Responses While Enhancing Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus casei in Mixed-Species Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezhang T. Wen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Like Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli are commonly isolated from carious sites, although their exact role in caries development remains unclear. This study used mixed-species models to analyze biofilm formation by major groups of oral lactobacilli, including L. casei, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius ssp. salivarius, and L. gasseri. The results showed that lactobacilli did not form good biofilms when grown alone, although differences existed between different species. When grown together with S. mutans, biofilm formation by L. gasseri and L. rhamnosus was increased by 2-log (P < 0.001, while biofilms by L. fermentum reduced by >1-log (P < 0.001. L. casei enhanced biofilm formation by ~2-log when grown with S. mutans wild-type, but no such effects were observed with S. mutans deficient of glucosyltransferase GtfB and adhesin P1. Both S. mutans and L. casei in dual-species enhanced resistance to acid killing with increases of survival rate by >1-log (P < 0.001, but drastically reduced the survival rates following exposure to hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.001, as compared to the respective mono-species cultures. When analyzed by RNA-seq, more than 134 genes were identified in S. mutans in dual-species with L. casei as either up- or down-regulated when compared to those grown alone. The up-regulated genes include those for superoxide dismutase, NADH oxidase, and members of the mutanobactin biosynthesis cluster. Among the down-regulated genes were those for GtfB and alternative sigma factor SigX. These results further suggest that interactions between S. mutans and oral lactobacilli are species-specific and may have significant impact on cariogenic potential of the community.

  3. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the methionine synthase (MetE) from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Liang, Yu-He; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE) from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The Streptococcus mutans metE gene encodes methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the direct transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the last step of methionine synthesis. metE was cloned into pET28a and the gene product was expressed at high levels in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). MetE was purified to homogeneity using Ni 2+ -chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 52.85, b = 99.48, c = 77.88 Å, β = 94.55°

  4. Uptake and expulsion of sup 14 C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederling, E.; Pihlanto-Leppaelae, A. (Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of successive cultivations in the presence of 6% xylitol on the uptake and expulsion of {sup 14}C-xylitol was studied using the cells of Streptococcus mutans 25175. Three sequential cultivations did not alter the growth inhibition percentage (approximately 50%) observed in the presence of 6% xylitol. The {sup 14}C-xylitol uptake experiments performed with growing and resting cells showed that both the uptake and the expulsion of xylitol were enhanced by xylitolculturing. Both xylitol-cultured and resting control cells contained only one major labeled compound which was identified as {sup 14}C-xylitol 5-phosphate. The label subsequently was expelled from the cells as {sup 14}C-xylitol. These results indicate that S. mutans possesses an intracellular xylitol cycle and this cycle is regulated by adding xylitol to the growth medium. (author).

  5. Uptake and expulsion of 14C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederling, E.; Pihlanto-Leppaelae, A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of successive cultivations in the presence of 6% xylitol on the uptake and expulsion of 14 C-xylitol was studied using the cells of Streptococcus mutans 25175. Three sequential cultivations did not alter the growth inhibition percentage (approximately 50%) observed in the presence of 6% xylitol. The 14 C-xylitol uptake experiments performed with growing and resting cells showed that both the uptake and the expulsion of xylitol were enhanced by xylitolculturing. Both xylitol-cultured and resting control cells contained only one major labeled compound which was identified as 14 C-xylitol 5-phosphate. The label subsequently was expelled from the cells as 14 C-xylitol. These results indicate that S. mutans possesses an intracellular xylitol cycle and this cycle is regulated by adding xylitol to the growth medium. (author)

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Flavonoids from Spatholobus suberectus on Sortase A and Sortase A-Mediated Aggregation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wanki; Ahn, Chan-Hong; Cho, Hyunjoo; Kim, Chang-Kwon; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Ki-Bong

    2017-08-28

    Seven flavonoids were isolated from Spatholobus suberectus via repetitive column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with values reported in the literature. Among the flavonoids tested, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone ( 1 ) and formononetin ( 4 ) exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans SrtA, with IC 50 values of 46.1 and 41.8 µM, respectively, but did not affect cell viability. The onset and magnitude of inhibition of saliva-induced aggregation in S. mutans treated with compounds 1 and 4 were comparable to the behavior of a srtA -deletion mutant without treatment.

  7. The structure of the hypothetical protein smu.1377c from Streptococcus mutans suggests a role in tRNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from S. mutans, shows a similar fold to Sua5-YciO-YrdC-family proteins and indicates its functional role in tRNA modification. Members of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC protein family are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and possess a conserved α/β twisted open-sheet fold. The Escherichia coli protein YrdC has been shown to be involved in modification of tRNA. The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans, has been determined to 2.25 Å resolution. From structure analysis and comparison, it is shown that smu.1377c is a member of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC family and that it may play the same role as E. coli YrdC

  8. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the methionine synthase (MetE) from Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: liangyh@pku.edu.cn; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE) from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The Streptococcus mutans metE gene encodes methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the direct transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the last step of methionine synthesis. metE was cloned into pET28a and the gene product was expressed at high levels in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). MetE was purified to homogeneity using Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.85, b = 99.48, c = 77.88 Å, β = 94.55°.

  9. High-throughput sequencing identification and characterization of potentially adhesion-related small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhui; Liu, Shanshan; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Huancai

    2018-05-01

    Adherence capacity is one of the principal virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans, and adhesion virulence factors are controlled by small RNAs (sRNAs) at the post-transcriptional level in various bacteria. Here, we aimed to identify and decipher putative adhesion-related sRNAs in clinical strains of S. mutans. RNA deep-sequencing was performed to identify potential sRNAs under different adhesion conditions. The expression of sRNAs was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and bioinformatic methods were used to predict the functional characteristics of sRNAs. A total of 736 differentially expressed candidate sRNAs were predicted, and these included 352 sRNAs located on the antisense to mRNA (AM) and 384 sRNAs in intergenic regions (IGRs). The top 7 differentially expressed sRNAs were successfully validated by qRT-PCR in UA159, and 2 of these were further confirmed in 100 clinical isolates. Moreover, the sequences of two sRNAs were conserved in other Streptococcus species, indicating a conserved role in such closely related species. A good correlation between the expression of sRNAs and the adhesion of 100 clinical strains was observed, which, combined with GO and KEGG, provides a perspective for the comprehension of sRNA function annotation. This study revealed a multitude of novel putative adhesion-related sRNAs in S. mutans and contributed to a better understanding of information concerning the transcriptional regulation of adhesion in S. mutans.

  10. Identification of anti-biofilm components in Withania somnifera and their effect on virulence of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, S; Cai, J N; Song, K Y; Jeon, J G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify components of the Withania somnifera that could show anti-virulence activity against Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The anti-acidogenic activity of fractions separated from W. somnifera was compared, and then the most active anti-acidogenic fraction was chemically characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The effect of the identified components on the acidogenicity, aciduricity and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) formation of S. mutans UA159 biofilms was evaluated. The change in accumulation and acidogenicity of S. mutans UA159 biofilms by periodic treatments (10 min per treatment) with the identified components was also investigated. Of the fractions, n-hexane fraction showed the strongest anti-acidogenic activity and was mainly composed of palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids. Of the identified components, linoleic and oleic acids strongly affected the acid production rate, F-ATPase activity and EPS formation of the biofilms. Periodic treatment with linoleic and oleic acids during biofilm formation also inhibited the biofilm accumulation and acid production rate of the biofilms without killing the biofilm bacteria. These results suggest that linoleic and oleic acids may be effective agents for restraining virulence of S. mutans biofilms. Linoleic and oleic acids may be promising agents for controlling virulence of cariogenic biofilms and subsequent dental caries formation. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Analysis of sucrose-induced small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans in the presence of different sucrose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan Shan; Zhu, Wen Hui; Zhi, Qing Hui; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yan; Lin, Huan Cai

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major pathogen contributing to dental caries. Sucrose is an important carbohydrate source for S. mutans and is crucial for dental caries. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are key post-transcriptional regulators of stress adaptation and virulence in bacteria. Here, for the first time, we created three replicate RNA libraries exposed to either 1 or 5% sucrose. The expression levels of sRNAs and target genes (gtfB, gtfC, and spaP) related to virulence were assessed. In addition, some phenotypic traits were evaluated. We obtained 2125 sRNA candidates with at least 100 average reads in 1% sucrose or 5% sucrose. Of these candidates, 2 were upregulated and 20 were downregulated in 1% sucrose. Six of these 22 differentially expressed sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The expression level of target gene gtfB was higher in 1% sucrose. The adherence ratio of S. mutans was higher in 1% sucrose than in 5% sucrose. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans (WIGs) was significantly higher in 5% sucrose than in 1% sucrose. These data suggest that a series of sRNAs can be induced in response to sucrose, and that some sRNAs might be involved in the regulation of phenotypes, providing new insight into the prevention of caries.

  12. Atomic force microscopy study of the structure function relationships of the biofilm-forming bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Kreth, Jens; Zhu, Lin; Qi, Fengxia; Pelling, Andrew E.; Shi, Wenyuan; Gimzewski, James K.

    2006-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has garnered much interest in recent years for its ability to probe the structure, function and cellular nanomechanics inherent to specific biological cells. In particular, we have used AFM to probe the important structure-function relationships of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans is the primary aetiological agent in human dental caries (tooth decay), and is of medical importance due to the virulence properties of these cells in biofilm initiation and formation, leading to increased tolerance to antibiotics. We have used AFM to characterize the unique surface structures of distinct mutants of S. mutans. These mutations are located in specific genes that encode surface proteins, thus using AFM we have resolved characteristic surface features for mutant strains compared to the wild type. Ultimately, our characterization of surface morphology has shown distinct differences in the local properties displayed by various S. mutans strains on the nanoscale, which is imperative for understanding the collective properties of these cells in biofilm formation.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBA Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants with fungicide action, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp. with planktonic and biofilm growth. To study the micro-organisms in planktonic cells, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined by using 9 clinical strains for each species and 1 ATCC (American Type Culture Collection from C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. mutans. In order to evaluate the effects of the essential oils on biofilms, strains of S. aureus (ATCC 6538, S. mutans (ATCC 35688 and C. albicans (ATCC 18804 were used. The biofilm was formed on acrylic resin discs with isolated micro-organisms or in associations. The number of colony-forming-units (CFU obtained in each biofilm (CFU/ml was submitted to Student's t statistical test. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus showed microbiostatic and microbicidal activity against all tested strains. The average CFU/ml for the biofilm of S. aureus, S. mutans and C. albicans, whether isolated or in association, was lower in the group treated with essential oil than in the control group.

  14. Withania somnifera attenuates acid production, acid tolerance and extra-cellular polysaccharide formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is a plant of the Solanaceae family. It has been widely used as a remedy for a variety of ailments in India and Nepal. The plant has also been used as a controlling agent for dental diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of the methanol extract of W. somnifera against the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms and to identify the components of the extract. To determine the activity of the extract, assays for sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence, glycolytic acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation were performed using Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The viability change of S. mutans biofilms cells was also determined. A phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed using TLC and LC/MS/MS. The extract showed inhibitory effects on sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence (≥ 100 μg/ml), glycolytic acid production (≥ 300 μg/ml), acid tolerance (≥ 300 μg/ml), and extracellular polysaccharide formation (≥ 300 μg/ml) of S. mutans biofilms. However, the extract did not alter the viability of S. mutans biofilms cells in all concentrations tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of the extract may be related to the presence of alkaloids, anthrones, coumarines, anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, and steroid lactones (withanolide A, withaferin A, withanolide B, withanoside IV, and 12-deoxy withastramonolide). These data indicate that W. somnifera may be a potential agent for restraining the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms.

  15. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with pSage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.

  16. FORMULASI SEDIAAN MOUTHWASH PENCEGAH PLAK GIGI EKSTRAK BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L DAN UJI EFEKTIVITAS PADA BAKTERI Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriyanti Anastasia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the formulation of preparations mouthwash prevention of dental plaque extract of cocoa beans also has been tested in Streptococcus mutans bacteria by variations in the concentration of glycerin as a humectant in preparation which aims to determine the effect of different concentrations of glycerin as a humectant to the physical properties, chemical properties and inhibition zone Streptococcus mutans bacteria in mouthwash formula and to know the mouthwash formula that has the physical quality and the highest antibacterial activity. The method used includes the step of extraction of cocoa beans, preparation of a mouthwash with 4 formula using variations of glycerin F1 (0%, F2 (15%, F3 (20% and F4 (25% followed by an evaluation formula that includes organoleptic tests, pH test and the test of inhibition diameter. Tests performed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. The results showed the concentration of glycerin as a humectant in a mouthwash formula cocoa seed extract has an effect on the diameter of inhibition zone, but did not have a significant effect on the physical and chemical properties of cocoa seed extracts mouthwash, The concentration of glycerin which meets the physical quality and the most excellent antibacterial activity that is 15% contained in the formula 2.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.412c protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhao-Yang; Hou, Qiao-Ming; Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization of SMU.412c protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans can easily appear in the condition 2.8 M sodium acetate pH 7.0 and its crystal belongs to space group P4 1 2 1 2. The smu.412c gene encodes a putative histidine triad-like protein (SMU.412c) with 139 residues that is involved in cell-cycle regulation in Streptococcus mutans. The gene was cloned into the expression vector pET28a and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) to give a substantially soluble form of SMU.412c with a His 6 tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure involving Ni 2+ -chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution on beamline BL6A at Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. The crystal belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 53.5, c = 141.1 Å

  18. Antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm growing Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengjun; Dong, Jiachen; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm modes of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The effects on planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were evaluated by growth curve determination and MTT assay, respectively. Then, colony forming unit (CFU) counting, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and real-time PCR were performed to further investigate the actions of DHA and EPA on exponential phase-S. mutans. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to detect the influences on mature biofilms. The MICs of DHA and EPA against S. mutans were 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively; the MBC of both compounds was 100 μM. In the presence of 12.5 μM-100 μM DHA or EPA, the planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were reduced in varying degrees. For exponential-phase S. mutans, the viable counts, the bacterial membranes and the biofilm-associated gene expression were damaged by 100 μM DHA or EPA treatment. For 1-day-old biofilms, the thickness was decreased and the proportion of membrane-damaged bacteria was increased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. These results indicated that, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm growing S. mutans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adhesion of Streptococcus Mutans to Glass Ionomer, BisCem Cement and Enamel: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzatollah Jalalian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Considering the adhesion of some microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans to restorative materials and the unrecognized consequences of this phenomenon, and due to the controversies in this regard, it is important to discover the materials to which the lowest adhesion of S. mutans occurs. The objective of this study was to assess the level of adhesion of S. mutans to glass ionomer (GI, BisCem Cement and enamel.Materials and Methods:In this in vitro experimental study, 12 specimens including five GI blocks (GC America Inc., Alsip, IL, USA, five BisCem blocks (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA and two enamel blocks were exposed to a bacterial suspension (1×106 mg/mL. After incubation for one hour at 37˚C, the swab samples were taken and cultured in blood agar. The S. mutans colonies were counted by unaided vision after 48 hours of incubation. The results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test.Results:The number of colonies attributed to enamel, GI, and BisCem blocks was 24±2, 24.2±2.7 and 14.8±1.7 colonies/mm2, respectively. There was no difference between enamel and GI in terms of adhesion of S. mutans (P=0.08 and P>0.001, respectively; however, the difference between these two and BisCem was statistically significant (P= 0.00075 and P<0.001, respectively.Conclusion:Within the limitations of this study, BisCem cement is superior to GI for the cementation of indirect restorations.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA AR-SA Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors. PMID:25763094

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Su Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%, β-caryophyllene (5.71%, α-thujone (5.46%, piperitone (5.27%, epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%, α-pinene (4.97%, 1,8-cineole (4.52%, β-pinene (4.45%, and camphene (4.19%. These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  2. Pembuatan Pasta Gigi Katekin Teh Hijau dan Uji Daya Hambat terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus Mutans dan Lactobascillus Ascidopillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajriani Fajriani

    2015-06-01

    Peracikan formula dan pembuatan pasta gigi katekin teh hijau dilakukan sesuai hasil uji KHM (MIC. Pasta gigi katekin teh hijau ini dilakukan pengukuran kadar total flavonoid dan total polifenol, selanjutnya pengukuran uji daya hambat pasta gigi katekin teh hijau dilakukan dengan metode difusi menggunakan well (sumuran sebagai reservoar sampel uji terhadap bakteri streptococus mutans dan lactobacilus acidophilus. Hasil diperoleh prodak pasta gigi katekin teh hijau dengan kandungan kadar flavonoid 77% dan kadar polifenol 41%, sedangkan hasil uji diameter hambatan pasta gigi katekin teh hijau terhadap bakteri streptococcus mutans 17,2 mm dan bakteri lactobacillus acidophilus 19,6 mm. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa prodak katekin teh hijau ini sangat efektif digunakan sehari-hari sebagai perawatan gigi dan juga sebagai antibakteri kariogenik.   Making Green Tea Catechin Toothpaste and Inhibition Test Against Streptococcus Mutans and Acidophilus Lactobaccilus. The manufacture of this toothpaste is motivated by the desire of researchers to facilitate the public to use natural ingredients of green tea catechins whose result effectiveness against cariogenic bacteria was directly tested inhibition. This study is to find the right formula composition for greentea catechins toothpaste based on the result of the inhibition properties of greentea cathecins against tostreptococcus mutans dan lactobacillus acidophilus. The manufacture of greentea catechins toothpaste was after making catechins extracts and testing minimal inhibition concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC using liquid dilution method. The toothpaste was then made according to the result of MIC. The toothpaste’s flavonoid and polyphenol total contain was measured; then the inhibition property of the toothpaste to was measured using diffusion method with wells as the sample reservoar for streptococus mutans dan lactobacilus acidophilus. It is found that the toothpaste contains

  3. A Eukaryotic-Type Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Is Required for Biofilm Formation, Genetic Competence, and Acid Resistance in Streptococcus mutans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussain, H.; Branny, Pavel; Allan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 4 (2006), s. 1628-1632 ISSN 0021-9193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptococcus mutans * stpk * pathogenesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.993, year: 2006

  4. Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans in oral samples from caries-free and caries-active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkou, S; Balasouli, C; Tsuzukibashi, O; Argyropoulou, A; Menexes, G; Kotsanos, N; Kalfas, S

    2016-10-01

    This was to examine the occurrence of S. mutans, S. sobrinus and C. albicans in dental plaque and saliva from caries-free and caries-active Greek children. Saliva and dental plaque samples from 46 caries-free and 51 caries-active 3-to-13-year-old children were examined using selective media for the three microbes. Identification of isolated mutans streptococci (S. mutans and S. sobrinus) was performed with biochemical test and specific DNA probes. The salivary levels of mutans streptococci were additionally determined by a chair-side test (Dentocult ® SM strips). The isolation frequencies of S. mutans, S. sobrinus and C. albicans were 66, 11 and 18 %, respectively. Caries-active children harboured more frequently and at significantly higher numbers the specific microbes than caries-free children. A similar pattern was observed with the Dentocult ® SM strip scores. No correlation was found between the presence of these microbes and the age or gender of the children. Caries experience was statistically significantly related to the presence of all three microbes under study, both in dental plaque and saliva.

  5. [Effect of luxS overexpression on biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyan; Wang, Yuxia; Huang, Zhengwei

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of quorum sensing luxS gene on biofilm formation through construction of a luxS overexpression strain by Streptococcus mutans (Sm). In order to construct pIB-luxS plasmid, the luxS gene fragment amplified by PCR was inserted into the shuttle plasmid pIB169 by corresponding double digests. The pIB-luxS plasmid was linearized electro-transformed into Sm cell and the overexpression strain was selected on chloramphenicol plate and testified by electrophoresis and western blot. The growth rate of both Sm wild type strain and its luxS overexpression strain were observed. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay method was used to compare the biofilm formation quantification by both strains at different time points and containing different sucrose. The structures of the biofilms were observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and biofilm-related gene expressions were investigated by real-time PCR. All experiments were performed in triplicate. The luxS overexpression strain was successfully constructed and confirmed by electrophoresis and Western blotting. The planktonic growth mode of the wild-type and luxS overexpression strain showed no difference, but biofilm formed by Sm overexpression strain was 0.400 ± 0.009 and 0.609 ± 0.041 at 14 and 24 h, higher than the wild type strain biofilm at the same time point (0.352 ± 0.028 and 0.533 ± 0.014, respectively, P overexpression strain raised to 1.041 ± 0.038, higher than that by the wild type strain (0.831 ± 0.020, P overexpression strain aggregated into distinct clusters on structure, genes expression including gtfB, ftf, gbpB, relA, brpA, smu630, comDE, vicR were increased (6.10 ± 0.12, 3.34 ± 0.07, 8.75 ± 0.13, 2.96 ± 0.04, 5.20 ± 0.19, 2.20 ± 0.06, 2.32 ± 0.07 and 10.67 ± 0.57 fold) compared to the wild-type strain (P < 0.05). Quorum sensing luxS gene can promote the biofilm formation of Sm.

  6. [Isolation of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and the inhibitory effect of egg yolk antibody on caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X L; Zhang, Z; Li, Z X; Deng, N J; Zeng, B; Chen, Y M

    2017-04-09

    Objective: To isolate the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans (Sm) strains and study the therapeutical effect of egg yolk antibody (IgY) of the Sm on dental caries development. Methods: Sm strains were isolated from the children's dental plaque samples. Morphological, biochemical and molecular biological methods were applied to identify the serotype, acid producing and adhesion abilities of isolated Sm strains. After inactivation one of the Sm strains was used as antigen to immune laying hens to collect and extract the specific anti-Sm IgY. The rats were infected with Sm (serotype e). After 16 weeks of infection, all the rats were found developing dental caries. The rats were then randomly divided into two groups. The rats in experimental group were supplied with diet containing anti-Sm IgY while the rats in control group with normal IgY. All rats were sacrificed after another 8 weeks' observation. The degree of caries for each rat was assessed using Keyes' method. Results: We isolated 7 Sm strains from the children's dental plaque samples in the present study. The numbers of serotype c, e, f, k were 3, 2, 0 and 2, respectively. All strains showed similar morphological and biochemical characters as standard UA159 Sm strain, and possessed strong capabilities of acid production and adherence. Interestingly, even the same serotypec strains, such as No.3 and No.7 strains, demonstrated significant difference on acid producing and adherence capabilities. After 16 weeks infection with serotype e strain, the rats' mandibular teeth were apparently decayed, and treatment with specific anti-Sm IgY obviously attenuated the development of caries in the experiment group rats (16.4±2.0) compared with that in the control group rats (30.2±9.3) ( Pcariogenic Sm strains of different serotypes were isolated, which possesses similar morphology and biochemical characters. Although belonging to the same serotype strains they always show significant difference in acid-producing and

  7. Effect of tt-farnesol and myricetin on in vitro biofilm formed by Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Guilherme Roncari; Florez Salamanca, Elkin Jahir; de Barros, Ana Letícia; Lobo, Carmélia Isabel Vitorino; Klein, Marlise Inêz

    2018-02-14

    Dental caries is considered a multifactorial disease, in which microorganisms play an important role. The diet is decisive in the biofilm formation because it provides the necessary resources for cellular growth and exopolysaccharides synthesis. Exopolysaccharides are the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM provides a 3D structure, support for the microorganisms and form diffusion-limited environments (acidic niches) that cause demineralization of the dental enamel. Streptococcus mutans is the main producer of exopolysaccharides. Candida albicans is detected together with S. mutans in biofilms associated with severe caries lesions. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of tt-farnesol and myricetin topical treatments on cariogenic biofilms formed by Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. In vitro dual-species biofilms were grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs, using tryptone-yeast extract broth with 1% sucrose (37 °C, 5% CO 2 ). Twice-daily topical treatments were performed with: vehicle (ethanol 15%, negative control), 2 mM myricetin, 4 mM tt-farnesol, myricetin + tt-farnesol, myricetin + tt-farnesol + fluoride (250 ppm), fluoride, and chlorhexidine digluconate (0.12%; positive control). After 67 h, biofilms were evaluated to determine biofilm biomass, microbial population, and water-soluble and -insoluble exopolysaccharides in the ECM. Only the positive control yielded a reduced quantity of biomass and microbial population, while tt-farnesol treatment was the least efficient in reducing C. albicans population. The combination therapy myricetin + farnesol + fluoride significantly reduced water-soluble exopolysaccharides in the ECM (vs. negative control; p < 0.05; ANOVA one-way, followed by Tukey's test), similarly to the positive control. Therefore, the combination therapy negatively influenced an important virulence trait of cariogenic biofilms. However, the concentrations of both myricetin and tt

  8. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Darrel; Massod, Shahid S; Nganba, Khundrakpam

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans (MS) in mother-child pairs and to evaluate the correlation in the levels of salivary MS of working and nonworking mothers with that of their children and their associations with other related factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 mother-child pairs residing in New Multan Nagar Colony, New Delhi, India. A total of 50 children with their mothers were included in the working group and another 50 were included in the nonworking group. A questionnaire regarding the feeding habits, oral hygiene habits, daily intake of sugars of the children along with their weaning time was carried out. All mothers and children were clinically examined for recording decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft)/decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), and whole unstimulated saliva was collected and cultured for MS in the laboratory. The data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square, Spearman's correlation, and logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of salivary MS in the children was 69%. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oral levels of MS in nonworking and working mother-child pairs. Regression analysis showed that those children who feed by bottle for more than 12 months, have daily sweet intake, have sugars in feeding bottle and have higher defts were more likely to have mutans score of 1 or 2. The mother, working or nonworking, being the primary care provider is the major source of transmission of MS to their child irrespective of the amount of time spent with them. Sharma P, Goswami M, Singh D, Massod SS, Nganba K. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):342-348.

  9. Evaluating the Effect of Enviromental Factors and Early Childhood Caries on Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count in 3-5 Year Old Children in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoumi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common problems in children worldwide which is seen in 3-45% preschool children population. Bacterial factor is one of the main four components (time, microorganism, diet, host to create caries. Streptococcus mutans is one of the most important cariogenic microorganisms. The objective of this study is evaluating Streptococcus mutans count in children with ECC and caries free children considering other factors. The aim of this study was to find the CFU of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of children with ECC versus caries free ones. In addition environmental factors affecting CFU of this micro organism. Methods: Salivary Streptococcus mutans count in 76 3-5 year old children was done in two groups (ECC and caries free. Non stimulated saliva was collected and cultured on Streptococcus mutans specific growth medium. Data was analyzed with Chi-Square, spearman, Kruskal–Wallis,Mann–Whitney tests. Results: Differences in colony count in study groups were statistically significant and was less in caries free children (p value<0.001. Colony count had no relationship with age, sex, weight, Body Mass Index(BMI and parents educational level but sugar consumption frequency, feeding method (breast or bottle and night time breast feeding had significant effect on colony count (p value=0.019. Conclusion: In the current study, a statistically significant difference was seen in colony count in two groups. Sugar consumption frequency and feeding method had a significant impact on colony count. Micro organisms are still the most important factors in creating caries but feeding pattern and sugar consumption frequency also have an important role. The results also showed that parents educational level does not influence reducing caries which should be noted.

  10. Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René; Gaïni, Shahin; Kjaeldgaard, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Meningitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis is a rare disease which is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs. We report a 54-y-old pig-farm worker with S. suis meningitis and septicaemia complicated with thoracal and lumbar spine spondylodiscitis. The S. suis strain involved...

  11. The effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite on Streptococcus mutans compared with chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit R Kankariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the development of anticaries chemotherapy, the newer agents are unable to control the initiation of dental caries. Research and development of natural antibacterial agents that are safe for the host as well as specific for oral pathogens is awaited. Neem tree extracts have been used for thousands of years for maintaining overall well-being. Chewing neem sticks in the morning is the most common indigenous method of cleaning the mouth in rural population. This has generated the interest of the dentists for the use of neem for controlling dental diseases. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans against chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: Plaque was collected from 30 children aged 8-12 years reporting to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Bharti Vidyapeeth Dental College, Pune and transported to the laboratory. After incubation of the plates the inhibitory zones were noted and the diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded to check the inhibition of growth of S. mutans. For testing the bacterial survival, the biofilms were prepared and colony forming units (CFU was enumerated using a digital colony counter. Statistical Analysis Used: Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s test. Results: The results show that there was no statistically significant difference in the inhibition of S. mutans between 40% concentration of water soluble azadirachtin and chlorhexidine. Conclusions: This study concluded that 40% water soluble azadirachtin is as effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the S. mutans count in dental plaque. Hence, a water soluble formulation of azadirachtin may provide the maximum benefit to mankind to prevent dental caries.

  12. The effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite) on Streptococcus mutans compared with chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankariya, Amit R; Patel, Alok R; Kunte, Sanket S

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in the development of anticaries chemotherapy, the newer agents are unable to control the initiation of dental caries. Research and development of natural antibacterial agents that are safe for the host as well as specific for oral pathogens is awaited. Neem tree extracts have been used for thousands of years for maintaining overall well-being. Chewing neem sticks in the morning is the most common indigenous method of cleaning the mouth in rural population. This has generated the interest of the dentists for the use of neem for controlling dental diseases. This study aims to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) against chlorhexidine. Plaque was collected from 30 children aged 8-12 years reporting to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Bharti Vidyapeeth Dental College, Pune and transported to the laboratory. After incubation of the plates the inhibitory zones were noted and the diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded to check the inhibition of growth of S. mutans. For testing the bacterial survival, the biofilms were prepared and colony forming units (CFU) was enumerated using a digital colony counter. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. The results show that there was no statistically significant difference in the inhibition of S. mutans between 40% concentration of water soluble azadirachtin and chlorhexidine. This study concluded that 40% water soluble azadirachtin is as effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the S. mutans count in dental plaque. Hence, a water soluble formulation of azadirachtin may provide the maximum benefit to mankind to prevent dental caries.

  13. Comparative evaluation of antibacterial effect of three commercially available herbal products against Streptococcus mutans: An In vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanya Sreekumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the researches concerning the use of herbal products have been vastly analyzed to decrease the disease burden caused by dental caries. It has been found that certain phytochemicals present in the plants have certain inhibitory effect toward Streptococcus mutans which is currently the main causative organism for dental caries initiation. Hence, in the present study, certain commercial herbal products have been tested for their antibacterial effect. Aim: This study aims to compare the antibacterial action of three commercially available herbal products against S. mutans. Material and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted with commercially available herbal products. They were Aloe Barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera, Ocimum tenuiflorum (Thulasi, and Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia. The antimicrobial effectiveness (zone of inhibition of herbal products was determined using agar well diffusion method. Pure strains of S. mutans MTCC 890 were procured from culture collection center, Imtech, Chandigarh. The culture was grown in Brain Heart Infusion Agar, and around 20 ml each was poured into sterile petri plates. Chlorhexidine (CHX was taken as positive control, and distilled water was taken as negative control. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 17 software. Results: All herbal products were found to be having variable antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. The mean zone of inhibition after 24 h incubation measured for Stevia, Thulasi, and A. vera was 22.33 mm, 11 mm, and 0 mm, respectively. The mean zone of inhibition of positive control CHX was found to be 13.6 mm. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect shown by Stevia was superior when compared with CHX and Thulasi. The Thulasi have more inhibitory effect than A. vera, and A. vera fails to show any zone of inhibition against S. mutans when compared with other herbal products. Thus, Stevia product can be strongly recommended as a caries preventing agent after

  14. Identification of an Efflux Transporter LmrB Regulating Stress Response and Extracellular Polysaccharide Synthesis in Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efflux transporters have been implicated in regulating bacterial virulence properties such as resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation and colonization. The pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, relies on the bacterium’s ability to form biofilms on tooth surface. However, the studies on efflux transporters in S. mutans are scare and the function of these transporters remained to be clarified. In this study, we identified an efflux transporter (LmrB in S. mutans through cloning the lmrB gene into Escherichia coli. Introducing lmrB into E. coli conferred a multidrug-resistant phenotype and resulted in higher EtBr efflux activity which could be suppressed by efflux inhibitor. To explore whether LmrB was involved in S. mutans virulence properties regulation, we constructed the lmrB inactivation mutant and examined the phenotypes of the mutant. It was found that LmrB deficiency resulted in increased IPS storage and prolonged acid production. Enhanced biofilm formation characterized by increased extracellular polysaccharides (EPS production and elevated resistance to hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobials were also observed in lmrB mutant. To gain a better understanding of the global role of LmrB, a transcriptome analysis was performed using lmrB mutant strain. The expression of 107 genes was up- or down-regulated in the lmrB mutant compared with the wild type. Notably, expression of genes in several genomic islands was differentially modulated, such as stress-related GroELS and scnRK, sugar metabolism associated glg operons and msmREFGK transporter. The results presented here indicate that LmrB plays a vital global role in the regulation of several important virulence properties in S. mutans.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabK) from Streptococcus mutans strain UA159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-O; Im, Dong-Won; Jung, Ha Yun; Kwon, Seong Jung; Heo, Yong-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabK) from S. mutans strain UA159 was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.40 Å. A triclosan-resistant flavoprotein termed FabK is the sole enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans. In this study, FabK from S. mutans strain UA159 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.40 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal belonged to space group P6 2 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 105.79, c = 44.15 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one molecule, with a corresponding V M of 2.05 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 39.9%

  16. In vitro and in vivo anti-microbial activity evaluation of inactivated cells of Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713 against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo, Ana I; Luque, Roberto; Díaz-Ropero, Mª Paz; Fonollá, Juristo; Bañuelos, Óscar

    2017-12-01

    Defining the etiology of dental caries is a complex problem. The microbiological approach has included Streptococcus mutans as one of the bacterial species involved in this disease. This research investigates the inhibitory effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713 against S. mutans using in vitro and in vivo assays. On the one hand, the effect of non-viable L. salivarius CECT 5713 on the in vitro adhesion of S. mutans to hydroxyapatite discs was evaluated. On the other hand, levels of Streptococcus mutans, amount of salivary flow and salivary pH before and after taking the rinse with the non-viable L. salivarius CECT 5713 in healthy volunteers were assessed (self-controlled open-label pilot study). The levels of S. mutans seemed to decrease in the in vitro and in vivo assays (p<0.05). The in vitro effect of non-viable L. salivarius was maintained until 36 months of storage. In addition, the reduction of S. mutans salivary concentration in the volunteers was statistically significant from the third day until two weeks of treatment. Heat-inactivated L. salivarius CECT 5713 prevents S. mutans adhesion to hydroxyapatite and could be used as a strategy to reduce the salivary concentration of this oral pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The copYAZ Operon Functions in Copper Efflux, Biofilm Formation, Genetic Transformation, and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamna; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Lévesque, Céline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, copper homeostasis is closely monitored to ensure proper cellular functions while avoiding cell damage. Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon. Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen that harbors a putative copper-transporting copYAZ operon. Here, we characterized the role of copYAZ operon in the physiology of S. mutans and delineated the mechanisms of copper-induced toxicity in this bacterium. We observed that copper induced toxicity in S. mutans cells by generating oxidative stress and disrupting their membrane potential. Deletion of the copYAZ operon in S. mutans strain UA159 resulted in reduced cell viability under copper, acid, and oxidative stress relative to the viability of the wild type under these conditions. Furthermore, the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms and develop genetic competence was impaired under copper stress. Briefly, copper stress significantly reduced cell adherence and total biofilm biomass, concomitantly repressing the transcription of the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, and gbpC genes, whose products have roles in maintaining the structural and/or functional integrity of the S. mutans biofilm. Furthermore, supplementation with copper or loss of copYAZ resulted in significant reductions in transformability and in the transcription of competence-associated genes. Copper transport assays revealed that the ΔcopYAZ strain accrued significantly large amounts of intracellular copper compared with the amount of copper accumulation in the wild-type strain, thereby demonstrating a role for CopYAZ in the copper efflux of S. mutans. The complementation of the CopYAZ system restored copper expulsion, membrane potential, and stress tolerance in the copYAZ-null mutant. Taking these results collectively, we have established the function of the S. mutans

  18. The copYAZ Operon Functions in Copper Efflux, Biofilm Formation, Genetic Transformation, and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamna; Senadheera, Dilani B; Lévesque, Céline M; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G

    2015-08-01

    In bacteria, copper homeostasis is closely monitored to ensure proper cellular functions while avoiding cell damage. Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon. Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen that harbors a putative copper-transporting copYAZ operon. Here, we characterized the role of copYAZ operon in the physiology of S. mutans and delineated the mechanisms of copper-induced toxicity in this bacterium. We observed that copper induced toxicity in S. mutans cells by generating oxidative stress and disrupting their membrane potential. Deletion of the copYAZ operon in S. mutans strain UA159 resulted in reduced cell viability under copper, acid, and oxidative stress relative to the viability of the wild type under these conditions. Furthermore, the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms and develop genetic competence was impaired under copper stress. Briefly, copper stress significantly reduced cell adherence and total biofilm biomass, concomitantly repressing the transcription of the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, and gbpC genes, whose products have roles in maintaining the structural and/or functional integrity of the S. mutans biofilm. Furthermore, supplementation with copper or loss of copYAZ resulted in significant reductions in transformability and in the transcription of competence-associated genes. Copper transport assays revealed that the ΔcopYAZ strain accrued significantly large amounts of intracellular copper compared with the amount of copper accumulation in the wild-type strain, thereby demonstrating a role for CopYAZ in the copper efflux of S. mutans. The complementation of the CopYAZ system restored copper expulsion, membrane potential, and stress tolerance in the copYAZ-null mutant. Taking these results collectively, we have established the function of the S. mutans Cop

  19. The effect of pomegranate mouthrinse on Streptococcus mutans count and salivary pH: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Dilshad; Dilshad, Bahija; Farhan, Mohammed; Ali, Arshiya; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Herbal mouthwashes have been considered to be a more advantageous option to their chemical counterparts, for a long-time. The use of pomegranate fruit dates from ancient times and reports of its therapeutic abilities have echoed throughout the ages. To evaluate the effect on the salivary pH and the Streptococcus mutans count in healthy subjects before and after pomegranate mouthrinse. Fifty healthy patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 subjects each. Group A was treated with 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse; while Group B was treated with pomegranate peel extract (PPE) mouthrinse and the saliva samples were collected at three different intervals: Prerinse, after 10 min, and 60 min. The salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter and the S. mutans count was determined by the commercial system Dentocult SM. The statistical analyses used in this study are Mann-Whitney U-test and t-test. PPE mouthrinse had an inhibitory effect on S. mutans count in adults. There was also an increase in the salivary pH after 10 min of the mouthrinse. PPE mouthrinse may be considered as a potential anticariogenic mouthrinse.

  20. The efficacy of chlorhexidine gel in reduction of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species in patients treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, J.B.; McBride, B.C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Merilees, H.; Spinelli, J.

    1991-01-01

    Xerostomia may develop in patients with cancer who receive radiotherapy that includes the salivary glands in the field. These patients are at high risk of rampant dental caries. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species have been associated with dental caries. Quantitative counts of these organisms demonstrated high caries risk due to streptococci in 66% and due to lactobacilli in 100% of patients studied. Use of chlorhexidine rinse was shown to reduce S. mutans counts 1.1 logs and lactobacilli 1.1 logs. The use of chlorhexidine gel resulted in a reduction of S. mutans 1.2 logs and lactobacilli 2.2 logs. In the subjects using the rinse, caries risk due to streptococci was reduced to low levels in 44% and due to lactobacilli in only one subject, with reduction to moderate risk in one third and no change in risk in the remaining patients. The use of chlorhexidine gel was found to reduce the caries risk associated with streptococci to low levels in all patients, and the risk associated with lactobacilli to low and moderate risk in two thirds of patients

  1. Effect of green tea mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva in children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea catechin as a mouth wash on colony count of Streptococcus mutans in children. Materials and Methods: A sample size of thirty children was selected out of screened 290 children by simple random sampling between the age group of 7 and 12 years. The study was conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After 24 h of oral prophylaxis, the baseline samples were collected and each group was subjected to mouth rinsing with green tea mouth wash for 2 weeks and further plaque and saliva samples were collected at 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Microbiological analysis of plaque and saliva samples was done by Dentocult SM strip kit (Orion Diagnostica, Finland, and the results were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Results: Statistically, there was highly significant reduction in S. mutans count in plaque as well as in saliva for after 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Conclusion: Hence, finally, our study showed that green tea catechin is effective as a mouth wash against S. mutans and having better action in plaque as compared to saliva. It can be used as an adjunct to commercially available mouthwashes.

  2. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition study of a β-class carbonic anhydrase from the caries producing pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Nurcan; De Luca, Viviana; Isik, Semra; Yildirim, Hatice; Kockar, Feray; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-07-01

    The oral pathogenic bacterium involved in human dental caries formation Streptococcus mutans, encodes for two carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) one belonging to the α- and the other one to the β-class. This last enzyme (SmuCA) has been cloned, characterized and investigated for its inhibition profile with a major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions. Here we show that SmuCA has a good catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with kcat 4.2×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.8×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), being inhibited by cyanate, carbonate, stannate, divannadate and diethyldithiocarbamate in the submillimolar range (KIs of 0.30-0.64mM) and more efficiently by sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (KIs of 15-46μM). The anion inhibition profile of the S. mutans enzyme is very different from other α- and β-CAs investigated earlier. Identification of effective inhibitors of this new enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the role of S. mutans CAs in dental caries formation, and eventually the development of pharmacological agents with a new mechanism of antibacterial action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro Investigation of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Helichrysum leucocephalum on the Inhibition of Streptococcus Mutans Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamedifar M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Indiscriminate use of antibacterial agents increases the antibiotic resistance, which consequently necessitates seeking alternatives such as herbal remedies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Helichrysum leucocephalum (H.leucocephalum on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans growth as a major cause of dental caries. Materials and Methods: In this study, hydroalcoholic extract of H. leucocephalum was prepared. The antibacterial effects, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of hydroalcoholic extract of H. leucocephalum and penicillin were assessed. Agar well diffusion method and micro broth dilution assay were used on bacterial suspension adjusted to a 0.5 McFarland standard (equivalent to 1.5×108 CFU/mL.Each test was repeated four times to minimize lab errors. Results: In this study, the inhibitory zone of hydroalcoholic extract of H.leucocephalum in concentration of 100 mg/mL was 34±0.1 mm and for penicillin was 10 mm. The MIC and MBC of H.leucocephalum hydroalcoholic extract were 5.6±6.25, 21.6±6.25 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Hydroalcoholic extract of H. leucocephalum have antibacterial effect on S.mutans at a concentration of 12.5mg/mL, indicating possible application of this extract in prevention of dental caries; however, future researches are necessary.

  4. The Effect of Essential Oils and Bioactive Fractions on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Biofilms: A Confocal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlan Almeida Freires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils (EO and bioactive fractions (BF from Aloysia gratissima, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Cyperus articulatus, and Lippia sidoides were proven to have strong antimicrobial activity on planktonic microorganisms; however, little is known about their effects on the morphology or viability of oral biofilms. Previously, we determined the EO/fractions with the best antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp. In this report, we used a confocal analysis to investigate the effect of these EO and BF on the morphology of S. mutans biofilms (thickness, biovolume, and architecture and on the metabolic viability of C. albicans biofilms. The analysis of intact treated S. mutans biofilms showed no statistical difference for thickness in all groups compared to the control. However, a significant reduction in the biovolume of extracellular polysaccharides and bacteria was observed for A. gratissima and L. sidoides groups, indicating that these BF disrupt biofilm integrity and may have created porosity in the biofilm. This phenomenon could potentially result in a weakened structure and affect biofilm dynamics. Finally, C. sativum EO drastically affected C. albicans viability when compared to the control. These results highlight the promising antimicrobial activity of these plant species and support future translational research on the treatment of dental caries and oral candidiasis.

  5. The efficacy of chlorhexidine gel in reduction of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species in patients treated with radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.B.; McBride, B.C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Merilees, H.; Spinelli, J. (Cancer Control Agency of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    Xerostomia may develop in patients with cancer who receive radiotherapy that includes the salivary glands in the field. These patients are at high risk of rampant dental caries. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species have been associated with dental caries. Quantitative counts of these organisms demonstrated high caries risk due to streptococci in 66% and due to lactobacilli in 100% of patients studied. Use of chlorhexidine rinse was shown to reduce S. mutans counts 1.1 logs and lactobacilli 1.1 logs. The use of chlorhexidine gel resulted in a reduction of S. mutans 1.2 logs and lactobacilli 2.2 logs. In the subjects using the rinse, caries risk due to streptococci was reduced to low levels in 44% and due to lactobacilli in only one subject, with reduction to moderate risk in one third and no change in risk in the remaining patients. The use of chlorhexidine gel was found to reduce the caries risk associated with streptococci to low levels in all patients, and the risk associated with lactobacilli to low and moderate risk in two thirds of patients.

  6. Antimicrobial action of chlorhexidine digluconate in self-ligating and conventional metal brackets infected with Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Paula; Paschoal, Marco Aurélio Benini; Diniz, Rafael Soares; Lage, Lucas Meneses; Gonçalves, Letícia Machado

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the adherence of Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown over conventional ligature (CL) or self-ligating (SL) metal brackets and their bacterial viability after 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) digluconate treatment. The sample consisted of 48 metallic orthodontic brackets divided randomly into two groups: CL (n=24) and SL brackets (n=24). S. mutans biofilms were grown over the bracket surface (96 h) and treated with CHX (positive control) or 0.9% phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (negative control) for 1 min each. Quantitative analysis was assessed by colony-forming units, and fluorescence microscopy was performed aiming to illustrate the outcomes. The tests were done in triplicate at three different times (n=9). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test ( P brackets' biofilm formation, being CL largely colonized compared with SL, which was observed by colony-forming unit counting ( P brackets treated with CHX compared to PBS ( P brackets ( P >0.05). In conclusion, a lower colonization was achieved in SL brackets and S. mutans biofilms were susceptible to CHX treatment to both studied brackets.

  7. Effects of local immunization with Streptococcus mutans on induction of salivary immunoglobulin A antibody and experimental dental caries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbman, M A; Smith, D J

    1974-06-01

    The effect of local immunization with Streptococcus mutans on dental caries in conventional and gnotobiotic rats was studied. Injection of these animals with S. mutans strain 6715 incorporated into complete Freund adjuvant consistently resulted in the presence of antibody in saliva directed to this organism. This antibody was primarily of the immunoglobulin A class as demonstrated by specific antiglobulin augmentation and gel filtration of antibody activity. Serum antibody was also present. Five experiments have been completed in conventional rats and two in gnotobiotic animals. The immunized group of animals always had lower mean caries scores than comparably sham-immunized or nonimmunized control groups. The numbers of lesions were also always lower in the immunized animals, suggesting a possible interference with the formation of new lesions in immunized animals. The reductions in dental caries and lesions were greater on smooth surfaces than on occlusal surfaces. which might be explained as interference with adherence phenomena demonstrated by S. mutans. It is proposed that salivary immunoglobulin A antibody may be viewed as an ecological determinant in the oral cavity by affecting oral microorganisms and possibly their by-products.

  8. Perlekatan koloni Streptococcus mutans pada permukaan resin komposit sinar tampak (The adherence of Streptococcus mutans colony to surface visible light composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Anggraeni

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Visible light composite resins was used to restore anterior and posterior teeth, and it is always covered by saliva pellicle. S. mutans can adhere to all of the surface of oral cavity and visible light composite resins. The aim of this study was to know the amount of S. mutans colony adherence to visible light composite resins surface. The sample of 5 mm diameter and 3 mm in thickness was immersed in saliva for one hour, than the samples were put into bacteria suspension, incubated for 24 hours at 37° C. The amount of S. mutans was determined by direct count using microscope. The data were statistically analyzed by using t test. The result showed a significance difference of S. mutans colony between hybrid and micro fill visible light composite resins. The conclusion was that the amount of S. mutans adherence on the surface of hybrid was higher than the micro fill visible light composite resins.

  9. Antimicrobial Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cariogenic Bacteria Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, and Periodontal Diseases Actinomyces naeslundii and Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca-Castañón, Magda Lorena; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam Angélica; Alcázar-Pizaña, Andrea Guadalupe; Grondin, Yohann; Coronado-Mendoza, Anahí; Sánchez-Najera, Rosa Isela; Cárdenas-Estrada, Eloy; Medina-De la Garza, Carlos Eduardo; Escamilla-García, Erandi

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well known for their beneficial effects on human health in the intestine and immune system; however, there are few studies on the impact they can generate in oral health. The aim of this study was to test and compare in vitro antimicrobial activity of L. reuteri on pathogenic bacteria involved in the formation of dental caries: S. mutans, S. gordonii, and periodontal disease: A. naeslundii and T. forsythia. Also, we determined the growth kinetics of each bacterium involved in this study. Before determining the antimicrobial action of L. reuteri on cariogenic bacteria and periodontal disease, the behavior and cell development time of each pathogenic bacterium were studied. Once the conditions for good cell growth of each of selected pathogens were established according to their metabolic requirements, maximum exponential growth was determined, this being the reference point for analyzing the development or inhibition by LAB using the Kirby Bauer method. Chlorhexidine 0.12% was positive control. L. reuteri was shown to have an inhibitory effect against S. mutans, followed by T. forsythia and S. gordonii, and a less significant effect against A. naeslundii. Regarding the effect shown by L. reuteri on the two major pathogens, we consider its potential use as a possible functional food in the prevention or treatment of oral diseases.

  10. Residual structure of Streptococcus mutans biofilm following complete disinfection favors secondary bacterial adhesion and biofilm re-development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Ohsumi

    Full Text Available Chemical disinfection of oral biofilms often leaves biofilm structures intact. This study aimed to examine whether the residual structure promotes secondary bacterial adhesion. Streptococcus mutans biofilms generated on resin-composite disks in a rotating disc reactor were disinfected completely with 70% isopropyl alcohol, and were again cultured in the same reactor after resupplying with the same bacterial solution. Specimens were subjected to fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, viable cell counts and PCR-Invader assay in order to observe and quantify secondarily adhered cells. Fluorescence microscopic analysis, particularly after longitudinal cryosectioning, demonstrated stratified patterns of viable cells on the disinfected biofilm structure. Viable cell counts of test specimens were significantly higher than those of controls, and increased according to the amount of residual structure and culture period. Linear regression analysis exhibited a high correlation between viable and total cell counts. It was concluded that disinfected biofilm structures favored secondary bacterial adhesion.

  11. Antibacterial effect of copper-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Chang, Bei; Zhang, Yumei; Ma, Zheng; Allaker, Robert P.; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Formation of bacterial biofilms on dental implant material surfaces (titanium) may lead to the development of peri-implant diseases influencing the long term success of dental implants. In this study, a novel Cu-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) was designed and fabricated in order to efficiently kill bacteria and discourage formation of biofilms, and then inhibit bacterial infection and prevent implant failure, in comparison with pure Ti. Results from biofilm based gene expression studies, biofilm growth observation, bacterial viability measurements and morphological examination of bacteria, revealed antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities of Ti-Cu alloy against the oral specific bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Proliferation and adhesion assays with mesenchymal stem cells, and measurement of the mean daily amount of Cu ion release demonstrated Ti-Cu alloy to be biocompatible. In conclusion, Ti-Cu alloy is a promising dental implant material with antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities and acceptable biocompatibility.

  12. Raffinose Induces Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans in Low Concentrations of Sucrose by Increasing Production of Extracellular DNA and Fructan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Ryo; Sato, Tsutomu; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2017-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries and causes tooth decay by forming a firmly attached biofilm on tooth surfaces. Biofilm formation is induced by the presence of sucrose, which is a substrate for the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides but not in the presence of oligosaccharides. Nonetheless, in this study, we found that raffinose, which is an oligosaccharide with an intestinal regulatory function and antiallergic effect, induced biofilm formation by S. mutans in a mixed culture with sucrose, which was at concentrations less than those required to induce biofilm formation directly. We analyzed the possible mechanism behind the small requirement for sucrose for biofilm formation in the presence of raffinose. Our results suggested that sucrose contributed to an increase in bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation. Next, we examined how the effects of raffinose interacted with the effects of sucrose for biofilm formation. We showed that the presence of raffinose induced fructan synthesis by fructosyltransferase and aggregated extracellular DNA (eDNA, which is probably genomic DNA released from dead cells) into the biofilm. eDNA seemed to be important for biofilm formation, because the degradation of DNA by DNase I resulted in a significant reduction in biofilm formation. When assessing the role of fructan in biofilm formation, we found that fructan enhanced eDNA-dependent cell aggregation. Therefore, our results show that raffinose and sucrose have cooperative effects and that this induction of biofilm formation depends on supportive elements that mainly consist of eDNA and fructan. IMPORTANCE The sucrose-dependent mechanism of biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans has been studied extensively. Nonetheless, the effects of carbohydrates other than sucrose are inadequately understood. Our findings concerning raffinose advance the understanding of the mechanism underlying the joint effects of sucrose and

  13. Inhibitory effects of Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) seed extract on Streptococcus mutans and S. mutans-induced dental caries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Nakano, M; Nagayama, K; Kitagori, H; Fujita, K; Inagaki, S; Takashima, Y; Tamesada, M; Kawabata, S; Ooshima, T

    2011-01-01

    Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) seed extract (OBSE) is known to contain polyphenols, which may possess antioxidant activities. Polyphenols extracted from several plants are reported to exhibit cariostatic activities by inhibiting mutans streptococcus growth and glucosyltransferase activities. The purpose of the present study was to examine the inhibitory effects of OBSE on the development of dental caries, both in vitro and in vivo. OBSE was investigated for its inhibitory effects on cellular aggregation, hydrophobicity, sucrose-dependent adherence and insoluble glucan synthesis. Furthermore, biofilm formation was examined in the presence of OBSE, using confocal microscopic imaging. An animal experiment was also performed to examine the in vivo effects. OBSE induced a strong aggregation of Streptococcus mutans MT8148 cells, while cell surface hydrophobicity was decreased by approximately 90% at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml. The sucrose-dependent adherence of the MT8148 cells was also reduced by addition of OBSE, with a reduction rate of 73% seen at a concentration of 1.00 mg/ml. Additionally, confocal microscopic observations revealed the biofilm development phase to be remarkably changed in the presence of OBSE. Furthermore, insoluble glucan synthesis was significantly reduced when OBSE was present at concentrations greater than 0.03 mg/ml. In an animal experiment, the caries scores in rats given OBSE (0.05 mg/ml in drinking water) were significantly lower than those in rats given water without OBSE. Our results indicate that OBSE has inhibitory activity on dental caries. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Recombineering in Streptococcus mutans Using Direct Repeat-Mediated Cloning-Independent Markerless Mutagenesis (DR-CIMM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Zou, Zhengzhong; Kreth, Jens; Merritt, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans have benefitted tremendously from its sophisticated genetic system. As part of our own efforts to further improve upon the S. mutans genetic toolbox, we previously reported the development of the first cloning-independent markerless mutagenesis (CIMM) system for S. mutans and illustrated how this approach could be adapted for use in many other organisms. The CIMM approach only requires overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) protocols to assemble counterselectable allelic replacement mutagenesis constructs, and thus greatly increased the speed and efficiency with which markerless mutations could be introduced into S. mutans . Despite its utility, the system is still subject to a couple limitations. Firstly, CIMM requires negative selection with the conditionally toxic phenylalanine analog p -chlorophenylalanine (4-CP), which is efficient, but never perfect. Typically, 4-CP negative selection results in a small percentage of naturally resistant background colonies. Secondly, CIMM requires two transformation steps to create markerless mutants. This can be inherently problematic if the transformability of the strain is negatively impacted after the first transformation step, which is used to insert the counterselection cassette at the mutation site on the chromosome. In the current study, we develop a next-generation counterselection cassette that eliminates 4-CP background resistance and combine this with a new direct repeat-mediated cloning-independent markerless mutagenesis (DR-CIMM) system to specifically address the limitations of the prior approach. DR-CIMM is even faster and more efficient than CIMM for the creation of all types of deletions, insertions, and point mutations and is similarly adaptable for use in a wide range of genetically tractable bacteria.

  15. Streptococcus mutans adhesion to titanium after brushing with fluoride and fluoride-free toothpaste simulating 10 years of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Laiza M G; Carmello, Juliana C; Spolidorio, Denise M P; Adabo, Gelson L

    2013-01-01

    To assess the influence of fluoride on the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to titanium using an experimental paradigm simulating 10 years of brushing. Commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) disks (6 mm in diameter and 4 mm thick) were mirror-polished and randomly assigned to one of the following six groups (n = 6): immersion (I) or brushing (B) in deionized water (groups IW [control] and BW), fluoride-free toothpaste (groups IT and BT), or fluoridated toothpaste (groups IFT and BFT). Specimens subjected to immersion were statically submerged into the solutions without brushing. For the brushed specimens, a linear brushing machine with a soft-bristled toothbrush was used. The experiments lasted a total of 244 hours. Before and after treatment, the specimens were analyzed under an atomic force microscope to determine the mean roughness (Ra) and the mean of the maximum peak-to-valley heights of the profile (Rtm). The disks were contaminated with standard strains of S mutans in well plates with brain-heart infusion broth. Adhesion was analyzed based on the numbers of colony-forming units (CFU/mL) of adhered viable cells using scanning electronic microscopy. Differences in CFU/mL between the groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Immersion did not affect either surface. As suggested by Ra and Rtm, BW, BT, and BFT induced changes on the surface of cpTi, whereas only BT and BTF induced changes on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. No significant differences were observed regarding CFU/mL among the cpTi or Ti-6Al-4V groups. S mutans adhesion was similar for all surfaces. The changes in titanium induced by 10 years of simulated brushing with fluoride toothpaste did not increase the adhesion of S mutans.

  16. The GlnR Regulon in Streptococcus mutans Is Differentially Regulated by GlnR and PmrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ywan M Chen

    Full Text Available GlnR-mediated repression of the GlnR regulon at acidic pH is required for optimal acid tolerance in Streptococcus mutans, the etiologic agent for dental caries. Unlike most streptococci, the GlnR regulon is also regulated by newly identified PmrA (SMUGS5_RS05810 at the transcriptional level in S. mutans GS5. Results from gel mobility shift assays confirmed that both GlnR and PmrA recognized the putative GlnR box in the promoter regions of the GlnR regulon genes. By using a chemostat culture system, we found that PmrA activated the expression of the GlnR regulon at pH 7, and that this activation was enhanced by excess glucose. Deletion of pmrA (strain ΔPmrA reduced the survival rate of S. mutans GS5 at pH 3 moderately, whereas the GlnR mutant (strain ΔGlnR exhibited an acid-sensitive phenotype in the acid killing experiments. Elevated biofilm formation in both ΔGlnR and ΔPmrA mutant strains is likely a result of indirect regulation of the GlnR regulon since GlnR and PmrA regulate the regulon differently. Taken together, it is suggested that activation of the GlnR regulon by PmrA at pH 7 ensures adequate biosynthesis of amino acid precursor, whereas repression by GlnR at acidic pH allows greater ATP generation for acid tolerance. The tight regulation of the GlnR regulon in response to pH provides an advantage for S. mutans to better survive in its primary niche, the oral cavity.

  17. Effects of extracellular plaque components on the chlorhexidine sensitivity of strains of Streptococcus mutans and human dental plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinsky, L.E.; Hume, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the effects of sucrose-derived extracellular plaque components on the sensitivity of selected oral bacteria to chlorhexidine (CX). Cultures of Streptococcus mutans HS-6, OMZ-176, Ingbritt C, 6715-wt13, and pooled human plaque were grown in trypticase soy media with or without 1% sucrose. The sensitivity to CX of bacteria grown in each medium was determined by fixed-time exposure to CX and subsequent measurement of 3 H-thymidine uptake. One-hour exposure to CX at concentrations of 10(-4) M (0.01% w/v) or greater substantially inhibited subsequent cellular division among all the S. mutans strains and human plaque samples tested. An IC50 (the CX concentration which depressed 3 H-thymidine incorporation to 50% of control level) of close to 10(-4) M was noted for S. mutans strains HS-6, OMZ-176, and 6715-wt13 when grown in the presence of sucrose. The same strains grown in cultures without added sucrose showed about a ten-fold greater sensitivity to CX (IC50 close to 10(-5) M). A three-fold difference was noted for S. mutans Ingbritt C. Only a slight increase in the IC50 was noted for the plaque samples cultured in sucrose-containing media, but their threshold for depression of 3 H-thymidine uptake by CX was lower than that for the sucrose-free plaque samples. The study showed that extracellular products confer some protection against CX to the bacteria examined, and provided an explanation for the disparity between clinically-recommended concentrations for plaque suppression and data on in vitro susceptibility

  18. Analysis of Small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans under Acid Stress-A New Insight for Caries Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanshan; Tao, Ye; Yu, Lixia; Zhuang, Peilin; Zhi, Qinghui; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Huancai

    2016-09-14

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major clinical pathogen responsible for dental caries. Its acid tolerance has been identified as a significant virulence factor for its survival and cariogenicity in acidic conditions. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are recognized as key regulators of virulence and stress adaptation. Here, we constructed three libraries of sRNAs with small size exposed to acidic conditions for the first time, followed by verification using qRT-PCR. The levels of two sRNAs and target genes predicted to be bioinformatically related to acid tolerance were further evaluated under different acid stress conditions (pH 7.5, 6.5, 5.5, and 4.5) at three time points (0.5, 1, and 2 h). Meanwhile, bacterial growth characteristics and vitality were assessed. We obtained 1879 sRNAs with read counts of at least 100. One hundred and ten sRNAs were perfectly mapped to reported msRNAs in S. mutans. Ten out of 18 sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The survival of bacteria declined as the acid was increased from pH 7.5 to 4.5 at each time point. The bacteria can proliferate under each pH except pH 4.5 with time. The levels of sRNAs gradually decreased from pH 7.5 to 5.5, and slightly increased in pH 4.5; however, the expression levels of target mRNAs were up-regulated in acidic conditions than in pH 7.5. These results indicate that some sRNAs are specially induced at acid stress conditions, involving acid adaptation, and provide a new insight into exploring the complex acid tolerance for S. mutans.

  19. Antiadherent activity of Schinus terebinthifolius and Croton urucurana extracts on in vitro biofilm formation of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dicler S V; Tonial, Fabiana; Lopez, Patricia V A; Sales Maia, Beatriz H L N; Santos, Germana D; Ribas, Marina O; Glienke, Chirlei; Vicente, Vania A

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the antiadherent property of crude, methanol and acetate methanol extract fractions from Schinus terebinthifolius and Croton urucurana in hydroalcoholic (HA) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvents on in vitro biofilms formed by Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans strains. The minimal concentration of adherence (MICA) was determined to evaluate the antiadherent potential of extracts on the in vitro biofilm formation. The extracts of plants were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) in order to detect what class of compounds was responsible for the antiadherent activity. Data were estimated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) complemented by Tukey test level of significance set at 5%. Both plants demonstrated inhibition of S. mutans and C. albicans on in vitro biofilm formation. The biofilms of C. albicans were more efficiently inhibited by the S. terebinthifolius fraction of acetate-methanol and methanol in hydroalcoholic solvents (p<0.05). The S. mutans biofilms adherence was best inhibited by the S. terebinthifolius crude extract and its methanolic fraction, both in hydroalcoholic solvent (p<0.05). TLC of crude extracts and fractions of S. terebinthifolius detected the presence of several active compounds, including phenolic compounds, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and alkaloids. C. urucurana extracts confirmed activity for both microorganisms (p<0.05). However, higher concentrations were needed to achieve antiadherent activity, mainly to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation of C. albicans. The antiadherent potential of both plants on in vitro biofilms formed by C. albicans and S. mutans were confirmed, suggesting the importance of studies about these extracts for therapeutic prevention of oral diseases associated with oral biofilms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Analysis of Small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans under Acid Stress—A New Insight for Caries Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans is the major clinical pathogen responsible for dental caries. Its acid tolerance has been identified as a significant virulence factor for its survival and cariogenicity in acidic conditions. Small RNAs (sRNAs are recognized as key regulators of virulence and stress adaptation. Here, we constructed three libraries of sRNAs with small size exposed to acidic conditions for the first time, followed by verification using qRT-PCR. The levels of two sRNAs and target genes predicted to be bioinformatically related to acid tolerance were further evaluated under different acid stress conditions (pH 7.5, 6.5, 5.5, and 4.5 at three time points (0.5, 1, and 2 h. Meanwhile, bacterial growth characteristics and vitality were assessed. We obtained 1879 sRNAs with read counts of at least 100. One hundred and ten sRNAs were perfectly mapped to reported msRNAs in S. mutans. Ten out of 18 sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The survival of bacteria declined as the acid was increased from pH 7.5 to 4.5 at each time point. The bacteria can proliferate under each pH except pH 4.5 with time. The levels of sRNAs gradually decreased from pH 7.5 to 5.5, and slightly increased in pH 4.5; however, the expression levels of target mRNAs were up-regulated in acidic conditions than in pH 7.5. These results indicate that some sRNAs are specially induced at acid stress conditions, involving acid adaptation, and provide a new insight into exploring the complex acid tolerance for S. mutans.

  1. Production and use of carrier-free 18F in studies on the effect of trace amounts of fluoride on the metabolism of the oral cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarros, N.; Duschner, H.

    1988-01-01

    The utilization of carrier-free ionic 18 F is a convenient method for studying the effects of very low extracellular fluoride concentrations on the metabolism of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. A method was developed for the preparation of carrier-free aqueous solutions of ionic 18 F with high specific activity (about 70 7 Bq/ml). Fluoride distribution and fluoride binding experiments show that submicromolar fluoride concentrations had a negative effect on the metabolism of Streptococcus mutans. (author) 10 refs

  2. Efeitos das cepas probioticas de Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 1465 e ATCC 7469 sobre o crescimento planctonico e formação de biofilme de Streptococcus mutans UA 159

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Tamara Rodrigues de Andrade [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Most probiotic bacteria used in commercial products belong to the genus Lactobacillus. However, the effects of Lactobacillus probiotic strains in the oral health need to be further investigated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus strains, on Streptococcus mutans. Lactobacillus strains acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 1465, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 were tested on planktonic and biofilm growth of Streptococcus mutans (UA...

  3. Salivary agglutinin, which binds Streptococcus mutans and Helicobacter pylori, is the lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp-340.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakobphol, A; Xu, F; Hoang, V M; Larsson, T; Bergstrom, J; Johansson, I; Frängsmyr, L; Holmskov, U; Leffler, H; Nilsson, C; Borén, T; Wright, J R; Strömberg, N; Fisher, S J

    2000-12-22

    Salivary agglutinin is a high molecular mass component of human saliva that binds Streptococcus mutans, an oral bacterium implicated in dental caries. To study its protein sequence, we isolated the agglutinin from human parotid saliva. After trypsin digestion, a portion was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which gave the molecular mass of 14 unique peptides. The remainder of the digest was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography, and the separated peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/post-source decay; the spectra gave the sequences of five peptides. The molecular mass and peptide sequence information showed that salivary agglutinin peptides were identical to sequences in lung (lavage) gp-340, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein family. Immunoblotting with antibodies that specifically recognized either lung gp-340 or the agglutinin confirmed that the salivary agglutinin was gp-340. Immunoblotting with an antibody specific to the sialyl Le(x) carbohydrate epitope detected expression on the salivary but not the lung glycoprotein, possible evidence of different glycoforms. The salivary agglutinin also interacted with Helicobacter pylori, implicated in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, Streptococcus agalactiae, implicated in neonatal meningitis, and several oral commensal streptococci. These results identify the salivary agglutinin as gp-340 and suggest it binds bacteria that are important determinants of either the oral ecology or systemic diseases.

  4. Effects of xylitol on xylitol-sensitive versus xylitol-resistant Streptococcus mutans strains in a three-species in vitro biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttinen, Aino M; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Saari, Markku A; Ihalin, Riikka A; Söderling, Eva M

    2012-09-01

    We studied the effects of xylitol on biofilms containing xylitol-resistant (Xr) and xylitol-sensitive (Xs) Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and S. sanguinis. The biofilms were grown for 8 and 24 h on hydroxyapatite discs. The viable microorganisms were determined by plate culturing techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed using a S. mutans-specific probe. Extracellular cell-bound polysaccharides (EPS) were determined by spectrofluorometry from single-species S. mutans biofilms. In the presence of 5 % xylitol, the counts of the Xs S. mutans decreased tenfold in the young (8 h) biofilm (p Xr strains, and FISH confirmed these results. No differences were detected in the EPS production of the Xs S. mutans grown with or without xylitol, nor between Xr and Xs S. mutans strains. Thus, it seems that xylitol did not affect the EPS synthesis of the S. mutans strains. Since the Xr S. mutans strains, not inhibited by xylitol, showed no xylitol-induced decrease in the biofilms, we conclude that growth inhibition could be responsible for the decrease of the counts of the Xs S. mutans strains in the clinically relevant young biofilms.

  5. Lactobacillus acidophilus-derived biosurfactant effect on gtfB and gtfC expression level in Streptococcus mutans biofilm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tahmourespour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans, harboring biofilm formation, considered as a main aetiological factor of dental caries. Gtf genes play an important role in S. mutans biofilm formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus-derived biosurfactant on S. mutans biofilm formation and gtfB/C expression level (S. mutans standard strain ATCC35668 and isolated S. mutans strain (22 from dental plaque. The Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus DSM 20079 was selected as a probiotic strain to produce biosurfactant. The FTIR analysis of its biosurfactant showed that it appears to have a protein-like component. Due to the release of such biosurfactants, L. acidophilus was able to interfere in the adhesion and biofilm formation of the S. mutans to glass slide. It also could make streptococcal chains shorter. Using realtime RT-PCR quantitation method made it clear that gtfB and gtfC gene expression were decreased in the presence of L. acidophilus-derived biosurfactant fraction. Several properties of S. mutans cells (the surface properties, biofilm formation, adhesion ability and gene expression were changed after L. acidophilus-derived biosurfactant treatment. It is also concluded that biosurfacant treatment can provide an optional way to control biofilm development. On the basis of our findings, we can suggest that the prepared biosurfactant may interfere with adhesion processes of S. mutans to teeth surfaces, provided additional evaluation produce satisfactory results.

  6. Antimicrobial Effects of Sodium Fluoride, Xylitol and Metals Salts on in Vitro Growth Inhibition, Acid Production and Ultrastructure of Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mongy, T.M.; Abd EI-Aziz, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF), dietary sugars, sugar alcohols (xylitol and sorbitol) and different metals salts either separately or in combination, by different concentrations at different ph, on the growth inhibition, acid production and ultra structure of Streptococcus mutans. NaF was more effective at low ph, when NaF was added to actively growing Streptococcus mutans broth culture, the growth rate was unaffected by 75 ppm F-, slowed by 150 ppm F-, and immediately arrested by 300 or 600 ppm F-. On the other hand, the best effect of xylitol was at high ph. The effect of xylitol was more marked in the presence of NaF as the acid production was inhibited and the ph did not fall to 5.0. The response of Streptococcus mutans to metals salts was typical of this organism's response to a number of trace metals above optimum concentrations of which may be inhibitory. Synergistic effect observed by addition of metals salts by concentration ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 mML-1, 300 ppm NaF and 5% xylitol. This formula can work at any ph value and causes no drop of the broth culture ph to below 5.0 which is the optimal ph for growth and multiplication of Streptococcus mutans, so this formula worked as ph buffer regulation and growth inhibition for S. mutans. Low concentration of this combined formula after 5 min only at 5.0 and 7.0 ph values caused effective complete destruction of the bacterial viable cells and this effect was observed clearly by Electron Microscope photo graph

  7. Effect of oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans count in plaque and saliva using Dentocult SM Strip mutans test: A randomized, controlled, triple-blind study

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    Asokan S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oil pulling has been used extensively for many years, without scientific evidence or proof, as a traditional Indian folk remedy to prevent teeth decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums, dryness of throat and cracked lips, and for strengthening the teeth, gums, and jaws. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with sesame oil on the count of Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva of children, using the Dentocult SM Strip mutans test, and to compare its efficacy with that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: Twenty age-matched adolescent boys were selected based on information obtained through a questionnaire. They were divided randomly into two groups: the control or chlorhexidine group (group I and the study or oil pulling group (group II; there were ten subjects in each group. Plaque and saliva samples were collected from all the 20 subjects on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and, after incubation, the presence of S. mutans was evaluated using the manufacturers′ chart. The study group practiced oil pulling with sesame oil and the control group used chlorhexidine mouthwash for 10 min every day in the morning before brushing. Samples were collected from both groups after 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks and the efficacy of oil pulling was compared with that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Results: There was a reduction in the S. mutans count in the plaque and saliva samples of both the study and the control groups. The reduction in the S. mutans count in the plaque of the study group was statistically significant after 1 and 2 weeks (P = 0.01 and P = 0.008, respectively; the control group showed significant reduction at all the four time points (P = 0.01, P = 0.04, P = 0.005, and P = 0.005, respectively, at 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks. In the saliva samples, significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in the control group at 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks (P = 0.02, P = 0.02, P = 0

  8. Inhibited biofilm formation and improved antibacterial activity of a novel nanoemulsion against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in vitro and in vivo

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    Li YF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yun Fei Li,1,2,* Hong Wu Sun,1,2,* Rong Gao,1–3,* Kai Yun Liu,1,2 Hua Qi Zhang,4 Qi Huan Fu,1,2 Sheng Li Qing,1,2 Gang Guo,1,2 Quan Ming Zou1,2,* 1National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, 2Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4Wanzhou Institute for Food and Drug Control of Chongqing, Wanzhou, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The aim of this study was to prepare a novel nanoemulsion loaded with poorly water-soluble chlorhexidine acetate (CNE to improve its solubility, and specifically enhance the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and in vivo. In this study, a novel CNE nanoemulsion with an average size of 63.13 nm and zeta potential of −67.13 mV comprising 0.5% CNE, 19.2% Tween 80, 4.8% propylene glycol, and 6% isopropyl myristate was prepared by the phase inversion method. Important characteristics such as the content, size, zeta potential, and pH value of CNE did not change markedly, stored at room temperature for 1 year. Also, compared with chlorhexidine acetate water solution (CHX, the release profile results show that the CNE has visibly delayed releasing effect in both phosphate-buffered saline and artificial saliva solutions (P<0.005. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of CHX for S. mutans (both 0.8 µg/mL are both two times those of CNE (0.4 µg/mL. Besides, CNE of 0.8 µg/mL exhibited fast-acting bactericidal efficacy against S. mutans, causing 95.07% death within 5 minutes, compared to CHX (73.33% (P<0.01. We observed that 5 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL CNE were both superior to CHX, significantly reducing oral S. mutans numbers and reducing the severity of carious lesions in Sprague Dawley rats (P<0.05, in an in vivo test

  9. Candida albicans mannans mediate Streptococcus mutans exoenzyme GtfB binding to modulate cross-kingdom biofilm development in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Li, Yong; Krysan, Damian J; Koo, Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Candida albicans is frequently detected with heavy infection by Streptococcus mutans in plaque-biofilms from children with early-childhood caries (ECC). This cross-kingdom biofilm contains an extensive matrix of extracellular α-glucans that is produced by an exoenzyme (GtfB) secreted by S. mutans. Here, we report that mannans located on the outer surface of C. albicans cell-wall mediates GtfB binding, enhancing glucan-matrix production and modulating bacterial-fungal association within biofilms formed in vivo. Using single-molecule atomic force microscopy, we determined that GtfB binds with remarkable affinity to mannans and to the C. albicans surface, forming a highly stable and strong bond (1-2 nN). However, GtfB binding properties to C. albicans was compromised in strains defective in O-mannan (pmt4ΔΔ) or N-mannan outer chain (och1ΔΔ). In particular, the binding strength of GtfB on och1ΔΔ strain was severely disrupted (>3-fold reduction vs. parental strain). In turn, the GtfB amount on the fungal surface was significantly reduced, and the ability of C. albicans mutant strains to develop mixed-species biofilms with S. mutans was impaired. This phenotype was independent of hyphae or established fungal-biofilm regulators (EFG1, BCR1). Notably, the mechanical stability of the defective biofilms was weakened, resulting in near complete biomass removal by shear forces. In addition, these in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo using a rodent biofilm model. Specifically, we observed that C. albicans och1ΔΔ was unable to form cross-kingdom biofilms on the tooth surface of rats co-infected with S. mutans. Likewise, co-infection with S. mutans defective in GtfB was also incapable of forming mixed-species biofilms. Taken together, the data support a mechanism whereby S. mutans-secreted GtfB binds to the mannan layer of C. albicans to promote extracellular matrix formation and their co-existence within biofilms. Enhanced understanding of GtfB-Candida interactions

  10. Influence of a Brazilian wild green propolis on the enamel mineral loss and Streptococcus mutans' count in dental biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Julia Gabiroboertz; Iorio, Natalia Lopes Pontes; Rodrigues, Luís Fernando; Couri, Maria Luiza Barra; Farah, Adriana; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the anti-demineralizing and antibacterial effects of a propolis ethanolic extract (EEP) against Streptococcus mutans dental biofilm. Blocks of sound bovine enamel (n=24) were fixed on polystyrene plates. S. mutans inoculum (ATCC 25175) and culture media were added (48 h-37 °C) to form biofilm. Blocks with biofilm received daily treatment (30 μL/1 min), for 5 days, as following: G1 (EEP 33.3%); G2 (chlorhexidine digluconate 0.12%); G3 (ethanol 80%); and G4 (Milli-Q water). G5 and G6 were blocks without biofilm that received only EEP and Milli-Q water, respectively. Final surface hardness was evaluated and the percentage of hardness loss (%HL) was calculated. The EEP extract pH and total solids were determined. S. mutans count was expressed by log10 scale of Colony-Forming Units (CFU/mL). One way ANOVA was used to compare results which differed at a 95% significance level. G2 presented the lowest average %HL value (68.44% ± 12.98) (p=0.010), while G4 presented the highest (90.49% ± 5.38%HL) (p=0.007). G1 showed %HL (84.41% ± 2.77) similar to G3 (87.80% ± 6.89) (p=0.477). Groups G5 and G6 presented %HL=16.11% ± 7.92 and 20.55% ± 10.65; respectively (p=0.952). G1 and G4 differed as regards to S. mutans count: 7.26 ± 0.08 and 8.29 ± 0.17 CFU/mL, respectively (p=0.001). The lowest bacterial count was observed in chlorhexidine group (G2=6.79 ± 0.10 CFU/mL) (p=0.043). There was no difference between S. mutans count of G3 and G4 (p=0.435). The EEP showed pH 4.8 and total soluble solids content=25.9 Brix. The EEP seems to be a potent antibacterial substance against S. mutans dental biofilm, but presented no inhibitory action on the de-remineralization of caries process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Invasive Streptococcus mutans induces inflammatory cytokine production in human aortic endothelial cells via regulation of intracellular toll-like receptor 2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, E; Oho, T

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, can gain access to the bloodstream and has been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the roles of S. mutans in inflammation in cardiovascular disease remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine cytokine production induced by S. mutans in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and to evaluate the participation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors in HAECs. Cytokine production by HAECs was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the expression of TLRs and NOD-like receptors was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The involvement of TLR2 and NOD2 in cytokine production by invaded HAECs was examined using RNA interference. The invasion efficiencies of S. mutans strains were evaluated by means of antibiotic protection assays. Five of six strains of S. mutans of various serotypes induced interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production by HAECs. All S. mutans strains upregulated TLR2 and NOD2 mRNA levels in HAECs. Streptococcus mutans Xc upregulated the intracellular TLR2 and NOD2 protein levels in HAECs. Silencing of the TLR2 and NOD2 genes in HAECs invaded by S. mutans Xc led to a reduction in interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production. Cytokine production induced by invasive S. mutans via intracellular TLR2 and NOD2 in HAECs may be associated with inflammation in cardiovascular disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hydroxy decenoic acid down regulates gtfB and gtfC expression and prevents Streptococcus mutans adherence to the cell surfaces

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    Yousefi Behnam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid is the most active and unique component to the royal jelly that has antimicrobial properties. Streptococcus mutans is associated with pathogenesis of oral cavity, gingivoperiodontal diseases and bacteremia following dental manipulations. In the oral cavity, S. mutans colonize the soft tissues including tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. When considering the role of supragingival dental plaque in caries, the proportion of acid producing bacteria (particularly S. mutans, has direct relevance to the pathogenicity of the plaque. The genes that encode glucosyltransferases (gtfs especially gtfB and gtfC are important in S. mutans colonization and pathogenesis. This study investigated the hydroxy-decenoic acid (HDA effects on gtfB and gtfC expression and S. mutans adherence to cells surfaces. Methods Streptococcus mutans was treated by different concentrations of HPLC purified HDA supplied by Iran Beekeeping and Veterinary Association. Real time RT-PCR and western blot assays were conducted to evaluate gtfB and gtfC genes transcription and translation before and after HDA treatment. The bacterial attachment to the cell surfaces was evaluated microscopically. Results 500 μg ml-1 of HDA inhibited gtfB and gtfC mRNA transcription and its expression. The same concentration of HDA decreased 60% the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of P19 cells. Conclusion Hydroxy-decenoic acid prevents gtfB and gtfC expression efficiently in the bactericide sub-concentrations and it could effectively reduce S. mutans adherence to the cell surfaces. In the future, therapeutic approaches to affecting S. mutans could be selective and it’s not necessary to put down the oral flora completely.

  13. Hydroxy decenoic acid down regulates gtfB and gtfC expression and prevents Streptococcus mutans adherence to the cell surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Behnam; Ghaderi, Shahrooz; Rezapoor-Lactooyi, Alireza; Amiri, Niusha; Verdi, Javad; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2012-07-28

    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid is the most active and unique component to the royal jelly that has antimicrobial properties. Streptococcus mutans is associated with pathogenesis of oral cavity, gingivoperiodontal diseases and bacteremia following dental manipulations. In the oral cavity, S. mutans colonize the soft tissues including tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. When considering the role of supragingival dental plaque in caries, the proportion of acid producing bacteria (particularly S. mutans), has direct relevance to the pathogenicity of the plaque. The genes that encode glucosyltransferases (gtfs) especially gtfB and gtfC are important in S. mutans colonization and pathogenesis. This study investigated the hydroxy-decenoic acid (HDA) effects on gtfB and gtfC expression and S. mutans adherence to cells surfaces. Streptococcus mutans was treated by different concentrations of HPLC purified HDA supplied by Iran Beekeeping and Veterinary Association. Real time RT-PCR and western blot assays were conducted to evaluate gtfB and gtfC genes transcription and translation before and after HDA treatment. The bacterial attachment to the cell surfaces was evaluated microscopically. 500 μg ml-1 of HDA inhibited gtfB and gtfC mRNA transcription and its expression. The same concentration of HDA decreased 60% the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of P19 cells. Hydroxy-decenoic acid prevents gtfB and gtfC expression efficiently in the bactericide sub-concentrations and it could effectively reduce S. mutans adherence to the cell surfaces. In the future, therapeutic approaches to affecting S. mutans could be selective and it's not necessary to put down the oral flora completely.

  14. Identifikasi epitop dari Streptococcus mutans terhadap sekretori Imunoglobulin A saliva (The identification of Streptococcus mutans epitopes to secretory Immunoglobulin A saliva

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    Anita Yuliati

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available S. mutans is one of the etiology agent of dental caries, these bacteria have a surface protein of about 185 kDa named Ag I/II. The secretory of sIgA saliva to Ag I/II of S.mutans has shown to be able to prevent colonization in human oral cavity. Peptides derived from the 824 to 853 residues of the P region of antigen I/II S. mutans related to the pathogenesis of dental caries. The aim of this study was to identify the overlapping sequence of amino acids (epitope derived from the 624 to 853 residues of P of antigen I/II S. mutans to sIgA saliva on caries and caries-free subject in a observational cross sectional study. The P region of antigen I/II S.mutans was cut into 22 peptides of 9 mer sequences with an overlapping of 8 mer and an offset of 1 mer, synthesized on polyethylene pins and tested for the reactivity with an ELISA indirect method to sIgA saliva on caries and caries-free subject. The results of this study showed that amino acid sequences with TPPVKP (832–837 and TAPTKPTY (838–845 were reactive to sIgA saliva on caries and caries-free subject. The conclusion of this study was that the overlapping common sequence of amino acid (epitopes corresponding to TPPVKP (832–837 and TAPTKPTY (838–845 was identified as caries marker epitopes in human.

  15. Antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem (Azadirachta indica and Babool (Acacia nilotica on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

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    R Pandya Sajankumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine because of their natural origin, easy availability, efficacy, and safety. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem and Babool on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% of Neem and Babool aqueous extract with 5%, 10%, and 50% of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on S. mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 7 mm diameter. The plates were left for 1 h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48 h and examined for zone of inhibition. Results: Inhibitory effect of 5% Neem is significantly better than 5% Babool and 5% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. At 10% and 50%, Neem and Babool are significantly better than chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Inhibitory effect of Babool increases as the concentration increases (P < 0.05. The inhibitory effect of 5% and 50% chlorhexidine mouthwash is better than 10% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Neem exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity compared with Babool and chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  16. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  17. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.961 protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiong-Zhuo; Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, XiaoJun; Liang, Yu-He

    2007-01-01

    The SMU.961 protein from S. mutans was crystallized and preliminary characterization of the crystals, which diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution, shows them to belong to space group C2. The smu.961 gene encodes a putative protein of 183 residues in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in human dental caries. The gene was cloned into expression vector pET28a and expressed in a substantial quantity in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) with a His tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein SMU.961 was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure consisting of Ni 2+ -chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution at beamline I911-3, MAX-II-lab, Sweden. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.62, b = 73.73, c = 184.73 Å, β = 98.82°

  18. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SMU.961 protein from the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiong-Zhuo [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, XiaoJun, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)

    2007-10-01

    The SMU.961 protein from S. mutans was crystallized and preliminary characterization of the crystals, which diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution, shows them to belong to space group C2. The smu.961 gene encodes a putative protein of 183 residues in Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen in human dental caries. The gene was cloned into expression vector pET28a and expressed in a substantial quantity in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) with a His tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein SMU.961 was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure consisting of Ni{sup 2+}-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution at beamline I911-3, MAX-II-lab, Sweden. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.62, b = 73.73, c = 184.73 Å, β = 98.82°.

  19. Streptococcus mutans NADH oxidase lies at the intersection of overlapping regulons controlled by oxygen and NAD+ levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J L; Derr, A M; Karuppaiah, K; MacGilvray, M E; Kajfasz, J K; Faustoferri, R C; Rivera-Ramos, I; Bitoun, J P; Lemos, J A; Wen, Z T; Quivey, R G

    2014-06-01

    NADH oxidase (Nox, encoded by nox) is a flavin-containing enzyme used by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans to reduce diatomic oxygen to water while oxidizing NADH to NAD(+). The critical nature of Nox is 2-fold: it serves to regenerate NAD(+), a carbon cycle metabolite, and to reduce intracellular oxygen, preventing formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). As oxygen and NAD(+) have been shown to modulate the activity of the global transcription factors Spx and Rex, respectively, Nox is potentially poised at a critical junction of two stress regulons. In this study, microarray data showed that either addition of oxygen or loss of nox resulted in altered expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and transport and the upregulation of genes encoding ROS-metabolizing enzymes. Loss of nox also resulted in upregulation of several genes encoding transcription factors and signaling molecules, including the redox-sensing regulator gene rex. Characterization of the nox promoter revealed that nox was regulated by oxygen, through SpxA, and by Rex. These data suggest a regulatory loop in which the roles of nox in reduction of oxygen and regeneration of NAD(+) affect the activity levels of Spx and Rex, respectively, and their regulons, which control several genes, including nox, crucial to growth of S. mutans under conditions of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The Effect of Coconut Oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Mamta; Reddy, Pallavi; Sharma, Roshni; Udameshi, Pooja; Mehra, Neha; Marwaha, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Oil pulling is an age-old practice that has gained modern popularity in promoting oral and systemic health. The scientific verification for this practice is insufficient. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of coconut oil pulling on the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and to compare its efficacy with that of Chlorhexidine mouthwash: in vivo. The null hypothesis was that coconut oil pulling has no effect on the bacterial count in saliva. A randomized controlled study was planned and 60 subjects were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups, Group A: Oil pulling, Group B: Chlorhexidine, and Group C: Distilled water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 10 ml of coconut oil for 10 minutes. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml Chlorhexidine mouthwash for 1 minute and Group C with 5 ml distilled water for 1 minute in the morning before brushing. Saliva samples were collected and cultured on 1st day and after 2 weeks from all subjects. Colonies were counted to compare the efficacy of coconut oil and Chlorhexidine with distilled water. Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in both the coconut oil pulling and Chlorhexidine group. Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine. Edible oil-pulling therapy is natural, safe and has no side effects. Hence, it can be considered as a preventive therapy at home to maintain oral hygiene.

  1. Streptococcal adhesin SspA/B analogue peptide inhibits adherence and impacts biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Ito

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of dental caries, adheres to tooth surfaces via the host salivary glycoprotein-340 (gp340. This adherence can be competitively inhibited by peptides derived from the SspA/B adhesins of Streptococcus gordonii, a human commensal microbe that competes for the same binding sites. Ssp(A4K-A11K, a double-lysine substituted SspA/B peptide analogue, has been shown to exhibit superior in vitro binding affinity for a gp340-derived peptide (SRCRP2, suggesting that Ssp(A4K-A11K may be of clinical interest. In the present work, we tested the inhibitory effects of Ssp(A4K-A11K on adherence and biofilm formation of S. mutans by reconstructing an artificial oral environment using saliva-coated polystyrene plates and hydroxyapatite disks. Bacterial adherence (adherence period: 1 h was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using biotinylated bacterial cells. Biofilm formation (periods: 8, 11, or 14 h was assessed by staining and imaging of the sessile cells, or by recovering biofilm cells and plating for cell counts. The pH values of the culture media were measured as a biofilm acidogenicity indicator. Bactericidality was measured by loss of optical density during culturing in the presence of the peptide. We observed that 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K significantly inhibited adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated polystyrene; a similar effect was seen on bacterial affinity for SRCRP2. Ssp(A4K-A11K had lesser effects on the adherence of commensal streptococci. Pretreatment of polystyrene and hydroxyapatite with 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K significantly attenuated biofilm formation, whether tested with glucose- or sucrose-containing media. The SspA/B peptide's activity did not reflect bactericidality. Strikingly, pH in Ssp-treated 8-h (6.8 ± 0.06 and 11-h (5.5 ± 0.06 biofilms showed higher values than the critical pH. Thus, Ssp(A4K-A11K acts by inhibiting bacterial adherence and cariogrnic biofilm formation. We further

  2. Coordinated Regulation of the EIIMan and fruRKI Operons of Streptococcus mutans by Global and Fructose-Specific Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Chakraborty, Brinta; Farivar, Tanaz; Burne, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    The glucose/mannose-phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease EII Man encoded by manLMN in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans has a dominant influence on sugar-specific, CcpA-independent catabolite repression (CR). Mutations in manL affect energy metabolism and virulence-associated traits, including biofilm formation, acid tolerance, and competence. Using promoter::reporter fusions, expression of the manLMN and the fruRKI operons, encoding a transcriptional regulator, a fructose-1-phosphate kinase and a fructose-PTS permease EII Fru , respectively, was monitored in response to carbohydrate source and in mutants lacking CcpA, FruR, and components of EII Man Expression of genes for EII Man and EII Fru was directly regulated by CcpA and CR, as evinced by in vivo and in vitro methods. Unexpectedly, not only was the fruRKI operon negatively regulated by FruR, but also so was manLMN Carbohydrate transport by EII Man had a negative influence on expression of manLMN but not fruRKI In agreement with the proposed role of FruR in regulating these PTS operons, loss of fruR or fruK substantially altered growth on a number of carbohydrates, including fructose. RNA deep sequencing revealed profound changes in gene regulation caused by deletion of fruK or fruR Collectively, these findings demonstrate intimate interconnection of the regulation of two major PTS permeases in S. mutans and reveal novel and important contributions of fructose metabolism to global regulation of gene expression. IMPORTANCE The ability of Streptococcus mutans and other streptococcal pathogens to survive and cause human diseases is directly dependent upon their capacity to metabolize a variety of carbohydrates, including glucose and fructose. Our research reveals that metabolism of fructose has broad influences on the regulation of utilization of glucose and other sugars, and mutants with changes in certain genes involved in fructose metabolism display profoundly different abilities to grow and

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica, Pongamia pinnata, Psidium guajava, and Mangifera indica and their mechanism of action against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, Dikonketso Cathrine; Prasad, Preety; Srivastava, Ajay; Crampton, Brigdet; Lall, Namrita Sharan

    2018-01-01

    Curative plants have reportedly been used to make chewing sticks/toothbrushes intended for the treatment of oral diseases. The in vitro antibacterial activities of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata , Psidium guajava , and Mangifera indica were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans , along with the cytotoxicity and antioxidant and synergistic potentials. The effect of M. indica on the expression of crucial virulence genes spaP and gtfB of S. mutans was determined. The antibacterial activity was determined using a modified microdilution method. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Griess reagent, and nitroblue tetrazolium calorimetric assays. The synergistic activity was investigated using a modified checkerboard method, while the cytotoxicity was determined according to a cell proliferation 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide salt assay. Reverse transcription was the chosen method for determining the difference in expression of the spaP and gtfB genes after treatment with the plant sample. M. indica and A. indica had the highest antibacterial activity at concentrations of 0.3 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. A. indica had the best free radical scavenging of DPPH, exhibiting 50% inhibition at 28.72 μg/ml; while M. indica showed better superoxide scavenging potential than the positive control quercetin. Both M. indica and A. indica had adequate activity against the nitric oxide-free radical (12.87 and 18.89 μg/ml, respectively). M. indica selectively reduced the expression of the gtfB gene, indicating a mechanism involving Glucotranferases, specifically targeting bacterial attachment. Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica had very good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and moderate toxicity against Vero cells M. indica had the best antioxidant capacity overall M. indica reduced the expression of gtfB gene at 0.5 mg/ml. Abbreviations used : AA: Ascorbic acid; BHI

  4. Vizantin inhibits bacterial adhesion without affecting bacterial growth and causes Streptococcus mutans biofilm to detach by altering its internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shoji; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohshima, Hayato; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2016-11-11

    An ideal antibiofilm strategy is to control both in the quality and quantity of biofilm while maintaining the benefits derived from resident microflora. Vizantin, a recently developed immunostimulating compound, has also been found to have antibiofilm property. This study evaluated the influence on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sulfated vizantin and biofilm development following bacterial adhesion on a hydroxyapatite disc coated with sulfated vizantin. Supplementation with sulfated vizantin up to 50 μM did not affect either bacterial growth or biofilm formation, whereas 50 μM sulfated vizantin caused the biofilm to readily detach from the surface. Sulfated vizantin at the concentration of 50 μM upregulated the expression of the gtfB and gtfC genes, but downregulated the expression of the gtfD gene, suggesting altered architecture in the biofilm. Biofilm development on the surface coated with sulfated vizantin was inhibited depending on the concentration, suggesting prevention from bacterial adhesion. Among eight genes related to bacterial adherence in S. mutans, expression of gtfB and gtfC was significantly upregulated, whereas the expression of gtfD, GbpA and GbpC was downregulated according to the concentration of vizantin, especially with 50 μM vizantin by 0.8-, 0.4-, and 0.4-fold, respectively. These findings suggest that sulfated vizantin may cause structural degradation as a result of changing gene regulation related to bacterial adhesion and glucan production of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement or resin-based composite

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    Solange Machado Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU (colony forming units in the saliva and plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with a glass ionomer cement - GIC (Fuji Ortho or a resin-based composite - RC (Concise. Twenty male and female patients, aged 12 to 20 years, participated in the study. Saliva was collected before and after placement of appliances. Plaque was collected from areas adjacent to brackets and saliva was again collected on the 15th, 30th, and 45th day after placement. On the 30th day, 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was applied for 4 minutes. No significant modification in the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in saliva was observed after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliances. On the 15th day, the percentage of Streptococcus mutans CFU in plaque was statistically lower in sites adjacent to GIC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.365 than in those adjacent to RC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.935. No evidence was found of a contribution of GIC to the reduction of CFU in plaque after the 15th day. Topical application of stannous fluoride gel on the 30th day reduced the number of CFU in saliva, but not in plaque. This study suggests that the antimicrobial activity of GIC occurs only in the initial phase and is not responsible for a long-term anticariogenic property.

  6. PBP1a-deficiency causes major defects in cell division, growth and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

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    Zezhang T Wen

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of human dental caries, lives almost exclusively on the tooth surface in plaque biofilms and is known for its ability to survive and respond to various environmental insults, including low pH, and antimicrobial agents from other microbes and oral care products. In this study, a penicillin-binding protein (PBP1a-deficient mutant, strain JB467, was generated by allelic replacement mutagenesis and analyzed for the effects of such a deficiency on S. mutans' stress tolerance response and biofilm formation. Our results so far have shown that PBP1a-deficiency in S. mutans affects growth of the deficient mutant, especially at acidic and alkaline pHs. As compared to the wild-type, UA159, the PBP1a-deficient mutant, JB467, had a reduced growth rate at pH 6.2 and did not grow at all at pH 8.2. Unlike the wild-type, the inclusion of paraquat in growth medium, especially at 2 mM or above, significantly reduced the growth rate of the mutant. Acid killing assays showed that the mutant was 15-fold more sensitive to pH 2.8 than the wild-type after 30 minutes. In a hydrogen peroxide killing assay, the mutant was 16-fold more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide (0.2%, w/v after 90 minutes than the wild-type. Relative to the wild-type, the mutant also had an aberrant autolysis rate, indicative of compromises in cell envelope integrity. As analyzed using on 96-well plate model and spectrophotometry, biofilm formation by the mutant was decreased significantly, as compared to the wild-type. Consistently, Field Emission-SEM analysis also showed that the PBP1a-deficient mutant had limited capacity to form biofilms. TEM analysis showed that PBP1a mutant existed primarily in long rod-like cells and cells with multiple septa, as compared to the coccal wild-type. The results presented here highlight the importance of pbp1a in cell morphology, stress tolerance, and biofilm formation in S. mutans.

  7. Inhibiting effects of fructanase on competence-stimulating peptide-dependent quorum sensing system in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Ryo; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2017-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans produces glucosyltransferases encoded by the gtfB and gtfC genes, which synthesize insoluble glucan, and both insoluble and soluble glucans by conversion of sucrose, and are known as principal agents to provide strong biofilm formation and demineralization on tooth surfaces. S. mutans possess a Com-dependent quorum sensing (QS) system, which is important for survival in severe conditions. The QS system is stimulated by the interaction between ComD {Receptor to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)} encoded by the comD and CSP encoded by the comC, and importantly associated with bacteriocin production and genetic competence. Previously, we found enzyme fructanase (FruA) as a new inhibitor for the glucan-dependent biofilm formation. In the present study, inhibiting effects by FruA on glucan-independent biofilm formation of S. mutans UA159, UA159.gtfB - , UA159.gtfC - , and UA159.gtfBC - were observed in sucrose and no sucrose sugars-supplemented conditions using the plate assay. The reduction of UA159.comC - and UA159.comD - biofilm formation were also observed as compared with UA159 in same conditions. These results suggested that inhibitions of glucan-independent and Com-dependent biofilm formation were involved in the inhibiting mechanism by FruA. To more thoroughly investigate effects by FruA on the QS system, we examined on CSP-stimulated and Com-dependent bacteriocin production and genetic transformation. FruA inhibited bacteriocin production in collaboration with CSP and genetic transformation in bacterial cell conditions treated with FruA. Our findings show that FruA has multiple effects that inhibit survival functions of S. mutans, including biofilm formation and CSP-dependent QS responses, indicating its potential use as an agent for prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and functional analysis of the L-ascorbate-specific enzyme II complex of the phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinyu; Hou, Jin; Chen, Xiaodan; Chen, Xuan; Zhao, Wanghong

    2016-03-22

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. It can metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates and produce large amounts of organic acids that cause enamel demineralization. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays an important role in carbohydrates uptake of S. mutans. The ptxA and ptxB genes in S. mutans encode putative enzyme IIA and enzyme IIB of the L-ascorbate-specific PTS. The aim of this study was to analyze the function of these proteins and understand the transcriptional regulatory mechanism. ptxA (-), ptxB (-), as well as ptxA (-) , ptxB (-) double-deletion mutants all had more extended lag phase and lower growth yield than wild-type strain UA159 when grown in the medium using L-ascorbate as the sole carbon source. Acid production and acid killing assays showed that the absence of the ptxA and ptxB genes resulted in a reduction in the capacity for acidogenesis, and all three mutant strains did not survive an acid shock. According to biofilm and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) formation analysis, all the mutant strains formed much less prolific biofilms with small amounts of EPS than wild-type UA159 when using L-ascorbate as the sole carbon source. Moreover, PCR analysis and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that sgaT, ptxA, ptxB, SMU.273, SMU.274 and SMU.275 appear to be parts of the same operon. The transcription levels of these genes were all elevated in the presence of L-ascorbate, and the expression of ptxA gene decreased significantly once ptxB gene was knockout. The ptxA and ptxB genes are involved in the growth, aciduricity, acidogenesis, and formation of biofilms and EPS of S. mutans when L-ascorbate is the sole carbon source. In addition, the expression of ptxA is regulated by ptxB. ptxA, ptxB, and the upstream gene sgaT, the downstream genes SMU.273, SMU.274 and SMU.275 appear to be parts of the same operon, and L-ascorbate is a potential inducer of the operon.

  9. Comparison of antimicrobial effects of titanium tetrafluoride, chlorhexidine, xylitol and sodium fluoride on streptococcus mutans: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarian, Tahereh; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Arasteh, Peyman; Eghbali, Seyed Sajad; Adib, Ali; Abdoli, Zahra

    2017-03-01

    No studies have yet documented the bactericidal effects of TiF4, and its role in the treatment of dental caries, and no definite protocol has been introduced to regulate its use. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial/bactericidal effects of TiF4 on Streptococcus Mutans ( S. Mutans ) and to compare it with chlorhexidine (Chx), sodium fluoride (NaF) and xylitol. This study was conducted at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences microbiology laboratory during March 2015 to September 2015. In this in-vitro study, first a bacterial suspension was prepared and adjusted to a 0.5 McFarland standard (equivalent to 1×10 8 CFU/ml). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of TiF4, Chx, NaF and xylitol were assessed using broth microdilution assay and disk diffusion methods. In order to neutralize the acidic nature of TiF4, we used a sodium hydroxide preparation to obtain a pH of 7.2 and repeated all of the previous tests with the neutralized TiF4 solution. We reported the final results as percentages where appropriate. The MIC of TiF4, NaF and Chx for S. Mutans were 12.5%, 12.5% and 6.25%, respectively. At a concentration of 12.5% the inhibition zone diameters were 9 mm, 15mm and 14mm for TiF4, NaF and Chx, respectively. The MBC was 25%, 12.5% and 12.5% for TiF4, NaF and Chx, respectively. Xylitol failed to show any bactericidal or growth inhibitory effect in all of its concentrations. When we repeated the tests with an adjusted pH, identical results were obtained. TiF4 solutions have anti-growth and bactericidal effects on S. Mutans at a concentration of 12.5% which is comparable with chlorhexidine and NaF, indicating the possible use of this solution in dental practice as an anti-cariogenic agent, furthermore the antimicrobial activity is unaffected by pH of the environment.

  10. Development and characterization of p1025-loaded bioadhesive liquid-crystalline system for the prevention of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Duque, Cristiane; Aida, Kelly Limi; Dos Santos, Vanessa Rodrigues; Massunari, Loiane; Chorilli, Marlus

    2018-01-01

    Formation of a dental biofilm by Streptococcus mutans can cause dental caries, and remains a costly health problem worldwide. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of peptidic drugs, such as peptide p1025, analogous to the fragments 1025-1044 of S. mutans cellular adhesin, responsible for the adhesion and formation of dental biofilm. However, peptides have physicochemical characteristics that may affect their biological action, limiting their clinical performance. Therefore, drug-delivery systems, such as a bioadhesive liquid-crystalline system (LCS), may be attractive strategies for peptide delivery. Potentiation of the action of LCS can be achieved with the use of bioadhesive polymers to prolong their residence on the teeth. In line with this, three formulations - polyoxypropylene-(5)-polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl alcohol, oleic acid, and Carbopol C974P in different combinations (F1C, F2C, and F3C) were developed to observe the influence of water in the LCS, with the aim of achieving in situ gelling in the oral environment. These formulations were assessed by polarized light microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, rheological analysis, and in vitro bioadhesion analysis. Then, p1025 and a control (chlorhexidine) were incorporated into the aqueous phase of the formulation (F + p1025 and F + chlorhexidine), to determine their antibiofilm effect and toxicity on epithelial cells. Polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering showed that F1C and F2C were LCS, whereas F3C was a microemulsion. F1C and F2C showed pseudoplastic behavior and F3C Newtonian behavior. F1C showed the highest elastic and bioadhesive characteristics compared to other formulations. Antibiofilm effects were observed for F + p1025 when applied in the surface-bound salivary phase. The p1025-loaded nanostructured LCS presented limited cytotoxicity and effectively reduced S. mutans biofilm formation, and could be a promising p1025-delivery strategy to prevent the formation

  11. Development and characterization of p1025-loaded bioadhesive liquid-crystalline system for the prevention of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

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    Calixto GMF

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto,1 Cristiane Duque,2 Kelly Limi Aida,2 Vanessa Rodrigues dos Santos,2 Loiane Massunari,2 Marlus Chorilli1 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP, Araraquara, Brazil; 2School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP, Araçatuba, Brazil Abstract: Formation of a dental biofilm by Streptococcus mutans can cause dental caries, and remains a costly health problem worldwide. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of peptidic drugs, such as peptide p1025, analogous to the fragments 1025–1044 of S. mutans cellular adhesin, responsible for the adhesion and formation of dental biofilm. However, peptides have physicochemical characteristics that may affect their biological action, limiting their clinical performance. Therefore, drug-delivery systems, such as a bioadhesive liquid-crystalline system (LCS, may be attractive strategies for peptide delivery. Potentiation of the action of LCS can be achieved with the use of bioadhesive polymers to prolong their residence on the teeth. In line with this, three formulations – polyoxypropylene-(5-polyoxyethylene-(20-cetyl alcohol, oleic acid, and Carbopol C974P in different combinations (F1C, F2C, and F3C were developed to observe the influence of water in the LCS, with the aim of achieving in situ gelling in the oral environment. These formulations were assessed by polarized light microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, rheological analysis, and in vitro bioadhesion analysis. Then, p1025 and a control (chlorhexidine were incorporated into the aqueous phase of the formulation (F + p1025 and F + chlorhexidine, to determine their antibiofilm effect and toxicity on epithelial cells. Polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering showed that F1C and F2C were LCS, whereas F3C was a microemulsion. F1C and F2C showed pseudoplastic behavior and F3C Newtonian behavior. F1C showed the highest elastic and bioadhesive

  12. Comparing Properties (Concentration, PH and mutans streptococcus Saliva in Both Status Resting Saliva and Stimulated Saliva in Preschoolers of Kerman city

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    Elham Farokh-Gisour,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to compare the characteristics (concentration, PH and mutans streptococcus saliva in both status resting saliva and stimulated saliva in preschoolers of Kerman city. In this study, 100 children aged 5 years among patients admitted to the pediatric ward of Kerman dental school and dental offices, some experts in Kerman dental school participated. Resting and stimulated saliva (after chewing oral paraffin children collected and in concentrations, PH and the amount of mutans streptococcus was measured. Mc Nemar test to compare the frequency of positive and negative cultures before and after stimulation as well as paired t-test to compare the saliva pH and concentration of not stimulated saliva and stimulated saliva in two modes was used. The significance level was set less than 0.05.The mean resting salivary osmolality of the population: 30.42 ± 87.41 and the average salivary osmolality of the total population were 79.81. Osmolality differences in saliva before and after stimulation with each other was significant (p = 0.009, paired t-test. The mean of resting saliva in the total population PH 0.45 ± 7.78 and the average PH stimulated saliva in the total population was 8.22 and the difference before and after each significant (p = 0.02, paired t-test. In mutans streptococcus in test samples in all 71 patients (71% positive test and 29 patients (29% had a negative test that number of positive cultures are equal before and after stimulation of saliva and thus the difference between the two groups (p> 0.05 was observed. In terms of comparing the properties of resting and stimulated saliva can conclude that salivary stimulated PH was significantly higher than resting saliva. While stimulated saliva osmolality was significantly less than resting saliva and the frequency of positive test mutans streptococcus in saliva before and after stimulation had no significant difference (p> 0.05. This means that test results on samples of mutans

  13. Role of Streptococcus Anginosus on the formation of dental caries

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    Yetty Herdiyati Nonong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the etiology of dental caries is the cariogenic properties of bacteria, these are always associated with Streptococcus mutans. Glucosyltransferase fragment (Gtf are also in other strains of Streptococcus such as Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus milleri which includes beta hemolysis. Genotypically B Streptococcus anginosus has genetic characteristics that are similar to Streptococcus mutans. The research objective was to determine the existence of Gtf B/C gene as a cause of caries in Streptococcus anginosus. The study was conducted in experimental laboratories with PCR technique by taking a sample of 20 children who had caries. The results showed there was the amplification of Streptococcus anginosus with a level of homology 96%, 97%, and 99%. The results of the Gtf genes amplification fragment B/C provided 600 pb ribbon. The conclusion was Streptococcus anginosus classified as cariogenic bacteria because they had Gtf B/C genes.

  14. Time-kill kinetic analysis of antimicrobial chemotherapy based on hydrogen peroxide photolysis against Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirato, Midori; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Lingström, Peter; Niwano, Yoshimi; Örtengren, Ulf

    2017-08-01

    A recently developed antimicrobial technique utilizing hydroxyl radicals generated by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) photolysis represents a promising new therapy for preventing and treating dental caries. The present study compared the antimicrobial time-kill kinetics of H 2 O 2 photolysis, conventional antiseptics, and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against biofilm-forming Streptococcus mutans (cariogenic bacteria) grown on hydroxyapatite disks. H 2 O 2 photolysis was performed by irradiating the biofilm immersed in 3% H 2 O 2 with 365-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light at an irradiance of 1000mW/cm 2 for up to 1.5min. Antiseptic treatments consisted of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 0.5% povidone-iodine, and 3% H 2 O 2 . The biofilm was immersed in each antiseptic for up to 4min. aPDT was performed by irradiating the biofilm immersed in 100μM methylene blue or toluidine blue O with 655-nm laser light at 1000mW/cm 2 for up to 4min. Based on the time-kill assay, the decimal reduction value (D-value) of each treatment was determined. With a D-value of 0.06min, H 2 O 2 photolysis exhibited the highest bactericidal effect against biofilm-forming S. mutans. In contrast, antiseptics and aPDT exerted a slower bactericidal effect, with D-values of 0.9-2.7min. In conclusion, the antimicrobial technique based on H 2 O 2 photolysis using 365-nm LED represents a strong adjunctive chemotherapy for dental caries treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of a Supramolecular Functional Architecture of Streptococcus mutans Adhesin P1 on the Bacterial Cell Surface*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kyle P.; Sullan, Ruby May A.; Crowley, Paula J.; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Tang, Wenxing; Besingi, Richard; Dufrene, Yves F.; Brady, L. Jeannine

    2015-01-01

    P1 (antigen I/II) is a sucrose-independent adhesin of Streptococcus mutans whose functional architecture on the cell surface is not fully understood. S. mutans cells subjected to mechanical extraction were significantly diminished in adherence to immobilized salivary agglutinin but remained immunoreactive and were readily aggregated by fluid-phase salivary agglutinin. Bacterial adherence was restored by incubation of postextracted cells with P1 fragments that contain each of the two known adhesive domains. In contrast to untreated cells, glutaraldehyde-treated bacteria gained reactivity with anti-C-terminal monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), whereas epitopes recognized by mAbs against other portions of the molecule were masked. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the ability of apical and C-terminal fragments of P1 to interact. Binding of several different anti-P1 mAbs to unfixed cells triggered release of a C-terminal fragment from the bacterial surface, suggesting a novel mechanism of action of certain adherence-inhibiting antibodies. We also used atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy with tips bearing various mAbs to elucidate the spatial organization and orientation of P1 on living bacteria. The similar rupture lengths detected using mAbs against the head and C-terminal regions, which are widely separated in the tertiary structure, suggest a higher order architecture in which these domains are in close proximity on the cell surface. Taken together, our results suggest a supramolecular organization in which additional P1 polypeptides, including the C-terminal segment originally identified as antigen II, associate with covalently attached P1 to form the functional adhesive layer. PMID:25666624

  16. Identification of a supramolecular functional architecture of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 on the bacterial cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kyle P; Sullan, Ruby May A; Crowley, Paula J; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Tang, Wenxing; Besingi, Richard; Dufrene, Yves F; Brady, L Jeannine

    2015-04-03

    P1 (antigen I/II) is a sucrose-independent adhesin of Streptococcus mutans whose functional architecture on the cell surface is not fully understood. S. mutans cells subjected to mechanical extraction were significantly diminished in adherence to immobilized salivary agglutinin but remained immunoreactive and were readily aggregated by fluid-phase salivary agglutinin. Bacterial adherence was restored by incubation of postextracted cells with P1 fragments that contain each of the two known adhesive domains. In contrast to untreated cells, glutaraldehyde-treated bacteria gained reactivity with anti-C-terminal monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), whereas epitopes recognized by mAbs against other portions of the molecule were masked. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the ability of apical and C-terminal fragments of P1 to interact. Binding of several different anti-P1 mAbs to unfixed cells triggered release of a C-terminal fragment from the bacterial surface, suggesting a novel mechanism of action of certain adherence-inhibiting antibodies. We also used atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy with tips bearing various mAbs to elucidate the spatial organization and orientation of P1 on living bacteria. The similar rupture lengths detected using mAbs against the head and C-terminal regions, which are widely separated in the tertiary structure, suggest a higher order architecture in which these domains are in close proximity on the cell surface. Taken together, our results suggest a supramolecular organization in which additional P1 polypeptides, including the C-terminal segment originally identified as antigen II, associate with covalently attached P1 to form the functional adhesive layer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Clotrimazole and econazole inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm and virulence in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Ren, Biao; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Qiong; Zhou, Xuedong; Li, Yuqing

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of eight antifungal drugs on S. mutans growth, biofilm formation and virulence factors. The actions of antifungal drugs on S. mutans were determined by recovery plates and survival kinetic curves. Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the viable cells were recovered on BHI plates, meanwhile biofilms were stained by BacLight live/dead kit to investigate the biofilm viability. Bacteria/extracellular polysaccharides staining assays were performed to determine the EPS production of S. mutans biofilms. Acidogenicity and acidurity of S. mutans were determined using pH drop and acid tolerance assays, and the expression of ldh gene was evaluated using qPCR. We found that clotrimazole (CTR) and econazole (ECO) showed antibacterial activities on S. mutans UA159 and S. mutans clinical isolates at 12.5 and 25mg/L, respectively. CTR and ECO could also inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation and reduce the viability of preformed biofilm. CTR and ECO affected the live/dead ratio and the EPS/bacteria ratio of S. mutans biofilms. CTR and ECO also inhibited the pH drop, lactate acid production, and acid tolerance. The abilities of CTR and ECO to inhibit S. mutans ldh expression were also confirmed. We found that two antifungal azoles, CTR and ECO, had the abilities to inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans and more importantly, they could also inhibit the virulence factors of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts: dental plaque bacterial interactions can affect the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitsu, Howard K; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2011-06-01

    It has been well established that dental caries results from the accumulation of dental plaque on tooth surfaces. Several decades of in vitro and as well as clinical studies have identified Streptococcus mutans as an important etiological agent in carious lesion formation. In addition, a variety of approaches have suggested that interactions between the bacterial components of biofilms can influence the properties of such polymicrobial structures. Therefore, it is likely that the mere presence of S. mutans in dental plaque does not alone account for the cariogenic potential of such biofilms. Recent studies have indicated that several bacteria commonly found in dental plaque can influence either the viability and/or virulence properties of S. mutans. This review will summarize some of the more recent findings in this regard as well as their implications for the development of novel anti-caries strategies.

  19. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans UA159

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    Soon-Nang Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we revealed that OA and UA significantly inhibited the expression of most genes related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis in S. mutans UA159. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to introduce the antimicrobial mechanism of OA and UA against S. mutans.

  20. An exploration of the effects of Commiphora glileadenis on a Streptococcus mutans biofilm

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    Hossam A Eid

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Myrrh plant extract has promising antibacterial effect as well as on biofilm inhibition of S. mutans. The significant antimicrobial effect of the Myrrh plant extract indicates about its promise in controlling S. mutans biofilm, which has suspected role in the etiology of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  1. Preliminary findings on the correlation of saliva pH, buffering capacity, flow, Consistency and Streptococcus mutans in relation to cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Marsha A; Simmer-Beck, Melanie; Cole, Molly; Keeven, Erin; Tira, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the relationship of caries risk, salivary buffering capacity, salivary pH, salivary quality (flow, consistency) and levels of Streptococcus mutans in relation to cigarette smoking. This clinical trial consisted of 53 volunteer patients receiving care in a university based dental hygiene clinic. Participants completed a questionnaire specific to their social history in regards to tobacco use, oral health and dietary history. Measurements of unstimulated saliva were collected followed by collection of stimulated saliva samples. These samples were used to measure salivary pH, buffering capacity and Streptococcus mutans levels. The subject's smoking status was significantly associated with caries risk (p= 0.001), with 25% of the variability of caries risk attributed to smoking. The smoking status was significantly associated with buffering capacity (p=0.025), with 9% of the variability of buffering status attributed to the smoking. Associations between smoking status and salivary pH were not statistically significant. The subject's caries risk was significantly associated with buffering capacity (p= 0.001), with 25% of the variability of caries risk attributed to the buffering capacity. The subject's caries risk was significantly associated with salivary pH (p= 0.031), with 9% of the variability of caries risk attributed to the salivary pH. The Streptococcus mutans test showed no statistical significance (p>0.05) possibly due to the number and low variance in the subjects. A relationship between caries risk and smoking, buffering capacity and smoking, and stimulated salivary pH and smoking were concluded. No significance difference (p>0.05) between caries risk and salivary pH, salivary quality and smoking, S. mutans and smoking were noted from the preliminary results.

  2. The synthetic human beta-defensin-3 C15 peptide exhibits antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, both alone and in combination with dental disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Bum; Kim, A Reum; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major etiologic agent of human dental caries that forms biofilms on hard tissues in the human oral cavity, such as tooth and dentinal surfaces. Human β-defensin-3 (HBD3) is a 45-amino-acid natural antimicrobial peptide that has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. A synthetic peptide consisting of the C-terminal 15 amino acids of HBD3 (HBD3-C15) was recently shown to be sufficient for its antimicrobial activity. Thus, clinical applications of this peptide have garnered attention. In this study, we investigated whether HBD3-C15 inhibits the growth of the representative cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans and its biofilm formation. HBD3-C15 inhibited bacterial growth, exhibited bactericidal activity, and attenuated bacterial biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. HBD3-C15 potentiated the bactericidal and anti-biofilm activity of calcium hydroxide (CH) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), which are representative disinfectants used in dental clinics, against S. mutans. Moreover, HBD3-C15 showed antimicrobial activity by inhibiting biofilm formation by S. mutans and other dentinophilic bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus gordonii, which are associated with dental caries and endodontic infection, on human dentin slices. These effects were observed for HBD3-C15 alone and for HBD3-C15 in combination with CH or CHX. Therefore, we suggest that HBD3-C15 is a potential alternative or additive disinfectant that can be used for the treatment of oral infectious diseases, including dental caries and endodontic infections.

  3. Proteome analysis identifies the Dpr protein of Streptococcus mutans as an important factor in the presence of early streptococcal colonizers of tooth surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Yoshida

    Full Text Available Oral streptococci are primary colonizers of tooth surfaces and Streptococcus mutans is the principal causative agent of dental caries in humans. A number of proteins are involved in the formation of monospecies biofilms by S. mutans. This study analyzed the protein expression profiles of S. mutans biofilms formed in the presence or absence of S. gordonii, a pioneer colonizer of the tooth surface, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE. After identifying S. mutans proteins by Mass spectrometric analysis, their expression in the presence of S. gordonii was analyzed. S. mutans was inoculated with or without S. gordonii DL1. The two species were compartmentalized using 0.2-μl Anopore membranes. The biofilms on polystyrene plates were harvested, and the solubilized proteins were separated by 2-DE. When S. mutans biofilms were formed in the presence of S. gordonii, the peroxide resistance protein Dpr of the former showed 4.3-fold increased expression compared to biofilms that developed in the absence of the pioneer colonizer. In addition, we performed a competition assay using S. mutans antioxidant protein mutants together with S. gordonii and other initial colonizers. Growth of the dpr-knockout S. mutans mutant was significantly inhibited by S. gordonii, as well as by S. sanguinis. Furthermore, a cell viability assay revealed that the viability of the dpr-defective mutant was significantly attenuated compared to the wild-type strain when co-cultured with S. gordonii. Therefore, these results suggest that Dpr might be one of the essential proteins for S. mutans survival on teeth in the presence of early colonizing oral streptococci.

  4. Proteome Analysis Identifies the Dpr Protein of Streptococcus mutans as an Important Factor in the Presence of Early Streptococcal Colonizers of Tooth Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Niki, Mamiko; Yamamoto, Yuji; Yasunaga, Ai; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Oral streptococci are primary colonizers of tooth surfaces and Streptococcus mutans is the principal causative agent of dental caries in humans. A number of proteins are involved in the formation of monospecies biofilms by S. mutans. This study analyzed the protein expression profiles of S. mutans biofilms formed in the presence or absence of S. gordonii, a pioneer colonizer of the tooth surface, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After identifying S. mutans proteins by Mass spectrometric analysis, their expression in the presence of S. gordonii was analyzed. S. mutans was inoculated with or without S. gordonii DL1. The two species were compartmentalized using 0.2-μl Anopore membranes. The biofilms on polystyrene plates were harvested, and the solubilized proteins were separated by 2-DE. When S. mutans biofilms were formed in the presence of S. gordonii, the peroxide resistance protein Dpr of the former showed 4.3-fold increased expression compared to biofilms that developed in the absence of the pioneer colonizer. In addition, we performed a competition assay using S. mutans antioxidant protein mutants together with S. gordonii and other initial colonizers. Growth of the dpr-knockout S. mutans mutant was significantly inhibited by S. gordonii, as well as by S. sanguinis. Furthermore, a cell viability assay revealed that the viability of the dpr-defective mutant was significantly attenuated compared to the wild-type strain when co-cultured with S. gordonii. Therefore, these results suggest that Dpr might be one of the essential proteins for S. mutans survival on teeth in the presence of early colonizing oral streptococci. PMID:25816242

  5. Combinatorial effects of aromatic 1,3 – disubstituted ureas and fluoride on in vitro inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet eKaur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries occurs as a result of disequilibrium between acid producing pathogenic bacteria and alkali generating commensal bacteria within a dental biofilm (dental plaque. S. mutans has been reported as a primary cariogenic pathogen associated with dental caries. Emergence of multidrug resistant as well as fluoride resistant strains of Streptococcus mutans due to over usage of various antibiotics is a rising problem and prompted the researchers worldwide to search for alternative therapies. In this perspective, the present study was aimed to screen selective inhibitors against ComA, a bacteriocin associated ABC transporter, involved in the quorum sensing of S. mutans. In light of our previous in silico findings, 1,3- disubstituted urea derivatives which had better affinity to ComA were chemically synthesized in the present study for in vitro evaluation of S. mutans biofilm inhibition. The results revealed that 1,3- disubstituted urea derivatives showed good biofilm inhibition. In addition, the synthesized compounds exhibited potent synergy with a very low concentration of fluoride (31.25 ppm to 62.5 ppm in inhibiting the biofilm formation of S. mutans without affecting the bacterial growth. Further, the results were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. On the whole, from our experimental results we conclude that the combinatorial application of fluoride and disubstituted ureas has a potential synergistic effect which has a promising approach in combating multidrug resistant and fluoride resistant S. mutans in dental caries management.

  6. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some ...

  7. Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy; Avaliacao quantitativa de Streptococcus do grupo mutans e Candida sp e fatores salivares na cavidade bucal de pacientes submetidos a radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Barbeiro, Roberto Henrique; Bernardo, Wagner Luis Carvalho; Pavan, Sabrina [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Hoefling, Jose Francisco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity and flow rate. Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria. (author)

  8. RNA-Seq Reveals Enhanced Sugar Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans Co-cultured with Candida albicans within Mixed-Species Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinzhi; Kim, Dongyeop; Zhou, Xuedong; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A.; Richards, Vincent P.; Koo, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC), which can lead to rampant tooth-decay that is painful and costly to treat, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. Previous studies support that interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with the pathogenesis of ECC. The presence of Candida enhances S. mutans growth, fitness and accumulation within biofilms in vitro, although the molecular basis for these behaviors is undefined. Using an established co-cultivation biofilm model and RNA-Seq, we investigated how C. albicans influences the transcriptome of S. mutans. The presence of C. albicans dramatically altered gene expression in S. mutans in the dual-species biofilm, resulting in 393 genes differentially expressed, compared to mono-species biofilms of S. mutans. By Gene Ontology analysis, the majority of up-regulated genes were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolic/catabolic processes. KEGG pathway impact analysis showed elevated pyruvate and galactose metabolism, suggesting that co-cultivation with C. albicans influences carbohydrate utilization by S. mutans. Analysis of metabolites confirmed the increases in carbohydrate metabolism, with elevated amounts of formate in the culture medium of co-cultured biofilms. Moreover, co-cultivation with C. albicans altered transcription of S. mutans signal transduction (comC and ciaRH) genes associated with fitness and virulence. Interestingly, the expression of genes for mutacins (bacteriocins) and CRISPR were down-regulated. Collectively, the data provide a comprehensive insight into S. mutans transcriptomic changes induced by C. albicans, and offer novel insights into how bacterial–fungal interactions may enhance the severity of dental caries. PMID:28642749

  9. RNA-Seq Reveals Enhanced Sugar Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans Co-cultured with Candida albicans within Mixed-Species Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhi He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries (ECC, which can lead to rampant tooth-decay that is painful and costly to treat, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. Previous studies support that interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with the pathogenesis of ECC. The presence of Candida enhances S. mutans growth, fitness and accumulation within biofilms in vitro, although the molecular basis for these behaviors is undefined. Using an established co-cultivation biofilm model and RNA-Seq, we investigated how C. albicans influences the transcriptome of S. mutans. The presence of C. albicans dramatically altered gene expression in S. mutans in the dual-species biofilm, resulting in 393 genes differentially expressed, compared to mono-species biofilms of S. mutans. By Gene Ontology analysis, the majority of up-regulated genes were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolic/catabolic processes. KEGG pathway impact analysis showed elevated pyruvate and galactose metabolism, suggesting that co-cultivation with C. albicans influences carbohydrate utilization by S. mutans. Analysis of metabolites confirmed the increases in carbohydrate metabolism, with elevated amounts of formate in the culture medium of co-cultured biofilms. Moreover, co-cultivation with C. albicans altered transcription of S. mutans signal transduction (comC and ciaRH genes associated with fitness and virulence. Interestingly, the expression of genes for mutacins (bacteriocins and CRISPR were down-regulated. Collectively, the data provide a comprehensive insight into S. mutans transcriptomic changes induced by C. albicans, and offer novel insights into how bacterial–fungal interactions may enhance the severity of dental caries.

  10. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States); Smith, Adam N. [University of Florida, Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (United States); Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine, E-mail: jbrady@dental.ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry (United States); Long, Joanna R., E-mail: jrlong@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  11. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N.; Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Long, Joanna R.

    2016-01-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin

  12. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N; Crowley, Paula J; Brady, L Jeannine; Long, Joanna R

    2016-02-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ~57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  13. POTENSI HAMBAT PERMEN LUNAK SIRIH DAN PINANG TERHADAP PEMBENTUKAN BIOFILM Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryati 1

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Betle leaf (Piper betle L. essential oil and catechu nut (Areca catechu L. extracts have been known to be able to inhibit biofilm formation of S. mutans. This research aimed to characterize the chemical compounds of betle leaf esssential oil, screen the phytochemicals in catechu nut ethanol extract, and assess the inhibitory potential of betle and catechu in chewy candy on biofilm formation by S. mutans. The experiment included preparation of extracts and chemical characterization of the raw materials, formulation of chewy candy, measurement of biofilm inhibition, and sensory evaluation of the candy. In vitro examination for inhibitory potency of betle and catechu chewy candy against biofilm formation S. mutans ATCC 31987 was performed in adhesion phase (4 hours and active accumulation phase (18 hours. Antibacterial assay was performed in BHI broth media on microplate 96 wells. Crystal violet 0.5% was used to stain the biofilm and Optical Density (OD was measured at λ 450 nm. The GC-MS analysis detected 32 compounds in the essential oil of betle leaf. The Betle leaf essential oil contained chavicol acetate, isoeugenol, chavibetol acetate, chavicol, and allylcatechol 3.4-diacetate, while catechu nut ethanol extract contained flavonoids and tannins. The components were possibly the inhibitory agents of S. mutans biofilm formation. Chewy candy containing 0.8% betle leaf essential oil and 2.3% catechu nut extract had effective inhibitory potential for S. mutans biofilm formation. Inhibition during adhesion phase was 74.5±0.7%, while that for accumulation phase was 60.8±1.8%. Sensory analysis suggests that the candy was slightly liked by the panelists (5±2.

  14. Identificación, transmisión y homología de Streptococcus Mutans de la madre durante la gestación y el niño en el periodo post natal

    OpenAIRE

    Carletto Körber, Fabiana Pia Marina

    2014-01-01

    Existen evidencias de que en la infección oral temprana la principal vía de transmisión de Streptococcus mutans es a través del contacto salival madre-niño y que la adquisición inicial tiene lugar durante un periodo especifico de tiempo denominado ''Ventana de Infectividad"; que transcurre entre los 6 y 30 meses de vida del niño, existiendo mayor riesgo entre los 18 y 30 meses de edad. En cuanto a la fuente y forma de transmisión se señala que el numero de Streptococcus mutans en saliva mater...

  15. Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis by the global regulator CcpA and the local regulator FabT in Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Faustoferri, R.C.; Hubbard, C.J.; Santiago, B.; Buckley, A.A.; Seifert, T.B.; Quivey, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    SMU.1745c, encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the MarR family, maps to a location proximal to the fab gene cluster in Streptococcus mutans. Deletion of the SMU.1745c (fabTSm) coding region resulted in a membrane fatty acid composition comprised of longer-chained, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), compared with the parent strain. Previous reports have indicated a role for FabT in regulation of genes in the fab gene cluster in other organisms, through binding to a palindromic DNA seq...

  16. Potent Inhibitory Effects of D-tagatose on the Acid Production and Water-insoluble Glucan Synthesis of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the Presence of Sucrose

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Daijo; Ogawa, Takaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Hasui, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We examined and compared the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth, acid production, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5, a bacterial strain of Streptococcus mutans, with those of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose and L-tagatose. GS5 was cultured for 12h in a medium containing 10オ (w/v) of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose, D-tagatose or L-tagatose, and the inhibitory effect of GS5 growth was assessed. Each sugar showed different inhibitory effects on GS5. Both D-tagatose and xylitol...

  17. Estudo do efeito in vitro de extratos do rizoma de Dorstenia asaroides Hook. sobre fatores cariogênicos de Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Mendes D\\'Angelis

    2011-01-01

    Dorstenia asaroides Hook. é um erva perene, conhecida como carapiá, utilizada na medicina popular contra uma variedade de enfermidades. Este estudo teve como objetivo obter e caracterizar o perfil fitoquímico de frações orgânicas (hexânica, acetato e clorofórmica) do extrato de rizomas de D. asaroides, bem como avaliar o efeito in vitro sobre Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (multiplicação, potencial acidogênico e biofilme) e analisar a citotoxicidade destas frações. Os extratos estudados fora...

  18. Efecto de la combinación de clorhexidina y fluoruro de sodio sobre Streptococcus mutans en preescolares con manchas blancas.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Grascely; Álvarez, María; Nuñez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de la combinación de los barnices diacetato de clorhexidina 1 % y fluoruro de sodio 5 % sobre Streptococcus mutans en saliva de niños de 3 a 5 años con manchas blancas. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron 45 niños, divididos en 3 grupos: combinación clorhexidina 1 % y fluoruro de sodio 5 % (n=15), fluoruro de sodio 5 % (n=15) y placebo (n=15). Después de 8 semanas se evaluó microbiológicamente. Resultados: Todos los grupos redujeron significativamente los S. muta...

  19. Relación cuantitativa entre el nivel de Streptococcus mutans y Candida albicans en niños con síndrome de Down

    OpenAIRE

    Linossier, A.; Vargas, A.; Villegas, R.; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: El presente trabajo intenta establecer una correlación entre el recuento cuantitativo de Streptococcus mutans y Candida albicans en la saliva de pacientes con síndrome de Down (SD) y en pacientes deficientes mentales (DM), respecto a un grupo normal (C). Diseño del estudio: Este estudio se realizó en 166 niños (49 SD, 60 DM y 57 C). Las muestras de saliva fueron cultivadas en agar TYCSB y agar Sabouraud y posteriormente se realizaron análisis microbiológicos, pruebas de microscopía ...

  20. Novel Antibiofilm Chemotherapy Targets Exopolysaccharide Synthesis and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans To Modulate Virulence Expression In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsetta, Megan L.; Klein, Marlise I.; Lemos, José A.; Silva, Bruno B.; Agidi, Senyo; Scott-Anne, Kathy K.

    2012-01-01

    Fluoride is the mainstay of dental caries prevention, and yet current applications offer incomplete protection and may not effectively address the infectious character of the disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of a novel combination therapy (CT; 2 mM myricetin, 4 mM tt-farnesol, 250 ppm of fluoride) that supplements fluoride with naturally occurring, food-derived, antibiofilm compounds. Treatment regimens simulating those experienced clinically (twice daily for ≤60 s) were used both in vitro over a saliva-coated hydroxyapatite biofilm model and in vivo with a rodent model of dental caries. The effectiveness of CT was evaluated based on the incidence and severity of carious lesions (compared to fluoride or vehicle control). We found that CT was superior to fluoride (positive control, P plaque. We subsequently identified the underlying mechanisms through which applications of CT modulate biofilm virulence. CT targets expression of key Streptococcus mutans genes during biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. These are associated with exopolysaccharide matrix synthesis (gtfB) and the ability to tolerate exogenous stress (e.g., sloA), which are essential for cariogenic biofilm assembly. We also identified a unique gene (SMU.940) that was severely repressed and may represent a potentially novel target; its inactivation disrupted exopolysaccharide accumulation and matrix development. Altogether, CT may be clinically more effective than current anticaries modalities, targeting expression of bacterial virulence associated with pathogenesis of the disease. These observations may have relevance for development of enhanced therapies against other biofilm-dependent infections. PMID:22985885

  1. Characterization of the dextran-binding domain in the glucan-binding protein C of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Y; Fujita, K; Ardin, A C; Nagayama, K; Nomura, R; Nakano, K; Matsumoto-Nakano, M

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans produces multiple glucan-binding proteins (Gbps), among which GbpC encoded by the gbpC gene is known to be a cell-surface-associated protein involved in dextran-induced aggregation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the dextran-binding domain of GbpC using bioinformatics analysis and molecular techniques. Bioinformatics analysis specified five possible regions containing molecular binding sites termed GB1 through GB5. Next, truncated recombinant GbpC (rGbpC) encoding each region was produced using a protein expression vector and five deletion mutant strains were generated, termed CDGB1 through CDGB5 respectively. The dextran-binding rates of truncated rGbpC that included the GB1, GB3, GB4 and GB5 regions in the upstream sequences were higher than that of the construct containing GB2 in the downstream region. In addition, the rates of dextran-binding for strains CDGB4 and CD1, which was entire gbpC deletion mutant, were significantly lower than for the other strains, while those of all other deletion mutants were quite similar to that of the parental strain MT8148. Biofilm structures formed by CDGB4 and CD1 were not as pronounced as that of MT8148, while those formed by other strains had greater density as compared to that of CD1. Our results suggest that the dextran-binding domain may be located in the GB4 region in the interior of the gbpC gene. Bioinformatics analysis is useful for determination of functional domains in many bacterial species. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Carl Martin Peter; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower...... and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating...... that the reduced antimicrobial tolerance of the dltA mutant is not due to a defect in biofilm formation. The products of the dlt genes have been shown to mediate alanylation of teichoic acids, and in accordance the dltA mutant showed a more negatively charged surface than the wild-type, which likely...

  3. Effect of the Biofilm Age and Starvation on Acid Tolerance of Biofilm Formed by Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Caries-Active and Caries-Free Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Chengfei; Zhao, Xingfu; Huang, Xiaojing; Cai, Zhiyu

    2017-03-30

    Streptococcus mutans ( S. mutans ) is considered a leading cause of dental caries. The capability of S. mutans to tolerate low pH is essential for its cariogenicity. Aciduricity of S. mutans is linked to its adaptation to environmental stress in oral cavity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biofilm age and starvation condition on acid tolerance of biofilm formed by S. mutans clinical isolates. S. mutans clinical strains isolated from caries-active (SM593) and caries-free (SM18) adults and a reference strain (ATCC25175) were used for biofilm formation. (1) Both young and mature