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Sample records for streptocarpus subgenus streptocarpella

  1. Characterization and Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Critically Endangered Species Streptocarpus teitensis (Gesneriaceae

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    Cornelius M. Kyalo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptocarpus teitensis (Gesneriaceae is an endemic species listed as critically endangered in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN red list of threatened species. However, the sequence and genome information of this species remains to be limited. In this article, we present the complete chloroplast genome structure of Streptocarpus teitensis and its evolution inferred through comparative studies with other related species. S. teitensis displayed a chloroplast genome size of 153,207 bp, sheltering a pair of inverted repeats (IR of 25,402 bp each split by small and large single-copy (SSC and LSC regions of 18,300 and 84,103 bp, respectively. The chloroplast genome was observed to contain 116 unique genes, of which 80 are protein-coding, 32 are transfer RNAs, and four are ribosomal RNAs. In addition, a total of 196 SSR markers were detected in the chloroplast genome of Streptocarpus teitensis with mononucleotides (57.1% being the majority, followed by trinucleotides (33.2% and dinucleotides and tetranucleotides (both 4.1%, and pentanucleotides being the least (1.5%. Genome alignment indicated that this genome was comparable to other sequenced members of order Lamiales. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that Streptocarpus teitensis is closely related to Lysionotus pauciflorus and Dorcoceras hygrometricum.

  2. Floral evolution of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae.

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    Letícia Loss de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK and two nuclear (ETS and 18S markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface.

  3. Floral evolution of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae).

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    de Oliveira, Letícia Loss; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; de Morais, Érica Barroso; Mayo, Simon Joseph; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK) and two nuclear (ETS and 18S) markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface.

  4. A new subgenus of Heterotrigona from New Guinea (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

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    Engel, Michael S.; Rasmussen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    A new subgenus is established within the Indomalayan stingless bee genus Heterotrigona Schwarz (Meliponini). Sahulotrigona Engel & Rasmussen, new subgenus, is distinguished from amongst other Heterotrigona, particularly the subgenus Platytrigona Moure, within which one of the two included species...... in the following new combinations: Heterotrigona (Platytrigona) flaviventris (Friese), H. (P.) hobbyi (Schwarz), H. (P.) keyensis (Friese), H. (P.) lamingtonia (Cockerell), H. (P.) planifrons (Smith), H. (Sundatrigona) lieftincki (Sakagami & Inoue), and H. (Su.) moorei (Schwarz). The stingless bees of Papuasia...

  5. Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum from the built environment

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    J.B. Tanney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungi, especially Aspergillus species, are prevalent in the built environment. In this study, we employed a combined culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing and culture-dependent (dilution-to-extinction approach to investigate the mycobiota of indoor dust collected from 93 buildings in 12 countries worldwide. High and low water activity (aw media were used to capture mesophile and xerophile biodiversity, resulting in the isolation of approximately 9 000 strains. Among these, 340 strains representing seven putative species in Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum were isolated, mostly from lowered aw media, and tentatively identified based on colony morphology and internal transcribed spacer rDNA region (ITS barcodes. Further morphological study and phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS, β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2, DNA topoisomerase 1 (TOP1, and a pre-mRNA processing protein homolog (TSR1 confirmed the isolation of seven species of subgenus Polypaecilum, including five novel species: A. baarnensis, A. keratitidis, A. kalimae sp. nov., A. noonimiae sp. nov., A. thailandensis sp. nov., A. waynelawii sp. nov., and A. whitfieldii sp. nov. Pyrosequencing detected six of the seven species isolated from house dust, as well as one additional species absent from the cultures isolated, and three clades representing potentially undescribed species. Species were typically found in house dust from subtropical and tropical climates, often in close proximity to the ocean or sea. The presence of subgenus Polypaecilum, a recently described clade of xerophilic/xerotolerant, halotolerant/halophilic, and potentially zoopathogenic species, within the built environment is noteworthy.

  6. Phytogeographical Analysis Of Euphorbia Subgenus Esula (Euphorbiaceae

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    Geltman Dmitry V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia subg. Esula is one of four major clades within the genus. A geographical analysis of the 466 species in the subgenus is reported here. Every species was assigned to one of 29 geographical elements clustered in ten groups of elements. This geographical analysis showed that the Tethyan group (comprising nine geographical elements clearly dominates the subgenus and contains 260 species (55.79% of the total number of species. The most numerous geographical elements are Irano-Turanian (105 species and Mediterranean (85. Other significant groups of elements are Boreal (91 species, 19.54%, East Asian (40 species, 8.58%, Madrean (26 species, 5.58%, Paleotropical (23 species, 4.94% and South African (16 species, 3.43%. The area of the Tethyan floristic subkingdom is the center of the modern diversity of E. subg. Esula. It is likely that such diversity is the result of intensive speciation that took place during the Eocene–Miocene.

  7. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

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    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among species of Lutzomyia, subgenus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae).

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    Pinto, Israel S; Filho, José D Andrade; Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio; Leite, Yuri L R

    2010-01-01

    Lutzomyia França is the largest and most diverse sand fly genus in the New World and contains all the species involved in the transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). Morphological characters were used to test the monophyly and to infer phylogenetic relationships among members of the Lutzomyia subgenus. Fifty-two morphological characters from male and female adult specimens belonging to 18 species of Lu. (Lutzomyia) were scored and analyzed. The resulting phylogeny confirms the monophyly of this subgenus and reveals four main internal clades. These four clades, however, do not support the classification of the subgenus in two series, longipalpis and cavernicola, because neither is necessarily monophyletic. Knowledge on phylogenetic relationships among these relevant vectors of AVL should be used as a tool for monitoring target taxa and a first step for establishing an early warning system for disease control.

  9. Andinopanurgus, a new Andean subgenus of Protandrena (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae

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    Victor Gonzalez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new subgenus of Protandrena Cockerell (Panurginae: Protandrenini from South America, Andinopanurgus Gonzalez & Engel, subgen. n., is described and figured for distinctive species of the genus occurring at mid- and high elevations in the Andes from Venezuela to Peru (1100–3400 m. In addition to the distribution, the subgenus is easily distinguished from other subgenera by a unique combination of morphological characters in both sexes, especially in the hidden sterna and genitalia of the male. Protandrena amyae sp. n., and P. femoralis sp. n., are also described and figured from the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Andes. New geographical records and a key to the species are also provided.

  10. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae)

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    E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    1999-01-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells...

  11. Phylogeography, population structure and evolution of coral-eating butterflyfishes (Family Chaetodontidae, genus Chaetodon , subgenus Corallochaetodon )

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    Waldrop, Ellen; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Randall, John E.; DiBattista, Joseph; Rocha, Luiz A.; Kosaki, Randall K.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the phylogeography, population structure and evolution of four butterflyfish species in the Chaetodon subgenus Corallochaetodon, with two widespread species (Indian Ocean – C. trifasciatus and Pacific Ocean – C. lunulatus

  12. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

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    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  13. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

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    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphological and Genotypic Variations among the Species of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomus) in Iran.

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    Zahraei-Ramazani, Alireza; Kumar, Dinesh; Mirhendi, Hossein; Sundar, Shyam; Mishra, Rajnikan; Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh; Soleimani, Hassan; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Shahraky, Sodabe Hamedi; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-06-01

    Female sand flies of subgenus Adlerius are considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the morphological and genotypic variations in the populations of this subgenus in the country. Sand flies collected using sticky traps from 17 provinces during 2008-2010. The morphometric measurements were conducted with an Ocular Micrometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS. The Cytb gene was used to estimate population genetic diversity and identify the female specimens. UPGMA phenetic tree was used for DNA haplotypes of Cytb gene. Six species of subgenus Adlerius identified from which one species, P. (Adlerius) kabulensis, is new record. The identification key is provided for males. Results revealed the molecular systematic in the species of subgenus Adlerius and determine the relationship of three females of P. comatus, P. balcanicus and P. halepensis. The positions of three females and the males in the UPGMA tree are correct and the similarities among them confirm our results. The branches of each species are not genetically distinct which justify the overlapping morphological characters among them. Molecular sequencing of Cytb-mtDNA haplotypes can be used for female identification for different species of subgenus Adlerius in Iran.

  15. Morphological and Genotypic Variations among the Species of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomus in Iran

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    Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female sand flies of subgenus Adlerius are considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the morphological and genotypic variations in the populations of this subgenus in the country.Methods: Sand flies collected using sticky traps from 17 provinces during 2008–2010. The morphometric measurements were conducted with an Ocular Micrometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS. The Cytb gene was used to estimate population genetic diversity and identify the female specimens. UPGMA phenetic tree was used for DNA haplotypes of Cytb gene.Results: Six species of subgenus Adlerius identified from which one species, P. (Adlerius kabulensis, is new record. The identification key is provided for males. Results revealed the molecular systematic in the species of subgenus Adlerius and determine the relationship of three females of P. comatus, P. balcanicus and P. halepensis.Conclusion: The positions of three females and the males in the UPGMA tree are correct and the similarities among them confirm our results. The branches of each species are not genetically distinct which justify the overlapping morphological characters among them. Molecular sequencing of Cytb-mtDNA haplotypes can be used for female identification for different species of subgenus Adlerius in Iran.

  16. Mycotoxins, drugs and other extrolites produced by species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium

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    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2004-01-01

    extrolite families are reported from the subgenus with an average of 5 extrolite families per species. This is an underestimate as several pigments, volatiles and uncharacterized extrolites are not included in this average. Several reported producers are reidentified and new producers of known extrolites...... species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. In most cases these extrolites are produced consistently by all isolates examined in a species. The important antibiotic penicillin is produced by all members of series Chrysogena and P. griseofulvum. The cholesterol-lowering agent compactin is produced by P...

  17. Taxonomic study of Festuca L. subgenus Schedonorus (P. Beauv. Peterm. in Iran

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    Sayed Zabihollah Hosseini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was based upon a taxonomic review of the subgenus Schedonorus in Iran. A collection of 30 specimens belonging to the herbaria: W, B and HUI (herbarium of the University of Isfahan were studied. Based on the results of this study, this subgenus included three species: Festuca arundinacea, F. gigantea and F. pratensis in Iran. Furthermore, this study showed that F. arundinacea, occured in this country with two subspecies: orientalis (Hack. Tzvelev and fenas (Lag. Arcang. with the greatest area of distribution compared to the other two species. Our examination of the type specimen of F. elatior subsp. pratensis var. elbursiana confirmed its synonymy with F. arundinacea.

  18. Alocanthedon, a new subgenus of Chalicodoma from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)

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    Engel, Michael S.; Gonzalez, Victor H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new subgenus, Alocanthedon Engel and Gonzalez subgen. n., is described for five species of unusual Southeast Asian bees in the genus Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau (Megachilinae: Megachilini). The subgenus is most noteworthy for the deep postgenal depression or furrow in males (bordered outwardly near the base of the mandible by a protuberant, thick lamella) and the presence of a dense patch of black setae posteriorly in the forewing medial cell (except in one species) [resembling the dense patch of setae among the submarginal cells of Thrinchostoma Saussure (Halictidae: Halictinae: Halictini)]. The subgenus is characterized and distinguished from the related Callomegachile Michener. A key to the following five species presently included in the subgenus is provided: Chalicodoma aterrimum (Smith), Chalicodoma atratiforme (Meade-Waldo) comb. n., Chalicodoma memecylonae Engel sp. n., Chalicodoma odontophorum Engel sp. n., and Chalicodoma apoicola Engel sp. n. Chalicodoma (Callomegachile) atratiforme sininsulae (Cockerell) is newly placed in synonymy with C. (C.) fulvipenne (Smith). Species have been collected from Memecylaceae (Myrtales) and Fabaceae (Fabales). The phylogenetic relationships of Alocanthedon among other Megachilini are briefly elaborated upon. PMID:21747670

  19. On the West-African species of the subgenus Eupalaemon Ortm

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    Man, de J.G.

    1911-01-01

    In addition to my description of Palaemon (Eupalaemon) Lenzii de Man (see p. 225 of this volume) I give here a key to the species of the subgenus Eupalaemon Ortm. as yet known to occur in the rivers of West-Africa. Six species are at present known from there, viz.: 1. Pal. (Eupalaemon) macrobrachion

  20. Typification of the Linnaean names Plantago serraria and P. subulata (Plantago subgenus i>Coronopus>, Plantaginaceae)

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    Hassemer, Gustavo; Iamonico, Duilio; Rønsted, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Plantago subg. Coronopus is a mainly Mediterranean group of plantains whose taxonomy is very complex. Two Linnaean names within this subgenus still remain untypified: P. serraria and P. subulata. We here discuss the possible types for these names, and designate lectotypes for both. For nomenclatu....... For nomenclatural purposes, the names P. triquetra and P. pungens are also included in the treatment of P. subulata....

  1. Studies of Lactarius from Mexico: a new species in subgenus Piperites

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    Montoya, L.; Bandala, V.M.; Moreno, G.

    1998-01-01

    Lactarius lacteolutescens is described as a new member in subgenus Piperites subsect. Croceini. It was found growing in a mixed forest of Pinus spp. and Abies hickellii, at Mt. Cofre de Perote, Central Region of the State of Veracruz (Gulf Area, Mexico).

  2. Phylogeny of osmophillic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

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    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister sect. Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises osmophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We addressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied multidis...

  3. The role of wing geometric morphometrics in the identification of sandflies within the subgenus Lutzomyia.

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    Giordani, B F; Andrade, A J; Galati, E A B; Gurgel-Gonçalves, R

    2017-12-01

    The Lutzomyia subgenus (Diptera: Psychodidae) includes sibling species with morphologically indistinguishable females. The aims of this study were to analyse variations in the size and shape of wings of species within the Lutzomyia subgenus and to assess whether these analyses might be useful in their identification. Wings (n = 733) of 18 species deposited in Brazilian collections were analysed by geometric morphometrics, using other genera and subgenera as outgroups. Shape variation was summarized in multivariate analyses and differences in wing size among species were tested by analysis of variance. The results showed significant variation in the sizes and shapes of wings of different Lutzomyia species. Two clusters within the Lutzomyia subgenus were distinguished in analyses of both males and females. In Cluster 1 (Lutzomyia ischnacantha, Lutzomyia cavernicola, Lutzomyia almerioi, Lutzomyia forattinii, Lutzomyia renei and Lutzomyia battistinii), scores for correct reclassification were high (females, kappa = 0.91; males, kappa = 0.90), whereas in Cluster 2 (Lutzomyia alencari, Lutzomyia ischyracantha, Lutzomyia cruzi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia gaminarai and Lutzomyia lichyi), scores for correct reclassification were low (females, kappa = 0.42; males, kappa = 0.48). Wing geometry was useful in the identification of some species of the Lutzomyia subgenus, but did not allow the identification of sibling species such as L. longipalpis and L. cruzi. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Intidhar Abbes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and S. tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of S. tunetana with S. cariosa from Lebanon showed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of S. baetica and S. otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria.

  5. Simulium hiroyukii, a new species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia.

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    Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2015-01-20

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hiroyukii is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the Simulium darjeelingense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the darkened fore coxae and the pupal gill with eight long filaments, of which middle and dorsal triplets have elongated primary and secondary stalks, respectively. 

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIII. Guaianolides in the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh., genus Centaurea L.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were found to occur in all of the studied species of the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh. Differing compositions were found in the representatives of three sections. In Centaurea declinata MB. from the section Leucophylle (Sosn. Sosn.. 15-deoxyrepin, linichlorin B and cynaropicrin were found. Linichlorin B dominated in Centaurea hypoleucu DC. from section Hypoleucae (Sosn. Sosn., while in the species classified in section Psephellus Sosn., repin, acroptilin, jenerin, centaurepensin and, in some, also cynaropicrin. dominated.

  7. A new species of Cladotanytarsus (Lenziella) from Oregon supports the systematic concept of the subgenus (Diptera: Chironomidae).

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    Puchalski, Mateusz; Giłka, Wojciech

    2017-05-18

    A new species of the genus Cladotanytarsus Kieffer, 1921 and the small subgenus Lenziella Kieffer, 1922 is described from Southern Oregon, USA. The adult male of C. (L.) glaber Giłka et Puchalski, sp. nov., featuring tibial lobes armed with dense setae and a large globular swelling of the hypopygial inferior volsella, supports the recently defined systematic concept for Lenziella. This subgenus is known from seven species distributed in the Northern Hemisphere (1 European, 1 Palaearctic and 5 Nearctic), the males of which are included in an updated identification key.

  8. Taxonomic review of the subgenus Andrena (Poecilandrena) (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) in Israel and the Levant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanty, Gideon; Scheuchl, Erwin; Dorchin, Netta

    2018-01-18

    Andrena (Poecilandrena) Hedicke is a subgenus of small solitary bees, with the greatest diversity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region-an important but understudied biodiversity hotspot for bees. We studied Andrena (Poecilandrena) collected mostly in Israel and the West Bank, and make several additions to the regional fauna. We provide the first comprehensive review of Andrena (Poecilandrena) species currently known from Israel, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, including diagnostic keys to females and males, descriptions of new species and unknown sexes, and detailed information for each taxon regarding distribution, phenology and flower visitation. Our review includes fourteen species of Andrena (Poecilandrena) from the Levant, including five species new to science: A. freidbergi Pisanty Scheuchl n. sp., A. galilaea Pisanty Scheuchl n. sp., A. hierosolymitana Pisanty Scheuchl n. sp., A. sedumella Scheuchl Pisanty n. sp., and A. stenofovea Scheuchl Pisanty n. sp. We also report four species as new to the region, and provide the first description of the male of A. rusticola Warncke. We exclude A. arabica Scheuchl Gusenleitner from the subgenus, and synonymize it with A. helouanensis Friese. We anticipate that more collecting work in this region will yield additional undescribed taxa as well as new records, especially of taxa already known from Turkey. In the appendix to this work we provide information on 35 new records of other Andrena subgenera from Israel and the West Bank that have accumulated in recent years.

  9. Studies on Colombian cryptogams. V. Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of macrolichens of the Colombian Paramos: 1. Cladonia subgenus Cladina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.J.M.; Cleef, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of 6 species of Cladonia subgenus Cladina (Lichenes) from the Colombian paramos are described: C. arcuata Ahti, C. boliviano Ahti, C. confusa Sant., C. polia Sant., C. rangiferina (L.) Wigg. var. abbayesii Ahti, and C. colombiana spec. Nov. C. bicolor

  10. The species of Aplysia belonging to the subgenus Tullia Pruvot-Fol, 1933: On a generic character in statu nascendi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, H.; Eales, Nellie B.

    1957-01-01

    Mme PRUVOT-FOL, 1933, p. 400, established the subgenus Tullia for Aplysia juliana QUOY et GAIMARD, and 1934, p. 41 added other species of Aplysia with a distinct sucking disk at the end of the foot. Living animals have been figured and their variation has been described by BABA 1937a, p. 211, and

  11. General overview of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia in Peru: The three-pinnate species and the case of two endemic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent collection of a specimen with three-pinnate inflorescence was the inspiration to evaluate Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia taxa with three pinnate inflorescences for the Peruvian flora. Tillandsia extensa characteristics are clarified, confirming its distribution for northeastern Peru, and recognizing a specimen, previously considered being the second record for this species, as T. platyphylla.

  12. Phenotypic differentiation and phylogenetic signal of wing shape in western European biting midges, Culicoides spp., of the subgenus Avaritia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Talavera, S.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    of cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequencing and geometric morphometric analyses to investigate wing shape as a means to infer species identification within this subgenus. In addition the congruence of morphological data with different phylogenetic hypotheses is tested. Five different species...

  13. Systematic studies on Anopheles galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane from the subgenus Nysssorhynchus blanchard (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anice Mureb Sallum

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles galvaoi, a member of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, is redescribed based on morphological characters of the adults male and female, fourth-instar larva and pupa. Female, male genitalia, larval and pupal stages are illustrated. Data about medical importance, bionomics, and distribution are given based on literature records. Adult female of An. galvaoi can be easily misidentified as An. benarrochi Gabaldón and An. aquasalis Curry. A few characters are indicated for identifying female and immatures of An. galvaoi. Phylogenetic relationships among An. galvaoi and six other species of the Oswaldoi Subgroup are estimated using COII mtDNA and ITS2 rDNA gene sequences. Lectotype of An. galvaoi, an adult female from Rio Branco, State of Acre, is invalidated.

  14. Palaearctic Hoplitis bees of the subgenus Platosmia (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas

    2015-03-18

    Platosmia, a subgenus of the osmiine bee genus Hoplitis (Megachilidae), contains ten species, which are confined to desertic and semidesertic areas of the Palaearctic region. Analysis of female pollen loads and field observations indicate that several H. (Platosmia) species are strictly oligolectic on Reseda (Resedaceae) and possibly Hedysareae (Fabaceae), while others are mesolectic on both Reseda and Fabaceae. The few data available so far suggest that preexisting cavities in stones and rocks serve as nesting sites of H. (Platosmia). The taxonomic revision of H. (Platosmia) revealed the existence of an undescribed species from the Arabian peninsula, H. arabiae spec. nov.. Hoplitis incognita Zanden, 1996 and H. quarzazati (Zanden, 1998) are newly synonymized with H. maghrebensis (Zanden, 1992) and H. platalea (Warncke, 1990), respectively. Identification keys for all H. (Platosmia) species are given including the hitherto unknown male or female sex of three species.

  15. Growth and differentiation on a trypanosome of the subgenus Schizotrypanum from the bat Phyllostomus hastatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia I. Hamanaka

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature, pH, osmolarity and aeration on the growth and differentiation of a trypanosome ofthe subgenus Schizotrypanum isolatedfrom the bat Phyllostomus hastatus were studied. In general, the growth characteristics ofthe flagellate were similar to those of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi. However, the parasite did not growth at 33 or 37C. Increase in the osmolarity and aeration promoted growth at 33C. Significant metacyclogenesis was detected only in the growth condition where maximal growth occured (28C, pH 7.3, 380m0s/kg, in tissue cullure flasks, at the end ofthe exponential growth phase. The begining of the metacyclogenesis process was coincident with most glucose utilization and lowest pH. During metacyclogenesis both culture medium pH and osmolarity increased steadly.

  16. Phylogenetic patterns of geographical and ecological diversification in the subgenus Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Morales-Hojas

    Full Text Available Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic. Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations.

  17. Intraspecies differences in natural susceptibility to amphotericine B of clinical isolates of Leishmania subgenus Viannia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Franco-Muñoz

    Full Text Available Amphotericin B (AmB is a recommended medication for the treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in cases of therapeutic failure with first-line medications; however, little is known about the in vitro susceptibility to AmB of clinical isolates of the subgenus Viannia, which is most prevalent in South America. This work aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles to AmB of clinical isolates of the species L. (V. panamensis, L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. braziliensis. In vitro susceptibility to AmB was evaluated for 65 isolates. Macrophages derived from the U937 cell line were infected with promastigotes and exposed to different AmB concentrations. After 96 hours, the number of intracellular amastigotes was quantified by qPCR, and median effective concentration (EC50 was determined using the PROBIT model. The controls included sensitive strains and experimentally derived less sensitive strains generated in vitro, which presented EC50 values up to 7.57-fold higher than the values of the sensitive strains. The isolates were classified into groups according to their in vitro susceptibility profiles using Ward's hierarchical method. The susceptibility to AmB differed in an intraspecies-specific manner as follows: 28.21% (11/39 of L. (V. panamensis strains, 50% (3/6 of L. (V. guyanensis strains and 34.61% (9/26 of L. (V. braziliensis strains were classified as less sensitive. The latter subset featured three susceptibility groups. We identified Colombian isolates with different AmB susceptibility profiles. In addition, the capacity of species of subgenus Viannia to develop lower susceptibility to AmB was demonstrated in vitro. These new findings should be considered in the pharmacovigilance of AmB in Colombia and South America.

  18. Phylogenetic patterns of geographical and ecological diversification in the subgenus Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Vieira, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic). Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations.

  19. Two new species of the acifer species group of Polypedilum subgenus Tripodura Townes from China (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilei; Song, Chao; Wang, Liqing; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-02-13

    Polypedilum (Tripodura) falcatum sp. n. and P. (T.) procerum sp. n. of the acifer species group of Polypedilum subgenus Tripodura Townes are described and illustrated as male imagines from China. The male adult of P. (T.) falcatum sp. n. is distinguished by the presence of two faint markings on wing; short and interrupted abdominal tergite bands; the sickle-like superior volsella bearing 0-2 outer setae and a tuft of short setae on its apex. The male adult of P. (T.) procerum sp. n. differs in having short abdominal tergite bands; a long, slender and apically curved superior volsella; a high fore leg ratio (2.30-2.33). A key to known male imagines of Polypedilum subgenus Tripodura from China is presented.

  20. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R.A.; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.; Spierenburg, H.; Seifert, K.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing that Talaromyces and subgenus Biverticillium comprise a monophyletic group that is distinct from Penicillium at the generic level, the phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was further studied by sequencing a part of the RPB1 (RNA polymerase II largest subunit) gene. Talaromyces species and most species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium sensu Pitt reside in a monophyletic clade distant from species of other subgenera of Penicillium. For detailed phylogenetic analysis of species relationships, the ITS region (incl. 5.8S nrDNA) was sequenced for the available type strains and/or representative isolates of Talaromyces and related biverticillate anamorphic species. Extrolite profiles were compiled for all type strains and many supplementary cultures. All evidence supports our conclusions that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is distinct from other subgenera in Penicillium and should be taxonomically unified with the Talaromyces species that reside in the same clade. Following the concepts of nomenclatural priority and single name nomenclature, we transfer all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces. A holomorphic generic diagnosis for the expanded concept of Talaromyces, including teleomorph and anamorph characters, is provided. A list of accepted Talaromyces names and newly combined Penicillium names is given. Species of biotechnological and medical importance, such as P. funiculosum and P. marneffei, are now combined in Talaromyces. Excluded species and taxa that need further taxonomic study are discussed. An appendix lists other generic names, usually considered synonyms of Penicillium sensu lato that

  1. Evolution of fruit traits in Ficus subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Rhett D.; Rønsted, Nina; Xu, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Fig trees are a ubiquitous component of tropical rain forests and exhibit an enormous diversity of ecologies. Focusing on Ficus subgenus Sycomorus, a phenotypically diverse and ecologically important Old World lineage, we examined the evolution of fruit traits using a molecular phylogeny construc......, such as flowering phenology, nutrient economy, and habitat preference. Thus, plant life-history, both directly and through its influence on fig placement, appears to have played a prominent role in determining fruit traits in these figs....

  2. Alnus subgenus Alnus in the Eocene of western North America based on leaves, associated catkins, pollen, and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Manchester, Steven R; Jin, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    The fossil record of alder (Alnus) is well known in the Cenozoic deposits throughout the northern hemisphere, based on numerous reports of the distinctive pollen, cone-like infructescences, staminate inflorescences, and leaves. However, our understanding of the systematic position of these fossils relative to the modern phylogeny of the genus has been limited because most fossils were described from only one organ. We examined well-preserved leaves and associated fruiting and staminate catkins from the middle Eocene, Clarno Formation, Oregon, USA by stereomicroscopy. In situ and dispersed pollen were cleaned with HF and acetolized for light and scanning electron microscopy. We reconstructed a new extinct species based on multiple organs and discuss significant phytogeographic and phylogenetic implications for Alnus. Alnus clarnoensis sp. nov. is described based on serrate leaves with 1-4 small teeth between each primary tooth, associated cone-like fruiting catkins with fruits in situ, and associated slender pollen catkins bearing in situ 3- to 6-pored pollen with arci between the pores. Combined investigations of each organ indicate that they probably derive from the same species and can be confidently attributed to subgenus Alnus Furlow based on leaf architecture and pollen pore number frequency. The Clarno fossils are most similar to the extant North American species of subgenus Alnus rather than to those from Asia and Europe, indicating that this modern subgenus was already distinct by the middle Eocene and that the intercontinental migration likely occurred earlier. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Phylogeography, population structure and evolution of coral-eating butterflyfishes (Family Chaetodontidae, genus Chaetodon , subgenus Corallochaetodon )

    KAUST Repository

    Waldrop, Ellen

    2016-01-11

    Aim This study compares the phylogeography, population structure and evolution of four butterflyfish species in the Chaetodon subgenus Corallochaetodon, with two widespread species (Indian Ocean – C. trifasciatus and Pacific Ocean – C. lunulatus), and two species that are largely restricted to the Red Sea (C. austriacus) and north-western (NW) Indian Ocean (C. melapterus). Through extensive geographical coverage of these taxa, we seek to resolve patterns of genetic diversity within and between closely related butterflyfish species in order to illuminate biogeographical and evolutionary processes. Location Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Methods A total of 632 individuals from 24 locations throughout the geographical ranges of all four members of the subgenus Corallochaetodon were sequenced using a 605 bp fragment (cytochrome b) of mtDNA. In addition, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess population structure in the two widespread species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the Pacific Ocean C. lunulatus diverged from the Indian Ocean C. trifasciatus approximately 3 Ma, while C. melapterus and C. austriacus comprise a cluster of shared haplotypes derived from C. trifasciatus within the last 0.75 Myr. The Pacific C. lunulatus had significant population structure at peripheral locations on the eastern edge of its range (French Polynesia, Johnston Atoll, Hawai\\'i), and a strong break between two ecoregions of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The Indian Ocean C. trifasciatus showed significant structure only at the Chagos Archipelago in the central Indian Ocean, and the two range-restricted species showed no population structure but evidence of recent population expansion. Main conclusions Patterns of endemism and genetic diversity in Corallochaetodon butterflyfishes have been shaped by (1) Plio-Pleistocene sea level changes that facilitated evolutionary divergences at biogeographical barriers between Indian and Pacific Oceans, and the Indian

  4. The rediscovery of Passiflora kwangtungensis Merr. (subgenus Decaloba supersection Disemma: a critically endangered Chinese endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Krosnick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora kwangtungensis is a critically endangered Chinese species known from Guangxi, Guangdong, and Jiangxi Provinces. The species belongs to Passiflora subgenus Decaloba, supersection Disemma, section Octandranthus. Field observations decreased rapidly during the 1970s to 1980s, and it was suspected that this species might have been extirpated due to repeated deforestation events throughout southern China. In recent years, however, small isolated populations of this species have been rediscovered in Hunan Province, representing new locality records for P. kwangtungensis. New herbarium collections, color photographs, and silica gel collections have provided an unexpected opportunity to examine the evolutionary significance of this species. The current study presents a revised morphological description of P. kwangtungensis based on fresh material, along with an updated distribution map. Using nrITS sequence data, preliminary insights into the phylogenetic position of P. kwangtungensis are presented. Molecular data support the placement of P. kwangtungensis within supersection Disemma section Octandranthus. However, the exact placement of P. kwangtungensis within this lineage is unclear. The nrITS data suggest that P. kwangtungensis may be sister to a clade containing Passiflora from China, Nepal, India, and Southeast Asia. Morphologically, P. kwangtungensis displays the most similarity P. geminiflora (Nepal, India and P. henryi (China. Lastly, conservation status and recommendations are made for P. kwangtungensis following the IUCN Red List Criteria, where this species is classified as CR C1+C2a(i; D.

  5. Species phylogeny of the subgenus parides (Lepidoptera: papilionidae) based in sequences of citochrome oxidase I gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez R, Ingrid Marcela; Fagua, Giovanny

    2012-01-01

    Parides hubner is a terminal taxon of troidini, an aposematic butterfly group that is diverse in the tropics and subtropics, and a model of Mullerian and Batesian mimetic complexes. Several American species of parides are sympatric and include populations with intraspecific variation in color pattern, thus creating confusion on their taxonomic status, mainly in Colombia where the biota of North and South America converge. This work presents a phylogenetic hypothesis of these butterflies and proposes a more robust definition of some taxa. For this, 15 taxa of the subgenus parides were analyzed as ingroup; species of other two genera of troidini, closer to parides, were used as out-group. DNA was extracted using the pascual et al. (1997) protocol and quiagen dnaeasy kit. A terminal fragment of cytochrome oxidase I gen (476 bp) were amplified. We obtained a phylogenetic approximation using maximum parsimony and evaluated the branch support with jackknife and absolute bremer support. We also conducted a bayesian analysis. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis suggested that parides is a paraphyletic group; the molecular evidence support one species and five subspecies. The analyzed taxa were divided in three principal groups coincident with the lysander (group 1) and aeneas (groups 1 and 2) groups proposed by rothschild and jordan (1906).

  6. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H; Abrahamovich, Alberto H

    2015-01-01

    Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented.

  7. Growth and differentiation on a trypanosome of the subgenus Schizotrypanum from the bat Phyllostomus hastatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia I. Hamanaka

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature, pH, osmolarity and aeration on the growth and differentiation of a trypanosome ofthe subgenus Schizotrypanum isolatedfrom the bat Phyllostomus hastatus were studied. In general, the growth characteristics ofthe flagellate were similar to those of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi. However, the parasite did not growth at 33 or 37C. Increase in the osmolarity and aeration promoted growth at 33C. Significant metacyclogenesis was detected only in the growth condition where maximal growth occured (28C, pH 7.3, 380m0s/kg, in tissue cullure flasks, at the end ofthe exponential growth phase. The begining of the metacyclogenesis process was coincident with most glucose utilization and lowest pH. During metacyclogenesis both culture medium pH and osmolarity increased steadly.Foram estudados os efeitos da temperatura, do pH, da osmolaridade e da areaçâo sobre o crescimento e a diferenciação de um tripanosoma do subgenêro Schizotrypanum, isolado do morcego Phyllostomus hastatus. Em geral, as características do crescimento do flagelado foram semelhantes àquelas do Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi. Entretanto, o parasita não de desenvolveu a 33 ou 37°C. O aumento na osmolaridade e areaçâo estimulou o crescimento a 33°C. Metaciclogênese sifhificativa foi detectada somente na condição de crescimento, onde ocorreu desenvolvimento máximo (28°C, pH 7.3, 320m0/kg H20, em frascos de cultura de tecido, no final da fase do crescimento exponencial. O início do processo de metaciclogênese coincidiu com maior utilização de glucose e menor pH. Durante a metaciclogênese, o pHdo meio de cultura e a osmolaridade aumentaram constantemente.

  8. Molecular differentiation of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the subgenus Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, S. B.; Nielsen, S. Achim; Skovgård, H.

    2012-01-01

    complexes are hard to distinguish. We evaluated the use of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) barcode region in the identification of species within the subgenus Culicoides. COI barcode sequence divergence within species was ... impunctatus, and Culicoides grisescens. Additionally, this study confirms the existence of Culicoides halophilus as a valid taxon and presents the first Culicoides deltus barcode sequences. Three additional groups of specimens were identified: Culicoides dk1 with a COI barcode diverging by 14.3% to 17.2% from...... other subgenus Culicoides species and Culicoides Kalix and Culicoides dk3, which diverged by 5.9% from each other and showed 12.5% to 17.6% divergence in COI barcode to subgenus Culicoides specimens....

  9. Capalictus, a new subgenus of Lasioglossum Curtis 1833 from South Africa, with description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halictidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibbs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Capalictus, a new subgenus of Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halic-tidae, endemic to the South African Cape Province, is described. The type species is Halictus mosselinus Cockerell, 1945. Evylaeus (Sellalictus fynbosensis (Pauly et al., 2008 is a new junior synonym of L. (C. mosselinum. Three new species are described: Lasioglossum (Capalictus hantamense sp. nov., L. (C. tigrinum sp. nov. and L. (C. timmermanni sp. nov. DNA sequence data from three nuclear genes support morphologically-determined species limits. Capalictus is a basal clade of the Hemihalictus series of Lasioglossum.

  10. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.

  11. Taxonomic study on the subgenus Uresipedilum (Diptera: Chironomidae: Polypedilum, with description of a new species from the Yaewyama Islands, Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Yamamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a multi-year survey, we recognized four species including a new species of the subgenus Uresipedilum from the Yaeyama Islands, the Ryukyus, Japan. Polypedilum (Uresipedilum paraconvictum sp. nov. is described. P. (U. classiglobum Zhang et Wang (2004 P. (U. bingoparadoxum Kawai et al. (1998 and P. (U. iriofegeum Sasa et Suzuki (2000 are re-described. The first species is newly recorded from Japan, and the second species is new to the Ryukyus. The diagnostic characters of the subgenus are discussed.

  12. Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, new subgenus and species (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from the crested and parakeet auklets (Aves: Charadriiformes; Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B; Hoberg, E P

    1991-03-01

    In the genus Thalassornectes, a new subgenus, Alcidectes, and a new species, T. (Alcidectes) aukletae, are described from deutonymphs in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the crested auklet, Aethia cristatella (Pallas), and the parakeet auklet, Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Pallas), from the eastern Pacific USSR. The new subgenus and species differ from one or both of the single species in each of the other two subgenera, Thalassornectes and Rallidectes, by (1) the normal size, position, and parallel arrangement of the genital papillae; (2) the larger size of seta sce; (3) the greater length and stronger development of setae sci, d1, l1, h, and sh; (4) the equal size of tarsi III and IV or their size subequal, with tarsus IV slightly longer than tarsus III; (5) both epimera I and sternum well developed and nearly equal in length; and (6) the free sclerotized posteriad extension from epimerite II on the ventral cuticular surface. This is the first hypoderatid reported from the host order Charadriiformes. The distribution of T. (Alcidectes) aukletae among auklets may be attributed to either cospeciation or may have an ecological basis; data are insufficient at present to sustain either hypothesis.

  13. Overlooked cryptic endemism in copepods: systematics and natural history of the calanoid subgenus Occidodiaptomus Borutzky 1991 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Federico; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Arculeo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Our comprehension of the phylogeny and diversity of most inland-water crustaceans is currently hampered by their pronounced morphological bradytely, which contributed to the affirmation of the "Cosmopolitanism Paradigm" of freshwater taxa. However, growing evidence of the existence of cryptic diversity and molecular regionalism is available for calanoid copepods, thus stressing the need for careful morphological and molecular studies in order to soundly investigate the systematics, diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Diaptomid copepods were here chosen as model taxa, and the morphological and molecular diversity of the species belonging to the west-Mediterranean diaptomid subgenus Occidodiaptomus were investigated with the aim of comparing the patterns of morphological and molecular evolution in freshwater copepods. Three species currently lumped under the binomen Hemidiaptomus (Occidodiaptomus) ingens and two highly divergent clades within H. (O.) roubaui were distinguished, thus showing an apparent discordance between the molecular distances recorded and Occidodiaptomus morphological homogeneity, and highlighting a noteworthy decoupling between the morphological and molecular diversity in the subgenus. Current Occidodiaptomus diversity pattern is ascribed to a combined effect of ancient vicariance and recent dispersal events. It is stressed that the lack of sound calibration points for the molecular clock makes it difficult to soundly temporally frame the diversification events of interest in the taxon studied, and thus to asses the role of morphological bradytely and of accelerated molecular evolutionary rates in shaping the current diversity of the group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Taxonomy of the African large carpenter bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963 (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Mawdsley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802, subgenus Xenoxylocopa Hurd & Moure, 1963, is reviewed. There is a single valid species in this subgenus, Xylocopa (Xenoxylocopa inconstans Smith, 1874, which is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern Republic of South Africa. Synonyms of X. inconstans include X. abyssinica Radoszkowski, 1899, proposed for a male specimen from Ethiopia, as well as three names proposed for females with yellow (rather than white dorsal pubescence: Mesotrichia chiyakensis Cockerell, 1908 (new synonym, X. inconstans var. flavescens Vachal, 1899, and X. inconstans var. flavocincta Friese, 1909. Quantitative analyses of body measurements and examination of male reproductive structures support the new synonymy of Mesotrichia chiyakensis with X. inconstans. Males and females of X. (X. inconstans are illustrated, along with male reproductive structures, and diagnostic characters and keys are provided to separate the males and females of X. (X. inconstans from those of species in other closely-allied African subgenera of the genus Xylocopa.

  15. Leishmania-specific surface antigens show sub-genus sequence variation and immune recognition.

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    Daniel P Depledge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A family of hydrophilic acylated surface (HASP proteins, containing extensive and variant amino acid repeats, is expressed at the plasma membrane in infective extracellular (metacyclic and intracellular (amastigote stages of Old World Leishmania species. While HASPs are antigenic in the host and can induce protective immune responses, the biological functions of these Leishmania-specific proteins remain unresolved. Previous genome analysis has suggested that parasites of the sub-genus Leishmania (Viannia have lost HASP genes from their genomes.We have used molecular and cellular methods to analyse HASP expression in New World Leishmania mexicana complex species and show that, unlike in L. major, these proteins are expressed predominantly following differentiation into amastigotes within macrophages. Further genome analysis has revealed that the L. (Viannia species, L. (V. braziliensis, does express HASP-like proteins of low amino acid similarity but with similar biochemical characteristics, from genes present on a region of chromosome 23 that is syntenic with the HASP/SHERP locus in Old World Leishmania species and the L. (L. mexicana complex. A related gene is also present in Leptomonas seymouri and this may represent the ancestral copy of these Leishmania-genus specific sequences. The L. braziliensis HASP-like proteins (named the orthologous (o HASPs are predominantly expressed on the plasma membrane in amastigotes and are recognised by immune sera taken from 4 out of 6 leishmaniasis patients tested in an endemic region of Brazil. Analysis of the repetitive domains of the oHASPs has shown considerable genetic variation in parasite isolates taken from the same patients, suggesting that antigenic change may play a role in immune recognition of this protein family.These findings confirm that antigenic hydrophilic acylated proteins are expressed from genes in the same chromosomal region in species across the genus Leishmania. These proteins are

  16. A revision of Ornithogalum subgenus Aspasia section Aspasia, the chincherinchees (Hyacinthaceae

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    J. C. Manning

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The species of Ornithogalum L. subgenus Aspasia section Aspasia are revised. Section Aspasia is defined by a rosette of  lanceolate to oblong leaves; large, boat-shaped, ± petaloid bracts; moderately-sized white, yellow or orange flowers, sometimes with dark central markings; thin-textured, ellipsoid capsules that are enclosed by and concealed within the persistent, papery perianth; and angular, colliculate to echinulate seeds. Twelve species are recognized in the section, separable into three series based on seed morphology. O. conicum is redefined to exclude specimens from the Eastern Cape, which are recognized as O. synanthifolium, and O. conicum subsp.  strictum is raised to species status as O. strictum. The circumscription of O. duhium is expanded to include O.fimbrimarginatum and O. subcoriaceum, previously distinguished on account of their longer styles.Collections from the Roggeveld Escarpment and Klein Roggeveld that were previously included in O. fimbrimaiginatum are recognized as the new species O. corticatum Mart.-Azarin, on the basis of their unusual, thick, cartilaginous outer tunics and puberulous adaxial leaf surface. O. ceresianum is removed from the synonomy of O. thyrsoides and recognized as a distinct species on account of its extensive glossy black tepal markings, winged inner filaments, and glossy black ovary. The poorly known  O. puberuhim is more ftilly described based on several recent collections, and  O. leeupoortense is neotypified in the absence of any original type material.  O. rupestre and O. multifolium are regarded as colour forms of the same species, for which  O. rupestre is the older name. Similarly, O. roussouwii is a depauperate, pale form of O. maculatum and is thus included in the synonomy of that species. The circumscription of O. pruinosum remains unchanged. The species O. haurii, O. diphyllum and O. sephtonii from the Drakensberg Mountains of Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal are excluded from

  17. Capricious, or tied to history’s apron strings? Floristic regions in north-west European brambles (Rubus subgenus Rubus, Rosaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, R.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Ronde, de I.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim
    To classify and describe distributional patterns in apomictic Rubus subgenus Rubus in north-west Europe and to characterize the major regions by statistically derived character species.

    Location
    North-western Europe, in particular Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands,

  18. Review of Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) inhabiting Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Asia, with descriptions of a new subgenus and thirteen new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Paul; Xu, Guang; Tang, William; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Thomas; Khuraijam, Jibankumar Singh; Singh, Rita; Radha, P; Rich, Stephen

    2017-05-12

    The genus Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) associated with Cycas L. (Cycadacaeae) in Asia is reviewed. Strobilophila, new subgenus, with five species is described: Cycadophila (Strobilophila) assamensis new species, C. (S.) hiepi new species, C. (S.) kwaiensis new species, C. (S.) tansachai new species and C. (S.) yangi new species, all associated with Cycas. For the nominate subgenus Cycadophila eight new species are described, Cycadophila (Cycadophila) abyssa new species, C. (C.) collina new species,C. (C.) samara new species, C. (C.) convexa new species, C. (C.) cyclochasma new species, C. (C.) eurynota new species, C. (C.) papua new species, and C. (C.) torquata new species and four new generic combinations are proposed: C. (C.) vittata (Arrow) new combination, C. (C.) discimaculata (Mader) new combination, C. (C.) intermedia (Chûjô) new combination, and C. (C.) lata (Grouvelle) new combination. Only the first three listed species of the nominate subgenus have known associations with Cycas. Species are distinguished on the basis of morphology and/or by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The larva of subgenus Strobilophila is described based on individuals collected together with adults and matched with analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Keys to subgenera and species of known adults and larvae are provided.

  19. ITS2 secondary structure improves phylogeny estimation in a radiation of blue butterflies of the subgenus Agrodiaetus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current molecular phylogenetic studies of Lepidoptera and most other arthropods are predominantly based on mitochondrial genes and a limited number of nuclear genes. The nuclear genes, however, generally do not provide sufficient information for young radiations. ITS2 , which has proven to be an excellent nuclear marker for similarly aged radiations in other organisms like fungi and plants, is only rarely used for phylogeny estimation in arthropods, although universal primers exist. This is partly due to difficulties in the alignment of ITS2 sequences in more distant taxa. The present study uses ITS2 secondary structure information to elucidate the phylogeny of a species-rich young radiation of arthropods, the butterfly subgenus Agrodiaetus. One aim is to evaluate the efficiency of ITS2 to resolve the phylogeny of the subgenus in comparison with COI , the most important mitochondrial marker in arthropods. Furthermore, we assess the use of compensatory base changes in ITS2 for the delimitation of species and discuss the prospects of ITS2 as a nuclear marker for barcoding studies. Results In the butterfly family Lycaenidae, ITS2 secondary structure enabled us to successfully align sequences of different subtribes in Polyommatini and produce a Profile Neighbour Joining tree of this tribe, the resolution of which is comparable to phylogenetic trees obtained with COI+COII . The subgenus Agrodiaetus comprises 6 major clades which are in agreement with COI analyses. A dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA traced the origin of most Agrodiaetus clades to separate biogeographical areas in the region encompassing Eastern Anatolia, Transcaucasia and Iran. Conclusions With the inclusion of secondary structure information, ITS2 appears to be a suitable nuclear marker to infer the phylogeny of young radiations, as well as more distantly related genera within a diverse arthropod family. Its phylogenetic signal is comparable to the

  20. The ultrastructure of epidermal surface of stem and branch internods and spores of horsetails of subgenus Equisetum (Equisetum L., Equisetaceae

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    D. S. Feoktistov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of epidermal surface of stems and branches internodes of 5 species and 3 interspecific hybrids were studied using scanning electron microscopy, as well as spore surface of 5 species of horsetail subgenus Equisetum (Equisetum, Equisetaceae: E. arvense L., E. fluviatile L., E. palustre L., E. pratense Ehrh., E. sylvaticum L., E. × mildeanum Rothm. (E. pratense × E. sylvaticum, E. × sergijevskianum C. N. Page et Gureeva (E. pratense × E. palustre, E. × lofotense Lubienski (E. arvense × E. sylvaticum. Sculptural elements from silica differ in shape, size and location on the ridges and furrows of stem and branches internodes. There are: the thin longitudinal some­times anastomosing thread-like structures (ribs, cylindrical, rounded on the tip, or conical mamillae, tubercles and spines. The thin longitudinal ribs, tubercles and spines are situated on the ridges of stem and branches; separate mamillae and groups of fused mamillae occupy the furrows. The fine surface sculpturing consists of hemispherical, globose or slightly elongate pilulae covering mamillae, surface in furrows, and especially stomata. Equisetum palustre has specific club-shaped rods arranged into regular ranks along either side of the stomatal slit. A detailed description of silica sculpture, shape, disposition and ornamentation of stomata area are presented for all studied species and hybrids. Such features as the presence, shape and arrangement of sculpture elements, ornamentation, shape and arrangement of sto­mata can be used in the taxonomy and phylogenetics of horsetails. Spores of the members of subgenus Equisetum are spherical in shape. They have not specific ornamentation, their features may not be used in systematics of horsetails.

  1. Leishmania naiffi and Leishmania guyanensis reference genomes highlight genome structure and gene evolution in the Viannia subgenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Simone; Taylor, Ali Shirley; Feane, Eoghan; Sanders, Mandy; Schonian, Gabriele; Cotton, James A; Downing, Tim

    2018-04-01

    The unicellular protozoan parasite Leishmania causes the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis, affecting 12 million people in 98 countries. In South America, where the Viannia subgenus predominates, so far only L. ( Viannia ) braziliensis and L. ( V. ) panamensis have been sequenced, assembled and annotated as reference genomes. Addressing this deficit in molecular information can inform species typing, epidemiological monitoring and clinical treatment. Here, L. ( V. ) naiffi and L. ( V. ) guyanensis genomic DNA was sequenced to assemble these two genomes as draft references from short sequence reads. The methods used were tested using short sequence reads for L. braziliensis M2904 against its published reference as a comparison. This assembly and annotation pipeline identified 70 additional genes not annotated on the original M2904 reference. Phylogenetic and evolutionary comparisons of L. guyanensis and L. naiffi with 10 other Viannia genomes revealed four traits common to all Viannia : aneuploidy, 22 orthologous groups of genes absent in other Leishmania subgenera, elevated TATE transposon copies and a high NADH-dependent fumarate reductase gene copy number. Within the Viannia , there were limited structural changes in genome architecture specific to individual species: a 45 Kb amplification on chromosome 34 was present in all bar L. lainsoni , L. naiffi had a higher copy number of the virulence factor leishmanolysin, and laboratory isolate L. shawi M8408 had a possible minichromosome derived from the 3' end of chromosome 34 . This combination of genome assembly, phylogenetics and comparative analysis across an extended panel of diverse Viannia has uncovered new insights into the origin and evolution of this subgenus and can help improve diagnostics for leishmaniasis surveillance.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  3. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    new species initially separated by DNA barcoding with mitochondrial COI can be distinguished by morphological characters. In this context a key to Scandinavian subgenus Culicoides using wing and maxillary palp characters is presented. The key is including the three new species Culicoides boyi...... is considered, as well as the evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains problematic. In recent years molecular barcoding has assisted substantially in the identification of biting midges in the multiple entomological survey projects which were initiated in many European countries...... following the bluetongue outbreak in 2006–2009. These studies revealed potentially new species and “species-complexes” with large genetic and morphological variability. Here we use molecular barcoding, together with morphological analysis, to study subgenus Culicoides Latreille from Scandinavia with focus...

  4. Taxonomic review on the subgenus Tripodura Townes (Diptera: Chironomidae: Polypedilum) from China with eleven new species and a supplementary world checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilei; Song, Chao; Qi, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-07-05

    The subgenus Tripodura Townes of Polypedilum Kieffer from China including 26 species is reviewed. Eleven new species, named P. (T.) absensilobum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) apiculusetosum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) arcuatum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) bilamella Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) conghuaense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) dengae Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) mengmanense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) napahaiense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) parallelum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) pollicium Zhang & Wang sp. n. and P. (T.) trapezium Zhang & Wang sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Three species, P. (T.) quadriguttatum Kieffer, P. (T.) unifascia (Tokunaga) and P. (T.) udominutum Niitsuma are firstly recorded in China. A key to known male imagines of Chinese species and an updated world checklist of subgenus Tripodura are presented.

  5. On the colour types in Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914) and species composition of the subgenus Furcimanus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae: Lycodes) in the sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Pavel A; Balanov, Andrey A; Kukhlevskii, Andrey D

    2014-05-30

    Two colour types were revealed in a zoarcid fish of the subgenus Furcimanus, genus Lycodes, in the Sea of Japan. A comparison of morphometric, meristic and genetic characters in dark coloured and light coloured individuals suggests that the two colour morphs represent a single species, determined to be Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). Variability in colouration within L. nakamurae and a lack of morphological or molecular characters distinguishing L. nakamurae from L. nishimurai Shinohara & Shirai, 2005 suggest that the latter should be considered a synonym of L. nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). A record of L. pectoralis in the waters of the Republic of Korea is regarded as a misidentification. Thus, we conclude that only one species of the Lycodes subgenus Furcimanus, L. nakamurae, with dark and light colour morphs as well as specimens of intermediate colouration, inhabits the Sea of Japan.

  6. A new extinct dwarfed buffalo from Sulawesi and the evolution of the subgenus Anoa: An interdisciplinary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    The fossil and extant faunas of Sulawesi, the largest island within the Wallacea biogeographic region, exhibit a high degree of endemism. The lowland anoa Bubalus depressicornis and the mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi, two closely-related dwarfed buffaloes, are among the most peculiar endemic mammals of the region. Here, I describe a new species, Bubalus grovesi, from the Late Pleistocene/Holocene of South Sulawesi and I give a revised diagnosis of Anoa. Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. differs from all previously described Bubalus in both the size and proportions of the skeleton and in possessing a unique combination of discrete character states. Body mass estimates suggest an average mass of 117 kg for Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. and a body size reduction of about 90% with respect to a typical water buffalo. A comprehensive overview of body mass estimates of dwarfed buffaloes and differences in their dental and postcranial features is included. Finally, new evidence on the taxonomy and island dwarfing of the anoas and available data from different disciplines are used to discuss the timing and mode of their evolution. The representatives of the subgenus Anoa would be dwarfed forms of the Asian water buffalo that arose following dispersal to Sulawesi during the Middle/Late Pleistocene.

  7. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  8. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Q D Goodger

    Full Text Available The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the

  9. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  10. The conchostracan subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) from the Tacuarembó Formation (Late Jurassic-?Early Cretaceous, Uruguay) with notes on its geological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanbin, Shen; Gallego, Oscar F.; Martínez, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    Conchostracans from the Tacuarembó Formation s.s. of Uruguay are reassigned to the subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) Chen and Shen. They show more similarities to genera of Late Jurassic age in the Congo Basin and China than to those of Early Cretaceous age. On the basis of the character of the conchostracans, we suggest that the Tacuarembó Formation is unlikely to be older than Late Jurassic. It is probably Kimmeridgian, but an Early Cretaceous age cannot be excluded. This finding is consistent with isotopic dating of the overlying basalts, as well as the age range of recently described fossil freshwater sharks.

  11. Mosquito Studies (Dipera: Culicidae) 34. A Revision of the Albimanus Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles. (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 15, Number 7, 1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Lake, 20 Feb 1934, PAX 36, lM, 3F. Largo Reme [Remo], 1926, D. Curry, 1F. Mindi, 10 May 1941, C. Brown, PAX 176,31M, 28F. Mojinga Swamp, PA 1165...Pompeu Memoria 1956: 1-3; Guedes, Amorim and Schreiber 1957: 247-248; Schreiber and Guedes 1959b, 1960, 196 1) have studied the salivary glands of...of the taxonomy of anophelines (subgenus Nyssorhyn- thus). W H 0, Bull. 24:657-658. Schreiber, Giorgio and J. M. Pompeu Memoria 1956. Alguns

  12. Plastid genome evolution across the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae): two clades within subgenus Grammica exhibit extensive gene loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, Thomas; Kuzmina, Maria; Stefanovic, Sasa

    2013-02-01

    The genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae, the morning glory family) is one of the most intensely studied lineages of parasitic plants. Whole plastome sequencing of four Cuscuta species has demonstrated changes to both plastid gene content and structure. The presence of photosynthetic genes under purifying selection indicates that Cuscuta is cryptically photosynthetic. However, the tempo and mode of plastid genome evolution across the diversity of this group (~200 species) remain largely unknown. A comparative investigation of plastid genome content, grounded within a phylogenetic framework, was conducted using a slot-blot Southern hybridization approach. Cuscuta was extensively sampled (~56% of species), including groups previously suggested to possess more altered plastomes compared with other members of this genus. A total of 56 probes derived from all categories of protein-coding genes, typically found within the plastomes of flowering plants, were used. The results indicate that two clades within subgenus Grammica (clades 'O' and 'K') exhibit substantially more plastid gene loss relative to other members of Cuscuta. All surveyed members of the 'O' clade show extensive losses of plastid genes from every category of genes typically found in the plastome, including otherwise highly conserved small and large ribosomal subunits. The extent of plastid gene losses within this clade is similar in magnitude to that observed previously in some non-asterid holoparasites, in which the very presence of a plastome has been questioned. The 'K' clade also exhibits considerable loss of plastid genes. Unlike in the 'O' clade, in which all species seem to be affected, the losses in clade 'K' progress phylogenetically, following a pattern consistent with the Evolutionary Transition Series hypothesis. This clade presents an ideal opportunity to study the reduction of the plastome of parasites 'in action'. The widespread plastid gene loss in these two clades is hypothesized to be a

  13. Taxonomic review of Chinese species of ground beetles of the subgenus Pseudoophonus (genus Harpalus) (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Boris M; Liang, Hongbin

    2015-02-19

    A taxonomic review of 23 species of the subgenus Pseudoophonus Motschulsky, 1844, the genus Harpalus Latreille, 1802, occurring in China is given, and a key to these species is provided. The species are divided in three species groups and five subgroups, the distinctive characters of which are listed. The following new synonyms are established: Harpalus calceatus Duftschmid, 1812 = Anisodactylus propinquus Ballion, 1870, syn. n.; H. davidi (Tschitschérine, 1897) = H. kailiensis Huang, 1992, syn. n.; = H. adenticulatus Huang, 1992, syn. n.; = H. cilihumerus Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; H. fokienensis Schauberger, 1930 = H. muciulus Huang, 1992, syn. n.; H. griseus (Panzer, 1796) = H. xinjiangensis Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; H. hauserianus Schauberger, 1929 = H. disaogashimensis Huang, 1995, syn. n.; H. pastor pastor Motschulsky, 1844 = H. penglainus Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; = H. chiloschizontus Huang, 1995, syn. n.; H. rufipes (DeGeer, 1774) = H. scabripectus Huang, Hu & Sun, 1994, syn. n.; H. singularis Tschitschérine, 1906 = H. chengjiangensis Huang, 1993, syn. n.; H. sinicus Hope, 1845 = H. periglabellus Huang, 1992, syn. n.; = H. longihornus Lei & Huang, 1997, syn. n.; and H. tridens Morawitz, 1862 = H. hypogeomysis Huang, 1993, syn. n.; = H. pilosus Huang, 1995, syn. n. Statuses of H. yinchuanensis Huang, 1993 and H. disimuciulus Huang, Lei, Yan & Hu, 1996 are discussed. Lectotypes are designated for H. capito Morawitz, 1862, H. japonicus Morawitz, 1862 and H. eous Tschitschérine, 1901. New data on distribution of Pseudoophonus species in China are provided. Harpalus babai Habu, 1973 is reported from China (Jiangxi) for the first time. The following taxa are recorded from the following Chinese provinces for the first time: H. ussuriensis Chaudoir, 1863 from Hunan; H. aenigma (Tschitschérine, 1897) from Hubei, Jiangxi, and Guangxi; H. pastor Motschulsky, 1844 from Beijing and Xizang; H. fokienensis Schauberger, 1930 from Anhui and Jiangxi; H

  14. A new subgenus of the weevil genus Otiorhynchus Germar, 1822 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae for a new species from Mediterranean Turkey associated with the carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genrik E. Davidian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species Otiorhynchus ceratoniae Davidian, Gültekin & Korotyaev sp. nov. is described from eastern Mediterranean Turkey. A new monotypic subgenus Arnoldinus Davidian, Gültekin & Korotyaev subgen. nov. is erected for this species. The new species was found only under Ceratonia siliqua L. trees with lower leaves damaged by adults.

  15. Albucacrispa and A. grandis (Hyacinthaceae: Omithogaloideae, two new species of subgenus Albuca, the rediscovery of A. albucoides (sub­ genus Osmyne, and the identity of A. reflexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Albuca crispa is a new species of section Falconera series Trianthera with crispulate leaves from the Great Karoo, known  at least since 1947 but overlooked until now. A second new species. A grandis. from the southwestern Cape was previously included in  A. fragrans Jacq. (section  Falconera series  Falconera. It is a robust species that flowers in winter and early spring and the styles are rugulose with ± isodiametric epidermal cells, unlike typical  A. fragrans which is a more slender species flowering in early summer and with derived, smooth styles with fusiform epidermal cells. The recent discovery of a flowering population matching the type of A. albucoides (Aiton J.C.Manning & Goldblatt (subgenus Osmyne allows for a full description and illustration of this poorly know n and taxonomically neglected species that has often been included in A. suaveolens (Jacq. J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. Lastly, examination of the type  of A. reflexa Krause & Dinter from Namibia shows it to be conspecific w ith Drimia indica (Roxb. Jessop.

  16. Production of quinones by in vitro cultures of Dionaea and Streptocarpus species

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Cora

    2006-01-01

    Quinones are a class of oxygen-containing secondary metabolites found chiefly in higher plants, fungi, bacteria and restricted in the animal kingdom to arthropods and echinoderms (Thompson 1971). In the plant, quinones, especially naphthoquinones, have been shown to function in allelopathy (juglone; Binder et al 1989), plant-insect interactions and plant-plant interactions (plumbagin; Kubo et al 1986, 1998, Spencer et al 1986, Ganapaty et al 2004). These quinones also have significant in vitr...

  17. Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John P; Zuanon, Jansen; Cox Fernandes, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1) small teeth present on premaxillae; (2) medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3) background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation) distinctly yellowish with head and sides peppered with small, widely spaced, very dark brown stellate chromatophores that greatly contrast with light background coloration; (4) a dark blotch or bar of subcutaneous pigment below the eye; (5) electric organ discharge waveform of very long duration (head-positive phase approx. 2 milliseconds or longer, head-negative phase shorter or absent) and slow pulse repetition rate (3-16 Hz). The type species of the new subgenus, Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteri sp. n., is diagnosed by the following additional character states: (1) subcutaneous dark pigment at base of orbit particularly prominent, (2) body semi-translucent and nearly bright yellow background coloration in life, (3) a biphasic electric organ discharge (EOD) waveform of very long duration (between 3.5 and 4 milliseconds at 25° C) with head-positive first phase significantly longer than second head-negative phase in both sexes. Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) bennetti sp. n. is diagnosed by two character states in addition to those used to diagnose the subgenus Odontohypopomus: (1) a deep electric organ, visible as large semi-transparent area, occupying approximately 14-17% body depth directly posterior to the abdominal cavity in combination with a short, but deep, caudal filament, and (2) a monophasic, head-positive EOD waveform, approximately 2.1 milliseconds in duration in both sexes. These are the only described rhamphichthyoid gymnotiforms with oral teeth, and Brachyhypopomus bennetti is the first

  18. Gracilaria, Subgenus Textoriella (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta in the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean Gracilaria, subgénero Textoriella (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta en el golfo de México y el Caribe mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt M. Dreckmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta with textorii-type spermatangial conceptacles (subgenus Textoriella Yamamoto are recorded for the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean: Gracilaria blodgettii, G. cervicornis, G. mammillaris, and G. tikvahiae. The general distribution of the subgenus for Central America, both Pacific and Atlantic, displays a disjunct pattern explainable based on the geologic vicariant events that interrupted the connection between Pacific and Atlantic at the Isthmuses of Panama (closed 3.1-2.8 million years ago, and Tehuantepec (southern Mexico, closed 4-3.5 million years ago. Gracilaria cuneata/G. crispata, and G. mammillaris (G. hayi/G. veleroae are 2 pairs of sibling species, or sister taxa, that diverged as a result of the final emergence of the Isthmus, and of the same age as the Central American Isthmus itself.Se registran 4 especies de Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta con conceptáculos espematangiales tipo textorii- (subgénero Textoriella Yamamoto para el golfo de México y Caribe mexicano: Gracilaria blodgettii, G. cervicornis, G. mammillaris y G. tikvahiae. La distribución general del subgénero para Atlántico y Pacífico de Centroamérica despliega un patrón disyunto explicable por los eventos geológicos vicariantes que interrumpieron la conexión entre Pacífico y Atlántico en los istmos de Panamá (cerrado hace aprox. 3.1-2.8 millones de años y Tehuantepec (sur de México, cerrado hace aprox. 4-3.5 millones de años. Gracilaria cuneata/G. crispata y G. mammillaris (= G. hayi/ G. veleroae corresponden a 2 pares de especies hermanas que divergieron como resultado de la emersión del istmo, y con aproximadamente la misma edad del istmo centroamericano.

  19. Anatomia do escapo floral de espécies brasileiras de Paepalanthus subgênero Platycaulon (Eriocaulaceae Anatomy of the inflorescence scape of Brazilian species of the Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaulon (Eriocaulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Scatena

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a anatomia dos escapos de 17 espécies de Paepalanthus subgênero Platycaulon, sendo 10 da sect. Divisi e sete da sect. Conferti. O trabalho foi realizado para caracterizar anatomicamente os escapos. como contribuição para o entendimento do grupo, uma vez que. morfologicamente, esse é o caráter laxonômico mais importante. Procurou-se, também, confirmar ou não o reconhecimento das duas seções dentro do subgênero. Para os estudos anatômicos utilizou-se material proveniente do Brasil, obtido de exsicatas de diferentes herbários e/ou coletado na Serra do Cipó, MG. Neste trabalho observou-se que Paepalanthus subg. Platycaulon é caracterizado morfologicamente por apresentar escapos pluricapitulados no ápice. Anatomicamente, as espécies estudadas da sect. Divisi apresentam escapos com vários cilindros vasculares, na região mediana e, ainda apresentam, em Paepalanthus vellozioides e P. spixianus, feixes vasculares corticais, características únicas na família. Diferentemente, as espécies avaliadas da sect. Conferti apresentam escapos com cilindro vascular único na região mediana, padrão análogo ao das demais Eriocaulaccae, e ainda apresentam, em Paepalanthus itatiaiensis, P. planifolius e P. paulensis, feixes vasculares medulares, que até então não haviam sido referidos para a família.The scape anatomy of 17 taxa of Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaylon were studied, being 10 taxa of sect. Divisi and seven of sect. Conferti. The study was carried out to see whether scape morphology and anatomy provide valid taxonomic characters at the subgeneric level in Paepalanthus and to lest a proposal to recognize two sections within Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaylon: sect. Divisi and sect. Conferti. The material for anatomical study was collected in Brazil, partly from herbarium specimens and partly from fresh material collected in the field, from the Serra do Cipó. Minas Gerais State. In this work, we observe that

  20. Revisiting the evolutionary events in Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae): Insights into the effect of the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift and Quaternary climatic fluctuations to the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-Jie; Tan, Jin-Bo; Xie, Deng-Feng; Huang, De-Qing; Gao, Yun-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The respective roles that the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift around 4-3 Ma and Quaternary climatic oscillations played in causing the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) remain unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two varieties of Allium cyathophorum and A. spicatum of subgenus Cyathophora, restricted to the HMR and the western QTP, respectively. Forty-five populations were surveyed for chloroplast and nuclear sequence variation to evaluate phylogenetic relationships, dates of divergence and ancestral area/inflorescence reconstructions. In addition, analyses were conducted on discernable micromorphologies, cytotypes and seed size variation. Our results indicated that two varieties of A. cyathophorum are separate species, i.e. A. farreri and A. cyathophorum, and the initial split of Cyathophora was triggered by the HMR uplift around 4-3 Ma. Subsequently, A. spicatum originated through the strengthened aridification in the western QTP induced vicariance of the ancestral populations in the HMR during the early Pleistocene. A self-sustaining allotetraploid species from A. farreri and A. cyathophorum was established during an interglacial period of penultimate glaciation of the QTP. Seed size variation also supports these by the colonization-competition tradeoff among small and large seeds. Our findings appear to suggest that the HMR uplift could have strengthened the development of the Asian monsoon regimes in this region and aridification in the western QTP, while the Quaternary climatic oscillations spurred the allopatric species' range shifts and created new open microhabitat for the alloploid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Resposta à mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci e ao Tomato severe rugose virus de acessos de Solanum subgênero Leptostemonum Reaction to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci and Tomato severe rugose virus of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Michereff-Filho

    2012-09-01

    ção. Desta forma, esses acessos do subgênero Leptostemonum podem ser considerados potenciais fontes de genes de resistência tanto para B. tabaci quanto para ToSRV. Essa diversidade genética pode ser transferida para outras espécies do gênero Solanum via técnicas de biologia celular e/ou isolamento e mobilização desses genes via transgenia. Os resultados também sugerem que, em condições naturais, espécies do subgênero Leptostemonum não representam importantes fontes de inóculo de ToSRV e/ou hospedeiras alternativas para B. tabaci.The whitefly (Bemisia tabaci and the infection by Begomovirus species are two major problems affecting yield and quality of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum crop as well as other Solanaceae species of economic importance. The present work was conducted aiming to characterize the reaction of 36 accessions of the genus Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum (= spiny Solanum species and closely related species to Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV and B. tabaci. Seedlings of the accessions (43 days after sowing were exposed under greenhouse conditions to viruliferous whiteflies (B. tabaci biotype B carrying an isolate of ToSRV. Two susceptible tomato cultivars were used as susceptible controls. Reaction to the virus was evaluated using a symptom severity scale and the systemic ToSRV infection was evaluated via PCR with universal begomovirus primers. A group of accessions from S. stramonifolium, S. asperolanatum, and S. jamaiscense displayed mild symptoms and low virus accumulation. The accession S. mammosum 'CNPH 035', even though tolerant, was the only one displaying clear ToSRV symptoms and conspicuous systemic spread of the virus. The remaining accessions were found to be free of ToSRV symptoms and with no indication of systemic infection. This germplasm collection was also evaluated to B. tabaci in a free-choice assay under greenhouse conditions. Significant differences were observed for the number of eggs and number of 4th instar nymphs. A

  2. In vitro activity of 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid against trypanosomes of the subgenus Schizotrypanum isolated from the bat Phyllostomus hastatus = Atividade in vitro do ácido 2-piridinocarboxílico em tripanossoma do subgênero Schizotrypanum isolado do morcego Phyllostomus hastatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ceridóreo Corrêa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (picolinic acid on trypanosomes of the subgenus Schizotrypanum isolated from the bat Phyllostomus hastatus was determined in this study. Picolinic acid, at 50 ƒÊg mL-1, inhibited epimastigote growth by 99% after 12 days incubation. In addition, trypomastigote motility decreased by 50% after 6h and completely after 24h in the presence of 50 ƒÊg mL-1 picolinic acid. The 50% cytotoxic concentration on HEp-2 cell line was275 ƒÊg mL-1 after 4 days incubation. Altogether, these results indicate higher toxicity against trypanosomes. The inhibitory effect of picolinic acid on epimastigote growth can be partially reversed by nicotinic acid and L-tryptophan, suggesting a competitive inhibition. Furthermore, two anti-Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi drugs were also evaluated with regard to bat trypanosome growth. Benznidazole, at 50 ƒÊg mL-1, inhibited epimastigote growth by 90% after 12 days incubation. Nifurtimox, at the same concentration, caused 96% growth inhibition after four days incubation. Corroborating a previous study, bat trypanosomes are a good model for screening new trypanocidal compounds. Moreover, they can be used to study many biological processes common to human pathogenic trypanosomatids.O efeito do acido 2- piridinocarboxilico (acido picolinico sobre um tripanossoma do subgenero Schizotrypanum isolado do morcego Phyllostomus hastatus foi determinado neste estudo. O acido picolinico, na concentracao de 50 ƒÊg mL-1, inibiu 99% do crescimento de epimastigotas apos 12 dias de incubacao. Alem disso, houve um decrescimo de 50 e 100% na mobilidade dos tripomastigotas apos 6 e 24h, respectivamente, em presenca de acido picolinico na concentracao de 50 ƒÊg mL-1. A concentracao citotoxica 50% para celulas HEp-2 foi de 275 ƒÊg mL-1 apos quatro dias de incubacao. Esses resultados indicam maior toxicidade contra os tripanossomas. O efeito inibitoriodo acido picolinico sobre o crescimento de

  3. A new subgenus of the Coleopterous family Drilidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorham, H.S.

    1883-01-01

    Generi Diplocladon Gorham 1) valde affine, sed antennae simpliciter pectinatae. Antennae duodecimi-articulatae, articulo basali valido subquadrato, secundo brevi quam hoc dimidio minore, tertio triangulari, angulo interno ramum emittente; quarto ad undecimum perbrevibus, latitudine haud longioribus,

  4. Review of the subgenus Polyphylla (Granida) from continental Asia (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehnal, R.; Bezděk, Aleš

    -, č. 102 (2011), s. 65-76 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : new species * new locality records * Scarabaeidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011

  5. Vascular tissue in traps of Australian carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia) of the subgenus Polypompholyx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Płachno, B.J.; Kamińska, I.; Adamec, Lubomír; Świątek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 142, Sep 2017 (2017), s. 25-31 ISSN 0304-3770 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vascular bundles * traps * Lentibulariaceae Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.714, year: 2016

  6. The Genus Culex, Subgenus Eumelanomyia Theobald in Southeast Asia and Adjacent Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Bore1 1930, Mon. Coil. Sot. Path. exot. 3: 365 (d*, ?, L*). Culex macropus Blanchard 1905, Les Moustiques :327. New name for Culex Zongifies Theobald...Spec. Pub. 111, 147 pp. BOREL, E. 1926. Les Moustiques de la Cochinchine et du Sud-Annam. (I), Arch. Inst. Pasteur d’Indochine. 47 pp. 1930. Les... Moustiques de la Cochinchine et du Sud-Annam. Mon. Coll. Sot. Pat. exot. 3, 423 pp. BRAM, R A. 1967. Contributions to the mosquitoes of Southeast Asia

  7. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenář, František; Jurjević, Ž.; Zalar, P.; Frisvad, J.C.; Visagie, C.M.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Houbraken, J.; Chen, A.J.; Yilmaz, N.; Seifert, K. A.; Coton, M.; Deniel, F.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Samson, R.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Hubka, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 161-236 ISSN 0166-0616 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus restrictus * Aspergillus penicillioides * Eurotium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 14.000, year: 2016

  8. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sklenář, F.; Jurjević, Ž.; Zalar, P.

    2017-01-01

    -tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies......Cl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification. The vast majority of species in sect...

  9. Taxonomic revision of Sorbus subgenus Aria occurring in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lepší, M.; Lepší, P.; Koutecký, P.; Bílá, J.; Vít, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2015), s. 109-162 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : apomixis * DAPI flow cytometry * hybridization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2015

  10. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sklenář

    2017-09-01

    The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.

  11. Entoloma subgenus Leptonia in boreal-temperate Eurasia: towards a phylogenetic species concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, O V; Noordeloos, M E; Vila, J

    2014-06-01

    This study reveals the concordance, or lack thereof, between morphological and phylogenetic species concepts within Entoloma subg. Leptonia in boreal-temperate Eurasia, combining a critical morphological examination with a multigene phylogeny based on nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU sequences. A total of 16 taxa was investigated. Emended concepts of subg. Leptonia and sect. Leptonia as well as the new sect. Dichroi are presented. Two species (Entoloma percoelestinum and E. sublaevisporum) and one variety (E. tjallingiorum var. laricinum) are described as new to science. On the basis of the morphological and phylogenetical evidence E. alnetorum is reduced to a variety of E. tjallingiorum, and E. venustum is considered a variety of E. callichroum. Accordingly, the new combinations E. tjallingiorum var. alnetorum and E. callichroum var. venustum are proposed. Entoloma lepidissimum var. pauciangulatum is now treated as a synonym of E. chytrophilum. Neotypes for E. dichroum, E. euchroum and E. lampropus are designated.

  12. Natural hybridization in tropical spikerushes of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae): Evidence from morphology and DNA markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košnar, J.; Košnar, Ji.; Macek, Petr; Herbstová, Miroslava; Rejmánková, E.; Stech, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2010), s. 1229-1240 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Belize * Cyperaceae * DNA markers * hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  13. Three New Species of the Genus Tripteroides, Subgenus Tripteroides Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-12-01

    termi- nalia and legs mounted; #NY 123-11 from Khaoyai. Five specimens came from Chiang Mai : #T-2195-10L and #T-2123-1P from Doi Sutep; #T-2413-lP...examined. The Thailand material contained 1 whole larva and 17 males with 9 associated larval and pupal skins from Chiang Mai ; 3 males, 2 with

  14. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XV. Genus Aedes Meigen, Subgenus Ayurakitia Thurman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    P, 17 L, 11 with asso- ciated skins (5 p, 6 1). All type material except 1 paratype was examined. THAILAND. Chiang Mai : Buak Ha; Doi Sutep Mountain...shaded areas located in secondary deciduous forests; sites were in valleys located in mountainous areas; and at an elevation of 3,920 feet in Chiang Mai Province...aenea Thurman. Adults were col- lected resting among vegetation along a stream in Chiang Mai Province by SEATO Laboratory personnel. Thurman (1954

  15. A Revision of the Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    genero Nyssorhynchus, corn especial referencia a morfologia dos ovos. Rev. Biol. Hyg. 9:51- 60. 1938b. Observacoes sobre o ciclo evolutivo de Anopheles...Vale do Paraiba. Nova variedade e ciclo evolutivo do Anofeles (Nyssorhynchus) osvaldoi var. ayrozai n. var. Ann. Paul. Med. Cir. 40:377-392. 1940b

  16. Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Nyssorhynchus, corn especial referencia a morfologia dos ovos. Rev. Biol. Hyg. 9:51- 60. 1938b. Observacoes sobre o ciclo evolutivo de Anopheles oswaldoi...Anofelinos do Vale do Paraiba. Nova variedade e ciclo evolutivo do Anofeles (Nyssorhynchus) osvaldoi var. ayrozai n. var. Ann. Paul. Med. Cir. 40:377

  17. A revision of the Solanum elaeagnifolium clade (Elaeagnifolium clade; subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Solanum elaeagnifolium clade (Elaeagnifolium clade contains five species of small, often rhizomatous, shrubs from deserts and dry forests in North and South America. Members of the clade were previously classified in sections Leprophora, Nycterium and Lathyrocarpum, and were not thought to be closely related. The group is sister to the species-rich monophyletic Old World clade of spiny solanums. The species of the group have an amphitropical distribution, with three species in Mexico and the southwestern United States and three species in Argentina. Solanum elaeagnifolium occurs in both North and South America, and is a noxious invasive weed in dry areas worldwide. Members of the group are highly variable morphologically, and this variability has led to much synonymy, particularly in the widespread S. elaeagnifolium. We here review the taxonomic history, morphology, relationships and ecology of these species and provide keys for their identification, descriptions, full synonymy (including designations of lectotypes and nomenclatural notes. Illustrations, distribution maps and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species.

  18. Migration Patterns of Subgenus Alnus in Europe since the Last Glacial Maximum: A Systematic Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Douda, J.; Doudová, Jana; Drašnarová, Alena; Kuneš, P.; Hadincová, Věroslava; Krak, Karol; Zákravský, Petr; Mandák, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2014), s. 1-14, e88709 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : fossil records * northern refugia * scandinavian ice sheet Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  19. Relationship between trap anatomy and function in Australian carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia) of the subgenus Polypompholyx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plancho, B. J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Kamińska, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, Part B (2015), s. 290-296 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Lentibulariaceae * trap wall anatomy * trap firing and resetting rate Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  20. Systematics and biogeography of Orconectes, subgenus Trisellescens, in the southeastern United States, a test of morphology-based classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Taylor; Susan B. Adams; Guenter A. Schuster

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosable taxonomic units are fundamental to conservation biology and management of resources and the need for sound science in both fields is more pressing for aquatic ecosystems. Within freshwater crayfishes, the North American genus Orconectes is one of the most diverse in the World. Accurate assessments of species level relationships and species boundaries within...

  1. Coetzeemyia, a new subgenus of Aedes, and a Redescription of the Holotype Female of Aedes (Coetzeemyia) fryeri (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Walter Reed Army Institute of Research,Division of Entomology,Silver Spring,MD...20910-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11...four, palpomere 5 absent or minute; (2) three, palpomere 4 absent or vestigial ; (3) two, palpomere 3 absent or vestigial . *13(158). Maxillary

  2. Description of Lutzomyia bianchigalatiae n. sp. A sand fly within the subgenus Pintomyia Costa Lima 1932 (Diptera; Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Filho, J D; Aguiar, G M; Dias, E S; Falcão, A L

    1999-01-01

    A new sand fly species is described based on males collected in Bananal, municipality of Mariana and the female from Sabará city, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Taxonomic remarks, geographic distribution and the description of new species are presented. The name Lutzomyia (Pintomyia) bianchigalatiae is in honour of Dr Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati, friend and researcher at the Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo.

  3. .i.Cortinarius prodigiosus./i.—a new species of the subgenus .i.Phlegmacium./i. from Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jan; Bušek, B.; Mikšík, M.; Dvořák, D.; Jeppesen, T. S.; Dima, B.; Albert, L.; Froslev, T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2015) ISSN 1617-416X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Agaricales * Cortinariaceae * molecular phylogeny * Splendentes group * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2015

  4. Transfer of the Subgenus Davismyia from Wyeomyia to Sabethes and Description of the Type Species, Miamyia Petrocchiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Ponte 1928) gave the following information about these specimens but did not indicate where they were deposited: “Localidad del tipo : Tucuman (Race...Balderama and R. Vargas. 1984. Associations of arbovirus vectors with gallery forests and domestic environments in south- eastern Bolivia. PAHO Bull . 18

  5. Medical Entomology Studies - XI. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Oriental Region with Keys to the Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Dengue l-4 viruses Saigon area, Vietnam Dengue 3 virus Rangoon, Burma Zika virus Bentong, Malaysia 2 5 isolations Smith et al. from 88 pools...and A. RUDNICK. 1969. Isolation of Zika virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Malaysia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18: 411-5. MATSUO, K., YOSHIDA, Y...number of virus diseases. It is one of the most dominant subgenera of the genus Aedes Meigen in the Oriental region, as indicated by the number of

  6. General overview of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia in Peru: the three-pinnate species and the case of two endemic species

    OpenAIRE

    León, Blanca; Sagástegui, Abundio

    2008-01-01

    La recolección reciente de un ejemplar de inflorescencia tri-pinnada motivó la evaluación de los taxones con inflorescencias tri-pinnadas de Tillandsia subgénero Tillandsia para la flora peruana. Se aclara las características de T. extensa, confirmándose su distribución para el noreste del Perú y reconociéndose un ejemplar, previamente considerado como el segundo registro de la especie, como T. platyphylla. A recent collection of a specimen with three-pinnate inflorescence was the inspirat...

  7. Multilocus analyses reveal little evidence for lineage-wide adaptive evolution within major clades of soft pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Eckert; Andrew D. Bower; Kathleen D. Jermstad; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Brian J. Knaus; John V. Syring; David B. Neale

    2013-01-01

    Estimates from molecular data for the fraction of new nonsynonymous mutations that are adaptive vary strongly across plant species. Much of this variation is due to differences in life history strategies as they influence the effective population size (Ne). Ample variation for these estimates, however, remains even when...

  8. Reduced cephalic labial glands in the male bumblebees of the subgenus Rhodobombus Dalla Torre (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus Latreille)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Terzo, M.; Coppens, P.; Valterová, Irena; Toubeau, G.; Rasmont, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2007), s. 497-503 ISSN 0037-9271 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bombus mesomelas * Bombus terrestris * ultrastructure * sexual pheromones Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.823, year: 2007

  9. Pan-African phylogeny of Mus (subgenus Nannomys) reveals one of the most successful mammal radiations in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Mikula, Ondřej; Šumbera, R.; Meheretu, Y.; Aghová, Tatiana; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Mazoch, Vladimír; Oguge, N.; Mbau, J. S.; Welegerima, K.; Amundala, N.; Colyn, M.; Leirs, H.; Verheyen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 256 (2014), s. 256 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Biogeography * Tropical Africa * Molecular phylogeny * Pygmy mice * Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations * Divergence timing * Muridae (Murinae) * Mus minutoides * Phylogeography * DNA barcoding Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2014

  10. Pan-African phylogeny of Mus (subgenus Nannomys) reveals one of the most successful mammal radiations in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, J.; Mikula, Ondřej; Šumbera, R.; Meheretu, Y.; Aghová, T.; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Mazoch, V.; Oguge, N.; Mbau, J. S.; Welegerima, K.; Amundala, N.; Colyn, M.; Leirs, H.; Verheyen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 256 (2014) ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : biogeography * tropical Africa * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2014

  11. Resurrecting a subgenus to genus: molecular phylogeny of Euphyllia and Fimbriaphyllia (order Scleractinia; family Euphyllidae; clade V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina S. Luzon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The corallum is crucial in building coral reefs and in diagnosing systematic relationships in the order Scleractinia. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a paraphyly in a majority of traditional families and genera among Scleractinia showing that other biological attributes of the coral, such as polyp morphology and reproductive traits, are underutilized. Among scleractinian genera, the Euphyllia, with nine nominal species in the Indo-Pacific region, is one of the groups that await phylogenetic resolution. Multiple genetic markers were used to construct the phylogeny of six Euphyllia species, namely E. ancora, E. divisa, E. glabrescens, E. paraancora, E. paradivisa, and E. yaeyamaensis. The phylogeny guided the inferences on the contributions of the colony structure, polyp morphology, and life history traits to the systematics of the largest genus in Euphyllidae (clade V and, by extension, to the rest of clade V. Results Analyses of cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1, cytochrome b (cytb, and β-tubulin genes of 36 colonies representing Euphyllia and a confamilial species, Galaxea fascicularis, reveal two distinct groups in the Euphyllia that originated from different ancestors. Euphyllia glabrescens formed a separate group. Euphyllia ancora, E. divisa, E. paraancora, E. paradivisa, and E. yaeyamaensis clustered together and diverged from the same ancestor as G. fascicularis. The 3′-end of the cox1 gene of Euphyllia was able to distinguish morphospecies. Discussion Species of Euphyllia were traditionally classified into two subgenera, Euphyllia and Fimbriaphyllia, which represented a dichotomy on colony structure. The paraphyletic groups retained the original members of the subgenera providing a strong basis for recognizing Fimbriaphyllia as a genus. However, colony structure was found to be a convergent trait between Euphyllia and Fimbriaphyllia, while polyp shape and length, sexuality, and reproductive mode defined the dichotomy better. Species in a genus are distinguished by combining polyp morphology and colony form. The cluster of E. glabrescens of the Euphyllia group is a hermaphroditic brooder with long, tubular tentacles with knob-like tips, and a phaceloid colony structure. The Fimbriaphyllia group, with F. paraancora, F. paradivisa, F. ancora, F. divisa, and F. yaeyamaensis, are gonochoric broadcast spawners with short polyps, mixed types of tentacle shapes, and a phaceloid or flabello-meandroid skeleton. Soft-tissue morphology of G. fascicularis and Ctenella chagius were found to be consistent with the dichotomy. Conclusions The paraphyly of the original members of the previous subgenera justify recognizing Fimbriaphyllia as a genus. The integrated approach demonstrates that combining polyp features, reproductive traits, and skeletal morphology is of high systematic value not just to Euphyllia and Fimbriaphyllia but also to clade V; thus, laying the groundwork for resolving the phylogeny of clade V.

  12. Western Palaearctic Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia) Hering and Ectoedemia Busck s. str. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): five new species and new data on distribution, hostplants and recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Laštůvka, A.; Laštůvka, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The nine western Palaearctic species of the subgenus Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 and 48 species in the subgenus Ectoedemia Busck, 1907 of the genus Ectoedemia are reviewed. One species in the subgenus Zimmermannia and four species in the subgenus Ectoedemia are described as new: Ectoedemia

  13. Mayflies of the Caucasus Mountains. III. A new representative of the subgenus Rhodobaetis Jacob, 2003 (Baetidae: Baetis) from the South-Western Caucasus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Godunko, Roman J.; Palatov, D. M.; Martynov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3948, č. 2 (2015), s. 182-202 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1389 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * Baetinae * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  14. [Molecular typing of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and species of the subgenus Viannia associated with cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in Colombia: A concordance study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle-Bracho, Clemencia; Camargo, Carolina; Díaz-Toro, Yira; Parra-Muñoz, Marcela

    2018-03-15

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) is the reference standard for the characterization of Leishmania species. The test is restricted to specialized laboratories due to its technical complexity, cost, and time required to obtain results. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is used to identify Leishmania species. To establish the concordance between the two tests as identifying methods for circulating species in Colombia. A total of 96 isolates from patients with cutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis were selected and identified by MLEE and PCR-RFLP with miniexon and hsp70 as the molecular targets, which were used sequentially. Restriction enzymes HaeIII and BccI were similarly applied. Cohen's kappa coefficient and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The kappa coefficient and the 95% CI between MLEE and PCR-RFLP displayed "very good" concordance with a coefficient of 0.98 (CI95%: 0.98 to 1.00). The identified species were Leishmania Viannia braziliensis, Leishmania Viannia panamensis, Leishmania Viannia guyanensis and Leishmania Leishmania amazonensis. A total of 80 of the 96 isolates were sequenced and the results obtained by PCR-RFLP were confirmed. Due to the concordance obtained between tests results with the amplification of the genes miniexon and hsp70, PCR-RFLP is proposed as an alternative for identifying circulating Leishmania species in Colombia.

  15. A Review of the Systematics and a Proposed Scheme of Internal Classification of the New World Subgenus Melanoconion of Culex (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Floch, H. and E. Abonnenc 1947. Distribution des moustiques du genre Cutex en &yane Francaise. Publ. Inst. Pasteur Guyane Ter. Inini, No. 146:1-g...Senevet, G. and E. Abonnenc 1939. Los moustiques de la &yane Francaise -- II. le genre CuZex. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Alger. 17:62-134. Sirivanakarn

  16. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 1. The Africanus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 26, Number 1, 1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    BANGOURA and A. LORAND. 1979. Isolements d’arbovirus au Senegal oriental a partir de moustiques (1972-1977) et notes sur l’epidemiologie des virus...Dengue 2 au Senegal oriental: Une poussee epizootioque en milieu selvatique; isolements du virus a partir de moustiques et d’un singe et...neoafticanus une nouvelle espece de moustique capturee au Senegal Oriental (Diptera: Culicidae). Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol. 16

  17. The Mosquitoes of the Subgenus Culex in Southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 24, Number 1, 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Pathol. Exot. 53: 531-542. 1968. Contribution a I’etude des moustiques du Maroc (Diptera, Culicidae) six especes nouvelles pour le pays. Cah. ORSTOM...quelques moustiques du Maroc. Arch. inst. Pasteur Maroc 2: 361-365. 1957. Sur Culex torrentium Martini. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 32: 438-442...De Grandpre, A.D. and D. D’E. De Charmoy 1900(1901). Les moustiques : anatomie et biologie. Contribution a I’etude des Culicides et principalement

  18. Descriptions of Acartia (Euacartia) southwelli Sewell 1914 and A. (Euacartia) sarojus n.sp. from India and status of the subgenus Euacartia Steuer 1923

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Haridas, P

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Hydrobiologia_292-293_67.pdf.txt stream_source_info Hydrobiologia_292-293_67.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  19. New data on oribatid mites of Galumna (Galumna) (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Northern Vietnam, with a key to species of this subgenus in the Oriental region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ermilov, S.G.; Starý, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2017), s. 550-571 ISSN 1362-1971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : galumnid mites * supplementary description * morphology * systematics * Tam Dao National Park Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2016

  20. Mayflies of the Caucasus Mountains. II. Description of the first representative of the subgenus Helvetoraeticus Bauernfeind & Soldán, 2012 (Heptageniidae: Ecdyonurus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kluge, N. J.; Godunko, Roman J.; Apanaskevich, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3608, č. 1 (2013), s. 51-66 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1389 Grant - others:Ministerstvo školství(CZ) MOBILITY 7AMB12SK144 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * new species * Georgia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2013 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2013/f/z03608p066f.pdf

  1. Catalog and Illustrated Review of the Subgenus Melanoconion of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 27, Number 2, 1992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    INM IOC ITH NHM LU MNHP NE NMNH PIG PIP STMPR Collection of author of species Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernadine Rivadavia...Buenos Aires, Argentina (Formerly Museo National de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”) Centro de Pesquisas Rene Rachou, Brazil Servicio...Komp and Curry (1932), respectively, are retained as synonyms of Melanoconion because they are deemed to be subgeneric names in accordance with Article

  2. Medical Entomology Studies - III. A Revision of the Subgenus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 12, Number 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Subgroup with quinquefasciatus which is widespread throughout tropical parts of the world, (2) TrifiZatus Subgroup with vegans and hutchinsoni, both...region; torrentium Martini 1925 from the western Palearctic; vegans Wiedemann 1828 from the eastern Pale- arctic; pervigiluns Bergroth 1889, pacificus...discovered when the fauna is thoroughly examined. 2. C ULEX (C ULEX) VAGANS WIEDEMANN (Figs. 4, 5, 14) Culex vegans Wiedemann 1828: 545 (d, 0

  3. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 2. The Dendrophilus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 29, Number 4, 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    or reservoirs of eight viruses , six of which cause human illness (Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and Zika ...suggested that Ae. deboeri may be the jungle vector of the yellow fever virus in Langata. A edes Aedes Aedes Aedes (Stegomyia) demeilloni Edwards... Aedes (Stegomyia) Iedgeri (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 13: 92-113. Aedes (Stegomyia) bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), the yellow fever virus

  4. Allium discoloration: the precursor and formation of the red pigment in giant onion (Allium giganteum Regel) and some other subgenus Melanocrommyum species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, P.; Kubec, R.; Šimek, Petr; Václavík, P.; Schraml, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2011), s. 1821-1828 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720706 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) 067/2010/7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : S-(2-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide * S-(3-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide * giant onion Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.823, year: 2011

  5. Studies on the effect of Osmia rufa L. (Apoidea, Megachilidae on the effectiveness of pod and seed development in the subgenus Glycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Skorupska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three abundantly blooming forms of Glycogen tabacina and one G. tomentella form were studied. The experiment was conducted under isolated conditions. The effect of Osmia rufa L. on the fertility of raceme flowers was studied. It was found that the G. tabacina and G. tomentella flowers were intensively penetrated by the insects. A very clear increase (3-4 fold in pod development was observed. The results ol the experiment indicate that geitonogamic pollination has a favorable influence on the effectiveness of the blooming of the chasmogamic flowers of the studied species.

  6. Diversity, external morphology and ‘reverse taxonomy’ in the specialized tadpoles of Malagasy river bank frogs of the subgenus Ochthomantis (genus Mantidactylus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randrianiaina, R.-D.; Strauß, A.; Glos, J.; Glaw, F.; Vences, M.

    2011-01-01

    We provide detailed morphological descriptions of the tadpoles of Malagasy river bank frogs of the subgenera Ochthomantis and Maitsomantis (genus Mantidactylus, family Mantellidae), and data on relative abundance and habitat preferences of Ochthomantis species from Ranomafana National Park in

  7. Taxonomic problems in the subgenus Meloehelea Wirth of the genus Atrichopogon Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) inferred from both morphological and molecular characters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóthová, A.; Knoz, J.; Sonnek, R.; Bryja, Josef; Vaňhara, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-12 ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : taxonomy * biting midges * 16S rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2008 http://www.entomologicafennica.org/Volume19/abstracts19_1.htm

  8. Medical Entomology Studies - IX. The Subgenus Christophersiomyia of the Genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 14, Number 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    22-VI-1975, Peyton and Huang), 3d, 3$ terminalia. THAILAND. Chiang Mai . Chiang Mai (25-V-1952, D. C. and E. B. Thurman), Id, ld terminalia; Doi...the labels with pinned adults from Cambodia read “repos sous bois” and “cascade, for& ” Adults also have been taken at light traps in Chiang Mai , Thailand...Lahore District (1962, D. J. Gould), 17?. THAILAND. Chiang Mai . Hoad, Huay Mae Lon (8-X-1963, Neely, Oonruan and Sahem), 6d, 6d terminalia, 5?, 3

  9. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XIV. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia I - The Scutellaris Group of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    2 1, 2 p . I THAILAND. Chiang Mai : Huey Keo (4-H-1953, D. C. Thurman Jr.) Id, Id terminalia. 107/s, REMARKS. There are 3 larval and pupal skin...part of Thailand. In Southeast Asia, it is known from only Chiang Mai , Thailand and is recorded here for the first time from this country. BIOLOGY...1923, Bar- raud), 5d, 59, 1.d terminalia; Punjab: Rawalpindi, Murree, W. Kimal (1922, Gill), Id, 19. THAILAND. Chiang Mai : (4-IV-1953, Thurman), 3d

  10. Karyological variation in the genus Rubus, subgenus Rubus: new data from the Czech Republic and synthesis of the current knowledge of European species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, B.; Šarhanová, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2013), s. 19-39 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chromosome numbers * Europe * Rubus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2013

  11. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XVI. Genus Aedes Meigen, Subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald in Southeast Asia (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 9, Number 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    pools in India; stagnant water in a roadside ditch in Burma; and in sunlit ground pool, artificial container, brackish water pool and pools in alang ... alang in Indonesia. Adults were taken biting man, cattle and horses, in light traps, resting in houses and ‘78 Contrib. Amer. Ent. Inst., vol. 9, no

  12. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 27. Number 2. 1992. Catalog and Illustrated Review of the Subgenus Melanoconion of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Pesquisas Rene Rachou, Brazil DERM Servicio de Entomologia Taxonomica, Division de Endemias Rurales, Maracay, Venezuela EUO Seccion de Entomologia ...126.I Forattini, O.P. 1965. Entomologia niedica. Culicini: Cuiex, Aedes e Psorophora. Vol. II. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. Forattini, O.P. and

  13. A New Subgenus of Wyeomyia (Diptera: Culicidae), with the Reclassification and Redescription of Wyeomyia (Davismyia) Arborea, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) Tarsata and Sabethes (Sabethes) Carrilloi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    help of Yasmin Rubio, we borrowed the type material of this species from the Laboratorio de Entomologia , Division de Endemias Rurales in Maracay...Laboratorio de Entomologia collection. The pupal exuviae attributed to the holotype is that of a female. We suspect that the authors of this species did not

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Gymnocalycium (Cactaceae): assessment of alternative infrageneric systems, a new subgenus, and trends in the evolution of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Pablo H; Barfuss, Michael H J; Kiesling, Roberto; Till, Walter; Chiapella, Jorge O

    2011-11-01

    The South American genus Gymnocalycium (Cactoideae-Trichocereae) demonstrates how the sole use of morphological data in Cactaceae results in conflicts in assessing phylogeny, constructing a taxonomic system, and analyzing trends in the evolution of the genus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed using parsimony and Bayesian methods on a 6195-bp data matrix of plastid DNA sequences (atpI-atpH, petL-psbE, trnK-matK, trnT-trnL-trnF) of 78 samples, including 52 species and infraspecific taxa representing all the subgenera of Gymnocalycium. We assessed morphological character evolution using likelihood methods to optimize characters on a Bayesian tree and to reconstruct possible ancestral states. The results of the phylogenetic study confirm the monophyly of the genus, while supporting overall the available infrageneric classification based on seed morphology. Analysis showed the subgenera Microsemineum and Macrosemineum to be polyphyletic and paraphyletic. Analysis of morphological characters showed a tendency toward reduction of stem size, reduction in quantity and hardiness of spines, increment of seed size, development of napiform roots, and change from juicy and colorful fruits to dry and green fruits. Gymnocalycium saglionis is the only species of Microsemineum and a new name is required to identify the clade including the remaining species of Microsemineum; we propose the name Scabrosemineum in agreement with seed morphology. Identifying morphological trends and environmental features allows for a better understanding of the events that might have influenced the diversification of the genus.

  15. The leaf surface strucure of the species from the subgenus Sedum of the genus Sedum L. (Crassulaceae DC. from the protected soil collections of A.V. Fomin Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola V. Yatsenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By means of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM the structure of leaf ’s epidermis of 8 species of genus SedumL. was investigated. A number of common (amphistomatics, anisocytic type of stomatal complex, strum cuticle and different signs have been revealed in the structure of the leaf ’s tissue. The results acquired on the basis of micromorphology of a leaf ’s epidermis can be used in the taxonomy of the investigated Sedumspecies.

  16. Baetis zdenkae sp. nov., a new representative of the Baetis buceratus species-group (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Rhodos (Greece) with notes to species-grouping of the subgenus Baetis Leach, 1815 s. str

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldán, Tomáš; Godunko, Roman J.

    -, č. 1972 (2009), s. 1-19 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505; GA ČR GA206/08/1389; GA ČR GA206/06/1133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * Baetidae * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.891, year: 2009

  17. Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia

    OpenAIRE

    SALATINO, ANTONIO; BLATT, CECÍLIA T.T.; SANTOS, DÉBORAH Y.A.C. DOS; VAZ, ANGELA M.S.F.

    1999-01-01

    Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia were isolated and identified. All the compounds correspond to glycosides derived from kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and myricetin. Derivatives of the latter aglyconhe seem to be rare in Bauhinia. Derivatives of isorhamnetin are commonly found in species of subgenus Bauhinia and were not detected in the two species of subgenus Phanera. Flavonoid patterns of species of the former subgenus are in general more complex than those of the latter. ...

  18. AMPHIBLESTRUM (AVICULAMPHIBLESTRUM RUGGEROI SP. N., SUBGEN. N. (BRYOZOA FROM THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIETTA ROSSO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species and a new subgenus Amphiblestrum (Aviculamphiblestrum ruggeroi sp.n. are described from deep circalittoral-epibathyal bottoms from the Sicily Strait and the north-western Mediterranean. The new subgenus is created to distinguish, within Amphiblestrum, species with both gymnocystal adventitious and large interzooidal avicularia, both originating from basal pore chambers. 

  19. New chromosome numbers in the genus Trigonella L. (Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    10 Jan 2011 ... b: Subgenus Trifoliastrum: Calyx campanulate and pod inflated. c: Subgenus Foenum-graecum: Calyx tubular and pod not inflated. Several investigators have attempted to employ the taxonomy of the genus Trigonella; Sirjaev (1935) has given in Latin an elaborate and systematic account of its taxonomy.

  20. Taxonomic and nomenclatural rearrangements in Artemisia subgen. Tridentatae, including a redefinition of Sphaeromeria (Asteraceae, Anthemideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles

    2011-01-01

    A recent molecular phylogenetic study of all members of Artemisia subgenus Tridentatae, as well as most of the other New World endemic Artemisia and the allied genera Sphaeromeria and Picrothamnus, raised the necessity of revising the taxonomic framework of the North American endemic Artemisia. Composition of the subgenus Tridentatae is enlarged to accommodate other...

  1. A new species of the genus Eurhadina Haupt (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Korea, with a key to Korean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sumin; Lim, Jongok; Jung, Sunghoon

    2016-04-11

    The leafhopper genus Eurhadina Haupt, 1929 belongs to the tribe Typhlocybini of subfamily Typhlocybinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae). Currently, genus Eurhadina includes 3 subgenera, Eurhadina Haupt 1929, Singhardina Mahmood 1967, Zhihadina Yang & Li 1991. A total of 20 valid species of subgenus Eurhadina have been described in the Nearctic and Palaearctic region and the subgenus Singhardina includes 57 species in the Oriental and Palaearctic region (Huang & Zhang 1999, Dworakowska 2002). The subgenus Zhihadina includes only 1 species from China (Yang & Lee, 1991). So far, four species of subgenus Eurhadina were recorded in the Korean Peninsula (Kwon & Huh 2001): Eurhadina (Eurhadina) betularia Anufriev, 1969, E. (E.) koreana Dworakowska, 1971, E. (E.) pulchella (Fallen, 1806), and E. (E.) wagneri Dworakowska, 1969. The majority of species belonging to the subgenus Eurhadina are difficult to distinguish by external appearance because the color patterns of the forewings are very similar among species.

  2. [Phylogenetic relationships of the species of Oxytropis DC. subg. Oxytropis and Phacoxytropis (Fabaceae) from Asian Russia inferred from the nucleotide sequence analysis of the intergenic spacers of the chloroplast genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholina, A B; Kozyrenko, M M; Artyukova, E V; Sandanov, D V; Andrianova, E A

    2016-08-01

    The nucleotide sequence analysis of trnH–psbA, trnL–trnF, and trnS–trnG intergenic spacer regions of chloroplast DNA performed in the representatives of the genus Oxytropis from Asian Russia provided clarification of the phylogenetic relationships of some species and sections in the subgenera Oxytropis and Phacoxytropis and in the genus Oxytropis as a whole. Only the section Mesogaea corresponds to the subgenus Phacoxytropis, while the section Janthina of the same subgenus groups together with the sections of the subgenus Oxytropis. The sections Chrysantha and Ortholoma of the subgenus Oxytropis are not only closely related to each other, but together with the section Mesogaea, they are grouped into the subgenus Phacoxytropis. It seems likely that the sections Chrysantha and Ortholoma should be assigned to the subgenus Phacoxytropis, and the section Janthina should be assigned to the subgenus Oxytropis. The molecular differences were identified between O. coerulea and O. mandshurica from the section Janthina that were indicative of considerable divergence of their chloroplast genomes and the species independence of the taxa. The species independence of O. czukotica belonging to the section Arctobia was also confirmed.

  3. A new species of the operculate land snail genus Maizaniella from Liberia (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Maizaniella sapoensis spec. nov. from Liberia is described. The species is provisionally att ributed to the subgenus Spirulozania. It is by far the smallest known member of the genus, with an adult shell diameter of just over 2 mm.

  4. A new species of Trechisibus from Peruvian Andes (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Delgado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the new species Trechisibus (s. str. delestali sp. n., is described from the southern Peruvian Andes. The morphological differences with the geographically closest species of the subgenus are also presented and discussed.

  5. Pterostichus neilgaimani sp. nov., a new species of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from relict sacred grove in Eastern Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaladze, Giorgi; Kalatozishvili, Levan; Janiashvili, Zurab; Bakuradze, Giorgi

    2017-10-03

    A new species of ground beetles (Coleoptea: Carabidae) belonging to the subgenus Aphaonus Reitter, 1887 (genus Pterostichus Bonelli, 1810) is described, based on two specimens collected from the sacred grove of Khevsha (Eastern Georgia).

  6. A new species of Ascocotyle (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Montero, Francisco Esteban; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; García, Néstor Aníbal; Raga, Juan Antonio; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2012-08-01

    We describe a new heterophyid species, Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis n. sp., based on specimens collected from the intestines of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Patagonia (Argentina). Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is distinguished from the other species of the subgenus by the number of circumoral spines, which are arranged in 2 rows of 18 to 23. The new species also differs from the other species in having a gonotyl without papillae. The specimens exhibited the widest seminal receptacle described for a species of this subgenus. Species of the subgenus Ascocotyle usually infect fish-eating birds or mammals in freshwater or brackish habitats. Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is the first species of the subgenus described from a marine mammal. However, no metacercariae of Ascocotyle spp. were found in 542 marine teleosts from 20 species collected in the same locality. The life cycle of the marine species from the Ascocotyle -complex infecting pinnipeds remains elusive.

  7. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  8. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) pabloi n. sp. and the female of L. howardi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María Elena; Young, David G

    2002-07-01

    A new Lutzomyia species in the subgenus Trichophoromyia, L. pabloi, is described and illustrated. A description of the previously unknown female of L. howardi Young is also presented. These specimens were captured in the Amazon region of Colombia.

  9. Assessment of genetic and biochemical diversity of ecologically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... variant Russula species on the basis of RAPD and isozyme analysis. Key words: ..... Singh RP, Singh U (eds) Molecular Methods in Plant Pathology, CRC. Press INC., pp. ... Speciation and synonymy in Penicillium subgenus ...

  10. A revised subgeneric position for Polypedilum (Probolum) simantokeleum, with description of a new Uresipedilum species in Japan (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nao; Yamamoto, Masaru

    2015-08-11

    Two Japanese Polypedilum species including a new species are redescribed and described based on the males. Polypedilum (Probolum) simantokeleum, Sasa, Suzuki et Sakai, 1998, is transferred to the subgenus Uresipedilum. Polypedilum (Uresipedilum) dissimilum sp. nov. is easily distinguished from other members of Uresipedilum by having a T-shaped tergal band. Definition of the subgenus Probolum is briefly discussed: we suggest Probolum should be defined as the species with the superior volsella bearing inner lobe pending adequate larval information.

  11. Proteomic Characterization of the Venom of Five Bombus (Thoracobombus) Species

    OpenAIRE

    Barkan, Nezahat Pınar; Bayazit, Mustafa Bilal; Ozel Demiralp, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    Venomous animals use venom, a complex biofluid composed of unique mixtures of proteins and peptides, to act on vital systems of the prey or predator. In bees, venom is solely used for defense against predators. However, the venom composition of bumble bees (Bombus sp.) is largely unknown. The Thoracobombus subgenus of Bombus sp. is a diverse subgenus represented by 14 members across Turkey. In this study, we sought out to proteomically characterize the venom of five Thoracobombus species by u...

  12. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  13. Distinct Processes Drive Diversification in Different Clades of Gesneriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalson, Eric H; Roberts, Wade R

    2016-07-01

    Using a time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis including 768 Gesneriaceae species (out of [Formula: see text]3300 species) and more than 29,000 aligned bases from 26 gene regions, we test Gesneriaceae for diversification rate shifts and the possible proximal drivers of these shifts: geographic distributions, growth forms, and pollination syndromes. Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures analyses found five significant rate shifts in Beslerieae, core Nematanthus, core Columneinae, core Streptocarpus, and Pacific Cyrtandra These rate shifts correspond with shifts in diversification rates, as inferred by Binary State Speciation and Extinction Model and Geographic State Speciation and Extinction model, associated with hummingbird pollination, epiphytism, unifoliate growth, and geographic area. Our results suggest that diversification processes are extremely variable across Gesneriaceae clades with different combinations of characters influencing diversification rates in different clades. Diversification patterns between New and Old World lineages show dramatic differences, suggesting that the processes of diversification in Gesneriaceae are very different in these two geographic regions. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Chromosomal organization of the ribosomal RNA genes in the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Gunderina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal localization of ribosomal RNA coding genes has been studied by using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization in 21 species from the genus Chironomus Meigen, 1803. Analysis of the data has shown intra- and interspecific variation in number and location of 5.8S rDNA hybridization sites in 17 species from the subgenus Chironomus and 4 species from the subgenus Camptochironomus Kieffer, 1914. In the majority of studied species the location of rDNA sites coincided with the sites where active NORs (nucleolus organizer regions were found. The number of hybridization sites in karyotypes of studied chironomids varied from 1 to 6. More than half of the species possessed only one NOR (12 out of 21. Two rDNA hybridization sites were found in karyotypes of five species, three – in two species, and five and six sites – in one species each. NORs were found in all chromosomal arms of species from the subgenus Chironomus with one of them always located on arm G. On the other hand, no hybridization sites were found on arm G in four studied species from the subgenus Camptochironomus. Two species from the subgenus Chironomus – Ch. balatonicus Devai, Wuelker & Scholl, 1983 and Ch. “annularius” sensu Strenzke, 1959 – showed intraspecific variability in the number of hybridization signals. Possible mechanisms of origin of variability in number and location of rRNA genes in the karyotypes of species from the genus Chironomus are discussed.

  15. Polyphyly of the Padus group of Prunus (Rosaceae) and the evolution of biogeographic disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lin; Wen, Jun; Nie, Ze-Long; Johnson, Gabriel; Liang, Zong-Suo; Chang, Zhao-Yang

    2013-05-01

    Prunus subgenus Padus is a group with a wide distribution in temperate eastern Asia and eastern North America with one species extending to Europe and one to Central America. Phylogenetic relationships of subgenus Padus were reconstructed using sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS, and plastid ndhF gene, and rps16 intron and rpl16 intron. Prunus subgenus Padus is shown to be polyphyletic. Taxa of subgenus Padus and subgenus Laurocerasus are highly intermixed in both the ITS and the plastid trees. The results support two disjunctions between eastern North America and Eurasia within the Padus group. One disjunction is between Prunus virginiana of eastern North America and P. padus of Eurasia, estimated to have diverged at 2.99 (95 % HPD 0.59-6.15)-4.1 (95 % HPD 0.63-8.59) mya. The other disjunction is between P. serotina and its Asian relatives. The second disjunction may have occurred earlier than the former one, but the age estimate is difficult due to the unresolved phylogenetic position of the P. serotina complex.

  16. Veronica: Chemical characters for the support of phylogenetic relationships based on nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Özgökce, Fevzi

    2005-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed many relationships in Veronica (Plantaginaceae) never anticipated before. However, phytochemical characters show good congruence with DNA-based analyses. We have analysed a combined data set of 49 species and subspecies derived from the nuclear...... are monophyletic sister groups with the annual species consecutive sisters to them. All species of Veronica that contain cornoside are found in this subgenus, although some species seem to have secondarily lost the ability to produce this compound. Subgenera Pocilla and Pentasepalae are well supported sister...... species in the genus analysed to date to contain melittoside and globularifolin. Subgenus Pentasepalae appears to be a clade of diverse lineages from southwestern Asia and a single European clade. Species shown to have 6-hydroxyflavones do not form a monophyletic group. Subgenus Pseudolysimachium seems...

  17. The morphology of hairs in species of Plantago L. sectio Oreades Decne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hairs of three taxa of sectio Oreades Decne genus Plantago have been studied. We have found that hair typical for the majority of representatives of the genus Plantago, that is, with a unicellular stalk and head vertically divided into two cells, occur in these studied taxa. Some of the headless hairs occurring here are similar to those occurring in sectio Arnoglossum Decne. Rahn's (1978 suggestion of transferring sectio Oreades to the subgenus Psyllium seems wrong since the representatives of this section, in contrast to subgenus Psyllium, do not have hairs with the stalks consisting of several cells and unicellular heads, club-like hairs or iridoid-plantarenaloside. They contain, however, hairs with overlapping cells and iridoid-catapol, which is absent in the taxa of subgenus Psyllium.

  18. New or little-known species of Chaetocladius s. str. Kieffer, 1911 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) from the Amur River basin (Russian Far East).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Makarchenko, Marina A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2017-03-27

    Chironomids of the subgenus Chaetocladius s. str. from the Amur River basin are revised using both morphological characters and molecular data. Three new species, C. egorych sp. nov., C. lopatinskiy sp. nov. and C. yavorskayae sp. nov., are described and figured. The pupa of C. fedotkin is described for the first time. Adult males of C. ligni and C. piger, little-known in the Far East, are redescribed and annotated, and key to males of the Chaetocladius s. str. from the Amur River basin is provided. A reference 658 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was used as a tool for species delimitation. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between 5 species in the subgenus produced K2P genetic distances of 8.3-12.6%, values well associated with interspecific variation. Molecular data were also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Chaetocladius s. str.

  19. The sub-genera of Avian Plasmodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landau I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the morphology of a species of Plasmodium is difficult because these organisms have relatively few characters. The size of the schizont, for example, which is easy to assess is important at the specific level but is not always of great phylogenetic significance. Factors reflecting the parasite’s metabolism provide more important evidence. Thus the position of the parasite within the host red cell (attachment to the host nucleus or its membrane, at one end or aligned with it has been shown to be constant for a given species. Another structure of essential significance that is often ignored is a globule, usually refringent in nature, that was first described in Plasmodium vaughani Novy & MacNeal, 1904 and that we consider to be characteristic of the sub-genus Novyella. Species without this structure, previously classified in this sub-genus, are now included in the new sub-genus Papernaia n. sg.

  20. Two new species of Romulea (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the west­ ern Karoo, Northern Cape and notes on infrageneric classification and range extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Romulea are described from Northern Cape, raising the number of species in southern Africa to 76. R. collina J.C.Manning & Goldblatl is endemic to the Hantamsberg near Calvinia. It is distinguished in subgenus Spatalanthus by its clumped habit, yellow flowers with dark markings in the throat, and short papery bracts. A re-examination of rela­tionships within the subgenus suggests that section Cruciatae is not monophyletic and it is accordingly no longer recog­nized as separate from section  Spatalanthus. R. eburnea J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is a distinctive species of subgenus Spatalanthus from the Komsberg near Sutherland. It is distinguished by its golden yellow flowers with the apical third of the tepals coloured pale creamy apricot, bracts with broad, translucent margins and tips, and an unusually long perianth tube, 10-13 mm long.

  1. The taxonomic implication of frontal tubercles in Polypedilum subgenera diagnoses, with re-description of Polypedilum isigabeceum Sasa & Suzuki (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nao; Yamamoto, Masaru

    2016-11-15

    Polypedilum isigabeceum Sasa et Suzuki, 2000 was described as belonging to subgenus Polypedilum s. str. However, if we accept the conclusion of Sæther et al. (2010), the species might be placed into Kribionympha with P. unagiquartum Sasa, 1985 because of the presence of distinct frontal tubercles in the adult males. However, other taxonomic characters do not support their treatment. P. isigabeceum is re-described and reconfirmed to be assigned to the subgenus Polypedilum s. str. The taxonomic meaning of frontal tubercles is discussed for defining the subgeneric rankings within genus Polypedilum.

  2. Notas e descrições em Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 e Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini Notes and descriptions in Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 and Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The following new species are described in the subgenus Bisaltes (Bisaltes: B. (B. picticornis sp. nov. from Bolivia; B.(B. taua sp. nov. from Brazil (Paraná and Santa Catarina and B. (B. unicolor sp. nov. from Ecuador. Bisaltes (B. pictus Breuning, 1940 is transferred to the subgenus Craspedocerus. In Ptericoptus, P. hybridus hybridus Breuning, 1939 is considered a synonym of P. acuminatus (Fabricius, 1801; P. dorsalis Audinet-Serville, 1835 previously in the synonymy of P. acuminatus is revalidated and Saperda vitta Newman, 1838 is considered its synonym; P. corumbaensis sp. nov. is described from Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul.

  3. A new species of Geodiscelis Michener & Rozen (Hymenoptera: Colletidae: Xeromelissinae) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Rafael R

    2015-10-22

    A new species of the bee genus Geodiscelis Michener & Rozen, 1999, G. antiminera sp. nov., is here described and illustrated. This is the sixth species of the genus, and the second recorded from Peru. The combination of malar area ~1.5x longer than wide, wing veins dark-brown, metepisternum nearly glabrous, and medioventral process on gonocoxa conical and well-developed, separates G. antiminera sp. nov. from all other Geodiscelis species. An updated identification key for all known species is provided. Phylogenetic analyses show that G. antiminera sp. nov. belongs to the subgenus Nazcoediscelis Packer & Dumesh, 2014 and is sister to the other three species in the subgenus.

  4. Two new species of nocturnal bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) with keys to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor H; Griswold, Terry; Ayala, Ricardo

    2010-03-01

    Megalopta Smith, 1853, is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal or crepuscular bees. Two subgenera are recognized with most of its nearly 30 species placed in the nominate subgenus. Species of Megalopta s. str. are more commonly collected than species of Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, all presumably parasites of Megalopta s. str. Two new species of Megalopta are described here: M. (Megalopta) tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor) huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to the Central American species of Megalopta s. str. and the species of the parasitic subgenus Noctoraptor are presented.

  5. A new Gephyromantis (Phylacomantis frog species from the pinnacle karst of Bemaraha, western Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Crottini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new mantellid frog of the subfamily Mantellinae from the karstic Bemaraha Plateau, western Madagascar. The new species belongs to the genus Gephyromantis, subgenus Phylacomantis, which previously included G. azzurrae, G. corvus and G. pseudoasper. Gephyromantis atsingy sp. n. has a snout-vent length of 35–43 mm and is a scansorial frog living among the Tsingy de Bemaraha pinnacles and inside the caves present in the area. A morphological analysis and biomolecular comparison revealed the degree of differentiation between these four species of the Phylacomantis subgenus. The new species seems to be endemic to Tsingy de Bemaraha.

  6. Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria) ophisterni sp. n. (Nematoda : Capillariidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Pisces) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Jiménez-García, I

    2000-04-01

    A new nematode species, Pseudocapillaria ophisterni sp. n., is described from the intestine and rarely from the stomach of the swamp-eel, Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen et Greenwood, from Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico. In having both caudal lobes in the male interconnected by a distinct dorsal membrane, it belongs to the subgenus Ichthyocapillaria. It differs from the three species in this subgenus mainly in possessing either a distinctly longer spicule or a smaller length of oesophagus relative to body length. It also differs in host type and geographical distribution. P. ophisterni is the first capillariid species reported from synbranchiform fishes.

  7. Synthesis of acetylenic derivatives of hydroxynaphthoquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Kopper, Andres

    2010-01-01

    The acetylene derivatives synthesis 2-hydroxy-1 ,4-naphthoquinones was studied using different reaction conditions: coupling with copper and silver acetylides, Sonogashira reaction with and without CU (I) as cocatalyst. The reaction conditions are optimized for coupling of iodine lawson and ylide phenyl lawsone of iodine with various terminal acetylenes: phenyl acetylene, propargyl alcohol, 1-heptin and 2-methyl-3-butyne-2-ol. Also, reactants such as bromides of hidroxinaphthoquinones were used with protecting groups such as acetate, methoxy, phenyloxy, benzyloxy and tricloroetoxy. The synthesis of 2-hydroxy-3-(3-hydroxy-3-ynyl-1-methylbutane)-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethynyl) -1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-(2-phenylethynyl)-3-(2,2,2-tricloroetoxy)-1,4-naphthoquinone was performed with rates of return of 22%, 57% and 67% respectively. The reaction of the yodolawsona was obtained with 3-chloro-3-methyl-1-butyne in the presence of CuI, CsI and Cs 2 Co 3 obtaining the enol ether: 3,3-dimethyl-2-methyl-2 ,3-dihydronaphto [2 ,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (dehydro-α-dunion), with a rate of return of 58%. This enol ether was used as a reactant for the formation, through a regioselective hydrogenation with PtO 2 /t-butanol of α-dunion with a yield of 50%. Furthermore, by acid hydrolysis with H 2 SO 4 has been possible to obtain a percentage yield of 75% streptocarpone. Both, α-dunion and streptocarpone, natural products extracted from Streptocarpus dunni shrub, with antiparasitic activity, and which so far had not presented an efficient synthesis. A mechanism is proposed for the reaction of formation of the enol ether where it is presumed the presence of a zwitterion-vinyl carbene as key intermediate of the reaction. All products were characterized by spectroscopy 1 H and 13 C-NMR, UV-Vis and IR. (author) [es

  8. Seven new calochroid and fulvoid species of Cortinarius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Jeppesen, T.S.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    We describe seven new European species of Cortinarius. All species are based on analyses of morphological and DNA sequence data. They all belong to a well-supported clade comprising most species traditionally treated in Cortinarius subgenus Phlegmacium sections Fulvi and Calochroi (i.e. the...

  9. Morphology and Ecological Notes on the Larvae and Pupae of Simulium (Simulium from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Kyu Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of larvae and pupae of twelve species of Simulium (Simulium from Korea are investigated and redescribed. Detailed descriptions of immature stages of each species are provided with photographs. For the Korean members of subgenus Simulium, combinations of the following characteristics can be used to separate them from other Korean subgenera: larval abdomen without a pair of conical-shaped ventral tubercles; postgenal cleft variously shaped, viz., miter shaped, spearhead, bullet shaped or triangular; rectal papillae 3 simple lobe or compound lobes; pupal gill of 6-16 filaments; cocoon shoe, boot or slipper shaped; and head trichomes 3 pairs (1 facial+2 frontal. Habitat information and other ecological aspects of each species are provided. Updated keys to larvae and pupae of the Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are also provided to facilitate species identification. Taxonomic treatment based on external morphologies of larvae and pupae of Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are focused and included in this study. To understand their interspecific relationships, phylogenetic analyses using multiple data from molecule, morphology, and ecology are warranted in future research. Also continued exploration for new character systems is needed to establish more stable boundaries for subgenus and species delimitations.

  10. Penicillium persicinum, a new griseofulvin, chrysogine and roquefortine C producing species from Qinghai province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Zhou, H.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    , dechlorogriseofulvin, lichexanthone, roquefortine C, roquefortine D, chrysogine, 2-pyrovoylaminobenzamide, 2-acetyl-quinazolin-4(3H)-one. This isolate, CBS 111235, is described as Penicillium persicinum sp. nov., which belongs to subgenus Penicillium section Chrysogena but is morphologically similar to P. italicum...

  11. The ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene -ITS2 sequence variability during the divergence of sweet-grass species (gen us Glyceria R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Rodionov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the sequence ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 of the nuclear genome of 13 species of genus Glyceria, 4 species of Melica and a species of monotypic genus Pleuropogon showed that the species of the genus Glyceria have 3 haplotypes: 1 Haplotype A was found only in species of the subgenus Glyceria section Glyceria (G. septentrionalis, G. fluitans, G. declinata, G. occidentalis, G. notata, G. borealis, G. leptostachya and in Pleuropogon sabinii; 2 Haplotype C is characteristic of the subgenus Hydropoa, section Hydropoa (G. grandis, G. х amurensis, G. triflora, G. maxima and sect. Lithuanicae (G. leptolepis; 3 Haplotype B is found in the species of the subgenus Hydropoa sections Striatae (G. elata, G. striata, G. neogaea, G. canadensis, Scolochloiformes (G. alnasteretum, G. spiculosa and G. lithuanica of sect. Lithuanicae. Species carring haplotype B are located at the base of the phylogenetic tree of the genus Glyceria and/or clustered with low bootstrap indices. On the phylogenetic trees inferred by the analysis of the sequences ITS and 5.8S rDNA both sect. Glyceria and sect. Hydropoa represented two sister monophyly branches. The species Pleuropogon sabinii belong to the branch of subgenus Glyceria as a sister monotypic branch to the branch of the sect. Glyceria.

  12. Genetic Identification of Hyalodaphnia Species and Interspecific Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billiones, R.; Brehm, G.M.; Klee, J.; Schwenk, K.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the genus Daphnia, in particular the subgenus Hyalodaphnia, represent a taxonomically problematic group due to their phenotypic plasticity, local races and the formation of interspecific hybrids and backcrosses. In this study, we present a genetic approach utilising nuclear DNA to

  13. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sehe area of western Kachchh considered their. Bed Nos. 4 and 5 as .... with very thin population. The Bermoti stream ...... Recent; Indo–Pacific. Subgenus: .... Type species: Cardium discors Lamarck' 1805; T. Eocene–Miocene; Europe–Asia ..... Shuto Tsugio 1971 Neogene Bivalves from Panay Island, the. Philippines.

  14. Survey of microsatellite DNA in pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt

    1997-01-01

    A large insert genomic library from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) was probed for the microsatellite motifs (AC)n and (AG)n, all 10 trinucleotide motifs, and 22 of the 33 possible tetranucleotide motifs. For comparison with a species from a different subgenus, a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) genomic...

  15. Fisher and marten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger A. Powell; Steven W. Buskirk; William J. Zielinski

    2003-01-01

    The genus Martes is circumboreal in distribution, with extensions into southern (M. gwatkinsii) and southeast Asia as far as 7°S latitude (M. flavigula; Anderson 1970). The fisher (subgenus Pekania) is endemic to the New World and restricted to mesic coniferous forest of the boreal zone and its...

  16. Big and black sagebrush landscapes [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen; E. Durant McArthur

    2007-01-01

    Perhaps no plant evokes a common vision of the semi-arid landscapes of western North America as do the sagebrushes. A collective term, sagebrush is applied to shrubby members of the mostly herbaceous genus, Artemisia L. More precisely, the moniker is usually restricted to members of subgenus Tridentatae, a collection of some 20 woody taxa endemic to North America (...

  17. Intersubgeneric hybridization between Glycine max and G. tomentella: Production of F1, amphidiploid, BC1, BC2 BC3 and fertile soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic resources of the 26 species of the subgenus Glycine have not been exploited to broaden the genetic base of soybean (Glycine max; 2n = 40). Initially, we hybridized eight soybean cultivars with six accessions of 78- and one accession of 40-chromosome G. tomentella. One accession of G. arg...

  18. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 52 - 56°C with the primers ITS-9 and ITS-6 or Trn-L and Trn-F. Polymerase chain .... The sub-genus Prunus has also relatively good support (81%) including .... Stevens, Michael J, Donoghue (1999). Plant Systematics. A.

  19. Community structure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services in treeline whitebark pine communities: Potential impacts from a non-native pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana F. Tomback; Lynn M. Resler; Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth R. Pansing; Andrew J. Andrade; Aaron C. Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus) in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions...

  20. Usnea christhinae spec. nov. from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bystrek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new lichen species Usnea christhinae Bystrek is described from the Patagonia Andes, the reserve upon lake Onelli in the National Park Los Glaciares. It belongs to subgenus Protousnea Motyka emend. Bystrek and is closely related to U. cavernosa Tucker.

  1. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  2. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  3. Intense uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau triggered rapid diversification of Phyllolobium (Leguminosae) in the Late Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Yun Kang; Yang Zhong; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Phyllolobium, a recently established genus from subgenus Pogonophace of Astragalus, contains about 20 species and four sections, mostly endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The uplift of the QTP undoubtedly affected organismic evolution in the region, but further molecular dating in a phylogenetic context is required to test whether diversification is linked...

  4. Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia senegal belongs to the subgenus, Aculeiferum. It is an African arid and semi arid zone multipurpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control besides other multiple uses. Genetic variation and resulting variable groupings were assessed using combined ...

  5. Artemisia communities in arid zones of Uzbekistan (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov A. Kapustina; Montserrat Torrell; Joan Valles

    2001-01-01

    Central Asia, and particularly the former Soviet Middle Asian countries, with more than 180 taxa (45 endemics), is one of the centers of origin and speciation of the genus Artemisia L. (Asteraceae, Anthemideae). Several species of this genus, mainly belonging to subgenus Seriphidium (Besser) Rouy, are shrubs that dominate the landscape and form large communities in...

  6. A new Amazonian species from the Drosophila annulimana species group (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco S. Gottschalk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila caxiuana sp. nov., Drosophila subgenus, is described and illustrated. This new species was collected in the Amazonian Biome (Caquajó river, Portel, Pará, Brazil and is an atypical species to the group due the unusual morphology of the male terminalia.

  7. Ecological regime and distribution of @iVirgulinella@@ spp. in the inshore sediments of western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Setty, M.G.A.P.

    @iVirgulinella@@ Cushman, 1932 was distinguished as a subgenus from @iVirgulina@@ d'Orbigny, 1826 (non @iVirgulina@@ Bory, 1823 = @iFursenkoina@@) on the basis of the development of numerous small arched sutural openings alternating with bridges...

  8. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other...

  9. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  10. Veronica: Acylated flavone glycosides as chemosystematic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Grayer, Renée J.; Kite, Geoffrey C.

    2005-01-01

    HPLC/DAD and LCeMS of an extract of Veronica spicata subgenus Pseudolysimachium, Plantaginaceae) revealed the presence of six 6-hydroxyluteolin glycosides acylated with phenolic acids, three of which are new compounds and which we called spicosides. A flavonoid survey of seven more species...

  11. New species and notes on genera of the Celastraceae (incl. Hippocrateaceae). III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, A.M.W.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of two new species in the genus Pristimera, P. dariense from Panama and P. caudata from Suriname. P. dariense differs by its flattened disk from the other New World species of the genus, but would fit in the subgenus Trochantha N. Hallé known from Africa. Cuervea crenulata sp.

  12. A molecular phylogenetic approach to western North America endemic Artemisia and allies (Asteraceae): Untangling the sagebrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles; Teresa Garnatje

    2011-01-01

    Premise of the study: Artemisia subgenus Tridentatae plants characterize the North American Intermountain West. These are landscape-dominant constituents of important ecological communities and habitats for endemic wildlife. Together with allied species and genera (Picrothamnus and Sphaeromeria), they make up an intricate series of taxa whose limits are uncertain,...

  13. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  14. Assessing the gene content of the megagenome: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; Randi A. Famula; Annette Deflino-Mix; Kristian A. Stevens; Carol A. Loopstra; Charles H. Landley; David B. Neale; Jill L. Wegryzn

    2016-01-01

    Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas) is within the subgenus Strobus with an estimated genome size of 31 Gbp. Transcriptomic resources are of particular interest in conifers due to the challenges presented in their megagenomes for gene identification. In this study, we present the first comprehensive survey of the P. lambertiana...

  15. Evolutionary and ecological implications of genome size in the North American endemic sagebrushes and allies (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Miguel A. Canela; Teresa Garnatje; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles

    2008-01-01

    The genome size of 51 populations of 20 species of the North American endemic sagebrushes (subgenus Tridentatae), related species, and some hybrid taxa were assessed by flow cytometry, and were analysed in a phylogenetic framework. Results were similar for most Tridentatae species, with the exception of three taxonomically conflictive species: Artemisia bigelovii Gray...

  16. The tribe Dysoniini part IV: New species of Quiva Hebard, 1927 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) from Brazilian rainforest and some clarifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Mendes, Diego Matheus De Mello; Sovano, Rafael S Da Silva

    2015-06-10

    Two new species of the genus Quiva: Quiva buhrnheimi n. sp. and Quiva gutjahrae n. sp. from Brazilian Amazon are described. Determinations for distributional data previously published by Sovano & Mendes (2013) are clarified and the synonymy of Ituana dorisae under Q. abacata is confirmed. In this paper, an updated key to subgenus Quiva is provided.

  17. The small barbs Barbus humilis and B. trispilopleura of Lake Tana (Ethiopia): Are they ecotypes of the same species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Rutjes, H.A.; Graaf, de M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Four species of ‘small barbs’ (Barbus, subgenus Enteromius Cope, 1869) are known from Lake Tana, isolated in the Ethiopian highlands: B. humilis, B. trispilopleura, B. pleurogramma (all Boulenger, 1902) and B. tanapelagius de Graaf, 2000. However, only three species appear valid from cluster

  18. A new species of Poecilia from Honduras (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Poecilia from the Atlantic slopes of Honduras is described and assigned to the subgenus Mollienesia. Poecilia hondurensis, new species, differs from all congeners in the combination of having tricuspid teeth on the inner of both jaws and lacking a prominent spine or hook on the

  19. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  20. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Ribes inerme in north-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Vogler; B. W. Geils; K. Coats

    2017-01-01

    Cronartium ribicola Fisch. has not been found infecting any of the five-needle white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) in Utah, despite being established on both white pine and Ribes hosts in the other 10 western states, defined as those west of the 102° meridian.

  1. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  2. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. Detelina Belkinova. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 85 Issue 1 April 2006 pp 39-44 Research Article. Karyotypic differences and evolutionary tendencies of some species from the subgenus Obliquodesmus Mlad. of genus Scenedesmus Meyen (Chlorophyta, ...

  3. Phlebotomus (Euphlebotomus barguesae n. sp. from Thailand (Diptera – Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léger Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A few studies have been carried out on the Phlebotomine sandflies from Thailand. Within the Phlebotomine sandflies, the genus Phlebotomus Rondani & Berté, 1840 contains the vectors of leishmaniases in Europe, Africa and Asia. It includes several subgenera. Among them the subgenus Euphlebotomus Theodor, 1948 contains at the present time 12 taxa. The type-species of this subgenus is P. argentipes Annandale & Brunetti, 1908, the vector of Leishmania donovani (Laveran & Mesnil, 1903 in India. Results A new species of sandfly, P. barguesae n. sp. is described from limestone caves in Thailand. The male-female gathering in the same species is based on ecological, morphological and molecular criteria (homology of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I sequences. The inclusion of P. barguesae n. sp. in the subgenus Euphlebotomus is justified on the basis of characters of the male genitalia (five spines on the style, bifurcated paramere, and no basal lobe on the coxite and of female pharyngeal armature (two kinds of teeth. It well differenciated from another sympatric species: P. mascomai. Conclusion The new species described in the present study has smooth spermathecae. This original morphology opens a discussion on the heterogeneity of this subgenus.

  4. Four new species of Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Annery; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2017-12-07

    Four new species in the genus Phyllophaga Harris 1827, subgenus Cnemarachis Saylor 1942 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Cuba are described: Phyllophaga barroi new species, Phyllophaga guanahacabibensis new species, Phyllophaga pauli new species, and Phyllophaga sabanalamarensis new species. Each species is illustrated using photographs of the habitus, diagnostic features, and male aedeagi. A map is provided showing the geographical distributions of the new species.

  5. Phylogeny of the New World diploid cottons (Gossypium L., Malvaceae) based on sequences of three low-copy nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Alvarez; R. Cronn; J.F. Wendel

    2005-01-01

    American diploid cottons (Gossypium L., subgenus Houzingenia Fryxell) form a monophyletic group of 13 species distributed mainly in western Mexico, extending into Arizona, Baja California, and with one disjunct species each in the Galapagos Islands and Peru. Prior phylogenetic analyses based on an alcohol dehydrogenase gene (...

  6. Classification of terverticillate Penicillia by electrospray mass spectrometric profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Michael Edberg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    429 isolates of 58 species belonging to Penicillium subgenus Penicillium are classified from direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry (diMS) analysis of crude extracts by automated data processing. The study shows that about 70% of the species can be classified correctly into species using...

  7. Western Palaearctic Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia Hering and Ectoedemia Busck s. str. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae: five new species and new data on distribution, hostplants and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Nieukerken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nine western Palaearctic species of the subgenus Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 and 48 species in the subgenus Ectoedemia Busck, 1907 of the genus Ectoedemia are reviewed. One species in the subgenus Zimmermannia and four species in the subgenus Ectoedemia are described as new: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia vivesi A. Laštůvka, Z. Laštůvka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern Spain and Cyprus with unknown host plant, Ectoedemia (E. hendrikseni A. Laštůvka, Z. Laštůvka & Van Nieukerken sp. n. from southern France on Quercus suber, E. (E. heckfordi Van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka & Z. Laštůvka sp. n. from southern England on Quercus petraea and Q. robur, E. (E. phaeolepis Van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka & Z. Laštůvka sp. n. from Spain and Portugal probably on Quercus ilex and Q. rotundifolia and E. (E. coscoja Van Nieukerken, A. Laštůvka & Z. Laštůvka sp. n. from Spain on Quercus coccifera. The following species are redescribed: Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia hispanica Van Nieukerken, Ectoedemia (Zimmermannia reichli Z. & A. Laštůvka, 1998, Ectoedemia (E. algeriensis van Nieukerken, 1985, E. (E. pseudoilicis Z. & A. Laštůvka, 1998 and E. (E. alnifoliae van Nieukerken, 1985. Ectoedemia albiformae Puplesis & Diškus, 2003 is synonymised with E. spinosella (Joannis, 1908. Ectoedemia jacutica Puplesis, 1988, previously synonymised with E. agrimoniae (Frey, 1858, is here synonymised with E. spiraeae Gregor & Povolný, 1983. Updated keys to the subgenus Zimmermannia and the Quercus feeding Ectoedemia are provided.

  8. Contributions to the phylogeny of Ixodes (Pholeoixodes canisuga, I. (Ph. kaiseri, I. (Ph. hexagonus and a simple pictorial key for the identification of their females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Hornok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe, hard ticks of the subgenus Pholeoixodes (Ixodidae: Ixodes are usually associated with burrow-dwelling mammals and terrestrial birds. Reports of Pholeoixodes spp. from carnivores are frequently contradictory, and their identification is not based on key diagnostic characters. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to identify ticks collected from dogs, foxes and badgers in several European countries, and to reassess their systematic status with molecular analyses using two mitochondrial markers. Results Between 2003 and 2017, 144 Pholeoixodes spp. ticks were collected in nine European countries. From accurate descriptions and comparison with type-materials, a simple illustrated identification key was compiled for adult females, by focusing on the shape of the anterior surface of basis capituli. Based on this key, 71 female ticks were identified as I. canisuga, 21 as I. kaiseri and 21 as I. hexagonus. DNA was extracted from these 113 female ticks, and from further 31 specimens. Fragments of two mitochondrial genes, cox1 (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 16S rRNA, were amplified and sequenced. Ixodes kaiseri had nine unique cox1 haplotypes, which showed 99.2–100% sequence identity, whereas I. canisuga and I. hexagonus had eleven and five cox1 haplotypes, respectively, with 99.5–100% sequence identity. The distribution of cox1 haplotypes reflected a geographical pattern. Pholeoixodes spp. ticks had fewer 16S rRNA haplotypes, with a lower degree of intraspecific divergence (99.5–100% sequence identity and no geographical clustering. Phylogenetic analyses were in agreement with morphology: I. kaiseri and I. hexagonus (with the similar shape of the anterior surface of basis capituli were genetically more closely related to each other than to I. canisuga. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the subgenus Eschatocephalus (bat ticks clustered within the subgenus Pholeoixodes. Conclusions A simple

  9. Anatomía floral comparativa del género Polianthes (Agavaceae Comparative floral anatomy of the genus Polianthes (Agavaceae

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    Héctor Serrano-Casas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio anatómico de las flores de algunas especies en los subgéneros Polianthes y Bravoa del género Polianthes L. (Agavaceae, con el propósito de investigar si la actual clasificación subgenérica es adecuada. Los taxa analizados del subgénero Polianthes fueron P. densiflora, P. nelsonii y P. platyphylla, y del subgénero Bravoa, P. geminiflora var. geminiflora, P. howardii y P. multicolor. Las características anatómicas florales entre las especies son similares y comparten con otros miembros de la familia Agavaceae los nectarios septales y los óvulos anátropos, bitégmicos y crasinucelados. En los taxa del subgénero Bravoa, los filamentos se originan en la base del tubo floral, mientras que en el subgénero Polianthes se originan por debajo de los tépalos internos del perianto. Anteriormente, sin considerar la anatomía de las flores, se planteaba que los filamentos se originaban en ambos subgéneros desde la base del tubo del perianto y que éstos permanecían adnados al mismo, separándose a diferentes niveles. En el nivel interespecífico, P. howardii presenta nectarios de mayor longitud que los lóculos, en relación con los de las otras especies estudiadas.An anatomical floral study of some species of the genus Polianthes (Agavaceae, of both subgenus Polianthes and subgenus Bravoa (Agavaceae was carried out, with the aim of testing the adequacy of the present subgeneric classification. The taxa studied of subgenus Polianthes were P. densiflora, P. nelsonii and P. platyphylla; and P. geminiflora var. geminiflora, P. howardii and P. multicolor of subgenus Bravoa. The anatomical characters between these species are similar, sharing with other members of the Agavaceae family the septal nectaries and the anatropous, bitegmic, and crassinucellated ovules. In the taxa of subgenus Bravoa, the filaments originate from the floral tube base, while in subgenus Polianthes they originate near the base of the internal tepals

  10. Adaptive evolution of drug targets in producer and non-producer organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Sun, Xin E.; Genee, Hans Jasper

    2012-01-01

    MPA (mycophenolic acid) is an immunosuppressive drug produced by several fungi in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. This toxic metabolite is an inhibitor of IMPDH (IMP dehydrogenase). The MPA-biosynthetic cluster of Penicillum brevicompactum contains a gene encoding a B-type IMPDH, IMPDH-B, which...... confers MPA resistance. Surprisingly, all members of the subgenus Penicillium contain genes encoding IMPDHs of both the A and B types, regardless of their ability to produce MPA. Duplication of the IMPDH gene occurred before and independently of the acquisition of the MPAbiosynthetic cluster. Both P....... brevicompactum IMPDHs are MPA-resistant, whereas the IMPDHs from a non-producer are MPA-sensitive. Resistance comes with a catalytic cost: whereas P. brevicompactum IMPDH-B is >1000-fold more resistant to MPA than a typical eukaryotic IMPDH, its value of kcat/Km is 0.5%of ‘normal’. Curiously, IMPDH...

  11. Description of two new species of Clivina Latreille (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Clivinini from southeastern United States

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    Yves Bousquet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Clivina Latreille are described. One, C. choatei Bousquet & Skelley, belongs to the nominotypical subgenus and is known from six specimens collected in northern Florida. The species is structurally similar to C. myops Bousquet, known only from the holotype found in North Carolina, but differs among others by its smaller size and wider elytral striae. The second species, C. alabama Bousquet, belongs to the subgenus Antroforceps Barr and is known from two specimens collected in north-central Alabama. The species is structurally most similar to C. sasajii Ball, known only from Latimer County in Oklahoma, but differs among others in the absence of eyes and inthe pronotum and elytra proportionally wider.

  12. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae in South Africa. IV. Natural hybridiza­ tion

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    J. J. Spies

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Rubus L. is represented in southern Africa by the subgenera  Eubatus Focke and  Idaeobatus Focke. A combination o f morphological data, data on the reproductive systems of some collections and meiotic chromosome behaviour indicates that a hybrid swarm in the eastern Transvaal was formed subsequent to the hybridization between R. cuneifolius Pursh. taxon B (subgenus Eubatus and R. longepedicellatus (C. E. Gust. C. H. Stirton (subgenus Idaeobatus. Other examples of intra- and intersubgeneric hybridization were found during this study of the South African material. These instances, with examples found in the literature, indicate that the subgeneric subdivisions of Rubus are artificial. Three different methods were used to analyse the meiotic chromosome configurations. The genome relationship system of Alonso & Kimber (1981 and Kimber & Alonso (1981 and the modification of the binomial system of Jackson & Casey (1980 by Spies (1984 proved to be the most sensitive for distinguishing between alio-, segmental alio- and autoploids.

  13. Penicillium daejeonium sp. nov., a new species isolated from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Hyunkyu; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chang Sun; Choi, Young Phil; Deng, Jian-Xin; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-08-01

    Two isolates of monoverticillate Penicillium species were collected from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea. Multigene phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and genes encoding β-tubulin (benA) and calmodulin (cmd), as well as morphological analyses revealed that the two isolates are members of the P. sclerotiorum complex in Penicillium subgenus Aspergilloides, but different from species of the P. sclerotiorum complex. The isolates are closely related to P. cainii, P. jacksonii, and P. viticola in terms of their multigene phylogeny, but their colony and conidiophore morphologies differ from those of closely related species. The name P. daejeonium is proposed for this unclassified new species belonging to the P. sclerotiorum complex in subgenus Aspergilloides.

  14. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci developed for Passiflora edulis Sims. in related Passiflora Species

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    Gilmara Alvarenga Fachardo Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected 41 SSR markers developed for yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims. for their transferability to 11 different Passiflora species. Twenty-one SSR were successfully amplified in 10 wild species of passion fruit producing 101 bands. All the markers were amplifiable for at least one species. The mean transferability was 68,8%, ranging from 15,4% (primer PE11 to 100 % (PE13, PE18, PE37, PE41 and PE88. Transferability was higher for the species from the Passiflora subgenus than for those from the Decaloba and Dysosmia subgenus. The results indicated a high level of nucleotide sequence conservation of the primer regions in the species evaluated, and consequently, they could potentially be used for the establishment of molecular strategies for use in passion fruit breeding and genetics.

  15. Alpha taxonomy of the genus Kessleria Nowicki, 1864, revisited in light of DNA-barcoding (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae

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    Peter Huemer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of Kessleria, a highly specialized montane genus of Yponomeutidae with larval host restriction to Saxifragaceae and Celastraceae (Saxifraga spp. – subgenus Kessleria; Saxifraga spp. and Parnassia spp. – subgenus Hofmannia, is revised based on external morphology, genitalia and DNA barcodes. An integrative taxonomic approach supports the existence of 29 species in Europe (the two known species from Asia and North America are not treated herein. A full 658 bp fragment of COI was obtained from 135 specimens representing 24 species, a further seven sequences are >560 bp. Five new species are described: Kessleria cottiensis sp. n. (Prov. Torino, Italy; Dep. Hautes Alpes, France, Kessleria dimorpha sp. n. (Dep. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France, Kessleria alpmaritimae sp. n. (Dep. Alpes-Maritimes, France, Kessleria apenninica sp. n. (Prov. Rieti, Prov. L´Aquila, Italy, and Kessleria orobiae sp. n. (Prov. Bergamo, Italy.

  16. Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Vivero, Rafael José; Uribe, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia velezi sp.nov. was described and illustrated from male specimens collected by light trap in the Reserva Natural Cañon del Río Claro in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The new species belongs to the series sanguinaria of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which is represented in Colombia by Lutzomyia cirrita, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia scorzai, Lutzomyia sp. of Pichindé and Lutzomyia tortura. The new species can be differentiated from others of the subgenus by the combination of the following characteristics: long antennal ascoids, reaching level of the papilla, coxite with a single basal seta and fifth palpomere longer than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the third and fourth palpomeres.

  17. Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar Elías Bejarano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia velezi sp.nov. was described and illustrated from male specimens collected by light trap in the Reserva Natural Cañon del Río Claro in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The new species belongs to the series sanguinaria of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which is represented in Colombia by Lutzomyia cirrita, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia scorzai, Lutzomyia sp. of Pichindé and Lutzomyia tortura. The new species can be differentiated from others of the subgenus by the combination of the following characteristics: long antennal ascoids, reaching level of the papilla, coxite with a single basal seta and fifth palpomere longer than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the third and fourth palpomeres.

  18. Distribution and nests of paper wasps of Polistes (Polistella) in northeastern Vietnam, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong; Kojima, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seven species of the subgenus Polistella Ashmead of the genus Polistes Latreille including a new species, P. brunetus Nguyen & Kojima, sp. n. described here, are recognized to occur in northeastern Vietnam, the easternmost part of the eastern slope of the Himalayas. A key to these species is provided. Their distributional records are remarked. Nests of P. delhiensis Das & Gupta, P. mandarinus de Saussure and P. brunetus are also described. PMID:24478582

  19. SOME ASPECTS OF THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. MATHEW

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Juno group of Iris (Mathew, 1981 have been treated taxonomically as a section (sect. Juno, as a subgenus (subg. Scorpiris and as a separate genus (Juno. Whatever its status, the group, comprising some 57 species, is a morphologically convincing assemblage, occurring in the Mediterranean region eastwards into western and central Asia. The distribution, habitat and characteristics of the group are described.

  20. Latvia’s Pērkonkrusts : Anti-German National Socialism in a Fascistogenic Milieu

    OpenAIRE

    Kott, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Aside from equating it with Hitlerism, there have been few scholarly attempts to define national socialism and specify its relation to the broader category of fascism. This article posits that national socialisms are a sub-genus of fascism, where the distinguishing feature is an ultaranationalism based on a palingenetic völkisch racism, of which anti-Semitism is an essential element. Thus, national socialism is not just mimetic Hitlerism, as Hitler is not even necessary. National socialist mo...

  1. Characterization and differentiation of aflatoxigenic species of Aspergillus section Flavi by MALDI-TOF MS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, P.; Kallow, W.; Erhard, M.; Welker, M.; Kozakiewicz, Z.; Lima, Nelson; Venâncio, Armando

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus is a large genus, with a complex taxonomy. The genus is easily identifiedd by its characteristic conidiophore, but species identification and differentiation is complex, mainly because it is traditionally based on a range of morphological features. Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, also refered to as the A.dflavus group, has attracted worldwide attention for its industrial use and toxigenic potential. Sectiond Flavi is divided in two groups of species. One includes th...

  2. Hybridization in East African swarm-raiding army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel Jc; Peters, Marcell K; Schöning, Caspar

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization can have complex effects on evolutionary dynamics in ants because of the combination of haplodiploid sex-determination and eusociality. While hybrid non-reproductive workers have been found in a range of species, examples of gene-flow via hybrid queens and males are rare. We studied...... hybridization in East African army ants (Dorylus subgenus Anomma) using morphology, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and nuclear microsatellites....

  3. Das Verhalten der Schneemaus : (Chionomys nivalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Niederer, Arlette

    2008-01-01

    1. Biology of the snow vole The snow vole (Chionomys nivalis) belongs to the family of voles (Arvicolidae). Within the Microtus genus it constitutes its own sub-genus (Chionomys), of which it is the only representative. The territory in which it appears is vast, ranging from the northwest of Spain to Turkmenistan and from the Carpathian Mountains to Lebanon, but its appearance is generally limited to small residual areas. The Alps constitute the largest area of cohesive occu...

  4. Two new species of nocturnal bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) with keys to species

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Victor H; Griswold, Terry; Ayala, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Megalopta Smith, 1853, is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal or crepuscular bees. Two subgenera are recognized with most of its nearly 30 species placed in the nominate subgenus. Species of Megalopta s. str. are more commonly collected than species of Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, all presumably parasites of Megalopta s. str. Two new species of Megalopta are described here: M. (Megalopta) tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor) huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to...

  5. Zika Virus, a Cause of Fever in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    considered with the isolation of ZIKA Lee, V. H. & Moore, D. L. (1972). Vectors of the virus from a variety of other Aedes of the subgenus 1969 yellow...a vector of the virus . 46, 669-673. Marchette, N. J., Garcia, R. & Rudnick, A. (1969). Acknowledgements Isolation of Zika virus from Aedes aegypti mos...hemagglutination test for the diagnosis of human Twelve isolations of Zika virus from Aedes leptospirosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology

  6. Two new species of Euconnus (Rhomboconnus) in Peru and Bolivia (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaŁoszyŃski, PaweŁ

    2018-01-25

    To date, the subgenus Rhomboconnus Franz of Euconnus Thomson was represented by ten species known to occur in Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador. For the first time Rhomboconnus is reported to occur in Peru and Bolivia, and two new species are described: Euconnus wari sp. n. (Peru) and E. inkachakanus sp. n. (Bolivia). The latter species is the largest representative of Rhomboconnus, with body length exceeding 3 mm.

  7. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Cyclocynips Melika, Tang & Sinclair (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with descriptions of two new species from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melika, George; Tang, Chang-ti; Sinclair, Frazer; Yang, Man-miao; Lohse, Konrad; Hearn, Jack; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N

    2013-01-01

    A new genus of cynipid oak gallwasp-Cyclocynips Melika, Tang, & Sinclair (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with two new species--C. uberis and C. tumorvirgae--reared from galls on oaks of the Quercus subgenus Cyclobalanopsis is described from Taiwan. Descriptions of asexual generation adults and their diagnostic characters are presented. The likelihood of yet undiscovered sexual generations and the evolution of host-plant associations in these species are discussed.

  8. Systematics and Population Level Analysis of Anopheles darlingi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conn JE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phylogenetic analysis of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus (Danoff-Burg and Conn, unpub. data using six data sets {morphological (all life stages; scanning electron micrographs of eggs; nuclear ITS2 sequences; mitochondrial COII, ND2 and ND6 sequences} revealed different topologies when each data set was analyzed separately but no heterogeneity between the data sets using the arn test. Consequently, the most accurate estimate of the phylogeny was obtained when all the data were combined. This new phylogeny supports a monophyletic Nyssorhynchus subgenus but both previously recognized sections in the subgenus (Albimanus and Argyritarsis were demonstrated to be paraphyletic relative to each other and four of the seven clades included species previously placed in both sections. One of these clades includes both Anopheles darlingi and An. albimanus, suggesting that the ability to vector malaria effectively may have originated once in this subgenus. Both a conserved (315 bp and a variable (425 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene from 15 populations of An. darlingi from Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, Peru and Venezuela were used to examine the evolutionary history of this species and to test several analytical assumptions. Results demonstrated (1 parsimony analysis is equally informative compared to distance analysis using NJ; (2 clades or clusters are more strongly supported when these two regions are combined compared to either region separately; (3 evidence (in the form of remnants of older haplotype lineages for two colonization events; and (4 significant genetic divergence within the population from Peixoto de Azevedo (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The oldest lineage includes populations from Peixoto, Boa Vista (State of Roraima and Dourado (State of São Paulo.

  9. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Laubenfels, de, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana per se. One new subgenus and 17 new sections are described, and 94 species are enumerated, of which 11 species and 1 variety are described as new, and 3 varieties have been raised to specific rank....

  10. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum , may utilize ?trample burr? dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic ?Dioicum Complex? lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent ?trample burr? seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Aus...

  11. Critical Taxonomic Appraisal of Some Taxa of Pedicularis from Indian Himalayas Belonging to Section Siphonanthae

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    Arti Garg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The existing confusion on the taxonomic status of five taxa of Pedicularis viz. P. punctata Decne, P. siphonantha D. Don, P. hookeriana Wall. ex Benth., P. megalantha D. Don and P. hoffmeisteri Kl. ex Kl. & Garcke is resolved on the basis of critical morphological study. These taxa belong to section Siphonanthae, subgenus Longirostres. Pennell’s view of segregating these taxa into distinct species is defended and upheld.

  12. Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    LERSTEN, NELS R.; HORNER, HARRY T.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns.

  13. Third Supplement to ’A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World’ (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    and Green 1987:256). maculosa James and Liston. 19I 1. Rattanarithikul and Green 1987:256 (lectotype 9 desig.- BM). Subgenus Nyssorhynchus Blanchard...1990:39 (2 syntypes, BM). campiorhynchus (Thomson) annulipes Taylor, 1914. Townsend 1990:42 (?3 syntypes; BM). detritus (Haliday) maculosa Theobald, 1905...Skuse, 195 misionensis Duret. 199 macu/at us Theobald. 181 moenensis Iyengar, 2 10 maculosa James and Liston, 183 mojuensis Duret and Damasceno. 200

  14. A Novel Field-Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    leishmaniasis (ML). LCL in the New World is most commonly caused by species of the Viannia subgenus (L. braziliensis, L. panamensis, L. guyanensis, L...significant impact on military operations. Thousands of cases of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in soldiers in World Wars I and II. Military... population . Unpublished information indicates that the number of military personnel with cutaneous leishmaniasis could exceed 3,000. Rationale. A major

  15. Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Vivero, Rafael José; Uribe, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia velezi sp.nov. was described and illustrated from male specimens collected by light trap in the Reserva Natural Cañon del Río Claro in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The new species belongs to the series sanguinaria of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which is represented in Colombia by Lutzomyia cirrita, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia scorzai, Lutzomyia sp. of Pichindé and Lutzomyia tortura. The new species can be differe...

  16. A new species of Bryconops (Teleostei: Characidae from the rio Madeira basin, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. Wingert

    Full Text Available A new species of Bryconops is described from a tributary to the rio Madeira in the Amazon basin, State of Rondônia, Brazil. Bryconops piracolina belongs to the subgenus Bryconops by having no teeth or rarely one tooth in the maxilla, and a naked area on cheek between the second and third infraorbitals. The new species is distinguished from all species of this subgenus by the presence of a large black blotch on dorsal-fin base. Furthermore, it is distinguished from all congeners, except B. inpai, by possessing the adipose fin entirely black. It differs from B. inpai by the lack of humeral spots. It further differs from all species of the subgenus Bryconops, except B. caudomaculatus, by having the last scales of the longitudinal series of scales that bears the lateral line series not pored beyond the end of the hypural plate, and differs from B. caudomaculatus by the smaller number of pored lateral line scales (31-36, mean 34.6, vs. 37-43, mean = 40.6, respectively.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of Palaearctic Formica species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae based on mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Goropashnaya

    Full Text Available Ants of genus Formica demonstrate variation in social organization and represent model species for ecological, behavioral, evolutionary studies and testing theoretical implications of the kin selection theory. Subgeneric division of the Formica ants based on morphology has been questioned and remained unclear after an allozyme study on genetic differentiation between 13 species representing all subgenera was conducted. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships within the genus were examined using mitochondrial DNA sequences of the cytochrome b and a part of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6. All 23 Formica species sampled in the Palaearctic clustered according to the subgeneric affiliation except F. uralensis that formed a separate phylogenetic group. Unlike Coptoformica and Formica s. str., the subgenus Serviformica did not form a tight cluster but more likely consisted of a few small clades. The genetic distances between the subgenera were around 10%, implying approximate divergence time of 5 Myr if we used the conventional insect divergence rate of 2% per Myr. Within-subgenus divergence estimates were 6.69% in Serviformica, 3.61% in Coptoformica, 1.18% in Formica s. str., which supported our previous results on relatively rapid speciation in the latter subgenus. The phylogeny inferred from DNA sequences provides a necessary framework against which the evolution of social traits can be compared. We discuss implications of inferred phylogeny for the evolution of social traits.

  18. The phylogeny of Simulium (Chirostilbia (Diptera: Simuliidae and perspectives on the systematics of the genus in the Neotropical Region

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    Leonardo Henrique Gil-Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, knowledge of Neotropical Simuliidae has been accumulating quickly. However, information about supra-specific relationships is scarce and diagnoses of Simulium subgenera are unsatisfactory. To investigate the relationships among Simulium (Chirostilbia species and test the subgenus monophyly, we performed a cladistic analysis. The ingroup included all species of this subgenus and the outgroup included representatives of the 17 species groups of Neotropical Simulium and three Holarctic species. The study was based on a data matrix with 31 terminal taxa and 45 morphological characteristics of adult, pupa and larva. The phylogenetic analysis under equal weights resulted in eight most-parsimonious trees (length = 178, consistency index = 34, retention index = 67. The monophyly of the S. (Chirostilbia was not supported in our analysis. The Simulium subpallidum species group was closer to Simulium (Psilopelmia and Simulium (Ectemnaspis than to the Simulium pertinax species group. Additionally, we describe the three-dimensional shape of the terminalia of male and female of Simulium (Chirostilbia for the first time and provide comments about the taxonomic problems involving some species of the subgenus: Simulium acarayense, Simulium papaveroi, S. pertinax, Simulium serranum, Simulium striginotum and S. subpallidum.

  19. The role of defensive ecological interactions in the evolution of conotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, J R; Dutertre, S; Jin, A H; Lavergne, V; Hamilton, B; Cardoso, F C; Griffin, J; Venter, D J; Alewood, P F; Lewis, R J

    2016-01-01

    Venoms comprise of complex mixtures of peptides evolved for predation and defensive purposes. Remarkably, some carnivorous cone snails can inject two distinct venoms in response to predatory or defensive stimuli, providing a unique opportunity to study separately how different ecological pressures contribute to toxin diversification. Here, we report the extraordinary defensive strategy of the Rhizoconus subgenus of cone snails. The defensive venom from this worm-hunting subgenus is unusually simple, almost exclusively composed of αD-conotoxins instead of the ubiquitous αA-conotoxins found in the more complex defensive venom of mollusc- and fish-hunting cone snails. A similarly compartmentalized venom gland as those observed in the other dietary groups facilitates the deployment of this defensive venom. Transcriptomic analysis of a Conus vexillum venom gland revealed the αD-conotoxins as the major transcripts, with lower amounts of 15 known and four new conotoxin superfamilies also detected with likely roles in prey capture. Our phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis of the αD-conotoxins from five subgenera of cone snails suggests they evolved episodically as part of a defensive strategy in the Rhizoconus subgenus. Thus, our results demonstrate an important role for defence in the evolution of conotoxins. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The unexpectedly dull tadpole of Madagascar’s largest frog, Mantidactylus guttulatus

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    Arne Schulze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Madagascar-endemic mantellid genus Mantidactylus contains one subclade with two described frog species characterized by very large body sizes. This subclade is classified as the subgenus Mantidactylus and is widespread in eastern and northern Madagascar, but their reproductive biology and larval stages are still unknown. We here provide a detailed description of the larvae of one species in this subgenus, M. guttulatus, on the basis of genetic assignment (16S DNA barcoding. The tadpoles were collected in the dry season from shallow waters near a stream in the Mahajanga Province in northwestern Madagascar. Their body and tail shape is remarkably generalized as typical for stream-adapted tadpoles, and the oral disc and labial keratodont row formula (4(2-4/3(1 are similar to those of other lotic mantellid frog larvae with generalized mouthparts like those in the subgenus Brygoomantis. The well-separated positions of these subgenera in the mantellid phylogeny suggest extensive homoplasy in the evolution of larval mouthpart morphology within Mantidactylus.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships in Peniocereus (Cactaceae) inferred from plastid DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa; Arreola-Nava, Hilda J; Vázquez-Sánchez, Monserrat; Cameron, Kenneth M

    2005-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Peniocereus (Cactaceae) species were studied using parsimony analyses of DNA sequence data. The plastid rpl16 and trnL-F regions were sequenced for 98 taxa including 17 species of Peniocereus, representatives from all genera of tribe Pachycereeae, four genera of tribe Hylocereeae, as well as from three additional outgroup genera of tribes Calymmantheae, Notocacteae, and Trichocereeae. Phylogenetic analyses support neither the monophyly of Peniocereus as currently circumscribed, nor the monophyly of tribe Pachycereeae since species of Peniocereus subgenus Pseudoacanthocereus are embedded within tribe Hylocereeae. Furthermore, these results show that the eight species of Peniocereus subgenus Peniocereus (Peniocereus sensu stricto) form a well-supported clade within subtribe Pachycereinae; P. serpentinus is also a member of this subtribe, but is sister to Bergerocactus. Moreover, Nyctocereus should be resurrected as a monotypic genus. Species of Peniocereus subgenus Pseudoacanthocereus are positioned among species of Acanthocereus within tribe Hylocereeae, indicating that they may be better classified within that genus. A number of morphological and anatomical characters, especially related to the presence or absence of dimorphic branches, are discussed to support these relationships.

  2. The First Comprehensive Phylogeny of Coptis (Ranunculaceae) and Its Implications for Character Evolution and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kun-Li; Wu, Sheng-Dan; Yu, Sheng-Xian; Liu, Yang; Jabbour, Florian; Erst, Andrey S.; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    Coptis (Ranunculaceae) contains 15 species and is one of the pharmaceutically most important plant genera in eastern Asia. Understanding of the evolution of morphological characters and phylogenetic relationships within the genus is very limited. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. The phylogeny was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, as well as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis and Bayesian tests were used to assess the strength of the conflicts between traditional taxonomic units and those suggested by the phylogenetic inferences. Evolution of morphological characters was inferred using Bayesian method to identify synapomorphies for the infrageneric lineages. Our data recognize two strongly supported clades within Coptis. The first clade contains subgenus Coptis and section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis, supported by morphological characters, such as traits of the central leaflet base, petal color, and petal shape. The second clade consists of section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis. Coptis morii is not united with C. quinquefolia, in contrast with the view that C. morii is a synonym of C. quinquefolia. Two varieties of C. chinensis do not cluster together. Coptis groenlandica and C. lutescens are reduced to C. trifolia and C. japonica, respectively. Central leaflet base, sepal shape, and petal blade carry a strong phylogenetic signal in Coptis, while leaf type, sepal and petal color, and petal shape exhibit relatively higher levels of evolutionary flexibility. PMID:27044035

  3. Variability and genetic differentiation among Anopheles (Ano. intermedius Chagas, 1908 and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis Lutz & Neiva, 1911 (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselita Maria Mendes dos Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis are Brazilian anopheline species belonging to the scarcely studied Anopheles subgenus. Few studies have been done on the genetic differentiation of these species. Both species have been found infected by Plasmodium and are sympatric with other anopheline species from the Nyssorhynchus subgenus. Eighteen enzymatic loci were analyzed in larval specimens of An. intermedius and An. mattogrossensis aiming to estimate the variability and genetic differentiation between these species. An. mattogrossensis population showed higher genetic variability (P = 44.4 and Ho = 0.081 ± 0.031 than that of An. intermedius (P = 33.3 and Ho = 0.048 ± 0.021. Most analyzed loci showed genotypic frequencies according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for LAP1 and LAP2 in An. intermedius, and EST1 and PGM loci in An. mattogrossensis. The genetic distance between these species (D = 0.683 was consistent with the inter-specific values reported for Anopheles subgenus. We verified that the polymorphism and heterozygosity percentile values found in both species and compared to those in the literature, showed no relation between the level of isozyme variability and geographical distribution. The low variability found in these two species is probably more related to the niche they occupy than to their geographic distribution.

  4. In situ morphometric survey elucidates the evolutionary systematics of the Eurasian Himantoglossum clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae

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    Richard M. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade. Methods Between one and 12 plants found in 25 populations that encompassed the entire distribution of the Himantoglossum s.l. clade were measured in situ for 51 morphological characters. Results for 45 of those characters were subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses. Key Results Multivariate analyses readily separate subgenus Barlia and subgenus Comperia from subgenus Himantoglossum, and also the early-divergent H. formosum from the less divergent remainder of subgenus Himantoglossum. The sequence of divergence of these four lineages is confidently resolved. Our experimental approach to morphometric character analysis demonstrates clearly that phenotypic evolution within Himantoglossum is unusually multi-dimensional. Conclusions Degrees of divergence between taxa shown by morphological analyses approximate those previously shown using molecular analyses. Himantoglossum s.l. is readily divisible into three subgenera. The three sections of subgenus Himantoglossum—hircinum, caprinum and formosum—are arrayed from west to east with only limited geographical overlap. At this taxonomic level, their juxtaposition combines with conflict between contrasting datasets to complicate attempts to distinguish between clinal variation and the discontinuities that by definition separate bona fide species. All taxa achieve allogamy via food deceit and have only weak pollinator specificity

  5. New geophytic Peperomia (Piperaceae species from Mexico, Belize and Costa Rica Nuevas especies geofíticas de Peperomia (Piperaceae de México, Belice y Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mathieu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Peperomia subgenus Tildenia is a poorly known group of geophytic species occurring in seasonal habitats in 2 biodiversity hot spots (Mexico-Guatemala and Peru-Bolivia with few species reported from the countries in between. Recent fieldwork combined with detailed study of herbarium specimens of this subgenus in Mexico and Central America resulted in the discovery of 12 new species, which are here described and illustrated. In addition, 1 formerly published variety is raised to species rank. Distribution, habitat and phenology data and detailed comparisons with other species are included, as well as an identification key for all species belonging to this subgenus in the studied area.Peperomia subgénero Tildenia es un grupo poco conocido de especies geofíticas de hábitats estacionales en 2 hotspots de biodiversidad (México-Guatemala y Perú-Bolivia con pocas especies en los países de enmedio. El trabajo de campo realizado recientemente en México y América Central, combinado con un estudio detallado de ejemplares de herbario de este subgénero, resultó en el descubrimiento de 12 especies nuevas, que se describen e ilustran. Además, una variedad anteriormente publicada es elevada a la categoría de especie. Se incluyen datos de distribución, hábitat y fenología, comparaciones detalladas con otras especies, así como una clave de identificación para todas las especies del subgénero en la región estudiada.

  6. Three cryptic new species of Aristea (Iridaceae from southern Africa

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    P. Goldblatt

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Field work in southern Africa over the past several years has resulted in the discovery of three new species of the sub- Saharan African and Madagascan genus Aristea Aiton, which now comprises some 53 species. Aristea has a pronounced centre in southern Africa and a centre of diversity in the winter rainfall zone of the subcontinent, where all three new species occur, one extending eastward into the adjacent southern edge of the summer rainfall zone. All three novelties have been collected in the past but were confused with related species. A elliptica (subgenus Eucapsulares, confused in the past with A. pusilla (Thunb. Ker Gawl., has a more robust habit, usually with 4 or 5 flower clusters per flowering stem, pale blue flowers, smooth ellipsoid seeds with flattened surface cells, and pollen shed as monads, whereas A. pusilla usually has 1-3 flower clusters per flowering stem, dark blue flowers, pollen shed as tetrads, and globose seeds with faint foveate sculpturing and colliculate surface cells. A. nana (also subgenus  Eucapsulares, known from few collections, and also confused with A. pusilla or A. anceps Eckl. ex Klatt. has the unbranched and leafless flowering stem of the latter but has large green floral spathes, flowers borne on long pedicels, and lacks a leaf subtending the single terminal flower cluster in contrast to nearly sessile flowers in A. pusilla and A. anceps, and in the latter, dry, rusty spathes. A. cistiflora (subgenus Pseudaristea closely resembles A. teretifoha Goldblatt & J.C.Manning but has linear to narrowly sword-shaped leaves and ± secund flowers with the outer tepals only slightly smaller than the inner and with small, dark brown markings at the bases of all the tepals. In contrast, A. teretifolia has narrower, sometimes terete leaves and flowers held upright with the outer tepals notice-ably smaller than the inner and bearing dark markings covering the lower half, whereas the inner tepals are unmarked.

  7. Morphological adaptations for digging and climate-impacted soil properties define pocket gopher (Thomomys spp. distributions.

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    Ariel E Marcy

    Full Text Available Species ranges are mediated by physiology, environmental factors, and competition with other organisms. The allopatric distribution of five species of northern Californian pocket gophers (Thomomys spp. is hypothesized to result from competitive exclusion. The five species in this environmentally heterogeneous region separate into two subgenera, Thomomys or Megascapheus, which have divergent digging styles. While all pocket gophers dig with their claws, the tooth-digging adaptations of subgenus Megascapheus allow access to harder soils and climate-protected depths. In a Northern Californian locality, replacement of subgenus Thomomys with subgenus Megascapheus occurred gradually during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Concurrent climate change over this transition suggests that environmental factors--in addition to soil--define pocket gopher distributional limits. Here we show 1 that all pocket gophers occupy the subset of less energetically costly soils and 2 that subgenera sort by percent soil clay, bulk density, and shrink-swell capacity (a mineralogical attribute. While clay and bulk density (without major perturbations stay constant over decades to millennia, low precipitation and high temperatures can cause shrink-swell clays to crack and harden within days. The strong yet underappreciated interaction between soil and moisture on the distribution of vertebrates is rarely considered when projecting species responses to climatic change. Furthermore, increased precipitation alters the weathering processes that create shrink-swell minerals. Two projected outcomes of ongoing climate change--higher temperatures and precipitation--will dramatically impact hardness of soil with shrink-swell minerals. Current climate models do not include factors controlling soil hardness, despite its impact on all organisms that depend on a stable soil structure.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships in Asarum: Effect of data partitioning and a revised classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V

    2015-05-01

    Generic boundaries and infrageneric relationships among the charismatic temperate magnoliid Asarum sensu lato (Aristolochiaceae) have long been uncertain. Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses used either plastid or nuclear loci alone and varied greatly in their taxonomic implications for the genus. We analyzed additional molecular markers from the nuclear and plastid genomes, reevaluated the possibility of a derived loss of autonomous self-pollination, and investigated the topological effects of matrix-partitioning-scheme choice. We sequenced seven plastid regions and the nuclear ITS1-ITS2 region of 58 individuals representing all previously recognized Asarum s.l. segregate genera and the monotypic genus Saruma. Matrices were partitioned using common a priori partitioning schemes and PartitionFinder. Topologies that were recovered using a priori partitioning of matrices differed from those recovered using a PartitionFinder-selected scheme, and by analysis method. We recovered six monophyletic groups that we circumscribed into three subgenera and six sections. Putative fungal mimic characters served as synapomorphies only for subgenus Heterotropa. Subgenus Geotaenium, a new subgenus, was recovered as sister to the remainder of Asarum by ML analyses of highly partitioned datasets. Section Longistylis, also newly named, is sister to section Hexastylis. Our analyses do not unambiguously support a single origin for all fungal-mimicry characters. Topologies recovered through the analysis of PartitionFinder-optimized matrices can differ drastically from those inferred from a priori partitioned matrices, and by analytical method. We recommend that investigators evaluate the topological effects of matrix partitioning using multiple methods of phylogenetic reconstruction. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  9. Cenozoic biogeography and evolution in direct-developing frogs of Central America (Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylus) as inferred from a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Smith, Eric N

    2005-06-01

    We report the first phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data for the Central American component of the genus Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylinae), one of the most ubiquitous, diverse, and abundant components of the Neotropical amphibian fauna. We obtained DNA sequence data from 55 specimens representing 45 species. Sampling was focused on Central America, but also included Bolivia, Brazil, Jamaica, and the USA. We sequenced 1460 contiguous base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial genome containing ND2 and five neighboring tRNA genes, plus 1300 bp of the c-myc nuclear gene. The resulting phylogenetic inferences were broadly concordant between data sets and among analytical methods. The subgenus Craugastor is monophyletic and its initial radiation was potentially rapid and adaptive. Within Craugastor, the earliest splits separate three northern Central American species groups, milesi, augusti, and alfredi, from a clade comprising the rest of Craugastor. Within the latter clade, the rhodopis group as formerly recognized comprises three deeply divergent clades that do not form a monophyletic group; we therefore restrict the content of the rhodopis group to one of two northern clades, and use new names for the other northern (mexicanus group) and one southern clade (bransfordii group). The new rhodopis and bransfordii groups together form the sister taxon to a clade comprising the biporcatus, fitzingeri, mexicanus, and rugulosus groups. We used a Bayesian MCMC approach together with geological and biogeographic assumptions to estimate divergence times from the combined DNA sequence data. Our results corroborated three independent dispersal events for the origins of Central American Eleutherodactylus: (1) an ancestor of Craugastor entered northern Central America from South American in the early Paleocene, (2) an ancestor of the subgenus Syrrhophus entered northern Central America from the Caribbean at the end of the Eocene, and (3) a wave of

  10. Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

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    Katrin Heer

    Full Text Available Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km. Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>>permuted RST was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea, and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012. Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

  11. Penicillium cecidicola, a new species on cynipid insect galls on Quercus pacifica in the western United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, K.A.; Hoekstra, E.H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    A synnematous species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was found inside emergence tunnels from insect galls (Cynipidae, Hymenoptera, the so-called gall wasps) on scrub oaks (Quercus pacifica Nixon & C.H. Muller) collected in the western United States. The fungus produces synnemata with white...... isolates exposed to light after 10 days. The fungus produces the extrolite apiculide A and a series of unidentified extrolites also produced by P. panamense. The oak gall species is described here as Penicillium cecidicola and compared with similar species. An ITS phylogeny suggests that P. cecidicola...

  12. A new species of the sponge Raspailia (Raspaxilla) (Porifera: Demospongiae: Axinellida: Raspailiidae) from deep seamounts of the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Merrick; Debitus, CÉcile; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Hooper, John N A

    2018-04-17

    A new species of Raspailia (Raspaxilla) frondosa sp. nov. is described from the deep seamounts of the Norfolk and New Caledonia Ridges. The morphology of the species resembles that of a frond or a fern, and its unique highly compressed axial skeleton of interlaced spongin fibres without spicules in combination with a radial extra axial skeleton of a perpendicular palisade of spicules, differentiate it from all other species of the subgenus. This species is compared morphologically to all 18 other valid species described in Raspailia (Raspaxilla).

  13. Two genes in Balbiani ring 2 with metabolically different 75S transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    Galler, R.; Saiga, H.; Widmer, R. M.; Lezzi, M.; Edström, J.-E.

    1985-01-01

    Balbiani ring 2 (BR2) in salivary glands of Chironomus pallidivittatus and C. tentans (two sibling species of the subgenus Camptochironomus) is a favoured model system for studies of gene organization and transcript formation. Here we show that BR2 is more complex than hitherto believed, containing two 75S RNA-producing genes, BR2a and BR2b, present in different 35–40 kb blocks of DNA. The transcripts hybridizing to two different repeat units originating in BR2 differ in size. Further support...

  14. Bembidion (?Nipponobembidion ruruy sp. n., a new brachypterous ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae from Kunashir Island, Kuriles, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Makarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Bembidion (?Nipponobembidion ruruy sp. n., is described from the foot of Ruruy Volcano, Kunashir Island, Kuril Archipelago, Russia. It is only the second consubgener, being characterized by the reduced wings, the rounded elytral shoulders, and the backward position of the posterior supra-orbital pore. In this connection, the subgenus Nipponobembidion Habu & Baba, 1968 is rediagnosed and both of its species are keyed. It might have originated from Plataphodes Ganglbauer, 1891, possibly in relation to volcanic activities in the region.

  15. An Early Miocene bumble bee from northern Bohemia (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Jakub Prokop

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of fossil bumble bee (Apinae: Bombini is described and figured from Early Miocene (Burdigalian deposits of the Most Basin at the Bílina Mine, Czech Republic. Bombus trophonius sp. n., is placed within the subgenus Cullumanobombus Vogt and distinguished from the several species groups therein. The species is apparently most similar to the Nearctic B. (Cullumanobombus rufocinctus Cresson, the earliest-diverging species within the clade and the two may be related only by symplesiomorphies. The age of the fossil is in rough accordance with divergence estimations for Cullumanobombus.

  16. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, with a key to the species of the megalostigma group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favizia Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma kevani sp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided.

  17. NOTES ON ANNOSA SPECIES-GROUP OF HELINA R.-D. (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE) IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-fuWang; Wan-qiXue; DongZhang

    2004-01-01

    The genus Helina R.-D., 1830 is the second largest genus in Muscidae. By now,more than 400 species are known in the world and about 200 species have been described in China. This paper outlines earlier studies on the subgenus and species-group of Helina. Helina annosa species-group is erected. A key to the known Chinese subgroups and species is given.The 19 known Chinese species is listed, including one new species, i.e. Helina setipostitibia sp. nov. Type specimen of the holotype of the new species is deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University.

  18. Some new and rare diatoms from South Africa 2. Diatoms from lake Sibayi and lake Nhlange in Tongaland (Natal)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, REM

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available 40.? (510.?) Heft 7: 3. W. THoMsoN, The Lichen Genus Physcia in North America. 1963. VIII. 212 pages, 1 figure, 25 plates, 36 maps. DM 60.? (:15.?) Heft 8: R. HAVES, A Taxonomic Monograph of the Genus Equisetum Subgenus Hippoehaete. 1963. IV, 124....?) Heft 12: C. W. DODGE, Some Lichens of Tropical Africa IV: Dermatocarpaceae to Pertusariacese. 1964. IV, 282 pages. 1DM 80.? (S 20.?) VERLAG VON J. CRAMER- 3301 LEHRE Heft 13: B. Y. DAwsoN, C. ACLETO and N. FOLDVIK, The Seaweed; of Peru. 1964. ?Rn...

  19. A new moss salamander, genus Nototriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae), from the Cordillera de Talamanca, in the Costa Rica-Panama border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Erick; Kubicki, Brian

    2018-01-07

    A new salamander belonging to the genus Nototriton, subgenus Nototriton, is described from the Caribbean slopes of the southeastern Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica, within Parque Internacional La Amistad, at an elevation ca. 1500 m a.s.l. This new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by its morphological characteristics and by its differentiation in DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes. This new species represents the southernmost extension known for the genus Nototriton.

  20. Medical Entomology Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    placed on examples from the Africanus Subgroup as they are important vectors of Yellow Fever, Rift Valley Fever, Chickungunya and Zika viruses . Currently...Mosquitoes Neo tropical Malaria Anophe lea Culicidae Asia Arbovirus diseases Culex Vectors Africa Biosystematics Aedes 2 ABSTRACT AmA ME iMW0 6 N 0meormp...Research continues on the arbovirus vector groups of the subgenus Stegomqj, genus Aedes , of the African Region. 4.. N7 "’Vic ° ’. ,tlt Cobes ;D i SECURITY

  1. Eight new species of Cycloneuroterus Melika & Tang gallwasps from Taiwan and mainland China (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chang-Ti; Sinclair, Frazer; Hearn, Jack; Yang, Man-Miao; Stone, Graham N; Nicholls, James A; Schwéger, Szabina; Melika, George

    2016-03-11

    Eight new species of cynipid gallwasps, Cycloneuroterus abei Melika & Tang, C. ergei Tang & Melika, C. gilvus Melika & Tang, C. globosus Melika & Tang, C. jianwui Tang & Melika, C. lohsei Melika & Tang, C. tumiclavus Tang & Melika, C. uraianus Tang & Melika, from Taiwan and mainland China are described. Descriptions, diagnoses, biology, and host associations for the new species and a key to all Cycloneuroterus species are given. All taxa are supported by morphological and molecular data. Seven newly described species induce galls on Quercus subgenus Cyclobalanopsis, while one, C. uraianus, induces galls on Castanopsis. This is the first Cycloneuroterus species known to associate with Castanopsis.

  2. Redescription of Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) based on material collected from wild Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata (Primates: Cercopithecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi

    2012-02-01

    Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms.

  3. Anti-trypanosomal activity of pentacyclic triterpenes isolated from Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto; Silva, Grácia Divina de Fátima; de Sousa, José Rego; Pinto, Artur da Silveira

    2002-01-01

    Four pentacyclic triterpenes isolated from Austroplenckia populnea and four compounds of known anti T. cruzi or anti-malarial activity were tested. Of those triterpenes tested 20alpha-hydroxy-tingenone showed high activity, epikatonic acid was less active, while populnilic and populninic acids were inactive against the trypanosome of the subgenus Schizotrypanum tested. Benzonidazole, nifurtimox, ketoconazole and primaquine presented a remarkable dose-dependent inhibitory effect reaching practically to a total growth inhibition of the parasite at the end of incubation time. The trypanosome tested appear to be a suitable model for preliminary screen for anti T. (S.) cruzi compounds.

  4. Three new species of tiger beetles and new data on Cicindelina species from Angola (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A; Oesterle, Andreas

    2015-10-15

    Three new species of tiger beetles, two of the genus Trichotaenia Rivalier, 1957 and one of the genus Cylindera Westwood, 1831, subgenus Ifasina Jeannel, 1946 are described from Angola. An annotated list of species of Cicindelina sampled in this country is provided also. Records for three species previously unknow from Angola are given: Ophryodera smrzi Werner, 2005, Lophyra clatharta (Dejean, 1825) and Lophyra sumlini Cassola, 1976. Some considerations on the distribution and general ecology of these beetles in Angola are also presented. Further, two dichotomic keys are made available for the identification of Trichotaenia species with marked shoulders and Cylindera (Ifasina) species of western and southwestern Africa, respectively.

  5. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XXXII: tres nuevas especies de Prestonia (Apocynoideae, Echiteae para Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Prestonia subgenus Prestonia, P. cogolloi, P. premontana and P. racemosa, from Colombia, Venezuela and Peru, respectively, are described and illustrated, and their relationships with related taxa discussed, including distribution, phenology, additional specimens examined and a key of the group.Se describen e ilustran tres nuevas especies de Prestonia subgénero Prestonia, P. cogolloi, P. premontana y P. racemosa, de Colombia, Venezuela y Perú respectivamente, comentándose sus relaciones con especies afines. Se incluye una clave del grupo, datos de distribución, fenología y especímenes adicionales examinados.

  6. A taxonomic revision of the Cymindis (Pinacodera limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini, including description of a new species from Florida, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Hunting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cymindis (Pinacodera limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini is a precinctive New World taxon with ranges extended from portions of temperate southeastern Canada and the U.S.A. through the montane regions of Mexico, south to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The group is distinguishable from all other members of the subgenus Pinacodera by males possessing a distinctive sclerite (endophallic plate at the apex of the endophallus. In the past, a lack of material and misunderstandings of range of variation within species have contributed to confusion about how many species there really are.This revision of the limbata species group includes a classification, a key to groups within the subgenus Pinacodera and species within the limbata group, descriptions of species, re-rankings and new synonymies. In total 10 taxa are treated, with 6 new synonyms proposed, 1 new combination introduced and 1 new species described: Cymindis (Pinacodera rufostigma (type locality: Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A.. Each taxon is characterized in terms of structural features of adults, habitat, geographical distribution, and chorological affinities. Available ecological information and treatments of variation are included.

  7. Araucnephia iberaensis n. sp., a Neotropical Black Fly with a Peculiar Distribution (Diptera-Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Coscarón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Araucnephia Wygodzinsky & Coscarón is a Neotropical black fly genus in which only one species from Central Chile is known. Another species has now been found in Corrientes province on the eastern side of the Iberá tropical swamps of Argentina, on the western border of the mountainous region of southern Brazil. This new species, A. iberaensis, is herein described and illustrated and information on its bionomics is recorded. It is an interesting species because previous to its discovery no black fly genus or subgenus from Central Chile region has been found in tropical areas, because these two regions are separated by the Monte and Pampas realms. Similarly, no Brazilian genus or subgenus has crossed the Andes mountains to Chile. A comparison with other Neotropical, Nearctic, Ethiopian (Afrotropical and Australian Prosimuliini (sensu Crosskey & Howard showed Araucnephia to be a valid taxon most closely related to Araucnephioides (sympatric in Chile. Araucnephia also shows great affinities with Lutzsimulium from Southeast Brazil and Argentina and Paracnephia from South Africa.

  8. Phylogenetic Relationships between Four Salix L. Species Based on DArT Markers

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    Jerzy A. Przyborowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of DArT markers in genotypic identification of willow species and describe genetic relationships between four willow species: Salix viminalis, S. purpurea, S. alba and S. triandra. The experimental plant material comprised 53 willow genotypes of these four species, which are popularly grown in Poland. DArT markers seem to identify Salix species with a high degree of accuracy. As a result, the examined species were divided into four distinct groups which corresponded to the four analyzed species. In our study, we observed that S. triandra was very different genetically from the other species, including S. alba which is generally classified into the same subgenus of Salix. The above corroborates the findings of other authors who relied on molecular methods to reveal that the classification of S. triandra to the subgenus Salix was erroneous. The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA and the neighbor-joining dendrogram also confirmed the clear division of the studied willow genotypes into four clusters corresponding to individual species. This confirmed the usefulness of DArT markers in taxonomic analyses and identification of willow species.

  9. Phylogeny, character evolution, and biogeography of Cuscuta (dodders; Convolvulaceae) inferred from coding plastid and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Miguel A; Costea, Mihai; Kuzmina, Maria; Stefanović, Saša

    2014-04-01

    The parasitic genus Cuscuta, containing some 200 species circumscribed traditionally in three subgenera, is nearly cosmopolitan, occurring in a wide range of habitats and hosts. Previous molecular studies, on subgenera Grammica and Cuscuta, delimited major clades within these groups. However, the sequences used were unalignable among subgenera, preventing the phylogenetic comparison across the genus. We conducted a broad phylogenetic study using rbcL and nrLSU sequences covering the morphological, physiological, and geographical diversity of Cuscuta. We used parsimony methods to reconstruct ancestral states for taxonomically important characters. Biogeographical inferences were obtained using statistical and Bayesian approaches. Four well-supported major clades are resolved. Two of them correspond to subgenera Monogynella and Grammica. Subgenus Cuscuta is paraphyletic, with section Pachystigma sister to subgenus Grammica. Previously described cases of strongly supported discordance between plastid and nuclear phylogenies, interpreted as reticulation events, are confirmed here and three new cases are detected. Dehiscent fruits and globose stigmas are inferred as ancestral character states, whereas the ancestral style number is ambiguous. Biogeographical reconstructions suggest an Old World origin for the genus and subsequent spread to the Americas as a consequence of one long-distance dispersal. Hybridization may play an important yet underestimated role in the evolution of Cuscuta. Our results disagree with scenarios of evolution (polarity) previously proposed for several taxonomically important morphological characters, and with their usage and significance. While several cases of long-distance dispersal are inferred, vicariance or dispersal to adjacent areas emerges as the dominant biogeographical pattern.

  10. Proteomic Characterization of the Venom of Five Bombus (Thoracobombus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezahat Pınar Barkan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals use venom, a complex biofluid composed of unique mixtures of proteins and peptides, to act on vital systems of the prey or predator. In bees, venom is solely used for defense against predators. However, the venom composition of bumble bees (Bombus sp. is largely unknown. The Thoracobombus subgenus of Bombus sp. is a diverse subgenus represented by 14 members across Turkey. In this study, we sought out to proteomically characterize the venom of five Thoracobombus species by using bottom-up proteomic techniques. We have obtained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel (2D-PAGE images of each species’ venom sample. We have subsequently identified the protein spots by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. We have identified 47 proteins for Bombus humilis, 32 for B. pascuorum, 60 for B. ruderarius, 39 for B. sylvarum, and 35 for B. zonatus. Moreover, we illustrated that intensities of 2DE protein spots corresponding to putative venom toxins vary in a species-specific manner. Our analyses provide the primary proteomic characterization of five bumble bee species’ venom composition.

  11. Selective Somatic Elimination of NICOTIANA GLUTINOSA Chromosomes in the F(1) Hybrids of N. SUAVEOLENS and N. GLUTINOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S B; Gupta, P

    1973-04-01

    The F(1) hybrids of Nicotiana suaveolens (subgenus Petunioides, 2n = 32) and N. glutinosa (subgenus Tabacum, 2n = 24), were examined during their development, from seedlings to mature plants. It was observed that in the hybrids, there was a progressive change of dominant N. glutinosa morphological characteristics towards those of N. suaveolens, in leaf shape, stem, flower color and branching pattern. A study of mitotic chromosomes in the root-tips and in very young anthers of the mature plants indicated a significantly high average frequency of aberrant mitotic anaphases (bridges and fragments, 12% and 11% respectively). As a consequence of this phenomenon, variability in the number and size of chromosomes was observed in the PMC's and in mitotic metaphases (29-24 chromosomes). In order to establish whether the N. glutinosa chromosomes were preferentially lost, a karyological study of the parents and their F(1) hybrids was carried out and it was established that the F(1) hybrids were losing N. glutinosa chromosomes preferentially. A mechanism was suggested for the loss of these chromosomes by means of a chromatid type of breakage-fusion-bridge cycle (b-f-b cycle) and initiation of the b-f-b cycle in the hybrid due to an interaction of the regulatory mechanism of DNA replication in the haploid genomes of the parental species. However, loss of these chromosomes owing to interaction of certain genes from the two parental species cannot be ruled out.

  12. Aspergillus atacamensis and A. salisburgensis: two new halophilic species from hypersaline/arid habitats with a phialosimplex-like morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Livia; Zalar, Polona; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Azua-Bustos, Armando; Sterflinger, Katja; Piñar, Guadalupe

    2017-07-01

    Halophilic fungal strains isolated from historical wooden staircase in a salt mine in Austria, and from wall biofilm and soil of a cave in the Coastal Range of the hyperarid Atacama Desert in Chile were characterised and described newly as Aspergillus salisburgensis and Aspergillus atacamensis. Morphological characters including solitary phialides producing solitary conidia and conidia in chains and/or heads suggested affinity to Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum. Strains required salt for growth, grew optimally on media with 10-25% NaCl and at 15-28 °C. These values are similar to those observed for Aspergillus salinarus comb. nov. (Phialosimplex salinarum), while the ex-type strains of Aspergillus sclerotialis, Aspergillus chlamydosporus and Aspergillus caninus (all belonging to Aspergillus subgen. Polypaecilum) grew optimally at 0-5% NaCl and showed fastest growth at 28-37 °C. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of rDNA sequences, RAPD-PCR fingerprint patterns, and cellobiohydrolase gene (cbh-I) polymorphism clustered the strains into three groups and supported their taxonomic recognition as A. salinarus, A. atacamensis and A. salisburgensis. On the basis of phylogenetic inferences, also Sagenomella keratitidis is newly combined as Aspergillus keratitidis and inferred as a species of Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum.

  13. Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew G; Granath, Gustaf; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Pouliot, Remy; Stenøien, Hans K; Rochefort, Line; Rydin, Håkan; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers-species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this article, we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary rate of eight niche descriptors and two multivariate niche gradients. We find little to no evidence for phylogenetic signal in most component descriptors of the ionic gradient, but interspecific variation along the hummock-hollow gradient shows considerable phylogenetic signal. We find support for a change in the rate of niche evolution within the genus-the hummock-forming subgenus Acutifolia has evolved along the multivariate hummock-hollow gradient faster than the hollow-inhabiting subgenus Cuspidata. Because peat mosses themselves create some of the ecological gradients constituting their own habitats, the classic microtopography of Sphagnum-dominated peatlands is maintained by evolutionary constraints and the biological properties of related Sphagnum species. The patterns of phylogenetic signal observed here will instruct future study on the role of functional traits in peatland growth and reconstruction. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Two new species of nocturnal bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae with keys to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Gonzalez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalopta Smith, 1853, is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal or crepuscular bees. Two subgenera are recognized with most of its nearly 30 species placed in the nominate subgenus. Species of Megalopta s. str. are more commonly collected than species of Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, all presumably parasites of Megalopta s. str. Two new species of Megalopta are described here: M. (Megalopta tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to the Central American species of Megalopta s. str. and the species of the parasitic subgenus Noctoraptor are presented. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 255-263. Epub 2010 March 01.Megalopta Smith, 1853, es un género Neotropical de abejas nocturnas o crepusculares. Dos subgéneros son reconocidos con la mayoría de las 30 especies ubicadas en el subgénero nominal. Las especies de Megalopta s. str. son más comúnmente recolectadas que las especies de Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, todas probablemente parásitas de Megalopta s. str. Aquí se describen dos especies nuevas de Megalopta: M. (Megalopta tetewana, n. sp., de México y M. (Noctoraptor huaoranii, n. sp., de Ecuador. Se presentan claves de identificación para las especies de Megalopta s. str. de América Central y las especies del subgénero parásito Noctoraptor.

  15. Revision of the West Palaearctic Polistes Latreille, with the descriptions of two species – an integrative approach using morphology and DNA barcodes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Christian Schmid-Egger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Polistes is revised for the West Palaearctic region based on morphology and DNA barcodes. The revision includes all known West Palaearctic species, raising the number of species in Europe to 14 and to 17 for the West Palaearctic realm. DNA barcodes were recovered from 15 species, 14 of which belong to the subgenus Polistes, and one, P. wattii, to the subgenus Gyrostoma. An integrative taxonomic approach combining morphology and molecular data (DNA barcoding was employed to resolve longstanding taxonomic problems in this group. Two species, P. austroccidentalis van Achterberg & Neumeyer, sp. n. (= P. semenowi auctt. from W and SW Europe and P. maroccanus Schmid-Egger, sp. n. from Morocco are described as new. Polistes bucharensis Erichson, 1849, and P. foederatus Kohl, 1898, were restored from synonymy. The following new synonyms are proposed: P. sulcifer Zimmermann, 1930, and Pseudopolistes sulcifer var. similator Zirngiebl, 1955, under P. semenowi Morawitz, 1889, syn. n.; Polistes iranus Guiglia, 1976, Polistes gallica var. ornata Weyrauch, 1938 and Polistes gallicus muchei Gusenleitner, 1976, under P. bucharensis Erichson, 1849, syn. n.; Polistes omissus var. ordubadensis Zirngiebl, 1955, and P. hellenicus Arens, 2011, under Polistes mongolicus du Buysson, 1911, syn. n. An illustrated key includes all species and additionally three species from the subgenera Aphanilopterus Meunier, 1888 and Gyrostoma Kirby, 1828 (including a Nearctic species recently introduced to Spain and two species occurring in Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, and SW Asia. A phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference provides insights into phylogenetic relationships within the genus Polistes.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics of the genus Costularia (Schoeneae, Cyperaceae) reveals multiple distinct evolutionary lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larridon, Isabel; Bauters, Kenneth; Semmouri, Ilias; Viljoen, Jan-Adriaan; Prychid, Christina J; Muasya, A Muthama; Bruhl, Jeremy J; Wilson, Karen L; Senterre, Bruno; Goetghebeur, Paul

    2018-04-19

    We investigated the monophyly of Costularia (25 species), a genus of tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) that illustrates a remarkable distribution pattern from southeastern Africa, over Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, to Malesia and New Caledonia. A further species, Tetraria borneensis, has been suggested to belong to Costularia. Relationships and divergence times were inferred using an existing four marker phylogeny of Cyperaceae tribe Schoeneae expanded with newly generated sequence data mainly for Costularia s.l. species. Phylogenetic reconstruction was executed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood approaches. Divergence times were estimated using a relaxed molecular clock model, calibrated with fossil data. Based on our results, Tetraria borneensis is not related to the species of Costularia. Costularia s.l. is composed of four distinct evolutionary lineages. Two lineages, one including the type species, are part of the Oreobolus clade, i.e. a much reduced genus Costularia restricted to southeastern Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, and a small endemic genus from New Caledonia for which a new genus Chamaedendron is erected based on Costularia subgenus Chamaedendron. The other two lineages are part of the Tricostularia clade, i.e. a separate single-species lineage from the Seychelles for which a new genus (Xyroschoenus) is described, and Costularia subgenus Lophoschoenus. For the latter, more research is needed to test whether they are congeneric with the species placed in the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya).

  18. Species composition and natural infectivity of anthropophilic Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Lina A; González, John J; Gómez, Giovan F; Castro, Martha I; Rosero, Doris A; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious health problem in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia, where 64.4% of the total Colombian cases were reported in 2007. Because little entomological information is available in this region, the aim of this work was to identify the Anopheles species composition and natural infectivity of mosquitoes distributed in seven localities with the highest malaria transmission. A total of 1,768 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches from March 2007 to July 2008. Ten species were identified; overall, An. nuneztovari s.l. was the most widespread (62%) and showed the highest average human biting rates. There were six other species of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus: An. albimanus (11.6%), An. darlingi (9.8%), An. braziliensis (6.6%), An. triannulatus s.l. (3.5%), An. albitarsis s.l. and An. oswaldoi s.l. at <1%; and three of the Anopheles subgenus: An. punctimacula, An. pseudopunctipennis s.l. and An. neomaculipalpus at <1% each. Two species from Córdoba, An. nuneztovari and An. darlingi, were detected naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax VK247 using ELISA and confirmed by nested PCR. All species were active indoors and outdoors. These results provide basic information for targeted vector control strategies in these localities. PMID:20140372

  19. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Salmela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae. In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I. boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I. intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I. intricata and D. (I. esbeni (Nielsen. The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I. intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.

  20. Proteomic Characterization of the Venom of Five Bombus (Thoracobombus) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Nezahat Pınar; Bayazit, Mustafa Bilal; Ozel Demiralp, Duygu

    2017-11-11

    Venomous animals use venom, a complex biofluid composed of unique mixtures of proteins and peptides, to act on vital systems of the prey or predator. In bees, venom is solely used for defense against predators. However, the venom composition of bumble bees ( Bombus sp.) is largely unknown. The Thoracobombus subgenus of Bombus sp. is a diverse subgenus represented by 14 members across Turkey. In this study, we sought out to proteomically characterize the venom of five Thoracobombus species by using bottom-up proteomic techniques. We have obtained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel (2D-PAGE) images of each species' venom sample. We have subsequently identified the protein spots by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We have identified 47 proteins for Bombus humilis , 32 for B. pascuorum , 60 for B. ruderarius , 39 for B. sylvarum , and 35 for B. zonatus . Moreover, we illustrated that intensities of 2DE protein spots corresponding to putative venom toxins vary in a species-specific manner. Our analyses provide the primary proteomic characterization of five bumble bee species' venom composition.

  1. Three New Species of Shoot Fly, Atherigona spp., from Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2011-01-01

    Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani. PMID:22233520

  2. Mitochondrial Phylogenomics of Modern and Ancient Equids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C. A.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy’s zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya). PMID:23437078

  3. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids.

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    Julia T Vilstrup

    Full Text Available The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga. Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya.

  4. Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species groups found in the Midwestern United States and their contribution to the phylogenetic knowledge of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Doris M; Voegtlin, David J; Coeur d'acier, Armelle; Giordano, Rosanna

    2014-06-01

    A phylogeny of the genus Aphis Linnaeus, 1 758 was built primarily from specimens collected in the Midwest of the United States. A data matrix was constructed with 68 species and 41 morphological characters with respective character states of alate and apterous viviparous females. Dendrogram topologies of analyses performed using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean), Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I, Elongation Factor 1-α and primary endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola 16S sequences were not congruent. Bayesian analysis strongly supported most terminal nodes of the phylogenetic trees. The phylogeny was strongly supported by EF1-α, and analysis of COI and EF1-α molecular data combined with morphological characters. It was not supported by single analysis of COI or Buchnera aphidicola 16S. Results from the Bayesian phylogeny show 4 main species groups: asclepiadis, fabae, gossypii, and middletonii. Results place Aphis and species of the genera Protaphis Börner, 1952, Toxoptera Koch, and Xerobion Nevsky, 1928 in a monophyletic clade. Morphological characters support this monophyly as well. The phylogeny shows that the monophyletic clade of the North American middletonii species group belong to the genus Protaphis: P. debilicornis (Gillette & Palmer, 1929), comb. nov., P. echinaceae (Lagos and Voegtlin, 2009), comb. nov., and P. middletonii (Thomas, 1879). The genus Toxoptera should be considered a subgenus of Aphis (stat. nov.). The analysis also indicates that the current genus Iowana Frison, 1954 should be considered a subgenus of Aphis (stat. nov.). © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Revision of the status of some genus-level water mite taxa in the families Pionidae Thor, 1900, Aturidae Thor, 1900, and Nudomideopsidae Smith, 1990 (Acari: Hydrachnidiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian M; Cook, David R; Gerecke, Reinhard

    2015-02-16

    A number of changes to the status of genus group names in water mites are proposed to foster a more consistent and phylogenetically defensible approach to the ranking of taxa at this level of the classification. The water mite taxa Acercopsis Viets, 1926 (Pionidae: Tiphyinae), Madawaska Habeeb, 1954 (Pionidae: Foreliinae), Brachypodopsis Piersig, 1903, Cubanaxonopsis Orghidan & Gruia, 1981, Hexaxonopsis Viets, 1926, Paraxonopsis Motaş & Tanasachi, 1947, Vicinaxonopsis Cook, 1974, Parabrachypoda Viets, 1929, and Ocybrachypoda Cook, 1974 (Aturidae: Axonopsinae), Ameribrachypoda Smith, 1991 (Aturidae: Aturinae), and Allomideopsis Smith, 1990 (Nudomideopsidae) are elevated in rank from subgenera to full genera to reflect current knowledge of their species diversity, morphological distinctness, relationships and apparent age. In light of the above changes in the subfamily Axonopsinae, the subgenera Kalobrachypoda Viets, 1929 and Navinaxonopsis Cook, 1967 are transferred from the genus Axonopsis to the genus Brachypodopsis, the subgenus Plesiobrachypoda Viets, 1942 is transferred from the genus Axonopsis to the genus Hexaxonopsis, and the species formerly placed in the subgenus Hemibrachypoda Viets, 1937 are transferred from the genus Brachypoda to the genus Parabrachypoda Viets, 1929, and Hemibrachypoda is placed in synonymy with Parabrachypoda. The family group taxa to which all of these genera belong are reviewed to provide context for the proposed changes.

  6. Catalogue of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NiedbaŁa, Wojciech; Liu, Dong

    2018-03-11

    As important representatives of Oribatida (Acari), ptyctimous mites comprise more than 1400 described species in 40 genera and subgenera, with nearly cosmopolitan distribution except for the Arctic and Antarctic Regions. They are capable of folding the aspidosoma under the opisthosoma to protect their appendages, and are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Our purpose was to provide a detailed catalogue of all known ptyctimous mite species in the world with information of distribution, taxonomic issues and some remarks. Data of known juvenile  instars of ptyctimous mites which were not included in Norton Ermilov (2014) were added. We hope that our catalogue with bibliography will be helpful in taxonomic and ecological studies.        The catalogue presents taxonomic information and geographic distribution of 1431 known species of the world belonging to 42 genera and eight families (not including data of genus and species inquirenda, nomina nuda and species without author name). Among them, 261 species are listed as synonyms, 43 species inquirenda, nine homonyms, 17 new synonyms, one new subgenus Mahuntritia subgenus nov. and three new names are included in the catalogue.

  7. Phylogeny of minute carabid beetles and their relatives based upon DNA sequence data (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechitae

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    David Maddison

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylogeny of ground beetles of supertribe Trechitae is inferred using DNA sequences of genes that code for 28S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and wingless. Within the outgroups, austral psydrines are inferred to be monophyletic, and separate from the three genera of true Psydrina (Psydrus, Nomius, Laccocenus; the austral psydrines are formally removed from Psydrini and are treated herein as their own tribe, Moriomorphini Sloane. All three genes place Gehringia with Psydrina. Trechitae is inferred to be monophyletic, and sister to Patrobini.Within trechites, evidence is presented that Tasmanitachoides is not a tachyine, but is instead a member of Trechini. Perileptus is a member of subtribe Trechodina. Against Erwin’s hypothesis of anillines as a polyphyletic lineage derived from the tachyine genus Paratachys, the anillines sampled are monophyletic, and not related to Paratachys. Zolini, Pogonini, Tachyina, and Xystosomina are all monophyletic, with the latter two being sister groups. The relationships of the subtribe Bembidiina were studied in greater detail. Phrypeus is only distantly related to Bembidion, and there is no evidence from sequence data that it belongs within Bembidiina. Three groups that have been recently considered to be outside of the large genus Bembidion are shown to be derived members of Bembidion, related to subgroups: Cillenus is related to the Ocydromus complex of Bembidion, Zecillenus is related to the New Zealand subgenus Zeplataphus, and Hydrium is close to subgenus Metallina. The relationships among major lineages of Trechitae are not, however, resolved with these data.

  8. An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, David R

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

  9. An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion

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    David Maddison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding. Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here, these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

  10. Evolutionary history determines how plant productivity responds to phylogenetic diversity and species richness

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    Mark A. Genung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has received a great deal of attention in ecological research and recent results, from re-analyses, suggest that ecosystem function improves with increases in phylogenetic diversity. However, many of these results have been generalized across a range of different species and clades, and plants with different evolutionary histories could display different relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we manipulated species richness and phylogenetic diversity using 26 species from two subgenera of the genus Eucalyptus (subgenus Eucalyptus and subgenus Symphyomyrtus. We found that plant biomass (a measurement of ecosystem function sometimes, but not always, responded to increases in species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Specifically, Symphyomyrtus plants showed a positive response while no comparable effect was observed for Eucalyptus plants, showing that responses to biodiversity can vary across different phylogenetic groups. Our results show that the impacts of evolutionary history may complicate the relationship between the diversity of plant communities and plant biomass.

  11. Immatures of Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Sibinia (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): new descriptions and new bionomic data with suggestions on their potential value in a phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Gosik, Rafał; Caldara, Roberto; Košťál, Michael

    2015-05-04

    The larvae and pupae of six species of the Palaearctic genus Sibinia Germar, 1817 are described in detail for the first time. Five of them develop in seeds of Caryophyllaceae and belong to Sibinia (s. str.): S. attalica Gyllenhal, 1835; S. femoralis Germar, 1824; S. tibialis Gyllenhal, 1835; and S. viscariae (Linnaeus, 1760), which are included in the S. femoralis group, and S. sicana Ragusa, 1908, which is included in the S. unicolor Fåhraeus, 1843 group. The sixth species is S. sodalis Germar, 1824, which develops in seeds of Plumbaginaceae and belongs to the subgenus Dichotychius Bedel, 1885. The larvae and pupae of these species are compared with those previously described for some species of the third subgenus, Microtychius Casey, 1910 from the Americas. Some larval characters, but no pupal ones, are useful to support the three subgenera and the two previously mentioned groups of Sibinia s. str., which were previously postulated based on a few adult morphological characters. The immatures of Sibinia are also compared with those of the closely related genus Tychius Germar, 1817, providing some distinctive characters between both genera. New bionomic data on larval and pupal development and adult emergence are reported for all the described species. These data suggest that species in this genus are highly homogeneous in life history traits.

  12. A distinctive new frog species (Anura, Mantellidae supports the biogeographic linkage of two montane rainforest massifs in northern Madagascar

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    Mark D. Scherz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the genus Gephyromantis, subgenus GephyromantisVatomantis (Mantellidae, Mantellinae, from moderately high elevation (1164–1394 m a.s.l. on the Marojejy, Sorata, and Andravory Massifs in northern Madagascar. The new species, Gephyromantis (Vatomantis lomorina sp. n. is highly distinct from all other species, and was immediately recognisable as an undescribed taxon upon its discovery. It is characterised by a granular, mottled black and green skin, reddish eyes, paired subgular vocal sacs of partly white colour, bulbous femoral glands present only in males and consisting of three large granules, white ventral spotting, and a unique, amplitude-modulated advertisement call consisting of a series of 24–29 rapid, quiet notes at a dominant frequency of 5124–5512 Hz. Genetically the species is also strongly distinct from its congeners, with uncorrected pairwise distances ≥10 % in a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene to all other nominal Gephyromantis species. A molecular phylogeny based on 16S sequences places it in a clade with species of the subgenera Laurentomantis and Vatomantis, and we assign it to the latter subgenus based on its morphological resemblance to members of Vatomantis. We discuss the biogeography of reptiles and amphibians across the massifs of northern Madagascar, the evidence for a strong link between Marojejy and Sorata, and the role of elevation in determining community sharing across this landscape.

  13. Retention and loss of RNA interference pathways in trypanosomatid protozoans.

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    Lon-Fye Lye

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi pathways are widespread in metaozoans but the genes required show variable occurrence or activity in eukaryotic microbes, including many pathogens. While some Leishmania lack RNAi activity and Argonaute or Dicer genes, we show that Leishmania braziliensis and other species within the Leishmania subgenus Viannia elaborate active RNAi machinery. Strong attenuation of expression from a variety of reporter and endogenous genes was seen. As expected, RNAi knockdowns of the sole Argonaute gene implicated this protein in RNAi. The potential for functional genetics was established by testing RNAi knockdown lines lacking the paraflagellar rod, a key component of the parasite flagellum. This sets the stage for the systematic manipulation of gene expression through RNAi in these predominantly diploid asexual organisms, and may also allow selective RNAi-based chemotherapy. Functional evolutionary surveys of RNAi genes established that RNAi activity was lost after the separation of the Leishmania subgenus Viannia from the remaining Leishmania species, a divergence associated with profound changes in the parasite infectious cycle and virulence. The genus Leishmania therefore offers an accessible system for testing hypothesis about forces that may select for the loss of RNAi during evolution, such as invasion by viruses, changes in genome plasticity mediated by transposable elements and gene amplification (including those mediating drug resistance, and/or alterations in parasite virulence.

  14. Differential Midgut Attachment of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in the Sand Flies Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia

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    Rodrigo P. Soares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between Leishmania and sand flies has been demonstrated in many Old and New World species. Besides the morphological differentiation from procyclic to infective metacyclic promastigotes, the parasite undergoes biochemical transformations in its major surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG. An upregulation of β-glucose residues was previously shown in the LPG repeat units from procyclic to metacyclic phase in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, which has not been reported in any Leishmania species. LPG has been implicated as an adhesion molecule that mediates the interaction with the midgut epithelium of the sand fly in the Subgenus Leishmania. These adaptations were explored for the first time in a species from the Subgenus Viannia, L. (V. braziliensis with its natural vectors Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani. Using two in vitro binding techniques, phosphoglycans (PGs derived from procyclic and metacyclic parasites were able to bind to the insect midgut and inhibit L. braziliensis attachment. Interestingly, L. braziliensis procyclic parasite attachment was ∼11-fold greater in the midgut of L. whitmani than in L. intermedia. The epidemiological relevance of L. whitmani as a vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in Brazil is discussed.

  15. Early evidence of xeromorphy in angiosperms: stomatal encryption in a new eocene species of Banksia (Proteaceae) from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Raymond J; McLoughlin, Stephen; Hill, Robert S; McNamara, Kenneth J; Jordan, Gregory John

    2014-09-01

    • Globally, the origins of xeromorphic traits in modern angiosperm lineages are obscure but are thought to be linked to the early Neogene onset of seasonally arid climates. Stomatal encryption is a xeromorphic trait that is prominent in Banksia, an archetypal genus centered in one of the world's most diverse ecosystems, the ancient infertile landscape of Mediterranean-climate southwestern Australia.• We describe Banksia paleocrypta, a sclerophyllous species with encrypted stomata from silcretes of the Walebing and Kojonup regions of southwestern Australia dated as Late Eocene.• Banksia paleocrypta shows evidence of foliar xeromorphy ∼20 Ma before the widely accepted timing for the onset of aridity in Australia. Species of Banksia subgenus Banksia with very similar leaves are extant in southwestern Australia. The conditions required for silcrete formation infer fluctuating water tables and climatic seasonality in southwestern Australia in the Eocene, and seasonality is supported by the paucity of angiosperm closed-forest elements among the fossil taxa preserved with B. paleocrypta. However, climates in the region during the Eocene are unlikely to have experienced seasons as hot and dry as present-day summers.• The presence of B. paleocrypta within the center of diversity of subgenus Banksia in edaphically ancient southwestern Australia is consistent with the continuous presence of this lineage in the region for ≥40 Ma, a testament to the success of increasingly xeromorphic traits in Banksia over an interval in which numerous other lineages became extinct. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  16. A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Vermeulen, Jaap Jan; Marzuki, Mohammad Effendi bin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online. PMID:24715783

  17. A new water mite of the genus Torrenticola Piersig, 1896 (Acari, Torrenticolidae from central Spain

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    Valdecasas, A. G.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The water mite Torrenticola eureka n. sp. is described from streams of the Sierra de Guadarrama, in the center of the Iberian Peninsula. This species belongs to the subgenus Megapalpis Halbert, 1944, characterized by a long, curved rostrum and P-II longer than PIV. T. eureka n. sp. can be separated from the other species of the subgenus by the proportions of the palp segments, the size of the palp in relation to body size and the length of the cheliceral claw.El ácaro acuático Torrenticola eureka n. sp. se describe de arroyos de la Sierra de Guadarrama, en el centro de la Península Ibérica. Esta especie pertenece al subgénero Megapalpis Halbert, 1944, caracterizado por un rostro largo y curvado dorsalmente y PII más largo que PIV. T. eureka n. sp. se diferencia de las otras especies del subgénero por la combinación de los siguientes caracteres: proporción de los segmentos del palpo, tamaño del palpo en relación al cuerpo y la longitud de la uña del quelícero, entre otros caracteres.

  18. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus from organic farms in Croatia: phylogenetic inferences support restriction to sheep and sheep keds and close relationship with trypanosomes from other ruminant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinković, Franjo; Matanović, Krešimir; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Garcia, Herakles A; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium is a parasite of sheep transmitted by sheep keds, the sheep-restricted ectoparasite Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Sheep keds were 100% prevalent in sheep from five organic farms in Croatia, Southeastern Europe, whereas trypanosomes morphologically compatible with T. melophagium were 86% prevalent in the guts of the sheep keds. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses using sequences of small subunit rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spliced leader, and internal transcribed spacer 1 of the rDNA distinguished T. melophagium from all allied trypanosomes from other ruminant species and placed the trypanosome in the subgenus Megatrypanum. Trypanosomes from sheep keds from Croatia and Scotland, the only available isolates for comparison, shared identical sequences. All biologic and phylogenetic inferences support the restriction of T. melophagium to sheep and, especially, to the sheep keds. The comparison of trypanosomes from sheep, cattle, and deer from the same country, which was never achieved before this work, strongly supported the host-restricted specificity of trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum. Our findings indicate that with the expansion of organic farms, both sheep keds and T. melophagium may re-emerge as parasitic infections of sheep. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  19. Ecological characterisation and infection of Anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of Brazil over a 10 year period: has the behaviour of the autochthonous malaria vector changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buery, Julyana Cerqueira; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Natal, Licia; Silva, Leonardo Santana da; Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi de; Fux, Blima; Malafronte, Rosely Dos Santos; Falqueto, Aloisio; Cerutti Junior, Crispim

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND In southeastern Brazil, autochthonous cases of malaria can be found near Atlantic Forest fragments. Because the transmission cycle has not been completely clarified, the behaviour of the possible vectors in those regions must be observed. A study concerning the entomological aspects and natural infection of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) captured in the municipalities of the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state was performed in 2004 and 2005. Similarly, between 2014 and 2015, 12 monthly collections were performed at the same area of the study mentioned above. METHODS Center for Disease Control (CDC) light traps with CO2 were set in open areas, at the edge and inside of the forest (canopy and ground), whereas Shannon traps were set on the edge. FINDINGS A total of 1,414 anophelines were collected from 13 species. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii Dyar and Knab remained the most frequently captured species in the CDC traps set in the forest canopy, as well as being the vector with the highest prevalence of Plasmodium vivax/simium infection, according to molecular polymerase chain reaction techniques. CONCLUSIONS P. vivax/simium was found only in abdomens of the mosquitoes of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, weakening the hypothesis that this subgenus also plays a role in malaria transmission in this specific region.

  20. [Redescription of the female of Lutzomyia vattierae (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the serranía de La Macarena, Central Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Duque, Patricia; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2006-12-01

    Lutzomyia species of the subgenus Sciopemyia show restricted distribution and are rarely represented in sand fly captures, with the exception of L. sordellii, which is found from Costa Rica to Argentina. To date, only two of these species. L. sordellii and L. preclara have been reported in Colombia. The female of L. vattierae was redescribed and the record of this Sciopemyia species established for in the Colombian national park, serranía de La Macarena. The study was carried out in the Serrania de La Macarena, in western province of Meta. The serrania is a small mountain range situated between the Orinoco and Amazon River basins and geographically separated from the Andes. Sand flies were collected during two consecutive nights with a CDC light trap placed from 18:00 to 06:00 hours in a primary forest. Four females belonging to the subgenus Sciopemyia were identified as L. vattierae, which differs from L. preclara by the presence of papillae on the third flagellomere and from L. sordellii by the form and length of the spermathecae and individual sperm ducts. The number of known species of Sciopemyia in Colombia is now three and include L. sordellii, L. preclara, and L. vattierae.

  1. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

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    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  2. Revisión del grupo Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella Camacho & Serban, 1998 (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae endémico de la Península Ibérica

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    Serban, E.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present additional information on the subgenus Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella Camacho & Serban, 1998, made up of five species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and belonging to the Tribe Iberobathynellini Camacho & Serban, 1998. We give a complete description of the Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella paragracilipes Camacho & Serban, 1998 which, previously preliminary described. We also carry out an analysis of the population variability of the species. We show that the phylogenetic position of this subgenus is the most primitive in thistribe made up of four genera and five subgenera and we conclude that the species Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella paragracilipes and Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella gracilipes ((Braga, 1960 seem to be more plesiomorphic than the group comprising the other three species of the subgenus, I. (I. lusitanica (Braga, 1949, I. (I. valbonensis (Galhano, 1970 e I. (I. barcelensis (Noodt & Galhano, 1969. The paleodistribution derivated from the current known distribution of the genus in the Iberian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships lead us to conclude that speciation of the group could have occurred at the end of the Cretaceous (65 Myrs.En este trabajo abordamos la revisión del subgénero Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella Camacho & Serban, 1998, compuesto por cinco especies endémicas de la Península Ibérica y que pertenecen a la tribu Iberobathynellini Camacho & Serban, 1998. Se presenta una descripción completa de la especie Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella paragracilipes Camacho & Serban, 1998 de la cual sólo se dispone hasta la fecha de una diagnosis preliminar. Se realiza un análisis de la variación poblacional de la misma. Se muestra la posición filogenética de este subgénero, el más primitivo, dentro de la tribu que consta de 4 géneros y 5 subgéneros, y se concluye que las especies I. gracilipes (Braga, 1960 e I. paragracilipes parecen ser más plesiomorfas que el grupo formado

  3. Incrimination of Phlebotomus kandelakii and Phlebotomus balcanicus as vectors of Leishmania infantum in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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    Ekaterina Giorgobiani

    Full Text Available A survey of potential vector sand flies was conducted in the neighboring suburban communities of Vake and Mtatsminda districts in an active focus of visceral Leishmaniasis (VL in Tbilisi, Georgia. Using light and sticky-paper traps, 1,266 male and 1,179 female sand flies were collected during 2006-2008. Five Phlebotomus species of three subgenera were collected: Phlebotomus balcanicus Theodor and Phlebotomus halepensis Theodor of the subgenus Adlerius; Phlebotomus kandelakii Shchurenkova and Phlebotomus wenyoni Adler and Theodor of the subgenus Larroussius; Phlebotomus sergenti Perfil'ev of the subgenus Paraphlebotomus. Phlebotomus sergenti (35.1% predominated in Vake, followed by P. kandelakii (33.5%, P. balcanicus (18.9%, P. halepensis (12.2%, and P. wenyoni (0.3%. In Mtatsminda, P. kandelakii (76.8% comprised over three fourths of collected sand flies, followed by P. sergenti (12.6%, P. balcanicus (5.8%, P. halepensis (3.7%, and P. wenyoni (1.1%. The sand fly season in Georgia is exceptionally short beginning in early June, peaking in July and August, then declining to zero in early September. Of 659 female sand flies examined for Leishmania, 12 (1.8% specimens without traces of blood were infected including 10 of 535 P. kandelakii (1.9% and two of 40 P. balcanicus (5.0%. Six isolates were successfully cultured and characterized as Leishmania by PCR. Three isolates from P. kandelakii (2 and P. balcanicus (1 were further identified as L. infantum using sequence alignment of the 70 kDa heat-shock protein gene. Importantly, the sand fly isolates showed a high percent identity (99.8%-99.9% to human and dog isolates from the same focus, incriminating the two sand fly species as vectors. Blood meal analysis showed that P. kandelakii preferentially feeds on dogs (76% but also feeds on humans. The abundance, infection rate and feeding behavior of P. kandelakii and the infection rate in P. balcanicus establish these species as vectors in the Tbilisi

  4. Incrimination of Phlebotomus kandelakii and Phlebotomus balcanicus as vectors of Leishmania infantum in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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    Giorgobiani, Ekaterina; Lawyer, Phillip G; Babuadze, Giorgi; Dolidze, Nato; Jochim, Ryan C; Tskhvaradze, Lamzira; Kikaleishvili, Konstantin; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2012-01-01

    A survey of potential vector sand flies was conducted in the neighboring suburban communities of Vake and Mtatsminda districts in an active focus of visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Tbilisi, Georgia. Using light and sticky-paper traps, 1,266 male and 1,179 female sand flies were collected during 2006-2008. Five Phlebotomus species of three subgenera were collected: Phlebotomus balcanicus Theodor and Phlebotomus halepensis Theodor of the subgenus Adlerius; Phlebotomus kandelakii Shchurenkova and Phlebotomus wenyoni Adler and Theodor of the subgenus Larroussius; Phlebotomus sergenti Perfil'ev of the subgenus Paraphlebotomus. Phlebotomus sergenti (35.1%) predominated in Vake, followed by P. kandelakii (33.5%), P. balcanicus (18.9%), P. halepensis (12.2%), and P. wenyoni (0.3%). In Mtatsminda, P. kandelakii (76.8%) comprised over three fourths of collected sand flies, followed by P. sergenti (12.6%), P. balcanicus (5.8%), P. halepensis (3.7%), and P. wenyoni (1.1%). The sand fly season in Georgia is exceptionally short beginning in early June, peaking in July and August, then declining to zero in early September. Of 659 female sand flies examined for Leishmania, 12 (1.8%) specimens without traces of blood were infected including 10 of 535 P. kandelakii (1.9%) and two of 40 P. balcanicus (5.0%). Six isolates were successfully cultured and characterized as Leishmania by PCR. Three isolates from P. kandelakii (2) and P. balcanicus (1) were further identified as L. infantum using sequence alignment of the 70 kDa heat-shock protein gene. Importantly, the sand fly isolates showed a high percent identity (99.8%-99.9%) to human and dog isolates from the same focus, incriminating the two sand fly species as vectors. Blood meal analysis showed that P. kandelakii preferentially feeds on dogs (76%) but also feeds on humans. The abundance, infection rate and feeding behavior of P. kandelakii and the infection rate in P. balcanicus establish these species as vectors in the Tbilisi VL

  5. Infection by Haemoproteus parasites in four species of frigatebirds and the description of a new species of Haemoproteus (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae)

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    Merino, Santiago; Hennicke, Janos; Martinez, Javier; Ludynia, Katrin; Torres, Roxana; Work, Thierry M.; Stroud, Stedson; Masello, Juan F.; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Among seabirds, the fregatids stand out with a high prevalence of blood parasites. Four of 5 species in this family have been found to be infected with Haemoproteus; however, complete species descriptions with molecular phylogeny are lacking. Seventy-five samples from 4 species of frigatebirds, i.e., Fregata andrewsi, Fregata minor, Fregata magnificens, and Fregata aquila, were screened for infections caused by species of Haemoproteus. Four different parasite haplotypes were found infecting frigatebirds based on the sequencing of a fragment of the cytochrome b gene. Two haplotypes belong to the subgenus Parahaemoproteus, and the other 2 correspond to haplotypes within the subgenus Haemoproteus. The more prevalent and cosmopolitan Parahaemoproteus haplotype (FregPHae1) was phylogenetically grouped with other Haemoproteus parasites infecting non-passerine birds, but it could not be detected from the single sample from F. aquila. The other Parahaemoproteus haplotype (FregPHae2) was not phylogenetically clustered with parasites infecting non-passerine birds, and it was sequenced from a single (1 each) F. andrewsi and F. minor. Blood smears from F. andrewsi infected only by FregPHae1 haplotype showed sufficient gametocytes to allow description of a new species, Haemoproteus valkiūnasi sp. nov. In contrast to Haemoproteus iwa, the only previously known blood parasite infecting frigatebirds and described from F. minor from Galapagos Islands, parasites from F. andrewsi (1) are shorter with no contact of gametocyte with host cell membrane, (2) have fewer pigment granules, and (3) have wider microgametocytes, with a smaller host nuclear displacement. In contrast, patent single infections corresponding to the cosmopolitan haplotype of the subgenus Haemoproteus (FregHae1) were also found in samples from 1 F. andrewsi, 1 F. minor, and 1 F. aquila. In all these cases, the number of microgametocytes was very low, resembling H. iwa, which lacks microgametocytes in the original

  6. Revisión del género Neoquintius stat. nov., con descripción de cuatro especies nuevas y un análisis del complejo Quintius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Nematopodini A revision of the genus Neoquintius nov. status, with the description of four new species and analysis of the Quintius complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Nematopodini

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    Harry Brailovsky

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El subgénero Neoquintius Brailovsky y Barrera (Coreidae: Nematopodini es elevado a categoría genérica describiéndose 4 especies nuevas recolectadas en Bolivia, Panamá y Perú. Se ilustran caracteres diagnósticos del pronoto y de la cápsula genital del macho (pigóforo. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de los géneros afines a Quintius Stål y otra para las especies conocidas de Neoquintius.The subgenus Neoquintius Brailovsky and Barrera (Coreidae: Nematopodini is elevated to generic level, and 4 new species from Bolivia, Panama, and Peru are described. Diagnostic taxonomic characters of pronotum and male genital capsule (pygophore are illustrated. An identification key to the genera closely related to Quintius Stål, as well as a key to the known species of Neoquintius are included.

  7. Vignapandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Gore, Ramchandra; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. A new species, Vignapandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vignayadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vignadalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers.

  8. Unusual arrangement and behaviour of the sex chromosomes of Aphodius (Agolius abdominalis Bonelli, 1812, and comparison with A. (A. bonvouloiri Harold, 1860 (Coleoptera: Aphodiidae

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    Robert Angus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aphodius abdominalis Bonelli, 1812 is shown to have a karyotype comprising nine pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (male, XX (female. At first metaphase of meiosis the X chromosome is linked to an autosomal bivalent by a darkly staining area of the cytoplasm, resembling the Xy p arrangement typical of Aphodius species, but giving nine, rather than 10, elements in the nucleus. C-banding, which shows the centromeres, confirms this unusual arrangement. A. bonvouloiri, the only other known species of subgenus Agolius Mulsant et Rey, 1869, has a male karyotype with nine pairs of autosomes and Xy sex chromosomes. No preparations of its meiosis are available.

  9. A new species of the Liolaemus alticolor-bibronii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from East-central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Laura Estela; Quinteros, AndrÉs sebastiÁn; Stellatelli, Oscar anÍbal; Bellagamba, Patricio Juan; Block, Carolina; Madrid, Enrique Alberto

    2018-02-15

    We describe a new species of Liolaemus of the L. alticolor-bibronii group of the subgenus Liolaemus sensu stricto. We studied meristic, morphometric and qualitative pattern characters. Statistical tests were performed in order to evaluate morphological differences among the candidate species and the most closely geographically distributed species. Molecular analyses of Cyt-b mitochondrial gene were performed in order to estimate the position of the new species in relation to other taxa. We also recorded natural history data such as habitat, behavior, reproductive state, diet, and body temperature. Liolaemus absconditus sp. nov. differs from other species of Liolaemus in presenting a distinct combination of morphological character states of lepidosis and color pattern, being phylogenetically close to Liolaemus tandiliensis, Liolaemus gracilis and Liolaemus saxatilis. The new species is a saxicolous and endemic lizard of the Tandilia Mountain Range System of Buenos Aires Province.

  10. Phylogenetic relationship among East Asian species of the Stegana genus group (Diptera, Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Gao, Jian-jun; Lu, Jin-ming; Ji, Xing-lai; Chen, Hong-wei

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship among 27 East Asian species of the Stegana genus group was reconstructed using DNA sequences of mitochondrial (COI and ND2) and nuclear (28S) genes. The results lent support to the current generic/subgeneric taxonomic classification in the genus group with the exceptions of the paraphyly of the genus Parastegana and the subgenus Oxyphortica in the genus Stegana. The ancestral areas and divergence times in the genus group were reconstructed/estimated, and accordingly, the biogeographical history of this important clade was discussed. It was proposed that, the evolution of the plant family Fagaceae, especially Quercus, may have played a certain role in facilitating the diversification of the Stegana genus group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Never judge an iguana by its spines: Systematics of the Yucatan spiny tailed iguana, Ctenosaura defensor (Cope, 1866).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Catherine L; Reynoso, Víctor Hugo; Buckley, Larry

    2017-10-01

    Spiny tailed iguanas are highly diverse clade of lizards in Mesoamerica, ranging from northern Mexico through Panama. Utilizing 2 regions of mitochondrial DNA (1948bp) and 4 nuclear loci (2232bp) we explored the relationships between these species and the phylogeographic history of the major clades. We discovered that the lineage endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula renders the genus Ctenosaura paraphyletic. To resolve this non-monophyly, we resurrect the taxon Cachryx Cope, 1866, and provide a new diagnosis for the genus. We also find that small body-size and highly spinose tails in the species previously referred to the subgenus Enyaliosaurus, have evolved independently 3 times. Cachryx were recovered as sister to the lineage of iguanines endemic to the Galapagos Islands, and we discuss biogeographic scenarios to explain this relationship as well as those among the primary clades of Ctenosaura in Mesoamerica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) tolimensis, a new species of phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, María C; Munstermann, Leonard; Marín, Dairo; Ocampo, Clara; Ferro, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    A description is presented of Lutzomyia tolimensis sp. nov., a new species of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, series sanguinaria. It was collected in dwellings, peridomestic environment and in nearby forest patches located in the foothills of the Andean Central Cordillera, where in 2004–2006 occurred the largest epidemic ever recorded of leishmaniasis in Colombia. The male of this species is differentiated from other members of the series sanguinaria based on the following combination of characters: (i) base of coxite with 0–3 subequal setae, (ii) spines of gonostyle organized in positions 2.1.2, (iii) spines inserted on distal half of gonostyle and (iv) relationship of alar indices. The female is recognized principally by the following characters: (i) palpomere V longer than III, (ii) length of labro-epipharynx and (iii) relationship of the alar indices. PMID:23295748

  13. Variations in the male genitalia of Aedes (Stegomyia Albopictus (Skuse from Chandigarh and its surrounding areas (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Sagandeep Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is the most dominant species of subgenus Stegomyia and is medically important from the standpoint of transmitting wide range of human pathogens of deadly diseases like dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. During present investigations, it has been observed that IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes albopictus varies greatly. It shows variations with respect to the presence or absence of lateral projections on the IX tergum, as well as in the shape and size of median and lateral projections. The shape of IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes species is of great taxonomic importance as it is a diagnostic character of the species. These variations have been observed both in natural populations collected from various breeding sites as well as in the adults reared in laboratory. The observed differences have not been noticed by any of the previous workers.

  14. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Java, Indonesia.

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    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Zaid, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [RAPD analysis of four species of Cuscuta in Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huibin; Lin, Jianqun; Lin, Jianqiang

    2003-01-01

    To explore the genome difference of four species of Cuscuta in different hosts. RAPD was used by 50 primers. Four species of genus Cuscuta can be identified by 8 primers. Both Cuscuta chinensis and C. australis from Subg. Grammica had 3 bands whose molecular weights were 1.3 kb, 1.45 kb and 1.53 kb respectively. C. japonica and C. lupuliformis from Subg. Monogyna had a 1.48 kb specific band. Cuscuta of same subgenus had similar RAPD result and close genetic relationship. Same species of Cuscuta in different hosts showed DNA polymorphism. It indicated that hosts can affect genome of Cuscuta to some extent. RAPD can be used to identify the species of Cuscuta or same Cuscuta in different hosts.

  16. Review of Ptilomera (Ptilomera) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae) from India, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehamalar, E Eyarin; Chandra, Kailash; Basu, Srimoyee; Selvakumar, C

    2018-01-15

    The subgenus Ptilomera (Ptilomera) Amyot Serville, 1843 of India is reviewed and Ptilomera (P.) nagalanda Jehamalar Chandra, sp. nov. is described from Peren District, Nagaland, India. The new species can clearly be distinguished from its congeners in India by the presence of silvery white setae on the sub-lateral region of the meso- and metanota and the presence of a fringe of fine short setae of different lengths on the flexor region of the mid femur reaching beyond the middle in the male. Detailed illustrations of the apterous male of the new species and male and female of other species of Ptilomera, except P. occidentalis Zettel, are given. Distribution maps and a key to all known species of Ptilomera (Ptilomera) in India are given.

  17. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species.

  18. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  19. New foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, D K; Okelo, G B; Ndegwa, C W; Ashford, R W

    1993-01-01

    Active case detection and investigations of sandfly resting places in suspected transmission sites of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley resulted in the identification of several foci of the disease in Samburu, Isiolo, Laikipia, Nakuru and Nyandarua districts. The foci occurred in areas ranging from semi-arid lowlands at 400 m altitude to highland plateaux at 2500 m, including the floor of the Rift Valley, and were mostly inhabited by recently settled communities, nomads and migrant charcoal burners. Four species of Phlebotomus, 3 of the subgenus Larroussius (P. pedifer, P. aculeatus and P. guggisbergi) and one Paraphlebotomus (P. saevus) were collected from caves, rock crevices and tree hollows found in river valleys and in lava flows.

  20. The second species of Phanoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from China, P. hainana sp. nov., from Hainan Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Qin, Xuefeng

    2016-09-08

    The genus Phanoperla Banks was originally established as a subgenus of Neoperla and its genus delimitation was not fully clear until the revisionary work by Zwick (1982). It currently contains 49 known species from the Oriental region (Banks 1938, 1939, Cao & Bae 2009, Cao et al. 2007, DeWalt et al. 2016, Jewett 1975, Kawai 1968, Stark 1983, 1987, Stark & Sheldon 2009, Sivec & Stark 2010, 2011, Stark & Sivec 2007, Sivec et al. 1988, Zwick 1982, Zwick 1986, Zwick & Sivec 1985). Although species of Phanoperla are not rare in many areas of Southeast Asia bordering China, especially Vietnam and India (Cao & Bae 2009, Mason & Stark 2015), P. pallipennis Banks, 1938 is the only known species of the genus known from China. In this paper, we describe a new species of Phanoperla from Hainan Island of the southernmost province of China. The northern portion of the island has a humid subtropical climate, whereas the remainder of the island has tropical monsoon climate.

  1. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

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    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  2. First description of Leishmania (Viannia) infection in Evandromyia saulensis, Pressatia sp. and Trichophoromyia auraensis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre state, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo-Pereira, Thais; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Melo, Myllena; da Costa-Rego, Taiana Amancio; Fuzari, Andressa Alencastre; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Britto, Constança

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L. (V.) braziliensis was confirmed in five sandflies: one Evandromyia saulensis, three Trichophoromyia auraensis and one Pressatia sp. The finding of L. (Viannia) DNA in two Ev. saulensis corresponds to the first record of possible infection associated with this sandfly. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time in Brazil, Th. auraensis and Pressatia sp. infected by L. (Viannia) parasites. PMID:28076470

  3. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

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    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  4. Revisão do gênero neotropical Coelosis Hope (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae Revision of the neotropical genus Coelosis Hope (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae

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    Luciana Iannuzzi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Coelosis with two subgenera, Coelosis s.str. [type species: Scarabaeus sylvanus Fabricius, 1775] and Eucoelosis subgen.n. [type species: Scarabaeus biloba Linnaeus, 1767], is revised and redescribed. Other four species: C. (C. inermis Sternberg, 1908, C. (C. bourgini (Dechambre, 1976, C. (Eucoelosis hippocrates Blanchard, 1846, and C. (E. bicornis (Leske, 1779 were recognized and redescribed. Coelosis (E. denticornis Arrow, 1937 was not studied, and the original description is transcribed herein. New characters considered relevant for comparative studies and for species identification are presented. The subgenus Millotsis Bourgin, 1944 [type species: Coelosis inermis Sternberg, 1908] is considered a junior subjective synonym of Coelosis s.str.. A phenetic analysis is presented.

  5. Microsatellite primers in the white proteas (Protea section Exsertae, Proteaceae), a rapidly radiating lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, Rachel; Latimer, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in the South African sclerophyllous shrub Protea punctata to investigate the degree of population differentiation within and between P. punctata and closely related species. • 10 primer pairs were identified from three individuals of Protea punctata. The primers amplified di- and tri-nucleotide repeats. Across all P. punctata samples, the loci have 8-49 alleles. All primers also amplified in Protea section Exsertae (P. aurea, P. aurea subsp. potbergensis, P. mundii, P. venusta, P. lacticolor, and P. subvestita). The loci had 14-69 alleles across the subgenus. • These results show the broad utility of microsatellite loci for future studies of population genetics in the white proteas and their potential utility across the entire genus.

  6. Plasmodium durae Herman from the introduced common peafowl in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, M

    1978-02-01

    Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) durae Herman was originally described from Kenya, the type host being the common turkey, Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus. There are no field records of this association outside of Africa, where the parasite, herein reported from another introduced and domesticated bird (the common peafowl, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus), was recently listed from 2 native Phasianidae of the genus Francolinus. The justification for the present identification is submitted against background data concerning malaria parasites from turkeys and other Galliformes in Africa and elsewhere, and restraint is urged in describing yet more "new species" of avian Plasmodium belonging to morphologically close taxa within Novyella and Giovannolaia. A near relative of P. durae, Plasmodium dissanaikei de Jong, is transferred from the former subgenus to the latter one.

  7. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Paramecium (Viridoparamecium nov. subgen.) chlorelligerum Kahl, 1935 (Ciliophora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    KREUTZ, MARTIN; STOECK, THORSTEN; FOISSNER, WILHELM

    2013-01-01

    We redescribe Paramecium chlorelligerum, a forgotten species, which Kahl (1935) briefly but precisely described in the addendum to his ciliate monographs as a Paramecium with symbiotic green algae. The redescription is based on classical morphological methods and the analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA. Morphologically, P. chlorelligerum differs from P. (Chloroparamecium) bursaria, the second green species in the genus, by having a special swimming shape, the length of the caudal cilia, the size of the micronucleus, the size of the symbiotic algae, the contractile vacuoles (with collecting vesicles vs. collecting canals), and the number of excretory pores /contractile vacuole (1 vs. 2--3). The molecular investigations show that P. chlorelligerum forms a distinct branch distant from the P. (Chloroparamecium) bursaria clade. Thus, we classify P. chlorelligerum in a new subgenus: Paramecium (Viridoparamecium) chlorelligerum. The symbiotic alga belongs to the little-known genus Meyerella, as yet recorded only from the plankton of a North American lake. PMID:22827482

  8. Sampling strategies for improving tree accuracy and phylogenetic analyses: a case study in ciliate protists, with notes on the genus Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela; Hu, Xiaozhong; Lin, Xiaofeng; Song, Weibo

    2014-02-01

    In order to assess how dataset-selection for multi-gene analyses affects the accuracy of inferred phylogenetic trees in ciliates, we chose five genes and the genus Paramecium, one of the most widely used model protist genera, and compared tree topologies of the single- and multi-gene analyses. Our empirical study shows that: (1) Using multiple genes improves phylogenetic accuracy, even when their one-gene topologies are in conflict with each other. (2) The impact of missing data on phylogenetic accuracy is ambiguous: resolution power and topological similarity, but not number of represented taxa, are the most important criteria of a dataset for inclusion in concatenated analyses. (3) As an example, we tested the three classification models of the genus Paramecium with a multi-gene based approach, and only the monophyly of the subgenus Paramecium is supported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proposal to modify Rule 6, Rule 10a, and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M; Schink, Bernhard

    2014-04-01

    According to the current versions of Rule 10a and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, names of a genus or subgenus and specific epithets may be taken from any source and may even be composed in an arbitrary manner. Based on these rules, names may be composed of any word or any combination of elements derived from any language with a Latin ending. We propose modifying these rules by adding the text, currently part of Recommendation 6, according to which words from languages other than Latin or Greek should be avoided as long as equivalents exist in Latin or Greek or can be constructed by combining word elements from these two languages. We also propose modification of Rule 6 by adopting some of the current paragraphs of Recommendation 6 to become part of the Rule.

  10. Notes on the phlebotomine sand flies from the Peruvian southeast--I. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) adamsi n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R; Galati, E B; Carbajal, F; Wooster, M T; Watts, D M

    1998-01-01

    A new species of phlebotomine sand fly, Lutzomyia adamsi n. sp., is described and illustrated from specimens collected during August 1994, in Sandia, Department of Puno-Peru. According to the Oficina Nacional de Evaluacion de Recursos Naturales(ONERN 1976), this locality is situated in the life zone known as humid, mountain, low tropical forest (bh-MBT). Many areas in the northern part of Puno, mainly in the Inambari and Tambopata basins, are endemic to leishmaniasis. These areas are the continuation of others, largely known as "leishmaniasic" in the departments of Cusco and Madre de Dios. The morphological characteristics indicated that this species belongs to the genus Lutzomyia, subgenus Helcocyrtomyia Barretto, 1962.

  11. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Neusa Hamada

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  12. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis co-infection in dogs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: evaluation by specific PCR and RFLP-PCR assays

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    Marize Quinhones Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During a diagnostic evaluation of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL, two of seventeen dogs were found to be co-infected by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. Methods Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (RFLP-PCR assays were performed. Results PCR assays for Leishmania subgenus identification followed by RFLP-PCR analysis in biopsies from cutaneous lesions and the spleen confirmed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi in those fragments. Conclusions This report reinforces the importance of using serological and molecular techniques in the epidemiological surveillance of canine populations in endemic areas in which both diseases are known to co-exist. In such cases, a reassessment of the control measures is required.

  13. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  14. Potential host number in cuckoo bees (Psithyrus subgen. increases toward higher elevations

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    Jean-Nicolas Pradervand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In severe and variable conditions, specialized resource selection strategies should be less frequent because extinction risks increase for species that depend on a single and unstable resource. Psithyrus (Bombus subgenus Psithyrus are bumblebee parasites that usurp Bombus nests and display inter‐specific variation in the number of hosts they parasitize. Using a phylogenetic comparative framework, we show that Psithyrus species at higher elevations display a higher number of hosts species compared with species restricted to lower elevations. Species inhabiting high elevations also cover a larger temperature range, suggesting that species able to occur in colder conditions may benefit from recruitment from populations occurring in warmer conditions. Our results provide evidence for an ‘altitudinal niche breadth hypothesis’ in parasitic species, showing a decrease in the parasites’ specialization along the elevational gradient, and also suggesting that Rapoport’s rule might apply to Psithyrus. 

  15. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

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    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  16. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  17. Two new species of the Pterostichus macrogenys species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae discovered in shallow subterranean habitats in northern Honshu, Japan

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    Kôji Sasakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow subterranean environments have recently received attention as a habitat for Carabidae beetles, and many new species have been discovered using collection techniques devised for this habitat. We report the discovery of two new species of the macrogenys species group of the Pterostichus subgenus Nialoe Tanaka, 1958, collected by subterranean baited traps in northern Honshu, Japan. Pterostichus shinbodakensis Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from Mt. Shinbodake, Niigata Prefecture, and P. tateishiyamanus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from the southeastern foot of Mt. Tateishiyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Comparative male genital morphology shows that among the known species, the two new species are most closely related to P. falcispinus Sasakawa, 2005 and P. chokaisanus Sasakawa, 2009, respectively. In addition, sympatric occurrence of P. shinbodakensis with a smaller, unidentified species of the species group was also confirmed. The implications of these results for future studies of the macrogenys species group, as well as those of Nialoe, are discussed.

  18. Lichenometry in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: “Little Ice Age” moraine chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomina, Olga; Jomelli, Vincent; Kaser, Georg; Ames, Alcides; Berger, Bernhard; Pouyaud, Bernard

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a comparison and compilation of lichenometric and geomorphic studies performed by two independent teams in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in 1996 and 2002 on 66 "Little Ice Age" moraines of 14 glaciers. Using eleven new control points, we recalibrated the initial rapid growth phase of the previously established Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon growth curve. This curve was then used to estimate the age of "Little Ice Age" moraines. The time of deposition of the most prominent and numerous terminal and lateral moraines on the Pacific-facing side of the Cordillera Blanca (between AD 1590 and AD 1720) corresponds to the coldest and wettest phase in the tropical Andes as revealed by ice-core data. Less prominent advances occurred between AD 1780 and 1880.

  19. Descripción de una nueva especie de Mylabris Fabricius, 1875 del subgénero Ammabris Kuzin, 1954 de Marruecos y redescripción de Mylabris (Ammabris boghariensis Raffray, 1873 (Coleoptera, Meloidae

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    García-París, M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ammabris Kuzin (1954, a subgenus of Mylabris Fabricius, 1775, includes a small group of fenetically close species associated to semiarid zones and deserts of Northern Africa, Middle East and Central Asia. Mylabris boghariensis Raffray, 1873, one of the least known species, doubtfuly included within the subgenus Ammabris, is known only from its type locality in Algeria. In this study, following the examination of the holotype of M. boghariensis, we expand its morphological description and redefine its nostic traits, including a description of the male genitalia. We confirm the assignation of M. boghariensis to Ammabris. The study of a series of specimens from Northeastern Morocco, phenetically close to M. boghariensis, but clearley differentiable by its external morphological characters and male genitalia, allow us to describe them as a new species, Mylabris avilai sp. nov .We discuss the diagnostic traits of this new species and compare them with all other species of Ammabris. As a result of the comparative morphological study of six especies of Ammabris we discuss the complexity and variability of the characters defining the subgenus, and the taxonomic position of Mylabris sisymbrii Klug, 1834. This study allow us to conclude that the subgenus is morphologically heterogeneous and possibly paraphyletic, in need of a broad systematic revisión to stablish its morphological limits and species composition.El subgénero Ammabris Kuzin, 1954 agrupa a un pequeño conjunto de especies del género Mylabris Fabricius, 1775, fenéticamente afines entre sí y asociadas a zonas semiáridas y desérticas del norte de África, Oriente Próximo y Asia Central. Una de las especies menos conocidas de este subgénero, al que fue atribuida con dudas, es Mylabris boghariensis Raffray, 1873, conocida únicamente de la localidad tipo en Argelia. En este trabajo, tras estudiar un sintipo de M. boghariensis, se amplía la descripción morfológica del taxon y se

  20. Anthrenus (Florilinus loebli n. sp. (Coleoptera, Dermestidae, Anthrenini from the Middle East

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    Kadej, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species Anthrenus (Florilinus loebli from Israel, Lebanon and Jordania is described, illustrated and compared with the similar species classified within the subgenus Florilinus Mulsant & Rey, 1868. The new species is characterized by oval eyes, eight-segmented antenna and subtriangular, occasionally triangular, scales on the dorsum. The yellowish/light brown scales are present on the anterior and terminal part of the elytra and create three irregular, transverse bands. Antennal segment eight are at least 4.8 to 5x longer than segment 7 in male, 2.1x longer in female. The new species is most similar to A. (F. museorum (Linnaeus, 1761; A. (H. fuscus Olivier, 1789 and A. (F. flavidus Solsky, 1876. An identification key to externally similar species of the genus is given. The most distinctive taxonomic characteristics concern the male genitalia and antenna (in ratio of length of segments of antennal club and are also described.

  1. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize "trample burr" dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martine, Christopher T; Cantley, Jason T; Frawley, Emma S; Butler, Alice R; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic "Dioicum Complex" lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent "trample burr" seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum 'Tanami.' Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA.

  2. Redescription and taxonomical considerations about Aonchotheca (Aonchotheca pulchra n. comb. (Enoplida: Trichuridae, a nematode of Nyctinomops spp.

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    Daniel Fontana Ferreira Cardia

    Full Text Available Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934 are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae. Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided.

  3. Hibernian reports of a new Franco-Iberian worm (Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea: Lumbricidae

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    Blakemore, R.J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A continental European earthworm, Kenleenus armadas sp. nov., is newly described from an introduction to a farm in Dublin, Ireland. Previously recognized as Aquitainian Prosellodrilus amplisetosus Bouché, 1972, the morphology and molecular characteristics rather indicate it as a taxon new to science. Its description has required revision of all prosellodrilid genera including Algerian subgenus Maghrebiella Baha & Bera, 2001 that is a permanently invalid homonym, here replaced with Cadanera nom. nov. A revised checklist is appended that holds Allolobophora festae Rosa, 1892 as a species incertae sedis pending review of the Cadanera type. This report brings the total earthworms known from Britain & Ireland to 72 species, including a new record of cosmopolitan Pithemera bicincta (Perrier, 1875 (Megascolecidae from Dublin’s Botanic Gardens

  4. A molecular phylogeny of Dorylus army ants provides evidence for multiple evolutionary transitions in foraging niche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    in the leaf-litter and some as conspicuous swarm raiders on the forest floor and in the lower vegetation (the infamous driver ants). Here we use a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Dorylus s.l. army ants and to infer the evolutionary transitions...... in foraging niche and associated morphological adaptations. RESULTS: Underground foraging is basal and gave rise to leaf-litter foraging. Leaf-litter foraging in turn gave rise to two derived conditions: true surface foraging (the driver ants) and a reversal to subterranean foraging (a clade with most......BACKGROUND: Army ants are the prime arthropod predators in tropical forests, with huge colonies and an evolutionary derived nomadic life style. Five of the six recognized subgenera of Old World Dorylus army ants forage in the soil, whereas some species of the sixth subgenus (Anomma) forage...

  5. Synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group with new Japanese Oxyethira species (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae

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    Oláh, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group is produced by the examination of type materials. Diagrammatic drawings with similar style were prepared for all the known and for the new species. Short description of genus Oxyethira, subgenus Oxyethira, species group of Oxyethira flavicornis are presented together with the description of five species clusters: O. datra new species cluster, O. ecornuta new species cluster, O. flavicornis new species cluster, O. hiroshima new species cluster, O. tiunovae new species cluster. Five new species are described from the O. flavicornis species group: O chitosea sp. n., O. hena sp. n., O. hiroshima sp. n., O. kakida sp. n., O. mekunna sp. n. One new species is described from the Oxyethira grisea species group: Oxyethira ozea sp. n. and two new species from the Oxyethira ramosa species group: Oxyethira miea sp. n., Oxyethira okinawa sp. n.

  6. Taxonomic notes on stingless bee Trigona (Tetragonula iridipennis Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae from India

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    K. Vijayakumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stingless Bees are a large and diverse taxon and more than 500 species are recorded worldwide.  Based on the previous reports, totally seven species are reported from India.  The present study reports male and female morphological characteristics of Tetragonula iridipennis belonging to Tetragonula subgenus in Nellithurai Village, Tamil Nadu, India.  The species of Tetragonula group are extremely similar in the external morphology of the workers. The glabrous bands on mesoscutum of female bees and structure and arrangement of gonostylus and the penis valve of male bees are used to separate T. iridipennis from other species in this group.  The identity of T. iridipennis is made based on the male and female key morphological characteristics in the previous literature.

  7. Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) of the gall-making leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Uzbekistan, with taxonomic notes on the Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), A. (Aphelinoidea) sariq Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n., is described from Uzbekistan. Both sexes were reared from eggs of the only known truly gall-making leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste), laid inside its galls on camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Medikus; additional females were found dead inside the galls. Aphelinoidea sariq is the only known species of the nominate subgenus of Aphelinoidea whose body color is predominantly yellow. Taxonomic notes on other Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea are provided; A. scythica Fursov, syn. n. is synonymized underA. (Aphelinoidea) turanica S. Trjapitzin. Another trichogrammatid, Par-acentrobia (Paracentrobia) sp., was reared from eggs of S. viridis in much smaller numbers. Also described from the same locality and host is Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) mitjaevi Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

  8. Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae with descriptions of three new species from Peru

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    Cesar Aguilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within known species, and now deserve species status. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that L. walkeri, L. tacnae and the three new species are strongly separated from other species assigned to the alticolor-bibronii group. Few conventional morphological characters distinguish the new species from closely related taxa and this highlights the need to integrate other sources of data to erect strong hypothesis of species limits. A taxonomic key for known Peruvian species of the subgenus Lioalemus is provided.

  9. Preimaginal stages of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: an invasive pest on ash trees (Fraxinus.

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    M Lourdes Chamorro

    Full Text Available This study provides the most detailed description of the immature stages of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire to date and illustrates suites of larval characters useful in distinguishing among Agrilus Curtis species and instars. Immature stages of eight species of Agrilus were examined and imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy. For A. planipennis all preimaginal stages (egg, instars I-IV, prepupa and pupa were described. A combination of 14 character states were identified that serve to identify larvae of A. planipennis. Our results support the segregation of Agrilus larvae into two informal assemblages based on characters of the mouthparts, prothorax, and abdomen: the A. viridis and A. ater assemblages, with A. planipennis being more similar to the former. Additional evidence is provided in favor of excluding A. planipennis from the subgenus Uragrilus.

  10. Wood anatomy of Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae Anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae

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    Roberto R. Pujana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy description of Ribes magellanicum Poir. is given including specimens of its two subspecies. This is the first detailed secondary xylem study of a species included in the South and Central American subgenus Parilla Jancz. Wood anatomy of R. magellanicum shows the following typical anatomical features cited for northern hemisphere Ribes L.: small vessels, rays of two distinct sizes and scalariform perforation plates.Se describe la anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum Poir. incluyendo especimenes de sus dos subespecies. Es la primera descripción detallada del xilema secundario de una especie del subgénero de Centro y Sudamérica Parilla Jancz. La anatomía de R. magellanicum muestra las características típicas citadas para las Ribes L. del hemisferio norte: vasos pequeños, radios de dos tamaños distintos y placas de perforación escalariformes.

  11. Notes on the Phlebotomine Sand Flies from the Peruvian Southeast : I. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia adamsi n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Fernandez R

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of phlebotomine sand fly, Lutzomyia adamsi n. sp., is described and illustrated from specimens collected during August 1994, in Sandia, Department of Puno-Peru. According to the Oficina Nacional de Evaluacion de Recursos Naturales(ONERN 1976, this locality is situated in the life zone known as humid, mountain, low tropical forest (bh-MBT. Many areas in the northern part of Puno, mainly in the Inambari and Tambopata basins, are endemic to leishmaniasis. These areas are the continuation of others, largely known as "leishmaniasic" in the departments of Cusco and Madre de Dios. The morphological characteristics indicated that this species belongs to the genus Lutzomyia, subgenus Helcocyrtomyia Barretto, 1962

  12. Tabanidae (Diptera do estado do Maranhão, Brasil: III. Descrição de Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus henriquesi sp. nov. Tabanidae (Diptera from the state of Maranhão, Brazil: III. Description of Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus henriquesi sp. nov.

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    Francisco Limeira-de-Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus henriquesi sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada baseada em 30 fêmeas e dois machos coletados em vegetação de Cerrado, nos municípios de Carolina, Alto Parnaíba e Mirador, região sul do estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Este é o primeiro registro de uma espécie do subgênero no Brasil.Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus henriquesi, sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on 30 females and two males specimens collected in open vegetation of "Cerrado", in Carolina, Alto Parnaíba and Mirador municipalities, in southern Maranhão state, Brazil. This is the first record of species of the subgenus in Brazil.

  13. External morphology of sensory structures of fourth instar larvae of neotropical species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

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    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, some morphological structures of antennae, maxillary palps and caudal setae of fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared phlebotomine sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. evandroi, L. lenti, L. sericea, L. whitmani and L. intermedia of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The antennal structures exhibited considerable variation in the morphology and position. A prominent digitiform distal segment has been observed only on the antenna of species of the subgenus Nyssomyia. The taxonomic relevance of this and other antennal structure is discussed. The papiliform structures found in the maxillae and the porous structures of the caudal setae of all species examined may have chemosensory function. Further studies with transmission electron microscopy are needed to better understand the physiological function of these external structures.

  14. Leishmania in the Old World: 1. The geographical and hostal distribution of L. major zymodemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blancq, S M; Schnur, L F; Peters, W

    1986-01-01

    135 stocks of Leishmania major from man, reservoir hosts and sandflies were characterized using thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymes: MDH, 6PGD, GD, SOD, ASAT, ALAT, PK, PGM, ES, NH, PEPD, MPI, GPI. Homogeneity in this species was demonstrated by identical electrophoretic mobilities in nine enzymes. Polymorphism in four enzymes: 6PGD, GPI, PEPD, ES, gave six zymodemes among the collection. Stocks from sandflies and several species of burrowing rodents were indistinguishable from those from man in the same areas. Stocks of Leishmania from North-West India were identified as L. major. In some foci the distribution of zymodemes has some correlation with the presence of particular rodent reservoir hosts. The enzymic homogeneity of L. major throughout its geographical and host range appears to be correlated with the close association between L. major and sandflies of the subgenus Phlebotomus. The status of L. major as a distinct species is supported.

  15. [Anopheles (Culicidae, Anophelinae) and Malaria in Buriticupu-Santa Luzia, pre-Amazonic Maranhao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, J M; da Silva, A R; Ferreira, L A; Vieira, J A

    1997-01-01

    Seven species belonging the subgenus Nyssorhyncus were found. Anopheles (N.) darlingi, the principal vector of human malaria, was the most abundant (53.1%) followed by A. (N.) evansae (21.0%, A. (N.) triannulatus (17.4%) e A. (N.) nuñeztovari (4.8%). The others, A. (N.) argyritarsis. A. (N.) oswaldoi and A. (N.) rangeli, were less frequently found, representing only 3.7% of the total sample. The anophelines were most frequent in both the extra (51.7%) and peridomiciles (45.7%). The intradomicile was visited by some specimens of the A. (N.) darlingi and A. (N.) evansae (active in both the rain and dry seasons, especially in the former, when the malaria reached high levels of transmission.

  16. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play...... a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets...... for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus...

  17. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) tolimensis, a new species of phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, María C; Munstermann, Leonard; Marín, Dairo; Ocampo, Clara; Ferro, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    A description is presented of Lutzomyia tolimensis sp. nov., a new species of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, series sanguinaria. It was collected in dwellings, peridomestic environment and in nearby forest patches located in the foothills of the Andean Central Cordillera, where in 2004-2006 occurred the largest epidemic ever recorded of leishmaniasis in Colombia. The male of this species is differentiated from other members of the series sanguinaria based on the following combination of characters: (i) base of coxite with 0-3 subequal setae, (ii) spines of gonostyle organized in positions 2.1.2, (iii) spines inserted on distal half of gonostyle and (iv) relationship of alar indices. The female is recognized principally by the following characters: (i) palpomere V longer than III, (ii) length of labro-epipharynx and (iii) relationship of the alar indices.

  18. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Description of a New Phlebotomine Species of the Brazilian Cerrado from Sandstone Caves in Tocantins State, Brazil: Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) elizabethrangelae sp. nov. (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, M L; Azevedo, A C R; Godoy, R E

    2015-07-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) elizabethrangelae sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the morphological characters of male and female specimens captured in sandstone caves in the municipality of Palmeirópolis, in the southern region of Tocantins state. The samples were collected as part of an entomological vector-monitoring project during the construction of the Peixe Angical Hydroelectric Plant. Based on the morphological characters of the new species, we believe this species can be included in the subgenus Lutzomyia. This species is closely related to two others, Lutzomyia forattinii Galati et al. 1985 and Lutzomyia almerioi Galati and Nunes 1999. The new species can be distinguished from Lutzomyia forattinii and Lutzomyia almerioi by the morphological characteristics of the male genitalia and the female cibarium. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Systematic relationships among Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Peru and Colombia based on the analysis of 12S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beati, Lorenza; Cáceres, Abraham G; Lee, Jamie A; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2004-02-01

    Lutzomyia spp. are New World phlebotomine sand flies, many of which are involved in the transmission of human diseases, such as leishmaniases and bartonellosis. The systematic classification of the approximately 400 species in the genus has been based on morphological characters, but the relationships within the genus are still very much in question. We have inferred phylogenies of 32 species of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to seven sub-genera and two species groups, by using fragments of the mitochondrial small subunit (12SrRNA) and of the nuclear large subunit (28SrRNA) ribosomal gene sequences. The subgenus Helcocyrtomyia and the Verrucarum species group, prominent representatives of the Peruvian sand fly fauna, were represented by 11 and 7 species, respectively. Although based on a limited number of taxa, the resulting phylogenies, based on 837 characters, provide an initial phylogenetic backbone for the progressive reconstruction of infrageneric relationships within Lutzomyia.

  1. An Innovative Field-Applicable Molecular Test to Diagnose Cutaneous Leishmania Viannia spp. Infections.

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    Omar A Saldarriaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is widely distributed in Central and South America. Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus are the most frequent species infecting humans. L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. panamensis are also responsible for metastatic mucosal leishmaniasis. Conventional or real time PCR is a more sensitive diagnostic test than microscopy, but the cost and requirement for infrastructure and trained personnel makes it impractical in most endemic regions. Primary health systems need a sensitive and specific point of care (POC diagnostic tool. We developed a novel POC molecular diagnostic test for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp. Parasite DNA was amplified using isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA with primers and probes that targeted the kinetoplast DNA. The amplification product was detected by naked eye with a lateral flow (LF immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity equivalent to 0.1 parasites per reaction. The test amplified the principal L. Viannia species from multiple countries: L. (V. braziliensis (n = 33, L. (V. guyanensis (n = 17, L. (V. panamensis (n = 9. The less common L. (V. lainsoni, L. (V. shawi, and L. (V. naiffi were also amplified. No amplification was observed in parasites of the L. (Leishmania subgenus. In a small number of clinical samples (n = 13 we found 100% agreement between PCR and RPA-LF. The high analytical sensitivity and clinical validation indicate the test could improve the efficiency of diagnosis, especially in chronic lesions with submicroscopic parasite burdens. Field implementation of the RPA-LF test could contribute to management and control of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis.

  2. Systematics and plastid genome evolution of the cryptically photosynthetic parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae

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    Kuehl Jennifer V

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae, commonly known as dodders, are epiphytic vines that invade the stems of their host with haustorial feeding structures at the points of contact. Although they lack expanded leaves, some species are noticeably chlorophyllous, especially as seedlings and in maturing fruits. Some species are reported as crop pests of worldwide distribution, whereas others are extremely rare and have local distributions and apparent niche specificity. A strong phylogenetic framework for this large genus is essential to understand the interesting ecological, morphological and molecular phenomena that occur within these parasites in an evolutionary context. Results Here we present a well-supported phylogeny of Cuscuta using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and plastid rps2, rbcL and matK from representatives across most of the taxonomic diversity of the genus. We use the phylogeny to interpret morphological and plastid genome evolution within the genus. At least three currently recognized taxonomic sections are not monophyletic and subgenus Cuscuta is unequivocally paraphyletic. Plastid genes are extremely variable with regards to evolutionary constraint, with rbcL exhibiting even higher levels of purifying selection in Cuscuta than photosynthetic relatives. Nuclear genome size is highly variable within Cuscuta, particularly within subgenus Grammica, and in some cases may indicate the existence of cryptic species in this large clade of morphologically similar species. Conclusion Some morphological characters traditionally used to define major taxonomic splits within Cuscuta are homoplastic and are of limited use in defining true evolutionary groups. Chloroplast genome evolution seems to have evolved in a punctuated fashion, with episodes of loss involving suites of genes or tRNAs followed by stabilization of gene content in major clades. Nearly all species of Cuscuta retain some

  3. Systematics and plastid genome evolution of the cryptically photosynthetic parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Joel R; Arumugunathan, Kathiravetpilla; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; Depamphilis, Claude W

    2007-12-13

    The genus Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae), commonly known as dodders, are epiphytic vines that invade the stems of their host with haustorial feeding structures at the points of contact. Although they lack expanded leaves, some species are noticeably chlorophyllous, especially as seedlings and in maturing fruits. Some species are reported as crop pests of worldwide distribution, whereas others are extremely rare and have local distributions and apparent niche specificity. A strong phylogenetic framework for this large genus is essential to understand the interesting ecological, morphological and molecular phenomena that occur within these parasites in an evolutionary context. Here we present a well-supported phylogeny of Cuscuta using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and plastid rps2, rbcL and matK from representatives across most of the taxonomic diversity of the genus. We use the phylogeny to interpret morphological and plastid genome evolution within the genus. At least three currently recognized taxonomic sections are not monophyletic and subgenus Cuscuta is unequivocally paraphyletic. Plastid genes are extremely variable with regards to evolutionary constraint, with rbcL exhibiting even higher levels of purifying selection in Cuscuta than photosynthetic relatives. Nuclear genome size is highly variable within Cuscuta, particularly within subgenus Grammica, and in some cases may indicate the existence of cryptic species in this large clade of morphologically similar species. Some morphological characters traditionally used to define major taxonomic splits within Cuscuta are homoplastic and are of limited use in defining true evolutionary groups. Chloroplast genome evolution seems to have evolved in a punctuated fashion, with episodes of loss involving suites of genes or tRNAs followed by stabilization of gene content in major clades. Nearly all species of Cuscuta retain some photosynthetic ability, most likely for nutrient

  4. Seeds of doubt: Mendel's choice of Hieracium to study inheritance, a case of right plant, wrong trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Ross; Catanach, Andrew; Hand, Melanie; Koltunow, Anna

    2016-12-01

    In this review, we explore Gregor Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium , update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops. From our perspective, it is easy to conclude that Gregor Mendel's work on pea was insightful, but his peers clearly did not regard it as being either very convincing or of much importance. One apparent criticism was that his findings only applied to pea. We know from a letter he wrote to Carl von Nägeli, a leading botanist, that he believed he needed to "verify, with other plants, the results obtained with Pisum". For this purpose, Mendel adopted Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, a phenotypically diverse taxon under botanical study at the time. What Mendel could not have known, however, is that the majority of these plants are not sexual plants like pea, but instead are facultatively apomictic. In these forms, the majority of seed arises asexually, and such progeny are, therefore, clones of the maternal parent. Mendel obtained very few hybrids in his Hieracium crosses, yet we calculate that he probably emasculated in excess of 5000 Hieracium florets to even obtain the numbers he did. Despite that effort, he was perplexed by the results, and they ultimately led him to conclude that "the hybrids of Hieracium show a behaviour exactly opposite to those of Pisum". Apomixis is now a topic of intense research interest, and in an ironic twist of history, Hieracium subgenus Pilosella has been developed as a molecular model to study this trait. In this paper, we explore further Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium, update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops.

  5. The fossil Osmundales (Royal Ferns—a phylogenetic network analysis, revised taxonomy, and evolutionary classification of anatomically preserved trunks and rhizomes

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    Benjamin Bomfleur

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Osmundales (Royal Fern order originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera, it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exceptional source of information on the evolutionary history of the group from the Permian to the present. However, inconsistent terminology, varying formats of description, and the general lack of a uniform taxonomic concept renders this wealth of information poorly accessible. To this end, we provide a comprehensive review of the diversity of structural features of osmundalean axes under a standardized, descriptive terminology. A novel morphological character matrix with 45 anatomical characters scored for 15 extant species and for 114 fossil operational units (species or specimens is analysed using networks in order to establish systematic relationships among fossil and extant Osmundales rooted in axis anatomy. The results lead us to propose an evolutionary classification for fossil Osmundales and a revised, standardized taxonomy for all taxa down to the rank of (subgenus. We introduce several nomenclatural novelties: (1 a new subfamily Itopsidemoideae (Guaireaceae is established to contain Itopsidema, Donwelliacaulis, and Tiania; (2 the thamnopteroid genera Zalesskya, Iegosigopteris, and Petcheropteris are all considered synonymous with Thamnopteris; (3 12 species of Millerocaulis and Ashicaulis are assigned to modern genera (tribe Osmundeae; (4 the hitherto enigmatic Aurealcaulis is identified as an extinct subgenus of Plenasium; and (5 the poorly known Osmundites tuhajkulensis is assigned to Millerocaulis. In addition, we consider Millerocaulis

  6. The fossil Osmundales (Royal Ferns)-a phylogenetic network analysis, revised taxonomy, and evolutionary classification of anatomically preserved trunks and rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Grimm, Guido W; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exceptional source of information on the evolutionary history of the group from the Permian to the present. However, inconsistent terminology, varying formats of description, and the general lack of a uniform taxonomic concept renders this wealth of information poorly accessible. To this end, we provide a comprehensive review of the diversity of structural features of osmundalean axes under a standardized, descriptive terminology. A novel morphological character matrix with 45 anatomical characters scored for 15 extant species and for 114 fossil operational units (species or specimens) is analysed using networks in order to establish systematic relationships among fossil and extant Osmundales rooted in axis anatomy. The results lead us to propose an evolutionary classification for fossil Osmundales and a revised, standardized taxonomy for all taxa down to the rank of (sub)genus. We introduce several nomenclatural novelties: (1) a new subfamily Itopsidemoideae (Guaireaceae) is established to contain Itopsidema , Donwelliacaulis , and Tiania ; (2) the thamnopteroid genera Zalesskya , Iegosigopteris , and Petcheropteris are all considered synonymous with Thamnopteris ; (3) 12 species of Millerocaulis and Ashicaulis are assigned to modern genera (tribe Osmundeae); (4) the hitherto enigmatic Aurealcaulis is identified as an extinct subgenus of Plenasium ; and (5) the poorly known Osmundites tuhajkulensis is assigned to Millerocaulis . In addition, we consider Millerocaulis

  7. The fossil Osmundales (Royal Ferns)—a phylogenetic network analysis, revised taxonomy, and evolutionary classification of anatomically preserved trunks and rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exceptional source of information on the evolutionary history of the group from the Permian to the present. However, inconsistent terminology, varying formats of description, and the general lack of a uniform taxonomic concept renders this wealth of information poorly accessible. To this end, we provide a comprehensive review of the diversity of structural features of osmundalean axes under a standardized, descriptive terminology. A novel morphological character matrix with 45 anatomical characters scored for 15 extant species and for 114 fossil operational units (species or specimens) is analysed using networks in order to establish systematic relationships among fossil and extant Osmundales rooted in axis anatomy. The results lead us to propose an evolutionary classification for fossil Osmundales and a revised, standardized taxonomy for all taxa down to the rank of (sub)genus. We introduce several nomenclatural novelties: (1) a new subfamily Itopsidemoideae (Guaireaceae) is established to contain Itopsidema, Donwelliacaulis, and Tiania; (2) the thamnopteroid genera Zalesskya, Iegosigopteris, and Petcheropteris are all considered synonymous with Thamnopteris; (3) 12 species of Millerocaulis and Ashicaulis are assigned to modern genera (tribe Osmundeae); (4) the hitherto enigmatic Aurealcaulis is identified as an extinct subgenus of Plenasium; and (5) the poorly known Osmundites tuhajkulensis is assigned to Millerocaulis. In addition, we consider Millerocaulis stipabonettiorum a

  8. A dated phylogeny of the papilionoid legume genus Canavalia reveals recent diversification by a pantropical liana lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snak, Cristiane; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Silva, Christian; Lewis, Gwilym Peter; Lavin, Matt; Kajita, Tadashi; Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci de

    2016-05-01

    Canavalia is a pantropical legume genus of lianas comprising approximately 60 species distributed in a wide range of habitats. In the last taxonomic revision, the genus was divided into four subgenera: Canavalia (Pantropical), Catodonia (Neotropical, excepting one species also found in the Old World), Maunaloa (Hawaiian), and Wenderothia (Neotropical). In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Canavalia using a broad taxon sampling and analyses of nuclear (ETS and ITS) and plastid markers (trnK/matK). We evaluated the infrageneric classification of the genus and investigated its biogeographical history using molecular dating analyses and ancestral area reconstructions. The phylogenetic analyses resolved subgenus Wenderothia as monophyletic. Subgenus Catodonia needs to be recircumscribed and the relationships between subgenera Canavalia and Maunaloa remain unclear. Canavalia arose during the Miocene with a mean stem age estimate of 13.8Ma and mean crown age estimate of 8.7Ma, and most extant species evolved during the Pleistocene. Several climatic and geological events are chronologically coincident with the divergence of the major clades of Canavalia (glacial/interglacial periods, Andes uplift and the formation of Pebas and post-Pebas systems, closure of the Isthmus of Panama, and change in the direction of ocean currents). Ancestral area reconstructions for the early divergence of the genus are equivocal, although, some evidence suggests Canavalia originated in the wet forests of South America and achieved its current pantropical distribution through recent transoceanic dispersal. The evolution of Canavalia is better explained by a series of several processes than by discrete historical events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genes Suggest Ancestral Colour Polymorphisms Are Shared across Morphologically Cryptic Species in Arctic Bumblebees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Williams

    Full Text Available Our grasp of biodiversity is fine-tuned through the process of revisionary taxonomy. If species do exist in nature and can be discovered with available techniques, then we expect these revisions to converge on broadly shared interpretations of species. But for the primarily arctic bumblebees of the subgenus Alpinobombus of the genus Bombus, revisions by some of the most experienced specialists are unusual for bumblebees in that they have all reached different conclusions on the number of species present. Recent revisions based on skeletal morphology have concluded that there are from four to six species, while variation in colour pattern of the hair raised questions as to whether at least seven species might be present. Even more species are supported if we accept the recent move away from viewing species as morphotypes to viewing them instead as evolutionarily independent lineages (EILs using data from genes. EILs are recognised here in practice from the gene coalescents that provide direct evidence for their evolutionary independence. We show from fitting both general mixed Yule/coalescent (GMYC models and Poisson-tree-process (PTP models to data for the mitochondrial COI gene that there is support for nine species in the subgenus Alpinobombus. Examination of the more slowly evolving nuclear PEPCK gene shows further support for a previously unrecognised taxon as a new species in northwestern North America. The three pairs of the most morphologically similar sister species are separated allopatrically and prevented from interbreeding by oceans. We also find that most of the species show multiple shared colour patterns, giving the appearance of mimicry among parts of the different species. However, reconstructing ancestral colour-pattern states shows that speciation is likely to have cut across widespread ancestral polymorphisms, without or largely without convergence. In the particular case of Alpinobombus, morphological, colour-pattern, and

  10. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3-C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Edwards, Gerald E; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-08-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C(4) photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C(4) plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C(4) enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C(4) species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C(4) species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C(4) species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C(4) species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C(3)-C(4) based on its intermediate CO(2) compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C(4) Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C(3)-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C(4) photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca.

  11. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3–C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V.; Koteyeva, Nuria K.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C4 photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C4 plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C4 enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C4 species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C4 species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C4 species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C4 species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C3–C4 based on its intermediate CO2 compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C4 Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C3-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca. PMID:20591900

  12. The Enterobiinae subfam. Nov. (Nematoda, Oxyurida) pinworm parasites of primates and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, J P; Gardner, S L; Morand, S

    1996-02-01

    Recent redescriptions of most members of the Oxyuridae Cobbold, 1864 parasitic in primates revealed that they share following derived characters: sexual dimorphism of lateral alae (single-crested in the males, double-crested in the females); in males a second pair of genital papillae always surrounded by strongly cuticularized rings; in females, uterine tube divided into 2 parts by a cellular wall forming a diaphragm. These characters are interpreted as synapomorphies, providing evidence that these taxa represent a monophyletic group, and we propose to classify them in a new subfamily of the Oxyuridae: the Enterobiinae subfam.nov. The Enterobiinae as recognized herein occurs in both Old World and New World Primates and rodents of the family Sciuridae (tribe Sciurini in the Holarctic region and tribe Xerini in the Ethiopian region). The new subfamily includes the following genera: Enterobius Leach, 1853; Colobenterobius Quentin, Betterton & Krishnasamy, 1979; Rodentoxyuris Quentin & Tenora 1974; Xeroxyuris Hugot, 1995; Lemuricola Chabaud & Petter, 1959; Protenterobius Inglis, 1961; Madoxyuris Chabaud, Brygoo & Petter, 1965; Trypanoxyuris Vevers, 1923; Hapaloxyuris Inglis & Cosgrove, 1965 and Paraoxyuronema Artigas, 1936. The genus Paraoxyuronema is revalidated as a subgenus of Trypanoxyuris due to its specialized buccal structures. This genus groups all pinworm nematodes specific for primates of the family Atelidae, including: P. brachytelesi Artigas, 1937 occurring in Brachyteles arachnoides; P. atelis (Cameron, 1929) occurring in Ateles spp., and P. duplicidens (Buckley, 1931) and P. lagothricis (Buckley, 1931), which are parasites of Lagothrix spp. Inglisoxyuris inglisi Chabaud, Petter & Golvan, 1961, included in the monospecific genus Inglisoxyuris and previously classified as a subgenus of the Lemuricola, does not share the characters of the new subfamily and, until its precise classification can be considered with more information, it is proposed to refer to

  13. Molecular Detection of Leishmania DNA in Wild-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From a Cave in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G M L; Brazil, R P; Rêgo, F D; Ramos, M C N F; Zenóbio, A P L A; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are distributed throughout the world, and different species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity. In Brazil, Leishmania transmission involves several species of phlebotomine sand flies that are closely associated with different parasites and reservoirs, and thereby giving rise to different transmission cycles. Infection occurs during the bloodmeals of sand flies obtained from a variety of wild and domestic animals, and sometimes from humans. The present study focused on detection of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies from a cave in the state of Minas Gerais. Detection of Leishmania in female sand flies was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP (internal transcribed spacer 1) using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSUrRNA target. The survey of Leishmania DNA was carried out on 232 pools and the parasite DNA was detected in four: one pool of Lutzomyia cavernicola (Costa Lima, 1932), infected with Le. infantum (ITS1 PCR-RFLP), two pools of Evandromyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), both infected with Leishmania braziliensis complex (SSUrRNA genetic sequencing analysis), and one pool of Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927), infected with subgenus Leishmania (SSUrRNA genetic sequencing analysis). The present study identified the species for Leishmania DNA detected in four pools of sand flies, all of which were captured inside the cave. These results represent the first molecular detection of Lu cavernicola with Le infantum DNA, Sc sordellii with subgenus Leishmania DNA, and Ev sallesi with Leishmania braziliensis complex DNA. The infection rate in females captured for this study was 0.17%. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Astrocaryum (palmae in Amazonia a preliminary treatment

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    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN AMAZONIE. TRAITEMENT PRÉLIMINAIRE. Le genre Astrocaryum est composé de 24 espèces amazoniennes: cinq appartiennent au sous-genre Pleiogynanthus et 19 au sous-genre Monogynanthus (3 à la section Munbaca et 16 à la section Ayri. Une clé d’identification est proposée, ainsi que la description de chaque espèce, complétée par de nouvelles observations et suivie de notes sur la distribution géographique, l’écologie et les utilisations. Six espeses nouvelles sont décrites. ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN LA AMAZONIA. TRATAMIENTO PRELIMINAR. Astrocaryum consta de 24 especies amazónicas, 5 de las cuales pertenecen al subgénero Pleiogynanthus y 19 al subgénero Monogynanthus (3 a la sección Munbaca, 16 a la sección Ayri. Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies, y para cada una, su descripción con nuevos datos, así como notas sobre la distribución geográfica, la ecología y los usos. Se describen seis especies nuevas. In the Amazon, Astrocaryum includes 24 species of which five belong to the subgenus Pleiogynanthus and 19 to the subgenus Monogynanthus - three in the section Munbaca and 16 in the section Ayri. A key to these 24 species is presented followed by description based on new data, and notes on their distribution, ecology and uses. Six new species are described.

  15. A global checklist of the 932 fruit fly species in the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Camiel Doorenweerd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux. The fruit fly tribe Dacini is a species-rich taxon within Tephritidae and contains around a fifth of all known species in the family. About 10% of the 932 currently recognized species are pests of commercial fruits and vegetables, precipitating quarantines and trade embargos. Authoritative species lists consist largely of scattered regional treatments and outdated online resources. The checklist presented here is the first global overview of valid species names for the Dacini in almost two decades, and includes new lure records. By publishing this list both in paper and digitally, we aim to provide a resource for those studying fruit flies as well as researchers studying components of their impact on agriculture. The list is largely a consolidation of previous works, but following the results from recent phylogenetic work, we transfer one subgenus and eight species to different genera: members of the Bactrocera subgenus Javadacus Hardy, considered to belong to the Zeugodacus group of subgenera, are transferred to genus Zeugodacus; Bactrocera pseudocucurbitae White, 1999, stat. rev., is transferred back to Bactrocera from Zeugodacus; Zeugodacus arisanicus Shiraki, 1933, stat. rev., is transferred back to Zeugodacus from Bactrocera; and Z. brevipunctatus (David & Hancock, 2017, comb. n.; Z. javanensis (Perkins, 1938, comb. n.; Z. montanus (Hardy, 1983, comb. n.; Z. papuaensis (Malloch, 1939, comb. n.; Z. scutellarius (Bezzi

  16. A global checklist of the 932 fruit fly species in the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Leblanc, Luc; Norrbom, Allen L; Jose, Michael San; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux. The fruit fly tribe Dacini is a species-rich taxon within Tephritidae and contains around a fifth of all known species in the family. About 10% of the 932 currently recognized species are pests of commercial fruits and vegetables, precipitating quarantines and trade embargos. Authoritative species lists consist largely of scattered regional treatments and outdated online resources. The checklist presented here is the first global overview of valid species names for the Dacini in almost two decades, and includes new lure records. By publishing this list both in paper and digitally, we aim to provide a resource for those studying fruit flies as well as researchers studying components of their impact on agriculture. The list is largely a consolidation of previous works, but following the results from recent phylogenetic work, we transfer one subgenus and eight species to different genera: members of the Bactrocera subgenus Javadacus Hardy, considered to belong to the Zeugodacus group of subgenera, are transferred to genus Zeugodacus ; Bactrocera pseudocucurbitae White, 1999, stat. rev. , is transferred back to Bactrocera from Zeugodacus ; Zeugodacus arisanicus Shiraki, 1933, stat. rev. , is transferred back to Zeugodacus from Bactrocera ; and Z. brevipunctatus (David & Hancock, 2017), comb. n. ; Z. javanensis (Perkins, 1938), comb. n. ; Z. montanus (Hardy, 1983), comb. n. ; Z. papuaensis (Malloch, 1939), comb. n. ; Z. scutellarius (Bezzi, 1916

  17. A phylogenetic analysis of the grape genus (Vitis L.) reveals broad reticulation and concurrent diversification during neogene and quaternary climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yizhen; Schwaninger, Heidi R; Baldo, Angela M; Labate, Joanne A; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Simon, Charles J

    2013-07-05

    Grapes are one of the most economically important fruit crops. There are about 60 species in the genus Vitis. The phylogenetic relationships among these species are of keen interest for the conservation and use of this germplasm. We selected 309 accessions from 48 Vitis species,varieties, and outgroups, examined ~11 kb (~3.4 Mb total) of aligned nuclear DNA sequences from 27 unlinked genes in a phylogenetic context, and estimated divergence times based on fossil calibrations. Vitis formed a strongly supported clade. There was substantial support for species and less for the higher-level groupings (series). As estimated from extant taxa, the crown age of Vitis was 28 Ma and the divergence of subgenera (Vitis and Muscadinia) occurred at ~18 Ma. Higher clades in subgenus Vitis diverged 16 - 5 Ma with overlapping confidence intervals, and ongoing divergence formed extant species at 12 - 1.3 Ma. Several species had species-specific SNPs. NeighborNet analysis showed extensive reticulation at the core of subgenus Vitis representing the deeper nodes, with extensive reticulation radiating outward. Fitch Parsimony identified North America as the origin of the most recent common ancestor of extant Vitis species. Phylogenetic patterns suggested origination of the genus in North America, fragmentation of an ancestral range during the Miocene, formation of extant species in the late Miocene-Pleistocene, and differentiation of species in the context of Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic and climatic change. Nuclear SNPs effectively resolved relationships at and below the species level in grapes and rectified several misclassifications of accessions in the repositories. Our results challenge current higher-level classifications, reveal the abundance of genetic diversity in the genus that is potentially available for crop improvement, and provide a valuable resource for species delineation, germplasm conservation and use.

  18. Oldest Known Eucalyptus Macrofossils Are from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaloa, María C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; González, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N. Rubén; Johnson, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the

  19. Reproductive biology and pollination of the carnivorous Genlisea violacea (Lentibulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren, Y; Płachno, B J; Stpiczyńska, M; Miranda, V F O

    2018-05-01

    Genlisea violacea is a Brazilian endemic carnivorous plant species distributed in the cerrado biome, mainly in humid environments, on sandy and oligotrophic soil or wet rocks. Studies on reproductive biology or pollination in the Lentibulariaceae are notably scarce; regarding the genus Genlisea, the current study is the first to show systematic and standardised research on reproductive biology from field studies to describe the foraging of visiting insects and determine the effective pollinators of Genlisea. We studied two populations of G. violacea through the observation of flower visitors for 4 months of the rainy and dry seasons. Stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability, and breeding system were evaluated together with histochemistry and morphological analyses of flowers. The flowers showed stigmatic receptivity of 100% in open buds and mature flowers, reducing to 80% for senescent flowers. Nearly 80% of pollen grains are viable, decreasing to 40-45% after 48 h. Nectar is produced by glandular trichomes inside the spur. Two bee species are effective pollinators: one of the genus Lasioglossum (subgenus Dialictus: Halictidae) and the other of the genus Ceratina (subgenus Ceratinula: family Apidae). Moreover, bee-like flies of the Syrphidae family may also be additional pollinators. Genlisea violacea is an allogamous and self-compatible species. The differences in flower-visiting fauna for both populations can be attributed to factors such as climate, anthropogenic effect, seasonal factors related to insects and plants, as well as the morphological variation of flowers in both populations. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. A molecular phylogeny of Dorylus army ants provides evidence for multiple evolutionary transitions in foraging niche

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    Vilhelmsen Lars B

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Army ants are the prime arthropod predators in tropical forests, with huge colonies and an evolutionary derived nomadic life style. Five of the six recognized subgenera of Old World Dorylus army ants forage in the soil, whereas some species of the sixth subgenus (Anomma forage in the leaf-litter and some as conspicuous swarm raiders on the forest floor and in the lower vegetation (the infamous driver ants. Here we use a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Dorylus s.l. army ants and to infer the evolutionary transitions in foraging niche and associated morphological adaptations. Results Underground foraging is basal and gave rise to leaf-litter foraging. Leaf-litter foraging in turn gave rise to two derived conditions: true surface foraging (the driver ants and a reversal to subterranean foraging (a clade with most of the extant Dorylus s.s. species. This means that neither the subgenus Anomma nor Dorylus s.s. is monophyletic, and that one of the Dorylus s.s. lineages adopted subterranean foraging secondarily. We show that this latter group evolved a series of morphological adaptations to underground foraging that are remarkably convergent to the basal state. Conclusion The evolutionary transitions in foraging niche were more complex than previously thought, but our comparative analysis of worker morphology lends strong support to the contention that particular foraging niches have selected for very specific worker morphologies. The surprising reversal to underground foraging is therefore a striking example of convergent morphological evolution.

  1. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Rumyana; Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey.

  2. Oldest known Eucalyptus macrofossils are from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A Gandolfo

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data

  3. Evolutionary history and novel biotic interactions determine plant responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Wooliver

    Full Text Available A major frontier in global change research is predicting how multiple agents of global change will alter plant productivity, a critical component of the carbon cycle. Recent research has shown that plant responses to climate change are phylogenetically conserved such that species within some lineages are more productive than those within other lineages in changing environments. However, it remains unclear how phylogenetic patterns in plant responses to changing abiotic conditions may be altered by another agent of global change, the introduction of non-native species. Using a system of 28 native Tasmanian Eucalyptus species belonging to two subgenera, Symphyomyrtus and Eucalyptus, we hypothesized that productivity responses to abiotic agents of global change (elevated CO2 and increased soil N are unique to lineages, but that novel interactions with a non-native species mediate these responses. We tested this hypothesis by examining productivity of 1 native species monocultures and 2 mixtures of native species with an introduced hardwood plantation species, Eucalyptus nitens, to experimentally manipulated soil N and atmospheric CO2. Consistent with past research, we found that N limits productivity overall, especially in elevated CO2 conditions. However, monocultures of species within the Symphyomyrtus subgenus showed the strongest response to N (gained 127% more total biomass in elevated CO2 conditions, whereas those within the Eucalyptus subgenus did not respond to N. Root:shoot ratio (an indicator of resource use was on average greater in species pairs containing Symphyomyrtus species, suggesting that functional traits important for resource uptake are phylogenetically conserved and explaining the phylogenetic pattern in plant response to changing environmental conditions. Yet, native species mixtures with E. nitens exhibited responses to CO2 and N that differed from those of monocultures, supporting our hypothesis and highlighting that both

  4. Molecular analysis of Ixodes rugicollis, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) and a novel Babesia genotype from a European badger (Meles meles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Trauttwein, Klaudia; Takács, Nóra; Hodžić, Adnan; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kontschán, Jenő

    2017-01-01

    The European badger (Meles meles) is a widespread mammal in most countries of the European continent, with increasingly recognized veterinary/medical importance owing to its preferred habitats (including pastures and urban environments), broad spectrum of food items, and role as a game hunting target. However, ticks and tick-borne pathogens associated with badgers are only partly known, and most of them have not yet been analysed with molecular biological methods The aim of this study was to perform molecular taxonomic analysis of ticks collected from a road-killed European badger, as well as to molecularly investigate its ticks and blood sample for the presence of Anaplasmataceae and piroplasms. Ticks from the badger were morphologically identified as females of Ixodes rugicollis. Based on its cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA sequences, I. rugicollis phylogenetically clustered together with I. lividus and I. arboricola, i.e. other members of the subgenus Pholeoixodes. The blood sample of the badger contained the DNA of Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) recently identified in red fox in Austria and the Czech Republic. This genotype is most closely related to Ca. N. lotoris (from raccoons in North America), and has lower sequence identity with the I. ricinus-transmitted zoonotic agent, Ca. N. mikurensis found in Eurasia. In the blood of the badger and in one female I. rugicollis, the DNA of a new Babesia genotype was also present, which differed from a piroplasm detected in M. meles in Spain, and clustered phylogenetically in the B. microti clade. Phylogenetic analysis of I. rugicollis (based on two genetic markers) confirms its status in subgenus Pholeoixodes. Ca. Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) was identified for the first time in M. meles and in Hungary. In addition, a molecularly previously not yet characterized Babesia genotype occurs in badgers in Central Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. A new class of IMP dehydrogenase with a role in self-resistance of mycophenolic acid producing fungi

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    Mortensen Uffe H

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi have potent biological activities, to which the producer organism must be resistant. An example of pharmaceutical interest is mycophenolic acid (MPA, an immunosuppressant molecule produced by several Penicillium species. The target of MPA is inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, which catalyses the rate limiting step in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides. The recent discovery of the MPA biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium brevicompactum revealed an extra copy of the IMPDH-encoding gene (mpaF embedded within the cluster. This finding suggests that the key component of MPA self resistance is likely based on the IMPDH encoded by mpaF. Results In accordance with our hypothesis, heterologous expression of mpaF dramatically increased MPA resistance in a model fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, which does not produce MPA. The growth of an A. nidulans strain expressing mpaF was only marginally affected by MPA at concentrations as high as 200 μg/ml. To further substantiate the role of mpaF in MPA resistance, we searched for mpaF orthologs in six MPA producer/non-producer strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. All six strains were found to hold two copies of IMPDH. A cladistic analysis based on the corresponding cDNA sequences revealed a novel group constituting mpaF homologs. Interestingly, a conserved tyrosine residue in the original class of IMPDHs is replaced by a phenylalanine residue in the new IMPDH class. Conclusions We identified a novel variant of the IMPDH-encoding gene in six different strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. The novel IMPDH variant from MPA producer P. brevicompactum was shown to confer a high degree of MPA resistance when expressed in a non-producer fungus. Our study provides a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of MPA resistance and has relevance for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications.

  6. 7ª Contribuição ao estudo dos Flebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae: descrição dos machos de 24 novas espécies

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    O. Mangabeira Filho

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The A. and his co-workers captured in trips in the hinterland of Brazil more tham 17.000 flebotomi from which 35 are new ones, 11 discribed by, him in previous papers. The A. found these insects in groups of species living in different habitats, some ones of them not yet known: ondoors, or outdoors attracted by light or animal baits, without Shannon’s trap, in great or small caves, in the jungle in tree’s holes, holes in stones, holes in the soil habited by animals like armadillos, pacas (Aguti paca, wild rats, cururú toad (Bufo sp.. He observed the life history of 13 species: Flebotomus longipalpis Lutz& Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus intermedius Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus avellari Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus aragãoi costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus lutzianus Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus limai fonseca, 1935, Flebotomus rickardi Costa Lima, 1936, Flebotomus dasipodogeton Castro, 1939, Flebotomus oswaldoi n. sp., Flebotomus villelai n. sp., Flebotomus triacanthus n. sp., Flebotomus longispinus n. sp. And flebotomus travassosi n. sp. He describes the male of 24 n. sp., explaining the differential diagnose of group or nearly allied species. He inclued F. rooti n. sp. And F. hirsutus n. sp. In the sub-genus Shannonomyia. The first one, very allied to F. davisi Root is different from it, for presenting in the dorsal side of the abdomen bristles and not scales and to have the median claspers longer than his inner appendage and F. hirsutus quite different from the others which show 3 spines on distal segment of the upper clasper and for being the only one who presents the bristles of inner appendage of median clasper longer than it. Only the females of F. amazonensis Root and f. chagasi Costa Lima, are known and then it is possible that they belong to one of the species of this sub-genus from whom only the male have been described. F. choti Floch & Abonnenc, captured also at Pará, F. triacanthus n. sp. F. trispinosus n. sp. And F. equatorialis n. sp

  7. Phylogeny of wasps of the genus Mischocyttarus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae Filogenia das vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

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    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis is presented of subgenera and species-groups of Mischocyttarus de Saussure, the largest genus of social wasps. The analysis is based on 62 morphological and nest architecture characters, coded for 71 terminals representing much of the taxonomic diversity within the genus, plus three outgroup terminals representing other polistine tribes. The main conclusions about phylogenetic relationships within the genus are based on parsimony analysis under implied weights. Monophyly of Mischocyttarus is confirmed as well as that of most of the previously recognized subgenera: Mischocyttarus s. str., Clypeopolybia, Monogynoecus, Scytokeraia, Phi, Kappa, Megacanthopus and Omega sensu Richards (1978. Haplometrobius as conceived by Richards (1978 is not a monophyletic taxon, but some of its species-groups are monophyletic. The groups of M.artifex and M.cerberus are raised to subgenus level, and a new concept of Haplometrobius restricts it to the group of M.iheringi (the type species of this subgenus in the sense of this work. The concept of subgenus Omega is widened to include the species-groups of M.surinamensis and M.prominulus. Besides the new subgeneric classification presented, limits and diagnoses of all species-groups of the subgenera Phi and Haplometrobius sensu Richards (1978 are discussed, and a new key for all subgenera and species-groups of Mischocyttarus is also presented.O artigo apresenta um estudo filogenético dos subgêneros e grupos de espécies de Mischocyttarus de Saussure, o maior dos gêneros de vespas sociais. A análise é baseada em 62 caracteres morfológicos e de arquitetura de ninhos, codificados para 71 terminais representantes da diversidade taxonômica do gênero e mais três terminais correspondentes às outras três tribos de Polistinae. As conclusões principais sobre relações filogenéticas são extraídas de análises usando pesagem implícita de caracteres. O monofiletismo de Mischocyttarus

  8. Scale Morphology and Micro-Structure of Monitor Lizards (Squamata: Varanidae: Varanus spp.) and their Allies: Implications for Systematics, Ecology, and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklitsch, Yannick; Böhme, Wolfgang; Koch, André

    2016-08-17

    We analysed scale morphology and micro-structure from five different body regions using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) across all nine recognized subgenera of the monitor lizard genus Varanus including 41 different species investigated. As far as we are aware, this qualitative visual technique was applied by us for the first time to most monitor lizard species and probably also to the primary outgroup and sister species Lanthanotus borneensis. A comprehensive list of 20 scalation characters each with up to seven corresponding character states was established and defined for the five body regions sampled. For the phylogenetic approach, parsimony analyses of the resulting morphological data matrix as well as Bremer and bootstrap support calculations were performed with the software TNT. Our results demonstrate that a variety of micro-ornamentations (i.e., ultra- or micro-dermatoglyphics) as seen in various squamate groups is hardly present in monitor lizards. In several species from six out of nine subgenera, however, we found a honeycomb-shaped micro-structure of foveate polygons. Two further samples of Euprepiosaurus Fitzinger, 1843 exhibit each another unique microscopic structure on the scale surface. Notably, the majority of species showing the honeycombed ultra-structure inhabit arid habitats in Australia, Africa and the Middle East. Therefore, it can be inferred that this microscopic scalation feature, which has also been identified in other desert dwelling lizard species, is taxonomically and ecologically correlated with a xeric habitat type in varanids, too. In addition, the systematic affiliation of V. spinulosus, an endemic monitor lizard species from the Solomon Islands with an extraordinary scale shape, is discussed in the light of current hypotheses about its phylogenetic position within the Varanidae. Due to its unique scalation characteristics, in combination with other morphological evidence, a new monotypic subgenus, Solomonsaurus subgen. nov

  9. Deep divergences and extensive phylogeographic structure in a clade of lowland tropical salamanders

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    Rovito Sean M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex geological history of Mesoamerica provides the opportunity to study the impact of multiple biogeographic barriers on population differentiation. We examine phylogeographic patterns in a clade of lowland salamanders (Bolitoglossa subgenus Nanotriton using two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. We use several phylogeographic analyses to infer the history of this clade and test hypotheses regarding the geographic origin of species and location of genetic breaks within species. We compare our results to those for other taxa to determine if historical events impacted different species in a similar manner. Results Deep genetic divergence between species indicates that they are relatively old, and two of the three widespread species show strong phylogeographic structure. Comparison of mtDNA and nuclear gene trees shows no evidence of hybridization or introgression between species. Isolated populations of Bolitoglossa rufescens from Los Tuxtlas region constitute a separate lineage based on molecular data and morphology, and divergence between Los Tuxtlas and other areas appears to predate the arrival of B. rufescens in other areas west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The Isthmus appears responsible for Pliocene vicariance within B. rufescens, as has been shown for other taxa. The Motagua-Polochic fault system does not appear to have caused population vicariance, unlike in other systems. Conclusions Species of Nanotriton have responded to some major geological events in the same manner as other taxa, particularly in the case of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The deep divergence of the Los Tuxtlas populations of B. rufescens from other populations highlights the contribution of this volcanic system to patterns of regional endemism, and morphological differences observed in the Los Tuxtlas populations suggests that they may represent an undescribed species of Bolitoglossa. The absence of phylogeographic structure in B

  10. New enigmatic Andean bee species of Protandrena (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae Novas espécies de abelhas andinas do gênero Protandrena (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae

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    Victor H. Gonzalez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Panurgine bees are diverse and abundant in temperate areas of the Americas but poorly represented to nearly absent in the tropics. We describe and illustrate five distinctive new species of the genus Protandrena that occur at high altitudes (2000-3400 m in the Andes, from Venezuela to Ecuador. The species are also described to make the names available in forthcoming papers on their biology. These Andean species resemble some members of the subgenus Heterosarus but differ from it, as well as from any other subgenera of Protandrena, primarily in characters of the male genitalia and hidden sterna. The South American Protandrena s. l. are morphologically highly diverse and a complete study of the group is needed before supraspecific names are proposed for unusual species. Thus, to avoid further nomenclatural changes, we decided not to place these species in a new subgenus or any of the available subgenera. We also provide notes on the biology for some of the species.As espécies de abelhas da subfamília Panurginae nas áreas temperadas das Américas são diversas e abundantes, mas pouco representadas ou até ausentes nos trópicos. São descritas e ilustradas cinco novas espécies do gênero Protandrena que ocorrem em grandes altitudes (2000-3400 m nos Andes, da Venezuela ao Equador. As espécies são descritas para que se tenham nomes válidos em artigos sobre sua biologia. Estas espécies andinas são semelhantes a alguns membros do subgênero Heterosarus, mas diferem dele, assim como do subgênero Protandrena, primariamente pelos caracteres da genitália do macho e pelos esternos ocultos. Protandrena s. l. sulamericanos são morfologicamente muito diversos e um estudo completo do grupo deverá ser feito antes de serem propostos nomes supra-específicos para essas espécies. Portanto, para evitar futuras mudanças na nomenclatura, foi decidido não alocar essas espécies em um novo subgênero ou em qualquer outro. São fornecidas também notas da

  11. Türkiye'nin Gülleri

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    Hasan Özçelik

    2014-07-01

    Türkiye is an important center of diversity and differentiation in terms of rose diversity when compared to neighboring countries. It was determined that 30 species belonging to 12 sections depending subgenus Eurosa and one hybrid, and one species belonging to subgenus Hesperhodos had been being grown in Türkiye. When taken into consideration that habitat characteristics also change some morphological characteristics of plants, the detection of wild roses taken into the culture medium is rather difficult. When identification processes are completed, the number of rose amount in Türkiye is expected to be consisting of 60-70 species and approximately 400 genotypes belonging to the mentioned species. During the Ottoman period, a great deal of rose species used to be distributed tentatively by the state to so many parts of the country to make a profit, and today, the foundation of our old garden roses is based on these applications. In todays, rose oil is produced only in the Lakes District, but flower production for floriculture is done in almost every region of Türkiye. During our field trips, around 20 thornless rose genotypes were collected. The role of roses on ecosystem cannot be underestimated. They provide shelter for wild animals, and have benefits for food and medical purposes. There are various species and cultivars in almost every region of Türkiye and most of them are used for landscape and rose oil. Because the number of people who are interested in roses has been decreasing and owing to the strong pressure of urbanization, genetic diversity of roses has been decreasing, and culture and information for its usage procedures have been weakening. Some of them were smuggled. Roses grow or are grown at 0-3000 m altitudes, usually on limestone and volcanic terrain with good drainage and loose structure. Viruses, fungus, lichens, insects and larvae or ripes of butterflies live in various organs of roses. As a result of this, some diseases may happen and

  12. Resolved phylogeny and biogeography of the root pathogen Armillaria and its gasteroid relative, Guyanagaster.

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    Koch, Rachel A; Wilson, Andrew W; Séné, Olivier; Henkel, Terry W; Aime, M Catherine

    2017-01-25

    Armillaria is a globally distributed mushroom-forming genus composed primarily of plant pathogens. Species in this genus are prolific producers of rhizomorphs, or vegetative structures, which, when found, are often associated with infection. Because of their importance as plant pathogens, understanding the evolutionary origins of this genus and how it gained a worldwide distribution is of interest. The first gasteroid fungus with close affinities to Armillaria-Guyanagaster necrorhizus-was described from the Neotropical rainforests of Guyana. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic analyses to fully resolve the relationship of G. necrorhizus with Armillaria. Data sets containing Guyanagaster from two collecting localities, along with a global sampling of 21 Armillaria species-including newly collected specimens from Guyana and Africa-at six loci (28S, EF1α, RPB2, TUB, actin-1 and gpd) were used. Three loci-28S, EF1α and RPB2-were analyzed in a partitioned nucleotide data set to infer divergence dates and ancestral range estimations for well-supported, monophyletic lineages. The six-locus phylogenetic analysis resolves Guyanagaster as the earliest diverging lineage in the armillarioid clade. The next lineage to diverge is that composed of species in Armillaria subgenus Desarmillaria. This subgenus is elevated to genus level to accommodate the exannulate mushroom-forming armillarioid species. The final lineage to diverge is that composed of annulate mushroom-forming armillarioid species, in what is now Armillaria sensu stricto. The molecular clock analysis and ancestral range estimation suggest the most recent common ancestor to the armillarioid lineage arose 51 million years ago in Eurasia. A new species, Guyanagaster lucianii sp. nov. from Guyana, is described. The armillarioid lineage evolved in Eurasia during the height of tropical rainforest expansion about 51 million years ago, a time marked by a warm and wet global climate. Species of Guyanagaster and

  13. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY DSSE10 IN HEAD SQUASH TOXORHYNCHITES SPLENDENS USING IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PEROXIDASE TECHNIQUE

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    Tika Fiona Sari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus are transmitted from human to human by the bites of infective female Aedesmosquitoes from subgenus Stegomyia. One of the way to detect Dengue virus antigen is by usingimmunohistochemical technique. This method was reported to detect dengue vims antigen in lowlevels. The aims of this study is to measure sensitivity and specificity of monoclonal antibodyDSSE10 using SBPC to detect antigen Dengue virus in head squash Toxorhynchites splendenswere infected with dengue patient serum and RT-PCR as gold standart. Artificially-infected Tx.splendens mosquitoes with serum positif dengue virus were used as infectious samples and noninfectedTx. splendens mosquitoes were used as control negative. The immunohistochemichalSBPC assay using monoclonal antibody DSSE10 then applied in mosquitoes head squash todetect Dengue vims antigen. RT-PCR as a gold standart was applied in each mosquito thorax.The result were analyzed by descriptive stasistic test and 2x2 diagnostic test table. Monoclonalantibody DSSE10 using immunohistochemical SBPC assay in head squash Tx. splendens wasgave sensitivity 87,09% and specificity 92,5%. Conclussion of this study is DSSE10 Monoclonalantibodies can be used as primary antibodies for the detection of dengue vims antigen inmosquito head squashKeywords: Dengue viruses, SBPC, antibodies DSSE10, head squash, Toxorhynchitessplendens' Virus Dengue ditularkan dari orang ke orang melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes dari subgenusStegomyia. Salah satu cara untuk mendeteksi antigen vims Dengue adalah dengan menggunakanteknik imunohistokimia. Metode imunohistokimia dilaporkan dapat mendeteksi antigen vimsDengue dalam kadar yang rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan evaluasi sensitivitasdan spesifitas antibodi monoklonal DSSE10 dengan metode imunohistokimia Streptavidin BiotinPeroxidase Complex (SBPC untuk mendeteksi antigen Dengue melalui scdiaan head squashnyamuk Toxorhynchites splendens yang diinfeksi dengan scrum penderita

  14. A DNA and morphology based phylogenetic framework of the ant genus Lasius with hypotheses for the evolution of social parasitism and fungiculture

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    Stauffer Christian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ants of the genus Lasius are ecologically important and an important system for evolutionary research. Progress in evolutionary research has been hindered by the lack of a well-founded phylogeny of the subgenera, with three previous attempts disagreeing. Here we employed two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 16S ribosomal RNA, comprising 1,265 bp, together with 64 morphological characters, to recover the phylogeny of Lasius by Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony inference after exploration of potential causes of phylogenetic distortion. We use the resulting framework to infer evolutionary pathways for social parasitism and fungiculture. Results We recovered two well supported major lineages. One includes Acanthomyops, Austrolasius, Chthonolasius, and Lasius pallitarsis, which we confirm to represent a seventh subgenus, the other clade contains Dendrolasius, and Lasius sensu stricto. The subgenus Cautolasius, displaying neither social parasitism nor fungiculture, probably belongs to the second clade, but its phylogenetic position is not resolved at the cutoff values of node support we apply. Possible causes for previous problems with reconstructing the Lasius phylogeny include use of other reconstruction techniques, possibly more prone to instabilities in some instances, and the inclusion of phylogenetically distorting characters. Conclusion By establishing an updated phylogenetic framework, our study provides the basis for a later formal taxonomic revision of subgenera and for studying the evolution of various ecologically and sociobiologically relevant traits of Lasius, although there is need for future studies to include nuclear genes and additional samples from the Nearctic. Both social parasitism and fungiculture evolved twice in Lasius, once in each major lineage, which opens up new opportunities for comparative analyses. The repeated evolution of social parasitism has been established for other groups of

  15. A DNA and morphology based phylogenetic framework of the ant genus Lasius with hypotheses for the evolution of social parasitism and fungiculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Munetoshi; Steiner, Florian M; Stauffer, Christian; Akino, Toshiharu; Crozier, Ross H; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C

    2008-08-19

    Ants of the genus Lasius are ecologically important and an important system for evolutionary research. Progress in evolutionary research has been hindered by the lack of a well-founded phylogeny of the subgenera, with three previous attempts disagreeing. Here we employed two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 16S ribosomal RNA), comprising 1,265 bp, together with 64 morphological characters, to recover the phylogeny of Lasius by Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony inference after exploration of potential causes of phylogenetic distortion. We use the resulting framework to infer evolutionary pathways for social parasitism and fungiculture. We recovered two well supported major lineages. One includes Acanthomyops, Austrolasius, Chthonolasius, and Lasius pallitarsis, which we confirm to represent a seventh subgenus, the other clade contains Dendrolasius, and Lasius sensu stricto. The subgenus Cautolasius, displaying neither social parasitism nor fungiculture, probably belongs to the second clade, but its phylogenetic position is not resolved at the cutoff values of node support we apply. Possible causes for previous problems with reconstructing the Lasius phylogeny include use of other reconstruction techniques, possibly more prone to instabilities in some instances, and the inclusion of phylogenetically distorting characters. By establishing an updated phylogenetic framework, our study provides the basis for a later formal taxonomic revision of subgenera and for studying the evolution of various ecologically and sociobiologically relevant traits of Lasius, although there is need for future studies to include nuclear genes and additional samples from the Nearctic. Both social parasitism and fungiculture evolved twice in Lasius, once in each major lineage, which opens up new opportunities for comparative analyses. The repeated evolution of social parasitism has been established for other groups of ants, though not for temporary social parasitism as found

  16. Estudio florístico de Ficus (Moraceae en el estado de Guerrero, México Floristic study of Ficus (Moraceae in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

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    Carlos Alberto Durán-Ramírez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Con base en salidas al campo y la revisión de ejemplares de herbario, se registran 13 especies de Ficus (Moraceae en el estado de Guerrero, 4 pertenecen al subgénero Pharmacosycea (F.insípida, F. lapathifolia, F. maxima y F. yoponensis y 9 al subgénero Urostigma (F. citrifolia, F. cotinifolia, F. crocata, F. membranacea, F. obtusifolia, F. pertusa, F. petiolaris, F. pringlei y F. velutina, al cual se añade un posible registro de F. aurea. Se incluye una clave para su identificación y se proporcionan descripciones, mapas de distribución, datos del hábitat y fenología de las especies, y se ilustran 6 de éstas. El bosque de galería y el bosque tropical caducifolio destacan por su riqueza de especies (8. Ficus lapathifolia restringe su distribución al bosque mesófilo de montaña y F. pringlei al bosque tropical caducifolio. Chilpancingo de los Bravo y Atoyac de Álvarez fueron los municipios con mayor cantidad de especies, con 11 y 9 especies, respectivamente. Por primera vez se registran para el estado: F. crocata, F. lapathifolia, F. membranacea, F. pringlei y F. yoponensis.Based on herbarium specimens and on field explorations, 14 native species of Ficus (Moraceae were recognized for Guerrero, Mexico. Four species are included in subgenus Pharmacosycea (Ficus insipida, F. lapathifolia, F. maxima and F. yoponensis and 9 in subgenus Urostigma (F. citrifolia, F. cotinifolia, F. crocata, F. membranacea, F. obtusifolia, F. pertusa, F. petiolaris, F. pringlei and F. velutina, including a possible record of F. aurea. A key, descriptions, distribution maps, and phenology data of species are provided, and 6 of them are ilustrated. Riparian forest and tropical deciduous forest were the vegetation communities with the highest number of species (8. Ficus lapathifolia was restricted to cloud forest whereas F. pringlei shows the same condition in the tropical deciduous forest. The municipalities of Chilpancingo de los Bravo and Atoyac de Alvarez

  17. A FRET-based real-time PCR assay to identify the main causal agents of New World tegumentary leishmaniasis.

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    Pablo Tsukayama

    Full Text Available In South America, various species of Leishmania are endemic and cause New World tegumentary leishmaniasis (NWTL. The correct identification of these species is critical for adequate clinical management and surveillance activities. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay and evaluated its diagnostic performance using 64 archived parasite isolates and 192 prospectively identified samples collected from individuals with suspected leishmaniasis enrolled at two reference clinics in Lima, Peru. The real-time PCR assay was able to detect a single parasite and provided unambiguous melting peaks for five Leishmania species of the Viannia subgenus that are highly prevalent in South America: L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. panamensis, L. (V. guyanensis, L. (V. peruviana and L. (V. lainsoni. Using kinetoplastid DNA-based PCR as a gold standard, the real-time PCR had sensitivity and specificity values of 92% and 77%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of conventional tests such as microscopy, culture and the leishmanin skin test (LST. In addition, the real-time PCR identified 147 different clinical samples at the species level, providing an overall agreement of 100% when compared to multilocus sequence typing (MLST data performed on a subset of these samples. Furthermore, the real-time PCR was three times faster and five times less expensive when compared to PCR - MLST for species identification from clinical specimens. In summary, this new assay represents a cost-effective and reliable alternative for the identification of the main species causing NWTL in South America.

  18. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.

  19. Infection rates and genotypes of Trypanosoma rangeli and T. cruzi infecting free-ranging Saguinus bicolor (Callitrichidae), a critically endangered primate of the Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia da Silva, F; Naiff, R D; Marcili, A; Gordo, M; D'Affonseca Neto, J A; Naiff, M F; Franco, A M R; Campaner, M; Valente, V; Valente, S A; Camargo, E P; Teixeira, M M G; Miles, M A

    2008-08-01

    Parasites of wild primates are important for conservation biology and human health due to their high potential to infect humans. In the Amazon region, non-human primates are commonly infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli, which are also infective to man and several mammals. This is the first survey of trypanosomiasis in a critically endangered species of tamarin, Saguinus bicolor (Callitrichidae), from the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. Of the 96 free-ranging specimens of S. bicolor examined 45 (46.8%) yielded blood smears positive for trypanosomes. T. rangeli was detected in blood smears of 38 monkeys (39.6%) whereas T. cruzi was never detected. Seven animals (7.3%) presented trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum. Hemocultures detected 84 positive tamarins (87.5%). Seventy-two of 84 (85.7%) were morphologically diagnosed as T. rangeli and 3 (3.1%) as T. cruzi. Nine tamarins (9.4%) yielded mixed cultures of these two species, which after successive passages generated six cultures exclusively of T. cruzi and two of T. rangeli, with only one culture remaining mixed. Of the 72 cultures positive for T. rangeli, 62 remained as established cultures and were genotyped: 8 were assigned to phylogenetic lineage A (12.9%) and 54 to lineage B (87.1%). Ten established cultures of T. cruzi were genotyped as TCI lineage (100%). Transmission of both trypanosome species, their potential risk to this endangered species and the role of wild primates as reservoirs for trypanosomes infective to humans are discussed.

  20. Allergens in Hymenoptera venom. XXV: The amino acid sequences of antigen 5 molecules and the structural basis of antigenic cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D R

    1993-11-01

    The complete amino acid sequences have been determined by solid-phase protein sequencing for eight different vespid venom antigen 5 molecules. These include five species of yellow jackets, Vespula squamosa, V. flavopilosa, V. germanica, V. pensylvanica and V. vidua, representing all three species groups; two variants from the European hornet, Vespa crabro; and a species of paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, from a second subgenus. The new sequences were compared with the seven previously published sequences from yellow jackets, hornets, and wasps, and to that of Solenopsis invicta 3 allergen from imported fire ant venom. These comparisons provided structural evidence to support the observed high degree of cross-reactivity among the antigens of the common group of yellow jackets and among those of the two common North American subgenera of paper wasps studied. The antigen 5 of V. squamosa and of V. vidua were significantly different from those of the vulgaris group. Common features that could generate immunologic cross-reactivity were seen among the antigen 5 molecules of hornets of both genera and among those of yellow jackets, hornets, and paper wasps. The imported fire ant allergen has only minimal conserved areas in common with the vespid allergens, which explains the lack of observed IgE cross-reactivity. These results provide the structural basis for the cross-reactivity patterns observed in clinical practice and suggest that the commercial extracts of yellow jacket and paper wasp could be prepared with fewer carefully selected species.

  1. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

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    Roghayeh Najafzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially ISSR-4, ISSR-6, ISSR-13, ISSR-14, ISSR-16, and ISSR-19 produced good and various levels of amplifications which can be effectively used in genetic studies of the sour cherry. The genetic similarity among genotypes showed a high diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising Iranian genotypes, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the Iranian genotypes were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these genotypes can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that ISSR is a reliable DNA marker that can be used for exact genetic studies and in sour cherry breeding programs.

  2. [Dog (Canis familiaris) infectivity to Lutzomyia youngi in Trujillo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Dalila; Rojas, Elina; Scorza, José Vicente; Jorquera, Alicia

    2006-10-01

    In Trujillo, Venezuela the prevalence for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is 38 per 100,000 inhabitants. In a periurban, rural settlement of the capital city Trujillo, we studied the potential capability of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as a source of infection for Lutzomyia youngi, a phlebotomine sand fly species abundant in the study area and whose domestic vectorial activity has been proven. Dogs with dermal lesions suggestive of ATL and parasitological confirmation of infection, were selected for xenodiagnosis by allowing sylvatic phlebotomines from a ATL free area, to feed ad libitum over each animal's entire body surface. The insects' intestinal tracts were dissected 5 days after the blood meal in order to look for flagellate forms. When these were found, parasitological identification was performed by the multiplex-PCR technique. Four hundred and fifty five sand flies engorged over two dogs in three different assays; promastigotes were found in 4 (0.88%) of the specimens on only one occasion. PCR identified DNA of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus. The household dog has the potential of being a domestic risk factor in the ATL transmission cycle.

  3. Genomic characteristics of vB_PpaP_PP74, a T7-like Autographivirinae bacteriophage infecting a potato pathogen of the newly proposed species Pectobacterium parmentieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanova, Anastasia; Shneider, Mikhail; Bugaeva, Eugenia; Ha, Vo Thi Ngoc; Miroshnikov, Kirill; Korzhenkov, Aleksei; Kulikov, Eugene; Toschakov, Stepan; Ignatov, Alexander; Miroshnikov, Konstantin

    2018-02-08

    Bacteriophage vB_PpaP_PP74 (PP74) is a novel virulent phage that infects members of the species Pectobacterium parmentieri, a newly established species of soft-rot-causing bacteria in the family Pectobacteriaceae, derived from potato-specific Pectobacterium wasabiae. vB_PpaP_PP74 was identified as a member of the family Podoviridae by transmission electron microscopy. The phage has a 39,790-bp dsDNA genome containing 50 open reading frames (ORFs). Because of the absence of genes encoding toxins or lysogeny factors, PP74 may be considered a candidate phage for pathogen biocontrol applications. The genome layout is similar to genomes of T7-like phages within the subfamily Autographivirinae, and therefore, functions can be attributed to most of ORFs. However, the closest nucleotide sequence homologs of phage PP74 are unclassified Escherichia phages. Based on phylogenetic analysis, vB_PpaP_PP74 is a sensu lato T7-like phage, but it forms a distant subgenus group together with homologous enterobacterial phages.

  4. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  5. Heterochromatin and rDNA sites distribution in the holocentric chromosomes of Cuscuta approximata Bab. (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Marcelo; García, Miguel A

    2004-02-01

    Cuscuta is a widely distributed genus of holoparasitic plants. Holocentric chromosomes have been reported only in species of one of its subgenera (Cuscuta subg. Cuscuta). In this work, a representative of this subgenus, Cuscuta approximata, was investigated looking for its mitotic and meiotic chromosome behaviour and the heterochromatin distribution. The mitotic chromosomes showed neither primary constriction nor Rabl orientation whereas the meiotic ones exhibited the typical quadripartite structure characteristic of holocentrics, supporting the assumption of holocentric chromosomes as a synapomorphy of Cuscuta subg. Cuscuta. Chromosomes and interphase nuclei displayed many heterochromatic blocks that stained deeply with hematoxylin, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), or after C banding. The banded karyotype showed terminal or subterminal bands in all chromosomes and central bands in some of them. The single pair of 45S rDNA sites was observed at the end of the largest chromosome pair, close to a DAPI band and a 5S rDNA site. Two other 5S rDNA site pairs were found, both closely associated with DAPI bands. The noteworthy giant nuclei of glandular cells of petals and ovary wall exhibited large chromocentres typical of polytenic nuclei. The chromosomal location of heterochromatin and rDNA sites and the structure of the endoreplicated nuclei of C. approximata seemed to be similar to those known in monocentric nuclei, suggesting that centromeric organization has little or no effect on chromatin organization.

  6. Mesozoic fossils (>145 Mya suggest the antiquity of the subgenera of Daphnia and their coevolution with chaoborid predators

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    Taylor Derek J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timescale of the origins of Daphnia O. F. Mueller (Crustacea: Cladocera remains controversial. The origin of the two main subgenera has been associated with the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. This vicariance hypothesis is supported by reciprocal monophyly, present day associations with the former Gondwanaland and Laurasia regions, and mitochondrial DNA divergence estimates. However, previous multilocus nuclear DNA sequence divergence estimates at Daphnia. Results We describe new fossils of ephippia from the Khotont site in Mongolia associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary (about 145 MYA that are morphologically similar to several modern genera of the family Daphniidae, including the two major subgenera of Daphnia, i.e., Daphnia s. str. and Ctenodaphnia. The daphniid fossils co-occurred with fossils of the predaceous phantom midge (Chaoboridae. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the main subgenera of Daphnia are likely much older than previously known from fossils (at least 100 MY older or from nuclear DNA estimates of divergence. The results showing co-occurrence of the main subgenera far from the presumed Laurasia/Gondwanaland dispersal barrier shortly after formation suggests that vicariance from the breakup of Pangaea is an unlikely explanation for the origin of the main subgenera. The fossil impressions also reveal that the coevolution of a dipteran predator (Chaoboridae with the subgenus Daphnia is much older than previously known -- since the Mesozoic.

  7. Mesozoic fossils (>145 Mya) suggest the antiquity of the subgenera of Daphnia and their coevolution with chaoborid predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Alexey A; Taylor, Derek J

    2011-05-19

    The timescale of the origins of Daphnia O. F. Mueller (Crustacea: Cladocera) remains controversial. The origin of the two main subgenera has been associated with the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. This vicariance hypothesis is supported by reciprocal monophyly, present day associations with the former Gondwanaland and Laurasia regions, and mitochondrial DNA divergence estimates. However, previous multilocus nuclear DNA sequence divergence estimates at Pangaea. We examined new and existing cladoceran fossils from a Mesozoic Mongolian site, in hopes of gaining insights into the timescale of the evolution of Daphnia. We describe new fossils of ephippia from the Khotont site in Mongolia associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary (about 145 MYA) that are morphologically similar to several modern genera of the family Daphniidae, including the two major subgenera of Daphnia, i.e., Daphnia s. str. and Ctenodaphnia. The daphniid fossils co-occurred with fossils of the predaceous phantom midge (Chaoboridae). Our findings indicate that the main subgenera of Daphnia are likely much older than previously known from fossils (at least 100 MY older) or from nuclear DNA estimates of divergence. The results showing co-occurrence of the main subgenera far from the presumed Laurasia/Gondwanaland dispersal barrier shortly after formation suggests that vicariance from the breakup of Pangaea is an unlikely explanation for the origin of the main subgenera. The fossil impressions also reveal that the coevolution of a dipteran predator (Chaoboridae) with the subgenus Daphnia is much older than previously known -- since the Mesozoic.

  8. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

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    Itai Roffman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins.

  9. Evolution in the Amphi-Atlantic tropical genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Detarioideae), combining NGS phylogeny and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosso, Félicien; Hardy, Olivier J; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Daïnou, Kasso; Kaymak, Esra; Migliore, Jérémy

    2018-03-01

    Tropical rain forests support a remarkable diversity of tree species, questioning how and when this diversity arose. The genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Detarioideae), characterized by two South American and 13 African tree species growing in various tropical biomes, is an interesting model to address the role of biogeographic processes and adaptation to contrasted environments on species diversification. Combining whole plastid genome sequencing and morphological characters analysis, we studied the timing of speciation and diversification processes in Guibourtia through molecular dating and ancestral habitats reconstruction. All species except G. demeusei and G. copallifera appear monophyletic. Dispersal from Africa to America across the Atlantic Ocean is the most plausible hypothesis to explain the occurrence of Neotropical Guibourtia species, which diverged ca. 11.8 Ma from their closest African relatives. The diversification of the three main clades of African Guibourtia is concomitant to Miocene global climate changes, highlighting pre-Quaternary speciation events. These clades differ by their reproductive characters, which validates the three subgenera previously described: Pseudocopaiva, Guibourtia and Gorskia. Within most monophyletic species, plastid lineages start diverging from each other during the Pliocene or early Pleistocene, suggesting that these species already arose during this period. The multiple transitions between rain forests and dry forests/savannahs inferred here through the plastid phylogeny in each Guibourtia subgenus address thus new questions about the role of phylogenetic relationships in shaping ecological niche and morphological similarity among taxa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous oysters from Siberia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor N. Kosenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reviews the taxonomy of Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous oysters from the Northern and the Subpolar Urals (Western Siberia and northern East Siberia. Previous studies have documented 10 species from the genus Liostrea (L. delta, L. cucurbita, L. praeanabarensis, L. anabarensis, L. plastica, L. gibberosa, L. planoconvexa, L. siberica, L. uralensis, L. lyapinensis, and 3 species from the genus Gryphaea (G. borealis and 2 species in open nomenclature. Liostrea gibberosa, L. planoconvexa, L. uralensis, and L. cucurbita are transferred in this study to the genus Pernostrea. Furthermore, two new species of Pernostrea are described: P. mesezhnikovi sp. nov. and P.? robusta sp. nov. Liostrea siberica is transferred to the genus Praeexogyra. Liostrea praeanabarensis and L. anabarensis are attributed to the subgenus Boreiodeltoideum (genus Deltoideum as well as L. delta sensu Zakharov (1966 which is described here as new species Deltoideum (Boreiodeltoideum borealis sp. nov. The similar shell morphology of the genera Deltoideum and Pernostrea provides a basis to establish the new tribe Pernostreini trib. nov. in the subfamily Gryphaeinae. Three species are recorded for the first time from Siberia: Nanogyra? cf. thurmanni, “Ostrea” cf. moreana and Gryphaea (Gryphaea curva.

  11. A BAC-based physical map of the Drosophila buzzatii genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Josefa; Nefedov, Michael; Bosdet, Ian; Casals, Ferran; Calvete, Oriol; Delprat, Alejandra; Shin, Heesun; Chiu, Readman; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Hoskins, Roger A.; Schein, JacquelineE.; de Jong, Pieter; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2005-03-18

    Large-insert genomic libraries facilitate cloning of large genomic regions, allow the construction of clone-based physical maps and provide useful resources for sequencing entire genomes. Drosophilabuzzatii is a representative species of the repleta group in the Drosophila subgenus, which is being widely used as a model in studies of genome evolution, ecological adaptation and speciation. We constructed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic library of D. buzzatii using the shuttle vector pTARBAC2.1. The library comprises 18,353 clones with an average insert size of 152 kb and a {approx}18X expected representation of the D. buzzatii euchromatic genome. We screened the entire library with six euchromatic gene probes and estimated the actual genome representation to be {approx}23X. In addition, we fingerprinted by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis a sample of 9,555 clones, and assembled them using Finger Printed Contigs (FPC) software and manual editing into 345 contigs (mean of 26 clones per contig) and 670singletons. Finally, we anchored 181 large contigs (containing 7,788clones) to the D. buzzatii salivary gland polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization of 427 representative clones. The BAC library and a database with all the information regarding the high coverage BAC-based physical map described in this paper are available to the research community.

  12. The Gondwanan connection - Southern temperate Amanita lineages and the description of the first sequestrate species from the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Camille; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago; Kuhar, Francisco; Kaplan, Zachary; Smith, Matthew E

    2017-08-01

    Amanita is a diverse and cosmopolitan genus of ectomycorrhizal fungi. We describe Amanita nouhrae sp. nov., a new hypogeous ('truffle-like') species associated with Nothofagus antarctica in northern Patagonia. This constitutes the first report of a sequestrate Amanita from the Americas. Thick-walled basidiospores ornamented on the interior spore wall ('crassospores') were observed consistently in A. nouhrae and its sister epigeous taxon Amanita morenoi, a rarely collected but apparently common species from northern Patagonia that has sometimes been misidentified as the Australian taxon Amanita umbrinella. Nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial 16S and 26S DNA placed these two species in a southern temperate clade within subgenus Amanita, together with other South American and Australian species. Based on a dated genus-level phylogeny, we estimate that the southern temperate clade may have originated near the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (ca. 35 Ma ± 10 Ma). This date suggests a broadly distributed ancestor in the Southern Hemisphere, which probably diversified as a result of continental drift, as well as the initiation of the Antarctic glaciation. By comparison, we show that this clade follows an exceptional biogeographic pattern within a genus otherwise seemingly dominated by Northern Hemisphere dispersal. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New insights into the phylogenetic relationships, character evolution, and phytogeographic patterns of Calceolaria (Calceolariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosacov, Andrea; Sérsic, Alicia N; Sosa, Victoria; De-Nova, J Arturo; Nylinder, Stephan; Cocucci, Andrea A

    2009-12-01

    Biogeographical patterns and diversification processes in Andean and Patagonian flora are not yet well understood. Calceolaria is a highly diversified genus of these areas, representing one of the most specialized plant-pollinator systems because flowers produce nonvolatile oils, a very unusual floral reward. Phylogenetic analyses with molecular (ITS and matK) and morphological characters from 103 Calceolaria species were conducted to examine relationships, to understand biogeographic patterns, and to detect evolutionary patterns of floral and ecological characters. Total evidence analysis retrieved three major clades, which strongly correspond to the three previously recognized subgenera, although only subgenus Rosula was retrieved as a monophyletic group. A single historical event explains the expansion from the southern to central Andes, while different parallel evolutionary lines show a northward expansion from the central to northern Andes across the Huancabamba Deflection, an important geographical barrier in northern Peru. Polyploidy, acquisition of elaiophores, and a nototribic pollination mechanism are key aspects of the evolutionary history of Calceolaria. Pollination interactions were more frequently established with Centris than with Chalepogenus oil-collecting bee species. The repeated loss of the oil gland and shifts to pollen as the only reward suggest an evolutionary tendency from highly to moderately specialized pollination systems.

  14. Comparative Transcriptomics Among Four White Pine Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. G. Baker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus. The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors. RNA from the needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola, limber pine (Pinus flexilis, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana was sampled, Illumina short read sequenced, and de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts and their subsequent structural and functional annotations were processed through custom pipelines to contend with the challenges of non-model organism transcriptome validation. Orthologous gene family analysis of over 58,000 translated transcripts, implemented through Tribe-MCL, estimated the shared and unique gene space among the four species. This revealed 2025 conserved gene families, of which 408 were aligned to estimate levels of divergence and reveal patterns of selection. Specific candidate genes previously associated with drought tolerance and white pine blister rust resistance in conifers were investigated.

  15. Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Croatia: species richness, distribution and relationship to surrounding countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivković, Marija; Kúdela, Matuš; Kúdelová, Tatiana

    2016-05-05

    All records of blackflies (Simuliidae) from the territory of Croatia are summarized, including previously unpublished data. The blackfly fauna of Croatia consists of 28 species. Simulium (Nevermannia) angustitarse (Lundström), Simulium (Nevermannia) cryophilum (Rubtsov) complex, Simulium (Nevermannia) lundstromi (Enderlein), Simulium (Nevermannia) vernum Macquart complex, Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti) complex, Simulium paraequinum Puri and Simulium pseudequinum Séguy are reported for the first time from Croatia. Information related to the ecoregions, in which species were found and specific species traits are given. Genus Prosimulium Roubaud is represented by one species only. Genus Simulium Latreille is represented by 27 species in six subgenera, with subgenus Simulium Latreille s. str. being most species rich (13 species) and subgenera Boophthora Enderlein and  Trichodagmia Enderlein represented each by only one species. Compared to the neighboring countries, the Croatian species assemblage is most similar to the fauna of Slovenia and least similar to that of Italy. The relatively low number of species, presence of several species complexes and unclear identity of other species show that further research of blackflies in Croatia is needed.

  16. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qiu

    Full Text Available Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou and a wild line (Lanxi 1 collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1 no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2 besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3 high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49 were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4 over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure.

  17. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Robertson, Joel D; Keele, Brandon F; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Shaw, George M; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M; Rayner, Julian C; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2010-09-23

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here we develop a single-genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in faecal samples from wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed and almost always made up of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas comprised parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla origin and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin.

  18. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  19. The taphonomy of a remarkable leaf bed assemblage from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Gore Lignite Measures, southern New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, David K.; Zetter, Reinhard; Vavra, Norbert [Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lee, Daphne E. [Department of Geology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bannister, Jennifer M. [Department of Botany, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Jordan, Gregory J. [School of Plant Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Mildenhall, Dallas C. [GNS Science, PO Box 30-368, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2010-08-01

    A diverse assemblage of fossil leaves showing cellular detail is reported from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Gore Lignite Measures, southern New Zealand. The leaf-remains include at least five conifers, such as the genera Agathis, Dacrycarpus, Phyllocladus and Dacrydium, as well as a number of angiosperms including Gymnostoma, Nothofagus Subgenus Brassospora, Phormium, Proteaceae, Sapindaceae and Ericaceae. A parallel palynological study has identified a number of the same elements. The leaf layers represent litter horizons laid down in pools on the surface of a subtropical ombrotrophic forest mire that formed on an extensive low-lying coastal plain. Highly acidic water ponded in tree-fall depressions prevented microbial decay of the foliage. Taxa represented by both leaves and pollen are considered to have been components of the autochthonous swamp forest. Some other pollen grains are thought to represent local elements, based on the pollination biology of their nearest living relatives. Other taxa whose extant representatives are wind-pollinated may have grown further away. (author)

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of Paramecium (Viridoparamecium nov. subgen.) chlorelligerum Kahl (Ciliophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Martin; Stoeck, Thorsten; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    We redescribe Paramecium chlorelligerum, a forgotten species, which Kahl (Tierwelt Dtl., 1935, 30:651) briefly but precisely described in the addendum to his ciliate monographs as a Paramecium with symbiotic green algae. The redescription is based on classical morphological methods and the analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA. Morphologically, P. chlorelligerum differs from P. (C.) bursaria, the second green species in the genus, by having a special swimming shape, the length of the caudal cilia, the size of the micronucleus, the size of the symbiotic algae, the contractile vacuoles (with collecting vesicles vs. collecting canals), and the number of excretory pores/contractile vacuole (1 vs. 2-3). The molecular investigations show that P. chlorelligerum forms a distinct branch distant from the P. (Chloroparamecium) bursaria clade. Thus, we classify P. chlorelligerum in a new subgenus: Paramecium (Viridoparamecium) chlorelligerum. The symbiotic alga belongs to the little-known genus Meyerella, as yet recorded only from the plankton of a North American lake. © 2012 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2012 International Society of Protistologists.

  1. A new morphologically distinct avian malaria parasite that fails detection by established polymerase chain reaction-based protocols for amplification of the cytochrome B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Križanauskienė, Asta; Bensch, Staffan; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Asghar, Muhammad; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Scebba, Sergio; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2012-06-01

    Plasmodium polymorphum n. sp. (Haemosporida, Plasmodiidae) was found in the skylark, Alauda arvensis (Passeriformes: Alaudidae), during autumnal migration in southern Italy. This organism is illustrated and described based on the morphology of its blood stages. The most distinctive feature of this malaria parasite is the clear preference of its blood stages (trophozoites, meronts, and gametocytes) for immature red blood cells, including erythroblasts. Based on preference of erythrocytic meronts for immature red blood cells, P. polymorphum is most similar to species of the subgenus Huffia . This parasite can be readily distinguished from all other bird malaria parasites, including Plasmodium ( Huffia ) spp., due to preferential development and maturation of its gametocytes in immature red blood cells, a unique character for avian Plasmodium spp. In addition, the margins of nuclei in blood stages of P. polymorphum are markedly smooth and distinct; this is also a distinct diagnostic feature of this parasite. Plasmodium polymorphum has been recorded only in the skylark; it is probably a rare parasite, whose host range and geographical distribution remain unclear. Microscopic examination detected a light infection of Plasmodium relictum (lineage GRW11, parasitemia of 50-fold higher than that of P. relictum and several different primers were tested, we suggest that the failure to amplify P. polymorphum is a more complex problem than why co-infections are commonly overlooked in PCR-based studies. We suggest possible explanations of these results and call for additional research on evolution of mitochondrial genome of hemosporidian parasites.

  2. Cantharellus violaceovinosus, a new species from tropical Quercus forests in eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mariana; Bandala, Victor M.; Montoya, Leticia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract During explorations of tropical oak forests in central Veracruz (eastern Mexico), the authors discovered a Cantharellus species that produces basidiomes with strikingly violet pileus and a hymenium with yellow, raised gill-like folds. It is harvested locally and valued as a prized edible wild mushroom. Systematic multiyear sampling of basidiomes allowed the recording of the morphological variation exhibited by fresh fruit bodies in different growth stages, which supports the recognition of this Cantharellus species from others in the genus. Two molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a set of sequences of species of all major clades in Cantharellus, one including sequences of the transcription elongation factor 1-alpha (tef-1α) and a combined tef-1α and nLSU region (the large subunit of the ribosome), confirm the isolated position of the new species in a clade close to C. lewisii from USA, in the subgenus Cantharellus. Detailed macroscopic and microscopic descriptions, accompanied by illustrations and a taxonomic discussion are presented. PMID:29681739

  3. Flexible host choice and common host switches in the evolution of generalist and specialist cuckoo bees (Anthophila: Sphecodes.

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    Jana Habermannová

    Full Text Available Specialization makes resource use more efficient and should therefore be a common process in animal evolution. However, this process is not as universal in nature as one might expect. Our study shows that Sphecodes (Halictidae cuckoo bees frequently change their host over the course of their evolution. To test the evolutionary scenario of host specialization in cuckoo bees, we constructed well-supported phylogenetic trees based on partial sequences of five genes for subtribe Sphecodina (Halictini. We detected up to 17 host switches during Sphecodes evolution based on 37 ingroup species subject to mapping analysis of the hosts associated with the cuckoo bee species. We also examine the direction of evolution of host specialization in Sphecodes using the likelihood ratio test and obtain results to support the bidirectional evolutionary scenario in which specialists can arise from generalists, and vice versa. We explain the existence of generalist species in Sphecodes based on their specialization at the individual level, which is recently known in two species. Our findings suggest flexible host choice and frequent host switches in the evolution of Sphecodes cuckoo bees. This scenario leads us to propose an individual choice constancy hypothesis based on the individual specialization strategy in cuckoo bees. Choice constancy has a close relationship to flower constancy in bees and might be an extension of the latter. Our analysis also shows relationships among the genera Microsphecodes, Eupetersia, Sphecodes and Austrosphecodes, a formerly proposed Sphecodes subgenus. Austrosphecodes species form a basal lineage of the subtribe, and Microsphecodes makes it paraphyletic.

  4. ON PHYTOCOENOTICAL MAPPING OF CASPIAN DESERT REGION

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    I. SAFRONOVA

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytoecological map (l :2.500.000 for Desert Region, including the Caspian Lowland and the Mangyshlak. has been compiled. It gives an idea of latitudinal differentiation cf vegetation. Edaphic variants and lithological composition in low mountains. The legend has been constructed according to zonal-typological principle e using an ecological-phytocoenotic classification. Heterogeneity of vegetation is reflected by means of territoria1 units (complex, series, combination and additional marks above the vegetation background. In the northern subzone vegetation is fairly monotonous and characterized by prevalence of wormwood communities (Artemisia of subgenus Seriphidium, joined in three formations: Artemisia lerchiana, A. arenaria. A. pauciflora. Small areas are occupied by shrub deserts of Calligollum aphyllum and Tamarix ramosissima. To southward of 47° N in the middle subzone on the Caspian Lowland the communities of halophyte perennial saltworts essential1y dominate, and to less extent-wormwood communities of hemipsammophytic Artemisia terrae-albae and psammophytic Artemisia arenaria and A. lerchiana. Deserts of Mangyshlak are much diverse. Dwarf semishrubs are presented by species of perennial saltworts (Anabasis salsa, Nanophyton erinaceum,Arthrophytum lehnwnianum, Salsola orientaUs and wonnwood (Artemisia terrae-albae, A. gurganica. A. santolina. To southward of 43° N in the southern subzone dwarf semishrub Salsola gemmascens and Artemisia kemrudica corrnnunities prevail.

  5. ON PHYTOCOENOTICAL MAPPING OF CASPIAN DESERT REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SAFRONOVA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytoecological map (l :2.500.000 for Desert Region, including the Caspian Lowland and the Mangyshlak. has been compiled. It gives an idea of latitudinal differentiation cf vegetation. Edaphic variants and lithological composition in low mountains. The legend has been constructed according to zonal-typological principle e using an ecological-phytocoenotic classification. Heterogeneity of vegetation is reflected by means of territoria1 units (complex, series, combination and additional marks above the vegetation background. In the northern subzone vegetation is fairly monotonous and characterized by prevalence of wormwood communities (Artemisia of subgenus Seriphidium, joined in three formations: Artemisia lerchiana, A. arenaria. A. pauciflora. Small areas are occupied by shrub deserts of Calligollum aphyllum and Tamarix ramosissima. To southward of 47° N in the middle subzone on the Caspian Lowland the communities of halophyte perennial saltworts essential1y dominate, and to less extent-wormwood communities of hemipsammophytic Artemisia terrae-albae and psammophytic Artemisia arenaria and A. lerchiana. Deserts of Mangyshlak are much diverse. Dwarf semishrubs are presented by species of perennial saltworts (Anabasis salsa, Nanophyton erinaceum,Arthrophytum lehnwnianum, Salsola orientaUs and wonnwood (Artemisia terrae-albae, A. gurganica. A. santolina. To southward of 43° N in the southern subzone dwarf semishrub Salsola gemmascens and Artemisia kemrudica corrnnunities prevail.

  6. Detection and molecular identification of leishmania RNA virus (LRV) in Iranian Leishmania species.

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    Hajjaran, Homa; Mahdi, Maryam; Mohebali, Mehdi; Samimi-Rad, Katayoun; Ataei-Pirkooh, Angila; Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Raoofian, Reza

    2016-12-01

    Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) was first detected in members of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia), and later, the virulence and metastasis of the New World species were attributed to this virus. The data on the presence of LRV in Old World species are confined to Leishmania major and a few Leishmania aethiopica isolates. The aim of this study was to survey the presence of LRV in various Iranian Leishmania species originating from patients and animal reservoir hosts. Genomic nucleic acids were extracted from 50 cultured isolates belonging to the species Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania infantum. A partial sequence of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene was amplified, sequenced and compared with appropriate sequences from the GenBank database. We detected the virus in two parasite specimens: an isolate of L. infantum derived from a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patient who was unresponsive to meglumine antimoniate treatment, and an L. major isolate originating from a great gerbil, Rhombomys opimus. The Iranian LRV sequences showed the highest similarities to an Old World L. major LRV2 and were genetically distant from LRV1 isolates detected in New World Leishmania parasites. We could not attribute treatment failure in VL patient to the presence of LRV due to the limited number of specimens analyzed. Further studies with inclusion of more clinical samples are required to elucidate the potential role of LRVs in pathogenesis or treatment failure of Old World leishmaniasis.

  7. New species of Andiorrhinus Cognetti, 1908 (Oligochaeta: Rhinodrilidae) from Venezuela and Brazil.

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    Feijoo, Alexander M; Brown, George G; James, Samuel W

    2017-12-08

    Findings pertinent to 11 earthworm species from Venezuela and Brazil are reported. Six of these species are described as new to science, one is re-described and relocated in the genus Andiorrhinus, and new sites of occurrence are reported for four other species. Eight species of oligochaetes were found in the Andes in the state of Mérida, Venezuela: Andiorrhinus (Turedrilus) duranti sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) timotocuica sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) torondoy sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) sp. 1, Andiorrhinus (Quibario) tatuy sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) kuika (Righi, 1993), Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) mukuci (Righi, 1993), and Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) rimeda (Righi & Araujo, 2000). Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) sp. 1, represented by one specimen only, is possibly a new species. Three other species were collected in Brazil: Andiorrhinus (Amazonidrilus) karinae sp. nov. in the Cerrado bioregion of Mato Grosso state; Andiorrhinus (Amazonidrilus) rodriguezi sp. nov. in the Amazon region in compost, and Andiorrhinus (Amazonidrilus) duseni (Michaelsen, 1918) in the Atlantic Forest, in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, the last species characterized by broad geographical and land use occurrences. The new subgenus Quibario was distinguished by the presence of three pairs of hearts in segments 10, 11, and 12. Keys are also included to differentiate species of subgenera Amazonidrilus and Meridrilus. The implications of these results in the context of ecological interactions, and dispersion of Andiorrhinus species in South America are discussed.

  8. Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia.

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    Moran, J; van Rijswijk, B; Traicevski, V; Kitajima, E W; Mackenzie, A M; Gibbs, A J

    2002-10-01

    Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot ( Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one feral carrot. A more distantly related novel potyvirus, apium virus Y, was found in plants of sea celery ( Apium prostratum), cultivated parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) and the immigrant weed species poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum). These three potyviruses, together with celery yellow mosaic virus of South America and the closely related carrot thin leaf virus and carrot virus B of North America, form a distinct subgenus of the Potyviridae most closely related to turnip mosaic virus and two potyviruses of yam; yam mosaic virus from the Ivory Coast and Japanese yam mosaic virus. Celery mosaic and carrot virus Y are probably recent migrants to Australia, but apium virus Y may have been endemic longer. In ELISA tests using polyclonal antibodies against virions of celery mosaic virus, some isolates of carrot virus Y were indistinguishable from celery mosaic virus, whereas others gave smaller absorbancy values, and those of apium virus Y did not react. This study shows the value of virus identification based on gene sequencing for planning control measures.

  9. Phylogeny, time divergence, and historical biogeography of the South American Liolaemus alticolor-bibronii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae

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    Sabrina N. Portelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Liolaemus comprises more than 260 species and can be divided in two subgenera: Eulaemus and Liolaemus sensu stricto. In this paper, we present a phylogenetic analysis, divergence times, and ancestral distribution ranges of the Liolaemus alticolor-bibronii group (Liolaemus sensu stricto subgenus. We inferred a total evidence phylogeny combining molecular (Cytb and 12S genes and morphological characters using Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference. Divergence times were calculated using Bayesian MCMC with an uncorrelated lognormal distributed relaxed clock, calibrated with a fossil record. Ancestral ranges were estimated using the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis (DEC-Lagrange. Effects of some a priori parameters of DEC were also tested. Distribution ranged from central Perú to southern Argentina, including areas at sea level up to the high Andes. The L. alticolor-bibronii group was recovered as monophyletic, formed by two clades: L. walkeri and L. gracilis, the latter can be split in two groups. Additionally, many species candidates were recognized. We estimate that the L. alticolor-bibronii group diversified 14.5 Myr ago, during the Middle Miocene. Our results suggest that the ancestor of the Liolaemus alticolor-bibronii group was distributed in a wide area including Patagonia and Puna highlands. The speciation pattern follows the South-North Diversification Hypothesis, following the Andean uplift.

  10. Evolution of Epiphytism and Fruit Traits Act Unevenly on the Diversification of the Species-Rich Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae).

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    Frenzke, Lena; Goetghebeur, Paul; Neinhuis, Christoph; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie; Wanke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The species-rich genus Peperomia (Black Pepper relatives) is the only genus among early diverging angiosperms where epiphytism evolved. The majority of fruits of Peperomia release sticky secretions or exhibit hook-shaped appendages indicative of epizoochorous dispersal, which is in contrast to other flowering plants, where epiphytes are generally characterized by fruit morphological adaptations for anemochory or endozoochory. We investigate fruit characters using Cryo-SEM. Comparative phylogenetic analyses are applied for the first time to include life form and fruit character information to study diversification in Peperomia. Likelihood ratio tests uncover correlated character evolution. We demonstrate that diversification within Peperomia is not homogenous across its phylogeny, and that net diversification rates increase by twofold within the most species-rich subgenus. In contrast to former land plant studies that provide general evidence for increased diversification in epiphytic lineages, we demonstrate that the evolution of epiphytism within Peperomia predates the diversification shift. An epiphytic-dependent diversification is only observed for the background phylogeny. An elevated frequency of life form transitions between epiphytes and terrestrials and thus evolutionary flexibility of life forms is uncovered to coincide with the diversification shift. The evolution of fruits showing dispersal related structures is key to diversification in the foreground region of the phylogeny and postdates the evolution of epiphytism. We conclude that the success of Peperomia, measured in species numbers, is likely the result of enhanced vertical and horizontal dispersal ability and life form flexibility but not the evolution of epiphytism itself.

  11. [An ultrastructural study of oogenesis in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea (Platyhelminthe, Paludicola)].

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    Harrath, Abdul Halim; Alwasal, Saleh H; Alhazza, Ibrahim; Zghal, Fathia; Tekaya, Saida

    2011-07-01

    The ovary of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been studied for the first time using both light and electron microscopy methods. The ultrastructure of the ovary revealed two types of cells: accessory cells and germinal cells at various stages of differentiation, distributed along a maturation axis. Initially, oogonia underwent cytoplasm growth due to the development of organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and mitochondria, which are all involved in the production of cytoplasmic inclusions or yolk globules. It is shown that the chromatoid body and fibrogranular aggregates may participate in the synthesis of vitelline inclusions. When completely mature, the oocytes have become larger, due to the accumulation of nutritive inclusions, which are round in shape and have a paracrystalline structure. These inclusions are interpreted as being yolk globules and may represent a kind of nutritive material for the developing embryo. These ultrastructural features of the ovary agree with the available phylogenetic tree, based on morphological and karyological characters that considers Schmidtea group as a genus and not a subgenus. The presence of sperm between the oocytes suggests that fertilization may occur within the ovary, representing an uncommon condition within the Triclads, in which fertilization usually takes places outside of the ovaries. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential occurrence of chromosome inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in three species of the tripunctata group of Drosophila, including a species with fast chromosomal evolution.

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    Brianti, Mitsue T; Ananina, Galina; Klaczko, Louis B

    2013-01-01

    Detailed chromosome maps with reliable homologies among chromosomes of different species are the first step to study the evolution of the genetic architecture in any set of species. Here, we present detailed photo maps of the polytene chromosomes of three closely related species of the tripunctata group (subgenus Drosophila): Drosophila mediopunctata, D. roehrae, and D. unipunctata. We identified Muller's elements in each species, using FISH, establishing reliable chromosome homologies among species and D. melanogaster. The simultaneous analysis of chromosome inversions revealed a distribution pattern for the inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in the three species. Element E is the most polymorphic, with many inversions in each species. Element C follows; while the least polymorphic elements are B and D. While interesting, it remains to be determined how general this pattern is among species of the tripunctata group. Despite previous studies showing that D. mediopunctata and D. unipunctata are phylogenetically closer to each other than to D. roehrae, D. unipunctata shows rare karyotypic changes. It has two chromosome fusions: an additional heterochromatic chromosome pair and a pericentric inversion in the X chromosome. This especial conformation suggests a fast chromosomal evolution that deserves further study.

  13. TLC Fingerprint analysis of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in some Iranian Salvia spp., a chemotaxonomic approach

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    Marzieh Fotovvat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is an important genus of Lamiaceae which phenolic compounds are the main secondary metabolites of its members. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the leaves and flowers from 41 wild populations of 27 Salvia species from Iran by TLC method and evaluation of their significance as chemical markers for taxonomic purposes. Rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acids A and B, apigenin, rutine, scutellarin and baicalin were characterized as the main compounds of the studied Salvia species. Based on the dendrogram obtained from the didtribution patterns of phenolic compounds using cluster analysis by UPGMA method, the Salvia species were studied chemotaxonomically. Results showed that the patterns of phenolic compounds in the leaf and flower organs were similar in populations of a species, while they were different among the species. It seems that substantial differences in the patterns of these compounds at inter-species level were mainly due to genetic differences. The results from classification of the species by cluster analysis of the phenolic data supported their grouping according to their classical taxonomy in the Flora Iranica. This suggests the importance of these compounds as chemical markers for the classification of Salvia species at inter-species and subgenus levels.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.

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    Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

    2012-02-01

    The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species.

  15. Differentiation of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis and Leishmania (V.) guyanensis using BccI for hsp70 PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo Alvarez, Ana Margarita; Nodarse, Jorge Fraga; Goodridge, Ivón Montano; Fidalgo, Lianet Monzote; Marin, Marcel; Van Der Auwera, Gert; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Bernal, Iván Darío Velez; Muskus, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania guyanensis are two species of the subgenus Viannia that are genetically very similar. Both parasites are usually associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis, but also have the potential to cause the mucocutaneous form of the disease. In addition, the study of foci and consequently the identification of vectors and probable reservoirs involved in transmission require a correct differentiation between both species, which is important at epidemiological level. We explored the possibility of identifying these species by using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the gene coding for heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70). Previously, an hsp70 PCR-RFLP assay proved to be very effective in differentiating other Leishmania species when HaeIII is used as restriction enzyme. Based on hsp70 sequences analysis, BccI was found to generate species-specific fragments that can easily be recognized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the analysis of biopsies, scrapings, and parasite isolates previously grouped in a cluster comprising both L. panamensis and L. guyanensis, we showed that our approach allowed differentiation of both entities. This offers the possibility not only for identification of parasites in biological samples, but also to apply molecular epidemiology in certain countries of the New World, where several Leishmania species could coexist. Copyright 2009 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolutionary and biotechnology implications of plastid genome variation in the inverted-repeat-lacking clade of legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Jamal; Schwarz, Erika; Ellison, Nicholas; Zhang, Jin; Baeshen, Nabih A; Mutwakil, Muhammed; Jansen, Robert; Ruhlman, Tracey

    2014-08-01

    Land plant plastid genomes (plastomes) provide a tractable model for evolutionary study in that they are relatively compact and gene dense. Among the groups that display an appropriate level of variation for structural features, the inverted-repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) of papilionoid legumes presents the potential to advance general understanding of the mechanisms of genomic evolution. Here, are presented six complete plastome sequences from economically important species of the IRLC, a lineage previously represented by only five completed plastomes. A number of characters are compared across the IRLC including gene retention and divergence, synteny, repeat structure and functional gene transfer to the nucleus. The loss of clpP intron 2 was identified in one newly sequenced member of IRLC, Glycyrrhiza glabra. Using deeply sequenced nuclear transcriptomes from two species helped clarify the nature of the functional transfer of accD to the nucleus in Trifolium, which likely occurred in the lineage leading to subgenus Trifolium. Legumes are second only to cereal crops in agricultural importance based on area harvested and total production. Genetic improvement via plastid transformation of IRLC crop species is an appealing proposition. Comparative analyses of intergenic spacer regions emphasize the need for complete genome sequences for developing transformation vectors for plastid genetic engineering of legume crops. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genetic Diversity in Passiflora Species Assessed by Morphological and ITS Sequence Analysis

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    Shiamala Devi Ramaiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA to investigate the phylogeny of Passiflora species. The samples were collected from various regions of East Malaysia, and discriminant function analysis based on linear combinations of morphological variables was used to classify the Passiflora species. The biplots generated five distinct groups discriminated by morphological variables. The group consisted of cultivars of P. edulis with high levels of genetic similarity; in contrast, P. foetida was highly divergent from other species in the morphological biplots. The final dataset of aligned sequences from nine studied Passiflora accessions and 30 other individuals obtained from GenBank database (NCBI yielded one most parsimonious tree with two strongly supported clades. Maximum parsimony (MP tree showed the phylogenetic relationships within this subgenus Passiflora support the classification at the series level. The constructed phylogenic tree also confirmed the divergence of P. foetida from all other species and the closeness of wild and cultivated species. The phylogenetic relationships were consistent with results of morphological assessments. The results of this study indicate that ITS region analysis represents a useful tool for evaluating genetic diversity in Passiflora at the species level.

  18. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize “trample burr” dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic “Dioicum Complex” lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent “trample burr” seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum ‘Tanami.’ Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  19. Transferability of microsatellite markers located in candidate genes for wood properties between Eucalyptus species

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    Cintia V. Acuña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study:  To analyze the feasibility of extrapolating conclusions on wood quality genetic control between different Eucalyptus species, particularly from species with better genomic information, to those less characterized. For this purpose, the first step is to analyze the conservation and cross-transferability of microsatellites markers (SSRs located in candidate genes.Area of study: Eucalyptus species implanted in Argentina coming from different Australian origins.Materials and methods: Twelve validated and polymorphic SSRs in candidate genes (SSR-CGs for wood quality in E. globulus were selected for cross species amplification in six species: E. grandis, E. saligna, E. dunnii, E. viminalis, E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis.Main results: High cross-species transferability (92% to 100% was found for the 12 polymorphic SSRs detected in E. globulus. These markers revealed allelic diversity in nine important candidate genes: cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3, the transcription factor LIM1, homocysteine S-methyltransferase (HMT, shikimate kinase (SK, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 2 (XTH2, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD and peroxidase (PER.Research highlights: The markers described are potentially suitable for comparative QTL mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding (MAB and for population genetic studies across different species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus.Keywords: validation; cross-transferability; SSR; functional markers; eucalypts; Symphyomyrtus.

  20. Balechina and the New Genus Cucumeridinium Gen. Nov. (Dinophyceae), Unarmored Dinoflagellates with Thick Cell Coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Moreira, David

    2016-01-01

    The genus Balechina (=subgenus Pachydinium) was established for heterotrophic gymnodinioid dinoflagellates with a thick cell covering. The type species, B. pachydermata (=Gymnodinium pachydermatum), showed numerous fine longitudinal striae, whereas B. coerulea (=G. coeruleum) showed ~24 prominent longitudinal surface ridges or furrows and a distinctive blue pigmentation. We have investigated the morphology and molecular phylogeny of these taxa and the species Gymnodinium cucumis, G. lira and G. amphora from the western Mediterranean, Brazil and Japan. Sudden contractions at the cingulum level were seen in B. pachydermata, which also showed a high morphological variability which included morphotypes that have been described as Amphidinium vasculum, G. amphora, G. dogielii and G. gracile sensu Kofoid and Swezy. Molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that Balechina coerulea, G. cucumis and G. lira formed a clade distantly related to the clade of the type species, B. pachydermata, and G. amphora. We propose the new genus Cucumeridinium for the species with longitudinal ridges and a circular apical groove (Cucumeridinium coeruleum comb. nov., C. lira comb. nov. and C. cucumis comb. nov.), and Gymnodinium canus and G. costatum are considered synonyms of C. coeruleum. The genus Balechina remains for the species with a double-layer cell covering, bossed surface with fine striae, and an elongated elliptical apical groove. At present, the genus is monotypic containing only B. pachydermata. PMID:26987004

  1. Three new species of Heteromysis (Mysida, Mysidae, Heteromysini from the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, with first documentation of a mysid-cephalopod association

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    Karl J. Wittmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Faunistic studies in sublittoral and littoral marine habitats on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, have yielded three new species belonging to the genus Heteromysis, subgenus Heteromysis: H. cancelli sp. n. associated with the diogenid hermit crab Cancellus macrothrix Stebbing, 1924, and H. fosteri sp. n. extracted from ‘empty’ urchin and gastropod shells. The first documented mysid-cephalopod association is reported for H. octopodis sp. n. which was found in dens occupied by Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, but was also captured from tide pools. The three new species differ from previously known E. Atlantic species, among other characters, by a single spine on the endopods of uropods in combination with large cornea and absence of median sternal processes on thoracic somites. They are also characterized by a white stripe along the dorso-lateral terminal margin of the eyestalks in living specimens. The new species appear quite similar to each other, but are distinguished by different depths of the telson cleft, different distributions of spines on the lateral margins of the telson, different numbers of segments on thoracic endopod 4, and by differently modified setae on the carpus of the third thoracic endopod, as well as on the carpopropodus of the fourth endopod. An updated key to the species of Heteromysis known from the E. Atlantic is given.

  2. Description of the pupal case of Systropus (Systropus nitidus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Toxophorinae, Systropodini

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    Paula Fernanda Motta Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The pupal case of Systropus (Systropus nitidus Wiedemann reared from an unidentified tipical Limacodidae (Lepidoptera cocoon is described and illustrated for the first time. Only species of Limacodidae are recorded as host of the immature stages of S. (Systropus. The geographical distribution of S. (Systropus nitidus is restricted to Brazil, from Pará to Santa Catarina states. This is the first pupal case description and illustration of a Neotropical species of the subgenus Systropus.O pupário de Systropus (Systropus nitidus Wiedemann, originado de uma crisálida não identificada típica de Limacodidae (Lepidoptera, é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez. Somente espécies de Limacodidae são registradas como hospedeiros de estágios imaturos de S. (Systropus. A distribuição geográfica de S. (Systropus nitidus é restrita ao Brasil, do estado do Pará ao de Santa Catarina. Esta é a primeira descrição e ilustração de pupário de uma espécie Neotropical do subgênero Systropus.

  3. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

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    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  4. Comparison of Leishmania typing results obtained from 16 European clinical laboratories in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Auwera, Gert; Bart, Aldert; Chicharro, Carmen; Cortes, Sofia; Davidsson, Leigh; Di Muccio, Trentina; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Felger, Ingrid; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Grimm, Felix; Harms, Gundel; Jaffe, Charles L; Manser, Monika; Ravel, Christophe; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Töz, Seray; Verweij, Jaco J; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-12-08

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern Europe, and in other European countries cases are diagnosed in travellers who have visited affected areas both within the continent and beyond. Prompt and accurate diagnosis poses a challenge in clinical practice in Europe. Different methods exist for identification of the infecting Leishmania species. Sixteen clinical laboratories in 10 European countries, plus Israel and Turkey, conducted a study to assess their genotyping performance. DNA from 21 promastigote cultures of 13 species was analysed blindly by the routinely used typing method. Five different molecular targets were used, which were analysed with PCR-based methods. Different levels of identification were achieved, and either the Leishmania subgenus, species complex, or actual species were reported. The overall error rate of strains placed in the wrong complex or species was 8.5%. Various reasons for incorrect typing were identified. The study shows there is considerable room for improvement and standardisation of Leishmania typing. The use of well validated standard operating procedures is recommended, covering testing, interpretation, and reporting guidelines. Application of the internal transcribed spacer 1 of the rDNA array should be restricted to Old World samples, while the heat-shock protein 70 gene and the mini-exon can be applied globally. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  5. Affinities between Cutifilaria (Nematoda: Filarioidea, parasites of deer, and Mansonella as seen in a new onchocercid, M. (C. perforata n. sp., from Japan

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    Uni S.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new dermal filarioid nematode, collected from Cervus nippon nippon (sika deer on Kyushu Island, Japan, showed close affinities between the genera Cutifilaria and Mansonello (Onchocercidae : Onchocercinae : no buccal capsule, esophagus reduced to a thin fibrous tube, and female tail with four lappets. We propose Cutifilaria as a subgenus of Mansonella. Cutifilaria was distinguished from the five other subgenera, Mansonella, Tetrapetalonema, Esslingeria, Sandnema, and Tupainema, in having an area rugosa composed of transverse bands with tiny points, 14-16 papillae around the cloacal aperture, two prominent rhomboidal subterminal papillae, and a thick right spicule with spoon-shaped distal extremity. The host range of Mansonella was extended to ungulates by the addition of Cutifilaria, which appears to be derived from Tupainema, parasitic in Tupaioidea (insectivores, because of the similarity in their right spicules ; Cutifilaria seems to have an Asiatic origin. M. (C. perforata n. sp. was distinct from the sole other related species, M. (C. wenki, a parasite of Cervus elaphus (red deer in Europe, having a more complex right spicule with a sturdy terminal point and microfilariae with a bifid posterior end. In addition, almost all females had cuticular pores near the vulva, on the ventral line. The prevalence of microfilariae and adults of M. (C. perforata in the skin of sika deer was 38 % and 21 %, respectively.

  6. Crystal macropattern development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersten, Nels R; Horner, Harry T

    2006-05-01

    Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns. Leaves at various developmental stages were removed from local trees and from herbarium specimens. Early leaf stages and freehand leaf and stem sections were mounted directly in aqueous glycerine; larger leaves were processed whole or in representative pieces in household bleach, dehydrated in alcohol/xylol, and mounted in Permount. Crystals were detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. Bud scales have a dense druse population. Druses appear first at the stipule tip and proliferate basipetally but soon stop forming; growing stipules therefore have a declining density of druses. Druses appear at the tip of leaves virginiana, and shows that two closely related species can develop radically different modes of crystallization. The few detailed macropattern studies to date reveal striking variations that indicate a new level of organization that must be integrated with the anatomical, physiological and molecular approaches that have been dominant so far.

  7. Two major groups of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in diploid and tetraploid Aconitum subgen. Aconitum (Ranunculaceae in the Carpathians

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    J. Mitka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum in Europe is represented by ca. 10% of the total number of species and the Carpathian Mts. are the center of the genus variability in the subcontinent. We studied the chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer trnL(UAG-rpl32- ndhF (cpDNA variability of the Aconitum subgen. Aconitum in the Carpathians: diploids (2n=16, sect. Cammarum, tetraploids (2n=32, sect. Aconitum and triploids (2n=24, nothosect. Acomarum. Altogether 25 Aconitum accessions representing the whole taxonomic variability of the subgenus were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Both parsimony, Bayesian and character network analyses showed the two distinct types of the cpDNA chloroplast, one typical of the diploid and the second of the tetraploid groups. Some specimens had identical cpDNA sequences (haplotypes and scattered across the whole mountain arch. In the sect. Aconitum 9 specimens shared one haplotype, while in the sect. Camarum one haplotype represents 4 accessions and the second – 5 accessions. The diploids and tetraploids were diverged by 6 mutations, while the intrasectional variability amounted maximally to 3 polymorphisms. Taking into consideration different types of cpDNA haplotypes and ecological profiles of the sections (tetraploids – high‑mountain species, diploids – species from forest montane belt we speculate on the different and independent history of the sections in the Carpathians.

  8. Phylogeny of Bembidion and related ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini: Bembidiina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, David R

    2012-06-01

    . Lionepha, formerly considered a subgenus of Bembidion, is shown to be outside of the clade of Asaphidion+Bembidion, and is separated as its own genus. B. (Phyla) obtusum is quite isolated within Bembidion, and there is some evidence that the remaining Bembidion form a clade. Within Bembidion, there are three large clades that are well-supported, the Bembidion, Odontium, and Ocydromus Series. The Bembidion Series contains Bembidion (s. str.), Notaphus, Furcacampa, Emphanes, Trepanedoris, Diplocampa, and related Holarctic species; all species from South America, Australia, New Zealand; and most species from southern Africa and Madagascar. All species in South America, except for members of Notaphus and Nothocys, form a clade, the Antiperyphanes Complex, which has independently radiated into body forms and niches occupied by multiple, independent Northern-Hemisphere forms. All species from New Zealand, including Zecillenus, and Australian species formerly placed in Ananotaphus together form a clade. Bembidion (s. str.) and Cyclolopha are in a clade with the Old World, Southern Hemisphere lineages Notaphocampa, Sloanephila, and Omotaphus. The large subgenus Notaphus appears to have originated in South America, with all Northern Hemisphere Notaphus arising from within a south-temperate grade. All major variation in frontal furrows on the head is contained within the Bembidion Series. The Odontium Series contains subgenera Hirmoplataphus and Hydriomicrus, which together are the sister clade of Odontium, Bracteon, Ochthedromus, Pseudoperyphus, and Microserrullula. The very large Ocydromus Series, dominant in the Holarctic region, includes the Ocydromus Complex, with many subgenera, including Hypsipezum and Leuchydrium; the phylogeny within this group is notably at odds with the current classification. Also included in the Ocydromus Series are Nepha and Bembidionetolitzkya, as well as the Princidium Complex, in which the intertidal B. (Cillenus) laterale falls. Outside these three

  9. Diversification in a fluctuating island setting: rapid radiation of Ohomopterus ground beetles in the Japanese Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sota, Teiji; Nagata, Nobuaki

    2008-10-27

    The Japanese Islands have been largely isolated from the East Asian mainland since the Early Pleistocene, allowing the diversification of endemic lineages. Here, we explore speciation rates and historical biogeography of the ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) based on nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences. Ohomopterus diverged into 15 species during the Pleistocene. The speciation rate was 1.92 Ma(-1) and was particularly fast (2.37 Ma(-1)) in a group with highly divergent genitalia. Speciation occurred almost solely within Honshu, the largest island with complex geography. Species diversity is highest in central Honshu, where closely related species occur parapatrically and different-sized species co-occur. Range expansion of some species in the past has resulted in such species assemblages. Introgressive hybridization, at least for mitochondrial DNA, has occurred repeatedly between species in contact, but has not greatly disturbed species distinctness. Small-island populations of some species were separated from main-island populations only after the last glacial (or the last interglacial) period, indicating that island isolation had little role in speciation. Thus, the speciation and formation of the Ohomopterus assemblage occurred despite frequent opportunities for secondary contact and hybridization and the lack of persistent isolation. This radiation was achieved without substantial ecological differentiation, but with marked differentiation in mechanical agents of reproductive isolation (body size and genital morphology).

  10. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two closely related ground beetle species with marked genital divergence using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Kotaro; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Sota, Teiji

    2014-09-01

    Ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) show marked divergence in species-specific male and female genital morphologies, which contributes to reproductive isolation among species. Characterizing the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphology is essential for understanding their diversification, but genomic information on Ohomopterus is not yet available. We analyzed mRNA extracted from abdominal sections of the last instar larvae and pupae of two sister species, Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) uenoi, which show marked differences in genital morphology, to compare transcriptomic profiles using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 1,608,572 high-quality reads and assembled them into 176,278 unique sequences, of which 66,049 sequences were combined into 12,662 clusters. Differential expression analyses for sexed pupae suggested that four and five clusters were differentially expressed between species for males and females, respectively. We also identified orthologous sequences of genes involved in genital development in Drosophila, which potentially affect genital development and species-specific genital morphology in Ohomopterus. This study provides the first large transcriptomic data set for a morphologically diversified beetle group, which can facilitate future studies on the genetic basis of species-specific genitalia.

  11. Sperm competition promotes diversity of sperm bundles in Ohomopterus ground beetles

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    Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2007-07-01

    Diversification of sperm morphology has been investigated in the context of sperm competition, but the adaptive significance of sperm bundles is still unclear. In analyzing 10 taxa of the genus Carabus subgenus Ohomopterus and one related Carabus ground beetles, we found that dimorphic sperm bundles occurred in most species with varied degrees of bimodality, whereas sperm were generally monomorphic. Comparative analyses with phylogenetically independent contrasts revealed that the sizes of large and small sperm bundles evolved more rapidly than, and were not correlated with, the length of sperm, suggesting more intense selection on sperm bundle sizes and their independent responses to different evolutionary forces. The size of large sperm bundles was positively correlated with male genital morphology (pertinent to displacement of rival spermatophores) and postcopulatory guarding duration as well as male body length, suggesting that larger sperm bundles have been favored when the risk of spermatophore displacement is high. Larger sperm bundles may be advantageous because of their ability to migrate more rapidly into the spermatheca. In contrast, no clear association was detected between the small sperm bundle size and mating traits despite its rapid diversification. The present study provides the first record of heteromorphic sperm bundles, the diversity of which may be promoted by sperm competition.

  12. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

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    Courtney E Gorman

    Full Text Available Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic, here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change.

  13. Microtomography of the Baltic amber tick Ixodes succineus reveals affinities with the modern Asian disease vector Ixodes ovatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Lehmann, Jens; Hoffmann, René; Fusseis, Florian; Ehlke, Moritz; Zachow, Stefan; Xiao, Xianghui

    2016-10-10

    Background: Fossil ticks are extremely rare, whereby Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964 from Eocene (ca. 44–49 Ma) Baltic amber is one of the oldest examples of a living hard tick genus (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Previous work suggested it was most closely related to the modern and widespread European sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (Linneaus, 1758). Results: Restudy using phase contrast synchrotron x-ray tomography yielded images of exceptional quality. These confirm the fossil’s referral to Ixodes Latreille, 1795, but the characters resolved here suggest instead affinities with the Asian subgenus Partipalpiger Hoogstraal et al., 1973 and its single living (and medically significant) species Ixodes ovatus Neumann, 1899. We redescribe the amber fossil here as Ixodes (Partipalpiger) succineus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that Ixodes ricinus is unlikely to be directly derived from Weidner’s amber species, but instead reveals that the Partipalpiger lineage was originally more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere. The closeness of Ixodes (P.) succineus to a living vector of a wide range of pathogens offers the potential to correlate its spatial and temporal position (northern Europe, nearly 50 million years ago) with the estimated origination dates of various tick-borne diseases.

  14. Histopathological characteristics of cutaneous lesions caused by Leishmania Viannia panamensis in Panama

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    Kadir González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic disease in the Republic of Panama, caused by Leishmania (Viannia parasites, whose most common clinical manifestation is the presence of ulcerated lesions on the skin. These lesions usually present a chronic inflammatory reaction, sometimes granulomatous, with the presence of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. This study describes the histopathological characteristics found in the skin lesions of patients with CL caused by Leishmania (V. panamensis in Panama. We analyzed 49 skin biopsy samples from patients with clinical suspicion of CL, by molecular tests (PCR for subgenus Viannia and HSP-70 and by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Samples were characterized at the species level by PCR-HSP-70/RFLP. From the 49 samples studied, 46 (94% were positive by PCR and were characterized as Leishmania (V. panamensis. Of these, 48% were positive by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining with alterations being observed both, in the epidermis (85% and in the dermis (100% of skin biopsies. The inflammatory infiltrate was characterized according to histopathological patterns: lymphohistiocytic (50%, lymphoplasmacytic (61% and granulomatous (46% infiltration, being the combination of these patterns frequently found. The predominant histopathological characteristics observed in CL lesions caused by L. (V. panamensis in Panama were: an intense inflammatory reaction in the dermis with a combination of lymphohistiocytic, lymphoplasmacytic and granulomatous presentation patterns and the presence of ulcers, acanthosis, exocytosis and spongiosis in the epidermis.

  15. The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) revisited: Molecular species delineation using a mitochondrial DNA gene reveals multiple conspecifics and undescribed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Hayes, David M.; Harris, John L.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Eackles, Michael S.; King, Tim; Jones, Jess W.; Hallerman, Eric M.; Christian, Alan D.; Randklev, Charles R.

    2018-01-01

    The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) represent approximately one-third of freshwater mussel diversity in North America. Species identification within this group is challenging due to morphological convergence and phenotypic plasticity. Accurate species identification, including characterization of currently unrecognized taxa, is required to develop effective conservation strategies because many species in the group are imperiled. We examined 573 cox1 sequences from 110 currently recognized species (including 13 Fusconaia and 21 Pleurobema species) to understand phylogenetic relationships among pleurobemine species (mainly Fusconaia and Pleurobema) and to delineate species boundaries. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed no geographic structure within widespread species and illustrated a close relationship between Elliptio lanceolata and Parvaspina collina. Constraint tests supported monophyly of the genera Fusconaia and Pleurobema, including the subgenus P. (Sintoxia). Furthermore, results revealed multiple conspecifics, including P. hanleyianum and P. troschelianum, P. chattanoogaense and P. decisum, P. clava and P. oviforme, P. rubrum and P. sintoxia, F. askewi and F. lananensis, and F. cerina and F. flava. Species delimitation analyses identified three currently unrecognized taxa (two in Fusconaia and one in Pleurobema). Further investigation using additional genetic markers and other lines of evidence (e.g., morphology, life history, ecology) are necessary before any taxonomic changes are formalized.

  16. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries

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    Davies Clive Richard

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control.

  17. Observations on a cucullanid nematode of marine fishes from Taiwan Strait, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Damin; Guo, Shulin; Fang, Wenzhen; Huang, Heqin

    2004-06-01

    During a helminthological examination of marine fishes from south of the Minnan-Taiwan Bank Fishing Ground, Taiwan Strait, Fujian, China, a new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp., was removed from the intestine of the red seabream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel, 1834). The new species differs from its congeners mainly in the following characters: body size medium but with relative long spicules of 1.01 mm (0.97-1.06) in length or 20.0% (18.21-21.8%) of the body length; proximal end of spicules somewhat expanded and distal end rounded; gubernaculum I-shaped, slightly narrow in the middle part, both ends rounded; both anterior and posterior cloaca lips round or oval, prominent and unequal in size. The anterior cloaca lip is at least 2 times larger than the posterior one. There is a conspicuous papilliform structure within the central of anterior and posterior cloacal lip. Vulva of female is not prominent, slightly postequatorial; distance from vulva to anterior end of body is 4.3 (3.0-5.5) mm or 58.0% (54.0-62.0%) of the body length. Considering the result of comparing the structure of so-called unpaired median papilla with the 10 pairs of caudal petiolated papillae in the body of the same individual. the papilliform structures are just a backstop for the cloacal lips, this new species represents the first record of a nematode of the Dichelyne, subgenus Cucullanellus in marine fishes of China Sea.

  18. Structure, morphogenesis and evolutional transformation of winged fruits in representatives of the family Celastraceae R. Br.

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    I. A. Savinov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Structure, peculiarities of morphogenesis and evolutional transformation of winged fruits in representatives of the family Celastraceae R. Br. are considered. Four types of such fruits are distinguished: I – winged fruits – fruits, outgrowths of which are formed due to radial expansion of the pericarp in the dorsal side of the carpel along the axis of the fruit (Tripterygioideae, subgenus Kalonymus genus Euonymus; II – the fruits with winged perianth – fruits, alar outgrowths of which are formed by elements of the perianth (Monimopetalum; III – divided winged fruit – divided fruits-capsules, wingshaped blades of which are formed from proliferating in the axial plane of the carpels (Hippocrateoideae; IV – winged schizocarpium – divided fruit, each mericarpium of which is provided by 3 alar vascularized outgrowths emerging due to the radial expansion of the pericarp from places of carpels fusion and in the dorsal side of the carpel along the axis of fruit (Stackhousioideae. We demonstrated that winged fruits appeared in different subfamilies and tribes.

  19. Anti-trypanosomal activity of pentacyclic triterpenes isolated from Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae Atividade anti-tripanosomicida de triterpenes pentacíclicos isolados de Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae

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    Lucienir Pains DUARTE

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Four pentacyclic triterpenes isolated from Austroplenckia populnea and four compounds of known anti T. cruzi or anti-malarial activity were tested. Of those triterpenes tested 20alpha-hydroxy-tingenone showed high activity, epikatonic acid was less active, while populnilic and populninic acids were inactive against the trypanosome of the subgenus Schizotrypanum tested. Benzonidazole, nifurtimox, ketoconazole and primaquine presented a remarkable dose-dependent inhibitory effect reaching practically to a total growth inhibition of the parasite at the end of incubation time. The trypanosome tested appear to be a suitable model for preliminary screen for anti T. (S. cruzi compounds.Foram testados quatro triterpenos pentacíclicos isolados de Austroplenckia populnea e quatro compostos de conhecida atividade anti-T. cruzi ou anti-malárica. Dos triterpenos testados 20alfa-hidroxi-tingenona mostrou atividade elevada, ácido epicatônico foi menos ativo, enquanto ácido populnílico e populnínico foram inativos contra o tripanossoma do subgênero Schizotrypanum testado. Benzonidazole, nifurtimox, cetoconazole e primaquina apresentaram efeito inibitório dose-dependente atingindo praticamente a inibição total do crescimento do parasita no final do tempo de incubação. O tripanossoma testado mostrou ser um modelo adequado para uma seleção preliminar de compostos anti. T. (S. cruzi.

  20. Role of the Digestive Gland in Ink Production in Four Species of Sea Hares: An Ultrastructural Comparison

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    Jeffrey S. Prince

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the digestive gland of several sea hare species that produce different colored ink (Aplysia californica produces purple ink, A. juliana white ink, A. parvula both white and purple ink, while Dolabrifera dolabrifera produces no ink at all was compared to determine the digestive gland’s role in the diet-derived ink production process. Rhodoplast digestive cells and their digestive vacuoles, the site of digestion of red algal chloroplast (i.e., rhodoplast in A. californica, were present and had a similar ultrastructure in all four species. Rhodoplast digestive cell vacuoles either contained a whole rhodoplast or fragments of one or were empty. These results suggest that the inability to produce colored ink in some sea hare species is not due to either an absence of appropriate digestive machinery, that is, rhodoplast digestive cells, or an apparent failure of rhodoplast digestive cells to function. These results also propose that the digestive gland structure described herein occurred early in sea hare evolution, at least in the common ancestor to the genera Aplysia and Dolabrifera. Our data, however, do not support the hypothesis that the loss of purple inking is a synapomorphy of the white-ink-producing subgenus Aplysia.

  1. Recurrent Gene Duplication Leads to Diverse Repertoires of Centromeric Histones in Drosophila Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursel, Lisa E; Malik, Harmit S

    2017-06-01

    Despite their essential role in the process of chromosome segregation in most eukaryotes, centromeric histones show remarkable evolutionary lability. Not only have they been lost in multiple insect lineages, but they have also undergone gene duplication in multiple plant lineages. Based on detailed study of a handful of model organisms including Drosophila melanogaster, centromeric histone duplication is considered to be rare in animals. Using a detailed phylogenomic study, we find that Cid, the centromeric histone gene, has undergone at least four independent gene duplications during Drosophila evolution. We find duplicate Cid genes in D. eugracilis (Cid2), in the montium species subgroup (Cid3, Cid4) and in the entire Drosophila subgenus (Cid5). We show that Cid3, Cid4, and Cid5 all localize to centromeres in their respective species. Some Cid duplicates are primarily expressed in the male germline. With rare exceptions, Cid duplicates have been strictly retained after birth, suggesting that they perform nonredundant centromeric functions, independent from the ancestral Cid. Indeed, each duplicate encodes a distinct N-terminal tail, which may provide the basis for distinct protein-protein interactions. Finally, we show some Cid duplicates evolve under positive selection whereas others do not. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that Drosophila Cid duplicates have subfunctionalized. Thus, these gene duplications provide an unprecedented opportunity to dissect the multiple roles of centromeric histones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

  3. Establishment of a mouse model for the complete mosquito-mediated transmission cycle of Zika virus.

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    Yi-Ping Kuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in the subgenus Stegomyia but can also be transmitted sexually and vertically in humans. STAT1 is an important downstream factor that mediates type I and II interferon signaling. In the current study, we showed that mice with STAT1 knockout (Stat1-/- were highly susceptible to ZIKV infection. As low as 5 plaque-forming units of ZIKV could cause viremia and death in Stat1-/- mice. ZIKV replication was initially detected in the spleen but subsequently spread to the brain with concomitant reduction of the virus in the spleen in the infected mice. Furthermore, ZIKV could be transmitted from mosquitoes to Stat1-/- mice back to mosquitoes and then to naïve Stat1-/- mice. The 50% mosquito infectious dose of viremic Stat1-/- mouse blood was close to 810 focus-forming units (ffu/ml. Our further studies indicated that the activation of macrophages and conventional dendritic cells were likely critical for the resolution of ZIKV infection. The newly developed mouse and mosquito transmission models for ZIKV infection will be useful for the evaluation of antiviral drugs targeting the virus, vector, and host.

  4. Analysis of salivary gland transcripts of the sand fly Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Kato, Hirotomo; Jochim, Ryan C.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    The saliva of blood sucking insects contains potent pharmacologically active components that assist them in counteracting the host hemostatic and inflammatory systems during blood feeding. In addition, sand fly salivary proteins affect host immunity and have the potential to be a vaccine against Leishmania infection. In the present study, the salivary gland transcripts of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuadorian and Peruvian Andes, were analyzed by sequencing randomly selected clones of the salivary gland cDNA library of this sand fly. This resulted in the identification of the most abundant transcripts coding for secreted proteins. These proteins were homologous to the salivary molecules present in other sand flies including the RGD-containing peptide, PpSP15/SL1 family protein, yellow-related protein, putative apyrase, antigen 5-related protein, D7 family protein, and 27 kDa salivary protein. Of note, homologues of maxadilan, an active vasodilator abundantly present in saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis, were not identified. This analysis is the first description of salivary proteins from a sand fly of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia and from vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. The present analysis will provide further insights into the evolution of salivary components in blood sucking arthropods. PMID:23000112

  5. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae parasite of Monodelphis emiliae (Marsupiala: Didelphidae from Amazonian Brazil

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    Lainson R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp., is described in the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis emiliae (Thomas, 1912 from primary forest in the Salobo area of the Serra dos Carajás (6° S, 50° 18′ W Pará State, North Brazil. Two morphologically different trypomastigotes were noted. Slender forms, regarded as immature parasites, have a poorly developed undulating membrane adhering closely to the body: large, broad forms with a well developed membrane are considered to be the mature trypomastigotes and have a mean total length of 71.2 μm (62.4-76.2 and a width of 6.1 (5.0-8.0. Infections studied in two opossums were of very low parasitaemia. The large size of T. (M. saloboense readily distinguishes it from the two previously described members of the subgenus Megatrypanum of neotropical marsupials, T. (M. freitasi Régo et al., 1957 of Didelphis azarae and D. marsupialis, and T. (M. samueli Mello, 1977 of Monodelphis domesticus, which measure only 49.0-51.5 μm and 42.4 μm respectively. No infections were obtained in hamsters inoculated with triturated liver and spleen from one infected M. emiliae, or in laboratory mice inoculated with epimastigotes from a blood-agar culture. No division stages could be detected in the internal organs or the peripheral blood.

  6. Taxonomic relationships among Phenacomys voles as inferred by cytochrome b

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    Bellinger, M.R.; Haig, S.M.; Forsman, E.D.; Mullins, T.D.

    2005-01-01

    Taxonomic relationships among red tree voles (Phenacomys longicaudus longicaudus, P. l. silvicola), the Sonoma tree vole (P. pomo), the white-footed vole (P. albipes), and the heather vole (P. intermedius) were examined using 664 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results indicate specific differences among red tree voles, Sonoma tree voles, white-footed voles, and heather voles, but no clear difference between the 2 Oregon subspecies of red tree voles (P. l. longicaudus and P. l. silvicola). Our data further indicated a close relationship between tree voles and albipes, validating inclusion of albipes in the subgenus Arborimus. These 3 congeners shared a closer relationship to P. intermedius than to other arvicolids. A moderate association between porno and albipes was indicated by maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining phylogenetic analyses. Molecular clock estimates suggest a Pleistocene radiation of the Arborimus clade, which is concordant with pulses of diversification observed in other murid rodents. The generic rank of Arborimus is subject to interpretation of data.

  7. Cyclopoid and calanoid copepod biodiversity in Indonesia

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    Victor R. Alekseev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent limnological investigations conducted on the large lakes of Indonesia provide valuable physical and ecological data for future environmental and developmental programmes, yet few studies have focused on zooplankton taxonomy. Here we describe Eucyclops troposperatus Alekseev et Yusoff n. sp. from a pond in Sumatra, and Mesocyclops jakartensis Alekseev n. sp. from a city pond in Jakarta, Java. In the pelagic zone of the lakes of Sulawesi we found only few copepod species. For the endemic cyclopoid Tropocyclops matanoensis Defaye, 2007, we propose a new subgenus, Defayeicyclops n. subg., and provide more data on the morphology as well as scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning images of Tropocyclops (Defayeicyclops matanoensis. Two other cyclopoid species were possibly introduced to Sulawesi: Mesocyclops aequatorialis similis Van de Velde, 1984 from Africa and Thermocyclops crassus (Fischer, 1853 from Eurasia. A new subspecies, Phyllodiaptomus praedictus sulawesensis Alekseev et Vaillant n. ssp. (Calanoida, Diaptomidae, is described from the plankton of lake Tondano, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The new subspecies resembles P. blanci (de Guerne et Richard, 1896 and P. wellekensae Dumont et Reddy, 1992. Phyllodiaptomus praedictus sulawesensis appears to be endemic to Sulawesi island. The form matanensis formerly treated as a subspecies of Eodiaptomus wolterecki Brehm, 1933 is here elevated to species rank, E. matanensis Brehm, 1933. A preliminary list of the copepod species found in Sulawesi and other large islands of Indonesia now includes more than 60 species. An updated key to the Southeast Asian species of the genus Eucyclops is provided.

  8. Higher phylogeny of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritidae, Dacini): localised partition conflicts and a novel generic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Verwimp, Christophe; White, Ian M; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships within and among subtribes of the fruit fly tribe Dacini (Ceratitidina, Dacina, Gastrozonina) were investigated by sequencing four mitochondrial and one nuclear gene fragment. Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses were implemented on two datasets. The first, aiming at obtaining the strongest phylogenetic signal (yet, having lower taxon coverage), consisted of 98 vouchers and 2338 concatenated base pairs (bp). The second, aiming at obtaining the largest taxonomic coverage (yet, providing lower resolution), included 159 vouchers and 1200 concatenated bp. Phylogenetic relationships inferred by different tree reconstruction methods were largely congruent and showed a general agreement between concatenated tree topologies. Yet, local conflicts in phylogenetic signals evidenced a number of critical sectors in the phylogeny of Dacini fruit flies. All three Dacini subtribes were recovered as monophyletic. Yet, within the subtribe Ceratitidina only Perilampsis and Capparimyia formed well-resolved monophyletic groups while Ceratitis and Trirhithrum did not. Carpophthoromyia was paraphyletic because it included Trirhithrum demeyeri and Ceratitis connexa. Complex phylogenetic relationships and localised conflict in phylogenetic signals were observed within subtribe Dacina with (a) Dacus, (b) Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) and (c) all other Bactrocera species forming separate clades. The subgenus Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) is therefore raised to generic rank (Zeugodacus Hendel stat. nov.). Additionally, Bactrocera subgenera grouped under the Zeugodacus group should be considered under new generic combinations. Although there are indications that Zeugodacus and Dacus are sister groups, the exact relationship between Zeugodacus stat. nov., Dacus and Bactrocera still needs to be properly resolved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

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    Diana F. Tomback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz conifer communities in the alpine-treeline ecotone (ATE, and thus potentially provides capacity for critical ecosystem services such as snow retention and soil stabilization. The invasive, exotic pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine communities, to their northern limits. Here, we synthesize data from 10 studies to document geographic variation in structure, conifer species, and understory plants in whitebark pine treeline communities, and examine the potential role of these communities in snow retention and regulating downstream flows. Whitebark pine mortality is predicted to alter treeline community composition, structure, and function. Whitebark pine losses in the ATE may also alter response to climate warming. Efforts to restore whitebark pine have thus far been limited to subalpine communities, particularly through planting seedlings with potential blister rust resistance. We discuss whether restoration strategies might be appropriate for treeline communities.

  10. Endemism and long distance dispersal in the waterfleas of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damme, Kay Van

    2016-08-22

    Easter Island is known for a depauperate terrestrial and aquatic biota. The discovery of new taxa is unusual, even among the island's micro-invertebrates. A new cladoceran, Ovalona pascua sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae), is described from freshwater environments. The chydorid, the only known extant cladoceran on the island, is the dominant aquatic invertebrate in the surface waters. Based on detailed morphological comparison, including a character similarity matrix applied across the species in the genus (12 characters/17 spp), the new taxon is proposed here as an insular endemic with affinities in the East (New World). The revision challenges the theory that invasive zooplankton species were introduced from the subantarctic islands during the 18th century. Human introduction is not the main mechanism through which cladocerans could have arrived on Easter Island. Late Pleistocene - Early Holocene fossils in Cañellas-Boltà et al. (2012) from cores in Rano Raraku Lake are identified here as Daphnia O.F. Müller, 1785 (subgenus Ctenodaphnia Dybowski & Grochowski, 1895). The establishment of Daphnia before human colonization on Easter Island provides strong proof of successful long distance dispersal by ephippia over thousands of kilometers of open sea.

  11. Phylogeny of sharks of the family Triakidae (Carcharhiniformes) and its implications for the evolution of carcharhiniform placental viviparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J Andrés; Ryburn, Julie A; Fedrigo, Olivier; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2006-07-01

    We present a study of inter- and intra-familial relationships of the carcharhiniform shark family Triakidae aimed at testing existing hypotheses of relationships for this group and at improving understanding of the evolution of reproductive traits in elasmobranchs. Our analyses and conclusions are based on evidence from DNA sequences of four protein-coding genes (three from the mitochondrial genome and a single copy nuclear gene) from eight of the nine genera and 20 of the 39 species currently assigned to the Triakidae. The sequence data offer strong support for the following previously proposed triakid clades: Galeorhinini (Hypogaleus+Galeorhinus); a subset of the Iagini (Furgaleus+Hemitriakis but not Iago); and part of the Triakinae (Mustelus, Scylliogaleus and part of Triakis). Interestingly, the molecular data provide considerable evidence of paraphyly of the genera Triakis and Mustelus. Our results suggest that the subgenera Triakis and Cazon of Triakis represent two distinct lineages that are only distantly related and that the genus Mustelus as currently defined does not constitute a monophyletic assemblage unless S. quecketti and some species of Triakis (subgenus Cazon) are included in Mustelus. Within our sample of species of Mustelus (including Cazon and Scylliogaleus), the sequence data support two well-defined clades that can be diagnosed by mode of reproduction (placental vs. aplacental species). The phylogenetic framework presented here is used to infer key events in the evolution and loss of placental viviparity among carcharhiniform sharks.

  12. New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp. (Cactaceae) ("San Pedro") and their relevance to shamanic practice.

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    Ogunbodede, Olabode; McCombs, Douglas; Trout, Keeper; Daley, Paul; Terry, Martin

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the present study is to determine in a procedurally uniform manner the mescaline concentrations in stem tissue of 14 taxa/cultivars of the subgenus Trichocereus of the genus Echinopsis (Cactaceae) and to evaluate the relationship (if any) between mescaline concentration and actual shamanic use of these plants. Columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis, some of which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes by South American shamans in traditional medicine, were selected for analysis because they were vegetative clones of plants of documented geographic origin and/or because they were known to be used by practitioners of shamanism. Mescaline content of the cortical stem chlorenchyma of each cactus was determined by Soxhlet extraction with methanol, followed by acid-base extraction with water and dichloromethane, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). By virtue of the consistent analytical procedures used, comparable alkaloid concentrations were obtained that facilitated the ranking of the various selected species and cultivars of Echinopsis, all of which exhibited positive mescaline contents. The range of mescaline concentrations across the 14 taxa/cultivars spanned two orders of magnitude, from 0.053% to 4.7% by dry weight. The mescaline concentrations reported here largely support the hypothesis that plants with the highest mescaline concentrations - particularly E. pachanoi from Peru - are most associated with documented shamanic use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuevos registros de ácaros oribátidos (Acari: Oribatida para la Argentina New records of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida for Argentina

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    Cecilia Accattoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicación constituye un aporte al conocimiento del elenco oribatológico en suelos de Argentina, basado en relevamientos realizados en un parque urbano de la ciudad de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Se informan dos nuevas citas de géneros, una de subgénero y siete de especies para el país. Además, cinco de las especies halladas serían nuevas para la ciencia. Se incorporan ocho géneros y siete especies a las registradas para la Provincia de Buenos Aires.This paper is a contribution to the knowledge of assemblages of oribatid mites in soils of Argentina. The study is based on samples from an urban forest in the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires. New records for the country are provided for two genera, one subgenus and seven species. Furthermore, five of the species found are possibly new to science. Eight genera and seven species are incorporated to the record of the Buenos Aires province.

  14. Comportamiento de reubicación del alimento de Eucranium, escarabajo estercolero endémico de la Argentina y comparación con Scarabaeus (Pachysoma del sudoeste de África (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae Food relocation and nesting behavior of the Argentinian dung beetle genus Eucranium and comparison with the southwest African Scarabaeus (Pachysoma (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae

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    Federico C. Ocampo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el comportamiento de reubicación del alimento del género sudamericano Eucranium Brullé basado en observaciones en su ambiente natural. La preferencia de alimento, el modo de transportarlo, preferencia de hábitat, y período de actividad en la superficie son discutidos para dos especies: E. arachnoides Brullé y E. planicolle Burmeister. La biología y comportamiento de relocación del alimento de Eucranium es comparado con la biología y comportamiento del subgénero del sudoeste de África Scarabaeus (Pachysoma MacLeay, el cual es similar morfológicamente. La convergencia adaptativa a los ambientes áridos de Eucranium y S. (Pachysoma son discutidas.The food relocation and nesting behavior of the South American genus Eucranium Brullé is described based on observations carried out under natural conditions. Food preference, food transportation, period of surface activity, and habitat preference are described for two species, E. arachnoides Brullé and E. planicolle Burmeister. The biology and food relocation behavior of Eucranium is compared with that of the morphologically similar South African subgenus Scarabaeus (Pachysoma MacLeay. The convergent adaptations to psamophilous habitats of Eucranium and S. (Pachysoma are discussed.

  15. How much variation can one ant species hold? Species delimitation in the Crematogaster kelleri-group in Madagascar.

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    Bonnie B Blaimer

    Full Text Available We investigated the species-level taxonomy of the Malagasy Crematogaster (Crematogaster kelleri-group and an additional more distantly related species of the same subgenus. Morphological data from worker, queen and male ants, as well as genetic data from three nuclear genes (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbomoylphosphate synthase and one mitochondrial marker (cytochrome oxidase I led to the recognition of six species. Within the C. kelleri-group, three new species are described: C. hazolava Blaimer sp. n., C. hafahafa Blaimer sp. n. and C. tavaratra Blaimer sp. n. The previously described taxa C. kelleri Forel and C. madagascariensis André are validated by our analysis. Conversely, our data suggests synonymy of C. adrepens Forel (with C. kelleri and C. gibba Emery (with C. madagascariensis. A more distantly related and phylogenetically isolated species, C. tsisitsilo Blaimer sp. n., is further described. We report high levels of morphological and molecular variation in C. kelleri and illustrate that this variation can be explained partly by geography. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker ants, as well as on queen and male ants where available, are presented for all six species. Our work highlights the elevated species richness of Crematogaster ants throughout Madagascar's humid forests, especially in the far northern tip of the island, and the need to use multiple data sources to ensure clear demarcation of this diversity.

  16. Different Lactobacillus populations dominate in "Chorizo de León" manufacturing performed in different production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Narciso M; De Filippis, Francesca; Sanz, José Javier; García-Fernández, María Del Camino; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Ercolini, Danilo; Hernández, Marta

    2018-04-01

    "Chorizo de Léon" is a high-value Spanish dry fermented sausage traditionally manufactured without the use of starter cultures, owing to the activity of a house-specific autochthonous microbiota that naturally contaminates the meat from the environment, the equipment and the raw materials. Lactic acid bacteria (particularly Lactobacillus) and coagulase-negative cocci (mainly Staphylococcus) have been reported as the most important bacterial groups regarding the organoleptic and safety properties of the dry fermented sausages. In this study, samples from raw minced meat to final products were taken from five different producers and the microbial diversity was investigated by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The diverse microbial composition observed during the first stages of "Chorizo de Léon" evolved during ripening to a microbiota mainly composed by Lactobacillus in the final product. Oligotyping performed on 16S rRNA gene sequences of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus populations revealed sub-genus level diversity within the different manufacturers, likely responsible of the characteristic organoleptic properties of the products from different companies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries

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    Clive Richard Davies

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control.

  18. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement "La Cabaña", in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011.The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n=654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n=7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n=3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n=2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n=1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168-3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in "La Cabaña". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sistemática, filogenia e distribuição geográfica das espécies sul-americanas de Centris (Paracentris Cameron, 1903 e de Centris (Penthemisia Moure, 1950, incluindo uma análise filogenética do "grupo Centris" sensu Ayala, 1998 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Centridini

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    Fernando César Vieira Zanella

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematics, phylogeny and geographical distribution of the South American species of Centris (Paracentris Cameron, 1903, and Centris (Penthemisia Moure, 1950, including a phylogenetic analysis of the "Centris group" sensu Ayala, 1998 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Centridini. A cladistic analysis with the objective of testing the hypothesis of monophily of Centris (Paracentris Cameron, 1903, and of studying its phylogenetic relationships with the other subgenera that belong to the Centris group, sensu Ayala, 1998, and the relationships among the species that occur in South America, is presented. Centris (Paracentris is a group of New World bees of amphitropical distribution, especially diversified in the Andes and in the xeric areas of South and North America. Thirty-one species were included in the analysis, four considered as outgroup, and 49 characters, all from external morphology and genitalia of adult specimens. Parsimony analyses with equal weights for the characters and successive weighting were performed with the programs NONA and PAUP, and analyses of implied weighting with the program PeeWee. The strict consensus among the trees obtained in all the analyses indicates that C. (Paracentris, as previously recognized, is a paraphyletic group. In order to eliminate that condition, the subgenera C. (Acritocentris, C. (Exallocentris and C. (Xerocentris, all described by SNELLING (1974 are synonymized under C. (Paracentris. The subgenus C. (Penthemisia Moure, 1950, previously considered a synonym of C. (Paracentris, is reinstated, but in a more restricted sense than originally proposed and with the following species: Centris brethesi Schrottky, 1902; C. buchholzi Herbst, 1918; C. chilensis (Spinola, 1851, C. mixta mixta Friese, 1904, and C. mixta tamarugalis Toro & Chiappa, 1989. Centris mixta, previously recognized as the only South American species of the subgenus C. (Xerocentris, a group supposedly amphitropical, came out as the sister-species of

  20. Descripción de una especie nueva de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del subgénero Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911 (Coleoptera, Meloidae del norte de Marruecos

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    García-París, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Meloe (Coleoptera: Meloidae, subgenus Eurymeloe, included in the M. rugosus species group, related to species of the M. murinus subgroup. The specimens of the new species studied were found along the western Rif mountain chain (Talassemtane National Park in northwestern Morocco, and were located in hiperhumid montane forest habitats. The new species is characterized by having: a dull black coloration with greyish hue; a very short, curved, and not dense, yellow-whitish pilosity, which does not form tufts; a subrectangular transverse pronotum with a marked median grove and two longitudinal lateral depressions; head and pronotum punctures well impressed and subconfluent; elytra sligtly rugose; tarsomeres with slightly developed ventral pads; aedeagus with curved parameres, laterally depressed, apically pointed, with the distal ventral hook of median lobe close to apex. The new taxon es phenetically similar to M. nanus, M. baudueri and M. flavicomus, but distinguished from all of them by the mentioned morphological external and male genitalia characters. The distribution of the new species, only known from its type locality, overlaps those of M. murinus, M. nanus and possibly M. baudueri, but so far it has not been found in strict sympatry with any of them. The habitat type inhabited by the new species, mountain areas with mixed forests of Pinus pinaster hamiltonii var. maghrebiana, P. nigra mauritanica and Abies maroccana (endemic taxa of the limestone northwestern Rif mountain chain, contrasts with other habitat types recorded for species of the M. (E. murinus species subgroup of the subgenus Eurymeloe.Se describe una especie nueva de Meloe (Coleoptera: Meloidae del subgénero Eurymeloe, del grupo de M. rugosus, relacionada con especies del subgrupo de M. murinus. Los ejemplares estudiados de la especie nueva proceden del Rif occidental (Parque Nacional de Talassemtane, dorsal caliza rifeña, en el noroeste de

  1. Biologia reprodutiva de Passiflora capsularis L. e P. pohlii Mast. (Decaloba, Passifloraceae Reproductive biology of Passiflora capsularis L. e P. pohlii Mast. (Decaloba, Passifloracae

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    Flávia Santos Faria

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O subgênero Decaloba, ao qual pertencem as espécies de Passiflora L. com flores pequenas, é pouco estudado do ponto de vista reprodutivo, o qual pode contribuir para esclarecimento das relações filogenéticas no gênero Passiflora. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia reprodutiva e a polinização de populações de duas espécies desse subgênero, P. capsularis e P. pohlii, ocorrentes no estado de Minas Gerais. Determinou-se a receptividade do estigma, viabilidade dos grãos de pólen e a concentração do néctar. Foram realizadas polinizações controladas para verificar o sistema reprodutivo. Foram registrados os visitantes florais e a carga polínica. As flores de ambas as espécies abrem à noite; em P. pohlii a antese iniciou-se por volta das 3 h e a senescência ocorreu por volta das 11 h, já em P. capsularis, a abertura se deu no mesmo horário, mas a senescência ocorreu por volta das 14h. A concentração do néctar e viabilidade do pólen foram, respectivamente, 34,88 ± 7,66% e 80 ± 0,15% em P. pohlii e 22,33 ± 5,82% e 92 ± 0,06% em P. capsularis. Passiflora pohlii é alógama e autoincompatível, enquanto que P. capsularis é autógama e autocompatível. Passiflora pohlii teve como polinizadores três espécies de abelhas do gênero Ptiloglossa (Colletidae, enquanto que em P. capsularis os visitantes florais observados foram considerados pilhadores de pólen e néctar. A antese noturna encontrada nas espécies de Passiflora estudadas sugere haver uma relação evolutiva entre espécies de Passiflora subg. Decaloba e himenópteros com hábito noturno, especialmente abelhas do gênero Ptiloglossa.The subgenus Decaloba (Passifloraceae is poorly studied on reproductive aspects, which may help our understanding on phylogenetic relationships in the genus. The purpose of this work was to study the reproductive biology and pollination of Passiflora pohlii and P. capsularis, two species belonging to this subgenus with

  2. Aspectos da evolução e da geografia do gênero Philodendron Schott (Araceae

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    Simon J Mayo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Philodendron se divide em três subgêneros, cada um com distintos padrões de morfologia, anatomia e distribuição. Em análise filogenética, o subgêneiro Meconostigma, o único com centro de especiação no sudeste do Brasil, mostra-se bastante apomórfico, ainda que cladisticamente primitivo no gênero. Análises fenéticas mostram que o gênero se constitue um taxon distinto, apesar de não ter um só caráter definitivo. Mostram também que feneticamente, Philodendron está mais perto de certos gêneros da África ocidental (Culcasia, Cercestis, Rhektophyllum do que dos gêneros principalmente asiáticos com os quais está ligado pela classificação tradicional. A morfologia do gineceu varia muito no subgênero Meconostigma, com as formas mais simples ocorrendo no sudeste do Brasil e as mais elaboradas na Amazônia. Comparação com o "grupo de fora" indica que as formas mais simples são primitivas no subgênero, apontanto as espécies principalmente rupícolas, P. adamantinum Schott e P. leal-costae Mayo & G.M.Barroso, como as de gineceus mais primitivos. Com base na morfologia do gineceu, poderia ser sugerido que o subgênero evoluiu em princípio na parte oriental do Brasil, como um grupo adaptado aos habitats abertos, e que na bacia amazônica ele chegou somente mais tarde. Os dois outros subgêneros, Philodendron e Pteromischum, surgiram posteriormente, principalmente como epífitas de florestas úmidas, e se mostram hoje mais diversos no nordeste da América do SulThe genus Philodendron can be divided into three subgenera which are very distinct in vegetative and floral morphology, floral anatomy and distribution. Phylogenetic and phenetic analysis of floral characters indicate that subgenus Meconostigma, which unlike subgenera Philodendron and Pteromischum has a predominantly southeastern range in South America, is highly apomorphic but cladistically primitive in the genus. Phenetic analyses show that the genus can be

  3. Molecular characterization and classification of Trypanosoma spp. Venezuelan isolates based on microsatellite markers and kinetoplast maxicircle genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E; Perrone, T; Recchimuzzi, G; Cardozo, I; Biteau, N; Aso, P M; Mijares, A; Baltz, T; Berthier, D; Balzano-Nogueira, L; Gonzatti, M I

    2015-10-15

    Livestock trypanosomoses, caused by three species of the Trypanozoon subgenus, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T. evansi and T. equiperdum is widely distributed throughout the world and constitutes an important limitation for the production of animal protein. T. evansi and T. equiperdum are morphologically indistinguishable parasites that evolved from a common ancestor but acquired important biological differences, including host range, mode of transmission, distribution, clinical symptoms and pathogenicity. At a molecular level, T. evansi is characterized by the complete loss of the maxicircles of the kinetoplastic DNA, while T. equiperdum has retained maxicircle fragments similar to those present in T. brucei. T. evansi causes the disease known as Surra, Derrengadera or "mal de cadeiras", while T. equiperdum is the etiological agent of dourine or "mal du coit", characterized by venereal transmission and white patches in the genitalia. Nine Venezuelan Trypanosoma spp. isolates, from horse, donkey or capybara were genotyped and classified using microsatellite analyses and maxicircle genes. The variables from the microsatellite data and the Procyclin PE repeats matrices were combined using the Hill-Smith method and compared to a group of T. evansi, T. equiperdum and T. brucei reference strains from South America, Asia and Africa using Coinertia analysis. Four maxicircle genes (cytb, cox1, a6 and nd8) were amplified by PCRfrom TeAp-N/D1 and TeGu-N/D1, the two Venezuelan isolates that grouped with the T. equiperdum STIB841/OVI strain. These maxicircle sequences were analyzed by nucleotide BLAST and aligned toorthologous genes from the Trypanozoon subgenus by MUSCLE tools. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) with the MEGA5.1® software. We characterized microsatellite markers and Procyclin PE repeats of nine Venezuelan Trypanosoma spp. isolates with various degrees of virulence in a mouse model, and compared them to a

  4. Comparative genetic structure in pines: evolutionary and conservation consequences Estructura genética comparada en pinos: consecuencias evolutivas y para la conservación

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    PATRICIA DELGADO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Pines have been the focus of several studies that estimate population genetic parameters using both allozymes and chloroplast single sequence repeats (SSRs. Also, the genus has also been recently studied using molecular systematics so that we now have a more clear understanding of their evolutionary history. With this background we studied comparatively the genetic structure in pines. Expected heterozygosity is particularly constant with a 99 % confidence interval between 0.19 and 0.23 in species that have been studied until now using allozymes. There is a significant proportion of species (9/41 that show high population differentiation estimates (Fst = or larger than 0.15 and five of these have large and wingless seeds probably associated with low densities, bird dispersal mechanisms and resistance to water stress. These species include the North American pinyon pines. Outcrossing rates are also constant among species from both subgenus Pinus and subgenus Strobus, which probably reflects a selective limit to the amount of deleterious alleles that can be maintained in pine species and this also affects inbreeding levels. We also explored the data published using microsatellites in pines and conclude that these markers uncover a higher proportion of variation and genetic differentiation as expected and that the evolutionary models that are used to derive the population genetic structure estimators should take into account other sources of mutation (point mutations, larger insertions and or deletions and duplications to better understand the comparative applications of these molecular markersLos pinos han sido el objeto de varios estudios para estimar los parámetros genéticos de la población utilizando tanto aloenzimas como fragmentos repetidos de secuencia sencilla (RSSs de cloroplasto. Este género también ha sido estudiado recientemente utilizando sistemática molecular de tal manera que ahora tenemos un entendimiento más claro de su

  5. Phylogeography of Pinus armandii and its relatives: heterogeneous contributions of geography and climate changes to the genetic differentiation and diversification of Chinese white pines.

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    Liu Liu

    Full Text Available Geographic barriers and Quaternary climate changes are two major forces driving the evolution, speciation, and genetic structuring of extant organisms. In this study, we used Pinus armandii and eleven other Asian white pines (subsection Strobus, subgenus Pinus to explore the influences of geographic factors and Pleistocene climatic oscillations on species in South China, a region known to be centers of plant endemism and biodiversity hotspots. Range-wide patterns of genetic variation were investigated using chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA markers, with extensive sampling throughout the entire range of P. armandii. Both cpDNA and mtDNA revealed that P. armandii exhibits high levels of genetic diversity and significant population differentiation. Three geographically distinct subdivisions corresponding to the Qinling-Daba Mountains (QDM, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM and Yungui Plateau (YGP were revealed in mainland China by cpDNA. Their break zone was located in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. A series of massive mountains, induced by the QTP uplift, imposed significant geographic barriers to genetic exchange. The disjunct distribution patterns of ancestral haplotypes suggest that a large continuous population of the white pines may have existed from southwest to subtropical China. Repeated range shifts in response to the Pleistocene glaciations led to the isolation and diversification of the subtropical species. The two Taiwanese white pines share a common ancestor with the species in mainland China and obtain their chloroplasts via long-distance pollen dispersal from North Asian pines. Distinct genetic patterns were detected in populations from the Qinling-Daba Mountains, Yungui Plateau, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, and subtropical China, indicating significant contributions of geographic factors to the genetic differentiation in white pines. Our study depicts a clear picture of the evolutionary history of

  6. RAPD and Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Analyses Reveal Zea nicaraguensis as a Section Luxuriantes Species Close to Zea luxurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yanli; Zheng, Mingmin; Rong, Tingzhao; Tang, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Genetic relationship of a newly discovered teosinte from Nicaragua, Zea nicaraguensis with waterlogging tolerance, was determined based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA using 14 accessions from Zea species. RAPD analysis showed that a total of 5,303 fragments were produced by 136 random decamer primers, of which 84.86% bands were polymorphic. RAPD-based UPGMA analysis demonstrated that the genus Zea can be divided into section Luxuriantes including Zea diploperennis, Zea luxurians, Zea perennis and Zea nicaraguensis, and section Zea including Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis and Zea mays ssp. mays. ITS sequence analysis showed the lengths of the entire ITS region of the 14 taxa in Zea varied from 597 to 605 bp. The average GC content was 67.8%. In addition to the insertion/deletions, 78 variable sites were recorded in the total ITS region with 47 in ITS1, 5 in 5.8S, and 26 in ITS2. Sequences of these taxa were analyzed with neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods to construct the phylogenetic trees, selecting Tripsacum dactyloides L. as the outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships of Zea species inferred from the ITS sequences are highly concordant with the RAPD evidence that resolved two major subgenus clades. Both RAPD and ITS sequence analyses indicate that Zea nicaraguensis is more closely related to Zea luxurians than the other teosintes and cultivated maize, which should be regarded as a section Luxuriantes species. PMID:21525982

  7. Copy number of the transposon, Pokey, in rDNA is positively correlated with rDNA copy number in Daphnia obtuse [corrected].

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    Kaitlynn LeRiche

    Full Text Available Pokey is a class II DNA transposon that inserts into 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes and other genomic regions of species in the subgenus, Daphnia. Two divergent lineages, PokeyA and PokeyB have been identified. Recombination between misaligned rRNA genes changes their number and the number of Pokey elements. We used quantitative PCR (qPCR to estimate rRNA gene and Pokey number in isolates from natural populations of Daphnia obtusa, and in clonally-propagated mutation accumulation lines (MAL initiated from a single D. obtusa female. The change in direction and magnitude of Pokey and rRNA gene number did not show a consistent pattern across ∼ 87 generations in the MAL; however, Pokey and rRNA gene number changed in concert. PokeyA and 28S gene number were positively correlated in the isolates from both natural populations and the MAL. PokeyB number was much lower than PokeyA in both MAL and natural population isolates, and showed no correlation with 28S gene number. Preliminary analysis did not detect PokeyB outside rDNA in any isolates and detected only 0 to 4 copies of PokeyA outside rDNA indicating that Pokey may be primarily an rDNA element in D. obtusa. The recombination rate in this species is high and the average size of the rDNA locus is about twice as large as that in other Daphnia species such as D. pulicaria and D. pulex, which may have facilitated expansion of PokeyA to much higher numbers in D. obtusa rDNA than these other species.

  8. A Historical Overview of the Classification, Evolution, and Dispersion of Leishmania Parasites and Sandflies.

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    Mohammad Akhoundi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the major evolutionary historical events among Leishmania, sandflies, and the associated animal reservoirs in detail, in accordance with the geographical evolution of the Earth, which has not been previously discussed on a large scale.Leishmania and sandfly classification has always been a controversial matter, and the increasing number of species currently described further complicates this issue. Despite several hypotheses on the origin, evolution, and distribution of Leishmania and sandflies in the Old and New World, no consistent agreement exists regarding dissemination of the actors that play roles in leishmaniasis. For this purpose, we present here three centuries of research on sandflies and Leishmania descriptions, as well as a complete description of Leishmania and sandfly fossils and the emergence date of each Leishmania and sandfly group during different geographical periods, from 550 million years ago until now. We discuss critically the different approaches that were used for Leishmana and sandfly classification and their synonymies, proposing an updated classification for each species of Leishmania and sandfly. We update information on the current distribution and dispersion of different species of Leishmania (53, sandflies (more than 800 at genus or subgenus level, and animal reservoirs in each of the following geographical ecozones: Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Malagasy, and Australian. We propose an updated list of the potential and proven sandfly vectors for each Leishmania species in the Old and New World. Finally, we address a classical question about digenetic Leishmania evolution: which was the first host, a vertebrate or an invertebrate?We propose an updated view of events that have played important roles in the geographical dispersion of sandflies, in relation to both the Leishmania species they transmit and the animal reservoirs of the parasites.

  9. A Historical Overview of the Classification, Evolution, and Dispersion of Leishmania Parasites and Sandflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Kuhls, Katrin; Cannet, Arnaud; Votýpka, Jan; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal; Sereno, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to describe the major evolutionary historical events among Leishmania, sandflies, and the associated animal reservoirs in detail, in accordance with the geographical evolution of the Earth, which has not been previously discussed on a large scale. Methodology and Principal Findings Leishmania and sandfly classification has always been a controversial matter, and the increasing number of species currently described further complicates this issue. Despite several hypotheses on the origin, evolution, and distribution of Leishmania and sandflies in the Old and New World, no consistent agreement exists regarding dissemination of the actors that play roles in leishmaniasis. For this purpose, we present here three centuries of research on sandflies and Leishmania descriptions, as well as a complete description of Leishmania and sandfly fossils and the emergence date of each Leishmania and sandfly group during different geographical periods, from 550 million years ago until now. We discuss critically the different approaches that were used for Leishmana and sandfly classification and their synonymies, proposing an updated classification for each species of Leishmania and sandfly. We update information on the current distribution and dispersion of different species of Leishmania (53), sandflies (more than 800 at genus or subgenus level), and animal reservoirs in each of the following geographical ecozones: Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Malagasy, and Australian. We propose an updated list of the potential and proven sandfly vectors for each Leishmania species in the Old and New World. Finally, we address a classical question about digenetic Leishmania evolution: which was the first host, a vertebrate or an invertebrate? Conclusions and Significance We propose an updated view of events that have played important roles in the geographical dispersion of sandflies, in relation to both the Leishmania species they

  10. HOW DO WE IDENTIFY MICRONYCTERIS (SCHIZONYCETRIS SANBORNI SIMMONS, 1996 (CHIROPTERA, PHYLLOSTOMIDAE RELIABLY AND WHERE WE CAN FIND THIS SPECIES IN BRAZIL?

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    ANDERSON FEIJÓ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronycteris is divided into four subgenera, Micronycteris, Leuconycteris, Xenoctenes, and Schizonycteris. The latter includes Micronycteris (Schizonycteris minuta, Micronycteris (S. schmidtorum, Micronycteris (S. sanborni and Micronycteris (S. yatesi. Little is known of the biology of M. (S. sanborni, which is widely distributed in the dry forests of South America, but is known from only few sites. The scarcity of records of M. sanborni appears to be at least partly related to the difficulty of differentiating this species from the other members of the subgenus Schizonycteris. The present study identifies the key traits that distinguish this species from other Schizonycteris, reviews the geographic distribution of the species, and presents some notes on breeding patterns. Six new localities are presented for M. sanborni, and are analyzed together with those available in the literature, providing new insights into ecological and zoogeographic patterns. A number of the diagnostic features established by Simmons (1996 in the description of M. sanborni proved to have little taxonomic value, especially for the differentiation of M. minuta and M. yatesi, which it closely resembles. The primary external difference is the pure white color of the ventral pelage and the proportion of the white base (2/3-4/5 of the dorsal hair in M. sanborni, in contrast with dirty white or pale gray and a much shorter white base of the dorsal hair in the other species. A number of cranial traits are also important. The distributional data now indicate that M. sanborni occurs mainly in mesic and open areas, including disturbed habitats, in the Caatinga scrublands and the Cerrado savannas of northeastern Brazil, especially in areas with rocky outcrops. Micronycteris sanborni appears to be monoestrous, with births coinciding with the rainy season.

  11. Strain diversity and host specificity in a specialized gut symbiont of honeybees and bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elijah; Ratnayeke, Nalin; Moran, Nancy A

    2016-09-01

    Host-restricted lineages of gut bacteria often include many closely related strains, but this fine-scale diversity is rarely investigated. The specialized gut symbiont Snodgrassella alvi has codiversified with honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus) for millions of years. Snodgrassella alvi strains are nearly identical for 16S rRNA gene sequences but have distinct gene repertoires potentially affecting host biology and community interactions. We examined S. alvi strain diversity within and between hosts using deep sequencing both of a single-copy coding gene (minD) and of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. We sampled workers from domestic and feral A. mellifera colonies and wild-caught Bombus representing 14 species. Conventional analyses of community profiles, based on the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, failed to expose most strain variation. In contrast, the minD analysis revealed extensive strain variation within and between host species and individuals. Snodgrassella alvi strain diversity is significantly higher in A. mellifera than in Bombus, supporting the hypothesis that colony founding by swarms of workers enables retention of more diversity than colony founding by a single queen. Most Bombus individuals (72%) are dominated by a single S. alvi strain, whereas most A. mellifera (86%) possess multiple strains. No S. alvi strains are shared between A. mellifera and Bombus, indicating some host specificity. Among Bombus-restricted strains, some are restricted to a single host species or subgenus, while others occur in multiple subgenera. Findings demonstrate that strains diversify both within and between host species and can be highly specific or relatively generalized in their host associations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis in an environmentally protected area in southeastern Brazil: Epidemiological and laboratory cross-sectional investigation of phlebotomine fauna, wild hosts and canine cases.

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    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a rapidly expanding zoonosis that shows increasing urbanization. Concern exists regarding the role of wildlife in visceral leishmaniasis (VL transmission, due to frequent natural or anthropogenic environmental changes that facilitate contact between wildlife, humans and their pets. The municipality of Campinas, in southeastern Brazil, initially recorded VL in 2009, when the first autochthonous case was confirmed in a dog living in an upscale residential condominium, located inside an environmentally protected area (EPA. Since then, disease transmission remains restricted to dogs inhabiting two geographically contiguous condominiums within the EPA.We conducted a cross-sectional study of the VL focus to investigate Leishmania spp. infection in domestic dogs, wild mammals and sand flies using molecular tools and recommended serological techniques. Canine seroprevalences of 1.5% and 1.2% were observed in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Six insect species, confirmed or suspected vectors or potential transmitters of Leishmania, were identified. Two specimens of the main L. (L. infantum vector in Brazil, Lutzomyia longipalpis, were captured in the EPA. Natural infection by L. (L. infantum was recorded in one Expapillata firmatoi specimen and two Pintomyia monticola. Natural infection by L. (L. infantum and Leishmania subgenus Viannia was also detected in two white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris, a known reservoir of VL. Geographical coordinates of each sampling of infected animals were plotted on a map of the EPA, demonstrating proximity between these animals, human residences, including the dogs positive for VL, and forest areas.The EPA, which is inhabited by humans, has an active VL focus. The risk of establishing and maintaining disease transmission foci in similar scenarios, i.e. wild areas that undergo environmental modifications, is evident. Moreover, different epidemiological profiles of VL must be included to elaborate

  13. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Menken, Steph B J

    2015-01-01

    Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different clades.

  14. Molecular phylogenies of figs and fig-pollinating wasps in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rhett D; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) is one of the most specific mutualisms, and thus is a model system for studying coevolution and cospeciation. In this study we focused on figs and their associated fig-wasps found in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Japan, because it has been suggested that breakdown in the specificity may occur in islands or at edge of a species' distribution. We collected 136 samples of 15 native fig species and 95 samples of 13 associated fig-wasps from all major islands in the Ryukyu Islands, including two fig species and one fig-wasp species endemic to the Bonin Islands. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using plastid DNA and nuclear ITS sequences for the figs and nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes for the fig-wasps to investigate the interspecific phylogenies and intraspecific variation within the mutualism. Our phylogenetic analyses using multiple samples per species show the single clade of each fig (except the Bonin endemic species) and fig-pollinating wasp species. Fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed well-supported clades in both plastid and ITS trees, except for the subgenus Urostigma. Likewise, fig wasps emerging from host fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed mostly well supported clades in both 28S and COI trees. Host specificity between the figs and fig-wasps functions strictly in these islands. There was very little sequence variation within species, and that no major geographic structure was found. The two Bonin endemic species (F. boninsimae and F. nishimurae) or their common ancestor and the associated fig-wasps (Blastophaga sp.) are apparently derived from F. erecta and its associated fig-wasps (B. nipponica), respectively, and probably migrated from the Ryukyu Islands.

  15. Evolutionary History of the Asian Horned Frogs (Megophryinae): Integrative Approaches to Timetree Dating in the Absence of a Fossil Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Stephen; Foley, Nicole M; Biju, S D; Teeling, Emma C

    2017-03-01

    Molecular dating studies typically need fossils to calibrate the analyses. Unfortunately, the fossil record is extremely poor or presently nonexistent for many species groups, rendering such dating analysis difficult. One such group is the Asian horned frogs (Megophryinae). Sampling all generic nomina, we combined a novel ∼5 kb dataset composed of four nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments to produce a robust phylogeny, with an extensive external morphological study to produce a working taxonomy for the group. Expanding the molecular dataset to include out-groups of fossil-represented ancestral anuran families, we compared the priorless RelTime dating method with the widely used prior-based Bayesian timetree method, MCMCtree, utilizing a novel combination of fossil priors for anuran phylogenetic dating. The phylogeny was then subjected to ancestral phylogeographic analyses, and dating estimates were compared with likely biogeographic vicariant events. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that previously proposed systematic hypotheses were incorrect due to the paraphyly of genera. Molecular phylogenetic, morphological, and timetree results support the recognition of Megophryinae as a single genus, Megophrys, with a subgenus level classification. Timetree results using RelTime better corresponded with the known fossil record for the out-group anuran tree. For the priorless in-group, it also outperformed MCMCtree when node date estimates were compared with likely influential historical biogeographic events, providing novel insights into the evolutionary history of this pan-Asian anuran group. Given a relatively small molecular dataset, and limited prior knowledge, this study demonstrates that the computationally rapid RelTime dating tool may outperform more popular and complex prior reliant timetree methodologies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of Gossypium L. using restriction fragment length polymorphism of repeated sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiping; Rong, Ying; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Zhang, Yang; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2015-10-01

    Cotton is the world's leading textile fiber crop and is also grown as a bioenergy and food crop. Knowledge of the phylogeny of closely related species and the genome origin and evolution of polyploid species is significant for advanced genomics research and breeding. We have reconstructed the phylogeny of the cotton genus, Gossypium L., and deciphered the genome origin and evolution of its five polyploid species by restriction fragment analysis of repeated sequences. Nuclear DNA of 84 accessions representing 35 species and all eight genomes of the genus were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree of the genus was reconstructed using the parsimony method on 1033 polymorphic repeated sequence restriction fragments. The genome origin of its polyploids was determined by calculating the diploid-polyploid restriction fragment correspondence (RFC). The tree is consistent with the morphological classification, genome designation and geographic distribution of the species at subgenus, section and subsection levels. Gossypium lobatum (D7) was unambiguously shown to have the highest RFC with the D-subgenomes of all five polyploids of the genus, while the common ancestor of Gossypium herbaceum (A1) and Gossypium arboreum (A2) likely contributed to the A-subgenomes of the polyploids. These results provide a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of the cotton genus and new insights into the genome origin and evolution of its polyploid species. The results also further demonstrate a simple, rapid and inexpensive method suitable for phylogenetic analysis of closely related species, especially congeneric species, and the inference of genome origin of polyploids that constitute over 70 % of flowering plants.

  17. High altitude Chironomidae (Diptera of Serra da Estrela (Portugal: Additions to the Portuguese and Iberian Peninsula fauna

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    Rieradevall, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chironomidae (Diptera fauna list for headwater streams of high altitude areas in Serra da Estrela (Portugal is presented, doubling the previously established species richness for the region. The findings include 17 new records for Portugal, which represent an increase to 219 species for the Continental Portugal Chironomidae fauna. Two new records were detected for the Iberian Peninsula: one species (Tvetenia duodenaria, and one subgenusPsectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–; and the presence of the genus Natarsia is confirmed. The last two occurrences correspond to monoespecific taxa of the Palearctic region. However, as taxonomic identification has been based on larval material, instead of pupae, pupal exuviae or imagoes, species level assignment is still uncertain.

    Se presenta una lista de especies de Chironomidae (Diptera recolectadas en los ríos de cabecera de zonas de alta montaña en la Serra da Estrela (Portugal. Con esta aportación se duplica la riqueza de especies regional conocida hasta el momento y se eleva la fauna de quironómidos del Portugal continental a 219 especies. Se incluyen dos nuevas citas para la Península Ibérica, una especie (Tvetenia duodenaria y un subgénero –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–, y se confirma la presencia del género Natarsia. En los dos últimos casos se trata de larvas de taxones hasta el momento monoespecíficos en la región paleárctica, pero al no haberse recolectado pupas o adultos no se puede asegurar la identificación específica.

  18. Parallel loss of plastid introns and their maturase in the genus Cuscuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Joel R; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; Leebens-Mack, Jim; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2009-06-19

    Plastid genome content and arrangement are highly conserved across most land plants and their closest relatives, streptophyte algae, with nearly all plastid introns having invaded the genome in their common ancestor at least 450 million years ago. One such intron, within the transfer RNA trnK-UUU, contains a large open reading frame that encodes a presumed intron maturase, matK. This gene is missing from the plastid genomes of two species in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta but is found in all other published land plant and streptophyte algal plastid genomes, including that of the nonphotosynthetic angiosperm Epifagus virginiana and two other species of Cuscuta. By examining matK and plastid intron distribution in Cuscuta, we add support to the hypothesis that its normal role is in splicing seven of the eight group IIA introns in the genome. We also analyze matK nucleotide sequences from Cuscuta species and relatives that retain matK to test whether changes in selective pressure in the maturase are associated with intron deletion. Stepwise loss of most group IIA introns from the plastid genome results in substantial change in selective pressure within the hypothetical RNA-binding domain of matK in both Cuscuta and Epifagus, either through evolution from a generalist to a specialist intron splicer or due to loss of a particular intron responsible for most of the constraint on the binding region. The possibility of intron-specific specialization in the X-domain is implicated by evidence of positive selection on the lineage leading to C. nitida in association with the loss of six of seven introns putatively spliced by matK. Moreover, transfer RNA gene deletion facilitated by parasitism combined with an unusually high rate of intron loss from remaining functional plastid genes created a unique circumstance on the lineage leading to Cuscuta subgenus Grammica that allowed elimination of matK in the most species-rich lineage of Cuscuta.

  19. Estudios citotaxonómicos en las especies ibéricas del género Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castroviejo, Santiago

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta is a genus of parasitic plants with great diversity in size, number and type of chromosomes. All the species included in Cuscuta subgenus Cuscuta are characterized by the holocentric chromosomes whereas they are monocentric in the species of subgenera Grammica and Monogyna. In this paper we summarize the data previously published on the karyology of the genus. study the chromosomic characterization of the Iberian species and identify new chromosome numbers for the genus and for several species. The chromosome numbers found in some species such as C. epithymum indícate the possibility of agmatoploidy and simploidy in the genus.Cuscuta es un género de plantas parásitas en el que hay una gran diversidad en tamaño, número y tipo de cromosomas. Todas las especies de Cuscuta subgén. Cuscuta se caracterizan por tener cromosomas holocéntricos, mientras que son monocéntricos en los subgéneros Grammica y Monogyna. En este trabajo se analizan los datos conocidos sobre la cariología del género, se estudia la caracterización cromosomática de las especies ibéricas y se aportan números que son nuevos tanto a nivel genérico como específico. Se han encontrado una serie de números cromosomáticos en C. epithymum que sugieren la posible existencia de agmatoploidía y simploidía en el género.

  20. Parallel loss of plastid introns and their maturase in the genus Cuscuta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R McNeal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastid genome content and arrangement are highly conserved across most land plants and their closest relatives, streptophyte algae, with nearly all plastid introns having invaded the genome in their common ancestor at least 450 million years ago. One such intron, within the transfer RNA trnK-UUU, contains a large open reading frame that encodes a presumed intron maturase, matK. This gene is missing from the plastid genomes of two species in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta but is found in all other published land plant and streptophyte algal plastid genomes, including that of the nonphotosynthetic angiosperm Epifagus virginiana and two other species of Cuscuta. By examining matK and plastid intron distribution in Cuscuta, we add support to the hypothesis that its normal role is in splicing seven of the eight group IIA introns in the genome. We also analyze matK nucleotide sequences from Cuscuta species and relatives that retain matK to test whether changes in selective pressure in the maturase are associated with intron deletion. Stepwise loss of most group IIA introns from the plastid genome results in substantial change in selective pressure within the hypothetical RNA-binding domain of matK in both Cuscuta and Epifagus, either through evolution from a generalist to a specialist intron splicer or due to loss of a particular intron responsible for most of the constraint on the binding region. The possibility of intron-specific specialization in the X-domain is implicated by evidence of positive selection on the lineage leading to C. nitida in association with the loss of six of seven introns putatively spliced by matK. Moreover, transfer RNA gene deletion facilitated by parasitism combined with an unusually high rate of intron loss from remaining functional plastid genes created a unique circumstance on the lineage leading to Cuscuta subgenus Grammica that allowed elimination of matK in the most species-rich lineage of Cuscuta.