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Sample records for streptococcus equi subspecies

  1. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus Infections in Humans by Zoonotic Transmission from Horses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-12

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ article, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus Infections in Humans by Zoonotic Transmission from Horses.  Created: 6/12/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/3/2013.

  2. Activation of persistent Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in mares with subclinical endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rønn; Skive, Bolette; Christoffersen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) may be underdiagnosed due to traditional diagnostic methods lacking sensitivity and specificity. We serendipitously identified a bacterial growth medium (bActivate) that appeared capable of inducing...

  3. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaz......Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim...

  4. Rapid and accurate identification of Streptococcus equi subspecies by MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Welker, Martin; Knudsen, Nanna Reumert

    2015-01-01

    phenotypic and sequence similarity between three subspecies their discrimination remains difficult. In this study, we aimed to design and validate a novel, Superspectra based, MALDI-TOF MS approach for reliable, rapid and cost-effective identification of SEE and SEZ, the most frequent S. equi subspecies.......3±7.5%). This result may be attributed to the highly clonal population structure of SEE, as opposed to the diversity of SEZ seen in horses. Importantly strains with atypical colony appearance both within SEE and SEZ did not affect correct identification of the strains by MALDI-TOF MS. Atypical colony variants...... are often associated with a higher persistence or virulence of S. equi, thus their correct identification using the current method strengthens its potential use in routine clinical diagnostics. In conclusion, reliable identification of S. equi subspecies was achieved by combining a MALDI-TOF MS method...

  5. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca; Boucher, Joseph; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi This study indicates trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as an acceptable surrogate for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi. Copyright © 2016 Sadaka et al.

  6. Aortitis with bacteraemia by Streptococcus equi Zooepidemicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur, Carlos Alberto; Giraldo, Juan David; Saldarriaga Eugenia Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures

  7. Genomic evidence for the evolution of Streptococcus equi: host restriction, increased virulence, and genetic exchange with human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T G Holden

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The continued evolution of bacterial pathogens has major implications for both human and animal disease, but the exchange of genetic material between host-restricted pathogens is rarely considered. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi is a host-restricted pathogen of horses that has evolved from the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus. These pathogens share approximately 80% genome sequence identity with the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We sequenced and compared the genomes of S. equi 4047 and S. zooepidemicus H70 and screened S. equi and S. zooepidemicus strains from around the world to uncover evidence of the genetic events that have shaped the evolution of the S. equi genome and led to its emergence as a host-restricted pathogen. Our analysis provides evidence of functional loss due to mutation and deletion, coupled with pathogenic specialization through the acquisition of bacteriophage encoding a phospholipase A(2 toxin, and four superantigens, and an integrative conjugative element carrying a novel iron acquisition system with similarity to the high pathogenicity island of Yersinia pestis. We also highlight that S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes share a common phage pool that enhances cross-species pathogen evolution. We conclude that the complex interplay of functional loss, pathogenic specialization, and genetic exchange between S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes continues to influence the evolution of these important streptococci.

  8. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus Invades and Survives in Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skive, Bolette; Rohde, Manfred; Molinari, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen of several species including humans. S. zooepidemicus is found on mucus membranes of healthy horses, but can cause acute and chronic endometritis. Recently S. zooepidemicus was found able to reside in the endo......Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen of several species including humans. S. zooepidemicus is found on mucus membranes of healthy horses, but can cause acute and chronic endometritis. Recently S. zooepidemicus was found able to reside...

  9. Lineages of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Emma; Kavanagh, Kerrie S; Buckley, Tom C; Cooney, Jakki C

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is the causative agent of 'Strangles' in horses. This is a debilitating condition leading to economic loss, yard closures and cancellation of equestrian events. There are multiple genotypes of S. equi ssp. equi which can cause disease, but to date there has been no systematic study of strains which are prevalent in Ireland. This study identified and classified Streptococcus equi ssp. equi strains isolated from within the Irish equine industry. Two hundred veterinary isolates were subjected to SLST (single locus sequence typing) based on an internal sequence from the seM gene of Streptococcus equi ssp equi. Of the 171 samples which successfully gave an amplicon, 162 samples (137 Irish and 24 UK strains) gave robust DNA sequence information. Analysis of the sequences allowed division of the isolates into 19 groups, 13 of which contain at least 2 isolates and 6 groups containing single isolates. There were 19 positions where a DNA SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) occurs, and one 3 bp insertion. All groups had multiple (2-8) SNPs. Of the SNPs 17 would result in an amino acid change in the encoded protein. Interestingly, the single isolate EI8, which has 6 SNPs, has the three base pair insertion which is not seen in any other isolate, this would result in the insertion of an Ile residue at position 62 in that protein sequence. Comparison of the relevant region in the determined sequences with the UK Streptococcus equi seM MLST database showed that Group B (15 isolates) and Group I (2 isolates), as well as the individual isolates EI3 and EI8, are unique to Ireland, and some groups are most likely of UK origin (Groups F and M), but many more probably passed back and forth between the two countries. The strains occurring in Ireland are not clonal and there is a considerable degree of sequence variation seen in the seM gene. There are two major clades causing infection in Ireland and these strains are also common in the UK.

  10. Peritonitis in a llama caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, J; Cebra, C K

    2001-01-01

    A 7-month-old, male llama was diagnosed with peritonitis caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Clinical findings, medical treatment, and case outcome are described. Hematogenous dissemination from suspected pneumonia is proposed as the route of infection in this case. Possible transmission of the organism through contact with horses is discussed. PMID:11424579

  11. Desenvolvimento de vacina recombinante de proteína M de Streptococcus equi subsp. equi

    OpenAIRE

    MACIEL, Liana Flores

    2012-01-01

    A equinocultura no Brasil ganha espaço em setores ligados ao lazer, cultura e turismo, sendo responsável por milhões de empregos. A Adenite Equina causada pelo Streptococcus equi subsp. equi é uma doença do aparelho respiratório de elevado impacto econômico, gerando gastos com mão-de-obra e perda de desempenho dos animais. Para amenizar este problema, medidas profiláticas são importantes, como por exemplo, a vacinação. Porém, as vacinas disponíveis no mercado protegem apenas 50% dos animai...

  12. Diversity of seM in Streptococcus equi subsp. equi isolated from strangles outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardoni, Felipe; Vielmo, Andréia; Farias, Luana; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pötter, Luciana; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2013-03-23

    Strangles is the main upper respiratory tract disease of horses. There are currently no studies on the changes in alleles of the M protein gene (seM) in Brazilian isolates of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi). This study aimed to analyze and differentiate molecularly S. equi isolates from equine clinical specimens from southern Brazil, between 1994 and 2010. seM alleles were analyzed in 47 isolates of S. equi obtained from clinical cases of strangles (15 Thoroughbred horses, 29 Crioulo breed horses and three Brasileiro de Hipismo--BH). seM alleles characterization was performed by comparing variable region sequences of the seM gene. The alleles were also phylogenetically grouped by Neighbor-joining analysis, which demonstrated the geographic distribution of those in properties from southern Brazil. Fifteen alleles of the gene seM were found among the 47 S. equi isolates analyzed. Among these, only one allele (seM-61), which was identified in seven isolates (14.9%), was found in the database PubMLST-seM. Within the new alleles, allele seM-115 was the most prevalent, having been found in 13 isolates (27.7%), followed by allele seM-117 in 10 isolates (21.3%). In the Brazilian horse population studied, there is greater diversity of M protein alleles in S. equi isolates compared to worldwide data deposited in PubMLST-seM. Among the 15 seM alleles identified, only one allele sequence was previously published. The alleles identification is important to control the disease by guiding selection of strains for the manufacture of commercial and autogenous vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods targeting the seM gene for detection of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Seiji; Niwa, Hidekazu; Oku, Kazuomi

    2012-03-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) constitutes a potentially valuable diagnostic tool for rapid diagnosis of contagious diseases. In this study, we developed a novel LAMP method (seM-LAMP) to detect the seM gene of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi), the causative agent of strangles in equids. The seM-LAMP successfully amplified the target sequence of the seM gene at 63°C within 60 min. The sensitivity of the seM-LAMP was slightly lower than the 2nd reaction of the seM semi-nested PCR. To evaluate the species specificity of the seM-LAMP, we tested 100 S. equi and 189 non-S. equi strains. Significant amplification of the DNA originating from S. equi was observed within 60 min incubation, but no amplification of non-S. equi DNA occurred. The results were identical to those of seM semi-nested PCR. To investigate the clinical usefulness of the methods, the seM-LAMP and the seM semi-nested PCR were used to screen 590 nasal swabs obtained during an outbreak of strangles. Both methods showed that 79 and 511 swabs were S. equi positive and negative, respectively, and the results were identical to those of the culture examination. These results indicate that the seM-LAMP is potentially useful for the reliable routine diagnosis of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi infections.

  14. Tracing outbreaks of Streptococcus equi infection (strangles) in horses using sequence variation in the seM gene and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Susanne; Söderlund, Robert; Frosth, Sara; Pringle, John; Båverud, Viveca; Aspán, Anna

    2011-11-21

    Strangles is a serious respiratory disease in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi). Transmission of the disease occurs by direct contact with an infected horse or contaminated equipment. Genetically, S. equi strains are highly homogenous and differentiation of strains has proven difficult. However, the S. equi M-protein SeM contains a variable N-terminal region and has been proposed as a target gene to distinguish between different strains of S. equi and determine the source of an outbreak. In this study, strains of S. equi (n=60) from 32 strangles outbreaks in Sweden during 1998-2003 and 2008-2009 were genetically characterized by sequencing the SeM protein gene (seM), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Swedish strains belonged to 10 different seM types, of which five have not previously been described. Most were identical or highly similar to allele types from strangles outbreaks in the UK. Outbreaks in 2008/2009 sharing the same seM type were associated by geographic location and/or type of usage of the horses (racing stables). Sequencing of the seM gene generally agreed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Our data suggest that seM sequencing as a epidemiological tool is supported by the agreement between seM and PFGE and that sequencing of the SeM protein gene is more sensitive than PFGE in discriminating strains of S. equi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus ovis-based immunomodulator against equine herpesvirus type 1 and Streptococcus equi equi infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ons, Ellen; Van Brussel, Leen; Lane, Stephen; King, Vickie; Cullinane, Ann; Kenna, Rachel; Lyons, Pamela; Hammond, Toni-Ann; Salt, Jeremy; Raue, Rudiger

    2014-10-10

    The efficacy of Zylexis®, an immunomodulator in horses based on inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO), was assessed using an equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) challenge model in the presence of a natural infection with Streptococcus equi equi (S. equi). Eleven horses were treated with iPPVO and twelve were kept as controls. Six horses were challenged with EHV-1 and commingled with the horses on study. Animals were dosed on Days -2, 0 (just before commingling) and Day 7. On Day 11 significantly less nasal discharge, enlarged lymph nodes, EHV-1 shedding and lower rectal temperatures were observed in the iPPVO-treated group. In addition, iPPVO-treated horses showed significantly fewer enlarged lymph nodes on Days 17 and 19, significantly less lower jaw swelling on Day 3 and significantly lower rectal temperatures on Days 12 and 13. Dyspnoea, depression and anorexia were only recorded for the control group. Following challenge seven out of 11 horses in the iPPVO treated group shed EHV-1 but on Days 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 quantitative virus detection in this group was significantly lower as compared to the controls. All animals shed S. equi but the percentage of animals with positive bacterial detection was lower in the iPPVO group than in the control group from Day 14 through Day 28. This difference was significant on Day 24. No injection site reactions or adverse events were observed. In conclusion, Zylexis administration is safe and reduced clinical signs and shedding related to both EHV-1 and S. equi infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  17. Prevalence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in a sample of healthy dogs, cats and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acke, E; Midwinter, A C; Lawrence, K; Gordon, S J G; Moore, S; Rasiah, I; Steward, K; French, N; Waller, A

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of β-haemolytic Lancefield group C streptococci in healthy dogs, cats and horses; to determine if frequent contact with horses was associated with isolation of these species from dogs and cats; and to characterise recovered S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates by multilocus sequence typing. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 197 dogs and 72 cats, and nasopharyngeal swabs from 93 horses. Sampling was carried out at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, on sheep and beef farms or on premises where horses were present. All animals were healthy and were categorised as Urban dogs and cats (minimal contact with horses or farm livestock), Farm dogs (minimal contact with horses) and Stable dogs and cats (frequent contact with horses). Swabs were cultured for β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Lancefield group C streptococcal subspecies were confirmed by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Of the 197 dogs sampled, 21 (10.7 (95% CI= 4.0-25.4)%) tested positive for S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and 4 (2.0 (95% CI=0.7-5.5)%) tested positive for S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. All these isolates, except for one S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolate in an Urban dog, were from Stable dogs. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was isolated from one Stable cat. Of the 93 horses, 22 (23.7 (95% CI=12.3-40.6)%) and 6 (6.5 (95% CI=2.8-14.1)%) had confirmed S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolation respectively. Isolation of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from dogs was associated with frequent contact with horses (OR=9.8 (95% CI=2.6-72.8)). Three different multilocus sequence type profiles of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus that have not been previously reported in dogs were recovered. Subclinical infection or colonisation by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis occurs in dogs and further research on inter-species transmission and the pathogenic potential of these

  18. EQUINOS PORTADORES de Streptococcus equi subespécie equi: PREVALÊNCIA, FATORES DE RISCO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE ALELOS seM

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Libardoni

    2015-01-01

    A adenite equina é uma doença infecto-contagiosa que acomete o trato respiratório superior, sendo uma das principais doenças respiratórias de equinos. O agente etiológico dessa enfermidade é o Streptococcus equi subespécie equi (S. equi), responsável por aproximadamente 30% das notificações em todo o mundo. Os principais sinais clínicos da adenite são febre, secreção nasal e enfartamento de linfonodos, que ocorre pela dificuldade de fagocitose do S. equi por células de defesa devido a presenç...

  19. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and doxycycline resistance in kennelled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker, Victoria J; Waller, Andrew; Webb, Katy; Spearing, Emma; Crosse, Patricia; Brownlie, Joe; Erles, Kerstin

    2012-06-01

    The genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profiles of 38 Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates were determined from a kennelled canine population during two outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia (1999 to 2002 and 2007 to 2010). Analysis of the szp gene hypervariable region and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) indicated a predominant tetO-positive, doxycycline-resistant ST-10 strain during 1999 to 2002 and a predominant tetM-positive doxycycline-resistant ST-62 strain during 2007 to 2010.

  20. Characterization of SeseC_01411 as a surface protective antigen of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Honglin; Wei, Zigong; Ma, Chunquan; Li, Shun; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is a commensal bacterium related to opportunistic infections of many species, including humans, dogs, cats, and pigs. SeseC_01411 has been proven to be immunogenic. However, its protective efficacy remained to be evaluated. In the present study, the purified recombinant SeseC_01411 could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and protect against lethal challenge with virulent SEZ in mice. Our finding confirmed that SeseC_01411 distributes on the surface of SEZ. In addition, the hyperimmune sera against SeseC_01411 could efficiently kill the bacteria in the phagocytosis test. The present study identified the immunogenic protein, SeseC_01411, as a novel surface protective antigen of SEZ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clonal Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus post breeding endometritis in thoroughbred broodmares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Söderlind, Maja; Rydemann Rudefalk, Sofia

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares with infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the study was to inv......Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares with infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the study...... was to investigate whether clonal or genetically distinct S. zooepidemicus strains isolated from mares with endometritis were associated with mare risk factors and the outcome of natural cover. Uterine swabs were obtained from mares with intrauterine fluid after natural cover (n=31) at thoroughbred stud farms...... in Australia. Fifty two percent of the mares (n=16) were diagnosed with infectious endometritis, and S.zooepidemicus was isolated in 81% (n=13) of these mares. Up to four S. zooepidemicus isolates were selected from each mare with growth of S. zooepidemicus and isolates from an additional five mares were...

  2. Draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain S31A1, isolated from equine infectious endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Piedade, Isabelle; Skive, Bolette; Christensen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus S31A1, a strain isolated from equine infectious endometritis in Denmark. Comparative analyses of this genome were done with four published reference genomes: S. zooepidemicus strains MGCS10565, ATCC 35246, and H70 and S...

  3. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schulz

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 10(5 CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs. Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission.

  4. Interaction between M-like protein and macrophage thioredoxin facilitates antiphagocytosis for Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ma

    Full Text Available Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus, S.z is one of the common pathogens that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mammitis in domesticated species. M-like protein (SzP is an important virulence factor of S. zooepidemicus and contributes to bacterial infection and antiphagocytosis. The interaction between SzP of S. zooepidemicus and porcine thioredoxin (TRX was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. SzP interacted with both reduced and the oxidized forms of TRX without inhibiting TRX activity. Membrane anchored SzP was able to recruit TRX to the surface, which would facilitate the antiphagocytosis of the bacteria. Further experiments revealed that TRX regulated the alternative complement pathway by inhibiting C3 convertase activity and associating with factor H (FH. TRX alone inhibited C3 cleavage and C3a production, and the inhibitory effect was additive when FH was also present. TRX inhibited C3 deposition on the bacterial surface when it was recruited by SzP. These new findings indicated that S. zooepidemicus used SzP to recruit TRX and regulated the alternative complement pathways to evade the host immune phagocytosis.

  5. Interaction between M-Like Protein and Macrophage Thioredoxin Facilitates Antiphagocytosis for Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Junxi; Li, Yue; Yi, Li; Fan, Hongjie; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus, S.z) is one of the common pathogens that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mammitis in domesticated species. M-like protein (SzP) is an important virulence factor of S. zooepidemicus and contributes to bacterial infection and antiphagocytosis. The interaction between SzP of S. zooepidemicus and porcine thioredoxin (TRX) was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. SzP interacted with both reduced and the oxidized forms of TRX without inhibiting TRX activity. Membrane anchored SzP was able to recruit TRX to the surface, which would facilitate the antiphagocytosis of the bacteria. Further experiments revealed that TRX regulated the alternative complement pathway by inhibiting C3 convertase activity and associating with factor H (FH). TRX alone inhibited C3 cleavage and C3a production, and the inhibitory effect was additive when FH was also present. TRX inhibited C3 deposition on the bacterial surface when it was recruited by SzP. These new findings indicated that S. zooepidemicus used SzP to recruit TRX and regulated the alternative complement pathways to evade the host immune phagocytosis. PMID:22384152

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel protective antigen, Sec_205 of Streptococcus equi ssp. Zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huihuang; Tang, Bin; Zhao, Pengpeng; Deng, Mingyong; Yan, Lili; Zhai, Pan; Wei, Zigong

    2018-02-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is an important pathogen of swine streptococcal diseases and can infect a wide range of animals as well as human beings. The absence of effective vaccine confounds the control of SEZ infection. Sec_205, a novel protein identified in the previous study, was inducibly over-expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study. The purified recombinant protein could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and provide efficient protection against lethal challenge of SEZ C55138 in mouse model. The protection against SEZ infection was mediated by specific antibodies to Sec_205 to some extent and was identified by the passive protection assay. The Sec_205 was an in vivo-induced antigen confirmed by the real-time PCR and could adhere to the Hep-2 cells by the inhibition assay. These suggest that Sec_205 may play a vital role in pathogenicity and serve as a new vaccine candidate against SEZ infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CD44 deficiency enhanced Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus dissemination and inflammation response in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Pingping; Chen, Yaosheng; Wei, Zigong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is responsible for peritonitis, septicemia, meningitis, arthritis and several other serious diseases in various species. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD44 is implicated in the process of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, the role of CD44 in the host response to S. zooepidemicus infection was investigated in a mouse model. Upon intraperitoneal infection with S. zooepidemicus, the expression of CD44 on the peritoneal exudate cells from wild-type (WT) mice was increased. CD44 deficiency accelerated mortality, which was accompanied by increased peritoneal bacterial growth and dissemination to distant body sites. CD44 knock-out (KO) mice showed enhanced early inflammatory cell recruitment into the peritoneal fluid on S. zooepidemicus infection. In line with this, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines in peritoneal exudate cells and peritoneal macrophages of CD44 KO mice were increased compared with those of WT mice. In addition, CD44 deficiency was associated with reduced expression of A20, a negative regulator in TLR signaling. Overall, the present study suggests that CD44 plays a protective role in antibacterial defense against S. zooepidemicus in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered...

  9. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus pleuropneumonia and peritonitis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, William B; Gold, Jenifer

    2015-08-01

    A 12-week-old female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf was evaluated because of acute (blood, peritoneal fluid, and pleural fluid samples indicated Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus septicemia as the etiology for the polyserositis (ie, alpaca fever). Treatment with IV broad-spectrum antimicrobials, an NSAID, and pleural drainage was initiated. Clinical signs of pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, and systemic infection improved rapidly 24 hours after initiation of medical treatment. The calf was discharged from the hospital after 11 days, and antimicrobial treatment continued for 2 weeks after discharge. At follow-up approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge (6 weeks after the initial examination), there were no clinical signs suggestive of relapse or any reported complications. S equi subsp zooepidemicus may cause polyserositis in Old World camelids (eg, dromedary camels) with signs similar to those seen in New World camelids (eg, alpaca and llama). The rapid response to medical treatment for the patient described suggested that S equi subsp zooepidemicus-induced polyserositis (alpaca fever) in dromedary camels may respond favorably to appropriate treatment. Reducing stress, reducing overcrowding, and separate housing of equids and camelids are suggested. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiology of alpaca fever in dromedary camels in North America.

  10. Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus is associated with digestive tract malignancies and resistance to macrolides and clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-08-01

    This study was intended to delineate the association between digestive tract malignancies and bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus. We reviewed the medical records and microbiological results of patients with bacteraemia due to Streptococcus bovis during the period 2000-2012. Species and subspecies identification of isolates originally classified as S. bovis was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution method. Of the 172 S. bovis complex isolates obtained from 172 patients (age range, Streptococcus infantarius. The majority (n = 104, 60%) of patients were male and had underlying malignancies (n = 87, 51%). Bacteraemia due to S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus was significantly associated with endocarditis while S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus was more likely to be associated with malignancies of the digestive tract, including gastric, pancreatic, hepatobiliary and colorectal cancers. Septic shock at presentation was the only factor associated with mortality among patients with bacteraemia due to either subspecies of S. bovis. Isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus had higher rates of resistance to macrolides and clindamycin than isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus. Extensive diagnostic work-up for digestive tract malignancies and trans-esophageal echocardiogram should be investigated in patients with bacteraemia caused by S. gallolyticus. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in breast cancer-related lymphedema: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumazaki, Makoto; Saito, Fumi; Ogata, Hideaki; Yoshida, Miho; Kubota, Yorichika; Magoshi, Syunsuke; Kaneko, Hironori

    2017-07-14

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema often causes cellulitis and is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery. Streptococci are the major pathogens underlying such cellulitis. Among the streptococci, the importance of the Lancefield groups C and G is underappreciated; most cases involve Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Despite having a relatively weak toxicity compared with group A streptococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is associated with a mortality rate that is as high as that of group A streptococci in cases of invasive infection because Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis mainly affects elderly individuals who already have various comorbidities. An 83-year-old Japanese woman with breast cancer-related lymphedema in her left upper limb was referred to our hospital with high fever and acute pain with erythema in her left arm. She showed septic shock with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood culture showed positive results for Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, confirming a diagnosis of streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome. She survived after successful intensive care. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis-induced streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome in a patient with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a common problem, and we must pay attention to invasive streptococcal soft tissue infections, particularly in elderly patients with chronic disease.

  12. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2. The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92% and 1607 (86% of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  13. Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus Have Different Influences on Phagocytosis and Cytokine Secretion of Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Peng; Zhe, Ma; Chengwei, Hua; Huixing, Lin; Hui, Zhang; Chengping, Lu; Hongjie, Fan

    2017-01-06

    Swine streptococcosis is a significant threat to the Chinese pig industry, and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is one of the major pathogens. SEZ ATCC35246 is a classical virulent strain, while SEZ ST171 is a Chinese attenuated vaccine strain. In this study, we employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the differential response of macrophages to infection by these two strains. Eighty-seven upregulated proteins and 135 downregulated proteins were identified. The proteomic results were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction for 10 chosen genes and Western blotting for three proteins. All differentially abundant proteins were analyzed for their Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Certain downregulated proteins were associated with immunity functions, and the upregulated proteins were related to cytomembrane and cytoskeleton regulation. The phagocytosis rate and cytokine genes transcription in Raw264.7 cells during SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection were detected to confirm the bioinformatics results. These results showed that different effects on macrophage phagocytosis and cytokine expression might explain the different phenotypes of SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection. This research provided clues to the mechanisms of host immunity responses to SEZ ST171and SEZ ATCC35246, which could identify potential therapy and vaccine development targets.

  14. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli Isolated from Sea Otters with Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L; Gill, Verena A; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; LeFebvre, Rance B; Byrne, Barbara A

    2015-06-01

    The Gram positive bacterial coccus Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli is increasingly linked with development of fatal vegetative infective endocarditis and septicemia in humans, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and other animals. However, the pathogenesis of these infections is poorly understood. Using S. infantarius subsp. coli strains isolated from sea otters with infective endocarditis, this study evaluated adherence and invasion of epithelial and endothelial cells, adherence to extracellular matrix components, and macrophage survival. Significant adherence to endothelial-derived cells was observed for 62% of isolates, 24% adhered to epithelial cell lines, and 95% invaded one or both cell types in vitro. The importance of the hyaluronic acid capsule in host cell adherence and invasion was also evaluated. Capsule removal significantly reduced epithelial adherence and invasion for most S. infantarius subsp. coli isolates, suggesting that the capsule facilitates attachment to and invasion of epithelium. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing revealed that all isolates adhered significantly to the extracellular matrix components collagen IV, fibronectin, laminin and hyaluronic acid. Finally, significant bacterial survival following phagocytosis by macrophages was apparent for 81% of isolates at one or more time points. Taken collectively these findings indicate that S. infantarius subsp. coli has multiple pathogenic properties that may be important to host colonization, invasion and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultraviolet light-induced mutants of Streptococcus lactis subspecies diacetylactis with enhanced acid- or flavor-producing abilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuila, R.K.; Ranganathan, B.

    1978-01-01

    A strain of Streptococcus lactis subspecies diacetylactis S 1 isolated from fresh milk was exposed to 7200 ergs/mm 2 of ultraviolet radiation. Over 8100 colonies surviving from 7.4 x 10 6 cells exposed to radiation were screened on citrate agar for detection and isolation of mutants with increased flavor and/or acid production. Of the survivors, 960 were type-I mutants that exhibited clear zone on citrate agar after 18 h (presumed to be high diacetyl producers), and 288 were type-II mutants which did not exhibit clear zones on citrate agar for up to 72 h (high acid producers). Type-II mutants produced an average .93 percent titratable acidity which was 34 percent more than the .69 percent of the parent. Reduction in titratable acidity (56 percent less) was considerable in type-I mutants, compared with the parent culture. Diacetyl + acetoin production by type-I mutants was 137.9 ppM which has 4.5 times more than that of the parental strain. Acetaldehyde production in the mutants varied from 1.5 to 34.5 ppM (parent culture 3.0 ppM). The mutants with increased acid and high acetoin plus diacetyl production were stable after 50 subcultures in milk

  16. Biofilm formation of beta-hemolytic group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis isolates and its association with emm polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jui-Shan; Chen, Sin-Yu; Lo, Hsueh-Hsia

    2017-11-01

    Biofilm formation has been well known as a determinant of bacterial virulence. Group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), a relevant pathogen with increasing medical importance, was evaluated for the biofilm-forming potential. Microtiter plate assay was used to assess the most feasible medium for group G SDSE to form a biofilm. Among 246 SDSE isolates examined, 46.7%, 43.5%, 33.3%, and 26.4% of isolates showed moderate or strong biofilm-forming abilities using tryptic soy broth (TSB), brain heart infusion broth (BHI), Todd-Hewitt broth (THB), and C medium with 30 mM glucose (CMG), respectively. The addition of glucose significantly increased the biofilm-forming ability of group G SDSE. FCT (fibronectin-collagen-T-antigen) typing of SDSE was first undertaken and 11 FCT types were found. Positive associations of stG10.0 or negative associations of stG245.0, stG840.0, and stG6.1 with biofilm-forming ability of SDSE were, respectively, found. This was the first investigation demonstrating biofilm-forming potential in clinical group G SDSE isolates; also, some significant associations of biofilm-forming ability with certain emm types were presented. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of a nested PCR test and bacterial culture of swabs from the nasal passages and from abscesses in relation to diagnosis of Streptococcus equi infection (strangles)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, L.M.; Angen, Øystein; Vigre, Håkan

    2006-01-01

    . Methods: Two herds with natural outbreaks of strangles were visited over a period of 15 weeks and 323 samples originating from 35 horses investigated. The diagnostic use of a nested PCR test was evaluated using a collection of 165 isolates of Lancefield group C streptococci (species specificity) and swabs...... from nasal passages or from abscesses from horses infected with S. equi (diagnostic sensitivity). Results: All 45 S. equi isolates tested positive in the nested PCR, whereas no amplicon was formed when testing the other 120 Lancefield group C isolates. A total of 43 samples were collected from 11...... horses with and without clinical signs. Conclusions and potential relevance: The nested PCR test represents a species-specific and -sensitive method for diagnosis of S. equi from clinical samples. It may, however, be desirable in future to develop detection methods with high diagnostic sensitivity...

  18. EquiMar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnstone, C. M.; McCombes, T.; Bahaj, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    the performance evaluation of such systems in order to address this deficiency. This paper reports the development of a set of ‘Best Practices’ within the ECFPVII EquiMar project to be adopted for the performance quantification of wave and tidal energy converters as they evolve from an engineering concept......At the present time there are no approved standards or recognised best practices being implemented for the performance appraisal and benchmarking of wave and tidal energy converters. As such, this develops considerable misunderstanding between device developers, testing centres, investors....../ financiers etc when attempting to quantify the performance of a device since it makes it very difficult to reference and benchmark the performance of a marine energy converter. The EC Framework Programme VII EquiMar project has set out to develop a suite of Best Practices to be adopted when undertaking...

  19. Severe Streptococcus infection in spotted hyenas in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Ludwig, Arne; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Wohlsein, Peter; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Hofer, Heribert; East, Marion L

    2006-06-15

    In a population of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) monitored between 1996 and 2005 in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania, 16 individuals from five of eight social groups displayed clinical signs of an infection, including severe unilateral swelling of the head followed by abscess formation at the mandibular angle, respiratory distress, mild ataxia, and lethargy. Two (12.5%) of these 16 individuals died within days of developing signs. Clinical signs in hyenas were first noted in 2001, and most cases occurred between September 2002 and February 2003, suggesting an outbreak of infection during this period. Histopathological examination of internal organs from one hyena that died with signs revealed morphological changes consistent with severe bacterial infection. Phenotypic examination and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the causative agent of infection revealed a Lancefield group C Streptococcus with a high level of homology to S. equi subsp. ruminatorum, a subspecies of S. equi recently described in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus) with mastitis in Spain. Strains similar to this bacterium were also isolated from two hyenas without obvious clinical signs, suggesting that hyenas may be 'carriers' of this bacterium, and from a sympatric Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli), a herbivore species often consumed by hyenas. To our knowledge this is the first report of a Streptococcus infection in these two wildlife species. The high genetic similarity between the hyena and zebra isolates indicates that inter-specific transmission may occur, possibly when hyenas consume infected zebra carcasses.

  20. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Lefébure

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46% of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86% in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus and (ii the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB.

  1. Bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent infant

    OpenAIRE

    P Devi; S Malhotra; A Chadha

    2011-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi , previously known as Corynebacterium equi, is one of the most important causes of zoonotic infection in grazing animals. Increased cases of human infection with R. equi have been reported especially in immunocompromised patients. Infection in immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We report a case of R. equi bacteremia in a 26-day-old immunocompetent infant with recurrent swellings on different parts of the body. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever repo...

  2. Bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Devi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi , previously known as Corynebacterium equi, is one of the most important causes of zoonotic infection in grazing animals. Increased cases of human infection with R. equi have been reported especially in immunocompromised patients. Infection in immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We report a case of R. equi bacteremia in a 26-day-old immunocompetent infant with recurrent swellings on different parts of the body. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report of R. equi bacteremia from an immunocompetent patient from Northern India.

  3. On reflectionless equi-transmitting matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kurasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflectionless equi-transmitting unitary matrices are studied in connection to matching conditions in quantum graphs. All possible such matrices of size 6 are described explicitly. It is shown that such matrices form 30 six-parameter families intersected along 12 five-parameter families closely connected to conference matrices.

  4. The Effectiveness of Anti-R. equi Hyperimmune Plasma against R. equi Challenge in Thoroughbred Arabian Foals of Mares Vaccinated with R. equi Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Erganis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012 inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA, as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares’ foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ, total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL, lung samples (CFU/gr, and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares’ foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge.

  5. Shedding subspecies: The influence of genetics on reptile subspecies taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstrom, Shannon M; Pangle, Kevin L; Swanson, Bradley J

    2014-07-01

    The subspecies concept influences multiple aspects of biology and management. The 'molecular revolution' altered traditional methods (morphological traits) of subspecies classification by applying genetic analyses resulting in alternative or contradictory classifications. We evaluated recent reptile literature for bias in the recommendations regarding subspecies status when genetic data were included. Reviewing characteristics of the study, genetic variables, genetic distance values and noting the species concepts, we found that subspecies were more likely elevated to species when using genetic analysis. However, there was no predictive relationship between variables used and taxonomic recommendation. There was a significant difference between the median genetic distance values when researchers elevated or collapsed a subspecies. Our review found nine different concepts of species used when recommending taxonomic change, and studies incorporating multiple species concepts were more likely to recommend a taxonomic change. Since using genetic techniques significantly alter reptile taxonomy there is a need to establish a standard method to determine the species-subspecies boundary in order to effectively use the subspecies classification for research and conservation purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EquiX-A Search and Query Language for XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sara; Kanza, Yaron; Kogan, Yakov; Sagiv, Yehoshua; Nutt, Werner; Serebrenik, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Describes EquiX, a search language for XML that combines querying with searching to query the data and the meta-data content of Web pages. Topics include search engines; a data model for XML documents; search query syntax; search query semantics; an algorithm for evaluating a query on a document; and indexing EquiX queries. (LRW)

  7. Management of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns I

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Imogen Johns Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, UK Abstract: Rhodococcus equi, a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the most important cause of pneumonia in foals aged 3 weeks to 5 months. The disease occurs worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality on endemically affected farms. Foals appear to become infected early in life, but clinical signs are typically delayed until 1–3 months of age because of the insidious nature of the disease. Although pneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation, up to 74% of foals may concurrently have extrapulmonary disorders, including both extrapulmonary infections (abdominal abscessation, colitis, osteomyelitis and immune-mediated disorders (nonseptic synovitis, uveitis. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical signs and abnormalities on hematologic screening and thoracic imaging in an appropriately aged foal and is confirmed by bacteriologic culture of the organism. Management of R. equi infections, in particular on farms with endemic disease, combines appropriate treatment of affected foals with preventative measures targeted at preventing infection and identifying foals before the development of severe disease. The combination of rifampin and a macrolide antimicrobial is recommended for treatment, as the combination is synergistic, reaches high intracellular concentrations, and should minimize the development of antimicrobial resistance. The prognosis for survival for foals with R. equi pneumonia is good, especially in foals mildly or subclinically affected, as is the prognosis for future athletic performance. Screening for early identification before the development of clinical signs has been advocated on endemically affected farms, although the most appropriate method, the timing of screening, and the selection of foals requiring treatment have yet to be determined. Recent evidence suggests that

  8. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  9. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Tirosh-Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  10. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Gürbilek, Sevil E; Tel, Osman Y; Keskin, Oktay; Steinman, Amir

    2017-06-26

    Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  11. Rhodococcus equi Parte 2: imunologia e profilaxia Rhodococcus equi Part 2: immunology and profilaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Rusca Correa Porto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi é um patógeno ubíquo e habitante da flora intestinal dos equinos de importância na neonatologia equina. Todos os potros são expostos à doença ao nascimento, porém alguns a desenvolvem e outros não. Este artigo revisa características da resposta imune, tanto em adultos competentes quanto em potros suscetíveis ao patógeno. A resposta imune humoral é abordada, incluindo uma discussão sobre o uso do plasma hiperimune como ferramenta profilática. O papel dos mecanismos de imunidade inata na suscetibilidade de alguns potros ao R. equi é também abordado. Da mesma maneira, os componentes envolvidos na resposta cito-mediada são revisados, com atenção particular às pesquisas direcionadas ao desenvolvimento de uma vacina efetiva para ser utilizada em potros.Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen in equine neonatology that is ubiquitous and a normal intestinal inhabitant of equines. All foals are exposed at birth, however, some foals develop disease and others do not. This article reviews concepts of the equine immune response, both in the immune adult and susceptible neonate, with respect to this pathogen. Humoral immune responses are addressed, with a discussion on the use of hyperimmune plasma as a prophylactic tool. The role that innate immune mechanisms play in the susceptibility of some foals to R. equi infection is also highlighted. Likewise, cell-mediated immune components are reviewed, with particular attention directed towards research to develop an effective vaccine for foals.

  12. An Adenoviral Vector Based Vaccine for Rhodococcus equi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Giles

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a respiratory pathogen which primarily infects foals and is endemic on farms around the world with 50% mortality and 80% morbidity in affected foals. Unless detected early and treated appropriately the disease can be fatal. Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent this disease. For decades researchers have endeavoured to develop an effective vaccine to no avail. In this study a novel human adenoviral vector vaccine for R. equi was developed and tested in the mouse model. This vaccine generated a strong antibody and cytokine response and clearance of R. equi was demonstrated following challenge. These results show that this vaccine could potentially be developed further for use as a vaccine to prevent R. equi disease in foals.

  13. Virulence of Rhodococcus equi Isolated from Cats and Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, Shinji; Martens, Ronald J.; Julian, Alan; Garcia Ribeiro, Márcio; Rodrigues de Farias, Marconi; Sasaki, Yukako; Inuzuka, Kazuho; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Tsubaki, Shiro; Prescott, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Nine cat isolates and nine dog isolates of Rhodococcus equi from clinical material were investigated for the presence of the virulence-associated antigens (VapA and VapB) and virulence plasmids. Five of the cat isolates and one dog isolate were VapA positive and contained an 85-kb type I or an 87-kb type I plasmid. The remaining 12 isolates were avirulent R. equi strains and contained no virulence plasmids.

  14. Rhodococcus equi: the many facets of a pathogenic actinomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Boland, José A; Giguère, Steeve; Hapeshi, Alexia; MacArthur, Iain; Anastasi, Elisa; Valero-Rello, Ana

    2013-11-29

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil-dwelling pathogenic actinomycete that causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary pyogranulomatous infections in a variety of animal species and people. Young foals are particularly susceptible and develop a life-threatening pneumonic disease that is endemic at many horse-breeding farms worldwide. R. equi is a facultative intracellular parasite of macrophages that replicates within a modified phagocytic vacuole. Its pathogenicity depends on a virulence plasmid that promotes intracellular survival by preventing phagosome-lysosome fusion. Species-specific tropism of R. equi for horses, pigs and cattle appears to be determined by host-adapted virulence plasmid types. Molecular epidemiological studies of these plasmids suggest that human R. equi infection is zoonotic. Analysis of the recently determined R. equi genome sequence has identified additional virulence determinants on the bacterial chromosome. This review summarizes our current understanding of the clinical aspects, biology, pathogenesis and immunity of this fascinating microbe with plasmid-governed infectivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Severe Rhodococcus equi pneumonia: case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Gaub, J

    1991-01-01

    or sputum on standard media, but is frequently regarded as a contaminant. Mortality from Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is high (25%) and early surgical intervention has been recommended. Based on this review, the benefit of surgery seems dubious, whereas good results have been obtained using long......-term antibiotic treatment with erythromycin plus rifampicin, or vancomycin in combination with either of these antibiotics....

  16. Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René; Gaïni, Shahin; Kjaeldgaard, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Meningitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis is a rare disease which is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs. We report a 54-y-old pig-farm worker with S. suis meningitis and septicaemia complicated with thoracal and lumbar spine spondylodiscitis. The S. suis strain involved...

  17. Amblyomma cajennense is an intrastadial biological vector of Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2013-10-23

    The apicomplexan hemoprotozoan parasite Theileria equi is one of the etiologic agents causing equine piroplasmosis, a disease of equines that is endemic throughout large parts of the world. Before 2009 the United States had been considered to be free of this parasite. Occasional cases had occurred but there was no evidence for endemic vector-borne transmission in the U.S. until a 2009 outbreak in Texas in which Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma cajennense were implicated as vectors. Although D. variabilis has previously been shown to be a competent laboratory vector, studies suggested A. cajennense was not a competent transstadial vector, even though the presence of this tick species on horses in South American is epidemiologicaly correlated with higher a prevalence of infection. In this study we tested the transstadial and intrastadial vector competence of D. variabilis and A. cajennense for T. equi. A tick passaged T. equi strain from the Texas outbreak and ticks colonized from engorged females collected off horses on the outbreak ranch in Texas were used for these studies. Nymph or adult ticks were fed on infected horses and transmission fed on naïve horses. Infections were tracked with PCR and serology, dissected tick tissues were tested with PCR. A. cajennense transmitted T. equi intrastadially when adult ticks acquired infection by feeding on an infected horse, and transmitted to a naïve host on subsequent reattachment and feeding. D. variabilis failed to transmit in the same experiment. Transstadial transmission was not successful for either tick species. PCR on DNA isolated from eggs of females that had fed on an infected horse suggests that there is no transovarial passage of this parasite by either tick species. This work confirms that ticks from the Texas population of A. cajennense are competent intrastadial vectors of T. equi. We propose that the most likely natural mode of transmission for this parasite/vector combination in the Texas outbreak

  18. Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Y; Noda, H; Nagahata, H

    1992-08-01

    Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido was performed using ELISA. Of 2,879 horse sera, 318 (11.0%) gave antibody-positive (OD greater than or equal to 0.3) reactions. The antibody-positive rate of female was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that of male, and no statistical difference between Anglo-Arab and thoroughbred was detected in the antibody-positive rate. The maximum antibody-positive rate (27.1%) was shown at 14 years of age. The antibody-positive rates on the 160 farms were found to vary widely from 0 to 78.9%. A significant difference (p less than 0.01) in the antibody-positive rate was detected among horse farms. It was elucidated that 100 (62.5%) out of 160 horse farms had an antibody-positive horse. These results indicate that R. equi was widespread on horse farms, and the level of environmental contamination with R. equi differed among horse farms.

  19. Immunogenicity of an electron beam inactivated Rhodococcus equi vaccine in neonatal foals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela I Bordin

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals that causes severe pneumonia. To date, there is no licensed vaccine effective against R. equi pneumonia of foals. The objectives of our study were to develop an electron beam (eBeam inactivated vaccine against R. equi and evaluate its immunogenicity. A dose of eBeam irradiation that inactivated replication of R. equi while maintaining outer cell wall integrity was identified. Enteral administration of eBeam inactivated R. equi increased interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi and generated naso-pharyngeal R. equi-specific IgA in newborn foals. Our results indicate that eBeam irradiated R. equi administered enterally produce cell-mediated and upper respiratory mucosal immune responses, in the face of passively transferred maternal antibodies, similar to those produced in response to enteral administration of live organisms (a strategy which previously has been documented to protect foals against intrabronchial infection with virulent R. equi. No evidence of adverse effects was noted among vaccinated foals.

  20. Real-time PCR for detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Real-time PCR for detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi parasites in ticks. ... This study aimed to develop a real-time PCR screening test for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in ticks. Adult D. reticulatus were ... This test is suitable for application in epidemiological surveillance of equine babesiosis and theileriosis.

  1. Failure of pulmonary clearance of Rhodococcus equi infection in CD4+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaly, S T; Hines, S A; Palmer, G H

    1993-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of Rhodococcus equi requires functional T lymphocytes. In this study, CD8+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice cleared virulent R. equi from the lungs while infection in CD4+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice persisted. Although both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells function early in pulmonary defense against R. equi, clearance is dependent on CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  2. The impact of subspecialization on postgraduate medical education in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Brian D

    2005-11-01

    Medical subspecialization is a response to rapidly expanding technology and knowledge. Although beneficial to patient care, it poses a challenge to the current infrastructure of resident education. This article analyzes the advent of subspecialization, the current template of postgraduate neurosurgical education, the impact of subspecialization on postgraduate neurosurgical education, and, finally, suggests strategies to optimize professional education in the face of an increasingly subspecialized field.

  3. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some ...

  4. Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

    2015-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are

  5. Radiological findings in three acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinxin; Tang Xiaoping; Zhang Lieguang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearances of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in three patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS). Methods: Thoracic imaging appearances of' Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in three patients with AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The chest radiograph showed patchy consolidations and small nodules (n=3), large consolidations with multiple cavitations (n=2). CT showed large lobar or segmental consolidations with multiple cavitations (n=2), patchy consolidations (n=2), bronchiectasis (n=1), multiple small centrilobular nodules (n=2) and tree-in-bud patterns (n=2). Conclusion: The most common radiological findings in AIDS patients with Rhodococcus equi pulmonary infection are large consolidations with multiple cavitations and multiple centrilobular nodules. (authors)

  6. Subclinical Theileria Equi Infection and Rhabdomyolysis in Three Endurance Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz1,2*, R. G. M. Rodríguez2, C. Riber1,2, P. Trigo2, M. Gómez-Díez2 and F. Castejon2

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three well-trained endurance horses, competing over different distances, developed sudden and unexpected rhabdomyolysis at the onset of exercise. They were treated and afterwards they did not have any other bout of muscle damage. All of them were positive to Theileria equi (polymerase reaction chain. The possible reasons of the rhabdomyolysis could have been the direct effect of the parasite on the muscle and/or the result of the anemia and a limited oxygen supply to the exercising muscles. It is suggested that the horses were carriers of Theileria and they developed clinical signs because of the immune-suppression caused by prolonged submaximal exercise and/or transportation.

  7. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Wathan

    Full Text Available Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats. EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

  8. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Virulence Plasmids in Rhodococcus equi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Shinji; Shoda, Masato; Sasaki, Yukako; Tsubaki, Shiro; Fortier, Guillaume; Pronost, Stephane; Rahal, Karim; Becu, Teotimo; Begg, Angela; Browning, Glenn; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Prescott, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Virulent Rhodococcus equi, which is a well-known cause of pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals, possesses a large plasmid encoding virulence-associated 15- to 17-kDa antigens. Foal and soil isolates from five countries—Argentina, Australia, Canada, France, and Japan—were investigated for the presence of 15- to 17-kDa antigens by colony blotting, using the monoclonal antibody 10G5, and the gene coding for 15- to 17-kDa antigens by PCR. Plasmid DNAs extracted from positive isolates were digested with restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII, and the digestion patterns that resulted divided the plasmids of virulent isolates into five closely related types. Three of the five types had already been reported in Canadian and Japanese isolates, and the two new types had been found in French and Japanese isolates. Therefore, we tentatively designated these five types 85-kb type I (pREAT701), 85-kb type II (a new type), 87-kb type I (EcoRI and BamHI type 2 [V. M. Nicholson and J. F. Prescott, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:738–740, 1997]), 87-kb type II (a new type), and 90-kb (pREL1) plasmids. The 85-kb type I plasmid was found in isolates from Argentina, Australia, Canada, and France. Plasmid 87-kb type I was isolated in specimens from Argentina, Canada, and France. The 85-kb type II plasmid appeared in isolates from France. On the other hand, plasmids 87-kb type II and 90-kb were found only in isolates from Japan. These results revealed geographic differences in the distribution of the virulence plasmids found in the five countries and suggested that the restriction fragment length polymorphism of virulence plasmids might be useful to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of virulent R. equi in the world. PMID:10488224

  9. Evaluation of micro fatigue crack growth under equi-biaxial stress by membranous pressure fatigue test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Satoshi; Abe, Shigeki; Nakamura, Takao; Kamaya, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    For preventing nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, NPPs are required to ensure system safety in long term safe operation under aging degradation. Now, fatigue accumulation is one of major ageing phenomena and are evaluated to ensure safety by design fatigue curve that are based on the results of uniaxial fatigue tests. On the other hand, thermal stress that occurs in piping of actual components is not uniaxial but equi-biaxial. For accurate evaluation, it is required to conform real circumstance. In this study, membranous pressure fatigue test was conducted to simulated equi-biaxial stress. Crack initiation and crack growth were examined by replica investigation. Calculation result of equivalent stress intensity factor shows crack growth under equi-biaxial stress is faster than under uniaxial stress. It is concluded that equi-biaxial fatigue behavior should be considered in the evaluation of fatigue crack initiation and crack growth. (author)

  10. [A Duplex PCR Method for Detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yu-ting; Wang, Zhen-bao; Bolati; Li, Hai; Bayinchahan

    2015-04-01

    To develop a duplex PCR assay for detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Two pairs of primers were designed according to the BC48 gene of B. caballi and 18 s rRNA gene of T. equi, and a duplex PCR assay was developed by the optimization of reaction conditions. The specificity, sensitivity and reliability of the method were tested. The horse blood samples of suspected cases were collected from Yili region, and detected by the duplex PCR, microspopy, conventional PCR, and fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the results were compared. Using the duplex PCR assay, the specific fragments of 155 bp and 280 bp were amplified from DNA samples of B. caballi and T. equi, respectively. No specific fragment was amplified from DNA samples of B. bigemina, Theilerdia annulata, Theilerdia sergenti, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Trypanosoma evansi. The limit of detection was 4.85 x 10(5) copies/L for B. caballi DNA and 4.85 x 10(4) copies/µl for T. equi DNA, respectively. Among the 24 blood samples, 11 were found B. caballi-positive by the duplex PCR assay, and 18 were T. equi-positive. The coincidence rate of microscopy, conventional PCR, and fluorescence quantitative PCR with duplex PCR was 91.7% (22/24), 95.8% (23/24), and 95.8% (23/24), respectively. A duplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of B. caballi and T. equi is established.

  11. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Strep and Pregnancy • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be colonized ... planned cesarean birth? •Glossary What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of the ...

  12. Bacteremia por Rhodococcus equi em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Secchi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi é um importante agente de infecções zoonóticas, podendo causar sérias infecções em humanos, principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Neste estudo, nós relatamos o caso de uma bacteremia fatal devido a Rhodococcus equi em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV positivo.Rhodococcus equi is an important agent for zoonotic infections, and may cause serious infections in humans, especially immunocompromised patients. In this study, a case of fatal bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV positive is reported.

  13. Characterization of Theileria equi genotypes in horses in Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketter-Ratzon, Dafna; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Saar, Tal; Qura'n, Lara; Zivotofsky, Doni; Abdeen, Ziad; Baneth, Gad; Steinman, Amir

    2017-06-01

    Equine theileriosis caused by Theileria equi is endemic in the Middle East, where it causes a severe disease as well as widespread subclinical infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of T. equi genotypes in Israel and the neighboring Palestinian Authority and Jordan. Blood samples from 355 horses from Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan were tested for the prevalence of T. equi DNA. Two hundred and fourteen (60%) were found positive for T. equi infection by PCR. Of those, the 18S rRNA (1458bp) and the EMA-1 (745bp) genes of T. equi were sequenced from 15 horse samples that represent Israel's geographical distribution together with four samples from the Palestinian Authority and two from Jordan. The results were used for genotype characterization and phylogenetic analysis of T. equi in the equine population in Israel and its surroundings. Three 18S rRNA genotype clades were found in Israel (A, C and D) with clade D being the most prevalent and included all four isolates from the PA. In contrast, the EMA-1 gene showed little diversity with all sequences clustering in the same clade apart from one Jordanian sequence. Results suggest that although the Israeli horse population is small and relatively confined geographically, it is probable that the genetic variability, which was found among Israeli horses, is a result of introduction of horses from other countries. It also suggests that the EMA-1 gene is probably not a good target for the evaluation of variance in T. equi populations. Characterization of the different genotypes prevalent in a certain region is important in order to map out the intra-species sequence heterogeneity of the parasite, which is needed in order to develop new diagnostic tools and vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Evaluation of PCR and multiplex PCR in relation to nested PCR for diagnosing Theileria equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Leal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional PCR (PCRTeq for diagnosing Theileria equi and multiplex PCR (M/PCRTeq-Bc for diagnosing T. equi and Babesia caballi were comparatively evaluated with nested PCR (N/PCR-Teq for diagnosing equine piroplasmosis. In DNA sensitivity determinations, in multiple dilutions of equine blood that had tested positive for T. equi, PCR-Teq and N/PCR-Teq detected hemoparasite DNA in the larger dilutions (1:128, but did not differ significantly from the M/PCRTeq-Bc (1:64. In analyses on equine serum tested by ELISA, there was high agreement between this serological test and PCR-Teq (k = 0.780 and moderate agreement with N/PCR-Teq (k = 0.562 and M/PCRTeq-Bc (k = 0.488. PCR-Teq found a higher frequency of T. equi both in extensively and intensively reared horses, but this was not significant in relation to N/PCR-Teq (P>0.05, and both PCRs indicated that there was an endemic situation regarding T. equi in the population of horses of this sample. PCR-Teq was only significantly different from M/PCR-Teq-Bc (P<0.05. PCR-Teq presented high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to N/PCR-Teq, but with the advantage of higher speed in obtaining results and lower costs and risks of laboratory contamination. This accredits PCR-Teq for epidemiological studies and for determinations on affected horses.

  16. Humoral immune responses of pregnant Guinea pigs Immunized with live attenuated Rhodococcus equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawlood Abass Ali Al- Graibawi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential to increase passive transfer of specific Rhodococcus equi (R.equi humoral immunity to newborn by preparturient vaccination of their dams was investigated in Pregnant Guinea pigs as a pilot study. Attenuated autogenous vaccine was prepared from a Congo red negative (CR- R.equi local isolate mixed with adjuvant (potassium alum sulphate, tested for sterility, safety and potency prior to vaccination .Two groups of pregnant G. pigs were used, the first group was vaccinated twice subcutaneously (S.C with the prepared vaccine at five and three weeks prior parturition, the second group was inoculated with adjuvant plus phosphate buffer saline (PBS twice s.c and kept as control. Offspring from the vaccinated dams had revealed high titers of specific R. equi antibody as detected by tube agglutination (TA and passive haemagglutination (PH test and showed protection against challenge dose. The results revealed that vaccination of pregnant G. pigs with the prepared attenuated vaccine was safe and efficient method to protect their offspring against experimental challenge with virulent R.equi. Vaccination was associated with increased humoral immune response in vaccinated group.

  17. The sensor kinase MprB is required for Rhodococcus equi virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Iain; Parreira, Valeria R; Lepp, Dion; Mutharia, Lucy M; Vazquez-Boland, José A; Prescott, John F

    2011-01-10

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil bacterium and, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a member of the mycolata. Through possession of a virulence plasmid, it has the ability to infect the alveolar macrophages of foals, resulting in pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia. The virulence plasmid has an orphan two-component system (TCS) regulatory gene, orf8, mutation of which completely attenuates virulence. This study attempted to find the cognate sensor kinase (SK) of orf8. Annotation of the R. equi strain 103 genome identified 23 TCSs encoded on the chromosome, which were used in a DNA microarray to compare TCS gene transcription in murine macrophage-like cells to growth in vitro. This identified six SKs as significantly up-regulated during growth in macrophages. Mutants of these SKs were constructed and their ability to persist in macrophages was determined with one SK, MprB, found to be required for intracellular survival. The attenuation of the mprB- mutant, and its complementation, was confirmed in a mouse virulence assay. In silico analysis of the R. equi genome sequence identified an MprA binding box motif homologous to that of M. tuberculosis, on mprA, pepD, sigB and sigE. The results of this study also show that R. equi responds to the macrophage environment differently from M. tuberculosis. MprB is the first SK identified as required for R. equi virulence and intracellular survival. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in eliminating Theileria equi from experimentally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grause, Juanita F; Ueti, Massaro W; Nelson, Jeffrey T; Knowles, Donald P; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Bunn, Thomas O

    2013-06-01

    Theileria equi, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a 'foreign' animal disease in the USA. In an effort to prevent the importation of T. equi, stringent serological screening of horses is practiced prior to entry to the USA. Current regulatory options available where horses are found to be infected include permanent quarantine with or without chemotherapy, repatriation, or euthanasia. Chemotherapeutics that eliminate infection and subsequently transmission risk are critical in the management of infected horses. In this study, the efficacy of the drug imidocarb dipropionate against experimental T. equi infection was assessed. Of nine horses experimentally inoculated with T. equi isolated from an animal previously imported from Peru, six were treated with imidocarb dipropionate after the resolution of the acute phase of the disease. Elimination of the parasite was demonstrated in 5/6 by nested PCR, blood transfusions to naïve horses, and reversion to seronegative status. The findings support the use of this drug as a potential treatment option in controlling outbreaks of T. equi, and also suggest that 'combination testing' using both serological and PCR detection methods are necessary to demonstrate clearance of infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Rhodococcus equi venous catheter infection: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahleh Zeina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rhodococcus equi is an animal pathogen that was initially isolated from horses and is being increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans with impaired cellular immunity. However, this pathogen is underestimated as a challenging antagonist and is frequently considered to be a mere contaminant despite the potential for life-threatening infections. Most case reports have occurred in immunocompromised patients who have received organ transplants (for example kidney, heart, bone marrow or those with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Infections often manifest as pulmonary involvement or soft tissue abscesses. Bacteremia related to R. equi infections of tunneled central venous catheters has rarely been described. Case presentation We report the case of a 63-year-old non-transplant recipient, non-HIV infected Caucasian woman with endometrial carcinoma who developed recurrent bloodstream infections and septic shock due to R. equi and ultimately required the removal of her port catheter, a subcutaneous implantable central venous catheter. We also review the medical literature related to human infections with R. equi. Conclusion R. equi should be considered a serious pathogen, not a contaminant, particularly in an immunocompromised patient who presents with a central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection. Counseling patients with central venous catheters who participate in activities involving exposure to domesticated animals is recommended.

  20. A new subspecies of Typhlosaurus lineatus Boulenger 1887 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-10-01

    Oct 1, 1986 ... totale ventrale skubteliings. Geografiese afsondering is oak duidelik. Introduction. The genus TyphlosauTlls Wiegmann. 1834 has recently been revised by Broadley (1968). He lists 12 species and subspecies including three subspecies of Tlinealus. One of these, T. I. subtaenialus Broadley. differs from the.

  1. Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys from different localities ...

  2. Serological and molecular detection of Theileria equi in sport horses of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Edlainne P; Vidotto, Odilon; Almeida, Jonatas C; Ribeiro, Luana P S; Borges, Marcos V; Pequeno, Walter H C; Stipp, Danilo T; de Oliveira, Celso J B; Biondo, Alexander W; Vieira, Thállitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C

    2016-08-01

    Theileriosis is a worldwide protozoal tick-borne disease caused by Theileria equi, which may produce a variety of clinical signs and turn infected horses into lifetime carriers. This study has aimed to perform a serological and molecular detection of T. equi and associated factors in sports horses from six areas of northeastern Brazil. In overall, 59.6% horses were positive by indirect immunofluorescence assay and 50.4% by polymerase chain reaction. No significant association was found when presence of ticks, age, gender, anemia or total plasma proteins was analyzed with seropositivity and molecular techniques. Although a significant association of infection was found in two cities. Thus, local risk factors other than presence of ticks, horse age, gender, anemia and total plasmatic proteins may dictate prevalence of T. equi infection in sports horses, even in highly endemic areas with no control of infection prior to horse competitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

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    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  4. Klossiella equi Infection in an Immunosuppressed Horse: Evidence of Long-Term Infection

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    Lora R. Ballweber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old quarter horse gelding presented with a history of hematuria of approximately 1-year duration, anemia, weight loss over the previous six months, and bilateral nasal discharge of 2-week duration. It was determined that hematuria was most likely caused by the coccidian parasite Klossiella equi. Additional case workup suggested a diagnosis of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Confirmatory testing was declined by the owners and the horse was discharged on medical therapy. Despite initial improvement after discharge, the horse developed unresolving sinusitis approximately 1 year later and was euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the presence of an adenoma of the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland, supporting the initial diagnosis. Additional findings included multiple developmental stages of K. equi present in the kidneys. This finding demonstrates infections with K. equi can be chronic in nature and supports the association of increased severity of klossiellosis and impaired immune function.

  5. Equi-axed and columnar grain growth in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The grain size of UO 2 is an important parameter in the actual performance and the modelling of the performance of reactor fuel elements. Many processes depend critically on the grain size, for example, the degree of initial densification, the evolution rate of stable fission gases, the release rates of radiologically hazardous fission products, the fission gas bubble swelling rates and the fuel creep. Many of these processes are thermally activated and further impact on the fuel thermal behavior thus creating complex feedback processes. In order to model the fuel performance accurately it is necessary to model the evolution of the fuel grain radius. When UO 2 is irradiated, the fission gases xenon and krypton are created from the fissioning uranium nucleus. At high temperatures these gases diffuse rapidly to the grain boundaries where they nucleate immobile lenticular shaped fission gas bubbles. In this paper the Hillert grain growth model is adapted to account for the inhibiting ''Zener'' effects of grain boundary fission gas porosity on grain boundary mobility and hence grain growth. It is shown that normal grain growth ceases at relatively low levels of irradiation. At high burnups, high temperatures and in regions of high temperature gradients, columnar grain growth is often observed, in some cases extending over more than fifty percent of the fuel radius. The model is further extended to account for the de-pinning of grains in the radial direction by the thermal gradient induced force on a fission gas grain boundary bubble. The observed columnar/equi-axed boundary is in fair agreement with the predictions of an evaporation/condensation model. The grain growth model described in this paper requires information concerning the scale of grain boundary porosity, the local fuel temperature and the local temperature gradient. The model is currently used in the Nuclear Electric version of the ENIGMA fuel modelling code. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. Identification of genomic loci associated with Rhodococcus equi susceptibility in foals.

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    Cole M McQueen

    Full Text Available Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of disease and death in foals. Although agent and environmental factors contribute to the incidence of this disease, the genetic factors influencing the clinical outcomes of R. equi pneumonia are ill-defined. Here, we performed independent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP- and copy number variant (CNV-based genome-wide association studies to identify genomic loci associated with R. equi pneumonia in foals. Foals at a large Quarter Horse breeding farm were categorized into 3 groups: 1 foals with R. equi pneumonia (clinical group [N = 43]; 2 foals with ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary lesions that never developed clinical signs of pneumonia (subclinical group [N = 156]; and, 3 foals without clinical signs or ultrasonographic evidence of pneumonia (unaffected group [N = 49]. From each group, 24 foals were randomly selected and used for independent SNP- and CNV-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS. The SNP-based GWAS identified a region on chromosome 26 that had moderate evidence of association with R. equi pneumonia when comparing clinical and subclinical foals. A joint analysis including all study foals revealed a 3- to 4-fold increase in odds of disease for a homozygous SNP within the associated region when comparing the clinical group with either of the other 2 groups of foals or their combination. The region contains the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 2 (TRPM2 gene, which is involved in neutrophil function. No associations were identified in the CNV-based GWAS. Collectively, these data identify a region on chromosome 26 associated with R. equi pneumonia in foals, providing evidence that genetic factors may indeed contribute to this important disease of foals.

  7. Disseminated Rhodococcus equi infection in a patient with Hodgkin’s lymphoma

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    Mikić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhodococcus (R equi is an opportunistic, uncommon human pathogen that causes mainly infection in immunocompromised hosts. The disease is usually presented as subacute pneumonia that is mostly cavitary and sometimes bacteremic. Case report. We reported the extremly rare case of a 43-year-old woman with Hodgkin's lymphoma, who developed R. equi pulmonary infection after recieving multiple courses of chemotherapy. Secondary, the patient developed bacteremia, leading to sepsis and dissemination of R. equi infection in many extrapulmonary sites. At addmission the patient was febrile, tachypnoic, tachycardic, hypotensive, with facial edema, splenomegaly, positive meningeal signs, left hemiparesis and paraparesis. Laboratory data included erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR > 140 mm/h, C-reactive protein (CRP 143.0 mg/L, red blood cells (RBC 2.14 × 1012/L, whyite blood cells (WBC 2.8 × 109/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH 706 U/L, serum albumin 26 g/L, sodium 127 mmol/L and potassium 2.7 mmol/L. Blood culture and culture of sputum and empyema were positive for R. equi. Imaging studies demonstrated a large right cavitary pneumonia and abscess, empyema, pericarditis, mediastinal and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy, brain and psoas abscesses, osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis. The patient recovered completely after a 12-month treatment with combinations of parenteral and oral antibiotics (meropenem, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, macrolides etc, including drainage of abscesses and empyema. Eight years after completition of the treatment the patient was without recurrence of R. equi infection and lymphoma. Conclusion. Since the eradication od R. equi is very difficult, it is very important to make the diagnosis and initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy as soon as possible.

  8. Seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in five draught equine populated metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Raza, Fahad; Muhammad, Ghulam; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Saleem, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-05-28

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by intraerythrocytic parasites (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) is an emerging equine disease of world-wide distribution. In Pakistan, the prevalence and incidence of EP are unknown. In order to obtain the first insights into the prevalence of the disease, a total of 430 equids, including 33 mules, 65 horses and 332 donkeys, aging from ≤ 5 to ≥ 10 years of either sex, from five metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan, were serologically tested for the presence of antibodies directed against B. caballi and T. equi, using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Out of 430 equid serum samples tested, 226 (52.6%, 95% CI 47.7-57.4) were found cELISA positive for EP (T. equi and/or B. caballi infections). The overall seroprevalence of EP was 41.2% (95% CI 36.5-46.0) for T. equi and 21.6% (95% CI 17.8-25.8) for B. caballi. A small proportion of equids (10.2%, 95% CI 7.5-13.5) was seropositive for both T. equi and B. caballi. Seroprevalence of T. equi was significantly higher (P<0.01) in equines from the metropolis of Lahore (66.7%, 95% CI 54.3-77.6) and in horses (56.9%, 95% CI 44.0-69.2). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that factors associated with prevalence of EP were being an equine species kept in metropolis Lahore (OR=4.24, 95% CI 2.28-7.90), horse (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.53-5.20) and male equids (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.15-2.86). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Equipment Information System (EQUIS) to determine priority for purchasing safeguards equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, S.

    1988-01-01

    To manage its large world-wide inventory of safeguards equipment, the IAEA Safeguards department uses a computerized Equipment Information System (EQUIS). EQUIS data have been analyzed using Queueing Theory to determine if inventory is adequate to meet inspector demands and in those cases where it is inadequate, to indicate how many additional units should be procured. Results are tabulated for various types of non-destructive analysis (NDA) equipment. For equipment where there is a high turnover and hence a large amount of data, the analysis provides a powerful tool for assisting procurement decisions

  10. Pneumonia due to Rhodococcus equi in a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patient: case report

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    Iuri de França Bonilha

    Full Text Available The authors reported a lung infection by Rhodococcus equi in a 25 years-old male patient admitted to hospital with cough, dyspnea, fever, and previous diagnosis of pleural effusion. R. equi was isolated from pleural fluid and the patient acquired nosocomial infection by Acinetobacter baumannii, isolated from chest drain. The patient was treated with antibiotics. During hospitalization, he was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma of precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma subtype in biopsy of pleura. After undergoing surgery for pulmonary decortication for drain empyema, the patient died due to septicemia.

  11. Natural Infection of the South American Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Alexandre Welzel; De Oliveira, Gustavo Gomes; Menezes Santos, Leandro; da Silva Azuaga, Lucas Bezerra; Macedo Coutinho, Claudia Regina; Echeverria, Jessica Teles; Antunes, Tamires Ramborger; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Izabel de Souza, Alda

    2017-04-01

    Theileria equi is a tick-borne piroplasm considered endemic in equines in Brazil. The cohabitation of domestic and wild animals in areas of extensive cattle breeding favors the close contact between different species and the sharing of vectors and, consequently, pathogens. We report the natural infection of a young South American tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by T. equi in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Although it was not possible to associate the clinical and hematologic status of the animal with the infection by the protozoan parasite, our report represents an alert on the sharing of pathogens between domestic and wild animals.

  12. The original descriptions of reptiles and their subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetz, Peter; Stylianou, Alexandrea

    2018-01-24

    By August 2017 an estimated 13,047 species and subspecies of extant reptiles have been described by a total of 6,454 papers and books which are listed in a supplementary file. For 1,052 species a total of 2,452 subspecies (excluding nominate subspecies) had been described by 2017, down from 1,295 species and 4,411 subspecies in 2009, due to the elevation of many subspecies to species. Here we summarize the history of these taxon description beginning with Linnaeus in 1758. While it took 80 years to reach the first 1,000 species in 1838, new species and subspecies descriptions since then have been added at a roughly constant rate of 1000 new taxa every 12-17 years. The only exception were the decades during World Wars I and II and the beginning of this millennium when the rate of descriptions increased to now about 7 years for the last 1,000 taxa. The top 101 most productive herpetologists (in terms of "taxon output") have described more than 8,000 species and subspecies, amounting to over 60% of all currently valid taxa. More than 90% of all species were described in either English (68.2%), German (12.7%) or French (9.3%).

  13. Identificação diferencial de Rhodococcus equi e Dietzia maris em bubalinos Differential identification of Rhodococcus equi and Dietzia maris in buffaloes

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    L.R. Viana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 24 isolados bacterianos oriundos de leite e pele de búfalas (Bubalus bubalis, os quais foram previamente identificados como Rhodococcus equi com o auxílio de fenotipia concisa. Testes fenotípicos complementares e ferramentas moleculares foram utilizados com o objetivo de caracterizar esses isolados, bem como diferenciá-los de outros microrganismos intimamente relacionados. Observaram-se três fenótipos distintos, porém a identificação dos isolados foi inconclusiva. Apenas um dos isolados foi comprovado como sendo R. equi com a realização da PCR espécie-específica, sequenciamento e análise dos fragmentos de DNA. Os demais isolados só foram identificados pelo sequenciamento de fragmento do gene que codifica a região 16S do rRNA universal de bactérias, indicando tratar-se de Dietzia maris. O perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos revelou maior resistência dos isolados de D. maris para oxacilina (96% e rifampicina (87%. O isolado de R. equi apresentou resistência à amicacina, oxacilina, penicilina, rifampicina e tetraciclina. Alerta-se para o risco da incorreta identificação dos isolados baseados em testes fenotípicos concisos e para a necessidade de utilização de testes complementares para diferenciação entre R. equi e D. maris.Twenty-four bacterial isolates from milk and skin of buffalo females (Bubalus bubalis, which previously had been identified as Rhodococcus equi by using a restricted number of phenotypical tests for bacterial characterization, were analyzed. The goal of this study was to perform the characterization of these isolates, as well as the differentiation of other microorganisms closely related by using additional phenotypical tests and molecular tools. Based on the phenotypical results, three different biotypes were obtained. However, the identification of the isolates was inconclusive. Only one of the isolates was confirmed as R. equi by the PCR specifically for this species, as

  14. Epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of Theileria equi infection in Giza, Egypt

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    Fayez A. Salib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Theileria equi among horses in different age groups, both sexes, months and seasons of the year, and regions of Giza governourate. Studying the changes in the blood picture, blood chemistries, liver enzymes associate with T.equi infections in horses. Evaluating IFA and CFT at different dilutions in the serodiagnosis of T.equi infections in horses. Evaluating four anti-Theileria medication regimens (diminazine aceturate, imidiocarb 7%, buparvaquone and a combination of imidiocarb 7% and buparvaquone in treatment of T.equi infections in horses. Materials and Methods: Total of 149 horses were examined by clinical signs and blood smears. Fortey whole blood samples from T.equi infected horses were examined to measure haemoglobin, total RBCs count and PCV. Fortey serum samples from T.equi infected horses were examined to measure total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, ALT and AST enzymes. Serum samples from T.equi infected (40 and non infected (14 horses were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA and complement fixation test (CFT at different dilutions. Four groups of T.equiinfected horses (A,B,C,D, each group was represented by 10 horses and was separately treated with diminazine aceturate, imidiocarb 7%, buparvaquone and a combination of imidiocarb 7% and buparvaquone respectively. Results: the prevalence of T.equi was 41.61% in totally examined horses. The prevalence was higher in males than females. The highest prevalence was among age group ranged from 5-10 years as (22.81%. The highest prevalence was in July and was recorded as (25.81% and the disease was more prevalent in summer than winter. The highest prevalence was recorded in Nazlet-alsamman as (51.61%. Equine theileriosis was clinically characterized by fever, haemoglobinuria, oedema, anaemia and icterus. The best dilution for IFA was 1/160 where sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were the highest for this test as (98%, (92.86% and (97

  15. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

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    Joon L. Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the

  16. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joon L.; Ng, Kee P.; Ong, Chia S.; Ngeow, Yun F.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii) are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a) recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b) recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c) the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the diversification

  17. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Theileria (Babesia) Equi Infection in Equids of Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Gholamreza; Esmaeilnia, Kasra; Hablolvarid, Mohammad Hasan; Afshari, Asghar; Zamen, Mohsen; Bozorgi, Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is the cause of persistent tick-borne infection with no symptoms, but the most important problem of EP is due to the persistent carrier state. Carrier animals to Babesia (Theileria) equi (Laveran 1901) and B. caballi (Nuttall, 1910) infestation could be identified by extremely sensitive PCR-based method. The purpose of this study was to identify the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis based on molecular and microscopic assays in equids from Kurdistan Province, Iran. Thirty one horse and mule blood samples were used with history of living in Kurdistan Province of Iran. The blood specimens were utilized for T. equi and B. caballi DNA identification by PCR and Giemsa stained smears for microscopic observation. The results clearly showed the presence of B. (Theileria) equi DNA in 30 of 31 blood samples (96.77%), but the microscopic examination revealed the 3 of 31 positive Babesia like organisms in the red blood cells (9.67%). The obtained results demonstrated the presence of hidden B. (Theileria) equi infection in horses with previous habitance in Kurdistan Province of Iran. The carrier animals became a main source of infection and can transmit the disease. Therefore, hidden infection might be considered as a health threatening and limiting factor in animals used in therapeutic antisera research and production centers.

  18. Disseminated Rhodococcus equi infection in a kidney transplant patient without initial pulmonary involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette C.; van Meurs, Matijs; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.

    2009-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in solid organ transplant recipients. Primary pulmonary involvement is the most common finding. We report a case of a 42-year-old female kidney transplant recipient who developed multiple disseminated abscesses caused by R.

  19. In vitro and intra-macrophage gene expression by Rhodococcus equi strain 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Tanvir; Parreira, Valeria; Prescott, John F

    2005-09-30

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular respiratory pathogen of foals that persists and multiplies within macrophages. In foals, virulence is associated with 80-90 kb plasmids, which include a pathogenicity island (PI) containing the virulence-associated protein (vap) gene family, but detailed understanding of the basis of virulence is still poor. A 60 spot-based DNA microarray was developed containing eight PI genes and 42 chromosomal putative virulence or virulence-associated genes selected from a recent partial genome sequence in order to study transcription of these genes by R. equi grown inside macrophages and under in vitro conditions thought to simulate those of macrophages. In addition to seven PI genes, nine chromosomal genes involved in fatty acid and lipid metabolism (choD, fadD13, fbpB), heme biosynthesis (hemE), iron utilization (mbtF), heat shock resistance and genes encoding chaperones (clpB, groEL), a sigma factor (sigK), and a transcriptional regulator (moxR) were significantly induced in R. equi growing inside macrophages. The pattern of R. equi chromosomal genes significantly transcribed inside macrophages largely differed from those transcribed under in vitro conditions (37 degrees C, pH 5.0 or 50mM H2O2 for 30 min). This study has identified genes, other than those of the virulence plasmid, the transcription of which is enhanced within equine macrophages. These genes should be investigated further to improve understanding of how this organism survives intracellularly.

  20. Diversion of phagosome trafficking by pathogenic Rhodococcus equi depends on mycolic acid chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Tobias; von Bargen, Kristine; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Huth, Gitta; Holst, Otto; Wohlmann, Jens; Becken, Ulrike; Dykstra, Tobias; Söhl, Kristina; Lindner, Buko; Prescott, John F; Schaible, Ulrich E; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Haas, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a close relative of Mycobacterium spp. and a facultative intracellular pathogen which arrests phagosome maturation in macrophages before the late endocytic stage. We have screened a transposon mutant library of R. equi for mutants with decreased capability to prevent phagolysosome formation. This screen yielded a mutant in the gene for β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein)-synthase A (KasA), a key enzyme of the long-chain mycolic acid synthesizing FAS-II system. The longest kasA mutant mycolic acid chains were 10 carbon units shorter than those of wild-type bacteria. Coating of non-pathogenic E. coli with purified wild-type trehalose dimycolate reduced phagolysosome formation substantially which was not the case with shorter kasA mutant-derived trehalose dimycolate. The mutant was moderately attenuated in macrophages and in a mouse infection model, but was fully cytotoxic.Whereas loss of KasA is lethal in mycobacteria, R. equi kasA mutant multiplication in broth was normal proving that long-chain mycolic acid compounds are not necessarily required for cellular integrity and viability of the bacteria that typically produce them. This study demonstrates a central role of mycolic acid chain length in diversion of trafficking by R. equi. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. MICs of Oxazolidinones for Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bowersock, Terry L.; Salmon, Sarah A.; Portis, Ellen S.; Prescott, John F.; Robison, Denise A.; Ford, Charles W.; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Eperezolid and linezolid are representatives of a new class of orally active, synthetic antimicrobial agents. The in vitro activity values (MICs) of linezolid, eperezolid, and comparator antibiotics against 102 strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from humans and animals were determined. Linezolid was more active than eperezolid against the strains tested; premafloxacin was the most active comparator antibiotic.

  2. Rhodococcus equi infection after alemtuzumab therapy for T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuse, Jan J.; Sprenger, Herman G.; Van Assen, Sander; Leduc, Dominique; Daenen, Simon M.G.J.; Arends, Jan P.; van der Werf, Tjipke

    2007-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, mainly known from veterinary medicine as a pathogen in domestic animals, can also cause infections in immunocompromised humans, especially in those with defects in cellular immunity. Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, causes lymphocytopenia by eliminating CD52-positive

  3. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus

  4. Exploring internal features of 16S rRNA gene for identification of clinically relevant species of the genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus is an economically important genus as a number of species belonging to this genus are human and animal pathogens. The genus has been divided into different groups based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The variability observed among the members of these groups is low and it is difficult to distinguish them. The present study was taken up to explore 16S rRNA gene sequence to develop methods that can be used for preliminary identification and can supplement the existing methods for identification of clinically-relevant isolates of the genus Streptococcus. Methods 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the isolates of S. dysgalactiae, S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. bovis, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, S. thermophilus and S. anginosus were analyzed with the purpose to define genetic variability within each species to generate a phylogenetic framework, to identify species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. Results The framework based analysis was used to segregate Streptococcus spp. previously identified upto genus level. This segregation was validated using species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. 43 uncharacterized Streptococcus spp. could be identified using this approach. Conclusions The markers generated exploring 16S rRNA gene sequences provided useful tool that can be further used for identification of different species of the genus Streptococcus. PMID:21702978

  5. Structure of the virulence-associated protein VapD from the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittingham, Jean L.; Blagova, Elena V.; Finn, Ciaran E.; Luo, Haixia; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raúl; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Leech, Andrew P.; Walton, Paul H.; Murzin, Alexey G.; Meijer, Wim G.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    VapD is one of a set of highly homologous virulence-associated proteins from the multi-host pathogen Rhodococcus equi. The crystal structure reveals an eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel fold and a glycine rich ‘bald’ surface. Rhodococcus equi is a multi-host pathogen that infects a range of animals as well as immune-compromised humans. Equine and porcine isolates harbour a virulence plasmid encoding a homologous family of virulence-associated proteins associated with the capacity of R. equi to divert the normal processes of endosomal maturation, enabling bacterial survival and proliferation in alveolar macrophages. To provide a basis for probing the function of the Vap proteins in virulence, the crystal structure of VapD was determined. VapD is a monomer as determined by multi-angle laser light scattering. The structure reveals an elliptical, compact eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel strand topology and pseudo-twofold symmetry, suggesting evolution from an ancestral dimer. Surface-associated octyl-β-d-glucoside molecules may provide clues to function. Circular-dichroism spectroscopic analysis suggests that the β-barrel structure is preceded by a natively disordered region at the N-terminus. Sequence comparisons indicate that the core folds of the other plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins from R. equi strains are similar to that of VapD. It is further shown that sequences encoding putative R. equi Vap-like proteins occur in diverse bacterial species. Finally, the functional implications of the structure are discussed in the light of the unique structural features of VapD and its partial structural similarity to other β-barrel proteins

  6. Structure of the virulence-associated protein VapD from the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittingham, Jean L.; Blagova, Elena V. [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Finn, Ciaran E.; Luo, Haixia; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raúl [University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Turkenburg, Johan P.; Leech, Andrew P.; Walton, Paul H. [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Murzin, Alexey G. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Meijer, Wim G. [University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Wilkinson, Anthony J., E-mail: tony.wilkinson@york.ac.uk [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    VapD is one of a set of highly homologous virulence-associated proteins from the multi-host pathogen Rhodococcus equi. The crystal structure reveals an eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel fold and a glycine rich ‘bald’ surface. Rhodococcus equi is a multi-host pathogen that infects a range of animals as well as immune-compromised humans. Equine and porcine isolates harbour a virulence plasmid encoding a homologous family of virulence-associated proteins associated with the capacity of R. equi to divert the normal processes of endosomal maturation, enabling bacterial survival and proliferation in alveolar macrophages. To provide a basis for probing the function of the Vap proteins in virulence, the crystal structure of VapD was determined. VapD is a monomer as determined by multi-angle laser light scattering. The structure reveals an elliptical, compact eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel strand topology and pseudo-twofold symmetry, suggesting evolution from an ancestral dimer. Surface-associated octyl-β-d-glucoside molecules may provide clues to function. Circular-dichroism spectroscopic analysis suggests that the β-barrel structure is preceded by a natively disordered region at the N-terminus. Sequence comparisons indicate that the core folds of the other plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins from R. equi strains are similar to that of VapD. It is further shown that sequences encoding putative R. equi Vap-like proteins occur in diverse bacterial species. Finally, the functional implications of the structure are discussed in the light of the unique structural features of VapD and its partial structural similarity to other β-barrel proteins.

  7. Multilocus sequence typing reveals a novel subspeciation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Kana; Watanabe, Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Currently, the species Lactobacillus delbrueckii is divided into four subspecies, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. indicus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. These classifications were based mainly on phenotypic identification methods and few studies have used genotypic identification methods. As a result, these subspecies have not yet been reliably delineated. In this study, the four subspecies of L. delbrueckii were discriminated by phenotype and by genotypic identification [amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)] methods. The MLST method developed here was based on the analysis of seven housekeeping genes (fusA, gyrB, hsp60, ileS, pyrG, recA and recG). The MLST method had good discriminatory ability: the 41 strains of L. delbrueckii examined were divided into 34 sequence types, with 29 sequence types represented by only a single strain. The sequence types were divided into eight groups. These groups could be discriminated as representing different subspecies. The results of the AFLP and MLST analyses were consistent. The type strain of L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, YIT 0080(T), was clearly discriminated from the other strains currently classified as members of this subspecies, which were located close to strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. The MLST scheme developed in this study should be a useful tool for the identification of strains of L. delbrueckii to the subspecies level.

  8. Controlled Human Infection for Vaccination Against Streptococcus Pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Streptococcus Pyogenes Pharyngitis; Streptococcus Pharyngitis; Strep Throat; Streptococcus Pyogenes Infection; Group A Streptococcus: B Hemolytic Pharyngitis; Group A Streptococcal Infection; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections; Bacterial Infections

  9. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bryce; Boyd, Alicia; Tobiasson, Tanner; Germino, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches, but overlap and hybridization are common in ecotones. Restoration of A. tridentata largely occurs using wildland collected seed, but there is uncertainty in the identification of subspecies or mix of subspecies from seed collections. Laboratory techniques that can determine subspecies composition would be desirable to ensure that subspecies match the restoration site environment. In this study, we use spectrophotometry to quantify chemical differences in the water-soluble compound, coumarin. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of A. tridentata subsp. vaseyana showed distinct differences among A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. No UV absorbance differences were detected between A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. Analyses of samples from > 600 plants growing in two common gardens showed that UV absorbance was unaffected by environment. Moreover, plant tissues (leaves and seed chaff) explained only a small amount of the variance. UV fluorescence of water-eluted plant tissue has been used for many years to indicate A.t. vaseyana; however, interpretation has been subjective. Use of spectrophotometry to acquire UV absorbance provides empirical results that can be used in seed testing laboratories using the seed chaff present with the seed to certify A. tridentata subspecies composition. On the basis of our methods, UV absorbance values 3.1 would indicate either A.t. tridentata or wyomingensis. UV absorbance values between 2.7 and 3.1 would indicate a mixture of A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies.

  10. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three...... and the antibiogram and resistome revealed no antibiotic resistance....

  11. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS...

  12. A molecular and haematological study of Theileria equi in Balkan donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitkov, Dajana; Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stanisic, Ljubodrag; Radakovic, Milena; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2017-06-01

    Equine piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognised as a serious problem of major economic importance. The present molecular study is the first investigation of the presence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Balkan donkeys and of the possible haematological alterations related to it. A total of 70 apparently healthy donkeys from Serbia were included in this study. The overall prevalence of T. equi infection in donkeys tested with multiplex PCR was 50%. There was no B. caballi-positive sample. Infections in donkeys included in this study seem to be associated with decreased red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and platelet count, and with increased white blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Altered haematological parameters in donkeys can lead to a decrease in working capacity and production performance. Further molecular research and long-term monitoring of equine piroplasmosis is needed in Serbia and throughout Europe.

  13. Virulence Gene Pool Detected in Bovine Group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae Isolates by Use of a Group A S. pyogenes Virulence Microarray ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Márcia G.; Nerlich, Andreas; Bergmann, René; Bexiga, Ricardo; Nunes, Sandro F.; Vilela, Cristina L.; Santos-Sanches, Ilda; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    2011-01-01

    A custom-designed microarray containing 220 virulence genes of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) was used to test group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (GCS) field strains causing bovine mastitis and group C or group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (GCS/GGS) isolates from human infections, with the latter being used for comparative purposes, for the presence of virulence genes. All bovine and all human isolates carried a fraction of the 220 genes (23% and 39%, respectively). The virulence genes encoding streptolysin S, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the plasminogen-binding M-like protein PAM, and the collagen-like protein SclB were detected in the majority of both bovine and human isolates (94 to 100%). Virulence factors, usually carried by human beta-hemolytic streptococcal pathogens, such as streptokinase, laminin-binding protein, and the C5a peptidase precursor, were detected in all human isolates but not in bovine isolates. Additionally, GAS bacteriophage-associated virulence genes encoding superantigens, DNase, and/or streptodornase were detected in bovine isolates (72%) but not in the human isolates. Determinants located in non-bacteriophage-related mobile elements, such as the gene encoding R28, were detected in all bovine and human isolates. Several virulence genes, including genes of bacteriophage origin, were shown to be expressed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of superantigen gene sequences revealed a high level (>98%) of identity among genes of bovine GCS, of the horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, and of the human pathogen GAS. Our findings indicate that alpha-hemolytic bovine GCS, an important mastitis pathogen and considered to be a nonhuman pathogen, carries important virulence factors responsible for virulence and pathogenesis in humans. PMID:21525223

  14. Successful treatment of Rhodococcus equi pulmonary infection in a renal transplant recipient.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, H. P.; Bowler, I. C.; Watson, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    The rhodococcus is a mycobacterium-like organism which is normally a pathogen in foals. It usually spreads by direct contact or by aerosol from horse faeces and causes pyogranulomatous pulmonary infections. Occasionally, it acts opportunistically to infect immuno-compromised human hosts, most commonly those with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Here we report a pulmonary infection by Rhodococcus equi in a renal transplant recipient who was successfully treated. The literature o...

  15. A-equi-2 influenza in horses in the Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A L

    1988-06-01

    In early December 1986 A-equi-2 influenza virus was isolated for the first time in the Republic of South Africa. All horses were susceptible to the highly contagious aerosol-borne orthomyxovirus resulting in widespread outbreaks of equine influenza with typical primary respiratory symptoms. Treatment consisted of rest, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and good nursing. Future protection can be obtained by vaccination.

  16. Seroepidemiological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in asymptomatic horses and donkeys from southeast Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, O Y; Arserim, N B; Keskin, O

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess the level of Rhodococcus equi infection in southeast Turkey, 679 sera from healthy foals and adult horses and 78 sera from donkeys were tested by indirect ELISA using a R. equi reference strain (ATCC 33701) as antigen. Eighty (11.7%) sera from horses and 9 (11.5%) sera from donkeys with titres >0.85 were positive. The prevalence of seropositive horses in Sanliurfa Province was higher than in Diyarbakir Province; 56 (13.9%) horses in Sanliurfa Province and 24 (8.7%) horses in Diyarbakir Province were defined as seropositive. In Sanliurfa Province 14.5% of female (n=343) and 10.1% of male (n = 59) horses tested were defined as seropositive, while in Diyarbakir Province more males (11.4%, n=114) were seropositive than females (6.7%, n=163). Horses 1 to 5 years of age were found to have the highest seropositivity rate in both provinces. A total of 78 sera from donkeys were investigated in Sanliurfa Province, of which 9 (11.5%) were positive by ELISA. Among the 9 positive sera, 6 (12.8%) were from donkeys 1-5 years old and 3 (13.6%) were from donkeys >5 years of age. No positive sera were found in donkeys less than 1 year old. Five (12.5%) sera of females and 4 (10.5%) sera of males tested were positive. These results indicate the existence of R. equi in the horse populations in Sanliurfa and Diyarbakir Provinces. Similar infection rates were found for donkeys in Sanliurfa. This suggests the importance of serological surveys to diagnose R. equi infection in the region and to prevent the zoonotic risk.

  17. Seroepidemiological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in asymptomatic horses and donkeys from southeast Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Tel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available n order to assess the level of Rhodococcus equi infection in southeast Turkey, 679 sera from healthy foals and adult horses and 78 sera from donkeys were tested by indirect ELISA using a R. equi reference strain (ATCC 33701 as antigen. Eighty (11.7 % sera from horses and 9 (11.5 % sera from donkeys with titres >0.85 were positive. The prevalence of seropositive horses in Sanliurfa Province was higher than in Diyarbakir Province; 56 (13.9 % horses in Sanliurfa Province and 24 (8.7 % horses in Diyarbakir Province were defined as seropositive. In Sanliurfa Province 14.5 % of female (n = 343 and 10.1 % of male (n = 59 horses tested were defined as seropositive, while in Diyarbakir Province more males (11.4 %, n = 114 were seropositive than females (6.7 %, n = 163. Horses 1 to 5 years of age were found to have the highest seropositivity rate in both provinces. A total of 78 sera from donkeys were investigated in Sanliurfa Province, of which 9 (11.5 % were positive by ELISA. Among the 9 positive sera, 6 (12.8 % were from donkeys 1-5 years old and 3 (13.6 % were from donkeys >5years of age. Nopositive sera were found in donkeys less than 1 year old. Five(12.5 % sera of females and 4(10.5 % sera of males tested were positive. These results indicate the existence of R. equi in the horse populations in Sanliurfa and Diyarbakir Provinces. Similar infection rates were found for donkeys in Sanliurfa. This suggests the importance of serological surveys to diagnose R. equi infection in the region and to prevent the zoonotic risk.

  18. Seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Cort?s, Maria Guadalupe; Fern?ndez-Garc?a, Jos? Luis; Habela Mart?nez-Est?llez, Miguel ?ngel

    2017-01-01

    Equine piroplasmoses are enzootic parasitic diseases distributed worldwide with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. In Spain, there is insufficient epidemiological data about equine piroplasmoses. The main aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in five regions and obtain information about the risk factors. This study was conducted in the central and south-western regions of Spain, using indirect fluorescence anti...

  19. Seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Cortés Maria Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine piroplasmoses are enzootic parasitic diseases distributed worldwide with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. In Spain, there is insufficient epidemiological data about equine piroplasmoses. The main aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in five regions and obtain information about the risk factors. This study was conducted in the central and south-western regions of Spain, using indirect fluorescence antibody testing (IFAT in 3,100 sera samples from apparently healthy horses of different ages, breeds, coat colours, genders and geographical locations. The overall seroprevalence was 52%, consisting of 44% seropositive for T. equi and 21% for B. caballi. There was a significant association between age (p < 0.0001, breed (p < 0.004, geographical location (p < 0.0001 and the seroprevalence, but neither the coat colour nor the gender was significantly associated with prevalence. In addition, it was proved that most of the geographic areas showed a moderate to high prevalence. The statistical κ value was used to compare the results obtained by the IFAT and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA utilised to test some samples (n = 108 and showed a higher concordance for T. equi (κ = 0.68 than for B. caballi (κ = 0.22. Consequently, this revealed the importance of developing an appropriate technique to detect each haemoparasite.

  20. Infecção pulmonar por "Rhodococcus equi": relato dos dois primeiros casos brasileiros Pulmonary Rhodococcus equi infection: report of the first two Brazilian cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ CARLOS SEVERO

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O Rhodococcus equi, principal agente da rodococose, é um cocobacilo pleomórfico, gram-positivo e aeróbio, que infecta humanos por via inalatória ou transcutânea e se manifesta clinicamente como abscesso pulmonar. Relatam-se os dois primeiros casos brasileiros da doença. Ambos os pacientes eram imunocomprometidos e apresentavam quadro infeccioso pulmonar. O primeiro tinha AIDS e apresentava pneumonia cavitada em lobo superior esquerdo, que teve evolução fatal. O segundo tinha doença de Goodpasture, insuficiência renal crônica e fazia uso de corticosteróides. Apresentava uma lesão pulmonar escavada no lobo superior direito, que foi tratada com sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, com resolução do processo.Rhodococcus equi, the principal agent of rhodococcosis, is a pleomorphic, gram-positive, aerobic coccus bacillus that infects humans by inhalation or through a transcutaneous route. It is clinically manifested as a pulmonary abscess. The first two Brazilian cases of rhodococcosis are reported on. Both patients were immunocompromised and showed pulmonary infection. The first patient had AIDS and cavitating pneumonia in the left upper lobe, that was fatal. The second case presented Goodpasture syndrome and was under chronic corticotherapy. He displayed a cavitating nodular lesion in the right upper lobe, that was successfully treated with sulfametoxazol-trimethoprim.

  1. In vitro effect of josamycin in strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from pulmonar infections in foals / Efeito in vitro da josamicina em cepas de rhodocaccus equi isoladas de afecções pulmonares em potros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Galvão Dias Júnior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Antmicrobial susceptibility test was performed in thirty-one samples of Rhodococcus equi isolated from iung infections in foals. Among the antimicrobial tosted, erythromycin (100,0 %, rifampin (96.3%. neomycin (93,6 %Josamycin (90,4% and gentamicin (90,4 %presented the highest sensitivity against R- equi- The most-common occurrence of resistance was observed from cephalexim (100,0 %}, lincomycin (100,0 %, cephalothin (96,3 %. oxacillin (96,8 %, penicillin G (96,8 %, amoxicillin (90,3 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (83,8 %. The highest susceptibility of the R. equi to josamycin, suggest the drug as alternative for therapy of R. equi infections in foals.Procedeu-se o teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro pelo teste de difusão com discos em 31 cepas de Rhodococcus equi. isoladas de afecções pulmonares cm potros. frente a 20 antimicrobianos. Os maioires índices de sensibilidade de R. equi foram constatados para entromicina (100,0 %, níampicina (96.8 %}t ncomicina (93. 6 %. josamicina (90.4% e gentamicina (90A %. Os maiores índices de resistência do agente foram verificados para cefalexina (100,0%, lincomicina (100.0%, cefalotina (96.8 %, oxacilino (96,8 %}, penicilina G (96,3 %, amoxicilina (90.3 % e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (83,8 %. A alta sensibilidade das cepas de R. equi para a josamicina, sugere a possibilidade de utilização da droga como alternativa no tratamento da rodococose em potros.

  2. Use of UV absorption for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spomer, G.G.; Henderson, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Use of UV absorption spectra for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. was investigated by analyzing the relative optical densities of alcohol extracts from herbarium and fresh plant material at 240 nm, 250 nm, and 265 nm. In all but 1 comparison, mean relative optical densities were significantly different (p=0.95) between subspecies, but intraplant and intrasubspecies variation and overlap was found to be too large to permit use of UV absorbance alone for identifying individual specimens. These results held whether dry or fresh leaves were extracted, or whether methanol or ethanol was used as the extracting solvent. (author)

  3. Production of Hyaluronic Acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus on Protein Substrates Obtained from Scyliorhinus canicula Discards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Vázquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the production of hyaluronic acid (H by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in complex media formulated with peptones obtained from Scyliorhinus canicula viscera by-products. Initially, in batch cultures, the greatest productions were achieved using commercial media (3.03 g/L followed by peptones from alcalase hydrolyzed viscera (2.32 g/L and peptones from non-hydrolyzed viscera (2.26 g/L. An increase of between 12% and 15% was found in subsequent fed-batch cultures performed on waste peptones. Such organic nitrogen sources were shown to be an excellent low-cost substrate for microbial H, saving more than 50% of the nutrient costs.

  4. Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    763512/715242 Final Report U VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS U Samuel Rosen Department of Oral Biology For the Period April 1, 1983 - June 30...00 FINAL REPORT VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS Sam Rosen, Irving Shklair, E. X. Beck and F. M. Beck Ohio State University Columbus,Oh and...206-212. Johnson CP, Gorss S, Hillman JD (1978). Cariogenic properties of LDH deficient mutants of streptococcus mutans . J Dent Res 57, Special Issue

  5. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Ri; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2013-02-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in South Korea. The Korean greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis, is distributed only in Jeju Island. The complete mitochondrial genome of the island subspecies was determined and revealed 99.7% similarity to the mainland subspecies Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai. If d-loop region is excluded, similarity of the two genomes was 99.9%.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of a Chinese rufous horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu

    2016-09-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen.

  7. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  8. Palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum Bertol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linum mucronatum is a heterostylous species from sect. Syllinum with four subspecies in Iran. The present study examines palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum, pollen characters of brevistylous individuals (pins as well as longistylous individuals (thrums of these plants by scanning electron microscope and light microscope using the prolonged acetolysis procedure. Sixteen qualitative and quantitative characters were investigated. Pollen equatorial shapes varied between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies with the exception of L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. Pollen sculptures varied between pin and thrum samples of each subspecies and were seen in the gemmate, clavate and baculate shapes. In addition, quantitative palynological characters differed between plants and ANOVA test showed significant variations for traits such as equatorial length, colpi width and apocolpium diameter. Hetrostylous individuals of each subspecies were separated from others in the UPGMA tree and also in the PCO and PCA plots. This study confirmed variations in pollen features between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies.Linum mucronatum es una especie con heterostilia, que pertenece a la sección Syllinum del género Linum, y tiene cuatro subespecies en Irán. En el presente estudio se examinan las características palinológicas de las subespecies heterostilas de Linum mucronatum Bertol., así como los caracteres polínicos de individuos de los morfos brevistilo (pin y longistilo (thrum de estas plantas, mediante microscopía electrónica de scanning y microscopía óptica usando el método de acetolisis prolongada. Se estudiaron un total de 16 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. La forma ecuatorial del polen varía entre los morfos pin y thrum en todas las subspecies, excepto en L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. La ornamentación también varía entre las muestras de morfos pin y thrum de cada subespecie

  9. Study of the effect of an equi-biaxial loading on the fatigue lifetime of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradai, Soumaya

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue lifetime assessment is essential in the design of structures. Under-estimated predictions may result in unnecessary in service inspections. Conversely, over-estimated predictions may have serious consequences on the integrity of structures.In some nuclear power plant components, the fatigue loading may be equi-biaxial because of thermal fatigue. So the potential impact of multiaxial loading on the fatigue life of components is a major concern. Meanwhile, few experimental data are available on austenitic stainless steels. It is essential to improve the fatigue assessment methodologies to take into account the potential equi-biaxial fatigue damage. Hence this requires obtaining experimental data on the considered material with a strain tensor in equi-biaxial tension. The aim of this study is to present the experimental and numerical results obtained with a device 'FABIME2' developed in the LISN in collaboration with EDF and AREVA. The association of the experimental results, obtained on the new experimental fatigue device FABIME2, with the numerical analyses obtained by FEM simulation with Cast3M code, has enabled to define the aggravating effect of the equi-biaxial fatigue loading. However, this effect is covered by the Design fatigue curve defined from the nuclear industry. For the crack propagation, a first simplified approach enables to study the kinetic behavior of crack propagation in equi-biaxial fatigue. (author) [fr

  10. Detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi using microscopic and molecular methods in horses in suburb of Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Malekifard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine piroplasmosis is a severe disease of horses caused by the intra-erythrocyte protozoan, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. The aim of this study was to identify equine piroplasmosis based on molecular and morphometrical features in horses in suburb of Urmia, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. From April to September 2011, a total number of 240 blood samples were collected randomly from horses of 25 villages. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears stained with Geimsa, and the morphological and biometrical data of parasite in any infected erythrocyte were considered. Extracted DNA from each blood sample was used in multiplex PCR in order to confirm the presence of B. caballi and T. equi. Microscopic observation on 240 blood smears determined that 15 (6.25% and 5 (2.80% samples were infected by T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. The mixed infections occurred in 2 (0.83% samples. The results of the PCR assays showed 26 (10.83%, 14 (5.83% and 4 (1.66% were distinguished as T. equi, B. caballi and mixed infection, respectively. Differences in infection rates were statistically nonsignificant between male and female horses and among different age groups. Our findings indicated that T. equi and B. caballi were prevalent in horse population.

  11. Pathogenicity of Rhodococcus equi in mice, isolated from environment, human and horse clinical samples Patogenicidade atogenicidade em camundongos de isolados clí- clínicos, nicos, ambientais e humanos de Rhodococcus equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus M. Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular pathogen associated with bronchopneumonia, mesenteric lymphadenitis and enterocolitis in foals. Although R. equi is likely to be found in every horse-breeding farm, the clinical disease is unrecognized in most of them. Capsule components, equi factor, micolic acid and some products encoded by the large 85-90Kb plasmid were described as virulence factors. However, the pathogenesis of R. equi infections and the sensibility of foals are not completely understood. The aim of this study was evaluate the virulence of R. equi isolated from human, horses and environment for mices. Nine strains carrying the 85-90Kb plasmid isolated from foal clinical specimens, one from immunodeficient human patient and six plasmidless strains (four isolated from feces, one from pasture and one from immunodeficient human patient were inoculated in cyclophosphamide immunossuppressed mice. The pathological changes and viability of R. equi cells in the liver of mice was verified after the 3rd, 6th an 10th day after inoculation for horse and environmental isolates and for R. equi isolates from human patients on the 1st, 3rd and 6th day. During the necropsy procedures, infiltrate of macrophages and pyogranulomatous lesions were detected after the sixth pos-inoculation day in the liver and spleen. In horse isolates, only plasmid positive strains were virulent, but in human isolates both strains (plasmid positive e plasmid negative were virulent. Both groups of the immunossupressed mice inoculated with R. equi isolated from environment showed pathological changes. All R. equi strains were unable to kill non imunossuppressed mice.Rhodococ-cus equi é um patógeno intracelular facultativo associado com broncopneumonia, linfadenite mesentérica e enterocolite em potros. Apesar do patógeno ser amplamente distribuído no ambiente equino, a doença não é encontrada em todos os criatórios. Componentes capsulares, "fator equi",

  12. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  13. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis

    OpenAIRE

    Geffner Sclarsky, D. E.; Moreno Muñoz, R.; Campillo Alpera, Mª.S.; Pardo Serrano, F.J.; Gómez Gómez, A.; Martínez-Lozano, Mª.D.

    2001-01-01

    La infección humana por Streptococcus suis (S. suis) es una zoonosis, con un riesgo ocupacional conocido y que suele presentarse como meningitis purulenta, que tiene baja mortalidad y frecuentes secuelas de hipoacusia y ataxia. Se han publicado menos de 150 casos humanos desde el informe original de hace 30 años. Hay una reconocida distribución geográfica viviendo la mayoría de los afectados en el norte de Europa y el sudeste Asiático. En España se han comunicado dos pacientes con enfermedad ...

  14. Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria equi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo G Bastos

    Full Text Available Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. Apicomplexans Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are the causative agents of bovine babesiosis, and apicomplexan Theileria equi causes equine piroplasmosis. Bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis are the most economically important parasite diseases that affect worldwide cattle and equine industries, respectively. The recent sequencing of the B. bovis and T. equi genomes has provided the opportunity to identify novel genes involved in parasite biology. Here we characterize three members of the CCp family, named CCp1, CCp2 and CCp3, in B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. Using B. bigemina as an in vitro model, expression of all three CCp genes and proteins was demonstrated in temperature-induced sexual stages. Transcripts for all three CCp genes were found in vivo in blood stages of T. equi, and transcripts for CCp3 were detected in vivo in blood stages of B. bovis. However, no protein expression was detected in T. equi blood stages or B. bovis blood stages or B. bovis tick stages. Collectively, the data demonstrated a differential pattern of expression of three orthologous genes of the multidomain adhesion CCp family by B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. The novel CCp members represent potential targets for innovative approaches to control bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  15. Pulmonary Rhodococcus equi infection: report of the first two Brazilian cases

    OpenAIRE

    SEVERO, LUIZ CARLOS; RITTER, PATRICIA; PETRILLO, VICTOR FLÁVIO; DIAS, CÍCERO ARMÍDIO GOMES; PORTO, NELSON DA SILVA

    2001-01-01

    O Rhodococcus equi, principal agente da rodococose, é um cocobacilo pleomórfico, gram-positivo e aeróbio, que infecta humanos por via inalatória ou transcutânea e se manifesta clinicamente como abscesso pulmonar. Relatam-se os dois primeiros casos brasileiros da doença. Ambos os pacientes eram imunocomprometidos e apresentavam quadro infeccioso pulmonar. O primeiro tinha AIDS e apresentava pneumonia cavitada em lobo superior esquerdo, que teve evolução fatal. O segundo tinha doença de Goodpas...

  16. The effect of mutation on Rhodococcus equi virulence plasmid gene expression and mouse virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Prescott, John F

    2004-11-15

    An 81 kb virulence plasmid containing a pathogenicity island (PI) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals but its specific function in virulence and regulation of plasmid-encoded virulence genes is unclear. Using a LacZ selection marker developed for R. equi in this study, in combination with an apramycin resistance gene, an efficient two-stage homologous recombination targeted gene mutation procedure was used to mutate three virulence plasmid genes, a LysR regulatory gene homologue (ORF4), a ResD-like two-component response regulator homologue (ORF8), and a gene (ORF10) of unknown function that is highly expressed by R. equi inside macrophages, as well as the chromosomal gene operon, phoPR. Virulence testing by liver clearance after intravenous injection in mice showed that the ORF4 and ORF8 mutants were fully attenuated, that the phoPR mutant was hypervirulent, and that virulence of the ORF10 mutant remained unchanged. A virulence plasmid DNA microarray was used to compare the plasmid gene expression profile of each of the four gene-targeted mutants against the parental R. equi strain. Changes were limited to PI genes and gene induction was observed for all mutants, suggesting that expression of virulence plasmid genes is dominated by a negative regulatory network. The finding of attenuation of ORF4 and ORF8 mutants despite enhanced transcription of vapA suggests that factors other than VapA are important for full expression of virulence. ORF1, a putative Lsr antigen gene, was strongly and similarly induced in all mutants, implying a common regulatory pathway affecting this gene for all four mutated genes. ORF8 is apparently the centre of this common pathway. Two distinct highly correlated gene induction patterns were observed, that of the ORF4 and ORF8 mutants, and that of the ORF10 and phoPR mutants. The gene induction pattern distinguishing these two groups paralleled their virulence in mice.

  17. Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Pecher, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    At the present pre-commercial phase of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performance and production at possible deployment locations. The EU EquiMar project has proposed a novel approach, where the performance assessment is based mainly...... on experimental data deriving from sea trials rather than solely on numerical predictions. The study applies this methodology to evaluate the performance of Wave Dragon at two locations in the North Sea, based on the data acquired during the sea trials of a 1:4.5 scale prototype. Indications about power...

  18. Novel IgG-Degrading Enzymes of the IgdE Protease Family Link Substrate Specificity to Host Tropism of Streptococcus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerry, Christian; Hessle, Pontus; Lewis, Melanie J; Paton, Lois; Woof, Jenny M; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Recently we have discovered an IgG degrading enzyme of the endemic pig pathogen S. suis designated IgdE that is highly specific for porcine IgG. This protease is the founding member of a novel cysteine protease family assigned C113 in the MEROPS peptidase database. Bioinformatical analyses revealed putative members of the IgdE protease family in eight other Streptococcus species. The genes of the putative IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. porcinus, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus were cloned for production of recombinant protein into expression vectors. Recombinant proteins of all four IgdE family proteases were proteolytically active against IgG of the respective Streptococcus species hosts, but not against IgG from other tested species or other classes of immunoglobulins, thereby linking the substrate specificity to the known host tropism. The novel IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi showed IgG subtype specificity, i.e. IgdE from S. agalactiae and S. pseudoporcinus cleaved human IgG1, while IgdE from S. equi was subtype specific for equine IgG7. Porcine IgG subtype specificities of the IgdE family proteases of S. porcinus and S. pseudoporcinus remain to be determined. Cleavage of porcine IgG by IgdE of S. pseudoporcinus is suggested to be an evolutionary remaining activity reflecting ancestry of the human pathogen to the porcine pathogen S. porcinus. The IgG subtype specificity of bacterial proteases indicates the special importance of these IgG subtypes in counteracting infection or colonization and opportunistic streptococci neutralize such antibodies through expression of IgdE family proteases as putative immune evasion factors. We suggest that IgdE family proteases might be valid vaccine targets against streptococci of both human and veterinary medical concerns and could also be of therapeutic as well as biotechnological use.

  19. vanO, a new glycopeptide resistance operon in environmental Rhodococcus equi isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Moodley, Arshnee; Bortolaia, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    We describe sequence and gene organization of a new glycopeptide resistance operon (vanO) in Rhodococcus equi from soil. The vanO operon has low homology to enterococccal van operons and harbors a vanHOX cluster transcribed in opposite direction to the vanS-vanR regulatory system and comprised be...... between three open reading frames with unknown function. This finding has clinical interest since glycopeptides are used to treat R. equi infections and resistance has been reported in clinical isolates....

  20. The steroid catabolic pathway of the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi is important for pathogenesis and a target for vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R van der Geize

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi causes fatal pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised animals and humans. Despite its importance, there is currently no effective vaccine against the disease. The actinobacteria R. equi and the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis are related, and both cause pulmonary diseases. Recently, we have shown that essential steps in the cholesterol catabolic pathway are involved in the pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of a similar cholesterol catabolic gene cluster in R. equi. Orthologs of predicted M. tuberculosis virulence genes located within this cluster, i.e. ipdA (rv3551, ipdB (rv3552, fadA6 and fadE30, were identified in R. equi RE1 and inactivated. The ipdA and ipdB genes of R. equi RE1 appear to constitute the α-subunit and β-subunit, respectively, of a heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase. Mutant strains RE1ΔipdAB and RE1ΔfadE30, but not RE1ΔfadA6, were impaired in growth on the steroid catabolic pathway intermediates 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD and 3aα-H-4α(3'-propionic acid-5α-hydroxy-7aβ-methylhexahydro-1-indanone (5α-hydroxy-methylhexahydro-1-indanone propionate; 5OH-HIP. Interestingly, RE1ΔipdAB and RE1ΔfadE30, but not RE1ΔfadA6, also displayed an attenuated phenotype in a macrophage infection assay. Gene products important for growth on 5OH-HIP, as part of the steroid catabolic pathway, thus appear to act as factors involved in the pathogenicity of R. equi. Challenge experiments showed that RE1ΔipdAB could be safely administered intratracheally to 2 to 5 week-old foals and oral immunization of foals even elicited a substantial protective immunity against a virulent R. equi strain. Our data show that genes involved in steroid catabolism are promising targets for the development of a live-attenuated vaccine against R. equi infections.

  1. Vaccination against group B streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Paul T; Feldman, Robert G

    2005-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) is an important cause of disease in infants, pregnant women, the elderly and in immunosuppressed adults. An effective vaccine is likely to prevent the majority of infant disease (both early and late onset), as well as Group B streptococcus-related stillbirths and prematurity, to avoid the current real and theoretical limitations of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and to be cost effective. The optimal time to administer such a vaccine would be in the third trimester of pregnancy. The main limitations on the production of a Group B streptococcus vaccine are not technical or scientific, but regulatory and legal. A number of candidates including capsular conjugate vaccines using traditional carrier proteins such as tetanus toxoid and mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197, as well as Group B streptococcus-specific proteins such as C5a peptidase, protein vaccines using one or more Group B streptococcus surface proteins and mucosal vaccines, have the potential to be successful vaccines. The capsular conjugate vaccines using tetanus and CRM197 carrier proteins are the most advanced candidates, having already completed Phase II human studies including use in the target population of pregnant women (tetanus toxoid conjugate), however, no definitive protein conjugates have yet been trialed. However, unless the regulatory environment is changed specifically to allow the development of a Group B streptococcus vaccine, it is unlikely that one will ever reach the market.

  2. Ubiquity of Polynucleobacter necessarius subspecies asymbioticus results from ecological diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Brandt, Ulrike; Hahn, Martin W

    2011-01-01

    The subspecies Polynucleobacter necessarius asymbioticus (> 99% 16S rRNA similarity) has a cosmopolitan distribution and a ubiquitous occurrence in lentic freshwater habitats. We tested if the observed ubiquity of these free-living planktonic freshwater bacteria results from a euryoecious (generalist) adaptation of P. n. asymbioticus strains, or from ecological diversification within the subspecies. We developed a reverse line blot hybridization assay enabling the cultivation-independent detection of 13 groups within the subspecies in environmental samples. A set of 121 lentic freshwater habitats, spanning a broad variety of habitat types (e.g. pH levels ranging from 3.8 to 8.5) was investigated for the presence of these 13 P. n. asymbioticus groups. Statistical analyses of the reverse line blot hybridization detections revealed pronounced differences in habitat preferences of several of the groups. Their preferences differed regarding pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon and oxygen concentration of habitats. For some groups, differences in environmental preferences resulted even in complete niche separation between them. The revealed differences in habitat preferences suggest that the previously reported ubiquity of P. n. asymbioticus results from ecological diversification within the taxon and not from generalist adaptation of strains. PMID:21208356

  3. A new equi-dimensional fracture model using polyhedral cells for microseismic data sets

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hinai, Omar

    2017-04-09

    We present a method for modeling flow in porous media in the presence of complex fracture networks. The approach utilizes the Mimetic Finite Difference (MFD) method. We employ a novel equi-dimensional approach for meshing fractures. By using polyhedral cells we avoid the common challenge in equi-dimensional fracture modeling of creating small cells at the intersection point. We also demonstrate how polyhedra can mesh complex fractures without introducing a large number of cells. We use polyhedra and the MFD method a second time for embedding fracture boundaries in the matrix domain using a “cut-cell” paradigm. The embedding approach has the advantage of being simple and localizes irregular cells to the area around the fractures. It also circumvents the need for conventional mesh generation, which can be challenging when applied to complex fracture geometries. We present numerical results confirming the validity of our approach for complex fracture networks and for different flow models. In our first example, we compare our method to the popular dual-porosity technique. Our second example compares our method with directly meshed fractures (single-porosity) for two-phase flow. The third example demonstrates two-phase flow for the case of intersecting ellipsoid fractures in three-dimensions, which are typical in microseismic analysis of fractures. Finally, we demonstrate our method on a two-dimensional fracture network produced from microseismic field data.

  4. Cholesterol oxidase (ChoE) is not important in the virulence of Rhodococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yanlong; Dupont, Chris; Sydor, Tobias; Haas, Albert; Prescott, John F

    2006-12-20

    To analyze further the role in virulence of the prominent cholesterol oxidase (ChoE) of Rhodococcus equi, an allelic exchange choE mutant from strain 103+ was constructed and assessed for virulence in macrophages, in mice, and in foals. There was no difference between the mutant and parent strain in cytotoxic activity for macrophages or in intra-macrophage multiplication. No evidence of attenuation was obtained in macrophages and in mice, but there was slight attenuation apparent in four intra-bronchially infected foals compared to infection of four foals with the virulent parent strain, based on a delayed rise in temperature of the choE-mutant infected foals. However, bacterial colony counts in the lung 2 weeks after infection were not significantly different, although there was a slight but non-significant (P=0.12) difference in lung:body weight ratio of the choE mutant versus virulent parent infected foals (mean 2.67+/-0.25% compared to 4.58+/-0.96%). We conclude that the cholesterol oxidase is not important for the virulence of R. equi.

  5. A new equi-dimensional fracture model using polyhedral cells for microseismic data sets

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hinai, Omar; Dong, Rencheng; Srinivasan, Sanjay; Wheeler, Mary F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for modeling flow in porous media in the presence of complex fracture networks. The approach utilizes the Mimetic Finite Difference (MFD) method. We employ a novel equi-dimensional approach for meshing fractures. By using polyhedral cells we avoid the common challenge in equi-dimensional fracture modeling of creating small cells at the intersection point. We also demonstrate how polyhedra can mesh complex fractures without introducing a large number of cells. We use polyhedra and the MFD method a second time for embedding fracture boundaries in the matrix domain using a “cut-cell” paradigm. The embedding approach has the advantage of being simple and localizes irregular cells to the area around the fractures. It also circumvents the need for conventional mesh generation, which can be challenging when applied to complex fracture geometries. We present numerical results confirming the validity of our approach for complex fracture networks and for different flow models. In our first example, we compare our method to the popular dual-porosity technique. Our second example compares our method with directly meshed fractures (single-porosity) for two-phase flow. The third example demonstrates two-phase flow for the case of intersecting ellipsoid fractures in three-dimensions, which are typical in microseismic analysis of fractures. Finally, we demonstrate our method on a two-dimensional fracture network produced from microseismic field data.

  6. Reproductive efficiency of asymptomatic Theileria equi carriers mares submitted to an embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Bezerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and evaluate the effects of Theileria equi infection on embryonic recovery, gestation and early embryonic loss. Thirteen Mangalarga Marchador Theileria equi positive donors (diagnosed through nested-PCR and 40 embryos receptors were used. Donors were submitted to two embryo collections in two consecutive estrous cycles (GId; after, the same mares were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (1.2mg/kg IM. in order to collect more embryos in two more estrous cycles (GIId. Receptors were divided into two groups (control and with treated with 20 animals each, where one group was the control (GIr and the other one (GIIr treated with 1.2mg/kg IM of imidocarb dipropionate assessing the gestation rate at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. After 52 embryo collections, the embryonic recovery rates were 53.84% (14/26 and 65.38% (17/26 (p> 0.05 for GId and GIId, respectively. The gestation rate was 70% (14/20 (p>0.05 at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days in group GIr and for GIIr was 85% (17/20 (p>0.05 at 15 days, 80% (16/20 (p>0.05 at 30, 45 and 60 days. The treatment with imidocarb dipropionate did not cause significant improvement in the reproductive efficiency at an ET program.

  7. Immunogenicity and antigenicity of the recombinant EMA-1 protein of Theileria equi expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris Imunogenicidade e antigenicidade da proteína recombinante EMA-1 de Theileria equi expressa em Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Q. Nizoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi is one of the most important parasitic diseases of the equine, causing damage to animal health and economic losses. In T. equi, 2 merozoite surface proteins, equi merozoite antigen EMA-1 and EMA-2, have been identified as the most immunodominant antigens. This suggests that these antigens might be used as immunobiological tools. The EMA-1 of Theileria equi was cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The transformed yeast was grown at high cell density, expressing up to 389 mg.L-1 of recombinant protein. The protein was concentrated and detected in Dot blot. The recombinant product was antigenically similar to the native protein as determined using monoclonal antibodies, and polyclonal antibodies obtained from equines naturally infected with T. equi. The immunogenicity of rEMA-1 protein was demonstrated by IFAT using sera from recombinant-protein-immunized mice using aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. All animals vaccinated with rEMA-1 developed a high specific antibody response. This results suggest that rEMA-1expressed in P. pastoris might be a strong candidate to be used as an antigen for immune diagnostics as well as a vaccine antigen.A piroplasmose equina causada por Theileria equi é uma das mais importantes doenças parasitárias de equídeos, causando danos a saúde animal e perdas econômicas. Em T. equi, 2 proteínas de superfície de merozoítos, equi merozoite antigen EMA-1 e EMA-2, têm sido identificadas como antígenos imunodominantes. Sugerindo que estes antígenos possam ser usados como produtos imunobiológicos. O gene EMA-1 de T. equi foi clonado e expressado na levedura Pichia pastoris. As leveduras transformadas foram cultivadas a altas densidades celulares expressando 389 mg.L-1 de proteína recombinante. A proteína foi concentrada e detectada em Dot blot. O produto recombinante foi antigenicamente similar à proteína nativa quando determinado usando anticorpo

  8. Streptococcus suis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  9. Re-evaluation of the taxonomy of the Mitis group of the genus Streptococcus based on whole genome phylogenetic analyses, and proposed reclassification of Streptococcus dentisani as Streptococcus oralis subsp. dentisani comb. nov., Streptococcus tigurinus as Streptococcus oralis subsp. tigurinus comb. nov., and Streptococcus oligofermentans as a later synonym of Streptococcus cristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders; Scholz, Christian F P; Kilian, Mogens

    2016-11-01

    The Mitis group of the genus Streptococcus currently comprises 20 species with validly published names, including the pathogen S. pneumoniae. They have been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, due to phenotypic overlap and genetic heterogeneity, which has hampered a full appreciation of their clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Mitis group using 195 publicly available genomes, including designated type strains for phylogenetic analyses based on core genomes, multilocus sequences and 16S rRNA gene sequences, combined with estimates of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico and in vitro analyses of specific phenotypic characteristics. Our core genomic phylogenetic analyses revealed distinct clades that, to some extent, and from the clustering of type strains represent known species. However, many of the genomes have been incorrectly identified adding to the current confusion. Furthermore, our data show that 16S rRNA gene sequences and ANI are unsuitable for identifying and circumscribing new species of the Mitis group of the genus Streptococci. Based on the clustering patterns resulting from core genome phylogenetic analysis, we conclude that S. oligofermentans is a later synonym of S. cristatus. The recently described strains of the species Streptococcus dentisani includes one previously referred to as 'S. mitis biovar 2'. Together with S. oralis, S. dentisani and S. tigurinus form subclusters within a coherent phylogenetic clade. We propose that the species S. oralis consists of three subspecies: S. oralis subsp. oralis subsp. nov., S. oralis subsp. tigurinus comb. nov., and S. oralis subsp. dentisani comb. nov.

  10. Genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi strain 258 and prediction of antigenic targets to improve biotechnological vaccine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Siomar C; Trost, Eva; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of several veterinary diseases in a broad range of economically important hosts, which can vary from caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats (biovar ovis) to ulcerative lymphangitis in cattle and horses (biovar equi). Existing vaccines ag...

  11. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  12. Detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in Blood from Equines from Four Indigenous Communities in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Posada-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out in four indigenous communities of Costa Rica to detect presence and prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and to investigate factors associated with presence of these hemoparasites. General condition of horses (n=285 was evaluated, and hematocrits and hemoglobin were determined from blood samples of 130 horses, which were also analyzed using blood smears, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA. The general condition of the horses (n=285 in terms of their body and coat was between regular and poor, and hematocrit and hemoglobin average values were low (19% and 10.65 g/dL, resp.. Erythrocyte inclusions were observed in 32 (24.6% of the samples. Twenty-six samples (20.0% gave positive results for B. caballi and 60 (46.2% for T. equi; 10 horses (7.7% showed mixed infection, when analyzed by PCR. Using c-ELISA, it was found that 90 (69.2% horses had antibodies against B. caballi and 115 (88.5% against T. equi, while 81 (62.3% showed mixed reactions. There were no factors associated with the presence of B. caballi and T. equi. These results contrast with results previously obtained in equines in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  13. Detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in Blood from Equines from Four Indigenous Communities in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Guzmán, María Fernanda; Dolz, Gaby; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in four indigenous communities of Costa Rica to detect presence and prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and to investigate factors associated with presence of these hemoparasites. General condition of horses (n = 285) was evaluated, and hematocrits and hemoglobin were determined from blood samples of 130 horses, which were also analyzed using blood smears, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The general condition of the horses (n = 285) in terms of their body and coat was between regular and poor, and hematocrit and hemoglobin average values were low (19% and 10.65 g/dL, resp.). Erythrocyte inclusions were observed in 32 (24.6%) of the samples. Twenty-six samples (20.0%) gave positive results for B. caballi and 60 (46.2%) for T. equi; 10 horses (7.7%) showed mixed infection, when analyzed by PCR. Using c-ELISA, it was found that 90 (69.2%) horses had antibodies against B. caballi and 115 (88.5%) against T. equi, while 81 (62.3%) showed mixed reactions. There were no factors associated with the presence of B. caballi and T. equi. These results contrast with results previously obtained in equines in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  14. 75 FR 36456 - Channel America Television Network, Inc., EquiMed, Inc., Kore Holdings, Inc., Robotic Vision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Channel America Television Network, Inc., EquiMed, Inc., Kore Holdings, Inc., Robotic Vision Systems, Inc. (n/k/a Acuity Cimatrix, Inc.), Security... accurate information concerning the securities of Robotic Vision Systems, Inc. (n/k/a Acuity Cimatrix, Inc...

  15. Lymphocytes and macrophages are infected by Theileria equi, but T cells and B cells are not required to establish infection in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Ramsay

    Full Text Available Theileria equi has a biphasic life cycle in horses, with a period of intraleukocyte development followed by patent erythrocytic parasitemia that causes acute and sometimes fatal hemolytic disease. Unlike Theileria spp. that infect cattle (Theileria parva and Theileria annulata, the intraleukocyte stage (schizont of Theileria equi does not cause uncontrolled host cell proliferation or other significant pathology. Nevertheless, schizont-infected leukocytes are of interest because of their potential to alter host cell function and because immune responses directed against this stage could halt infection and prevent disease. Based on cellular morphology, Theileria equi has been reported to infect lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro, but the specific phenotype of schizont-infected cells has yet to be defined. To resolve this knowledge gap in Theileria equi pathogenesis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected in vitro and the phenotype of infected cells determined using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. These experiments demonstrated that the host cell range of Theileria equi was broader than initially reported and included B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. To determine if B and T lymphocytes were required to establish infection in vivo, horses affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, which lack functional B and T lymphocytes, were inoculated with Theileria equi sporozoites. SCID horses developed patent erythrocytic parasitemia, indicating that B and T lymphocytes are not necessary to complete the Theileria equi life cycle in vivo. These findings suggest that the factors mediating Theileria equi leukocyte invasion and intracytoplasmic differentiation are common to several leukocyte subsets and are less restricted than for Theileria annulata and Theileria parva. These data will greatly facilitate future investigation into the relationships between Theileria equi leukocyte tropism and pathogenesis

  16. Comparative Genomics of Rhodococcus equi Virulence Plasmids Indicates Host-Driven Evolution of the vap Pathogenicity Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Iain; Anastasi, Elisa; Alvarez, Sonsiray; Scortti, Mariela; Vázquez-Boland, José A

    2017-05-01

    The conjugative virulence plasmid is a key component of the Rhodococcus equi accessory genome essential for pathogenesis. Three host-associated virulence plasmid types have been identified the equine pVAPA and porcine pVAPB circular variants, and the linear pVAPN found in bovine (ruminant) isolates. We recently characterized the R. equi pangenome (Anastasi E, et al. 2016. Pangenome and phylogenomic analysis of the pathogenic actinobacterium Rhodococcus equi. Genome Biol Evol. 8:3140-3148.) and we report here the comparative analysis of the virulence plasmid genomes. Plasmids within each host-associated type were highly similar despite their diverse origins. Variation was accounted for by scattered single nucleotide polymorphisms and short nucleotide indels, while larger indels-mostly in the plasticity region near the vap pathogencity island (PAI)-defined plasmid genomic subtypes. Only one of the plasmids analyzed, of pVAPN type, was exceptionally divergent due to accumulation of indels in the housekeeping backbone. Each host-associated plasmid type carried a unique PAI differing in vap gene complement, suggesting animal host-specific evolution of the vap multigene family. Complete conservation of the vap PAI was observed within each host-associated plasmid type. Both diversity of host-associated plasmid types and clonality of specific chromosomal-plasmid genomic type combinations were observed within the same R. equi phylogenomic subclade. Our data indicate that the overall strong conservation of the R. equi host-associated virulence plasmids is the combined result of host-driven selection, lateral transfer between strains, and geographical spread due to international livestock exchanges. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in donkeys from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, D; D'Alessio, N; Di Loria, A; Di Prisco, F; Mariani, U; Neola, B; Santoro, M; Montagnaro, S; Capelli, G; Veneziano, V

    2014-12-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) has been frequently described in donkeys in subtropical and tropical regions, but published data reflecting large scale surveys are very limited in Europe. The seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in a donkey population from Campania Region in Southern Italy using a commercial indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the infection were assessed. Of 203 samples, the overall seroprevalence for EP was 57.1% (116/203), with 35.5% (72/203) for B. caballi and 44.3% (90/203) for T. equi. Co-infection was detected in 46 donkeys (22.6%). The distribution of IFAT antibody titres to B. caballi was: 1:80 (n= 67), 1:160 (n= 2), 1:320 (n= 3); while the distribution of IFAT antibody titres to T. equi was: 1:80 (n= 25), 1:160 (n= 42), 1:320 (n= 12), 1:640 (n= 8), 1:1280 (n= 3). All examined donkeys were asymptomatic, except one adult male (with a titre of 1:640 against T. equi) that showed clinical signs corresponding to the acute stage of EP, reported for the first time in Italy. The unique risk factor associated with a higher B. caballi seroprevalence was the presence of horses in the farms, while risk factors associated with a higher T. equi seroprevalence were poor body condition, presence of ruminants in the farms and milk production. The results indicate a high level of exposure in donkeys living in Southern Italy and suggest that donkeys may be an important reservoir of EP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic subspecies diversity of the chimpanzee CD4 virus-receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    six among the subspecies of chimpanzees. We found the CD4 receptor to be conserved in individuals belonging to the P. t. verus subspecies and divergent from the other three subspecies, which harbored highly variable CD4 receptors. The CD4 receptor of chimpanzees differed from that of humans. We...... question whether the observed diversity can explain the species-specific differences in susceptibility to and pathogenicity of SIV/HIV....

  19. Clinical investigation on Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in Italian donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Fulvio; Spaterna, Andrea; Faillace, Vanessa; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Ravagnan, Silvia; Beribé, Francesca; Cerquetella, Matteo; Meligrana, Marina; Tesei, Beniamino

    2015-04-28

    Interest in the welfare and diseases of donkeys is constantly increasing in several countries. Despite this, clinical research into donkeys needs to be in continual development since they show different reactions compared to horses in many conditions, including infectious diseases, and need specific clinical and therapeutic approaches. No reports are currently available on clinical and clinical pathology data regarding donkeys with natural piroplasms infection. Venous blood samples were taken from one hundred and thirty eight donkeys and underwent indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to detect IgG antibodies against Theileria equi and Babesia caballi and real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. Clinical examinations, haematological analyses and serum bilirubin evaluation were also performed and compared with positive or negative status. A seroprevalence of 40.6% and 47.8% was found for T. equi and B. caballi, respectively; double positivity was detected in 19.6% of the animals. PCR results showed that 17.4% of the animals tested positive for T.equi and 3.6% for B. caballi with no double positivity. Twelve donkeys (8.7%) had clinical signs consistent with chronic forms of the disease and no acute forms were detected. Fifty-eight donkeys had haematological and serum bilirubin alterations and 56 (96.6%) of them were IFAT and/or PCR positive. Changes in erythrocyte number, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, platelets number and total bilirubin were significantly associated with positive and symptomatic animals. Nonspecific clinical presentation seems to be very common in donkeys and several clinical pathology alterations persist after natural infection. Therefore, apparently healthy donkeys can have masked but severe clinical pathology alterations. Acute forms are very seldom observed in donkeys. Clinical monitoring of chronically infected donkeys is recommended since such animals

  20. Taxonomic considerations in listing subspecies under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M; Beever, Erik A; Chambers, Steven M; Draheim, Hope M; Dugger, Bruce D; Dunham, Susie; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Fontaine, Joseph B; Kesler, Dylan C; Knaus, Brian J; Lopes, Iara F; Loschl, Pete; Mullins, Thomas D; Sheffield, Lisa M

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) allows listing of subspecies and other groupings below the rank of species. This provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service with a means to target the most critical unit in need of conservation. Although roughly one-quarter of listed taxa are subspecies, these management agencies are hindered by uncertainties about taxonomic standards during listing or delisting activities. In a review of taxonomic publications and societies, we found few subspecies lists and none that stated standardized criteria for determining subspecific taxa. Lack of criteria is attributed to a centuries-old debate over species and subspecies concepts. Nevertheless, the critical need to resolve this debate for ESA listings led us to propose that minimal biological criteria to define disjunct subspecies (legally or taxonomically) should include the discreteness and significance criteria of distinct population segments (as defined under the ESA). Our subspecies criteria are in stark contrast to that proposed by supporters of the phylogenetic species concept and provide a clear distinction between species and subspecies. Efforts to eliminate or reduce ambiguity associated with subspecies-level classifications will assist with ESA listing decisions. Thus, we urge professional taxonomic societies to publish and periodically update peer-reviewed species and subspecies lists. This effort must be paralleled throughout the world for efficient taxonomic conservation to take place.

  1. Differentiation of Melipona quadrifasciata L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini subspecies using cytochrome b PCR-RFLP patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério O. Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and M. quadrifasciata anthidioides are subspecies of M. quadrifasciata, a stingless bee species common in coastal Brazil. These subspecies are discriminated by the yellow stripe pattern of the abdominal tergites. We found Vsp I restriction patterns in the cytochrome b region closely associated to each subspecies in 155 M. quadrifasciata colonies of different geographical origin. This mitochondrial DNA molecular marker facilitates diagnosis of M. quadrifasciata subspecies matrilines and can be used to establish their natural distribution and identify hybrid colonies.

  2. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-29

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Natural epigenetic variation within and among six subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyahi, Sepand; Vilatersana, Roser; Schrey, Aaron W; Ghorbani Node, Hassan; Aliabadian, Mansour; Senar, Juan Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Epigenetic modifications can respond rapidly to environmental changes and can shape phenotypic variation in accordance with environmental stimuli. One of the most studied epigenetic marks is DNA methylation. In the present study, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to investigate the natural variation in DNA methylation within and among subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus We focused on five subspecies from the Middle East because they show great variation in many ecological traits and because this region is the probable origin for the house sparrow's commensal relationship with humans. We analysed house sparrows from Spain as an outgroup. The level of variation in DNA methylation was similar among the five house sparrow subspecies from the Middle East despite high phenotypic and environmental variation, but the non-commensal subspecies was differentiated from the other four (commensal) Middle Eastern subspecies. Further, the European subspecies was differentiated from all other subspecies in DNA methylation. Our results indicate that variation in DNA methylation does not strictly follow subspecies designations. We detected a correlation between methylation level and some morphological traits, such as standardized bill length, and we suggest that part of the high morphological variation in the native populations of the house sparrow is influenced by differentially methylated regions in specific loci throughout the genome. We also detected 10 differentially methylated loci among subspecies and three loci that differentiated between commensal or non-commensal status. Therefore, the MSAP technique detected larger scale differences among the European and non-commensal subspecies, but did not detect finer scale differences among the other Middle Eastern subspecies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Spinal subspecialization in post-graduate neurosurgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Brian D

    2004-05-01

    The growing science and technology of various neurosurgical areas fosters subspecialization. The transmission of this expanding knowledge base to the neurosurgical resident becomes an increasing challenge. A survey of neurosurgical residency program directors was undertaken to evaluate their response to the budding subspecialization of spine surgery within general neurosurgery. A survey requesting background data, educational infrastructure and prevailing opinion was distributed to all 13 neurosurgical program directors in Canada. The responses were tabulated and results recorded. It is upon these results that conclusions and proposed directions are based. The current practice of the overwhelming majority of Canadian academic neurosurgical centers is to have neurosurgical spinal subspecialists working under the umbrella of the general neurosurgical division. A large percentage of neurosurgical program directors in Canada believe that the management of spinal disease, including both intradural procedures and instrumentation, is and should remain an integral part of general neurosurgical training. A consensus statement regarding the requirements of neurosurgical training in spinal disorders is the expressed desire of almost all program directors. A proposed direction and resolution is discussed.

  5. Differences in Rhodococcus equi Infections Based on Immune Status and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates in a Case Series of 12 Patients and Cases in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Ribes, Julie A.; Thornton, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an unusual zoonotic pathogen that can cause life-threatening diseases in susceptible hosts. Twelve patients with R. equi infection in Kentucky were compared to 137 cases reported in the literature. Although lungs were the primary sites of infection in immunocompromised patients, extrapulmonary involvement only was more common in immunocompetent patients (P antibiotics, preferably selected from vancomycin, imipenem, clarithromycin/azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, or cotrimoxazole. Local antibiograms should be checked prior to using cotrimoxazole due to developing resistance. PMID:27631004

  6. A comprehensive review of non-enterica subspecies of Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Alexandre; Miranda, José Manuel; Regal, Patricia; Vázquez, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen with a complex nomenclature. This genus is composed of two species, S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is divided into six subspecies. S. enterica subspecies enterica is composed of more than 1500 serotypes with some of great importance, such as S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. S. enterica subsp. enterica is responsible of more than 99% of human salmonellosis and therefore it is widely studied. However, the non-enterica subspecies of S. enterica have been little studied. These subspecies are considered to be related to cold-blooded animals and their pathogenicity is very limited. Phenotype and genotype information generated from different studies of non-enterica subspecies reveal poor ability to invade host cells and the absence or modification of important virulence factors. Also, the great majority of human infections due to non-enterica subspecies are related to a previous depressed immune system. Therefore, we propose to treat these subspecies only as opportunistic pathogens. For establish this premise, the present review evaluated, among other things, the genomic characteristics, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and reported human cases of the non-enterica subspecies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 73769 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Four Subspecies of Mazama Pocket Gopher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... genetic data and morphological features. The candidate status for the nine Washington subspecies of Mazama... time) genetic data and morphological features and based on the presumption that this subspecies was a... natural or manmade factors, including low genetic diversity, small or isolated populations, low...

  8. IDENTIFIKASI PROFIL DASAR LAUT MENGGUNAKAN INSTRUMEN SIDE SCAN SONAR DENGAN METODE BEAM PATTERN DISCRETE-EQUI-SPACED UNSHADED LINE ARRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zainuddin Lubis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laut Punggur merupakan laut yang terletak di Batam, Kepulauan Riau yang mempunyai beragam habitat objek,dan bentuk struktur bawah laut yang memiliki dinamika laut yang sangat tinggi. Side scan sonar (SSS merupakan instrumen pengembangan sistem sonar yang mampu menunjukkan dalam gambar dua dimensional permukaan dasar laut dengan kondisi kontur, topografi, dan target secara bersamaan. Metode Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array digunakan untuk menghitung beam pattern dua dimensi yang tergantung pada sudut dari gelombang suara yang masuk dari sumbu array yang diterima tergantung pada sudut di mana sinar suara pada array. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada Desember 2016 di laut Punggur,Batam, Kepulauan Riau-Indonesia, dengan koordinat 104 ° 08,7102 E dan 1° 03,2448 N sampai 1 ° 03.3977 N dan 104 ° 08,8133 E, menggunakan instrumen Side Scan Sonar C-Max CM2 Tow fish dengan frekuensi 325 kHz. Hasil yang diperoleh dari perekaman terdapat 7 target, dan Beam pattern dari metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array target 4 memiliki nilai tertinggi pada directivity Pattern yaitu 21.08 dB. Hasil model beam pattern ini memiliki nilai pusat pada incidence angle (o terhadap Directivity pattern (dB tidak berada di nilai 0 ataupun pada pusat beam pattern yang dihasilkan pada target 6 dengan nilai incident angle -1.5 o dan 1.5o mengalami penurunan hingga -40 dB. Karakteristik sedimen dasar perairan di laut punggur ditemukan lebih banyak pasir. Hasil metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array ditemukan bangkai kapal tenggelam.Kata Kunci: Side Scan Sonar, Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array, Incidence angle, Directivity pattern IDENTIFICATION OF SEABED PROFILE USING SIDE SCAN SONAR INSTRUMENT WITH PATTERN DISCRETE-EQUI-SPACED UNSHADED LINE ARRAY METHODRiau Islands is an island that has a variety of habitat objects, and forms of submarine structures that have a very high ocean dynamics, Punggur Sea is the sea

  9. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene in Theileria equi from horses presented in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Meli, Marina L; Zhang, Yi; Meili, Theres; Stirn, Martina; Riond, Barbara; Weibel, Beatrice; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-05-15

    A reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was adapted and applied for equine blood samples collected at the animal hospital of the University of Zurich to determine the presence of piroplasms in horses in Switzerland. A total of 100 equine blood samples were included in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed using the RLB assay. Samples from seven horses hybridized to a Theileria/Babesia genus-specific and a Theileria genus-specific probe. Of these, two hybridized also to the Theileria equi-specific probe. The other five positive samples did not hybridize to any of the species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of unrecognized Theileria variants or genotypes. The 18S rRNA gene of the latter five samples were sequenced and found to be closely related to T. equi isolated from horses in Spain (AY534822) and China (KF559357) (≥98.4% identity). Four of the seven horses that tested positive had a documented travel history (France, Italy, and Spain) or lived abroad (Hungary). The present study adds new insight into the presence and sequence heterogeneity of T. equi in Switzerland. The results prompt that species-specific probes must be designed in regions of the gene unique to T. equi. Of note, none of the seven positive horses were suspected of having Theileria infection at the time of presentation to the clinic. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of equine piroplasma infections outside of endemic areas and in horses without signs of piroplasmosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A field survey for the seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in donkeys from Nuu Division, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduori, David O; Onyango, Solomon C; Kimari, Joseph N; MacLeod, Ewan T

    2015-07-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is one of the most significant tick-borne disease of equids. The prevalence of this disease in donkeys of semi-arid Kenya remains largely unexplored. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the extent to which donkeys in Nuu division, Kenya have been exposed to the haemoprotozoans Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis. The study also assessed the effect of age and sex on seroprevalence. A stratified sampling approach was used and three hundred and fourteen donkeys were sampled across nine sub-locations in Nuu division, Mwingi district. Serodiagnosis was via competitive inhibition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (cELISA). The seroprevalence of T. equi was 81.2% (95% CI: 76.4-85.4). There was no significant difference in sub-location seropositivity, gender seropositivity or age related seropositivity. Antibodies against B. caballi were not detected (95% CI: 0-1.2). Findings from this study suggest that T. equi infection is endemic in Nuu division, Mwingi where it exists in a state of endemic stability. Existence of the infection should be communicated to animal health practitioners and donkey owning communities in the area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Recombination-deficient Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneo-Moore, L.; Volpe, A.

    1985-01-01

    A UV-sensitive derivative was obtained from Streptococcus sanguis Challis. The organism could be transformed with a number of small streptococcal plasmids at frequencies equal to, or 1 logarithm below, the transformation frequencies for the parent organism. However, transformation with chromosomal DNA was greatly impaired in the UV-sensitive derivative

  12. Genome-wide sequence variations among Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi eHsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.

  13. Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the intraeytrhocytic protozoans Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. It has been reported as a main equine parasitic disease. In addition, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, causes a seasonal disease in horses. Both diseases, can be detrimental to animal health. In this sense, blood samples and ticks were collected from 97 horses raised in the microregion of Baixada Maranhense, Maranhão State, Brazil. Serum samples were subjected to Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT and blood samples and ticks to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR to evaluate the infection by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The overall seroprevalence was 38.14%, 18.55% and 11.34% for T. equi, B. caballi and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. The results of PCR from blood samples showed 13.40% and 3.09% positive samples to T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. A total of 170 tick specimens were collected and identified as Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. It was detected 2.35% (4/170 and 0.59% (1/170 positive tick samples by PCR for T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. All samples were negative to A. phagocytophilum. No statically difference (p>0.05 was observed when gender, age, use of ectoparasiticide and tick presence were analyzed. A BLASTn analysis of the sequenced samples indicated 97 to 100% similarity with T. equi 18S rRNA gene sequences in GenBank and 98 to 100% with B. caballi. Genetic analysis classified the obtained sequences as T. equi and B. caballi cluster, respectively. It can be concluded that these pathogens occur and are circulating in the studied area.

  14. Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. III. Phenotypic selection across a subspecies border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Eckhart, Vincent M; Geber, Monica A

    2015-09-01

    Sister taxa with distinct phenotypes often occupy contrasting environments in parapatric ranges, yet we generally do not know whether trait divergence reflects spatially varying selection. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment to test whether selection favors "native phenotypes" in two subspecies of Clarkia xantiana (Onagraceae), an annual plant in California. For four quantitative traits that differ between subspecies, we estimated phenotypic selection in subspecies' exclusive ranges and their contact zone in two consecutive years. We predicted that in the arid, pollinator-scarce eastern region, selection favors phenotypes of the native subspecies parviflora: small leaves, slow leaf growth, early flowering, and diminutive flowers. In the wetter, pollinator-rich, western range of subspecies xantiana, we expected selection for opposite phenotypes. We investigated pollinator contributions to selection by comparing naturally pollinated and pollen-supplemented individuals. For reproductive traits and for subspecies xantiana, selection generally matched expectations. The contact zone sometimes showed distinctive selection, and in ssp. parviflora selection sometimes favored nonnative phenotypes. Pollinators influenced selection on flowering time but not on flower size. Little temporal variation in selection occurred, possibly because of plastic trait responses across years. Though there were exceptions and some causes of selection remain obscure, phenotypic differentiation between subspecies appears to reflect spatially variable selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. A Molecular Method for the Identification of Honey Bee Subspecies Used by Beekeepers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikov, Mikhail Y.; Borodachev, Anatoly V.; Kokina, Anastasia V.; Popov, Vasily N.

    2018-01-01

    Apis mellifera L. includes several recognized subspecies that differ in their biological properties and agricultural characteristics. Distinguishing between honey bee subspecies is complicated. We analyzed the Folmer region of the COX1 gene in honey bee subspecies cultivated at bee farms in Russia and identified subspecies-specific SNPs. DNA analysis revealed two clearly distinct haplogroups in A. mellifera mellifera. The first one was characterized by multiple cytosine-thymine (thymine–cytosine) transitions, one adenine-guanine substitution, and one thymine–adenine substitution. The nucleotide sequence of the second haplogroup coincided with sequences from other subspecies, except the unique C/A SNP at position 421 of the 658-bp Folmer region. A. mellifera carnica and A. mellifera carpatica could be distinguished from A. mellifera mellifera and A. mellifera caucasica by the presence of the A/G SNP at position 99 of the 658-bp Folmer region. The G/A SNP at position 448 was typical for A. mellifera carnica. A. mellifera caucasica COX1 sequence lacked all the above-mentioned sites. We developed a procedure for rapid identification of honey bee subspecies by PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using mutagenic primers. The developed molecular method for honey bee subspecies identification is fast and inexpensive. PMID:29382048

  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae Drugs Resistance in Acute Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jie Hao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute rhinosinusitis that usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes the reason why patients seek for medical care. Drugs resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. This study was conducted to determine drugs resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia from acute rhinosinusitis in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was conducted in June–October 2014 at the Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. The sample was taken using nasopharyngeal swabbing from 100 acute rhinosinusitis patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and planted on tryptic soy agar containing 5% sheep blood and 5 μg/ml of gentamicin sulphate and then incubated in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The identification of Streptococcus pneumonia was performed by optochin test. The susceptibility test against Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using disk diffusion method.The antibiotic disks were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxacillin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline. Results: Out of 100 samples, 8 of them were tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates died with unknown reason after it were stored at -80 .The drugs resistance test showed the resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim were 6, whereas levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumonia drugs resistance in acute rhinosinusitis shows the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim are 6, whereas the resistance to levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4.

  17. Equi-biaxial loading effect on austenitic stainless steel fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gourdin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue lifetime assessment is essential in the design of structures. Under-estimated predictions may result in unnecessary in service inspections. Conversely, over-estimated predictions may have serious consequences on the integrity of structures. In some nuclear power plant components, the fatigue loading may be equibiaxial because of thermal fatigue. So the potential impact of multiaxial loading on the fatigue life of components is a major concern. Meanwhile, few experimental data are available on austenitic stainless steels. It is essential to improve the fatigue assessment methodologies to take into account the potential equi-biaxial fatigue damage. Hence this requires obtaining experimental data on the considered material with a strain tensor in equibiaxial tension. Two calibration tests (with strain gauges and image correlation were used to obtain the relationship between the imposed deflection and the radial strain on the FABIME2 specimen. A numerical study has confirmed this relationship. Biaxial fatigue tests are carried out on two austenitic stainless steels for different values of the maximum deflection, and with a load ratio equal to -1. The interpretation of the experimental results requires the use of an appropriate definition of strain equivalent. In nuclear industry, two kinds of definition are used: von Mises and TRESCA strain equivalent. These results have permitted to estimate the impact of the equibiaxiality on the fatigue life of components

  18. Recovery and subsequent characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate from Rhodococcus equi cells grown on crude palm kernel oil

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    Nadia Altaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus equi was isolated from fertile soil, and mineral salt media (MM and trace elements were used to provide the necessary elements for its growth and PHB production in addition to using crude palm kernel oil (CPKO 1% as the carbon source. Gas chromatography (GC demonstrated that the composition of the recovered biopolymer was homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. The strain of the present study has a dry biomass of 1.43 (g/l with 38% PHB, as determined by GC. The recovered PHB was characterized by NMR to study the chemical structure. In addition, DSC and TGA were used to study the thermal properties of the recovered polymer, where the melting temperature (Tm was 173 °C, the glass transition temperature (Tg was 2.79 °C, and the decomposition temperature (Td was 276 °C. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC was used to study the molecular mass of the recovered PHB in addition to comparing the results with other studies using different bacteria and substrates, where the molecular weight was 642 kDa, to enable its usage in many applications. The present study demonstrated the use of an inexpensive substrate for PHB production, i.e., using gram-positive bacteria to produce PHB polymer with characterization.

  19. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6- 3 H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  20. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  1. Analysis of Streptococcus bovis infections at a monographic oncological centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano TG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, catalase and oxidase negative coccus belonging to the genus Streptococcus. It is part of Streptoccus bovis/ equinus complex and it express the Lancefield antigen D on the surface.This complex has been characterized by molecular biology techniques and specifically by 16S rRNA and sodA gene. Phylogenetic trees based on these techniques are complex and therefore the routine work in laboratories, biochemical techniques are used to identify subspecies if it is necessary.The complex is divided into two subtypes based on biochemical properties: positive mannitol fermentation (biotype I including S. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus and S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus, mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase negative (biotype II/ 1, which includes more species (S. infantarius subsp. coli and S. lutetiensis and mannitol negative and ß-glucuronidase positive (biotype II/ 2, with a single species called S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.Owing to the relationship between colon cancer tumour and Streptococcus bovis, we intend to analyse all isolates in our hospital between the periods of 2010 until March 2013 and analyse tumor epidemiology at our center, in patients infected with this pathogen.Despite the different types of samples and out of the possibility of identification of subspecies, were isolated 14 S. bovis of 14 different patients. The isolates patients were (at the beginning: 4 blood (blood culture, 5 urine, 4 multiple exudates and 1 bronchoalveolar lavage. The proportion of men and women was 8/6. The mean age was 67 years (56±91. Malignant tumor distribution was: 6 prostate cancer, 1 breast cancer, 1 biliary tract, 1 skin, 1, stomach, 1 uterus, 1 vulvar, 1 pyriform sinus and other reproductive organs without specify.The study of antimicrobial in vitro susceptibility was performed by microdilution (MicroScan® WalkAway, Siemens, Sacramento, CA, USA and the

  2. Morphometric and molecular differentiation between quetzal subspecies of Pharomachrus mocinno (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Sofía; Oyama, Ken

    2010-03-01

    The resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno) is an endemic Mesoamerican bird species of conservation concern. Within this species, the subspecies P. m. costaricensis and P. m. mocinno, have been recognized by apparent morphometric differences; however, presently there is no sufficient data for confirmation. We analyzed eight morphometric attributes of the body from 41 quetzals: body length, tarsus and cord wing, as well as the length, wide and depth of the bill, body weight; and in the case of the males, the length of the long upper-tail cover feathers. We used multivariate analyses to discriminate morphometric differences between subspecies and contrasted each morphometric attribute between and within subspecies with paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test. In order to review the intraspecific taxonomic status of this bird, we added phylogenetic analysis, and genetic divergence and differentiation based on nucleotide variations in four sequences of mtDNA. The nucleotide variation was estimated in control region, subunit NDH6, and tRNAGlu and tRNAPhe in 26 quetzals from eight localities distributed in five countries. We estimated the genetic divergence and differentiation between subspecies according to a mutation-drift equilibrium model. We obtained the best mutation nucleotide model following the procedure implemented in model test program. We constructed the phylogenetic relationships between subspecies by maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood using PAUP, as well as with Bayesian statistics. The multivariate analyses showed two different morphometric groups, and individuals clustered according to the subspecies that they belong. The paired comparisons between subspecies showed strong differences in most of the attributes analyzed. Along the four mtDNA sequences, we identified 32 nucleotide positions that have a particular nucleotide according to the quetzals subspecies. The genetic divergence and the differentiation was strong and markedly showed two groups

  3. Streptococcus oligofermentans inhibits Streptococcus mutans in biofilms at both neutral pH and cariogenic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; de Soet, J.J.; Tong, H.; Gao, X.; He, L.; van Loveren, C.; Deng, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Periodontal Streptococcus Constellatus and Streptococcus Intermedius Clinical Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Feik, Diane; Mortensen, Joel E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement/surgical procedures and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections.

  5. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow subspecies at breeding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L Winder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1, and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84 ± 0.37 to 1.65 ± 1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (P<0.01. Breast feather mercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98 ± 0.69 to 2.71 ± 2.93 ppm. Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96 ± 1.84 ppm fw was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25 ± 2.24-6.77 ± 3.51 ppm; P ≤ 0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure.

  6. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow Subspecies at Breeding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Virginia L.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1), and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84±0.37 to 1.65±1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (Pmercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98±0.69 to 2.71±2.93 ppm). Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96±1.84 ppm fw) was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25±2.24–6.77±3.51 ppm; P≤0.03). Conclusions/Significance Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure. PMID:22384194

  7. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. We report the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

  8. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to teicoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species and their subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to teicoplanin by disk diffusion (30-micrograms disk) and agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Moderately susceptible and resistant clinical strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and vancomycin. Teicoplanin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the various Staphylococcus species isolated from healthy volunteers or animals. However, the novobiocin-resistant species Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus gallinarum were less susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 2 to 8 micrograms/ml) than most of the novobiocin-susceptible species were (MIC, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to teicoplanin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were moderately susceptible (MIC, 16 micrograms/ml) to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 70% were oxacillin resistant. For Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, 11% were resistant (MIC, greater than 16 micrograms/ml) and 21% were moderately susceptible to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 95% were oxacillin resistant, No strains of S. epidermidis or S. haemolyticus were intermediate or resistant to vancomycin. Teicoplanin appears to be less active in vitro against oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus. However, teicoplanin is an effective antimicrobial agent against many Staphylococcus species. PMID:1835340

  9. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to fleroxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species or subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolone fleroxacin (Ro 23-6240) by disk diffusion (5-micrograms disk) and by agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Resistant strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. Reference strains of the novobiocin-resistant species (Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, and Staphylococcus gallinarum) had an intrinsic intermediate susceptibility (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Fleroxacin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the novobiocin-susceptible species (MIC, 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to fleroxacin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were resistant (MIC, greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Of these strains, 77% were resistant to oxacillin and 50% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Thirty-four percent of the Staphylococcus haemolyticus clinical strains were resistant to fleroxacin, and 9% had intermediate susceptibility. Of the resistant strains, 95% were resistant to oxacillin and 77% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 23% had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Fleroxacin is an effective antimicrobial agent against most staphylococci. PMID:1759838

  10. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  11. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSPECIES ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS – ACTUALITIES AND IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis has been recently recognized as a prevalent cause of alimentary toxi-infection worldwide. Its widespread presence could be explained by intensification and globalization of traffic, global trade, and the rest of socioeconomic processes. However, no matter to global spreading of S. Enteritidis, there is unequal distribution of certain phage types (PT where PT 4 and 8 are predominant. Salmonella is considered as a cause of various diseases from acute enterocolitis to typhoid fever. All bacteria from this species have numerous virulence factors such as: adhesins, toxins, virulence plasmids, and cell wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Similar to other salmonella serotypes, S. Enteritidis has a virulence plasmid. It allows a bacterium to persist inside the reticuloendothelial cells, while strains without it are eliminated quickly. In the last few years several virulent S. Enteritidis strains of PT 4 were described and considered to be of the same origin. The domination of PT 4 is probably subjected to the resistance of certain strains to nitrofurantoin which is used in poultry rising. The increased significance of S. Enteritidis refers not only to its association with pandemic problems but to frequent reports about extraintestinal infectious processes caused by this bacterium. Taking into consideration that eggs are very important source of infection besides poultry meat, the advised efficient preventive measures, among others, should be some changes in poultry meat preparation, investigation of outbreak-related flocks and devastation of infected ones, as well as egg pasteurization.

  12. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Waldschmidt; Everaldo G. de Barros; Lucio A.O. Campos

    2000-01-01

    The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M....

  13. A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Tim J; Gilbert, Sarah C; Sridhar, Saranya; Linedale, Richard; Dierkes, Nicola; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Hermon-Taylor, John

    2007-11-28

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes systemic infection and chronic intestinal inflammation in many species including primates. Humans are exposed through milk and from sources of environmental contamination. Hitherto, the only vaccines available against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis have been limited to veterinary use and comprised attenuated or killed organisms. We developed a vaccine comprising a fusion construct designated HAV, containing components of two secreted and two cell surface Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins. HAV was transformed into DNA, human Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) delivery vectors. Full length expression of the predicted 95 kDa fusion protein was confirmed. Vaccination of naïve and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected C57BL/6 mice using DNA-prime/MVA-boost or Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocols was highly immunogenic resulting in significant IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses by splenocytes against recombinant vaccine antigens and a range of HAV specific peptides. This included strong recognition of a T-cell epitope GFAEINPIA located near the C-terminus of the fusion protein. Antibody responses to recombinant vaccine antigens and HAV specific peptides but not GFAEINPIA, also occurred. No immune recognition of vaccine antigens occurred in any sham vaccinated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected mice. Vaccination using either protocol significantly attenuated pre-existing Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection measured by qPCR in spleen and liver and the Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocol also conferred some protection against subsequent challenge. No adverse effects of vaccination occurred in any of the mice. A range of modern veterinary and clinical vaccines for the treatment and prevention of disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are needed. The present vaccine proved to be highly

  14. 12038_2016_9599_Article_Supplementary 1..12

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neonatal GBS meningitis. 68. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Firmicutes. Animals,. Human. Inflammatory Airway. Disease, Opportunistic infections. 69. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus MGCS10565. Firmicutes. Animals,. Human. Opportunistic infections. 70. Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr.

  15. Molecular heterogeneity in major urinary proteins of Mus musculus subspecies: potential candidates involved in speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Davidson, Amanda J.; Roberts, Sarah A.; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Smadja, Carole M.; Ganem, Guila

    2017-01-01

    When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations. Mass spectrometric characterisation identified novel MUPs in both subspecies involving mostly new combinations of amino acid changes previously observed in M.m.domesticus. The subspecies expressed distinct MUP signatures, with most MUPs expressed by only one subspecies. Expression of at least eight MUPs showed significant subspecies divergence both in allopatry and contact zone. Another seven MUPs showed divergence in expression between the subspecies only in the contact zone, consistent with divergence by reinforcement. These proteins are candidates for the semiochemical barrier to hybridisation, providing an opportunity to characterise the nature and evolution of a putative species recognition signal. PMID:28337988

  16. Phylogenetic and Diversity Analysis of Dactylis glomerata Subspecies Using SSR and IT-ISJ Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Defei; Zhao, Xinxin; Cheng, Yajuan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan

    2016-10-31

    The genus Dactylis , an important forage crop, has a wide geographical distribution in temperate regions. While this genus is thought to include a single species, Dactylis glomerata , this species encompasses many subspecies whose relationships have not been fully characterized. In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of nine representative Dactylis subspecies were examined using SSR and IT-ISJ markers. In total, 21 pairs of SSR primers and 15 pairs of IT-ISJ primers were used to amplify 295 polymorphic bands with polymorphic rates of 100%. The average polymorphic information contents (PICs) of SSR and IT-ISJ markers were 0.909 and 0.780, respectively. The combined data of the two markers indicated a high level of genetic diversity among the nine D. glomerata subspecies, with a Nei's gene diversity index value of 0.283 and Shannon's diversity of 0.448. Preliminarily phylogenetic analysis results revealed that the 20 accessions could be divided into three groups (A, B, C). Furthermore, they could be divided into five clusters, which is similar to the structure analysis with K = 5. Phylogenetic placement in these three groups may be related to the distribution ranges and the climate types of the subspecies in each group. Group A contained eight accessions of four subspecies, originating from the west Mediterranean, while Group B contained seven accessions of three subspecies, originating from the east Mediterranean.

  17. Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain.

  18. Equi-axed and columnar grain growth in UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R J [Berkely Technology Centre, Nuclear Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    The grain size of UO{sub 2} is an important parameter in the actual performance and the modelling of the performance of reactor fuel elements. Many processes depend critically on the grain size, for example, the degree of initial densification, the evolution rate of stable fission gases, the release rates of radiologically hazardous fission products, the fission gas bubble swelling rates and the fuel creep. Many of these processes are thermally activated and further impact on the fuel thermal behavior thus creating complex feedback processes. In order to model the fuel performance accurately it is necessary to model the evolution of the fuel grain radius. When UO{sub 2} is irradiated, the fission gases xenon and krypton are created from the fissioning uranium nucleus. At high temperatures these gases diffuse rapidly to the grain boundaries where they nucleate immobile lenticular shaped fission gas bubbles. In this paper the Hillert grain growth model is adapted to account for the inhibiting ``Zener`` effects of grain boundary fission gas porosity on grain boundary mobility and hence grain growth. It is shown that normal grain growth ceases at relatively low levels of irradiation. At high burnups, high temperatures and in regions of high temperature gradients, columnar grain growth is often observed, in some cases extending over more than fifty percent of the fuel radius. The model is further extended to account for the de-pinning of grains in the radial direction by the thermal gradient induced force on a fission gas grain boundary bubble. The observed columnar/equi-axed boundary is in fair agreement with the predictions of an evaporation/condensation model. The grain growth model described in this paper requires information concerning the scale of grain boundary porosity, the local fuel temperature and the local temperature gradient. The model is currently used in the Nuclear Electric version of the ENIGMA fuel modelling code. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  19. EquiMoves: A Wireless Networked Inertial Measurement System for Objective Examination of Horse Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bosch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe and validate the EquiMoves system, which aims to support equine veterinarians in assessing lameness and gait performance in horses. The system works by capturing horse motion from up to eight synchronized wireless inertial measurement units. It can be used in various equine gait modes, and analyzes both upper-body and limb movements. The validation against an optical motion capture system is based on a Bland–Altman analysis that illustrates the agreement between the two systems. The sagittal kinematic results (protraction, retraction, and sagittal range of motion show limits of agreement of ± 2.3 degrees and an absolute bias of 0.3 degrees in the worst case. The coronal kinematic results (adduction, abduction, and coronal range of motion show limits of agreement of − 8.8 and 8.1 degrees, and an absolute bias of 0.4 degrees in the worst case. The worse coronal kinematic results are most likely caused by the optical system setup (depth perception difficulty and suboptimal marker placement. The upper-body symmetry results show no significant bias in the agreement between the two systems; in most cases, the agreement is within ±5 mm. On a trial-level basis, the limits of agreement for withers and sacrum are within ±2 mm, meaning that the system can properly quantify motion asymmetry. Overall, the bias for all symmetry-related results is less than 1 mm, which is important for reproducibility and further comparison to other systems.

  20. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from horses in Poland: pVapA characteristics and plasmid new variant, 85-kb type V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Feret, Małgorzata; Gawryś, Marta; Witkowski, Maciej; Kita, Jerzy

    2017-01-26

    Rhodococcus equi is one of the most significant bacterial pathogens affecting foals up to 6 months of age worldwide. Rhodococcosis is present in Poland however information about molecular characterization of R. equi isolates is scarce. This study describes molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi infection on 13 horse breeding farms in Poland between 2001 and 2012. Samples were collected by tracheobronchial aspiration from pneumonic foals or during necropsy. The R. equi isolates were genotyped by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Totally, 58 R. equi isolates were investigated. One isolate lost its plasmid. Among the 57 VapA-positive isolates, 48 contained 85-kb type I plasmid (82.8%), 8 contained 87-kb type I plasmid (13.8%). One isolate (1.7%) had a unique restriction cleavage pattern and the 2nd fragment of EcoRI digests of this plasmid DNA was about 2600 bases smaller than that of the 85 kb type I. This new plasmid variant was designated as the "85-kb type V". Among the 58 isolates typeable with VspI-PFGE, ten PFGE clusters were detected. The majority of foals were infected mostly with isolates of low genetic diversity. Most of clinical isolates of R. equi from foals in Poland contain pVapA 85-kb type I and 87-kb type I similarly to the other European countries and the United States. However, the new variant of pVapA 85-kb type V was identified. The chromosomal variability was detected among some of the investigated isolates and the presence of farm-specific isolates might be possible.

  1. Characterization of Virulence Plasmids and Serotyping of Rhodococcus equi Isolates from Submaxillary Lymph Nodes of Pigs in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Makrai, László; Takayama, Saki; Dénes, Béla; Hajtós, István; Sasaki, Yukako; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Tsubaki, Shiro; Major, Andrea; Fodor, László; Varga, János; Takai, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    The plasmid types and serotypes of 164 Rhodococcus equi strains obtained from submaxillary lymph nodes of swine from different piggeries in 28 villages and towns located throughout the country were examined. The strains were tested by PCR for the presence of 15- to 17-kDa virulence-associated protein antigen (VapA) and 20-kDa virulence-associated protein antigen (VapB) genes. Plasmid DNAs were isolated and analyzed by digestion with restriction endonucleases to estimate size and compare their...

  2. Dimetilsulfóxido - DMSO no teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro em cepas de Rhodococcus equi isoladas de afecções pulmonares em potros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Márcio Garcia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a sensibilidade microbiana in vitro de isolados de Rhodococcus equi pelo teste padrão de difusão com discos, com o modificado, pela adição de 5% de dimetilsulfóxido-DMSO. Observou-se aumento da sensibilidade do R. equi no teste com DMSO, frente a aminoglicosídeos (canamicina, amicacina, estreptomicina e ao cloranfenicol, enquanto para a eritromicina e derivados ß-lactâmicos (penicilina G, cefalosporinas, amoxicilina, oxacilina, constatou-se redução da sensibilidade do agente.

  3. Multiple lung abscesses caused by Streptococcus constellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Rognoni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous descriptions of body abscesses produced by Streptococcus milleri group bacteria, lung abscesses caused by this group remain under-reported and the clinical and laboratory features have yet to be fully characterised. We present the case of a patient admitted with lung multiple abscesses produced by Streptococcus constellatus.

  4. Group A Streptococcus vulvovaginitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Lacy, Judith; Hillard, Paula A

    2008-08-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus-associated vulvovaginitis is uncommon in adult women. Clinicians should include group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus as a possible cause of vulvovaginal symptoms in breastfeeding women. Along with appropriate antibiotic therapy, vaginal estrogen therapy may be considered to diminish susceptibility to recurrent infection in women with vaginal atrophy.

  5. Streptococcus suis meningitis, a poacher's risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halaby, T.; Hoitsma, E.; Hupperts, R.; Spanjaard, L.; Luirink, M.; Jacobs, J.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a zoonosis that has been mainly reported in pig-rearing and pork-consuming countries. The most common disease manifestation is meningitis, often associated with cochleovestibular signs. The causative agent is Streptococcus suis serotype 2, found as a commensal in the

  6. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of IgG antibodies against Babesia equi in horses Um ensaio imunoenzimático para a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra Babesia equi em eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Divan Baldani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A crude antigenic preparation of Babesia equi was used to develop and establish the suitability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of parasite carriers. Optimal dilutions of the antigen, using positive and negative reference sera, were determined by checkboard titrations. The specificity and sensitivity of the ELISA were 100 %. A total of 90 serum samples were taken from horses from the Northeast region of São Paulo State and examined for diagnosis of equine B. equi infection by ELISA. Approximately 75% (n=67 of all the horses tested were found serologically positive for B. equi. These results suggest that the ELISA described may prove to be an appropriate serological test for epidemiological studies on B. equi infections in the field and that equine piroplasmosis is a cause for serious concern in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.Um ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA baseado em antígeno bruto de Babesia equi foi desenvolvido para a detecção de portadores crônicos de babesiose eqüina. As diluições ótimas do antígeno e dos soros controles positivo e negativo foram determinadas através de titulação em bloco. A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste foram de 100%. O ELISA foi empregado em 90 soros de eqüinos da região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, de modo que aproximadamente 75% (n=67 dos eqüinos foram positivos para B. equi. Estes resultados sugerem que o ELISA descrito pode ser utilizado no diagnóstico sorológico de B. equi e que a piroplasmose eqüina é um problema sério no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.

  7. Responses to playback of different subspecies songs in the Reed Bunting (Emberiza s. schoeniclus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pilastro, A.

    2000-01-01

    Populations of Reed Buntings Emberiza schoeniclus in the western Palearctic are classified in two major subspecies groups according to morphology: northern migratory schoeniclus and Mediterranean resident intermedia. Songs of the two groups differ mainly in complexity and syllable structure......, with intermedia songs being more complex. We explored the possibilities of song as a subspecies isolating mechanism by testing if male schoeniclus Reed Buntings reacted differently to field playbacks of songs from their own subspecies group, from the foreign subspecies group and from a control species...

  8. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

  9. Subspecies distribution and macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance genetics of Mycobacterium abscessus in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Sung, H; Park, J-S; Choi, S-H; Shim, T-S; Kim, M-N

    2016-01-01

    Treating Mycobacterium abscessus infections with antimicrobials remains difficult, possibly due to drug resistance. To investigate the subspecies distribution of M. abscessus and its correlation with antibiotic susceptibility and the genetics of antibiotic resistance, focusing on macrolides and fluoroquinolones, in the Republic of Korea. A total of 53 M. abscessus isolates were identified to the subspecies level by sequencing of hsp65 and erm(41). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin (CLM) and ciprofloxacin (CFX) were determined using Sensititre™ RAPMYCO plates. The rrl, gyrA and gyrB genes were sequenced to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance. Isolates included 22 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 31 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. erm(41) sequences showing subspecies-specific deletions and sequence variations in the 28th nucleotide were concordant with inducible CLM resistance; however, mutations in rrl were not detected. Low- and high-level CFX resistance was observed in respectively 19 (35.8%) and 10 (18.9%) of the 53 clinical isolates, regardless of subspecies. However, no non-synonymous mutations were detected in gyrA or gyrB. Sequencing of the erm gene and subspeciation of M. abscessus may be used to predict inducible macrolide susceptibility. Further studies of the relationship between specific mutations in gyrA or gyrB to MIC change are required.

  10. Comparative bioinformatics analysis of transcription factor genes indicates conservation of key regulatory domains among babesia bovis, babesia microti and theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicomplexa tick borne hemoparasites including B. bovis, B. microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis respectively. These neglected parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate a...

  11. Pneumonia por Rhodococcus equi em doente VIH (+: A propósito de uma associação rara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Esteves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A infecção humana por Rhodococcus equi, mesmo no contexto da infecção pelo VIH, é relativamente rara. Os autores apresentam o caso clínico de um indivíduo, infectado pelo VIH, que apresentava um quadro clínico e imagiológico compatível com pneumonia, cujos exames iniciais revelaram a presença de Pneumocystis jiroveci. Após realização de terapêutica específica, perante a manutenção do quadro clínico-imagiológico, procedeu-se à realização de novos exames complementares, tendo sido identificado a presença de Rhodococcus equi no lavado broncoalveolar. Com instituição de terapêutica dirigida a este agente, verificou--se progressiva melhoria clínica e imagiológica. Os autores efectuam uma revisão bibliográfica da pneumonia por Rhodococcus equi, salientando a raridade desta associação e a elevada sobrevida observada. Abstract: The human infection by Rhodococcus equi, even in the presence of HIV infection, remains a rare disease. The authors present a case report of pneumonia, occurring in a HIV (+ man. After identifying Pneumocystis jiroveci in the BAL, despite proper medication, the patient didn’t improve. Another BAL was performed and a Rhodoccus equi isolated. The therapeutic regimen was changed according to this finding and the patient improved. The authors make a review of the literature, focusing on the rarity of this association and the high survival observed. Palavras-chave: Rhodococcus equi, Pneumocystis jiroveci, VIH, Key-words: Rhodococcus equi, Pneumocystis jiroveci, HIV

  12. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 years, recurrence staghorn stone in her left kidney was diagnosed and patient underwent another surgery. The patient had several attacks of cystitis during these 7 years. The results of stone and urine cultures revealed staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum. This case report emphasizes a possible association between staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection and recurrence renal staghhorn stone.

  13. Subspecies composition and founder contribution of the captive U.S. chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John J; Dye, Brent; Frels, William I; Fritz, Jo; Gagneux, Pascal; Khun, Henry H; Switzer, William M; Lee, D Rick

    2005-10-01

    Chimpanzees are presently classified into three subspecies: Pan troglodytes verus from west Africa, P.t. troglodytes from central Africa, and P.t. schweinfurthii from east Africa. A fourth subspecies (P.t. vellerosus), from Cameroon and northern Nigeria, has been proposed. These taxonomic designations are based on geographical origins and are reflected in sequence variation in the first hypervariable region (HVR-I) of the mtDNA D-loop. Although advances have been made in our understanding of chimpanzee phylogenetics, little has been known regarding the subspecies composition of captive chimpanzees. We sequenced part of the mtDNA HVR-I region in 218 African-born population founders and performed a phylogenetic analysis with previously characterized African sequences of known provenance to infer subspecies affiliations. Most founders were P.t. verus (95.0%), distantly followed by the troglodytes schweinfurthii clade (4.6%), and a single P.t. vellerosus (0.4%). Pedigree-based estimates of genomic representation in the descendant population revealed that troglodytes schweinfurthii founder representation was reduced in captivity, vellerosus representation increased due to prolific breeding by a single male, and reproductive variance resulted in uneven representation among male P.t.verus founders. No increase in mortality was evident from between-subspecies interbreeding, indicating a lack of outbreeding depression. Knowledge of subspecies and their genomic representation can form the basis for phylogenetically informed genetic management of extant chimpanzees to preserve rare genetic variation for research, conservation, or possible future breeding. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Bull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes systemic infection and chronic intestinal inflammation in many species including primates. Humans are exposed through milk and from sources of environmental contamination. Hitherto, the only vaccines available against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis have been limited to veterinary use and comprised attenuated or killed organisms. METHODS: We developed a vaccine comprising a fusion construct designated HAV, containing components of two secreted and two cell surface Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins. HAV was transformed into DNA, human Adenovirus 5 (Ad5 and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA delivery vectors. Full length expression of the predicted 95 kDa fusion protein was confirmed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Vaccination of naïve and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected C57BL/6 mice using DNA-prime/MVA-boost or Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocols was highly immunogenic resulting in significant IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses by splenocytes against recombinant vaccine antigens and a range of HAV specific peptides. This included strong recognition of a T-cell epitope GFAEINPIA located near the C-terminus of the fusion protein. Antibody responses to recombinant vaccine antigens and HAV specific peptides but not GFAEINPIA, also occurred. No immune recognition of vaccine antigens occurred in any sham vaccinated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected mice. Vaccination using either protocol significantly attenuated pre-existing Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection measured by qPCR in spleen and liver and the Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocol also conferred some protection against subsequent challenge. No adverse effects of vaccination occurred in any of the mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A range of modern veterinary and clinical vaccines for the treatment and prevention of disease caused by Mycobacterium avium

  15. Occurrence, isolation and DNA identification of Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Streptococcus thermophilus involved in Algerian ... among reference, and wild strains of S. thermophilus and for their differentiation from Enterococcus spp. ..... Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.

  16. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2-20mm) on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris when compared to the ... The result from this preliminary study suggests that the plant contains active compounds that .... Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, Vom,. Jos.

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary tract infection in pedeatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Richard; Sapin, Jeanne; De Parscau, Loïc; Pougnet, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer. We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (10 4 UFC/mL; with 2 × 10 4 leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%. Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child. The discussion between the clinician and the biologist has contributed to the discovery of this renal anomaly.

  18. Role of Streptococcus Anginosus on the formation of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Herdiyati Nonong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the etiology of dental caries is the cariogenic properties of bacteria, these are always associated with Streptococcus mutans. Glucosyltransferase fragment (Gtf are also in other strains of Streptococcus such as Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus milleri which includes beta hemolysis. Genotypically B Streptococcus anginosus has genetic characteristics that are similar to Streptococcus mutans. The research objective was to determine the existence of Gtf B/C gene as a cause of caries in Streptococcus anginosus. The study was conducted in experimental laboratories with PCR technique by taking a sample of 20 children who had caries. The results showed there was the amplification of Streptococcus anginosus with a level of homology 96%, 97%, and 99%. The results of the Gtf genes amplification fragment B/C provided 600 pb ribbon. The conclusion was Streptococcus anginosus classified as cariogenic bacteria because they had Gtf B/C genes.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two subspecies (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus) of the greater horseshoe bat (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanhong; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in China. In this study, their mitochondrial genomes were completely sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that R. f. nippon has a close relationship with two subspecies of R. ferrumequinum from Korea with 0.1% divergence, which indicated they are synonyms.

  20. Mitochondrial genome diversity and population structure of two western honey bee subspecies in the Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimanifar, Amin; Kimball, Rebecca T; Braun, Edward L; Ellis, James D

    2018-01-22

    Apis mellifera capensis Eschscholtz and A.m. scutellata Lepeletier are subspecies of western honey bees that are indigenous to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). Both subspecies have invasive potential and are organisms of concern for areas outside their native range, though they are important bees to beekeepers, agriculture, and the environment where they are native. The aim of the present study was to examine genetic differentiation among these subspecies and estimate their phylogenetic relationships using complete mitochondrial genomes sequences. We used 25 individuals that were either assigned to one of the subspecies or designated hybrids using morphometric analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenome sequences by maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference identified a monophyletic RSA clade, subdivided into two clades. A haplotype network was consistent with the phylogenetic trees. However, members of both subspecies occurred in both clades, indicating that A.m. capensis and A.m. scutellata are neither reciprocally monophyletic nor do they exhibit paraphyly with one subspecies nested within the other subspecies. Furthermore, no mitogenomic features were diagnostic to either subspecies. All bees analyzed from the RSA expressed a substantial level of haplotype diversity (most samples had unique haplotypes) but limited nucleotide diversity. The number of variable codons across protein-coding genes (PCGs) differed among loci, with CO3 exhibiting the most variation and ATP6 the least.

  1. Descriptions of a new species and subspecies of Halysidota Hübner, [1819] from Mexico (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Benoît Vincent; Michel Laguerre

    2017-01-01

    A new species and subspecies of the genus Halysidota are described from Mexico and Guadeloupe respectively: Halysidota witti sp. nov. and Halysidota leda guadulpensis ssp. nov. Details of the new species and subspecies descriptions are based upon morphological and molecular characters as well as distributional data.

  2. Structure and amount of genetic variation at minisatellite loci within the subspecies complex of Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; Bijlsma, R.; Osterhaus, ADME; van Delden, W.; van de Zande, L.

    The structure and amount of genetic variation within and between three subspecies of the harbour seal Phoca vitulina was assessed by multilocus DNA fingerprinting. Bandsharing similarity indicates that the subspecies Phoca vitulina richarhsi (Alaska, East Pacific) is clearly separated from the other

  3. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake......, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion...

  4. EquiMar : Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in Terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia

    The Sea Trial Manual (D4.1) describes the type of operations required to advance an ocean energy conversion device (wave and tide) from an intermediate scaled sub-systems proving machine (circa 1:4) to a full size solo prototype pre-production unit and on towards a pre-commercial device ready for...... of marine energy converters, according to Annex 1 – Description of Work of the EquiMar project, where task 4.2 is defined. Some slight modifications have been made to the original structure due to re-adjustments in accordance with the on-going research.......The Sea Trial Manual (D4.1) describes the type of operations required to advance an ocean energy conversion device (wave and tide) from an intermediate scaled sub-systems proving machine (circa 1:4) to a full size solo prototype pre-production unit and on towards a pre-commercial device ready...

  5. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional variation of the antigen I/II surface protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, FC; Assev, S; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Scheie, AA

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the

  7. Relation of Growth of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris to Amino Acid Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Bert; Konings, Wil N.

    The maximum specific growth rate of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris on synthetic medium containing glutamate but no glutamine decreases rapidly above pH 7. Growth of these organisms is extended to pH values in excess of 8 in the presence of glutamine. These results can be explained

  8. Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new subspecies of Phascolion Theel, 1875 (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saiz, J.I.; Bustamante, M.; Tajadura, J.; Vijapure, T.; Sukumaran, S.

    , vol.3931(3); 2015; 433-437 A new subspecies of Phascolion Théel, 1875 (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from Indian waters JOSÉ I. SAIZ1, MARIA BUSTAMANTE1, JAVIER TAJADURA1, TEJAL VIJAPURE2 & SONIYA SUKUMARAN2 1 Universidad del País Vasco / EHU, 48080...

  10. Genetic and environmental effects on seed weight in subspecies of big sagebrush: Applications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Hector G. Ortiz; Stephanie L. Carlson; Deidre M. Jaeger; Nancy L. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    The sagebrush steppe is a patchwork of species and subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches across the intermountain regions of western North America. These ecosystems face degradation from disturbances and exotic weeds. Using sagebrush seed that is matched to its appropriate niche is a critical component to successful restoration, improving habitat for the...

  11. Subspecies identification of captive Orang Utan in Melaka based on D-loop mitochondria DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, Siti Norsyuhada; Yaakop, Salmah; Idris, Wan Mohd Razi; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of Bornean Orang Utan populations suggests that there are three different subspecies (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus; Sarawak & Northwest Kalimantan, P. p. wurmbii; Southern West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, P. p. morio; East Kalimantan and Sabah). The subspecies of Orang Utans in captivity are difficult to determine through morphological observation. Thus, misidentification by ranger or zoo staffs leads to unwanted consequences especially towards conservation efforts of Orang Utan. The main objective of this study was to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of 10 Orang Utans in Zoo Melaka and A' Famosa by using partial mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences. DNA of all individuals was extracted from FTA Card. Data analyses were performed using Maximum Parsimony, MP and Neighbor Joining, NJ. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that all the samples likely belong to one species of Sumatran Orang Utan (P. abelii) and three different subspecies of Bornean Orang Utans (P. p. pygmaeus, P. p. morio, and P. p. wurmbii). The results obtained in this study indirectly help the management of zoos in term of conservation and visitor's education.

  12. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis recombinant proteins modulate antimycobacterial functions of bovine macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinan...

  13. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.) : Genetic evidence for revision of subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Frederick I.; Morin, Phillip A.; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany L.; Robertson, Kelly M.; Leslie, Matthew S.; Bérubé, Martine; Panigada, Simone; Taylor, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North

  14. Molecular variation of Trypanosoma brucei subspecies as revealed by AFLP fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbo, E.E.C.; Majiwa, P.A.O.; Claassen, H.J.H.M.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2002-01-01

    Genetic analysis of Trypanosoma spp. depends on the detection of variation between strains. We have used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to develop a convenient and reliable method for genetic characterization of Trypanosome (sub)species. AFLP accesses multiple

  15. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. This bacterium is a slow growing, gram-positive, acid-fast organism which can be difficult to culture from the environment. For ...

  16. Interest in Providing Multiple Sclerosis Care and Subspecializing in Multiple Sclerosis Among Neurology Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie; Kane, Heather L.; Frost, A. Corey; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although detailed knowledge regarding treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is largely limited to neurologists, shortages in the neurologist workforce, including MS subspecialists, are predicted. Thus, MS patients may have difficulties in gaining access to appropriate care. No systematic evaluation has yet been performed of the number of neurology residents planning to pursue MS subspecialization. This study identifies factors affecting interest in providing MS patient care or MS subspecialization among current neurology residents. Methods: We randomly selected half of all Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education–certified neurology residency programs in the continental United States to receive the neurology resident survey. Completed surveys were received from 218 residents. Results: Residents were significantly more likely to have increased interest in MS care when they participated in MS research, were interested in teaching, and indicated that the “ability to improve patient outcomes and quality of life” was a positive factor influencing their desire to provide MS patient care. Residents who were interested in providing MS care, interested in teaching, and indicated that “research opportunities” was a positive factor for providing MS patient care were significantly more likely to express interest in MS subspecialization. Conclusions: Increasing opportunities to interact with MS patients, learn about MS care, and participate in MS research may increase interest in MS care and subspecialization among neurology residents. Opportunities to educate residents regarding MS patient care may affect residents’ attitudes. PMID:24688352

  17. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  18. Spatial genetic structure across a hybrid zone between European rabbit subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula is the only region in the world where the two existing subspecies of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus naturally occur and hybridize. In this study we explore the relative roles of historical and contemporary processes in shaping the spatial genetic structure of the rabbit across its native distribution range, and how they differently affect each subspecies and the hybrid zone. For that purpose we obtained multilocus genotypes and mitochondrial DNA data from 771 rabbits across most of the distribution range of the European rabbit in Spain. Based on the nuclear markers we observed a hierarchical genetic structure firstly comprised by two genetic groups, largely congruent with the mitochondrial lineages and subspecies distributions (O. c. algirus and O. c. cuniculus, which were subsequently subdivided into seven genetic groups. Geographic distance alone emerged as an important factor explaining genetic differentiation across the whole range, without the need to invoke for the effect for geographical barriers. Additionally, the significantly positive spatial correlation up to a distance of only 100 km supported the idea that differentiation at a local level is of greater importance when considering the species overall genetic structure. When looking at the subspecies, northern populations of O. c. cuniculus showed more spatial genetic structure and differentiation than O. c. algirus. This could be due to local geographic barriers, limited resources, soil type and/or social behavior limiting dispersal. The hybrid zone showed similar genetic structure to the southern populations but a larger introgression from the northern lineage genome. These differences have been attributed to selection against the hybrids rather than to behavioral differences between subspecies. Ultimately, the genetic structure of the rabbit in its native distribution range is the result of an ensemble of factors, from geographical and ecological

  19. Investigating concordance among genetic data, subspecies circumscriptions and hostplant use in the nymphalid butterfly Polygonia faunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullasa Kodandaramaiah

    Full Text Available Subspecies are commonly used taxonomic units to formally describe intraspecific geographic variation in morphological traits. However, the concept of subspecies is not clearly defined, and there is little agreement about what they represent in terms of evolutionary units, and whether they can be used as reliably useful units in conservation, evolutionary theory and taxonomy. We here investigate whether the morphologically well-characterized subspecies in the North American butterfly Polygonia faunus are supported by genetic data from mitochondrial sequences and eight microsatellite loci. We also investigate the phylogeographic structure of P. faunus and test whether similarities in host-plant use among populations are related to genetic similarity. Neither the nuclear nor the mitochondrial data corroborated subspecies groupings. We found three well defined genetic clusters corresponding to California, Arizona and (New Mexico+Colorado. There was little structuring among the remaining populations, probably due to gene flow across populations. We found no support for the hypothesis that similarities in host use are related to genetic proximity. The results indicate that the species underwent a recent rapid expansion, probably from two glacial refugia in western North America. The mitochondrial haplotype network indicates at least two independent expansion phases into eastern North America. Our results clearly demonstrate that subspecies in P. faunus do not conform to the structuring of genetic variation. More studies on insects and other invertebrates are needed to better understand the scope of this phenomenon. The results of this study will be crucial in designing further experiments to understand the evolution of hostplant utilization in this species.

  20. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ann E; Autran, Chloe A; Szyszka, Alexandra; Escajadillo, Tamara; Huang, Mia; Godula, Kamil; Prudden, Anthony R; Boons, Geert-Jan; Lewis, Amanda L; Doran, Kelly S; Nizet, Victor; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae: a vaginal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, A N; Palermos, J; Kantzanou, M; Maniatis, N A; Christodoulou, C; Legakis, N J

    1996-03-01

    The significance of Streptococcus agalactiae as an aetiological agent in vaginitis was evaluated. A total of 6226 samples from women who presented with vaginal symptoms was examined. The presence of >10 leucocytes/high-power field (h.p.f.) was taken to be the criterion of active infection. S. agalactiae was isolated from 10.1% of these samples. The isolation rates of other common pathogens such as Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas spp. were 54.1%, 27.2% and 4.2%, respectively, in the same group of patients. In contrast, the isolation rates of these micro-organisms in the group of patients who had no infection (S. agalactiae was isolated, it was the sole pathogen isolated (83%) and its presence was associated with an inflammatory response in 80% of patients. Furthermore, the relative risk of vaginal infection with S. agalactiae (2.38) in patients with purulent vaginal discharge was greater than that of Candida spp. infection (1.41) and lower than that of Trichomonas spp. infection (8.32). These data suggest that S. agalactiae in symptomatic women with microscopic evidence of inflammation should be considered a causative agent of vaginitis.

  2. In vitro culture, PCR , and nested PCR for the detection of Theileria equi in horses submitted to exercise Cultivo in vitro, PCR e nested PCR na detecção de Theileria equi em eqüinos submetidos a exercícios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Baldani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the usefulness of in vitro culture, PCR, and nested PCR for the diagnosis of Theileria equi in horses submitted to stress during exercise. Blood samples from 15 apparently healthy horses, previously conditioned to a high-speed equine treadmill, were taken prior to and after exercise. The animals were divided into two experimental groups: 30-day training schedule (G1 and 90-day training schedule (G2. Statistical analysis was performed using a chi-square test and kappa statistic was used in order to assess agreement. No significant difference was observed between samples collected at resting or after exercise. In G1, merozoites of T. equi were detected in the blood smears of four horses before in vitro culture, whereas 14 samples were positive, confirmed by culture. In G2, five and 11 horses were positive before and after culture, respectively. No PCR amplified product was observed in any of the tested animals although the PCR system based on the 16S rRNA gene of T. equi detected DNA in blood with an equivalent 8x10-5% parasitaemia. The nested PCR based on the T. equi merozoite antigen gene (EMA-1 allowed the visualization of amplified products in all the horses. Therefore, nested PCR should be considered as a means of detection of sub-clinical T. equi infections and in vitro culture could be used as a complement to other methods of diagnosis.Comparou-se a utilização do cultivo in vitro, PCR e nested PCR no diagnóstico de Theileria equi em eqüinos submetidos ao estresse induzido por exercícios. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas de 15 eqüinos submetidos a treinamento em esteira rolante de alto desempenho, sendo as amostras colhidas antes e após os exercícios. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos experimentais: 30 dias de treinamento (G1 e 90 dias de treinamento (G2. O teste do qui-quadrado foi empregado para as análises estatísticas e o índice kappa utilizado para avaliar a concordância. Não houve diferen

  3. Infecção pulmonar por rhodococcus equi em doente vih+ - revisão baseada num caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Faria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do aumento no número de casos de infecção humana por Rhodococcus equi (R. equi registado nas últimas décadas, sobretudo em indivíduos infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (VIH, esse diagnóstico permanece uma raridade. Os autores apresentam um caso de infecção pulmonar por R. equi num homem de 36 anos com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA. A doença manifestou-se de forma insidiosa, apresentando-se radiologicamente sob a forma de lesão pulmonar esquerda com cavitação e nível hidroaéreo, tendo sido inicialmente colocada a hipótese diagnóstica de tuberculose pulmonar (TP dada a pesquisa de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes (BAAR na expectoração ter sido positiva. Posteriormente, foi possível isolar o R. equi nas culturas de expectoração e lavado broncoalveolar (LBA. O estudo anátomo-patológico confirmou a presença concomitante de malacoplaquia pulmonar. O doente cumpriu antibioterapia dirigida ao agente e teve boa evolução clínica, analítica e radiológica. A propósito deste caso, os autores fazem uma revisão teórica do tema à luz dos conhecimentos actuais.

  4. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzan, Heba F; Knowles, Donald P; Suarez, Carlos E

    2016-11-01

    Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i) identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii) identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii) define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv) identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  5. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba F Alzan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  6. Novel molecular markers differentiate Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout and steelhead) and the O. clarki (cutthroat trout) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 26 PCR-based markers was developed that differentiates rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki). The markers also differentiated rainbow from other cutthroat trout subspecies (O. clarki), and several of the markers differentiated between cutthroat trout subspecies. This system has numerous positive attributes, including: nonlethal sampling, high species-specificity and products that are easily identified and scored using agarose gel electrophoresis. The methodology described for developing the markers can be applied to virtually any system in which numerous markers are desired for identifying or differentiating species or subspecies.

  7. Associations between physical examination, laboratory, and radiographic findings and outcome and subsequent racing performance of foals with Rhodococcus equi infection: 115 cases (1984-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, D.M.; Eicker, S.W.; Yeager, A.E.; Sweeney, C.R.; Viel, L.; Tesarowski, D.; Lavoie, J.P.; Hoffman, A.; Paradis, M.R.; Reed, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective-To determine whether physical examination, laboratory, or radiographic abnormalities in foals with Rhodococcus equi infection were associated with survival, ability to race at least once after recovery, or, for foals that survived and went on to race, subsequent Facing performance. Design-Retrospective study. Animals-49 Thoroughbreds and 66 Standardbreds admitted to 1 of 6 veterinary teaching hospitals between 1984 and 1992 in which R equi infection was positively diagnosed. Procedure-Results of physical examination, laboratory testing, and thoracic radiography were reviewed. Indices of Facing performance were obtained for feats that recovered and eventually raced and compared with values for the US racing population. Results-83 (72%) feats survived. Foals that did not survive were more likely to have extreme tachycardia (heart rate > 100 beats/min), be in respiratory distress, and have severe radiographic abnormalities on thoracic radiographs at the time of initial examination than were foals that survived. Clinicopathologic abnormalities were not associated with whether feats did or did not survive. Forty-five of the 83 surviving foals (54%) eventually raced at least once, but none of the factors examined was associated with whether foals went on to race. Racing performance of foals that raced as adults was not significantly different from that of the US racing population. Clinical Implications-R equi infection in foals is associated with a decreased chance of racing as an adult, however, foals that eventually go on to race perform comparably to the US racing population

  8. Immunization by intrabronchial administration to 1-week-old foals of an unmarked double gene disruption strain of Rhodococcus equi strain 103+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yanlong; Nicholson, Vivian; Woods, Katharine; Prescott, John F

    2007-11-15

    Rhodococcus equi causes fatal granulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised animals and humans. However, there is no effective vaccine against this infection. In this study, the chromosomal genes isocitrate lyase (icl) and cholesterol oxidase (choE) were chosen as targets for mutation and assessment of the double mutant as an intrabronchial vaccine in 1-week-old foals. Using a modification of a suicide plasmid previously developed in this laboratory, we developed a choE-icl unmarked deletion mutant of R. equi strain 103+. Five 1-week-old foals were infected intrabronchially with the mutant and challenged intrabronchially with the parent, virulent, strain 2 weeks later. Three of the foals were protected against pneumonia caused by the virulent strain, but the other two foals developed pneumonia caused by the mutant strain during the post-challenge period. Since infection of 3-week-old foals by an icl mutant in an earlier study had shown complete attenuation of the strain, we conclude that a proportion of foals in the 1st week or so of life are predisposed to developing R. equi pneumonia because of an inability to mount an effective immune response. This has been suspected previously but this is the first time that this has been demonstrated experimentally.

  9. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  10. Comparative genomic characterization of Francisella tularensis strains belonging to low and high virulence subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia D Champion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a geographically widespread, severely debilitating, and occasionally lethal disease in humans. It is caused by infection by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. In order to better understand its potency as an etiological agent as well as its potential as a biological weapon, we have completed draft assemblies and report the first complete genomic characterization of five strains belonging to the following different Francisella subspecies (subsp.: the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis FSC033, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica FSC257 and FSC022, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida GA99-3548 and GA99-3549 strains. Here, we report the sequencing of these strains and comparative genomic analysis with recently available public Francisella sequences, including the rare F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain isolate from the Central Asian Region. We report evidence for the occurrence of large-scale rearrangement events in strains of the holarctica subspecies, supporting previous proposals that further phylogenetic subdivisions of the Type B clade are likely. We also find a significant enrichment of disrupted or absent ORFs proximal to predicted breakpoints in the FSC022 strain, including a genetic component of the Type I restriction-modification defense system. Many of the pseudogenes identified are also disrupted in the closely related rarely human pathogenic F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain, including modulator of drug activity B (mdaB (FTT0961, which encodes a known NADPH quinone reductase involved in oxidative stress resistance. We have also identified genes exhibiting sequence similarity to effectors of the Type III (T3SS and components of the Type IV secretion systems (T4SS. One of the genes, msrA2 (FTT1797c, is disrupted in F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica and has recently been shown to mediate bacterial pathogen survival in host organisms. Our findings suggest that in addition to the duplication of

  11. Whole genome investigation of a divergent clade of the pathogen Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiyad eBaig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a major porcine and zoonotic pathogen responsible for significant economic losses in the pig industry and an increasing number of human cases. Multiple isolates of S. suis show marked genomic diversity. Here we report the analysis of whole genome sequences of nine pig isolates that caused disease typical of S. suis and had phenotypic characteristics of S. suis, but their genomes were divergent from those of many other S. suis isolates. Comparison of protein sequences predicted from divergent genomes with those from normal S. suis reduced the size of core genome from 793 to only 397 genes. Divergence was clear if phylogenetic analysis was performed on reduced core genes and MLST alleles. Phylogenies based on certain other genes (16S rRNA, sodA, recN and cpn60 did not show divergence for all isolates, suggesting recombination between some divergent isolates with normal S. suis for these genes. Indeed, there is evidence of recent recombination between the divergent and normal S. suis genomes for 249 of 397 core genes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and 132 genes that were conserved between the divergent isolates and representatives of the broader Streptococcus genus showed that divergent isolates were more closely related to S. suis. Six out of nine divergent isolates possessed a S. suis-like capsule region with variation in capsular gene sequences but the remaining three did not have a discrete capsule locus. The majority (40/70, of virulence-associated genes in normal S. suis were present in the divergent genomes. Overall, the divergent isolates extend the current diversity of S. suis species but the phenotypic similarities and the large amount of gene exchange with normal S. suis gives insufficient evidence to assign these isolates to a new species or subspecies. Further sampling and whole genome analysis of more isolates is warranted to understand the diversity of the species.

  12. Assessment and characterization of biofilm formation among human isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genteluci, Gabrielle Limeira; Silva, Ligia Guedes; Souza, Maria Clara; Glatthardt, Thaís; de Mattos, Marcos Corrêa; Ejzemberg, Regina; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Ferreira-Carvalho, Bernadete Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    The capacity to form biofilm is considered a protective mechanism that allows the bacteria to survive and proliferate in hostile environments, facilitating the maintenance of the infectious process. Recently, biofilm has become a topic of interest in the study of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). Although GAS has not been associated with infection on medical implants, the presence of microcolonies embedded in an extracellular matrix on infected tissues has been reported. Despite the similarity between GAS and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), there are no studies in the literature describing the production of biofilm by SDSE. In this work, we assessed and characterized biofilm development among SDSE human isolates of group C. The in vitro data showed that 59.3% of the 118 isolates tested were able to form acid-induced biofilm on glass, and 28% formed it on polystyrene surfaces. More importantly, biofilm was also formed in a foreign body model in mice. The biofilm structure was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Long fibrillar-like structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the expression of a pilus associated gene of SDSE was increased for in vitro sessile cells compared with planktonics, and when sessile cells were collected from biofilms formed in the animal model compared with that of in vitro model. Results obtained from the immunofluorescence microscopy indicated the biofilm was immunogenic. Our data also suggested a role for proteins, exopolysaccharide and extracellular DNA in the formation and accumulation of biofilm by SDSE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30% of these cultures, 26 (44.8% corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%, to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%, to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 % to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%, to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7% to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germanyprovides a typical pattern ("good identification" for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

  14. Monoclonal Idiotope Vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Mary K.; Ward, Ronald E.; Kohler, Heinz

    1984-12-01

    A monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody coupled to a carrier protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice against a lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Vaccinated mice developed a high titer of antibody to phosphorylcholine, which is known to protect against infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Measurement of the median lethal dose of the bacteria indicated that anti-idiotope immunization significantly increased the resistance of BALB/c mice to the bacterial challenge. Antibody to an idiotope can thus be used as an antigen substitute for the induction of protective immunity.

  15. Comparative analysis of innate immune responses to Streptococcus phocae strains in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Soraya; Oliver, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes mortality only in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile, even when this species is co-cultured with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This susceptibility could be determined by innate immune response components and their responses to bacterial infection. This fish pathogen shares subspecies status with Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae isolated from seals. The present study compared innate immune system mechanisms in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout when challenged with different S. phocae, including two isolates from Atlantic salmon (LM-08-Sp and LM-13-Sp) and two from seal (ATCC 51973(T) and P23). Streptococcus phocae growth was evaluated in the mucus and serum of both species, with rainbow trout samples evidencing inhibitory effects. Lysozyme activity supported this observation, with significantly higher (p trout serum and mucus as compared to Atlantic salmon. No differences were found in phagocytic capacity between fish species when stimulated with ATCC 51973(T) and P23. Against all S. phocae strains, rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon showed up to two-fold increased bactericidal activity, and rainbow trout demonstrated up to three-fold greater reactive oxygen species production in macrophages. In conclusion, the non-specific humoral and cellular barriers of Atlantic salmon were immunologically insufficient against S. phocae subsp. salmonis, thereby facilitating streptococcosis. Moreover, the more robust response of rainbow trout to S. phocae could not be attributed to any specific component of the innate immune system, but was rather the consequence of a combined response by the evaluated components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies: Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii subsp. nov. and Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, W E; Wolfshohl, J F

    1991-04-01

    Two major subspecies of Staphylococcus cohnii, namely S. cohnii subsp. cohnii, from humans, and S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, from humans and other primates, are described on the basis of a study of 14 to 25 strains and 18 to 33 strains, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in our laboratory in 1983 (W. E. Kloos and J. F. Wolfshohl, Curr. Microbiol. 8:115-121, 1983) demonstrated that strains representing the different subspecies were significantly divergent. S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum can be distinguished from S. cohnii subsp. cohnii on the basis of its greater colony size; pigmentation; positive urease, beta-glucuronidase, and beta-galactosidase activities; delayed alkaline phosphatase activity; ability to produce acid aerobically from alpha-lactose; and fatty acid profile. The type strain of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii is ATCC 29974, the designated type strain of S. cohnii Schleifer and Kloos 1975b, 55. The type strain of S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum is ATCC 49330.

  17. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on Löwen......We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  18. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina

    2015-01-01

    of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked vs. autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection (DoS) statistic exhibits a strong non......-monotonic relationship with the strength of purifying selection S, making it inappropriate for estimating S. We instead use counts in synonymous vs. non-synonymous frequency classes to infer the distribution of S coefficients acting on non-synonymous mutations in each subspecies. The strength of purifying selection we...... infer is congruent with the differences in effective sizes of each subspecies: Central chimpanzees are undergoing the strongest purifying selection followed by Eastern and Western chimpanzees. Coding indels show stronger selection against indels changing the reading frame than observed in human...

  19. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hum, S.; Quinn, K.; Brunner, J.

    1997-01-01

    methods were attributed to methodological differences used in various laboratories. Conclusion Our results indicate that misidentification of C fetus in routine diagnostic laboratories may be relatively common. The PCR assay evaluated gave rapid and reproducible results and is thus a valuable adjunctive......Objective To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Campylobacter fetus and differentiation of the defined subspecies. Design Characterisation of bacterial strains by traditional phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction, a probabilistic identification scheme...... by traditional phenotypic methods and the PCR assay was found to be 80.8%. The polymerase chain reaction proved to be a reliable technique for the species and subspecies identification of C fetus; equivocal results were obtained in only two instances. Initial misidentifications by conventional phenotyping...

  20. 77 FR 56858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... particular species. Species' History We listed four of the six subspecies of island fox endemic to the... consistent with long-term viability; and 2. Land managers are able to respond in a timely fashion to...

  1. Production of recombinant EMA-1 protein and its application for the diagnosis of Theileria equi using an enzyme immuno assay in horses from São Paulo State, Brazil Produção da proteína recombinante EMA-1 e sua aplicação para o diagnóstico baseadono imuno ensaio enzimático de Theileria equi em equinos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Divan Baldani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The erythrocytic-stage surface protein, Equi Merozoite Antigen 1 (EMA-1, is a major candidate for the development of a diagnostic antigen for equine piroplasmosis. In order to establish an effective diagnostic method for practical use, the gene encoding the entire EMA-1 of Theileria equi Jaboticabal strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged protein (His6-EMA1. The expressed EMA-1 reacted with specific antibodies in Western blot and had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa which was largely consistent with its theoretical value. The nucleotide sequence of the EMA-1 gene of Jaboticabal strain was comparatively analyzed with other published sequences. The results indicated a high degree of homology with EMA-1 genes of all other strains isolated from various countries. The recombinant purified His6-EMA1 protein was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of antibodies anti-T. equi in horses. The ELISA clearly differentiated T. equi-infected from Babesia caballi-infected horse sera or normal horse sera. Field serum samples collected from horses in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, were examined for the diagnosis of T. equi infection by ELISA. Of 170 samples analyzed, 95.88% (163/170 were positive for T. equi infection. These results suggest that the His6-EMA1 protein expressed in E. coli could be a reliable immunodiagnostic antigen for ELISA test and that T. equi infection is a serious concern in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.A proteína de superfície eritrocitária, Antígeno 1 do Merozoíta de Theileria equi (EMA-1, é um potencial candidato para o desenvolvimento de antígenos de valor diagnóstico para a piroplasmose equina. Com o objetivo de estabelecer um método de diagnóstico efetivo e prático, o gene EMA-1 da amostra Jaboticabal - SP de T. equi foi clonado e expresso em Escherichia coli contendo uma cauda de poli-histidina (His6-EMA1. O EMA-1 expresso reagiu com

  2. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone

    OpenAIRE

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. Case Presentation: A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 y...

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  4. Evidence for Bergmann's Rule and Not Allopatric Subspeciation in the Threatened Kaka (Nestor meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussex, Nic; Sainsbury, James; Moorhouse, Ron; Jamieson, Ian G; Robertson, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Species of conservation concern characterized by small and declining populations greatly benefit from proactive management approaches such as population translocations. Because they often show intra-specific genetic and phenotypic variation, which can result from drift or differential selective pressures between habitats, understanding the distribution of such variation and its underlying processes is a prerequisite to develop effective management guidelines. Indeed, translocations among genetically differentiated populations potentially locally adapted are discouraged in order to avoid outbreeding depression, while translocations among populations characterized by high gene flow with no evidence for local adaptation are encouraged. Here, we first test whether 2 recognized subspecies, the North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) and South Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis meridionalis) of New Zealand fit a scenario of allopatric subspeciation following the separation of the North and South Islands at the end of the Pleistocene using 1 mtDNA (n = 96) and 9 microsatellite markers (n = 126). We then test whether morphological differences among the 2 subspecies support a pattern of local adaptation, comparing phenotypic divergence (P ST) and the level of divergence by drift alone (F ST) among populations. We find little population structure between islands, ruling out allopatric subspeciation in kaka. Further, P ST exceeds F ST, supporting an adaptive latitudinal size cline consistent with Bergmann's rule. These results therefore suggest that using neutral genetic diversity alone can be misleading when identifying management units and that the nature of phenotypic variation should be considered in translocations efforts. We finally discuss North and South Island management units but suggest that cross-island translocation be allowed. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  6. A new subspecies of Celastrus (Celastraceae from the Palni hills of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. John Britto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrus paniculatus Willd. ssp. angladeanus S.J. Britto, B. Mani and S. Thomas new subspecies from the Palni hills, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, South India is described and illustrated. The new ssp. is similar to Celastrus paniculatus ssp. aggregatus but differs in flame-coloured branchlets, terminal, erect and stiff panicles exceeding leaves, prominent gibbous and oblique capsules, flowers polygamous but predominantly pistillate and 3-seeded capsules.

  7. Distinct Biological Potential of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis Revealed by Comparative Genome Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wenning; Tan, Mui Fern; Old, Lesley A.; Paterson, Ian C.; Jakubovics, Nicholas S.; Choo, Siew Woh

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque and important agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE). To gain a greater understanding of these two closely related species, we performed comparative analyses on 14 new S. gordonii and 5 S. sanguinis strains using various bioinformatics approaches. We revealed S. gordonii and S. sanguinis harbor open pan-genomes and share generally high sequence homology and number of core genes including virule...

  8. Ecotype evolution in Glossina palpalis subspecies, major vectors of sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry De Meeûs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors.In this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent.These results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.

  9. Chimpanzee subspecies and ‘robust’ australopithecine holotypes, in the context of comments by Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comparative anatomy (including chimpanzees, gorillas and other primates, Darwin1 suggested that Africa was the continent from which ‘progenitors’ of humankind evolved. Hominin fossils from this continent proved him correct. We present the results of morphometric analyses based on cranial data obtained from chimpanzee taxa currently recognised as distinct subspecies, namely Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, as well as Pan paniscus (bonobo. Our objective was to use a morphometric technique2 to quantify the degree of similarity between pairs of specimens, in the context of a statistical (probabilistic definition of a species.3–5 Results obtained from great apes, including two subspecies of chimpanzee, were assessed in relation to same-scale comparisons between the holotypes of ‘robust’ australopithecine (Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa which have traditionally been distinguished at a species level, notably Paranthropus robustus from South Africa, and Paranthropus (Australopithecus/ Zinjanthropus boisei from East Africa. The question arises as to whether the holotypes of these two taxa, TM 1517 from Kromdraai6 and OH 5 from Olduvai,7 respectively, are different at the subspecies rather than at the species level.

  10. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.: genetic evidence for revision of subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick I Archer

    Full Text Available There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus: B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North Pacific and North Atlantic raises the question of whether a single Northern Hemisphere subspecies is valid. We assess phylogenetic patterns using ~16 K base pairs of the complete mitogenome for 154 fin whales from the North Pacific, North Atlantic--including the Mediterranean Sea--and Southern Hemisphere. A Bayesian tree of the resulting 136 haplotypes revealed several well-supported clades representing each ocean basin, with no haplotypes shared among ocean basins. The North Atlantic haplotypes (n = 12 form a sister clade to those from the Southern Hemisphere (n = 42. The estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA for this Atlantic/Southern Hemisphere clade and 81 of the 97 samples from the North Pacific was approximately 2 Ma. 14 of the remaining North Pacific samples formed a well-supported clade within the Southern Hemisphere. The TMRCA for this node suggests that at least one female from the Southern Hemisphere immigrated to the North Pacific approximately 0.37 Ma. These results provide strong evidence that North Pacific and North Atlantic fin whales should not be considered the same subspecies, and suggest the need for revision of the global taxonomy of the species.

  11. Infection with Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae and Vibrio harveyi in snapper, Pagrus auratus with bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, F J; Raidal, S R; Buller, N; Jones, B

    2006-05-01

    To diagnose the cause of chronic, low mortality associated with bloat in tanks of snapper at an aquaculture facility. A clinical, pathological and microbiological investigation into the cause of a low number of ongoing mortalities associated with bloat in snapper at an aquaculture facility is outlined. Necropsy, histology, microbiology and a comparison of haematology and water analysis from affected and unaffected fish and holding tanks, respectively were conducted. Affected moribund fish were found in lateral or dorsal recumbency floating on the water surface within 24 hours of death. Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae was isolated from intestinal contents and Vibrio harveyi from the blood of affected fish and both were isolated from culture water. Both V harveyi and P damselae subspecies damselae isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and sulphamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. Environmental parameters such as pH and dissolved oxygen were similar in tanks of affected and unaffected fish. Affected fish had gas distended swimbladders, anaemia, and the intestines were diffusely distended with a clear, pale yellowish fluid. Livers were mottled tan and green in a zonal pattern. Histologically the intestines of fish from tanks suffering mortality had a moderate granulocytic enteritis with oedema and infiltrations with eosinophilic granule cells that were also present as an infiltrate in the gills. There were elevated numbers of melanomacrophage centres and haemosiderin deposits in the spleen, kidney and liver of affected fish. Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae infection should be recognised as potential pathogens of snapper held in water of less than optimal quality.

  12. Spatiotemporal variation in the reproductive ecology of two parapatric subspecies of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Villagra, Cristian A; Raguso, Robert A

    2010-09-01

    • Flowering plants that rely on pollinators for most of their reproduction may experience unpredictable and inconsistent availability of effective pollinators throughout their reproductive lifetime. We investigated the reproductive ecology of two subspecies of the tufted evening primrose, Oenothera cespitosa, which occupy geographically and edaphically distinct habitats in western North America: O. cespitosa subsp. navajoensis inhabits sandstone soils on open sites or rocky slopes in the Colorado Plateau and O. cespitosa subsp. cespitosa grows in clay soils on talus slopes and exposed rocky ridges in the western Great Plains and northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. • Pollen augmentation and selfing experiments, floral visitor observations, and single-visit effectiveness experiments were conducted over 4 years to examine the breeding system and spatiotemporal variation in pollinator behavior, assemblage, and abundance at different populations for each subspecies. • Both subspecies of O. cespitosa were self-incompatible and pollen-limited, suggesting that the relative abundance, effectiveness, and movement patterns of different insects as pollinators influenced the quality and quantity of seed production in these plants. Medium-sized vespertine hawkmoths (Hyles lineata, Sphinx vashti) were effective pollinators when present, as were large matinal bees (Anthophora affabilis, A. dammersi, Xylocopa tabaniformis androleuca), whereas small oligolectic Lasioglossum bees primarily functioned as pollen thieves in the evening and morning. • These findings highlight the importance of variability of pollinator composition and abundance in the evolution of plant breeding systems and reproductive success at varying spatial and temporal scales.

  13. A morphological review of subspecies of the Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis (Testudines, Geomydidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carl H.; Laemmerzahl, Arndt F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The turtle Cuora amboinensis has an extensive distribution covering most of southern mainland Asia, Indonesia, and extending to the Philippine Islands. Unlike many species, C. amboinensis occurs on both sides of Wallace's Line separating Asian and Australian flora and fauna. Four subspecies are currently recognized; Cuora a. kamaroma (southern continental Asia, Java and the northern Philippines [introduced]), C. a. lineata (Kachin Province, Myanmar [Burma] and adjacent Yunnan Province, China), C. a. couro (Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, and adjacent smaller Indonesian islands); and C. a. amboinensis (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines). Five pattern and 33 morphological characters were examined for variation in 691 individuals from throughout the species' range. Our analyses suggest that only two presently recognized subspecies are valid: amboinensis andkamaroma. Neither couro nor lineata are supported by our analysis. We recommend that C. a. couroshould be synonymized with the species C. amboinensis and C. a. lineata with the subspecies C. a. kamaroma.

  14. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  15. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  16. The Equine Antimicrobial Peptide eCATH1 Is Effective against the Facultative Intracellular Pathogen Rhodococcus equi in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlusselhuber, Margot; Torelli, Riccardo; Martini, Cecilia; Leippe, Matthias; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland; Laugier, Claire; Grötzinger, Joachim; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, the causal agent of rhodococcosis, is a major pathogen of foals and is also responsible for severe infections in immunocompromised humans. Of great concern, strains resistant to currently used antibiotics have emerged. As the number of drugs that are efficient in vivo is limited because of the intracellular localization of the bacterium inside macrophages, new active but cell-permeant drugs will be needed in the near future. In the present study, we evaluated, by in vitro and ex vivo experiments, the ability of the alpha-helical equine antimicrobial peptide eCATH1 to kill intracellular bacterial cells. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of the peptide was assessed in experimental rhodococcosis induced in mice, while the in vivo toxicity was evaluated by behavioral and histopathological analysis. The study revealed that eCATH1 significantly reduced the number of bacteria inside macrophages. Furthermore, the bactericidal potential of the peptide was maintained in vivo at doses that appeared to have no visible deleterious effects for the mice even after 7 days of treatment. Indeed, daily subcutaneous injections of 1 mg/kg body weight of eCATH1 led to a significant reduction of the bacterial load in organs comparable to that obtained after treatment with 10 mg/kg body weight of rifampin. Interestingly, the combination of the peptide with rifampin showed a synergistic interaction in both ex vivo and in vivo experiments. These results emphasize the therapeutic potential that eCATH1 represents in the treatment of rhodococcosis. PMID:23817377

  17. Equi-frequency contour of photonic crystals with the extended Dirichlet-to-Neumann wave vector eigenvalue equation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bin; Zhang Yejing; Wang Yufei; Liu Anjin; Zheng Wanhua

    2012-01-01

    We present the extended Dirichlet-to-Neumann wave vector eigenvalue equation (DtN-WVEE) method to calculate the equi-frequency contour (EFC) of square lattice photonic crystals (PhCs). With the extended DtN-WVEE method and Snell's law, the effective refractive index of the mode with a circular EFC can be obtained, which is further validated with the refractive index weighted by the electric field or magnetic field. To further verify the EFC calculated by the DtN-WVEE method, the finite-difference time-domain method is also used. Compared with other wave vector eigenvalue equation methods that calculate EFC directly, the size of the eigenmatrix used in the DtN-WVEE method is much smaller, and the computation time is significantly reduced. Since the DtN-WVEE method solves wave vectors for given arbitrary frequencies, it can also find applications in studying the optical properties of a PhC with dispersive, lossy and magnetic materials. (paper)

  18. The horse pinworm (Oxyuris equi) in archaeology during the Holocene: Review of past records and new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Benjamin; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Lepetz, Sébastien; Le Bailly, Matthieu

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the horse pinworm, Oxyuris equi, in archaeology during the Holocene period, and presents an overview of past published occurrences, early mentions in texts, and new data from our paleoparasitology research. This original compilation shows that the most ancient record of the horse pinworm dates to ca. 2500 years before present (ybp) in Central Asia and to ca. 2020 ybp in Western Europe. It also shows that the parasite is not detected on the American continent until contemporary periods. The role of European migrations from 1492 (Christopher Columbus) is discussed to explain the transfer of the horse pinworm from the Old World to the Americas. The absence of any record of this parasite before ca. 2500 ybp in Eurasia could be explained by parasite ecology, unfavorable sampling and scarcity of horse archeological remains. For the Americas, the absence of horse for long periods can be an additional explanation for the absence of the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors associated with colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with schooling and presence chronic diseases. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of serious community-acquired infections such as ... large number of individuals are still suffering from infections caused by these bacteria, especially ... samples of children with severe pneumonia (Nantanda et al., 2008).

  20. Streptococcus suis meningitis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; de Gans, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We present four patients with Streptococcus suis meningitis identified during a 3.5-year prospective surveillance study in the Netherlands. All cases were associated with exposure to pigs. Patients presented with classic symptoms and signs of bacterial meningitis. Outcome was characterized by severe

  1. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  2. Detection and quantification of Streptococcus pneumoniae from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantitative detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical respiratory specimens. Initially, 184 respiratory specimens from patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) (n = 129) and 55 cases with hospital associated ...

  3. Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia hirta against Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate method.

  4. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  5. NEW VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Peter Wilhelmus Maria; Bootsma, Jeanette Hester; Burghout, Pieter Jan; Kuipers, Oscar; Bijlsma, Johanna Jacoba Elisabeth; Kloosterman, Tomas Gerrit; Andersen, Christian O.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides proteins/genes, which are essential for survival, and consequently, for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo, and thus are ideal vaccine candidates for a vaccine preparation against pneumococcal infection. Further, also antibodies against said protein(s) are

  6. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  7. Building a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Peninsula Malaysia: what about the subspecies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92%) and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%). In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity.

  8. Building a DNA Barcode Reference Library for the True Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Peninsula Malaysia: What about the Subspecies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92%) and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%). In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity. PMID:24282514

  9. Building a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies (Lepidoptera of Peninsula Malaysia: what about the subspecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-James Wilson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92% and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%. In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity.

  10. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of atypical Streptococcus species from porcine clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Matajira, Carlos E C; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    The Streptococcus species present broad phenotypic variation, making identification difficult using only traditional microbiological methods. Even though Streptococcus suis is the most important species for the worldwide swine industry, other Streptococcus species appear to be able to cause disease in swine and could represent a higher underestimated risk for porcine health. The aim of this study was to identify Streptococcus-like isolates by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing and further molecular and antibiotic susceptibility characterization of the atypical Streptococcus species capable of causing disease in swine. Fifty presumptive Streptococcus isolates from diseased pigs isolated from different Brazilian States between 2002 and 2014 were evaluated. Among the studied isolates, 26% were identified as Streptococcus hyovaginalis, 24% as Streptococcus plurianimalium, 12% as Streptococcus alactolyticus, 10% as Streptococcus hyointestinalis, and the remaining isolates belonged to Streptococcus henryi (6%), Streptococcus thoraltensis (6%), Streptococcus gallolyticus (6%), Streptococcus gallinaceus (4%), Streptococcus sanguinis (4%), and Streptococcus mitis (2%). The Streptococcus isolates were successfully identified by spectral cluster analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing with 96% of concordance between the techniques. The SE-AFLP analysis also supported Streptococcus species distinction and enabled further observation of higher genetic heterogeneity intra-species. The identified Streptococcus species presented variable MIC values to β-lactams, enrofloxacin and florfenicol, and high resistance rates to tetracyclines and macrolides, which appear to be directly related to the industry's antimicrobial usage and resistance selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Threatened and endangered subspecies with vulnerable ecological traits also have high susceptibility to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Benscoter

    Full Text Available The presence of multiple interacting threats to biodiversity and the increasing rate of species extinction make it critical to prioritize management efforts on species and communities that maximize conservation success. We implemented a multi-step approach that coupled vulnerability assessments evaluating threats to Florida taxa such as climate change, sea-level rise, and habitat fragmentation with in-depth literature surveys of taxon-specific ecological traits. The vulnerability, adaptive capacity, and ecological traits of 12 threatened and endangered subspecies were compared to non-listed subspecies of the same parent species. Overall, the threatened and endangered subspecies showed high vulnerability and low adaptive capacity, in particular to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation. They also exhibited larger home ranges and greater dispersal limitation compared to non-endangered subspecies, which may inhibit their ability to track changing climate in fragmented landscapes. There was evidence for lower reproductive capacity in some of the threatened or endangered taxa, but not for most. Taxa located in the Florida Keys or in other low coastal areas were most vulnerable to sea level rise, and also showed low levels of adaptive capacity, indicating they may have a lower probability of conservation success. Our analysis of at-risk subspecies and closely related non-endangered subspecies demonstrates that ecological traits help to explain observed differences in vulnerability and adaptive capacity. This study points to the importance of assessing the relative contributions of multiple threats and evaluating conservation value at the species (or subspecies level when resources are limited and several factors affect conservation success.

  12. Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Look around you. The diversity and complexity of life on earth is overwhelming and data continues to grow. In our desire to understand and explain everything scientifically from molecular evolution to supernovas we depend on visual representations. This paper investigates visual representations...... of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer......-assisted representations can add to our scientific knowledge about this dangerous bacteria. Is there still a role for the scientific illustrator in the scientific process and synthesis of scientific knowledge?...

  13. Multiple ionization of noble gases by 2.0 MeV proton impact: comparison with equi-velocity electron impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, W.S.; Santos, A.C.F.; Sant'Anna, M.M.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Absolute single- and multiple-ionization cross sections of rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) have been measured for collisions with 2.0 MeV p + . A comparison is made with equi-velocity electron impact ionization cross sections as well as with the available proton impact data. For the light rare gases the single-ionization cross sections are essentially the same for both proton and electron impacts, but increasing differences appear for the heavier targets. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  14. Morphometric and molecular differentiation between quetzal subspecies of Pharomachrus mocinno (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Solórzano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno is an endemic Mesoamerican bird species of conservation concern. Within this species, the subspecies P. m. costaricensis and P. m. mocinno, have been recognized by apparent morphometric differences; however, presently there is no sufficient data for confirmation. We analyzed eight morphometric attributes of the body from 41 quetzals: body length, tarsus and cord wing, as well as the length, wide and depth of the bill, body weight; and in the case of the males, the length of the long upper-tail cover feathers. We used multivariate analyses to discriminate morphometric differences between subspecies and contrasted each morphometric attribute between and within subspecies with paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test. In order to review the intraspecific taxonomic status of this bird, we added phylogenetic analysis, and genetic divergence and differentiation based on nucleotide variations in four sequences of mtDNA. The nucleotide variation was estimated in control region, subunit NDH6, and tRNA Glu and tRNA Phe in 26 quetzals from eight localities distributed in five countries. We estimated the genetic divergence and differentiation between subspecies according to a mutation-drift equilibrium model. We obtained the best mutation nucleotide model following the procedure implemented in model test program. We constructed the phylogenetic relationships between subspecies by maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood using PAUP, as well as with Bayesian statistics. The multivariate analyses showed two different morphometric groups, and individuals clustered according to the subspecies that they belong. The paired comparisons between subspecies showed strong differences in most of the attributes analyzed. Along the four mtDNA sequences, we identified 32 nucleotide positions that have a particular nucleotide according to the quetzals subspecies. The genetic divergence and the differentiation was strong and markedly

  15. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Waldschmidt

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M. q. anthidioides. Only one among the M. q. quadrifasciata colonies did not present the marker. It was also absent in bees collected in northern Minas Gerais State (Brazil, despite their morphological resemblance to M. q. quadrifasciata. The marker can be used for studying the genetic structure of the hybridization zone formed by the intercrossing of the two subspecies.A espécie de abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata apresenta duas subespécies, Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lep. e Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lep. A diferença morfológica entre as duas subespécies é a presença de três a cinco bandas tergais amarelas do 3º ao 6º segmentos em operárias e machos de M. q. quadrifasciata e duas a cinco bandas interrompidas em M. q. anthidioides. Nós identificamos um marcador de DNA que está presente em M. q. quadrifasciata e ausente em M. q. anthidioides. Este marcador está ausente em abelhas coletadas no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, embora esses indivíduos apresentem morfologia similar à de M. q. quadrifasciata. Este marcador poderá ser utilizado em estudos da zona de hibridação entre as subespécies.

  16. Morpho- biochemical evaluation of Brassica rapa sub-species for salt tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sohail Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the key abiotic stresses that affect both the qualitative and quantitative characters of many Brassica rapa sub-species by disturbing its normal morphobiochemical processes. Therefore, the present research work was designed to study the effect of different NaCl events (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol on morphological and biochemical characters and to screen salt tolerant genotypes among brown, yellow and toria types of B. rapa sub-species. The plants were grown in test tubes with addition of four level of NaCl (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol. The effect of salinity on shoot and root length, shoot/ root fresh and dry weight, relative water content (RWC, proline and chlorophyll a, b, a+b contents was recorded after 4 weeks of sowing. The genotype 22861 (brown type showed excellent morphological and biochemical performance at all stress levels followed by Toria-Sathi and Toria-A respectively as compared to Check variety TS-1. The genotype 26158 (yellow type gave very poor performance and retard growth. The %RWC values and chlorophyll a, b and a+b contents were decreased several folds with the increase of salt concentration. While, the proline contents was increased with raising of salt stress. The brown and toria types showed maximum tolerance to salt stress at early germination stages as compare to yellows one. The present study will serve as model to develop quick salt tolerant genotypes among different plant sub-species against salt stress.

  17. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.

  18. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for differentiation between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prehn, Joffrey; van Veen, Suzanne Q; Schelfaut, Jacqueline J G; Wessels, Els

    2016-05-01

    We compared the Vitek MS and Microflex MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform for species differentiation within the Streptococcus mitis group with PCR assays targeted at lytA, Spn9802, and recA as reference standard. The Vitek MS correctly identified 10/11 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 13/13 Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and 12/13 S. mitis/oralis. The Microflex correctly identified 9/11 S. pneumoniae, 0/13 S. pseudopneumoniae, and 13/13 S. mitis/oralis. MALDI-TOF is a powerful tool for species determination within the mitis group. Diagnostic accuracy varies depending on platform and database used. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sub-specialization in plastic surgery in Sub-saharan Africa: capacities, gaps and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed

    2014-01-01

    The skill set of a plastic surgeon, which addresses a broad range of soft tissue conditions that are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, remains relevant in the unmet need for surgical care. Recently, there has being a major paradigm shift from discipline-based to disease-based care, resulting in an emerging component of patient-centered care; adequate access to subspecialty care in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Given the need for an evolution in sub-specialization, this article focuses on the benefits and future role of differentiation of plastic surgeons into sub-specialty training pathways in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25584125

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida strains isolated from swine to 42 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Martin, C B; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1993-08-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 42 antimicrobial agents were determined against 59 strains of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida, all isolated from swine lungs with lesions indicative of pneumonia. Penicillins (except cloxacillin), aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, erythromycin, josamycin, thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin and mupirocin showed good activities, with ranging resistance between 0 and 6.8%. Higher resistance was observed for spiramycin and fosfomycin. Tylosin, vancomycin, metronidazole, dapsone and tiamulin, to which strains showed high rates of resistance, were ineffective. Cephalosporins (especially the third-generation cephalosporins) and quinolones (especially the fluorinated quinolones) were the most effective antimicrobial agents against P. multocida subsp. multocida strains and they might be of value for in vivo use.

  1. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: Comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C.; Santos, Anderson R.

    2012-01-01

    . The potential candidate factors identified for attenuation and/or subunit vaccine development against C. fetus subspecies contain: nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), type IV secretion systems (T4SS), outer membrane proteins (OMP), substrate binding proteins CjaA and CjaC, surface array proteins, sap gene......, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Significantly, many of those genes were found in genomic regions with signals of horizontal gene transfer and, therefore, predicted as putative pathogenicity islands. We found CRISPR loci and dam genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus, and T4SS and sap genes...

  2. Systemic infection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis and fungus in a pet dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Chul; Kim, JaeMyung; Kang, WoonKi; Jang, Yunho; Kim, Yongbaek

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old neutered female poodle with a long history of dermatophytic skin disease was presented with lethargy, anorexia and progressive weight loss. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed markedly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes and multiple hypoechoic foci in the spleen. Cytology of the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen showed granulomatous inflammation with fungal organisms and negatively stained intracytoplasmic bacterial rods consistent with Mycobacteria spp. Based on culture, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, the bacterium was identified as Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis. Despite treatment with antibiotics, the dog's condition deteriorated, and it died approximately 3 weeks after first presentation.

  3. Facts, myths and hypotheses on the zoonotic nature of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Raja; Bülte, Michael; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W; Köhler, Heike; Meens, Jochen; Möbius, Petra; Roeb, Elke; Weiss, Siegfried

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease [JD]), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. JD is one of the most widespread bacterial diseases of domestic animals with significant economic impact. The histopathological picture of JD resembles that of Crohn's disease (CD), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease of still unresolved aetiology. An aetiological relevance of MAP for CD has been proposed. This and the ambiguity of other published epidemiological findings raise the question whether MAP represents a zoonotic agent. In this review, we will discuss evidence that MAP has zoonotic capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clayton M.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, George K.; Anderson, Clifford; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully colonize and persist in diverse environments likely requires broad morphological and behavioral plasticity and adaptability, and this may partly explain why the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) exhibits a large range of morphological characteristics across their global distribution. Regional and local differences within Peregrine Falcons were sufficiently variable that ∼75 subspecies have been described; many were subsumed, and currently 19 are generally recognized. We used sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial genome to test for concordance between genetic structure and representatives of 12 current subspecies and from two areas where subspecies distributions overlap. Haplotypes were broadly shared among subspecies, and all geographic locales shared a widely distributed common haplotype (FalconCR2). Haplotypes were distributed in a star-like phylogeny, consistent with rapid expansion of a recently derived species, with observed genetic patterns congruent with incomplete lineage sorting and/or differential rates of evolution on morphology and neutral genetic characters. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance did not uncover genetic partitioning at the continental level, despite strong population-level structure (FST = 0.228). Similar analyses found weak partitioning, albeit significant, among subspecies (FCT = 0.138). All reconstructions placed the hierofalcons' (Gyrfalcon [F. rusticolus] and Saker Falcon [F. cherrug]) haplotypes in a well-supported clade either basal or unresolved with respect to the Peregrine Falcon. In addition, haplotypes representing Taita Falcon (F. fasciinucha) were placed within the Peregrine Falcon clade.

  5. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) exhibits the most northerly nonbreeding distribution of any shorebird in the North Pacific, being common during winter in cold, dark locations as far north as upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N). By contrast, the tschuktschorum subspecies migrates to sites ranging from about 59°N to more benign locations as far south as ~37°N. These distributional extremes exert contrasting energetic demands, and we measured common metabolic parameters in the two subspecies held under identical laboratory conditions to determine whether differences in these parameters are reflected by their nonbreeding life histories. Basal metabolic rate and thermal conductance did not differ between subspecies, and the subspecies had a similar metabolic response to temperatures below their thermoneutral zone. Relatively low thermal conductance values may, however, reflect intrinsic metabolic adaptations to northerly latitudes. In the absence of differences in basic metabolic parameters, the two subspecies’ nonbreeding distributions will likely be more strongly influenced by adaptations to regional variation in ecological factors such as prey density, prey quality, and foraging habitat.

  6. [Streptococcus suis infection--clinical manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojlović, Julijana; Milosević, Branko; Sasić, Neda; Pelemis, Mijomir; Sasić, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awarrness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairment, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatement with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one

  7. Immunoreactivity of protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) in sera from sheep infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Bach, Horacio; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-07-15

    Evasion of host defense mechanisms and survival inside infected host macrophages are features of pathogenic mycobacteria including Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) has been identified as a secreted protein critical for survival of mycobacteria within infected macrophages. The host may mount an immune response to such secreted proteins. In this study, the humoral immune response to purified recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA was investigated using sera from a cohort of sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and compared with uninfected healthy controls. A significantly higher level of reactivity to PtpA was observed in sera collected from M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected sheep when compared to those from uninfected healthy controls. PtpA could be a potential candidate antigen for detection of humoral immune responses in sheep infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Morphological differentiations of the gills of two Gymnocypris przewa-lskii subspecies in different habitats and their functional adaptations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-Yi; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhang, Cun-Fang; Tang, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Kai

    2013-08-01

    Gill morphologies of two subspecies of Gymnocypris przewalskii (Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii and Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihonensis) in different habitats were analyzed under scanning electron microscope. Results indicated that G. p. przewalskii had numerous long and dense-lined gill rakers while G. p. ganzihonensis had few short and scatter-lined gill rakers. There were no significant differences in distance between gill filaments (DBF) and distance gill lamella (DBL) between the two subspecies, but gill filaments of G. p. przewalskii were longer than in G. p. ganzihonensis. The electron microscopic study indicated that the pavement epithelium cells of G. p. przewalskii were well defined as irregular ovals, but were hexagonal in G. p. ganzihonensis. Moreover, G. p. przewalskii had more chloride cells than G. p. ganzihonensis, and mucous cells were only found on the surface of gill filaments of G. p. przewalskii. The morphological differences between the two subspecies of G. przewalskii are adaptations to their corresponding diets and habitats.

  9. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Marafiga Degrandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the "river buffaloes" with 2n = 50 and the "swamp buffaloes", 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24 in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23. The F1 crossbreed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.

  10. Differentiation of Cannabis subspecies by THCA synthase gene analysis using RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirovic, Natasa; Kecmanovic, Miljana; Keckarevic, Dusan; Keckarevic Markovic, Milica

    2017-10-01

    Cannabis sativa subspecies, known as industrial hemp (C. sativa sativa) and marijuana (C. sativa indica) show no evident morphological distinctions, but they contain different levels of psychoactive Δ-9-tetrahidrocanabinol (THC), with considerably higher concentration in marijuana than in hemp. C. sativa subspecies differ in sequence of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, responsible for THC production, and only one active copy of the gene, distinctive for marijuana, is capable of producing THC in concentration more then 0,3% in dried plants, usually punishable by the law. Twenty different samples of marijuana that contain THC in concentration more then 0,3% and three varieties of industrial hemp were analyzed for presence of an active copy of THCA synthase gene using in-house developed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method All twenty samples of marijuana were positive for the active copy of THCA synthase gene, 16 of them heterozygous. All three varieties of industrial hemp were homozygous for inactive copy. An algorithm for the fast and accurate forensic analysis of samples suspected to be marijuana was constructed, answering the question if an analyzed sample is capable of producing THC in concentrations higher than 0.3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of slaughtered rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2015-06-11

    Rabbits are susceptible to infection by different species of the genus Mycobacterium. Particularly, development of specific lesions and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, both subspecies of the M. avium complex, has been reported in wildlife conditions. Although, rabbit meat production worldwide is 200 million tons per year, microbiological data on this source of meat is lacking and more specifically reports of mycobacterial presence in industrially reared rabbit for human consumption have not been published. To this end, we sought mycobacteria by microbiological and histopathological methods paying special attention to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits from commercial rabbitries from the North East of Spain. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was not detected either by culture or PCR. However, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was detected in 15.15% (10/66) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 1.51% (1/66) of gut associated lymphoid tissue of sampled animals by PCR, whereas caecal contents were negative. 9% (6/66) of the animals presented gross lesions suggestive of lymphoid activation, 6% (4/66) presented granulomatous lesions and 3% (2/66) contained acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterial isolation from samples was not achieved, although colonies of Thermoactinomycetes sp. were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing in 6% (4/66) of sampled animals. Apparently healthy farmed rabbits that go to slaughter may carry M. avium subspecies in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

  12. Chemical Diversity in Volatiles of Helichrysum plicatum DC. Subspecies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintuğ Öztürk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work three subspecies of Helichrysum plicatum DC. (Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum, Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. polyphillum (Ledeb P.H.Davis & Kupicha and Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. isauricum Parolly were investigated for the essential oil chemical compositions. The volatiles were obtained by conventional hydrodistillation of aerial parts and microdistillation of inflorescences. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS revealed chemical diversity in compositions of the volatiles analyzed. A total of 199 compounds were identified representing 73.9-98.3% of the volatiles compositions. High abundance of fatty acids and their esters (24.9-70.8% was detected in the herb volatiles of H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum and H. plicatum subsp. isauricum. The inflorescences of Helichrysum subspecies were found to be rich in monoterpenes (15.0-93.1%, fatty acids (0.1-36.3% and sesquiterpenes (1.1-25.5%. The inflorescence volatiles of H. plicatum subsp. isauricum were distinguished by predomination of monoterpene hydrocarbons (93.1% with fenchene (88.3% as the major constituent

  13. Spatial Variation and Survival of Salmonella enterica Subspecies in a Population of Australian Sleepy Lizards (Tiliqua rugosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sandra K; Bull, C Michael; Gordon, David M

    2015-09-01

    The life cycles of many enteric bacterial species require a transition between two very distinct environments. Their primary habitat is the gastrointestinal tract of the host, while their secondary habitat, during transmission from one host to another, consists of environments external to the host, such as soil, water, and sediments. Consequently, both host and environmental factors shape the genetic structure of enteric bacterial populations. This study examined the distribution of four Salmonella enterica subspecies in a population of sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, in a semiarid region of South Australia. The lizards living within the 1,920-m by 720-m study site were radio tracked, and their enteric bacteria were sampled at regular intervals throughout their active seasons in the years 2001, 2002, and 2006. Four of the six subspecies of S. enterica were present in this population and were nonrandomly distributed among the lizards. In particular, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae was restricted to lizards living in the most shaded parts of the study site with an overstorey of Casuarina trees. Experiments undertaken to investigate the survival of S. enterica cells under seminatural conditions revealed that cell survival decreased with increased exposure to elevated temperatures and UV light. Among the three S. enterica subspecies tested, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae consistently had an average expected life span that was shorter than that observed for the other two subspecies. There was no indication in the data that there was any competitive dominance hierarchy among the S. enterica subspecies within individual hosts. Thus, the nonrandom distribution of S. enterica subspecies in this population of lizards appears to be driven by their different survival characteristics in the external environment. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerds, Christina; Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert; Niemann, Hartmut H.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology

  15. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerds, Christina [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert [University of Bonn, Ulrich-Haberland Strasse 61a, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Niemann, Hartmut H., E-mail: hartmut.niemann@uni-bielefeld.de [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-06-18

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology.

  16. Control of Glycolysis by Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Streptococcus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POOLMAN, B; BOSMAN, B; KONINGS, WN

    1987-01-01

    The decreased response of the energy metabolism of lactose-starved Streptococcus cremoris upon readdition of lactose is caused by a decrease of the glycolytic activity. The decrease in glycolysis is accompanied by a decrease in the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and

  17. Antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase on planktonic Streptococcus mutans cells and Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Crielaard, W.; ten Cate, J.M.; Wever, R.; Hartog, A.F.; Renirie, R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase (VCPO) reaction products on planktonic and biofilm cellsof Streptococcus mutans C180-2. Planktonic and biofilm cells were incubated in a buffered reaction mixture containing VCPO, halide (either chloride

  18. Influence of pH on inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chu, Lei; Wu, Fei; Guo, Lili; Li, Mengci; Wang, Yinghui; Wu, Ligeng

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is a novel strain of oral streptococcus that can specifically inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The aims of this study were to assess the growth of S. oligofermentans and the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans at different pH values. Growth inhibition was investigated in vitro using an interspecies competition assay. The 4-aminoantipyine method was used to measure the initial production rate and the total yield of hydrogen peroxide in S. oligofermentans. S. oligofermentans grew best at pH 7.0 and showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect when it was inoculated earlier than S. mutans. In terms of the total yield and the initial production rate of hydrogen peroxide by S. oligofermentans, the effects of the different culture pH values were as follows: pH 7.0 > 6.5 > 6.0 > 7.5 > 5.5 = 8.0 (i.e. there was no significant difference between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0). Environmental pH and the sequence of inoculation significantly affected the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit the growth of S. mutans. The degree of inhibition may be attributed to the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  20. Efficacy of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolated from cultured Clarias gariepinus, an important food fish raised in a concrete tank was carried out to ascertain their remedies on mortalities of the Clarias gariepinus adult fish. Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis were ...

  1. Streptococcus suis meningitis can require a prolonged treatment course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dejace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of recrudescent Streptococcus suis meningitis requiring a prolonged treatment course. A few similar cases can be found in the burgeoning literature on what remains a relatively uncommon disease in humans, and these patients should be monitored carefully upon completion of therapy. Keywords: Meningitis, Relapse, Duration, Streptococcus suis

  2. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  3. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  5. Pacific and Atlantic Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1838) are allopatric subspecies: Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis and L. salmonis oncorhynchi subspecies novo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Torrissen, Ole; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-03-14

    The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a parasitic copepod that infects salmonids in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although considered as a single species, morphological and biological differences have been reported between lice from the two oceans. Likewise, studies based on nucleotide sequencing have demonstrated that sequence differences between Atlantic and Pacific L. salmonis are highly significant, albeit smaller than the divergence observed between congeneric copepod species. We demonstrated reproductive compatibility between L. salmonis from the two oceans and successfully established F2 hybrid strains using separate maternal lines from both the Pacific and Atlantic. The infection success for the F2 hybrid strains were similar to results typically observed for non hybrid lice strains in the rearing facility used. Lepeophtheirus salmonis COI and 16S sequences divergence between individuals from the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans was high compared to what may be expected within a copepod species and phylogenetic analysis showed that they consistently formed monophyletic clades representing their origin from the Pacific or Atlantic oceans. Lepeophtheirus salmonis from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans are reproductively compatible at least until adults at the F2 hybrid stage, and should not be regarded as separate species based on reproductive segregation or sequence divergence levels. Reported biological and genetic differences in L. salmonis seen in conjunction with the reported genetic diversity commonly observed between and within species demonstrate that Atlantic and Pacific L. salmonis should be regarded as two subspecies: Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis and L. salmonis oncorhynchi subsp. nov.

  6. In silico assessment of virulence factors in strains of Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis isolated from patients with Infective Endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise H.; Iversen, Katrine Højholt; Dargis, Rimtas

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis belong to the Mitis group, which are mostly commensals in the human oral cavity. Even though S. oralis and S. mitis are oral commensals, they can be opportunistic pathogens causing infective endocarditis. A recent taxonomic re-evaluation of the Mitis...

  7. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

  8. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  9. Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. II. Fitness variation across a subspecies border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Monica A; Eckhart, Vincent M

    2005-03-01

    Because the range boundary is the locale beyond which a taxon fails to persist, it provides a unique opportunity for studying the limits on adaptive evolution. Adaptive constraints on range expansion are perplexing in view of widespread ecotypic differentiation by habitat and region within a species' range (regional adaptation) and rapid evolutionary response to novel environments. In this study of two parapatric subspecies, Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana and C. x. ssp. parviflora, we compared the fitness of population transplants within their native region, in a non-native region within the native range, and in the non-native range to assess whether range expansion might be limited by a greater intensity of selection on colonists of a new range versus a new region within the range. The combined range of the two subspecies spans a west-to-east gradient of declining precipitation in the Sierra Nevada of California, with ssp. xantiana in the west being replaced by ssp. parviflora in the east. Both subspecies had significantly higher fitness in the native range (range adaptation), whereas regional adaptation was weak and was found only in the predominantly outcrossing ssp. xantiana but was absent in the inbreeding ssp. parvifilora. Because selection intensity on transplants was much stronger in the non-native range relative to non-native regions, there is a larger adaptive barrier to range versus regional expansion. Three of five sequential fitness components accounted for regional and range adaptation, but only one of them, survivorship from germination to flowering, contributed to both. Flower number contributed to regional adaptation in ssp. xantiana and fruit set (number of fruits per flower) to range adaptation. Differential survivorship of the two taxa or regional populations of ssp. xantiana in non-native environments was attributable, in part, to biotic interactions, including competition, herbivory, and pollination. For example, low fruit set in ssp. xantiana

  10. Perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e presença do gene vapA em Rhodococcus equi de origem humana, ambiental e equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Kolling Girardini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi é um micro-organismo intracelular facultativo, agente etiológico da rodococose, uma importante enfermidade que acomete principalmente potros com menos de seis meses de idade, causando a morte geralmente em decorrência de lesões pulmonares. Este agente também tem potencial zoonótico e emergiu como um patógeno oportunista no mundo, acometendo humanos imunocomprometidos, especialmente os transplantados e infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV. Entretanto, infecções por R. equi em hospedeiros hígidos tem sido relatadas, principalmente em crianças e idosos. Estudos tem mostrado um nível crescente na resistência de isolados de R. equi em relação aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados no tratamento de animais e seres humanos infectados por este agente. A virulência deste pode estar associada a fatores como a cápsula de polissacarídeo, fosfolipase C e à enzima colesterol oxidase (fator equi. No entanto, uma proteína localizada em um plasmídeo, designada vapA, é essencial para a sobrevivência e replicação do agente em macrófagos. Com isso, os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade de isolados de R. equi de diferentes fontes em relação aos antimicrobianos mais comumente utilizados na terapêutica animal e humana, bem como verificar a associação entre a presença do gene vapA e o índice de resistência múltipla aos antimicrobianos (IRMA. Neste estudo, 67 isolados brasileiros de R. qui de diferentes fontes foram analisados: 30 provenientes de amostras clínicas de equinos, sete de humanos e 30 ambientais (seis do solo e 24 de fezes de equinos. Para avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade dos isolados utilizou-se o método de disco difusão, sendo testadas 16 drogas de diferentes classes de antimicrobianos. As amostras clínicas de equinos apresentaram as maiores taxas de resistência à penicilina (86,7% e lincomicina (30%. Além disso, foram também resistentes a

  11. Investigating the association between African spontaneously fermented dairy products, faecal carriage of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and colorectal adenocarcinoma in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindi, Dasel W M; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lule, Godfrey N; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Renault, Pierre; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Jans, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Consumption of traditional fermented dairy products (tFDP) in Africa leads to the ingestion of up to 10 8 Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius (Sii) per millilitre of spontaneously fermented milk. Sii is a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) for which some members are associated particularly with colorectal cancer or endocarditis. The extent of health risks to tFDP consumers is largely unknown. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi (Kenya) on 80 cases and 193 controls that were selected exhaustively from patients attending colonoscopy at the hospital. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and residency were used in the statistical analysis. Consumption of tFDP was not associated with CRC (odds ratio (OR) 1.4; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.7; p=0.34). Risk factors associated with CRC included age above 40 years, and consumption of processed meat and alcohol. Faecal carriage of Sii was significantly higher in persons with colon tumours and polyps compared to controls (8.4% vs 21.6%: OR: 4.6; CI 1.3-15.9). Patients with haemorrhoids represented an unexpected carrier group with significantly higher Sii faecal carriage (30.4%, CI: 17.7-45.8). Consumption of tFDP does not represent risk factors for CRC whereas Sii seems to be associated with CRC. However, there is urgent need to assess this finding also in the general population, investigate the causality of SBSEC, Sii and CRC as well as compare the phylogenetic, functional and genomic relationship between human and dairy Sii with regards to the ongoing application of Sii in FDP production. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Reactive T-cells from Intestinal Biopsies of Crohn's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the intestine. The etiology is still unknown. One hypothesis is that CD is caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in genetically predisposed individuals. MAP causes a similar disease in ruminants,...

  13. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruthrauff, Dan; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper

  14. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Sardans, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Hódar, J. A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain; Garcia-Porta, J. [Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Spain; Guenther, A. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Oravec, M. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Urban, O. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Peñuelas, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Leiss, K.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  15. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  16. Use of intron-exonic marker in assessment of genetic diversity of two subspecies of Thymus daenensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismaili

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study of genetic diversity in medicinal plant is very important for improvement and evolutionary variations. In this study, assessment of genetic diversity in two subspecies of Thymus daenensis was evaluated, using intron-exonic markers. Thirty primers produced 633 polymorphic bands (98% polymorphism. The highest polymorphic information content (PIC included ISJ5 and ISJ9 primers and the lowest PIC also included IT15-32 primer. The highest marker index (MI produced by IT10-6 primer. Results of Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA showed that intra-sub specific variation was more than inter-sub specific variation. Dendrogram obtained from Cluster analysis, using NTSYS-pc software and UPGMA method based on Dice's similarity matrix, divided accessions into 4 groups. The maximum range of genetic similarity was observed between two accessions of sub-species daenensis. Two accessions of Fars and Semnan formed a separate group. Results showed that clustering based on molecular data and principal coordinate analysis had a medium alignment. Grouping based on cluster analysis also could separate two subspecies of Thymus daenensis. Results obtained from this study showed that intron-exonic markers had an effective potential in assessment of genetic relationships between the two sub-species of daenensis.

  17. CD4 T Cells From Intestinal Biopsies of Crohn's Disease Patients React to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn’s disease (CD) remains controversial. One issue that has been raised is the lack of data showing a cellular immune response to MAP. Earlier studies have mostly focused on responses in peripheral blood which have several limit...

  18. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  19. Characterization of the inflammatory phenotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using a novel cell culture passage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses to Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is complicated by the multifaceted disease progression, late-onset host reaction, and the lack of ex vivo infection models ...

  20. Two new species and one new subspecies of the South American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper contains descriptions and figures of two new species of Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, C. weitzmani from Peru, and C. blochi from Guyana, Brazil, and Venezuela. The latter species is represented by two subspecies, C. blochi blochi from the Amazonas, Branco, Orinoco, and Essequibo drainages,

  1. Streptococcus mutans SpaP binds to RadD of Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; Shokeen, Bhumika; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2017-10-01

    Adhesin-mediated bacterial interspecies interactions are important elements in oral biofilm formation. They often occur on a species-specific level, which could determine health or disease association of a biofilm community. Among the key players involved in these processes are the ubiquitous fusobacteria that have been recognized for their ability to interact with numerous different binding partners. Fusobacterial interactions with Streptococcus mutans, an important oral cariogenic pathogen, have previously been described but most studies focused on binding to non-mutans streptococci and specific cognate adhesin pairs remain to be identified. Here, we demonstrated differential binding of oral fusobacteria to S. mutans. Screening of existing mutant derivatives indicated SpaP as the major S. mutans adhesin specific for binding to Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum but none of the other oral fusobacteria tested. We inactivated RadD, a known adhesin of F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum for interaction with a number of gram-positive species, in F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum and used a Lactococcus lactis heterologous SpaP expression system to demonstrate SpaP interaction with RadD of F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. This is a novel function for SpaP, which has mainly been characterized as an adhesin for binding to host proteins including salivary glycoproteins. In conclusion, we describe an additional role for SpaP as adhesin in interspecies adherence with RadD-SpaP as the interacting adhesin pair for binding between S. mutans and F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. Furthermore, S. mutans attachment to oral fusobacteria appears to involve species- and subspecies-dependent adhesin interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Flight activity and responses to climatic conditions of two subspecies of Melipona marginata Lepeletier (Apidae, Meliponinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert-Giovannini, A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    1986-01-01

    The flight activity of two colonies of M. m. marginata and six colonies of M. m. obscurior was studied in Sao Paulo, Brazil during three periods in 1981-1983. All colonies were hived except for one colony of M. m. obscurior which nested in a hollow tree. The two subspecies showed the same responses to the climatic factors analyzed. Flight activity was correlated positively with temperature and negatively with RH. In favorable conditions foraging took place throughout the day but both species were most active between 11 and 13 h. In the last observation period (October 1982-January 1983), when only two obscurior colonies were studied, flight activity was not correlated to RH, occurring even when RH was unfavorably high. This was a very rainy season, and it is suggested that the behavior of the bees indicates a flexible response to prevailing weather conditions.

  3. [Histo-anatomical researches of two subspecies of Lavandula angustifolia Mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Silvia; Galeş, Ramona; Toma, C; Stănescu, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the inflorescences of two subspecies of Lavandula angustifolia sL. angustifolia ssp. angustifolia and. L. angustifolia ssp. pyrenaica (D.C.) Guineaţ was studied to determine the range of variation in certain histo-anatomical characters. The flower and leaf structure has been analysed on cross and superficial section using the usual techniques and methods applied in plant histo-anatomical research. In cross-section, inflorescence axis has a squared-shape contour, with four proeminent ribs. On the epiderme of inflorescence axis there are present stomata, trichoms and secretory hairs. The trichoms are pluricelullar and T-branched. The secretory hairs have a short pedicel and a uni-or bicellular head. The study revealed that there are only quantitative differences, referring to the degree of sclerification and lignification of mechanical elements and the size of the vascular bundles.

  4. The correct name for a subspecies of Oenothera fruticosa L. (Onagraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1978 when Straley adopted the name Oenothera fruticosa L. subsp. glauca (Michx. Straley for one of the two recognized subspecies of O. fruticosa it was the correct name for this taxon; however, since that time the botanical code has changed so that now an autonym is treated aspriority over the name or names of the same date and rank that established it. This change means that since 1981 O. fruticosa subsp. glauca was no longer the correct name. The appropriate combination for it is made here as O. fruticosa L. subsp. tetragona (Roth W.L. Wagner. Original material for the basionym, O. tetragona, is no longer extant so a neotype is designated.

  5. The correct name for a subspecies of Oenothera fruticosa L. (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Warren L

    2014-01-01

    In 1978 when Straley adopted the name Oenothera fruticosa L. subsp. glauca (Michx.) Straley for one of the two recognized subspecies of O. fruticosa it was the correct name for this taxon; however, since that time the botanical code has changed so that now an autonym is treated as having priority over the name or names of the same date and rank that established it. This change means that since 1981 O. fruticosa subsp. glauca was no longer the correct name. The appropriate combination for it is made here as O. fruticosa L. subsp. tetragona (Roth) W.L. Wagner. Original material for the basionym, O. tetragona, is no longer extant so a neotype is designated.

  6. Group B Streptococcus and the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Geoffrey H; Randis, Tara M; Desai, Purnahamsi V; Sapra, Katherine J; Ma, Bing; Gajer, Pawel; Humphrys, Michael S; Ravel, Jacques; Gelber, Shari E; Ratner, Adam J

    2017-09-15

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is an important neonatal pathogen and emerging cause of disease in adults. The major risk factor for neonatal disease is maternal vaginal colonization. However, little is known about the relationship between GBS and vaginal microbiota. Vaginal lavage samples from nonpregnant women were tested for GBS, and amplicon-based sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V3-V4 region was performed. Four hundred twenty-eight of 432 samples met the high-quality read threshold. There was no relationship between GBS carriage and demographic characteristics, α-diversity, or overall vaginal microbiota community state type (CST). Within the non-Lactobacillus-dominant CST IV, GBS positive status was significantly more prevalent in CST IV-A than CST IV-B. Significant clustering by GBS status was noted on principal coordinates analysis, and 18 individual taxa were found to be significantly associated with GBS carriage by linear discriminant analysis. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, 4 taxa were positively associated with GBS, and 6 were negatively associated. Vaginal microbiota CST and α-diversity are not related to GBS status. However, specific microbial taxa are associated with colonization of this important human pathogen, highlighting a potential role for the microbiota in promotion or inhibition of GBS colonization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Life history attributes of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) and comparisons with other North American subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus—commonly referred to as the Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow—occurs in the desert and plains grasslands of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Although a subspecies of conservation concern, this is the first intensive study of its life history and breeding ecology, providing baseline data and facilitating comparisons with other North American Grasshopper Sparrow subspecies. Specifically, I found A. s. ammolegus males generally weighed less than other subspecies (16.0 ± 0.8 g) but with intermediate exposed culmen length (11.6 ± 0.5 mm) and wing chord length similar to the other two migratory subspecies (62.7 ± 1.5 mm). Territory size for A. s. ammolegus was 0.72 ± 0.37 ha, with some variation between sites and among years, possibly indicating variation in habitat quality across spatial and temporal scales. The return rate for A. s. ammolegus males was 39.2%. Nest initiation for A. s. ammolegus was early to mid-July after the monsoons had begun. Domed nests were constructed on the ground, primarily under native bunch grasses, and frequently with a tunnel extending beyond the nest rim, with nest openings oriented north. Clutch size was 3.97 ± 0.68, with no evidence of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) nest parasitism. Extreme climate factors in the arid Southwest may have affected the life history and morphology of A. s. ammolegus as compared to other subspecies, influencing body size and mass, culmen length, breeding phenology, and nest orientation. Other geographic variation occurred in return rates, clutch size, and nest parasitism rates. The baseline data for A. s. ammolegus obtained in this study will inform future taxonomic and ecological studies as well as conservation planning. Comparisons of A. s. ammolegus morphometrics with those of other subspecies will assist field biologists in distinguishing among subspecies where they overlap, especially on wintering grounds.

  8. Spatial distribution, risk factors and haemato-biochemical alterations associated with Theileria equi infected equids of Punjab (India) diagnosed by indirect ELISA and nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbria, Deepak; Singla, L D; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Amrita; Dahiya, Rajesh K; Setia, Raj

    2016-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a febrile, tick-borne disease of equids predominately caused by obligatory intra-erythrocytic protozoa Theileria equi in the Indian sub-continent. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 464 equids (426 horses and 38 donkeys/mules) in Punjab, India to assess the level of exposure to equine piroplasmosis by 18S rRNA gene nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and equine merozoite antigen-2 (EMA2) indirect-ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), to investigate risk factors and haemato-biochemical alterations associated with the infection. The endemicity of the disease was confirmed by positive PCR amplification in 21.77% and positive antibody titers in 49.78% equid samples. There was a fair agreement between these two diagnostic techniques (Kappa coefficient=0.326). The spatial distribution analysis revealed an increasing trend of T. equi prevalence from north-eastern to south-western region of Punjab by both the techniques correspondingly, which proffered a direct relation with temperature and inverse with humidity variables. The relatively prominent risk factor associated with sero-positivity was the presence of other domestic animals in the herd, while the propensity of finding a positive PCR amplification was higher in donkeys/mules, animal kept at unorganised farm or those used for commercial purposes as compared to their counterparts. There was a significant increase in globulins, gamma glutamyl-transferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, glucose levels and decrease in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume by animals, which were revealed positive by nPCR (may or may not positive by indirect-ELISA) and increase in creatinine, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, glucose and decrease in total erythrocytes count by animals, which were revealed positive by indirect-ELISA (alone). To our knowledge, this study, for the first time, brings out a comprehensive report on the status on spatial

  9. Seasonal and geographic variation of southern blue whale subspecies in the Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Samaran

    Full Text Available Understanding the seasonal movements and distribution patterns of migratory species over ocean basin scales is vital for appropriate conservation and management measures. However, assessing populations over remote regions is challenging, particularly if they are rare. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus spp are an endangered species found in the Southern and Indian Oceans. Here two recognized subspecies of blue whales and, based on passive acoustic monitoring, four "acoustic populations" occur. Three of these are pygmy blue whale (B.m. brevicauda populations while the fourth is the Antarctic blue whale (B.m. intermedia. Past whaling catches have dramatically reduced their numbers but recent acoustic recordings show that these oceans are still important habitat for blue whales. Presently little is known about the seasonal movements and degree of overlap of these four populations, particularly in the central Indian Ocean. We examined the geographic and seasonal occurrence of different blue whale acoustic populations using one year of passive acoustic recording from three sites located at different latitudes in the Indian Ocean. The vocalizations of the different blue whale subspecies and acoustic populations were recorded seasonally in different regions. For some call types and locations, there was spatial and temporal overlap, particularly between Antarctic and different pygmy blue whale acoustic populations. Except on the southernmost hydrophone, all three pygmy blue whale acoustic populations were found at different sites or during different seasons, which further suggests that these populations are generally geographically distinct. This unusual blue whale diversity in sub-Antarctic and sub-tropical waters indicates the importance of the area for blue whales in these former whaling grounds.

  10. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  11. Subspecies of Hypolepis rugosula (Dennstaedtiaceae; Pteridophyta around the world: morphological and biogeographic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bond Schwartsburd

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The "Hypolepis rugosula complex" has been the subject of great debate among pteridologists: some have considered H. rugosula a single subcosmopolitan (or circum-Antarctic species, whereas others have considered it a species-complex, encompassing several species. In the 1920s and 1930s, four geographically distinct varietiesof H. rugosula were recognized. In this work, we present a new taxonomy (with new combinations and statuses, as well as typification and full synonymy, together with complete distribution data for the species, with an infraspecific classification based on morphological and biogeographic perspectives. Hypolepis rugosula occurs in southern temperate regions and high-elevation tropical regions of the Americas, Africa (including Madagascar, Oceania and the Philippines, as well as in some isolated oceanic volcanic islands (e.g., Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha. Here, 15 geographically distinct subspecies are recognized. All subspecies are geographically segregated from each other, except in New Zealand, where two occur sympatrically-possibly due to two different arrival and colonization times. Four patterns of "indument" (referring to catenate and glandular hairs collectively are distinguished. Different lineages are successful in their respective habitats; we observed two lineages with different ploidy levels (tetraploid and octoploid. Although long-distance dispersal is the best explanation for the extant distribution of H. rugosula;we do not exclude vicariance as a possible explanation for their occurrence on the land masses that were once united as Gondwana. Therefore, we are assuming that a fern species could remain unchanged for more than 70 Myr, and we are adopting the refugia theory, albeit with a different focus.

  12. The effect of surgical subspecialization on outcomes in peptic ulcer disease complicated by perforation and bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Andrew J; Richards, Jennifer M J; Ohly, Nicholas; Nixon, Stephen J; Paterson-Brown, Simon

    2008-07-01

    Emergency surgical services in Edinburgh were restructured in July 2002 to deliver subspecialist management of colorectal and upper-gastrointestinal emergencies on separate sites. The effect of emergency subspecialization on outcome from perforated and bleeding peptic ulceration was assessed. All patients admitted with complicated peptic ulceration (January 2000-February 2005) were identified from a prospectively compiled database. Perforation: 148 patients were admitted with perforation before the service reorganization (period A - 31 months) of whom 126 (85.1%) underwent surgery; 135 patients were admitted in period B (31 months) of whom 114 (84.4%) were managed operatively. The in-hospital mortality was lower in period B (14/135, 10.4%) than period A (30/148, 20.3%; P = 0.023; relative risk (RR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28-0.91). There was a significantly higher rate of gastric resection in the second half of the study (period A 1/126 vs. period B 8/114; P = 0.015; RR, 8.84; 95% CI, 1.48-54.34). Length of hospital stay was similar for both groups. Bleeding: 51 patients underwent operative management of bleeding peptic ulceration in period A and 51 in period B. There were no differences in length of stay or mortality between these two groups. Restructuring of surgical services with emergency subspecialization was associated with lower mortality for perforated peptic ulceration. Subspecialist experience, intraoperative decision-making, and improved postoperative care have all contributed to this improvement.

  13. Foodborne outbreak of Salmonella subspecies IV infections associated with contamination from bearded dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, S A; Medus, C; Scheftel, J; Leano, F; Jawahir, S; Smith, K

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 1.4 million Salmonella infections and 400 deaths occur annually in the United States. Approximately 6% of human Salmonella cases are thought to be associated with reptiles; Salmonella enterica subspecies IV is primarily reptile-associated. During 1-4 December, 2009, three isolates of Salmonella IV 6,7:z4,z24:- with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were identified through Minnesota Department of Health laboratory-based surveillance. None of the three patients associated with the isolates reported reptile contact; however, all had attended the same potluck dinner. Dinner attendees were asked questions regarding illness history, foods they prepared for and consumed at the event, and pet ownership. Cases were defined as illness in a person who had eaten potluck food and subsequently experienced fever and diarrhoea (three or more loose stools in 24 h) or laboratory-confirmed infection with Salmonella IV matching the outbreak PFGE subtype. Nineteen days after the event, environmental samples were collected from a food preparer's house where two pet bearded dragons were kept. Sixty-six of 73 potluck food consumers were interviewed; 19 cases were identified; 18 persons reported illness but did not meet the case definition. Median incubation period was 19 h (range: 3-26 h). Median duration of illness was 5 days (range: 1-11 days). Consumption of gravy, prepared by the bearded dragons' asymptomatic owner, was associated with illness (16/32 exposed versus 1/12 unexposed; risk ratio: 6.0; exact P = 0.02). Salmonella Labadi was recovered from 10 samples, including from one bearded dragon, the bathroom door knob and sink drain, and the kitchen sink drain. The outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella subspecies IV was isolated from vacuum-cleaner bag contents. This foodborne outbreak probably resulted from environmental contamination from bearded dragons. Reptiles pose a community threat when food for public consumption is prepared in

  14. Rapid differentiation of Francisella species and subspecies by fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting the 23S rRNA

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    Trebesius Karlheinz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella (F. tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Due to its low infectious dose, ease of dissemination and high case fatality rate, F. tularensis was the subject in diverse biological weapons programs and is among the top six agents with high potential if misused in bioterrorism. Microbiological diagnosis is cumbersome and time-consuming. Methods for the direct detection of the pathogen (immunofluorescence, PCR have been developed but are restricted to reference laboratories. Results The complete 23S rRNA genes of representative strains of F. philomiragia and all subspecies of F. tularensis were sequenced. Single nucleotide polymorphisms on species and subspecies level were confirmed by partial amplification and sequencing of 24 additional strains. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH assays were established using species- and subspecies-specific probes. Different FISH protocols allowed the positive identification of all 4 F. philomiragia strains, and more than 40 F. tularensis strains tested. By combination of different probes, it was possible to differentiate the F. tularensis subspecies holarctica, tularensis, mediasiatica and novicida. No cross reactivity with strains of 71 clinically relevant bacterial species was observed. FISH was also successfully applied to detect different F. tularensis strains in infected cells or tissue samples. In blood culture systems spiked with F. tularensis, bacterial cells of different subspecies could be separated within single samples. Conclusion We could show that FISH targeting the 23S rRNA gene is a rapid and versatile method for the identification and differentiation of F. tularensis isolates from both laboratory cultures and clinical samples.

  15. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the Terminal Ileum of Fistulated Göttingen Minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, Sonja; Drescher, Karsten; Heller, Knut J.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus administered in yogurt to survive the passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract was investigated with Göttingen minipigs that were fitted with ileum T-cannulas. After ingestion of yogurt containing viable microorganisms, ileostomy samples were collected nearly every hour beginning 3 h after food uptake. Living L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were detected in the magnitude of 106 to 107 per gram of intestinal contents (wet weight) in all animals under investigation. A calculation of the minimum amount of surviving bacteria that had been administered is presented. Total DNA extracted from ileostomy samples was subjected to PCR, which was species specific for L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus and subspecies specific for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. All three bacterial groups could be detected by PCR after yogurt uptake but not after uptake of a semisynthetic diet. One pig apparently had developed an endogenous L. delbrueckii flora. When heat-treated yogurt was administered, L. delbrueckii was detected in all animals. S. thermophilus or L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was not detected, indicating that heat-inactivated cells and their DNAs had already been digested and their own L. delbrueckii flora had been stimulated for growth. PMID:11526016

  16. Use of partial budgeting to determine the economic benefits of antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.; Rooijendijk, J.G.A.; Zadoks, R.N.; Hogeveen, H.

    2005-01-01

    The economic effect of lactational antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical intramammary infections due to Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae was explored by means of partial budgeting. Effects at cow level and herd level were modelled, including prevention of clinical mastitis

  17. Comparison of genes required for H2O2 resistance in Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Itzek, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced by several members of the genus Streptococcus mainly through the pyruvate oxidase SpxB under aerobic growth conditions. The acute toxic nature of H2O2 raises the interesting question of how streptococci cope with intrinsically produced H2O2, which subsequently accumulates in the microenvironment and threatens the closely surrounding population. Here, we investigate the H2O2 susceptibility of oral Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis and elucidate potential mechanisms of how they protect themselves from the deleterious effect of H2O2. Both organisms are considered primary colonizers and occupy the same intraoral niche making them potential targets for H2O2 produced by other species. We demonstrate that S. gordonii produces relatively more H2O2 and has a greater ability for resistance to H2O2 stress. Functional studies show that, unlike in Streptococcus pneumoniae, H2O2 resistance is not dependent on a functional SpxB and confirms the important role of the ferritin-like DNA-binding protein Dps. However, the observed increased H2O2 resistance of S. gordonii over S. sanguinis is likely to be caused by an oxidative stress protection machinery present even under anaerobic conditions, while S. sanguinis requires a longer period of time for adaptation. The ability to produce more H2O2 and be more resistant to H2O2 might aid S. gordonii in the competitive oral biofilm environment, since it is lower in abundance yet manages to survive quite efficiently in the oral biofilm. PMID:25280752

  18. Interactions between Oral Bacteria: Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bing-Yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacterio...

  19. Reappraisal of the taxonomy of Streptococcus suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26: Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, R; Maruyama, F; Ishida, S; Tohya, M; Sekizaki, T; Osawa, Ro

    2015-02-01

    In order to clarify the taxonomic position of serotypes 20, 22 and 26 of Streptococcus suis, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on isolates (SUT-7, SUT-286(T), SUT-319, SUT-328 and SUT-380) reacted with specific antisera of serotypes 20, 22 or 26 from the saliva of healthy pigs as well as reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26. Comparative recN gene sequencing showed high genetic relatedness among our isolates, but marked differences from the type strain S. suis NCTC 10234(T), i.e. 74.8-75.7 % sequence similarity. The genomic relatedness between the isolates and other strains of species of the genus Streptococcus, including S. suis, was calculated using the average nucleotide identity values of whole genome sequences, which indicated that serotypes 20, 22 and 26 should be removed taxonomically from S. suis and treated as a novel genomic species. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 99.0-100 % sequence similarities for the 16S rRNA genes between the reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26, and our isolates. Isolate STU-286(T) had relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with S. suis NCTC 10234(T) (98.8 %). SUT-286(T) could be distinguished from S. suis and other closely related species of the genus Streptococcus using biochemical tests. Due to its phylogenetic and phenotypic similarities to S. suis we propose naming the novel species Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov., with SUT-286(T) ( = JCM 30273(T) = DSM 29126(T)) as the type strain. © 2015 IUMS.

  20. Subspecies identification of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (Primates: Hominidae from the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago, Chile, using mitochondrial DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Vega

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural populations of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes are declining because of hunting and illegal live animal trafficking. Four subspecies of Chimpanzee have been reported: Pan troglodytes troglodytes, P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. ellioti, which have remained geographically separated by natural barriers such as the rivers Niger, Sanaga and Ubangi in central Africa. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been used for the determination of these subspecies, which indirectly can also suggest their geographic origin. It was decided to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of three captive chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile, by analyzing their mitochondrial DNA. DNA was extracted from the saliva of three adult chimpanzees (two males and one female. After the analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial hypervariable region (HVI, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using mitochondrial sequences of known Pan troglodytes subspecies. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are likely to belong to three different subspecies: P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. troglodytes. Identification of subspecies of the three chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile was possible due to mtDNA analysis. Future identification of chimpanzees will allow the development of a studbook for the chimpanzee subspecies in other Latin American zoos.

  1. A new Neotibicen cicada subspecies (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from the southeastern USA forms hybrid zones with a widespread relative despite a divergent male calling song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R

    2017-05-31

    A morphologically cryptic subspecies of Neotibicen similaris (Smith and Grossbeck) is described from forests of the Apalachicola region of the southeastern United States. Although the new form exhibits a highly distinctive male calling song, it hybridizes extensively where it meets populations of the nominate subspecies in parapatry, by which it is nearly surrounded. This is the first reported example of hybridization between North American nonperiodical cicadas. Acoustic and morphological characters are added to the original description of the nominate subspecies, and illustrations of complex hybrid song phenotypes are presented. The biogeography of N. similaris is discussed in light of historical changes in forest composition on the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  2. Current Taxonomical Situation of Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Nomoto, Ryohei; Arai, Sakura; Osawa, Ro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-06-24

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen and an important zoonotic agent, is considered to be composed of phenotypically and genetically diverse strains. However, recent studies reported several "S. suis-like strains" that were identified as S. suis by commonly used methods for the identification of this bacterium, but were regarded as distinct species from S. suis according to the standards of several taxonomic analyses. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some S. suis-like strains can be assigned to several novel species. In this review, we discuss the current taxonomical situation of S. suis with a focus on (1) the classification history of the taxon of S. suis; (2) S. suis-like strains revealed by taxonomic analyses; (3) methods for detecting and identifying this species, including a novel method that can distinguish S. suis isolates from S. suis-like strains; and (4) current topics on the reclassification of S. suis-like strains.

  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae, mecanismos de resistencia antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Noda Albelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus pneumoniae, principal agente causal de la neumonía comunitaria, líder en la etiología de la otitis media y la meningitis, en las últimas 3 décadas ha incrementado, de manera importante, su resistencia a los agentes terapéuticos más utilizados, como los betalactámicos, macrólidos, azálidos y fluroquinolonas. La versatilidad adaptativa del microorganismo le ha permitido crear mecanismos capaces de sobreponerse a cualquiera de estas agresiones terapéuticas con un grado variable de eficacia. Se realiza una revisión de los mecanismos más importantes implicados en la adquisición de resistencia antimicrobiana por S. pneumoniae, y se precisan algunos de los factores de riesgo implicados en infección por S. pneumoniae resistente.

  4. The homodimeric GBS1074 from Streptococcus agalactiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Anshuman; Pallen, Mark; Anthony, Mark; White, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The homodimeric nature of the ESAT-6 homologue GBS1074 and the potential for fibre-like assemblies are revealed by the 2 Å resolution crystal structure. ESAT-6 is a well characterized secreted protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents the archetype of the WXG100 family of proteins. Genes encoding ESAT-6 homologues have been identified in the genome of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae; one of these genes, esxA, has been cloned and the recombinant protein has been crystallized. In contrast to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6, the crystal structure of GBS1074 reveals a homodimeric structure similar to homologous structures from Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori. Intriguingly, GBS1074 forms elongated fibre-like assemblies in the crystal structure

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis in children in Nottingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, F. E.; Slack, R. C.; Colman, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from vaginal swabs of children with vulvovaginitis received at Nottingham Public Health Laboratory during 1986-9 were studied. A total of 159 isolates was made during the 4 years, increasing from 17 in 1986 to 64 in 1989 and accounting for 11% of all vaginal swabs received from children. The numbers of throat swabs yielding S. pyogenes also showed an increase from 974 in 1986 to 1519 in 1989. A winter peak of isolates was noted for both vaginal swabs and throat swabs. A total of 98 strains from vaginal swabs were serotyped: 22 different types were identified, 61% of which were the common types M4, M6, R28 and M12. Erythromycin sensitivity was done on 89 strains; 84% were highly sensitive (MIC less than 0.03 mg/l). There are no other reports of such large numbers in the literature; the reason for seeing this increase in Nottingham is unclear. PMID:2050200

  6. Development of Streptococcus agalactiae vaccines for tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhu, Jielian; Chen, Kangming; Gao, Tingting; Yao, Huochun; Liu, Yongjie; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2016-12-21

    Vaccination is a widely accepted and effective method to prevent most pathogenic diseases in aquaculture. Various species of tilapia, especially Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, are farmed worldwide because of their high consumer demand. Recently, the tilapia-breeding industry has been hampered by outbreaks of Streptococcus agalactiae infection, which cause high mortality and huge economic losses. Many researchers have attempted to develop effective S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia. This review provides a summary of the different kinds of S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia that have been developed recently. Among the various vaccine types, inactivated S. agalactiae vaccines showed superior protection efficiency when compared with live attenuated, recombinant and DNA vaccines. With respect to vaccination method, injecting the vaccine into tilapia provided the most effective immunoprotection. Freund's incomplete adjuvant appeared to be suitable for tilapia vaccines. Other factors, such as immunization duration and number, fish size and challenge dose, also influenced the vaccine efficacy.

  7. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2013; 12 (4): 535-540. ISSN: 1596-5996 .... Table 1: Antibacterial activity of selected Thai medicinal plants against Streptococcus pyogenes NPRC 101. Botanical ..... Naphthoquinones,.

  8. The changing epidemiology of group B streptococcus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballard, Mark S; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based studies conducted in single regions or countries have identified significant changes in the epidemiology of invasive group B streptococcus (GBS) infection. However, no studies have concurrently compared the epidemiology of GBS infections among multiple different region...

  9. Case Report of Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is an extremely rare and life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection. We report a case of early necrotizing fasciitis associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in a 26-year-old man who was immunocompromised with mixed connective tissue disease. The patient presented with acute, painful, erythematous, and edematous skin lesions of his right lower back, which rapidly progressed to the right knee. The patient underwent surgical exploration, and a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was confirmed by pathological evidence of necrosis of the fascia and neutrophil infiltration in tissue biopsies. Cultures of fascial tissue biopsies and blood samples were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of necrotizing fasciitis resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae diagnosed at early phase; the patient recovered well without surgical debridement.

  10. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria...

  11. The post-vaccine microevolution of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Amelieke J H; Mobegi, Fredrick M; de Jonge, Marien I; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Meis, Jacques F; Hermans, Peter W M; Ferwerda, Gerben; Bentley, Stephen D; Zomer, Aldert L

    2015-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) has affected the genetic population of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatric carriage. Little is known however about pneumococcal population genomics in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) under vaccine pressure. We sequenced and serotyped

  12. Novel metabolic activity indicator in Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, D.M.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of micro-organisms in biofilms requires novel strategies to evaluate the efficacy of caries preventive agents in actual biofilms. Hence we investigated fluorescence intensity (FI) in Streptococcus mutans biofilms constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

  13. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  14. Quantification of bovine oxylipids during intramammary Streptococcus uberis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus uberis mastitis results in severe mammary tissue damage in dairy cows due to uncontrolled inflammation. Oxylipids are potent lipid mediators that orchestrate pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, however, changes in oxylipid biosynthesis during S. uberis mastitis are unknown. Thus, ...

  15. Mechanisms of genome evolution of Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P; Hanage, William P

    2015-07-01

    The genus Streptococcus contains 104 recognized species, many of which are associated with human or animal hosts. A globally prevalent human pathogen in this group is Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). While being a common resident of the upper respiratory tract, it is also a major cause of otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, accounting for a high burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of recombination and selection in driving the population dynamics and evolution of different pneumococcal lineages, allowing them to successfully evade the impacts of selective pressures such as vaccination and antibiotic treatment. We highlight the ability of pneumococci to respond to these pressures through processes including serotype replacement, capsular switching and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes. The challenge in controlling this pathogen also lies in the exceptional genetic and phenotypic variation among different pneumococcal lineages, particularly in terms of their pathogenicity and resistance to current therapeutic strategies. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, which target only a small subset of the more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes, provides us with a unique opportunity to elucidate how the processes of selection and recombination interact to generate a remarkable level of plasticity and heterogeneity in the pneumococcal genome. These processes also play an important role in the emergence and spread of multi-resistant strains, which continues to pose a challenge in disease control and/or eradication. The application of population of genomic approaches at different spatial and temporal scales will help improve strategies to control this global pathogen, and potentially other pathogenic streptococci. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative genomics of the dairy isolate Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against related members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Rania; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Blom, Jochen; Papandreou, Nikos C; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Renault, Pierre; Supply, Philip; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2014-04-08

    Within the genus Streptococcus, only Streptococcus thermophilus is used as a starter culture in food fermentations. Streptococcus macedonicus though, which belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), is also frequently isolated from fermented foods mainly of dairy origin. Members of the SBSEC have been implicated in human endocarditis and colon cancer. Here we compare the genome sequence of the dairy isolate S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 to the other SBSEC genomes in order to assess in silico its potential adaptation to milk and its pathogenicity status. Despite the fact that the SBSEC species were found tightly related based on whole genome phylogeny of streptococci, two distinct patterns of evolution were identified among them. Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus infantarius CJ18 and Streptococcus pasteurianus ATCC 43144 seem to have undergone reductive evolution resulting in significantly diminished genome sizes and increased percentages of potential pseudogenes when compared to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. In addition, the three species seem to have lost genes for catabolizing complex plant carbohydrates and for detoxifying toxic substances previously linked to the ability of S. gallolyticus to survive in the rumen. Analysis of the S. macedonicus genome revealed features that could support adaptation to milk, including an extra gene cluster for lactose and galactose metabolism, a proteolytic system for casein hydrolysis, auxotrophy for several vitamins, an increased ability to resist bacteriophages and horizontal gene transfer events with the dairy Lactococcus lactis and S. thermophilus as potential donors. In addition, S. macedonicus lacks several pathogenicity-related genes found in S. gallolyticus. For example, S. macedonicus has retained only one (i.e. the pil3) of the three pilus gene clusters which may mediate the binding of S. gallolyticus to the extracellular matrix. Unexpectedly, similar findings were

  17. Streptococcus sinensis may react with Lancefield group F antiserum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Teng, Jade L L; Leung, Kit-wah; Lau, Susanna K P; Tse, Herman; Wong, Beatrice H L; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2004-11-01

    Lancefield group F streptococci have been found almost exclusively as members of the 'Streptococcus milleri' group, although they have been reported very occasionally in some other streptococcal species. Among 302 patients with bacteraemia caused by viridans streptococci over a 6-year period, three cases were caused by Streptococcus sinensis (type strain HKU4T, HKU5 and HKU6). All three patients had infective endocarditis complicating their underlying chronic rheumatic heart diseases. Gene sequencing showed no base differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of HKU5 and HKU6 and that of HKU4T. All three strains were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming cocci arranged in chains. All grew on sheep blood agar as alpha-haemolytic, grey colonies of 0.5-1 mm in diameter after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C in ambient air. Lancefield grouping revealed that HKU5 and HKU6 were Lancefield group F, but HKU4T was non-groupable with Lancefield groups A, B, C, D, F or G antisera. HKU4T was identified by the Vitek system (GPI), API system (20 STREP) and ATB system (ID32 STREP) as 99 % Streptococcus intermedius, 51.3 % S. intermedius and 99.9 % Streptococcus anginosus, respectively. Using the same tests, HKU5 was identified as 87 % Streptococcus sanguinis/Streptococcus gordonii, 59 % Streptococcus salivarius and 99.6 % S. anginosus, respectively, and HKU6 as 87 % S. sanguinis/S. gordonii, 77 % Streptococcus pneumoniae and 98.3 % S. anginosus, respectively. The present data revealed that a proportion of Lancefield group F streptococci could be S. sinensis. Lancefield group F streptococci should not be automatically reported as 'S. milleri'.

  18. Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection...... with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed...

  19. A conjugative 38 kB plasmid is present in multiple subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Elizabeth E; Stenger, Drake C

    2012-01-01

    A ≈ 38kB plasmid (pXF-RIV5) was present in the Riv5 strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolated from ornamental plum in southern California. The complete nucleotide sequence of pXF-RIV5 is almost identical to that of pXFAS01 from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain M23; the two plasmids vary at only 6 nucleotide positions. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 share some similarity to chromosomal and plasmid (pXF51) sequences of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c and more distant similarity to plasmids from a wide variety of bacteria. Both pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 encode homologues of a complete Type IV secretion system involved in conjugation and DNA transfer among bacteria. Mating pair formation proteins (Trb) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758 are the mostly closely related non-X. fastidiosa proteins to most of the Trb proteins encoded by pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01. Unlike many bacterial conjugative plasmids, pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 do not carry homologues of known accessory modules that confer selective advantage on host bacteria. However, both plasmids encode seven hypothetical proteins of unknown function and possess a small transposon-associated region encoding a putative transposase and associated factor. Vegetative replication of pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 appears to be under control of RepA protein and both plasmids have an origin of DNA replication (oriV) similar to that of pRP4 and pR751 from Escherichia coli. In contrast, conjugative plasmids commonly encode TrfA and have an oriV similar to those found in IncP-1 incompatibility group plasmids. The presence of nearly identical plasmids in single strains from two distinct subspecies of X. fastidiosa is indicative of recent horizontal transfer, probably subsequent to the introduction of subspecies fastidiosa to the United States in the late 19(th) century.

  20. A conjugative 38 kB plasmid is present in multiple subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E Rogers

    Full Text Available A ≈ 38kB plasmid (pXF-RIV5 was present in the Riv5 strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolated from ornamental plum in southern California. The complete nucleotide sequence of pXF-RIV5 is almost identical to that of pXFAS01 from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain M23; the two plasmids vary at only 6 nucleotide positions. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 share some similarity to chromosomal and plasmid (pXF51 sequences of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c and more distant similarity to plasmids from a wide variety of bacteria. Both pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 encode homologues of a complete Type IV secretion system involved in conjugation and DNA transfer among bacteria. Mating pair formation proteins (Trb from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758 are the mostly closely related non-X. fastidiosa proteins to most of the Trb proteins encoded by pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01. Unlike many bacterial conjugative plasmids, pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 do not carry homologues of known accessory modules that confer selective advantage on host bacteria. However, both plasmids encode seven hypothetical proteins of unknown function and possess a small transposon-associated region encoding a putative transposase and associated factor. Vegetative replication of pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 appears to be under control of RepA protein and both plasmids have an origin of DNA replication (oriV similar to that of pRP4 and pR751 from Escherichia coli. In contrast, conjugative plasmids commonly encode TrfA and have an oriV similar to those found in IncP-1 incompatibility group plasmids. The presence of nearly identical plasmids in single strains from two distinct subspecies of X. fastidiosa is indicative of recent horizontal transfer, probably subsequent to the introduction of subspecies fastidiosa to the United States in the late 19(th century.

  1. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Streptococcus mitis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Streptococcus mitis 名詞 一般 * * * * Streptococcus mit...is ... MeSH D034361 200906051281920120 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Streptococcus mitis

  2. Inflammation-induced haemostatic response in layer chickens infected with Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus as evaluated by fibrinogen, prothrombin time and thromboelastography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Krisna; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    p.i. (9.4 ± 1.4 g/l) and day 6 p.i. (8.0 ± 0.7 g/l) and the PT was prolonged at day 6 p.i. (168.1 ± 21.0 sec) compared with the day 0 standards (2.6 ± 0.2 g/l and 104.6 ± 2.0 sec, respectively) (P ... mean values of the clot formation rate (α-angle) and maximal amplitude (MA) of TEG tracing at day 3 p.i. (83.1 ± 0.7°, 83.8 ± 1.4 mm) and day 6 p.i. (84.0 ± 0.4°, 89.8 ± 1.0 mm) compared with the day 0 values (75.8 ± 2.2° and 66.9 ± 1.4 mm, respectively) (P ... (1.5 ± 0.1 g/l), PT (79.4 ± 6.4 sec), TEG-α (76.7 ± 1.5°) and TEG-MA (64.0 ± 2.3 mm) were lower at day 6 compared with values observed for the infected chickens (P

  3. Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H; Hance, I

    2008-01-01

    . A culture-independent method was used, based on cloning and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the housekeeping gene gdh, which shows remarkable, yet species-specific, genetic polymorphism. Samples were collected from all potential ecological niches in the oral cavity and pharynx of two adults on two occasions......We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat...... with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host....

  4. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  5. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-05-26

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  6. Estimating Divergence Time and Ancestral Effective Population Size of Bornean and Sumatran Orangutan Subspecies Using a Coalescent Hidden Markov Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien; Hobolth, Asger

    2011-01-01

    event has occurred to split them apart. The size of these segments of constant divergence depends on the recombination rate, but also on the speciation time, the effective population size of the ancestral population, as well as demographic effects and selection. Thus, inference of these parameters may......, and the ancestral effective population size. The model is efficient enough to allow inference on whole-genome data sets. We first investigate the power and consistency of the model with coalescent simulations and then apply it to the whole-genome sequences of the two orangutan sub-species, Bornean (P. p. pygmaeus......) and Sumatran (P. p. abelii) orangutans from the Orangutan Genome Project. We estimate the speciation time between the two sub-species to be thousand years ago and the effective population size of the ancestral orangutan species to be , consistent with recent results based on smaller data sets. We also report...

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANIF KHADEMI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Khademi H, Mehregan I, Assadi M, Nejadsatari T, Zarre S. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biodiversitas 17: 16-23. This study was carried out on the Acer monspessulanum complex growing wild in Iran. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences for 75 samples representing five different subspecies of Acer monspessulanum were analyzed. Beside this, 86 previously published ITS sequences from GenBank were used to test the monophyly of the complex worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony. The results indicate that most samples of A. monspessulanum species from Iran were part of a monophyletic clade with 8 samples of A. ibericum from Georgia, A. hyrcanum from Iran and one of A. sempervirens from Greece (PP= 1; BS= 79%. Our results indicate that use of morphological characteristics coupled with molecular data will be most effective.

  8. Four new species and one new subspecies of Asteroidea (Echinodermata) collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Aznam; Jangoux, Michel

    1985-01-01

    Four new species and one new subspecies of asteroids collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region are described. They are deep-water species belonging to the families Goniasteridae, Solasteridae, Ganeriidae, Asteriidae and Brisingidae.

  9. Recent evolutionary radiation and host plant specialization in the Xylella fastidiosa subspecies native to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Vickerman, Danel B; Bromley, Robin E; Russell, Stephanie A; Hartman, John R; Morano, Lisa D; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, infects many plant species in the Americas, making it a good model for investigating the genetics of host adaptation. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify isolates of the native U.S. subsp. multiplex that were largely unaffected by intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) and to investigate how their evolutionary history influences plant host specialization. We identified 110 "non-IHR" isolates, 2 minimally recombinant "intermediate" ones (including the subspecific type), and 31 with extensive IHR. The non-IHR and intermediate isolates defined 23 sequence types (STs) which we used to identify 22 plant hosts (73% trees) characteristic of the subspecies. Except for almond, subsp. multiplex showed no host overlap with the introduced subspecies (subspecies fastidiosa and sandyi). MLST sequences revealed that subsp. multiplex underwent recent radiation (<25% of subspecies age) which included only limited intrasubspecific recombination (ρ/θ = 0.02); only one isolated lineage (ST50 from ash) was older. A total of 20 of the STs grouped into three loose phylogenetic clusters distinguished by nonoverlapping hosts (excepting purple leaf plum): "almond," "peach," and "oak" types. These host differences were not geographical, since all three types also occurred in California. ST designation was a good indicator of host specialization. ST09, widespread in the southeastern United States, only infected oak species, and all peach isolates were ST10 (from California, Florida, and Georgia). Only ST23 had a broad host range. Hosts of related genotypes were sometimes related, but often host groupings crossed plant family or even order, suggesting that phylogenetically plastic features of hosts affect bacterial pathogenicity.

  10. Wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies of Sandhill Crane: Correlations between body size, site fidelity, and movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gary L.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Herziger, Caroline P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Body size is known to correlate with many aspects of life history in birds, and this knowledge can be used to manage and conserve bird species. However, few studies have compared the wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies that vary significantly in body size. We used radiotelemetry to examine the relationship between body size and site fidelity, movements, and home range in 2 subspecies of Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) wintering in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Both subspecies showed high interannual return rates to the Delta study area, but Greater Sandhill Cranes (G. c. tabida) showed stronger within-winter fidelity to landscapes in our study region and to roost complexes within landscapes than did Lesser Sandhill Cranes (G. c. canadensis). Foraging flights from roost sites were shorter for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.01 km vs. 4.5 ± 0.01 km, respectively) and, consequently, the mean size of 95% fixed-kernel winter home ranges was an order of magnitude smaller for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.4 km2 vs. 21.9 ± 1.9 km2, respectively). Strong site fidelity indicates that conservation planning to manage for adequate food resources around traditional roost sites can be effective for meeting the habitat needs of these cranes, but the scale of conservation efforts should differ by subspecies. Analysis of movement patterns suggests that conservation planners and managers should consider all habitats within 5 km of a known G. c. tabida roost and within 10 km of a G. c. canadensis roost when planning for habitat management, mitigation, acquisition, and easements.

  11. Detection and Characterization of Viral Species/Subspecies Using Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glais, Laurent; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Numerous molecular-based detection protocols include an amplification step of the targeted nucleic acids. This step is important to reach the expected sensitive detection of pathogens in diagnostic procedures. Amplifications of nucleic acid sequences are generally performed, in the presence of appropriate primers, using thermocyclers. However, the time requested to amplify molecular targets and the cost of the thermocycler machines could impair the use of these methods in routine diagnostics. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technique allows rapid (short-term incubation of sample and primers in an enzymatic mixture) and simple (isothermal) amplification of molecular targets. RPA protocol requires only basic molecular steps such as extraction procedures and agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus, RPA can be considered as an interesting alternative to standard molecular-based diagnostic tools. In this paper, the complete procedures to set up an RPA assay, applied to detection of RNA (Potato virus Y, Potyvirus) and DNA (Wheat dwarf virus, Mastrevirus) viruses, are described. The proposed procedure allows developing species- or subspecies-specific detection assay.

  12. Thermodependence of growth and enzymatic activities implicated in pathogenicity of two Erwinia carotovora subspecies (Pectobacterium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, Bruno; Latour, Xavier; Trigui, Sameh; Burini, Jean François; Chevalier, Sylvie; Orange, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora can cause substantial damage to economically important plant crops and stored products. The occurrence of the disease and the scale of the damage are temperature dependent. Disease development consists first of active multiplication of the bacteria in the infection area and then production of numerous extracellular enzymes. We investigated the effects of various temperatures on these two steps. We assayed the specific growth rate and the pectate lyase and protease activities for eight strains belonging to E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in vitro. The temperature effect on growth rate and on pectate lyase activity is different for the two subspecies, but protease activity appears to be similarly thermoregulated. Our results are in agreement with ecological data implicating E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in disease when the temperature is below 20 degrees C. The optimal temperature for pathogenicity appears to be different from the optimal growth temperature but seems to be a compromise between this temperature and temperatures at which lytic activities are maximal.

  13. Genetic analysis of a novel Xylella fastidiosa subspecies found in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Jennifer J; Goldberg, Natalie P; Kemp, John D; Radionenko, Maxim; French, Jason M; Olsen, Mary W; Hanson, Stephen F

    2009-09-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several scorch diseases, is associated with leaf scorch symptoms in Chitalpa tashkentensis, a common ornamental landscape plant used throughout the southwestern United States. For a number of years, many chitalpa trees in southern New Mexico and Arizona exhibited leaf scorch symptoms, and the results from a regional survey show that chitalpa trees from New Mexico, Arizona, and California are frequently infected with X. fastidiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple loci was used to compare the X. fastidiosa infecting chitalpa strains from New Mexico, Arizona, and trees imported into New Mexico nurseries with previously reported X. fastidiosa strains. Loci analyzed included the 16S ribosome, 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer region, gyrase-B, simple sequence repeat sequences, X. fastidiosa-specific sequences, and the virulence-associated protein (VapD). This analysis indicates that the X. fastidiosa isolates associated with infected chitalpa trees in the Southwest are a highly related group that is distinct from the four previously defined taxons X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (piercei), X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. Therefore, the classification proposed for this new subspecies is X. fastidiosa subsp. tashke.

  14. Performance of two honey bee subspecies during harsh weather and Acacia gerrardii nectar-rich flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed Awad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Both climatic factors and bee forage characteristics affect the population size and productivity of honey bee colonies. To our knowledge, no scientific investigation has as yet considered the potential effect of nectar-rich bee forage exposed to drastic subtropical weather conditions on the performance of honey bee colonies. This study investigated the performance of the honey bee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (Yemeni and Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann (Carniolan in weather that was hot and dry and in an environment of nectar-rich flora. The brood production, food storage, bee population and honey yield of Yemeni (native and Carniolan (imported colonies on Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth., a nectar-rich, subtropical, and summer bee forage source in Central Arabia were evaluated. Owing to their structural and behavioral adaptations, the Yemeni bees constructed stronger (high population size colonies than the Carniolan bees. Although both groups yielded similar amounts of Talh honey, the Yemeni bees consumed their stored honey rapidly if not timely harvested. A. m. jemenitica has a higher performance than A. m. carnica during extremely hot-dry conditions and A. gerrardii nectar-rich flow.

  15. Distinct subspecies or phenotypic plasticity? Genetic and morphological differentiation of mountain honey bees in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Karl; Schöning, Caspar; Otte, Marianne; Kinuthia, Wanja; Hasselmann, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the forces shaping intraspecific phenotypic and genotypic divergence are of key importance in evolutionary biology. Phenotypic divergence may result from local adaptation or, especially in species with strong gene flow, from pronounced phenotypic plasticity. Here, we examine morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the western honey bee Apis mellifera in the topographically heterogeneous East African region. The currently accepted "mountain refugia hypothesis" states that populations living in disjunct montane forests belong to a different lineage than those in savanna habitats surrounding these forests. We obtained microsatellite data, mitochondrial sequences, and morphometric data from worker honey bees collected from feral colonies in three montane forests and corresponding neighboring savanna regions in Kenya. Honey bee colonies from montane forests showed distinct worker morphology compared with colonies in savanna areas. Mitochondrial sequence data did not support the existence of the two currently accepted subspecies. Furthermore, analyses of the microsatellite data with a Bayesian clustering method did not support the existence of two source populations as it would be expected under the mountain refugia scenario. Our findings suggest that phenotypic plasticity rather than distinct ancestry is the leading cause behind the phenotypic divergence observed between montane forest and savanna honey bees. Our study thus corroborates the idea that high gene flow may select for increased plasticity.

  16. Typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates from Newfoundland using fragment analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka P Podder

    Full Text Available Short Sequence Repeat (SSR typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map isolates is one of the most commonly used method for genotyping this pathogen. Currently used techniques have challenges in analyzing mononucleotide repeats >15 bp, which include some of the Map SSRs. Fragment analysis is a relatively simple technique, which can accurately measure the size of DNA fragments and can be used to calculate the repeat length of the target SSR loci. In the present study, fragment analysis was used to analyze 4 Map SSR loci known to provide sufficient discriminatory power to determine the relationship between Map isolates. Eighty-five Map isolates from 18 animals from the island of Newfoundland were successfully genotyped using fragment analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Map SSR diversity from Newfoundland dairy farms. Previously unreported Map SSR-types or combinations were also identified during the course of the described work. In addition, multiple Map SSR-types were isolated from a single animal in many cases, which is not a common finding.

  17. Decreased serum protein associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis shedding in German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, K; Erhardt, G; Soschinka, A; Brandt, H R

    2014-04-19

    Using well established metabolic parameters, this study aimed to substantiate differences in protein and energy metabolism between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) positive and negative dairy cows tested by faecal culture. A total of 227 MAP-positive and 239 MAP-negative German Holstein cows kept in 13 MAP-positive dairy herds were selected for metabolic testing. The serum concentrations of total protein (TP), bilirubin, cholesterol and betahydroxybutyrate were measured as well as the activities of Glutamate-Dehydrogenase (GLDH) and Aspartate-Aminotransferase. MAP-positive cows were characterised by a decreased mean TP (66.5 g/l) compared to the MAP-negative controls (73.2 g/l). Mean log10 GLDH activities tended to be higher in MAP-positive than MAP-negative cows. Concerning TP, there was a significant interaction between MAP status and farm. Within four farms, the difference between MAP-positive and MAP-negative animals differed significantly, while in the other farms this difference was not significant. It is concluded that a decreased TP and an increased GLDH indicate alterations in protein metabolism. These findings suggest an enhanced liver cell turnover in MAP-positive cows. The results contribute to an understanding of the metabolic alterations in MAP-positive dairy cows.

  18. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in formula milk from Bogor using PCR IS 900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widagdo S. Nugroho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD that becomes a public health concern in developed countries shows similarities in clinical signs and pathological features with Johne’s disease (JD in ruminants infected by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. Few researches conducted in Europe, the USA, and Australia showed relationships between MAP, CD, JD and dairy products. Indonesians consume milk and diary products from domestic and imported source. Adji in 2004 found some domestic dairy cows that were seropositive for MAP, and this could be a serious problem in dairy farm animals and human health in the future. The aim of this study was to detect MAP in the growing up formula milk. Fifty samples from five established factories were taken from supermarkets in Bogor. Polymerase chain reaction method (PCR with insertion sequence (IS 900 as primer and culture in Herrold’s egg yolk media with mycobactin J (HEYM J as a gold standard were used in this study. Neither MAP grew up in HEYM J medium after 20 weeks of culture period nor positive samples by PCR IS 900 were found. Although there were no positive samples found in this study, further extensive and comprehensive studies on MAP should be done with more and varied samples, as well as in human to provide data on MAP in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 183-7Keywords: Crohn’s disease, dairy cow, growing up formula milk

  19. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Jayasinghe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis. However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest. Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  20. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and hepatitis E in New World camelids in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitznig, A; Khol, J L; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Wittek, T; Kralik, P; Slana, I; Vasickova, P

    2017-07-07

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants and New World Camelids (NWC). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern worldwide. The virus has been identified in several species, some of them serving as a reservoir for zoonotic HEV strains. Husbandry and breeding of llamas and alpacas have increased in Austria in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MAP and HEV in NWC in Austria. Altogether 445 animals, originating from 78 farms were enrolled in the study. Of the animals sampled, 184 (41.35%) were llamas and 261 (58.65%) were alpacas. 443 blood samples for MAP-ELISA and 399 faecal samples for quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture for MAP as well as for HEV detection by RT-qPCR have been collected. All of the 399 animals tested for shedding of MAP were negative by faecal solid culture. Using qPCR, 15 (3.8%) of the animals were MAP positive and 384 (96.2%) negative. Out of the 443 serum samples examined for specific antibodies against MAP by ELISA, 6 (1.4%) were positive, 1 (0.2%) was questionable and 436 (98.4%) samples were negative. All faecal samples were tested negative for HEV.

  1. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Hwang, Byung Ho; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-10-24

    Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea . Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS) in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS) in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200), CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914) and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286), ST5b , ST5c , AOP2 , FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350) and GSL-OH (Bol033373) was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea

  2. Three new species and one new subspecies of Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, with world catalogue of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Witt, Thomas J

    2017-05-23

    Three new species and one new subspecies of the genus Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 are described: Deserticossus doroshkini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from eastern Kazakhstan (Tarbagatai Mts.), D. selevini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from southeastern Kazakhstan (Malye Boguty Mts.), D. kamelini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from Kyrgyzstan (Fergana Valley), and D. tsingtauana didenkoi Yakovlev & Witt subsp. nov. from Russia (Southern Siberia, Buryatia Republic). The described species and subspecies of Deserticossus are listed, with notes on the type material, synonymies, and distribution for each taxon.

  3. Leukotriene signaling in the extinct human subspecies Homo denisovan and Homo neanderthalensis. Structural and functional comparison with Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Susan; Kakularam, Kumar Reddy; Horn, Thomas; Reddanna, Pallu; Kuhn, Hartmut; Heydeck, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lipoxygenases (LOXs) have been implicated in cell differentiation and in the biosynthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. The initial draft sequence of the Homo neanderthalensis genome (coverage of 1.3-fold) suggested defective leukotriene signaling in this archaic human subspecies since expression of essential proteins appeared to be corrupted. Meanwhile high quality genomic sequence data became available for two extinct human subspecies (H. neanderthalensis, Homo denisovan) and completion of the human 1000 genome project provided a comprehensive database characterizing the genetic variability of the human genome. For this study we extracted the nucleotide sequences of selected eicosanoid relevant genes (ALOX5, ALOX15, ALOX12, ALOX15B, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, COX1, COX2, LTA4H, LTC4S, ALOX5AP, CYSLTR1, CYSLTR2, BLTR1, BLTR2) from the corresponding databases. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences in connection with site-directed mutagenesis studies and structural modeling suggested that the major enzymes and receptors of leukotriene signaling as well as the two cyclooxygenase isoforms were fully functional in these two extinct human subspecies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predominance of clarithromycin-susceptible Mycobacterium massiliense subspecies: Characterization of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex at a tertiary acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Ka Lip; Cheng, Janet W S; Hudaa Osman, Nurul; Lin, Raymond T P; Teo, Jeanette W P

    2017-10-01

    To characterize members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, with an emphasis on the correlation between species identification and clarithromycin associated genetic polymorphisms that contribute to inducible and constitutive macrolide resistance. PCR and sequencing analysis was used to elucidate the subspecies, erm(41) genotypes and the presence of rrl mutations. M. abscessus subsp. massiliense was the dominant subspecies (70.2 %), followed by M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (23.8 %) and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (5.9 %). The majority of M. abscessus and M. bolletii isolates possessed T28 erm(41) sequevar and were inducibly resistant to clarithromycin. All M. massiliense carried the truncated erm(41) and were largely clarithromycin-susceptible (98.3 %). Constitutive resistance involving rrl mutations was rare and seen in only 2 isolates (2.2 %). Subspecies identification was insufficient to predict clarithromycin susceptibility and required the genetic resistance to be determined via sequencing. In our context, rrl mutations were uncommon and may not be an essential test.

  5. [Mechanisms of subspecies differentiation in a filial generation of rice indica-japonica hybridization under different ecological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-Tong; Jin, Feng; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Lin, Qing-Shan; Xu, Hai; Chen, Wen-Fu; Xu, Zheng-Jin

    2013-11-01

    Indica-japonica hybridization is one of the most important breeding methods in China, whereas identifying subspecies differentiation mechanisms is the key in indica-japonica hybridization breeding. By using InDels (Insert/Deletion) and ILPs (Intron Length Polymorphism), an analysis was made on the F6 populations derived from the hybridization of indica-japonica (Qishanzhan/Akihikari) planted in Liaoning and Guangdong provinces and generated by bulk harvesting (BM), single-seed descent methods (SSD), and pedigree method (PM). No segregation distortion was observed for the BM and SSD populations. The frequency distribution of japonica kinship percentage (Dj) was concentrated in 40%-60%. The PM populations in the two provinces presented indica-deviated distribution (30%-55%), with significant difference between Guangdong (38%) and Liaoning (42%). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the Dj and the kinship of functional gene regions in the BM and SSD populations. However, part of the positive correlation was broken in the PM populations that showed a regular distribution in the genotype patterns of indica and japonica loci. The above results demonstrated that artificial selection could be the main factor affecting the population differentiation in indica-japonica hybridization, and, with the synergistic effect of natural selection, induced the phenomenon of segregation distortion. There existed a close relationship between the differentiation of subspecies and the important agronomic traits, which could be the main reason why indica-japonica hybridiation breeding could not achieve the expected effect of combining the two subspecies advantages.

  6. Soroepidemiologia de Rhodococcus equi em equinos da região de Bagé, RS, pelo teste de inibição da hemólise sinérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzari Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a situação soroepidemiológica da infecção por Rhodococcus equi na região de Bagé, RS, foram testadas 290 amostras de soro sanguíneo de éguas e potros aparentemente sadios, obtidos de 6 haras com diferentes histórias de rodococose. Para relacionar o resultado sorológico com a presença deste agente bacteriano no trato intestinal destes animais, foram coletadas 123 amostras de fezes. O teste sorológico utilizado foi a inibição da hemólise sinérgica (IHS que detecta anticorpos neutralizantes contra o "fator equi". Um percentual de 87,93% (255/290 dos animais amostrados apresentaram estes anticorpos. O título médio geométrico (GMT destes anticorpos foi mais elevado nos potros do que nas éguas. A soropositividade destes equinos ao teste sorológico teve correlação com o isolamento do R. equi nas fezes dos respectivos animais. A maior taxa de isolamento de R. equi das fezes dos equinos e o maior GMT, ocorreu no único haras com casos clínicos recentes de enfermidade causada por esta bactéria. No entanto, todos os animais deste e dos demais haras, encontravam-se aparentemente sadios, sendo necessário, estabelecer em trabalho futuro, a possível relação entre títulos de anticorpos e sua importância na detecção da enfermidade.

  7. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area.

  8. Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngeal colonization resulting in recurrent, prepubertal vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Megan T; Sanchez, Veronica T; Eyster, Kathleen; Hansen, Keith A

    2007-10-01

    Recurrent, prepubertal, vaginal infections are an uncommon, troublesome problem for the patient and her family. Failure of initial therapy to alleviate vulvovaginitis may be related to vulvar skin disease, foreign body, sexual abuse, pinworms, reactions to medications, anatomic anomalies, or allergies. This report describes a case of recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis secondary to presumed vaginal re-inoculation from pharyngeal colonization. A 4-yr-old presented with one year of culture proven, recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis. Her symptoms repeatedly resolved with penicillin therapy, but continued to recur following cessation of antibiotic therapy. Evaluation included physical examination, trans-abdominal pelvic ultrasound, and vaginoscopy which all revealed normal upper and lower genital tract anatomy. Both the patient and her mother demonstrated culture proven, Group A Streptococcus pharyngeal colonization. Because of the possibility of repeated inoculations of the vaginal area from the colonized pharynx, they were both treated for decolonization with a regimen of amoxicillin and rifampin for ten days. Following this therapy there was resolution of vaginal symptoms with no further recurrence. Follow-up pharyngeal culture done on both mother and child on their last visit were negative for Group A Streptococcus. This case demonstrated an unusual specific cause of recurrent vaginitis resulting from presumed self or maternal re-inoculation with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus from pharyngeal colonization. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus are consistently sensitive to penicillin, but up to 25% of acute pharyngitis cases treated with penicillin having continued asymptomatic, bacterial carriage within the nasopharynx. Thus initial alleviation of symptoms in a patient with Group A beta-hemolytic vulvovaginitis treated with penicillin, can have continued asymptomatic pharyngeal colonization which can result in recurrence of the

  9. Características laboratoriais das ceratites e conjuntivites causadas por Streptococcus sp Laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Parente Solari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar os resultados laboratoriais de conjuntivites e ceratites com cultura positiva para Streptococcus sp, avaliando a incidência das diferentes espécies e os dados dos antibiogramas. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários de pacientes encaminhados ao laboratório de Doenças Externas do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP com resultado de cultivo bacteriano positivo de córnea ou conjuntiva e com identificação de alguma cepa do gênero Streptococcus sp, no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2001. Analisou-se idade do paciente, espécie de Streptococcus e os testes de sensibilidade aos seguintes antibióticos: cefalotina, amicacina, gentamicina, tobramicina, ciprofloxacina, lomefloxacina, ofloxacina, norfloxacina e vancomicina. RESULTADOS: As espécies mais encontradas foram Streptococcus pneumoniae e Streptococcus viridans. Com relação aos antibióticos, a sensibilidade foi maior à cefalotina, às quinolonas e à vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se os antibióticos tópicos comercialmente disponíveis, as quinolonas apresentam melhor espectro de ação quando comparadas aos aminoglicosídios.PURPOSE: To evaluate laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis, analyzing the different species and the results of bacterial susceptibility to an antibiotics. METHODS: Retrospective study of the records from the External Disease Laboratory of the Ophthalmology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo, with conjunctival or corneal positive bacterial culture for Streptococcus sp, between January 1995 and December 2001. The collected data were age, Streptococcus species and the bacterial susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramicin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and vancomicin. RESULTS: The most frequent species were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans. Regarding bacterial

  10. Comparing the cariogenic species Streptococcus sobrinus and S. mutans on whole genome level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrads, G.; de Soet, J.J.; Song, L.; Henne, K.; Sztajer, H.; Wagner-Döbler, I.; Zeng, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two closely related species of mutans streptococci, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, are associated with dental caries in humans. Their acidogenic and aciduric capacity is directly associated with the cariogenic potential of these bacteria. To survive acidic and

  11. Molecular and mathematical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, Ruth Nicolet

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is the most common and costly production disease affecting dairy cows. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis are two major mastitis-causing pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is traditionally classified as contagious pathogen, while Streptococcus uberis is classified as environmental

  12. Capsular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) from fish using multiplex PCR and serotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus spp. including Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) are considered emerging pathogens responsible for approximately $1 billion USD in annual losses to the global tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) aquaculture industry. This study evaluated a published multiplex PCR capsul...

  13. Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate [ 14 C]ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular [ 14 C]ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular [ 14 C]ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of [ 14 C]ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of [ 14 C]ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis

  14. Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed.

  15. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

  16. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Lactam inhibiting Streptococcus mutans growth on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, J.G.; Geremias, T.C.; Montero, J.F.D. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Vahey, B.R. [Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, 925 W 34 St, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Benfatti, C.A.M.; Souza, J.C.M.; Magini, R.S. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Pimenta, A.L., E-mail: andrea@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Biologia, ERRMECe, Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2, Av. Adolphe Chauvin 95302 Cergy, Pontoise (France); Integrated Laboratories Technologies (InteLab), Dept. Chemical and Food Engineering (EQA), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis/SC, 88040-970 (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of novel synthetic lactams on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. Titanium (Ti6Al4V) samples were exposed to Streptococcus mutans cultures in the presence or absence of a synthetic lactam. After 48 h incubation, planktonic growth was determined by spectrophotometry. Biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and colony forming units (CFU·ml{sup −1}), followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the average of adhered viable cells was approximately 1.5 × 10{sup 2} CFU/ml in the presence of lactam and 4 × 10{sup 2} CFU/ml in its absence. This novel compound was considerable active in reducing biofilm formation over titanium surfaces, indicating its potential for the development of antimicrobial drugs targeting the inhibition of the initial stages of bacterial biofilms on dental implants abutments. - Highlights: • A novel synthetic compound is tested on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces • Biofilm inhibition has been achieved on titanium surfaces containing the novel compound. • Planktonic growth of S. mutans was not affected by the presence of lactams on titanium.

  18. Genome of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Alves, Joao M; Kitten, Todd; Brown, Arunsri; Chen, Zhenming; Ozaki, Luiz S; Manque, Patricio; Ge, Xiuchun; Serrano, Myrna G; Puiu, Daniela; Hendricks, Stephanie; Wang, Yingping; Chaplin, Michael D; Akan, Doruk; Paik, Sehmi; Peterson, Darrell L; Macrina, Francis L; Buck, Gregory A

    2007-04-01

    The genome of Streptococcus sanguinis is a circular DNA molecule consisting of 2,388,435 bp and is 177 to 590 kb larger than the other 21 streptococcal genomes that have been sequenced. The G+C content of the S. sanguinis genome is 43.4%, which is considerably higher than the G+C contents of other streptococci. The genome encodes 2,274 predicted proteins, 61 tRNAs, and four rRNA operons. A 70-kb region encoding pathways for vitamin B(12) biosynthesis and degradation of ethanolamine and propanediol was apparently acquired by horizontal gene transfer. The gene complement suggests new hypotheses for the pathogenesis and virulence of S. sanguinis and differs from the gene complements of other pathogenic and nonpathogenic streptococci. In particular, S. sanguinis possesses a remarkable abundance of putative surface proteins, which may permit it to be a primary colonizer of the oral cavity and agent of streptococcal endocarditis and infection in neutropenic patients.

  19. Lactam inhibiting Streptococcus mutans growth on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, J.G.; Geremias, T.C.; Montero, J.F.D.; Vahey, B.R.; Benfatti, C.A.M.; Souza, J.C.M.; Magini, R.S.; Pimenta, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of novel synthetic lactams on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. Titanium (Ti6Al4V) samples were exposed to Streptococcus mutans cultures in the presence or absence of a synthetic lactam. After 48 h incubation, planktonic growth was determined by spectrophotometry. Biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and colony forming units (CFU·ml −1 ), followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the average of adhered viable cells was approximately 1.5 × 10 2 CFU/ml in the presence of lactam and 4 × 10 2 CFU/ml in its absence. This novel compound was considerable active in reducing biofilm formation over titanium surfaces, indicating its potential for the development of antimicrobial drugs targeting the inhibition of the initial stages of bacterial biofilms on dental implants abutments. - Highlights: • A novel synthetic compound is tested on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces • Biofilm inhibition has been achieved on titanium surfaces containing the novel compound. • Planktonic growth of S. mutans was not affected by the presence of lactams on titanium.

  20. Sorption of streptococcus faecium to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerstavik, D.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 10 10 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author)

  1. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  2. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20. Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  3. Interactions between oral bacteria: inhibition of Streptococcus mutans bacteriocin production by Streptococcus gordonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing-Yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacteriocin production both in broth and in biofilms. The inhibition of S. mutans bacteriocin production by oral bacteria was stronger in biofilms than in broth. Using transposon Tn916 mutagenesis, we identified a gene (sgc; named for Streptococcus gordonii challisin) responsible for the inhibition of S. mutans bacteriocin production by S. gordonii Challis. Interruption of the sgc gene in S. gordonii Challis resulted in attenuated inhibition of S. mutans bacteriocin production. The supernatant fluids from the sgc mutant did not inactivate the exogenous S. mutans CSP as did those from the parent strain Challis. S. gordonii Challis did not inactivate bacteriocin produced by S. mutans GS5. Because S. mutans uses quorum sensing to regulate virulence, strategies designed to interfere with these signaling systems may have broad applicability for biological control of this caries-causing organism.

  4. Inhibitory effects of antiseptic mouthrinses on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A; Leishman, S J; Walsh, L J; Seow, W K

    2015-06-01

    Oral antiseptics are valuable in controlling oral infections caused by cariogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mouthrinses and pure antiseptic compounds on Streptococcus mutans and non-mutans bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus). The agar diffusion assay was employed to determine bacterial growth inhibition. Commercial mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05%) and sodium fluoride (0.05%) produced statistically similar growth inhibition of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus (with zones of inhibition ranging from 7.56 ± 0.52 mm to 7.39 ± 0.53 mm, 17.44 ± 0.94 mm to 18.31 ± 0.62 mm and 8.61 ± 1.43 to 8.67 ± 1.43 mm respectively, p > 0.05). The chlorhexidine mouthwash produced the greatest mean growth inhibition of S. sanguinis and S. mutans compared to all other mouthrinses tested (p mutans could be detected were chlorhexidine gluconate at 0.005% (wt/vol), cetylpyridinium chloride 0.01% (wt/ vol), povidone iodine 10% (wt/vol) and sodium hypochlorite 0.5% (vol/vol). Chlorhexidine (0.01%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.01%), povidone iodine (10%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) are effective at inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  5. In-vitro efficacy of different morphology zinc oxide nanopowders on Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Bakhori, Siti Khadijah; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ling, Chuo Ann; Sirelkhatim, Amna Hassan; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Abd Rahman, Rosliza

    2017-09-01

    ZnO with two different morphologies were used to study the inhibition of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans which are closely associated with tooth cavity. Rod-like shaped ZnO-A and plate-like shaped ZnO-B were produced using a zinc boiling furnace. The nanopowders were characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to confirm the properties of the ZnO polycrystalline wurtzite structures. XRD results show that the calculated crystallite sizes of ZnO-A and ZnO-B were 36.6 and 39.4nm, respectively, whereas DLS revealed particle size distributions of 21.82nm (ZnO-A) and 52.21nm (ZnO-B). PL spectra showed ion vacancy defects related to green and red luminescence for both ZnO particles. These defects evolved during the generation of reactive oxygen species which contributed to the antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was investigated using microdilution technique towards S. sobrinus and S. mutans at different nanopowder concentrations. Results showed that ZnO-A exhibited higher inhibition on both bacteria compared with ZnO-B. Moreover, S. mutans was more sensitive compared with S. sobrinus because of its higher inhibition rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinct Biological Potential of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis Revealed by Comparative Genome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenning; Tan, Mui Fern; Old, Lesley A; Paterson, Ian C; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Choo, Siew Woh

    2017-06-07

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque and important agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE). To gain a greater understanding of these two closely related species, we performed comparative analyses on 14 new S. gordonii and 5 S. sanguinis strains using various bioinformatics approaches. We revealed S. gordonii and S. sanguinis harbor open pan-genomes and share generally high sequence homology and number of core genes including virulence genes. However, we observed subtle differences in genomic islands and prophages between the species. Comparative pathogenomics analysis identified S. sanguinis strains have genes encoding IgA proteases, mitogenic factor deoxyribonucleases, nickel/cobalt uptake and cobalamin biosynthesis. On the contrary, genomic islands of S. gordonii strains contain additional copies of comCDE quorum-sensing system components involved in genetic competence. Two distinct polysaccharide locus architectures were identified, one of which was exclusively present in S. gordonii strains. The first evidence of genes encoding the CylA and CylB system by the α-haemolytic S. gordonii is presented. This study provides new insights into the genetic distinctions between S. gordonii and S. sanguinis, which yields understanding of tooth surfaces colonization and contributions to dental plaque formation, as well as their potential roles in the pathogenesis of IE.

  7. Organization of the capsule biosynthesis gene locus of the oral streptococcus Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunashima, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Katsuhide; Motono, Makoto; Iijima, Shinji

    2012-03-01

    The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of the important oral streptococcus Streptococcus anginosus, which causes endocarditis, and the genes for its synthesis have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the gene locus required for CPS synthesis in S. anginosus. Southern hybridization using the cpsE gene of the well-characterized bacterium S. agalactiae revealed that there is a similar gene in the genome of S. anginosus. By using the colony hybridization technique and inverse PCR, we isolated the CPS synthesis (cps) genes of S. anginosus. This gene cluster consisted of genes containing typical regulatory genes, cpsA-D, and glycosyltransferase genes coding for glucose, rhamnose, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactofuranose transferases. Furthermore, we confirmed that the cps locus is required for CPS synthesis using a mutant strain with a defective cpsE gene. The cps cluster was found to be located downstream the nrdG gene, which encodes ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase activator, as is the case in other oral streptococci such as S. gordonii and S. sanguinis. However, the location of the gene cluster was different from those of S. pneumonia and S. agalactiae. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Minoru; Kodama, Yoshitoyo; Shimoyama, Yu; Ishikawa, Taichi; Kimura, Shigenobu

    2018-04-17

    Although Streptococcus anginosus constitutes a proportion of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts, and the oral cavity, it has been reported that S. anginosus infection could be closely associated with abscesses at various body sites, infective endocarditis, and upper gastrointestinal cancers. The colonization in an acidic environment due to the aciduricity of S. anginosus could be the etiology of the systemic infection of the bacteria. To elucidate the aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of the microbe, we examined the viability and growth of S. anginosus under acidic conditions. The viabilities of S. anginosus NCTC 10713 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 at pH 4.0 showed as being markedly higher than those of Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556, Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, and Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456; however, the viability was partially inhibited by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an H + -ATPase inhibitor, suggesting that H + -ATPase could play a role in the viability of S. anginosus under acidic conditions. In addition, S. anginosus NCTC 10713 could grow at pH 5.0 and showed a marked arginine deiminase (ADI) activity, unlike its ΔarcA mutant, deficient in the gene encoding ADI, and other streptococcal species, which indicated that ADI could also be associated with aciduricity. These results suggest that S. anginosus has significant aciduric properties, which can be attributed to these enzyme activities.

  9. Genome sequencing of ovine isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis offers insights into host association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannantine John P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is remarkably homogeneous among the genomes of bovine, human and wildlife isolates. However, previous work in our laboratories with the bovine K-10 strain has revealed substantial differences compared to sheep isolates. To systematically characterize all genomic differences that may be associated with the specific hosts, we sequenced the genomes of three U.S. sheep isolates and also obtained an optical map. Results Our analysis of one of the isolates, MAP S397, revealed a genome 4.8 Mb in size with 4,700 open reading frames (ORFs. Comparative analysis of the MAP S397 isolate showed it acquired approximately 10 large sequence regions that are shared with the human M. avium subsp. hominissuis strain 104 and lost 2 large regions that are present in the bovine strain. In addition, optical mapping defined the presence of 7 large inversions between the bovine and ovine genomes (~ 2.36 Mb. Whole-genome sequencing of 2 additional sheep strains of MAP (JTC1074 and JTC7565 further confirmed genomic homogeneity of the sheep isolates despite the presence of polymorphisms on the nucleotide level. Conclusions Comparative sequence analysis employed here provided a better understanding of the host association, evolution of members of the M. avium complex and could help in deciphering the phenotypic differences observed among sheep and cattle strains of MAP. A similar approach based on whole-genome sequencing combined with optical mapping could be employed to examine closely related pathogens. We propose an evolutionary scenario for M. avium complex strains based on these genome sequences.

  10. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes Crohn's disease in some inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Saleh A; Sagramsingh, Sudesh R; Naser, Abed S; Thanigachalam, Saisathya

    2014-06-21

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that plagues millions all over the world. This debilitating bowel disease can start in early childhood and continue into late adulthood. Signs and symptoms are usually many and multiple tests are often required for the diagnosis and confirmation of this disease. However, little is still understood about the cause(s) of CD. As a result, several theories have been proposed over the years. One theory in particular is that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is intimately linked to the etiology of CD. This fastidious bacterium also known to cause Johne's disease in cattle has infected the intestines of animals for years. It is believed that due to the thick, waxy cell wall of MAP it is able to survive the process of pasteurization as well as chemical processes seen in irrigation purification systems. Subsequently meat, dairy products and water serve as key vehicles in the transmission of MAP infection to humans (from farm to fork) who have a genetic predisposition, thus leading to the development of CD. The challenges faced in culturing this bacterium from CD are many. Examples include its extreme slow growth, lack of cell wall, low abundance, and its mycobactin dependency. In this review article, data from 60 studies showing the detection and isolation of MAP by PCR and culture techniques have been reviewed. Although this review may not be 100% comprehensive of all studies, clearly the majority of the studies overwhelmingly and definitively support the role of MAP in at least 30%-50% of CD patients. It is very possible that lack of detection of MAP from some CD patients may be due to the absence of MAP role in these patients. The latter statement is conditional on utilization of methodology appropriate for detection of human MAP strains. Ultimately, stratification of CD and inflammatory bowel disease patients for the presence or absence of MAP is necessary for appropriate and effective

  11. Causation of Crohn’s Disease by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hermon-Taylor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a member of the M avium complex (MAC. It differs genetically from other MAC in having 14 to 18 copies of IS900 and a single cassette of DNA involved in the biosynthesis of surface carbohydrate. Unlike other MAC, MAP is a specific cause of chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animal species, including primates. The disease ranges from pluribacillary to paucimicrobial, with chronic granulomatous inflammation like leprosy in humans. MAP infection can persist for years without causing clinical disease. The herd prevalence of MAP infection in Western Europe and North America is reported in the range 21% to 54%. These subclinically infected animals shed MAP in their milk and onto pastures. MAP is more robust than tuberculosis, and the risk that is conveyed to human populations in retail milk and in domestic water supplies is high. MAP is harboured in the ileocolonic mucosa of a proportion of normal people and can be detected in a high proportion of full thickness samples of inflamed Crohn’s disease gut by improved culture systems and IS900 polymerase chain reaction if the correct methods are used. MAP in Crohn’s disease is present in a protease-resistant nonbacillary form, can evade immune recognition and probably causes an immune dysregulation. As with other MAC, MAP is resistant to most standard antituberculous drugs. Treatment of Crohn’s disease with combinations of drugs more active against MAC such as rifabutin and clarithromycin can bring about a profound improvement and, in a few cases, apparent disease eradication. New drugs as well as effective MAP vaccines for animals and humans are needed. The problems caused by MAP constitute a public health issue of tragic proportions for which a range of remedial measures are urgently needed.

  12. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii subspecies-level dysbiosis in the human gut microbiome underlying atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Yoo, Young; Hwang, Junghyun; Na, Yun-Cheol; Kim, Heenam Stanley

    2016-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a serious global epidemic associated with a modern lifestyle. Although aberrant interactions between gut microbes and the intestinal immune system have been implicated in this skin disease, the nature of the microbiome dysfunction underlying the disease remains unclear. The gut microbiome from 132 subjects, including 90 patients with AD, was analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene and metagenome sequence analyses. Reference genomes from the Human Microbiome Project and the KEGG Orthology database were used for metagenome analyses. Short-chain fatty acids in fecal samples were compared by using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We show that enrichment of a subspecies of the major gut species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is strongly associated with AD. In addition, the AD microbiome was enriched in genes encoding the use of various nutrients that could be released from damaged gut epithelium, reflecting a bloom of auxotrophic bacteria. Fecal samples from patients with AD showed decreased levels of butyrate and propionate, which have anti-inflammatory effects. This is likely a consequence of an intraspecies compositional change in F prausnitzii that reduces the number of high butyrate and propionate producers, including those related to the strain A2-165, a lack of which has been implicated in patients with Crohn disease. The data suggest that feedback interactions between dysbiosis in F prausnitzii and dysregulation of gut epithelial inflammation might underlie the chronic progression of AD by resulting in impairment of the gut epithelial barrier, which ultimately leads to aberrant TH2-type immune responses to allergens in the skin. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis of dairy cows in Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widagdo Sri Nugroho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD or partuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants caused by infection of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis subspecies (MAP. The disease has been detected serologically in Indonesia. It’s potential to spread to other herds and could create great economic losses. The objectives of current study were to detect MAP in milk and faeces of dairy cows as well as to evaluate the association between farm management factors and presence of the bacteria in dairy cows in Bogor. The sample size was calculated using the formula to detect disease with the prevalence assumed to be 5% using 95% significant level. Milk and faeces samples were taken from 62 dairy cows which were suspected as suffering from MAP infection. Detection of MAP was done by isolation in Herrold’ egg yolk medium with mycobactin J (HEYMj, acid-fast bacilli Ziehl-Neelsen staining, PCR IS900 and F57. Biochemical test to confirm M. tuberculosis presence was also conducted. Fifteen isolates of Mycobacterium sp. were found from the faeces samples but not from the corresponding milk samples. However, conventional PCR conducted on the isolate as well as the milk samples, gave negative results. Biochemical test proved that all Mycobacterium sp. isolates were not M. tuberculosis. This study indicated the prevalence of MAP in Bogor was less than 5%. These findings should be continued by observational study to achieve the comprehensive information at the cattle and herd level. Bovine Tuberculosis monitoring should be done also to protect dairy herd and food safety for the community.

  14. Low genetic diversity of bovine Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates detected by MIRU-VNTR genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruijf, Marcel; Lesniak, Olga N; Yearsley, Dermot; Ramovic, Elvira; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim

    2017-05-01

    Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit and variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) has been developed as a simple, rapid and cost efficient molecular typing method to differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic diversity of MAP across the Republic of Ireland by utilising the MIRU-VNTR typing method on a large collection of MAP isolates. A total of 114 MAP isolates originated from 53 herds across 19 counties in the Republic of Ireland were genotyped based on eight established MIRU-VNTR loci. Four INMV groups were observed during this study. INMV 1 was found in 67 MAP isolates (58.8%) and INMV 2 was observed in 45 isolates (39.4%). INMV 3 and INMV 116 recorded only one isolate each (0.9%). The unique INMV 116 group has never been reported among herds thus far and the molecular pattern of the MAP isolate classified in INMV 116 showed a difference at the MIRU-VNTR X3 locus compared to the other three INMV groups observed. INMV 1, INMV 2 and INMV 3 are observed frequently in Europe and comprised 99.1% of the total MAP isolates characterised in this study, indicating that MAP exhibited low level of genetic diversity across the Republic of Ireland using the MIRU-VNTR method. By the implementation of SNP analysis or MLSSR as an additional typing method, MAP genetic diversity would increase. INMV 3 is unique to Ireland and whereas INMV 116 has never been previously reported among herds by MIRU-VNTR typing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytoplasmic male sterility contributes to hybrid incompatibility between subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Esa A; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-10-03

    In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility-lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  17. Lung abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Ito

    Full Text Available Lung abscess has been considered to be a rare complication of pneumococcal infection, and most cases are reported to be Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. A 67-year-old man presented with fever and was diagnosed to have lung abscess caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin for the isolate was 1 μg/mL. He was treated with high-dose intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin as definitive therapy based on susceptibility testing for S. pneumoniae and recovered successfully without surgical intervention. S. pneumoniae serotype 6B can cause lung abscess. Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lung abscess, Serotype 6B, Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

  18. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A; Robaina, R; Pérez, G; Cairoli, E

    2016-04-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive destructive soft tissue infection with high mortality. Streptococcus pneumoniae as etiologic agent of necrotizing fasciitis is extremely unusual. The increased susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is probably a multifactorial phenomenon. We report a case of a patient, a 36-year-old Caucasian female with 8-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus who presented a fatal Streptococcus pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis. The role of computed tomography and the high performance of blood cultures for isolation of the causative microorganism are emphasized. Once diagnosis is suspected, empiric antibiotic treatment must be prescribed and prompt surgical exploration is mandatory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Forward prediction of tunnel face by use of equi-traveltime planes; Tosojimen no riyo ni yoru tunnel kiriha zenpo tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Y [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, T [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The result is reported herein of a depth transform algorithm application utilizing equi-traveltime planes in reflection seismic exploration for the purpose of knowing the structure configuration in front of the tunnel face in a tunnel excavation process. A vibration producing hole was provided 0.5m above the ground surface while a vibration receiving hole was provided at 1.5m above the ground surface, and the excavated lengths were 1.5m and 0.5m, respectively. There were 24 recording channels, from which inline offset records were taken. The on-site records were subjected to 100-1000Hz band pass filtering. The elastic wave propagation rate in the rock used for depth conversion was set at 400m/s in consideration of the distance and direct wave travel time from the vibration source to the vibration receiving point. As the result of study, weak layers were found in the neighborhood of 230-240m, 260-270m, and 280-290m. This method requires less core memory for calculation and completes calculation in a shorter period of time, which enables a conclusion that it will be effective in grasping the 3-dimensional structure in front of the tunnel face in the working scene. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Functional amyloid formation by Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oli, M. W.; Otoo, H. N.; Crowley, P. J.; Heim, K. P.; Nascimento, M. M.; Ramsook, C. B.; Lipke, P. N.

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a common infectious disease associated with acidogenic and aciduric bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. Organisms that cause cavities form recalcitrant biofilms, generate acids from dietary sugars and tolerate acid end products. It has recently been recognized that micro-organisms can produce functional amyloids that are integral to biofilm development. We now show that the S. mutans cell-surface-localized adhesin P1 (antigen I/II, PAc) is an amyloid-forming protein. This conclusion is based on the defining properties of amyloids, including binding by the amyloidophilic dyes Congo red (CR) and Thioflavin T (ThT), visualization of amyloid fibres by transmission electron microscopy and the green birefringent properties of CR-stained protein aggregates when viewed under cross-polarized light. We provide evidence that amyloid is present in human dental plaque and is produced by both laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S. mutans. We provide further evidence that amyloid formation is not limited to P1, since bacterial colonies without this adhesin demonstrate residual green birefringence. However, S. mutans lacking sortase, the transpeptidase enzyme that mediates the covalent linkage of its substrates to the cell-wall peptidoglycan, including P1 and five other proteins, is not birefringent when stained with CR and does not form biofilms. Biofilm formation is inhibited when S. mutans is cultured in the presence of known inhibitors of amyloid fibrillization, including CR, Thioflavin S and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which also inhibited ThT uptake by S. mutans extracellular proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that S. mutans is an amyloid-forming organism and suggest that amyloidogenesis contributes to biofilm formation by this oral microbe. PMID:23082034

  2. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2007-01-01

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

  3. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

  4. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  5. Whole genome shotgun sequencing of Indian strains of Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus is known as a leading cause of neonatal infections in developing countries. The present study describes the whole genome shotgun sequences of four Group B Streptococcus (GBS isolates. Molecular data on clonality is lacking for GBS in India. The present genome report will add important information on the scarce genome data of GBS and will help in deriving comparative genome studies of GBS isolates at global level. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession numbers NHPL00000000 – NHPO00000000.

  6. Molecular Epidemiology and Genomics of Group A Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessen, Debra E.; McShan, W. Michael; Nguyen, Scott V.; Shetty, Amol; Agrawal, Sonia; Tettelin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS) is a strict human pathogen with a very high prevalence worldwide. This review highlights the genetic organization of the species and the important ecological considerations that impact its evolution. Recent advances are presented on the topics of molecular epidemiology, population biology, molecular basis for genetic change, genome structure and genetic flux, phylogenomics and closely related streptococcal species, and the long- and short-term evolution of GAS. The application of whole genome sequence data to addressing key biological questions is discussed. PMID:25460818

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Type Strain Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Hesselbjerg; Dargis, Rimtas; Christensen, Jens Jørgen Elmer

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis of infect......Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis...

  8. Investigation into the controversial association of Streptococcus gallolyticus with colorectal cancer and adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulamir, Ahmed S; Hafidh, Rand R; Mahdi, Layla K; Al-jeboori, Tarik; Abubaker, Fatimah

    2009-01-01

    The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus, CIP 105428, was evaluated to investigate the controversial association of S. gallolyticus with colorectal carcinoma and adenoma in attempt to investigate the nature of such association if any, by exploring the mRNA expression of NF-κB and IL-8. Moreover, the serological behavior of S. gallolyticus IgG antibodies was compared to that of an indicator bacterium of bowel, Bacteroides fragilis. ELISA was used to measure IgG antibodies of S. gallolyticus and B. fragilis in sera of 50 colorectal cancer, 14 colorectal adenoma patients, 30 age- and sex- matched apparently healthy volunteers (HV) and 30 age- and sex- matched colonoscopically-proven tumor-free control subjects. NF-κB and IL-8 mRNA expression was evaluated in tumorous and non-tumorous tissue sections of carcinoma and adenoma patients in comparison with that of control subjects by using in situ hybridization assay. Colorectal cancer and adenoma patients were associated with higher levels of serum S. gallolyticus IgG antibodies in comparison with HV and control subjects (P < 0.05) while no similar association was found with serum IgG antibodies of B. fragilis (P > 0.05). ELISA cutoff value for the seropositivity of S. gallolyticus IgG was calculated from tumor-free control group. The expression of NF-κB mRNA was higher in tumorous than non-tumorous tissue sections of adenoma and carcinoma, higher in carcinoma/adenoma sections than in control subjects, higher in tumorous sections of carcinoma than in adenoma patients, and higher in S. gallolyticus IgG seropositive than in seronegative groups in both tumorous and non-tumorous sections (P < 0.05). IL-8 mRNA expression in tumorous sections of adenoma and carcinoma was higher than in non-tumorous sections, higher in carcinoma/adenoma than in control subjects, and higher in S. gallolyticus IgG seropositive than in seronegative groups in tumorous rather than non

  9. Using Molecular Genetic Markers to Resolve a Subspecies Boundary: The Northern Boundary of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in the Four-Corner States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Theimer, Tad C.; Girard, Jessica; Keim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    *Executive Summary* The northern boundary of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is currently approximated as running through southern Colorado and Utah, but the exact placement is uncertain because this subspecies shares a border with the more northern and non-endangered E. t. adastus. To help resolve this issue, we evaluated the geographic distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by sampling breeding sites across the four-corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). We found that breeding sites clustered into two major groups generally consistent with the currently designated boundary, with the exception of three sites situated along the current boundary. However, delineating a precise boundary that would separate the two subspecies is made difficult because (1) we found evidence for a region of intergradation along the boundary area, suggesting the boundary is not discreet, and (2) the boundary region is sparsely populated, with too few extant breeding populations to precisely locate a boundary. The boundary region encompasses an area where elevation changes markedly over relatively short distances, with low elevation deserts to the south and more mesic, higher elevation habitats to the north. We hypothesized that latitudinal and elevational differences and their concomitant ecological effects could form an ecological barrier that inhibited gene flow between the subspecies, forming the basis for the subspecies boundary. We modeled changes in geographic patterns of genetic markers as a function of latitude and elevation finding significant support for this relationship. The model was brought into a GIS environment to create multiple subspecies boundaries, with the strength of each predicted boundary evaluated on the basis of how much genetic variation it explained. The candidate boundary that accounted for the most genetic variation was situated generally near the currently recognized subspecies boundary

  10. Antibacterial activity of Bixa orellana L. (achiote) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dyanne Medina-Flores; Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Rosella Camere-Colarossi; Stefany Caballero-Garca; Frank Mayta-Tovalino; Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of Bixa orellana L. (B. orellana) (achiote) methanol extract against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods: Two methanol extracts of B. orellana were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and leaves. The antibacterial activity of extracts against S. mutans and S. sanguinis was evaluated using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concen-tration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method and the cytotoxic activity was determinated by using the cell line MDCK. Results: A stronger antibacterial effect was observed with the leaves methanolic extract with an inhibition zone of (19.97 ± 1.31) mm against S. mutans and (19.97 ± 1.26) mm against S. sanguinis. The methanolic extract of the seeds had an activity of (15.11 ± 1.03) mm and (16.15 ± 2.15) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The MIC of the leaf and the seed extracts against S. sanguinis was 62.5 and 125 mg/mL, respectively, and the MIC of the leaf extract against S. mutans was 62.5 mg/mL, and for the seed extract it was 31.25 mg/mL. The 50%cytotoxic concentration was 366.45 and 325.05 mg/mL for the leaves and seeds extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanolic extract of B. orellana (achiote) on S. mutans and S. sanguinis. The extract of this plant is cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  11. Antibacterial activity of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosella Camere-Colarossi; Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Dyanne Medina-Flores; Stefany Caballero-Garca; Frank Mayta-Tovalino; Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) (M. dubia) methanol extract, against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods: Two methanol extracts of M. dubia were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and pulp. Ten independent tests were prepared for each type of extract, using 0.12% chlor-hexidine solution as positive control. Agar diffusion test was used by preparing wells with the experimental solutions cultivated in anaerobic conditions for 48 h at 37 ° C. Mean-while, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the cytotoxic effect over MDCK cell line was found. Results: A higher antibacterial effect was observed with the methanol seed extract with an inhibitory halo of (21.36 ± 6.35) mm and (19.21 ± 5.18) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The methanol extract of the pulp had an effect of (16.20 ± 2.08) mm and (19.34 ± 2.90) mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the pulp extract was 62.5μg/mL for both strains, whereas for the seed antibacterial activity was observed even at low concentrations. The CC50 of the seeds extract was at a higher con-centration than 800μg/mL and 524.37μg/mL for the pulp extract. Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanol extract of M. dubia against S. mutans and S. sanguinis. These extracts were not cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  12. Capsular Sialyltransferase Specificity Mediates Different Phenotypes in Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The capsular polysaccharide (CPS represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus (GBS are both well-encapsulated pathogens of clinical importance in veterinary and/or human medicine and responsible for invasive systemic diseases. S. suis and GBS are the only Gram-positive bacteria which express a sialylated CPS at their surface. An important difference between these two sialylated CPSs is the linkage between the side-chain terminal galactose and sialic acid, being α-2,6 for S. suis but α-2,3 for GBS. It is still unclear how sialic acid may affect CPS production and, consequently, the pathogenesis of the disease caused by these two bacterial pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of sialic acid and the putative effect of sialic acid linkage modification in CPS synthesis using inter-species allelic exchange mutagenesis. To this aim, a new molecular biogenetic approach to express CPS with modified sialic acid linkage was developed. We showed that sialic acid (and its α-2,6 linkage is crucial for S. suis CPS synthesis, whereas for GBS, CPS synthesis may occur in presence of an α-2,6 sialyltransferase or in absence of sialic acid moiety. To evaluate the effect of the CPS composition/structure on sialyltransferase activity, two distinct capsular serotypes within each bacterial species were compared (S. suis serotypes 2 and 14 and GBS serotypes III and V. It was demonstrated that the observed differences in sialyltransferase activity and specificity between S. suis and GBS were serotype unrestricted. This is the first time that a study investigates the interspecies exchange of capsular sialyltransferase genes in Gram-positive bacteria. The obtained mutants represent novel tools that could be used to further investigate the immunomodulatory properties of sialylated CPSs. Finally, in spite of common CPS structural characteristics and similarities in the cps loci, sialic acid exerts

  13. In silico analysis of the competition between Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans in the dental biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdebenito, B; Tullume-Vergara, P O; González, W; Kreth, J; Giacaman, R A

    2018-04-01

    During dental caries, the dental biofilm modifies the composition of the hundreds of involved bacterial species. Changing environmental conditions influence competition. A pertinent model to exemplify the complex interplay of the microorganisms in the human dental biofilm is the competition between Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans. It has been reported that children and adults harbor greater numbers of S. sanguinis in the oral cavity, associated with caries-free teeth. Conversely, S. mutans is predominant in individuals with a high number of carious lesions. Competition between both microorganisms stems from the production of H 2 O 2 by S. sanguinis and mutacins, a type of bacteriocins, by S. mutans. There is limited evidence on how S. sanguinis survives its own H 2 O 2 levels, or if it has other mechanisms that might aid in the competition against S. mutans, nonetheless. We performed a genomic and metabolic pathway comparison, coupled with a comprehensive literature review, to better understand the competition between these two species. Results indicated that S. sanguinis can outcompete S. mutans by the production of an enzyme capable of metabolizing H 2 O 2 . S. mutans, however, lacks the enzyme and is susceptible to the peroxide from S. sanguinis. In addition, S. sanguinis can generate energy through gluconeogenesis and seems to have evolved different communication mechanisms, indicating that novel proteins may be responsible for intra-species communication. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Streptococcus oligofermentans Inhibits Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms at Both Neutral pH and Cariogenic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xudong; de Soet, Johannes Jacob; Tong, Huichun; Gao, Xuejun; He, Libang; van Loveren, Cor; Deng, Dong Mei

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (HP). Since pH is a critical factor in caries formation, we aimed to study the influence of pH on the competition between S. oligofermentans and S. mutans in biofilms. To this end, S. mutans and S. oligofermentans were inoculated alone or mixed at 1:1 ratio in buffered biofilm medium in a 96-well active attachment model. The single- and dual-species biofilms were grown under either constantly neutral pH or pH-cycling conditions. The latter includes two cycles of 8 h neutral pH and 16 h pH 5.5, used to mimic cariogenic condition. The 48 h biofilms were analysed for the viable cell counts, lactate and HP production. The last two measurements were carried out after incubating the 48 h biofilms in buffers supplemented with 1% glucose (pH 7.0) for 4 h. The results showed that S. oligofermentans inhibited the growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms under both tested pH conditions. The lactic acid production of dual-species biofilms was significantly lower than that of single-species S. mutans biofilms. Moreover, dual-species and single-species S. oligofermentans biofilms grown under pH-cycling conditions (with a 16 h low pH period) produced a significantly higher amount of HP than those grown under constantly neutral pH. In conclusion, S. oligofermentans inhibited S. mutans in biofilms not only under neutral pH, but also under pH-cycling conditions, likely through HP production. S. oligofermentans may be a compelling probiotic candidate against caries.

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility of periodontal Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rams, Thomas E; Feik, Diane; Mortensen, Joel E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement/surgical procedures and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections. Because systemic antibiotics are often used in these clinical situations, and little is known of the antibiotic susceptibility of subgingival isolates of these two bacterial species, this study determined the in vitro susceptibility to six antibiotics of fresh S. constellatus and S. intermedius clinical isolates from human periodontitis lesions. A total of 33 S. constellatus and 17 S. intermedius subgingival strains, each recovered from separate patients with severe chronic periodontitis (n = 50) before treatment, were subjected to antibiotic gradient strip susceptibility testing with amoxicillin, azithromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline on blood-supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar and to the inhibitory effects of metronidazole at 16 mg/L in an enriched Brucella blood agar dilution assay. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretative standards were used to assess the results. Clindamycin was the most active antibiotic against S. constellatus (minimum inhibitory concentration at 90% [MIC90] 0.25 mg/L), and amoxicillin was most active against S. intermedius (MIC90 0.125 mg/L). A total of 30% of the S. constellatus and S. intermedius clinical isolates were resistant in vitro to doxycycline, 98% were only intermediate in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and 90% were resistant to metronidazole at 16 mg/L. Subgingival S. constellatus and S. intermedius exhibited variable antibiotic susceptibility profiles, potentially complicating empirical selection of periodontitis antibiotic therapy in patients who are species positive.

  16. High-Density Lipoproteins-Associated Proteins and Subspecies Related to Arterial Stiffness in Young Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower plasma levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D have been associated with a higher pulse wave velocity (PWV, a marker of arterial stiffness. Evidence suggests that HDL proteins or particle subspecies are altered in T2D and these may drive these relationships. In this work, we set out to reveal any specific proteins and subspecies that are related to arterial stiffness in youth with T2D from proteomics data. Plasma and PWV measurements were previously acquired from lean and T2D adolescents. Each plasma sample was separated into 18 fractions and evaluated by mass spectrometry. Then, we applied a validated network-based computational approach to reveal HDL subspecies associated with PWV. Among 68 detected phospholipid-associated proteins, we found that seven were negatively correlated with PWV, indicating that they may be atheroprotective. Conversely, nine proteins show positive correlation with PWV, suggesting that they may be related to arterial stiffness. Intriguingly, our results demonstrate that apoA-I and histidine-rich glycoprotein may reverse their protective roles and become antagonistic in the setting of T2D. Furthermore, we revealed two arterial stiffness-associated HDL subspecies, each of which contains multiple PWV-related proteins. Correlation and disease association analyses suggest that these HDL subspecies might link T2D to its cardiovascular-related complications.

  17. Rapid discrimination of sea buckthorn berries from different H. rhamnoides subspecies by multi-step IR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Gang; Tu, Ya; Sun, Suqin; Shen, Xudong; Li, Qingzhu; Zhang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    As an important ethnic medicine, sea buckthorn was widely used to prevent and treat various diseases due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, sea buckthorn was originated from H. rhamnoides, which includes five subspecies distributed in China. Confusion and misidentification usually occurred due to their similar morphology, especially in dried and powdered forms. Additionally, these five subspecies have vital differences in quality and physiological efficacy. This paper focused on the quick classification and identification method of sea buckthorn berry powders from five H. rhamnoides subspecies using multi-step IR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis. The holistic chemical compositions revealed by the FT-IR spectra demonstrated that flavonoids, fatty acids and sugars were the main chemical components. Further, the differences in FT-IR spectra regarding their peaks, positions and intensities were used to identify H. rhamnoides subspecies samples. The discrimination was achieved using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The results showed that the combination of multi-step IR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis offered a simple, fast and reliable method for the classification and identification of the sea buckthorn berry powders from different H. rhamnoides subspecies.

  18. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fuentes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1 rostrum with long projection, (2 relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3 endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4 a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study.

  19. To be or not to be a subspecies: description of Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) developing in downy willow (Salix lapponum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Henrik; Kvamme, Torstein; Bergsten, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new subspecies of the European cerambycid Saperda populnea (Linnaeus, 1758) is described: Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. based on specimens from Scandinavia. The male genitalia characters were examined and found to provide support for this separation, as well as differences in morphology, geographical distribution and bionomy. The preferred host tree for the nominate subspecies S. populnea populnea is Populus tremula L., whereas S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. is considered to be monophagous on Salix lapponum L. DNA sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was generated from Scandinavian specimens of S. populnea populnea and specimens representing S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. The two subspecies were not reciprocally monophyletic and genetic distances in COI were small. All synonyms of S. populnea populnea have been considered, and species similar to S. populnea populnea have been examined, and not found to be related to S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. A male lectotype has been designated for each of the two following synonyms: Cerambyx decempunctatus De Geer, 1775, and Saperda salicis Zetterstedt, 1818. The synonymised species from Asia, S. balsamifera (Motshulsky, 1860), is elevated to subspecies: S. populnea balsamifera stat. n. We end with a discussion on the definition of subspecies under the unified species concept. PMID:29187784

  20. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Sardans, J.; Hodar, Jose A.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Guenther, Alex B.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Penuelas, Josep

    2017-09-25

    The metabolome, the chemical phenotype of an organism, should be shaped by evolution. Metabolomes depend on genetic composition and expression, which can be sources of evolutionary inertia, so most aspects of metabolomes should be similar in closely related sympatric species. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), one introduced (ssp. iberica) and one autochthonous (ssp. nevadensis), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory. The metabolomes of the subspecies were more dissimilar in summer than in winter, and iberica trees had higher concentrations of metabolites directly related to drought stress. Our results suggest that certain plant metabolic responses associated with folivory have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. The larger divergence between subspecies metabolomes in summer is likely due to the warmer and drier conditions that the northern iberica subspecies experience in Sierra Nevada. Our results provide crucial insights into how iberica populations would respond to the predicted conditions of climate change under an increased defoliation, two recent severe issues in the Mediterranean Basin.

  1. Proteome analysis of serovars Typhimurium and Pullorum of Salmonella enterica subspecies I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begum Shajna

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica subspecies I includes several closely related serovars which differ in host ranges and ability to cause disease. The basis for the diversity in host range and pathogenic potential of the serovars is not well understood, and it is not known how host-restricted variants appeared and what factors were lost or acquired during adaptations to a specific environment. Differences apparent from the genomic data do not necessarily correspond to functional proteins and more importantly differential regulation of otherwise identical gene content may play a role in the diverse phenotypes of the serovars of Salmonella. Results In this study a comparative analysis of the cytosolic proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Pullorum was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the proteins of interest were identified using mass spectrometry. An annotated reference map was created for serovar Typhimurium containing 233 entries, which included many metabolic enzymes, ribosomal proteins, chaperones and many other proteins characteristic for the growing cell. The comparative analysis of the two serovars revealed a high degree of variation amongst isolates obtained from different sources and, in some cases, the variation was greater between isolates of the same serovar than between isolates with different sero-specificity. However, several serovar-specific proteins, including intermediates in sulphate utilisation and cysteine synthesis, were also found despite the fact that the genes encoding those proteins are present in the genomes of both serovars. Conclusion Current microbial proteomics are generally based on the use of a single reference or type strain of a species. This study has shown the importance of incorporating a large number of strains of a species, as the diversity of the proteome in the microbial population appears to be significantly greater than expected. The characterisation of a diverse selection of

  2. Complete genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica FTNF002-00.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi D Barabote

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica FTNF002-00 strain was originally obtained from the first known clinical case of bacteremic F. tularensis pneumonia in Southern Europe isolated from an immunocompetent individual. The FTNF002-00 complete genome contains the RD(23 deletion and represents a type strain for a clonal population from the first epidemic tularemia outbreak in Spain between 1997-1998. Here, we present the complete sequence analysis of the FTNF002-00 genome. The complete genome sequence of FTNF002-00 revealed several large as well as small genomic differences with respect to two other published complete genome sequences of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains, LVS and OSU18. The FTNF002-00 genome shares >99.9% sequence similarity with LVS and OSU18, and is also approximately 5 MB smaller by comparison. The overall organization of the FTNF002-00 genome is remarkably identical to those of LVS and OSU18, except for a single 3.9 kb inversion in FTNF002-00. Twelve regions of difference ranging from 0.1-1.5 kb and forty-two small insertions and deletions were identified in a comparative analysis of FTNF002-00, LVS, and OSU18 genomes. Two small deletions appear to inactivate two genes in FTNF002-00 causing them to become pseudogenes; the intact genes encode a protein of unknown function and a drug:H(+ antiporter. In addition, we identified ninety-nine proteins in FTNF002-00 containing amino acid mutations compared to LVS and OSU18. Several non-conserved amino acid replacements were identified, one of which occurs in the virulence-associated intracellular growth locus subunit D protein. Many of these changes in FTNF002-00 are likely the consequence of direct selection that increases the fitness of this subsp. holarctica clone within its endemic population. Our complete genome sequence analyses lay the foundation for experimental testing of these possibilities.

  3. The novel species Streptococcus tigurinus and its association with oral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, Andrea; Bostanci, Nagihan; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a novel species of viridans streptococci, shown to cause severe invasive infections such as infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. S. tigurinus belongs to the Streptococcus mitis group and is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus infantis. The presence of S. tigurinus in the human oral cavity has been documented, including in patients with periodontal disease. This review addresses the available scientific knowledge on S. tigurinus and its association with closely related streptococci, and discusses its putative involvement in common oral infections. While there is as yet no strong evidence on the involvement of S. tigurinus with oral infections, its presence in the oral cavity and its association with endocarditis warrants special attention for a link between oral and systemic infection.

  4. Streptococcus sanguinis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlynets, Olga; Boal, Amie K.; Rhodes, DeLacy V.; Kitten, Todd; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a causative agent of infective endocarditis. Deletion of SsaB, a manganese transporter, drastically reduces S. sanguinis virulence. Many pathogenic organisms require class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides under aerobic conditions, and recent studies demonstrate that this enzyme uses a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical (MnIII2-Y•) cofactor in vivo. The proteins required for S. sanguinis ribonucleotide reduction (NrdE and NrdF, α and β subunits of RNR; NrdH and TrxR, a glutaredoxin-like thioredoxin and a thioredoxin reductase; and NrdI, a flavodoxin essential for assembly of the RNR metallo-cofactor) have been identified and characterized. Apo-NrdF with FeII and O2 can self-assemble a diferric-tyrosyl radical (FeIII2-Y•) cofactor (1.2 Y•/β2) and with the help of NrdI can assemble a MnIII2-Y• cofactor (0.9 Y•/β2). The activity of RNR with its endogenous reductants, NrdH and TrxR, is 5,000 and 1,500 units/mg for the Mn- and Fe-NrdFs (Fe-loaded NrdF), respectively. X-ray structures of S. sanguinis NrdIox and MnII2-NrdF are reported and provide a possible rationale for the weak affinity (2.9 μm) between them. These streptococcal proteins form a structurally distinct subclass relative to other Ib proteins with unique features likely important in cluster assembly, including a long and negatively charged loop near the NrdI flavin and a bulky residue (Thr) at a constriction in the oxidant channel to the NrdI interface. These studies set the stage for identifying the active form of S. sanguinis class Ib RNR in an animal model for infective endocarditis and establishing whether the manganese requirement for pathogenesis is associated with RNR. PMID:24381172

  5. Detection of Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... Accepted 27 October, 2011. Streptococcosis is one of the most important bacterial diseases in farmed salmonid fishes. ... detection of the two mentioned bacteria in some rainbow trout farms in the west of Iran. A total of 50 fish samples ..... Diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus lactis ...

  6. Molecular epidemiology and population structure of bovine Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, M G; Bexiga, R; Nunes, S F

    2008-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology and population structure of 30 bovine subclinical mastitis field isolates of Streptococcus uberis, collected from 6 Portuguese herds (among 12 farms screened) during 2002 and 2003, were examined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clustering of the isol...

  7. A Study of Streptococcus Viridans in the Maxillofacial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Refoua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Streptococcus viridans is one of the most important microorganisms in the establishment of infections leading to dental caries and heart valve damages. Therefore the diagnosis and prevention of these infections is critical in health care.Purpose: The aim of this in-vivo study was to determine the prevalence of viridans streptococci in abscesses occurring in the maxillofacial region.Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 39 patients with maxillofacial abscesses, referred to the Department of Oral Surgery Faculty of Dentistry Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Dr. Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Extra-oral incision, drainage and pus collection followed by culture, staining and biochemical and sugar fermentation tests were carried out for all participants.Results: In the present study %53.84 and 46.16% of the patients had negative and positive culture results, respectively. In the positive culture group, %2.5 of the viridans streptococci were streptococcus salivarius, %4.6 streptococcus sanguis and %17.9 were streptococcus mutans.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that viridans streptococci are an important factor in the development of metastatic and maxillofacial infections which can pose a significant threat to the patient’s life.

  8. Magnetic response in cultures of Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, V W; Bassous, C; Morency, D; Lorrain, P; Lepage, J L

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607 produces exopolysaccharides that adhere to glass. In the normal geomagnetic field about 50% more polysaccharide adhere preferentially to glass surfaces facing North as compared to South facing surfaces. Reversal of the direction of the magnetic field by 180 degrees produces a similar reversal in the direction of the preferential accumulation. Reduction of the field by 90% abolishes the preferential accumulation.

  9. Catabolite control of sugar metabolism in Streptococcus thermophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, van den P.T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is used in many industrial dairy fermentations that require processing of milk at elevated temperatures. Its primary function is the rapid conversion of lactose to lactate while it also contributes to important sensory qualities. S.

  10. Maternal vaginorectal colonization by Group B Streptococcus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During labour GBS and Listeria monocytogenes may infect the new-borns, leading to neonatal sepsis and meningitis. So far, there is no report on prevalence of GBS and Listeria monocytogenes among pregnant women in Mwanza. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude of Group B Streptococcus and ...

  11. Host-pathogen interaction during Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization and infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bogaert (Debby)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Streptococcus pneumoniae was discovered by Sternberg and Pasteur in 1880. It took another six years to discover that this microorganism, called the pneumococcus, was the actual cause of bacterial pneumonia . Subsequently, this bacterium has been shown to provoke an

  12. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its close commensal relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Poulsen, Knud; Blomqvist, Trinelise

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group of streptococci which, according to 16S rRNA-sequence based phylogenetic reconstruction, includes 12 species. While other species of this group are considered prototypes of commensal bacteria, S. pneumoniae is among the most frequent microbial...

  13. Outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Psychiatric Unit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-02

    Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses her investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae outbreak in a pediatric psychiatric unit.  Created: 11/2/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/5/2012.

  14. Detection of Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptococcosis is one of the most important bacterial diseases in farmed salmonid fishes. Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae are known as the major pathogens of streptococcosis and lactococcosis in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The present study accomplished the detection of the two mentioned ...

  15. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis...

  16. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC...

  17. A Visual Review of the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ditte Høyer; Kilian, Mogens; Goodsell, David

    2017-01-01

    Being the principal causative agent of bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and septicemia, the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major global health problem. To highlight the molecular basis of this problem, we have portrayed essential biological processes of the pneumococcal life...

  18. Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miehl, R.; Miller, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions

  19. Genome-wide comparison and taxonomic relatedness of multiple Xylella fastidiosa strains reveal the occurrence of three subspecies and a new Xylella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    A total of 21 Xylella fastidiosa strains were assessed by comparing their genomes to infer their taxonomic relationships. The whole-genome-based average nucleotide identity and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficient analyses were performed. In addition, a consensus tree based on comparisons of 956 core gene families, and a genome-wide phylogenetic tree and a Neighbor-net network were constructed with 820,088 nucleotides (i.e., approximately 30-33 % of the entire X. fastidiosa genome). All approaches revealed the occurrence of three well-demarcated genetic clusters that represent X. fastidiosa subspecies fastidiosa, multiplex and pauca, with the latter appeared to diverge. We suggest that the proposed but never formally described subspecies 'sandyi' and 'morus' are instead members of the subspecies fastidiosa. These analyses support the view that the Xylella strain isolated from Pyrus pyrifolia in Taiwan is likely to be a new species. A widely used multilocus sequence typing analysis yielded conflicting results.

  20. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific).

  1. Genomic Analyses Reveal Demographic History and Temperate Adaptation of the Newly Discovered Honey Bee Subspecies Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan n. ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Zhiguang; Pan, Qi; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Huihua; Guo, Haikun; Liu, Shidong; Lu, Hongfeng; Tian, Shilin; Li, Ruiqiang; Shi, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Studying the genetic signatures of climate-driven selection can produce insights into local adaptation and the potential impacts of climate change on populations. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an interesting species to study local adaptation because it originated in tropical/subtropical climatic regions and subsequently spread into temperate regions. However, little is known about the genetic basis of its adaptation to temperate climates. Here, we resequenced the whole genomes of ten individual bees from a newly discovered population in temperate China and downloaded resequenced data from 35 individuals from other populations. We found that the new population is an undescribed subspecies in the M-lineage of A. mellifera (Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan). Analyses of population history show that long-term global temperature has strongly influenced the demographic history of A. m. sinisxinyuan and its divergence from other subspecies. Further analyses comparing temperate and tropical populations identified several candidate genes related to fat body and the Hippo signaling pathway that are potentially involved in adaptation to temperate climates. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of the newly discovered A. m. sinisxinyuan, as well as the genetic basis of adaptation of A. mellifera to temperate climates at the genomic level. These findings will facilitate the selective breeding of A. mellifera to improve the survival of overwintering colonies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Helberg, Morten; Strann, Karl-Birger; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The dominating OCs in lesser black-backed gulls were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). DDE and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) residues were higher in L. f. fuscus compared to L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds in the Barents Sea region. In the latter area, blood residues of PCB and DDE in lesser black-backed gulls were as high as in great black-backed gulls, Larus marinus, while in the other regions they were lower. The higher DDE residues in endangered L. f. fuscus compared to increasing L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds, which are invading northern Norway, suggest that OCs may have played a role in the population decline of L. f. fuscus, possibly in combination with nutrient stress. - DDE and β-HCH residues were higher in an endangered compared to an increasing subspecies of lesser black-backed gulls in Norway

  3. Ubiquitous distribution of fluorescent protein in muscles of four species and two subspecies of eel (genus Anguilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Aki; Itakura, Takao; Hassanin Abeer, A I; Komatsu, Masaharu; Hayashi, Seiichi; Kaminishi, Yoshio

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the localization of fluorescent protein (FP) was characterized in the muscles of four species and two subspecies of eels Anguilla anguilla, A. australis, A. bicolor bicolor (b.), A. bicolor pacifica (p.) and A. mossambica in addition to the previously reported A. japonica. The open reading frame of each eel FP was 417 bp encoding 139 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences among the four species and two subspecies exhibited 91.4-100% identity, and belonged to the fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) family. The gene structure of eel FPs in A. japonica, A. anguilla, A. australis, A. bicolor b., A. bicolor p. and A. mossambica have four exons and three introns, and were common to that of FABP family. The apo eel FPs expressed by Escherichia coli with recombinant eel FP genes were analysed for the fluorescent properties in the presence of bilirubin. The excitation and emission spectra of holo eel FPs had the maximum wavelengths of 490-496 and 527-530 nm, respectively. The holo eel FPs indicated that the fluorescent intensities were stronger in A. japonica and A. bicolor than in A. mossambica, A. australis and A. anguilla. The comparison of amino acid sequences revealed two common substitutions in A. mossambica, A. australis and A. anguilla with weak fluorescent intensity.

  4. Liposome-enhanced transformation of Streptococcus lactis and plasmid transfer by intergeneric protoplast fusion of Streptococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Jos M.B.M. van der; Kok, Jan; Lelie, Daniel van der; Venema, Gerhardus

    An efficient protoplast transformation system and a procedure of plasmid transfer by means of protoplast fusion is described for Streptococcus lactis. Protoplasts of S. lactis IL1403 and S. lactis MG1363 were transformed by pGK12 [2.9 MDa erythromycin resistance (Emr)] with an efficiency of 3 × 10^5

  5. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue Comment on "Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development".

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem; Huss, Tessy; Munthali, Alister; Amin, Mutamad

    2015-11-16

    The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool - Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP) - which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  6. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Bhuvana, Mani; Mitra, Susweta Das; Krithiga, Natesan; Shome, Rajeswari; Velu, Dhanikachalam; Banerjee, Apala; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Prabhudas, Krishnamshetty; Rahman, Habibar

    2012-12-01

    Streptococci are one among the major mastitis pathogens which have a considerable impact on cow health, milk quality, and productivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and virulence characteristics of streptococci from bovine milk and to assess the molecular epidemiology and population structure of the Indian isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of a total of 209 bovine composite milk samples screened from four herds (A-D), 30 Streptococcus spp. were isolated from 29 milk samples. Among the 30 isolates, species-specific PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified 17 Streptococcus agalactiae arising from herd A and 13 Streptococcus uberis comprising of 5, 7, and 1 isolates from herds B, C, and D respectively. PCR based screening for virulence genes revealed the presence of the cfb and the pavA genes in 17 and 1 S. agalactiae isolates, respectively. Similarly, in S. uberis isolates, cfu gene was present in six isolates from herd C, the pau A/skc gene in all the isolates from herds B, C, and D, whereas the sua gene was present in four isolates from herd B and the only isolate from herd D. On MLST analysis, all the S. agalactiae isolates were found to be of a novel sequence type (ST), ST-483, reported for the first time and is a single locus variant of the predicted subgroup founder ST-310, while the S. uberis isolates were found to be of three novel sequence types, namely ST-439, ST-474, and ST-475, all reported for the first time. ST-474 was a double locus variant of three different STs of global clonal complex ST-143 considered to be associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis, but ST-439 and ST-475 were singletons. Unique sequence types identified for both S. agalactiae and S. uberis were found to be herd specific. On PFGE analysis, identical or closely related restriction patterns for S. agalactiae ST-483 and S. uberis ST-439 in herds A and B

  7. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C, vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about

  8. Comparison of transmission dynamics between Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of study were to determine the transmission parameters (β), durations of infection, and basic reproductive numbers (R0) of both Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis as pathogens causing mastitis outbreaks in dairy herds. A 10-mo longitudinal study was performed using 2 smallholder dairy herds with mastitis outbreaks caused by Strep. agalactiae and Strep. uberis, respectively. Both herds had poor mastitis control management and did not change their milking management during the entire study period. Quarter milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from all lactating animals in each herd for bacteriological identification. The durations of infection for Strep. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) and Strep. agalactiae IMI were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the Kaplan-Meier survival functions for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were compared using log rank survival-test. The spread of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae through the population was determined by transmission parameter, β, the probability per unit of time that one infectious quarter will infect another quarter, assuming that all other quarters are susceptible. For the Strep. uberis outbreak herd (31 cows), 56 new infections and 28 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. For the Strep. agalactiae outbreak herd (19 cows), 26 new infections and 9 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. The duration of infection for Strep. agalactiae (mean=270.84 d) was significantly longer than the duration of infection for Strep. uberis (mean=187.88 d). The transmission parameters (β) estimated (including 95% confidence interval) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were 0.0155 (0.0035-0.0693) and 0.0068 (0.0008-0.0606), respectively. The R0 (including 95% confidence interval) during the study were 2.91 (0.63-13.47) and 1.86 (0.21-16.61) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI, respectively. In conclusion, the transmission

  9. First records of 5 allochthonous species and subspecies of turtles (Trachemys scripta troostii, Mauremys caspica, Mauremys rivulata, Pelodiscus sinensis, Testudo horsfieldii and new records of subspecies Trachemys scripta elegans in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija PUPINA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the presence of allochthonous species of turtles in the nature of Latvia, as well as to withdraw them from the nature according to the "Plan on protection of Emys orbicularis in Latvia", officially approved by the Latvian Ministry of Environment (Pupiņš & Pupiņa 2007a. The methods of the research were: 1 information campaign and survey; 2 interviews with inhabitants; 3 field expeditions; 4 laboratory study of viability of found turtles. In course of research, five new allochthonous species and subspecies of the turtles were recorded for the first time, and new data were obtained about finding Trachemys scripta elegans in the nature of Latvia. Most of the registered animals (80% were removed from the nature. Since allochthonous turtles get there in the result of escape from pet-lovers and, apparently, illegal introduction into nature by their owners, education of population is of great importance.

  10. Identification of Staphylococcus species and subspecies with the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, W E; George, C G

    1991-01-01

    The accuracies of the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems (Baxter Diagnostic Inc., MicroScan Division, West Sacramento, Calif.) were compared with each other and with the accuracies of conventional methods for the identification of 25 Staphylococcus species and 4 subspecies. Conventional methods included those used in the original descriptions of species and subspecies and DNA-DNA hybridization. The Pos ID panel uses a battery of 18 tests, and the Rapid Pos ID panel uses a battery of 42 tests for the identification of Staphylococcus species. The Pos ID panel has modified conventional and chromogenic tests that can be read after 15 to 48 h of incubation; the Rapid Pos ID panel has tests that use fluorogenic substrates or fluorometric indicators, and test results can be read after 2 h of incubation in the autoSCAN-W/A. Results indicated that both MicroScan systems had a high degree of congruence (greater than or equal to 90%) with conventional methods for the species S. capitis, S. aureus, S. auricularis, S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, S. arlettae, S. carnosus, S. lentus, and S. sciuri and, in particular, the subspecies S. capitis subsp. capitis and S. cohnii subsp. cohnii. The Rapid Pos ID panel system also had greater than or equal to 90% congruence with conventional methods for S. epidermidis, S. caprae, S. warneri subsp. 2, S. xylosus, S. kloosii, and S. caseolyticus. For both MicroScan systems, congruence with conventional methods was 80 to 90% for S. haemolyticus subsp. 1, S. equorum, S. intermedius, and S. hyicus; and in addition, with the Rapid Pos ID panel system congruence was 80 to 89% for S. capitis subsp. ureolyticus, S. warneri subsp. 1, S. hominis, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, and S. simulans. The MicroScan systems identified a lower percentage (50 to 75%) of strains of S. lugdunensis, S. gallinarum, S. schleiferi, and S. chromogenes, although the addition of specific tests to the systems might increase the accuracy of identification

  11. Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campañas exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los ni

  12. [THE DIAGNOSTIC APPROACHES TO VERIFICATION OF STREPTOCOCCUS INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M A; Labushkina, A V; Simovanian, E N; Kharseeva, G G

    2015-11-01

    The Rostovskii state medical university of Minzdrav of Russia, 344022 Rostov-on-Don, Russia The analysis is applied concerning significance of laboratory techniques of verification of streptococcus infection (bacteriological analysis, detection of anti-streptolysin O in pair serums) in 148 patients with infectious mononucleosis aged from 3 to 15 years. The content of anti-streptolysin O exceeded standard in 41 ± 4.8% of patients with concomitant in acute period and in 49.5 ± 4.9% during period of re-convalescence. This data differed from analogous indicator in patients with negative result of examination on streptococcus infection independently of period of disease (9.3 ± 2.8%). The exceeding of standard of anti-streptolysin O was detected more frequently (t ≥ 2, P ≥ 95%) in patients with isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes (56.9 ± 5.8%) than in patients with Streptococcus viridans (31.2 ± 6.5%). The concentration of anti-streptolysin 0 in patients with concomitant streptococcus infection varied within limits 200-1800 IE/ml. The minimal level of anti-streptolysin O (C = 200 IE/mI) was detected independently of type of isolated Streptococcus and period of disease. The high levels of anti-streptolysin O were observed exclusively in patients with isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes. In blood serum ofpatient with concomitant streptococcus infection (Streptococcus pyogenes + Streptococcus viridans) increasing of level of anti-streptolysin O was detected in dynamics of diseases from minimal (C = 200 IE/ ml) to moderately high (200 mononucleosis the anamnesis data is to be considered. The complex bacteriological and serological examination ofpatients is to be implemented This is necessary for early detection ofpatients with streptococcus infection and decreasing risk of formation of streptococcus carrier state.

  13. Transcriptional Analysis of the bgIP Gene from Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-21

    bglP gene from Streptococcus mutans Christopher K Cote1,2 and Allen L Honeyman*1,3 Address: 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology... Streptococcus mutans . A potential ribonucleic antitermination (RAT) site to which the LicT protein would potentially bind has been identified immediately...longisporum [3], Lactobacillus plantarium [4], Bacillus subtilis [5,6], and Streptococcus mutans [7]. All of these organisms rely on the phosphoe

  14. The Streptococcus sanguinis Competence Regulon Is Not Required for Infective Endocarditis Virulence in a Rabbit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Jill E.; Munro, Cindy L.; Kitten, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is an important component of dental plaque and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Genetic competence in S. sanguinis requires a quorum sensing system encoded by the early comCDE genes, as well as late genes controlled by the alternative sigma factor, ComX. Previous studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have identified functions for the >100-gene com regulon in addition to DNA uptake, including virulence. We investigated this possibility i...

  15. Neutrophil evasion strategies by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Megan L; Surewaard, Bas G J

    2018-03-01

    Humans are well equipped to defend themselves against bacteria. The innate immune system employs diverse mechanisms to recognize, control and initiate a response that can destroy millions of different microbes. Microbes that evade the sophisticated innate immune system are able to escape detection and could become pathogens. The pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are particularly successful due to the development of a wide variety of virulence strategies for bacterial pathogenesis and they invest significant efforts towards mechanisms that allow for neutrophil evasion. Neutrophils are a primary cellular defense and can rapidly kill invading microbes, which is an indispensable function for maintaining host health. This review compares the key features of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in epidemiology, with a specific focus on virulence mechanisms utilized to evade neutrophils in bacterial pathogenesis. It is important to understand the complex interactions between pathogenic bacteria and neutrophils so that we can disrupt the ability of pathogens to cause disease.

  16. Streptococcus Constellatus Spondylodiscitis in a Teenager: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S W; Lim, H Y; Kannaiah, T; Zuki, Z

    2017-11-01

    Streptococcus constellatus is an extremely rare cause of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Literature search yielded only one case report in an elderly 72 years old man with spontaneous T10-T11 S. constellatus spondylodiscitis. It is virtually unheard of in young teenage. We report the case of a 14 years old male teenager who presented with worsening low back pain for one year with no neurological deficit. Imaging studies were consistent with features of L4-L5 spondylodiscitis. CT guided biopsy grew a pure culture of streptococcus constellatus sensitive to penicillin and erythromycin. He showed full recovery with six weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Due to the insidious onset, this case highlight the importance of high clinical suspicion and early diagnosis, with image guided biopsy followed by treatment with appropriate intravenous antibiotics to enable full recovery without further neurological deterioration.

  17. One More Disguise in the Stealth Behavior of Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A. Fischetti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to hide in the animal kingdom is essential for survival; the same is true for bacteria. Streptococcus pyogenes is considered one of the more successful stealth bacteria in its production of a hyaluronic acid capsule that is chemically identical to the hyaluronic acid lining human joints. It has also acquired the capacity to enter eukaryotic cells to avoid the onslaught of the host’s immune defenses, as well as drugs. From this intracellular vantage point, it may remain dormant from days to weeks, only to cause disease again at a later time, perhaps causing a relapse in a drug-treated patient. We now learn that it is able to enter macrophages as well, enabling the Streptococcus to use this “Trojan horse” approach to be transported to distant sites in the body.

  18. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Molecular and morphological differentiation of Secret Toad-headed agama, Phrynocephalus mystaceus, with the description of a new subspecies from Iran (Reptilia, Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyeva, Evgeniya N; Dunayev, Evgeniy N; Nazarov, Roman A; Mehdi Radjabizadeh; Poyarkov, Nikolay A

    2018-01-01

    The morphological and genetic variation of a wide-ranging Secret Toad-headed agama, Phrynocephalus mystaceus that inhabits sand deserts of south-eastern Europe, Middle East, Middle Asia, and western China is reviewed. Based on the morphological differences and high divergence in COI (mtDNA) gene sequences a new subspecies of Ph. mystaceus is described from Khorasan Razavi Province in Iran. Partial sequences of COI mtDNA gene of 31 specimens of Ph. mystaceus from 17 localities from all major parts of species range were analyzed. Genetic distances show a deep divergence between Ph. mystaceus khorasanus ssp. n. from Khorasan Razavi Province and all other populations of Ph. mystaceus . The new subspecies can be distinguished from other populations of Ph. mystaceus by a combination of several morphological features. Molecular and morphological analyses do not support the validity of other Ph. mystaceus subspecies described from Middle Asia and Caspian basin. Geographic variations in the Ph. mystaceus species complex and the status of previously described subspecies were discussed.

  20. Narrow hybrid zone between two subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata: Asteraceae): XI. Plant-insect interactions in reciprocal transplant gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Graham; E. Durant McArthur; D. Carl Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) hybridize in a narrow zone near Salt Creek, Utah. Reciprocal transplant experiments in this hybrid zone demonstrate that hybrids are more fit than either parental subspecies, but only in the hybrid zone. Do hybrids experience greater, or lesser, use by...