WorldWideScience

Sample records for strenuous exercise reduce

  1. Short-term ubiquinol supplementation reduces oxidative stress associated with strenuous exercise in healthy adults: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Alvaro; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Kajarabille, Naroa; Chirosa, Ignacio; Guisado, Isabel M; Javier Chirosa, Luis; Guisado, Rafael; Ochoa, Julio J

    2016-11-12

    Studies about Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) supplementation on strenuous exercise are scarce, especially those related with oxidative stress associated with physical activity and virtually nonexistent with the reduced form, Ubiquinol. The objective of this study was to determine, for the first time, whether a short-term supplementation with Ubiquinol can prevent oxidative stress associated to strenuous exercise. The participants (n = 100 healthy and well trained, but not on an elite level) were classified in two groups: Ubiquinol (experimental group), and placebo group (control). The protocol consisted of conducting two identical strenuous exercise tests with a rest period between tests of 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected from the participants before supplementation (basal value) (T1), after supplementation (2 weeks) (T2), after first physical exercise test (T3), after 24 h of rest (T4), and after second physical exercise test (T5).The increase observed in the lactate, isoprostanes, DNA damage, and hydroperoxide levels reveals the severity of the oxidative damage induced by the exercise. There was a reduction in the isoprostanes, 8-OHdG, oxidized LDL, and hydroperoxydes in the supplemented Ubiquinol group, an increase in total antioxidant status, fat soluble antioxidant (both plasma and membrane), and CAT activity. Also, NO in the Ubiquinol-supplemented group was maintained within a narrow range. Oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise is accumulative and increases transiently in subsequent sessions of physical activity. A short-term supplementation (2 weeks) with Ubiquinol (200 mg/day) before strenuous exercise, decreases oxidative stress and increases plasma NO, fact that could improve endothelial function, energetic substrate supply, and muscle recovery after strenuous exercise. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):612-622, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Strenuous physical exercise adversely affects monocyte chemotaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czepluch, Frauke S; Barres, Romain; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise is important for proper cardiovascular function and disease prevention, but it may influence the immune system. We evaluated the effect of strenuous exercise on monocyte chemotaxis. Monocytes were isolated from blood of 13 young, healthy, sedentary individuals participating...... in a three-week training program which consisted of repeated exercise bouts. Monocyte chemotaxis and serological biomarkers were investigated at baseline, after three weeks training and after four weeks recovery. Chemotaxis towards vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and transforming growth factor...

  3. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankai Araya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Methods Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly. Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO, blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC], beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. Results In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05. In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p 0.05. All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%, 1(59.52%, 3 (53.57% and 4(14.04%, whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%, 3 (42.30%, 2 (40% and 4 (9.2%. Conclusion Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  4. Enhanced cerebral CO2 reactivity during strenuous exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Stie, Henrik; Nielsen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    Light and moderate exercise elevates the regional cerebral blood flow by approximately 20% as determined by ultrasound Doppler sonography (middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity; MCA V(mean)). However, strenuous exercise, especially in the heat, appears to reduce MCA V(mean) more than can...

  5. Inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery and central fatigue during strenuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Rasmussen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Under resting conditions, the brain is protected against hypoxia because cerebral blood flow increases when the arterial oxygen tension becomes low. However, during strenuous exercise, hyperventilation lowers the arterial carbon dioxide tension and blunts the increase in cerebral blood flow, which...... can lead to an inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and contribute to the development of fatigue....

  6. Strenuous exercise induces a hyperreactive rebalanced haemostatic state that is more pronounced in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huskens, Dana; Roest, Mark; Remijn, Jasper A; Konings, Joke; Kremers, Romy M W; Bloemen, Saartje; Schurgers, Evelien; Selmeczi, Anna; Kelchtermans, Hilde; van Meel, Rinaldo; Meex, Steven J; Kleinegris, Marie-Claire; De Groot, Philip G; Urbanus, Rolf T; Ninivaggi, Marisa; de Laat, Bas

    Physical exercise is recommended for a healthy lifestyle. Strenuous exercise, however, may trigger the haemostatic system, increasing the risk of vascular thrombotic events and the incidence of primary cardiac arrest. Our goal was to study the effects of strenuous exercise on risk factors of

  7. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  8. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  9. The Influence of Methylsulfonylmethane on Inflammation-Associated Cytokine Release before and following Strenuous Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariè van der Merwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation is associated with strenuous exercise and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Methods. Physically active men were supplemented with either placebo or MSM (3 grams per day for 28 days before performing 100 repetitions of eccentric knee extension exercise. Ex vivo and in vitro testing consisted of evaluating cytokine production in blood (whole blood and isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, before and through 72 hours after exercise, while in vivo testing included the evaluation of cytokines before and through 72 hours after exercise. Results. LPS stimulation of whole blood after MSM supplementation resulted in decreased induction of IL-1β, with no effect on IL-6, TNF-α, or IL-8. After exercise, there was a reduced response to LPS in the placebo, but MSM resulted in robust release of IL-6 and TNF-α. A small decrease in resting levels of proinflammatory cytokines was noted with MSM, while an acute postexercise increase in IL-10 was observed with MSM. Conclusion. Strenuous exercise causes a robust inflammatory reaction that precludes the cells from efficiently responding to additional stimuli. MSM appears to dampen the release of inflammatory molecules in response to exercise, resulting in a less incendiary environment, allowing cells to still have the capacity to mount an appropriate response to an additional stimulus after exercise.

  10. Coenzyme Q(10) supplementation ameliorates inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress associated with strenuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Guisado, Rafael; Kajarabille, Naroa; García, Carmen; Guisado, Isabel M; de Teresa, Carlos; Ochoa, Julio J

    2012-10-01

    Exhausting exercise induces muscle damage associated with high production of free radicals and pro-inflammatory mediators. The objective of this study was to determine for the first time and simultaneously whether oral coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) supplementation can prevent over-expression of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress associated with strenuous exercise. The participants were classified in two groups: CoQ(10) group (CG) and placebo group (PG). The physical test consisted in a constant run (50 km) that combined several degrees of high effort (mountain run and ultra-endurance), in permanent climbing. Exercise was associated with an increase in TNF-α, IL-6, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and isoprostane levels, revealing the degree of inflammation and oxidative stress induced. Oral supplementation of CoQ(10) during exercise was efficient reducing oxidative stress (decreased membrane hydroperoxides, 8-OHdG and isoprostanes generation, increased catalase, and total antioxidant status), which would lead to the maintenance of the cell integrity. Data obtained also indicate that CoQ(10) prevents over-expression of TNF-α after exercise, together with an increase in sTNF-RII that limits the pro-inflammatory actions of TNF. Moreover, CoQ(10) supplementation reduced creatinine production. CoQ(10) supplementation before strenuous exercise decreases the oxidative stress and modulates the inflammatory signaling, reducing the subsequent muscle damage.

  11. Inflammatory response to strenuous muscular exercise in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the humoral and cellular changes occurring during strenuous muscular work in humans, the concept of inflammatory response to exercise (IRE is developed. The main indices of IRE consist of signs of an acute phase response, leucocytosis and leucocyte activation, release of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage and cellular infiltrates, production of free radicals, activation of complement, and coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways. Depending on exercise intensity and duration, it seems likely that muscle and/or associated connective tissue damage, contact system activation due to shear stress on endothelium and endotoxaemia could be the triggering mechanisms of IRE. Although this phenomenon can be considered in most cases as a physiological process associated with tissue repair, exaggerated IRE could have physiopathological consequences. On the other hand, the influence of several factors such as age, sex, training, hormonal status, nutrition, anti-inflammatory drugs, and the extent to which IRE could be a potential risk for subjects undergoing intense physical training require further study.

  12. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung; Lim, Wonchung; Kim, Taeyoung; Kang, Chounghun

    2015-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle

  13. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Wonchung [Department of Sports Medicine, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju 363-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taeyoung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chounghun, E-mail: kangx119@umn.edu [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene and Exercise Science, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota at Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle.

  14. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C Control, E Exercise, (E1 Exercise with one week to recover, (ES Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1 Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031, reactive oxygen species (ROS production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003 and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041 of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05. Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  15. Melatonin supplementation ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling induced by strenuous exercise in adult human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Julio J; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Kajarabille, Naroa; García, Carmen; Guisado, Isabel M; De Teresa, Carlos; Guisado, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Strenuous exercise induces inflammatory reactions together with high production of free radicals and subsequent muscle damage. This study was designed to investigate for the first time and simultaneously whether over-expression of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, and alterations in biochemical parameters induced by acute exercise could be prevented by melatonin. This indoleamine is a potent, endogenously produced free radical scavenger and a broad-spectrum antioxidant; consequently, it might have positive effects on the recovery following an exercise session. The participants were classified into two groups: melatonin-treated men (MG) and placebo-treated individuals (controls group, CG). The physical test consisted in a constant run that combined several degrees of high effort (mountain run and ultra-endurance). The total distance of the run was 50 km with almost 2800 m of ramp in permanent climbing and very changeable climatic conditions. Exercise was associated with a significant increase in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ra (in blood), and also an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and isoprostane levels (in urine), and indicated the degree of oxidative stress and inflammation induced. Oral supplementation of melatonin during high-intensity exercise proved efficient in reducing the degree of oxidative stress (lower levels of lipid peroxidation, with a significant increase in antioxidative enzyme activities); this would lead to the maintenance of the cellular integrity and reduce secondary tissue damage. Data obtained also indicate that melatonin has potent protective effects, by preventing over-expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and inhibiting the effects of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. In summary, melatonin supplementation before strenuous exercise reduced muscle damage through modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation signaling associated with this physical challenge. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. EFFECTS OF DIURNAL AND NOCTURNAL STRENUOUS EXERCISE ON SERUM MELATONIN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kilic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: There are reports of a possible relationship between melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, and exercise. Objective: The present study aims to investigate how diurnal and nocturnal strenuous exercise affects melatonin levels. Methods: The study enrolled 10 healthy sedentary males who did not actively exercise. The subjects had a mean age of 22.20±0.24 years, a mean height of 174.60±2.33 cm, and a mean weight of 69.70±2.42 kg. Two blood samples were collected from the subjects, one at rest, at 10:00 am, and the other immediately after strenuous exercise. Likewise, blood samples were taken from the same group of subjects after 48 hours: at 24:00 hours at rest and immediately after strenuous exercise. Samples were analyzed using the ELISA method to determine the serum melatonin levels (pg/ml. Results: By comparing the values at rest and after exercise, it was found that serum melatonin values remained unchanged with exercise. Serum melatonin values at rest or post-exercise measured at night were higher when compared with those measured during the day (p<0.05. Conclusions: Higher levels of melatonin found in the study appear to result from the increased release of melatonin at night, and not from exercise. The results of this study indicate that strenuous exercise carried out day or night, did not significantly influence serum melatonin levels.

  17. Sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs depresses three blood copper enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, R A; Hinchcliff, K W; Blostein-Fujii, A

    2005-01-01

    Studies show mixed conclusions about acute responses of copper status to strenuous exercise. Because copper function involves metalloenzyme activities, which might take days to change, the present study examined the response of three copper metalloenzyme activities to sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs. A race lasting 12-15 d depressed activities for both plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in dogs consuming commercial dog foods and meats. A shorter, 3-d training run for dogs fed a commercial balanced diet also depressed ceruloplasmin activities but not superoxide dismutase activities. Dogs fed the same diet but that did not run showed no changes in either parameter. Activities of a third copper enzyme, plasma diamine oxidase, also decreased after a 3-d training run. In summary, blood activities of three copper enzymes were depressed by sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs.

  18. Massage Alleviates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness after Strenuous Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianmin; Li, Linjin; Gong, Yuxiang; Zhu, Rong; Xu, Jiake; Zou, Jun; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of massage on alleviating delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle performance after strenuous exercise. Method: Seven databases consisting of PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang were searched up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible and the outcomes of muscle soreness, performance (including muscle maximal isometric force (MIF) and peak torque) and creatine kinase (CK) were used to assess the effectiveness of massage intervention on DOMS. Results: Eleven articles with a total of 23 data points (involving 504 participants) satisfied the inclusion criteria and were pooled in the meta-analysis. The findings demonstrated that muscle soreness rating decreased significantly when the participants received massage intervention compared with no intervention at 24 h (SMD: -0.61, 95% CI: -1.17 to -0.05, P = 0.03), 48 h (SMD: -1.51, 95% CI: -2.24 to -0.77, P < 0.001), 72 h (SMD: -1.46, 95% CI: -2.59 to -0.33, P = 0.01) and in total (SMD: -1.16, 95% CI: -1.60 to -0.72, P < 0.001) after intense exercise. Additionally, massage therapy improved MIF (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.21-0.90, P = 0.002) and peak torque (SMD: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.04-0.71, P = 0.03) as total effects. Furthermore, the serum CK level was reduced when participants received massage intervention (SMD: -0.64, 95% CI: -1.04 to -0.25, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The current evidence suggests that massage therapy after strenuous exercise could be effective for alleviating DOMS and improving muscle performance.

  19. Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Strenuous exercise decreases the percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, A; Toft, A D; Bruunsgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged strenuous exercise is followed by a temporary functional immune impairment. Low numbers of CD4+ T helper (Th) and CD8+ T cytotoxic (Tc) cells are found in the circulation. These cells can be divided according to their cytokine profile into type 1 (Th1 and Tc1), which produce interferon...

  1. Effect of strenuous physical exercise on circulating cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaar, Vicky; Romana, Marc; Tripette, Julien; Broquere, Cédric; Huisse, Marie-Geneviève; Hue, Olivier; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is associated with an inflammatory response involving the activation of several types of blood cells. In order to document the specific activation of these cell types, we studied the effect of three maximal exercise tests conducted to exhaustion on the quantitative and qualitative pattern of circulating cell-derived microparticles and inflammatory molecules in healthy subjects. This study mainly indicated that the plasma concentration of microparticles from platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) was increased immediately after the strenuous exercise. In addition, the increase in plasma concentration of microparticles from PMN and platelets was still observed after 2 hours of recovery. A similar pattern was observed for the IL-6 plasma level. In contrast, no change was observed for either soluble selectins or plasma concentration of microparticles from red blood cells, monocytes and endothelial cells. In agreement, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels were not changed by the exercise. We conclude that a strenuous exercise is accompanied by platelet- and PMN-derived microparticle production that probably reflects the activation of these two cell types.

  2. Strenuous Exercise Induced Syncope Due to Coronary Artery Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Yavuz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are among the neglected topics in cardiology. Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right sinus of valsalva is a rare coronary anomaly observed in 0.15% of patients. During exercise, the distended aorta and pulmonary artery with increased blood flow may squeeze the Left Main Coronary Artery (LMCA between them. Even though arrhythmias are common causes of syncope, one should also think about aberrant coronary artery in the patients with syncope of unexplained origin. Patients experiencing exercise induced syncope accompanied by symptoms of coronary ischemia (typically: chest pain, ischemic findings on ECG, and raised cardiac markers should be referred to diagnostic coronary angiography.

  3. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  4. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Muscle Soreness and Inflammation During Recovery From Strenuous Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yen Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although parties or get-togethers with alcoholic beverages after sporting competitions are popular, studies on the effects of alcohol ingestion after strenuous exercise on muscle damage and inflammation in non-drinkers’ are few and ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol ingestion during recovery from an acute bout of exercise on muscle soreness and inflammatory markers in regular exercisers who do not regularly consume alcohol. Male participants (n = 15 completed two bouts of exercise on a rowing ergometer for 2000 m in a randomized fashion. All participants ingested 5 mL of alcoholic (AL or placebo (PL beverage per kg of body weight within 10 min post-exercise. Blood samples for blood alcohol, creatine kinase (CK, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin (IL-6 concentrations were collected pre-exercise (T0, and at 1 (T1, 3 (T2, and 24 h (T3 post-ingestion. Self-reported muscle soreness was assessed at the same time points. Lactate levels were measured before exercise and within 1 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness was significantly lower in the AL than the PL trials at T3 (p < 0.05. Although CK, IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher during recovery than before exercising, there was no significant difference between the AL and PL trials. In addition, no significant difference in lactate concentrations between the two trials was evident in the 1 h after exercise. For regular exercisers, the alcoholic beverage ingested did not increase CK, IL-6, or CRP compared to their placebo trial, despite attenuated muscle soreness. Comparisons between drinkers and non-drinkers of high fitness ingesting permissible alcohol doses should be performed in the future.   Keywords: alcohol, inflammation, strenuous exercise, muscle damage

  5. Effects of strenuous exercise with eccentric muscle contraction: physiological and functional aspects of human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Okumura, Koji; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2010-01-01

    we used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ultrasonography in combination with a dynamometer to assess physiological and functional aspects of the skeletal muscles after strenuous exercise that included eccentric contraction. seven male subjects (mean age, 21.7 years) performed ankle plantar flexion that included eccentric contraction and underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging for calculation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the triceps surae muscles. We used ultrasonography combined with a dynamometer to measure the displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) of the medial gastrocnemius and maximal isometric force during ankle plantar flexion. We also assessed the level of muscle soreness of the calf using a visual analogue scale. We measured these parameters before exercise and one, 2, 3, 5, and 8 days after exercise and examined significant changes from the pre-exercise value using repeated-measures analysis of variance with Dunnett's test for each measurement parameter. one day after exercise, we observed increased muscle soreness (Peccentric contraction manifests as muscle soreness and dysfunction early after exercise and later increases water diffusion within damaged muscle.

  6. Remote ischemic preconditioning prevents reduction in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation after strenuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom G; Birk, Gurpreet K; Cable, N Timothy; Atkinson, Greg; Green, Daniel J; Jones, Helen; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2012-09-01

    Strenuous exercise is associated with an immediate decrease in endothelial function. Repeated bouts of ischemia followed by reperfusion, known as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), is able to protect the endothelium against ischemia-induced injury beyond the ischemic area. We examined the hypothesis that RIPC prevents the decrease in endothelial function observed after strenuous exercise in healthy men. In a randomized, crossover study, 13 healthy men performed running exercise preceded by RIPC of the lower limbs (4 × 5-min 220-mmHg bilateral occlusion) or a sham intervention (sham; 4 × 5-min 20-mmHg bilateral occlusion). Participants performed a graded maximal treadmill running test, followed by a 5-km time trial (TT). Brachial artery endothelial function was examined before and after RIPC or sham, as well as after the 5-km TT. We measured flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an index of endothelium-dependent function, using high-resolution echo-Doppler. We also calculated the shear rate area-under-the-curve (from cuff deflation to peak dilatation; SR(AUC)). Data are described as mean and 95% confidence intervals. FMD changed by 0.30). In the sham trial, FMD changed from 5.1 (4.4-5.9) to 3.7% (2.6-4.8) following the 5-km TT (P = 0.02). In the RIPC trial, FMD changed negligibly from 5.4 (4.4-6.4) post-IPC and 5.7% (4.6-6.8) post 5-km TT (P = 0.60). Baseline diameter, SR(AUC), and time-to-peak diameter were all increased following the 5-km TT (P < 0.05), but these changes did not influence the IPC-mediated maintenance of FMD. In conclusion, these data indicate that strenuous lower-limb exercise results in an acute decrease in brachial artery FMD of ~1.4% in healthy men. However, we have shown for the first time that prior RIPC of the lower limbs maintains postexercise brachial artery endothelium-dependent function at preexercise levels.

  7. The impact of acute and chronic strenuous exercise on pelvic floor muscle strength and support in nulliparous healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlekauff, Monique L; Egger, Marlene J; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-09-01

    Strenuous physical activity, which is known to increase intraabdominal pressure and theoretically places stress on the pelvic floor, may affect pelvic support in nulliparous women. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the differences in maximal vaginal descent (MVD), vaginal resting pressure (VRP), and pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) between women who habitually perform strenuous exercise vs women who refrain from performing strenuous exercise; and (2) compare MVD, VRP, and PFMS before and immediately following physical activity in the strenuous and nonstrenuous groups separately. Participants were healthy nulliparous women ages 18-35 years who were habitual strenuous or nonstrenuous exercisers. Women in the strenuous group participated in CrossFit (CrossFit, Inc., Washington, DC) at least 3 days per week for at least 6 months. We assessed anthropometric and body composition values using standardized procedures. Participants completed the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination and pelvic muscle strength assessment before and again within 15 minutes of completing exercise (CrossFit for the strenuous group and self-paced walking for the nonstrenuous). A research nurse masked to study group assignment recorded MVD, defined as the greatest value of anterior, posterior, or apical support, and VRP and PFMS using a perineometer. Maximal PFMS was recorded as the highest pressure measured in 3 vaginal contraction trials. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests as appropriate. P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy nulliparous women participated in the study, 35 in each group. The mean age was 24.77 ± 4.3 years. Compared to the nonstrenuous group, strenuous participants were heavier (64.70 ± 7.78 kg vs 60.6 ± 8.99 kg, P = .027), had lower percent body fat (23.36 ± 5.88% vs 27.55 ± 7.07%, P = .003), and had higher handgrip strength (20.78 ± 5.97 kg vs 16.04 ± 11.04 kg, P = .001). Before exercise, there were no

  8. Phlebodium decumanum is a natural supplement that ameliorates the oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling induced by strenuous exercise in adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Guisado, Rafael; Kajarabille, Naroa; García, Carmen; Guisado, Isabel M; De Teresa, Carlos; Ochoa, Julio J

    2012-08-01

    Strenuous exercise induces muscle damage due to a highly increased generation of free radicals and inflammatory response and therefore, in this type of exercise, it is important to reduce both oxidative stress and inflammation, at least their negative aspects. The purpose of this study was investigate, for the first time, whether a purified, standard water-soluble fraction obtained from Phlebodium decamanum could reduce the over-expression of inflammation and oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise. The physical test consisted of a constant run that combined several degrees of high effort (mountain run and ultra-endurance), in permanent climbing. Biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators were assessed. The results showed that oral supplementation of P. decumanum during high-intensity exercise effectively reduces the degree of oxidative stress (decreased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and isoprostanes generation, increased antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocyte and total antioxidant status in plasma). The data obtained also indicate that this supplementation is efficient in reducing the inflammatory response through the decrease of TNF-α and increase of sTNF-RII, but kept the levels of IL-6 and IL-1ra. In conclusion, oral supplementation of P. decamanum extract during high-intensity exercise effectively reduces the degree of oxidative stress and has anti-inflammatory protective effects, preventing the over-expression of TNF-α but keeping the levels and effects of IL-6. These findings provide a basis for similar Phlebodium supplementation for both professional and amateur athletes performing strenuous exercise in order to reduce the undesirable effects of the oxidative stress and inflammation signalling elicited during high-intensity exercise.

  9. Evaluation of anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-qiang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice. Mice were given orally either corn oil or quercetin (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight suspended in corn oil) by gavage once a day for 28 day. All mice were sacrificed after rotarod test and the major biochemical parameters were analyzed in serum and liver. The results indicated that quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects by prolonging retention times, decreasing levels of blood lactate and serum urea nitrogen, and increasing levels of blood glucose, tissue glycogen and serum glucagon. Furthermore, quercetin could improve the immune function of fatigue mice by decreasing tumor necrosis factor-α levels, and elevated interleukin-10 levels. Quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects may be related to its immunomodulating effects.

  10. Endothelial glycocalyx integrity is preserved in young, healthy men during a single bout of strenuous physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Chlopicki, S; Bartosz, G; Zakrzewska, A; Balcerczyk, A; Smoleński, R T; Zoladz, J A

    2016-06-20

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise affect glycocalyx integrity and endothelial function. Twenty one young, untrained healthy men performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise - until exhaustion. Markers of glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1, heparan sulfate and hyaluronic acid), endothelial status (nitric oxide and prostacyclin metabolites - nitrate, nitrite, 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha)), oxidative stress (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine) and antioxidant capacity (uric acid, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity) as well as markers of inflammation (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1) were analyzed in venous blood samples taken at rest and at the end of exercise. The applied strenuous exercise caused a 5-fold increase in plasma lactate and hypoxanthine concentrations (pexercise is well accommodated by endothelium in young, healthy men as it neither results in evident glycocalyx disruption nor in the impairment of nitric oxide and prostacyclin production.

  11. Immersion pulmonary oedema in a healthy diver not exposed to cold or strenuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Olivier; de Maistre, Sébastien; Schmid, Bruno; Caudal, Delphine; Regnard, Jacques

    2018-03-31

    In healthy divers, the occurrence of immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is commonly caused by contributory factors including strenuous exercise, cold water and negative-pressure breathing. Contrary to this established paradigm, this case reports on a 26-year-old, well-trained combat swimmer who succumbed to acute IPE during static immersion in temperate (21°C) water, while using a front-mounted counterlung rebreather. The incident occurred during repeated depth-controlled ascent practice at the French military diving school. It was discovered that the diver had attempted to stop any gas leakage into the system by over-tightening the automatic diluent valve (ADV) (25th notch of 27) during the dive, thus causing a high resistance to inspiratory flow. The ventilatory constraints imposed by this ADV setting were assessed as a 3.2 Joules·L⁻¹ inspiratory work of breathing and -5 kPa (-50 mbar) transpulmonary pressure. This report confirms the key role of negative pressure breathing in the development of interstitial pulmonary oedema. Such a breathing pattern can cause a lowering of thoracic, airway and interstitial lung pressure, leading to high capillary pressure during each inspiration. Repetition of the diving drills resulted in an accumulation of interstitial lung water extravasation, causing pathological decompensation and proven symptoms. Copyright: This article is the copyright of the authors who grant Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine a non-exclusive licence to publish the article in electronic and other forms.

  12. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of acute renal failure (ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of ARF. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. He was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 IU/l. The initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. The specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. Partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. Complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.

  13. Strenuous exercise aggravates MDMA-induced skeletal muscle damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Jose A.; Leao, Anabela; Magalhaes, Jose; Ascensao, Antonio; Bastos, Maria L.; Amado, Francisco L.; Vilarinho, Laura; Quelhas, Dulce; Appell, Hans J.; Carvalho, Felix

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ecstasy (MDMA) administration on body temperature and soleus muscle histology in exercised and non-exercised mice. Charles-River mice were distributed into four groups: Control (C), exercise (EX), MDMA treated (M), and M + EX. The treated animals received an i.p. injection (10 mg/kg) of MDMA (saline for C and EX), and the exercise consisted of a 90 min level run at a velocity of 900 m/h, immediately after the MDMA or saline administration. Body temperature was recorded every 30 min via subcutaneous implanted transponder. Animals were sacrificed 1.5, 25.5, and 49.5 h after i.p. injection and the soleus muscles were removed and processed for light and electron microscopy. The MDMA-treated animals showed a significant increase in body temperature (similar in M and M + EX groups), reaching the peak 90 min after i.p. administration; their temperature remained higher than control for more than 5 h. The EX group evidenced a similar and parallel, yet lower temperature increase during exercise and recovery. Morphological signs of damage were rarely encountered in the EX group; they were more pronounced in M group and even aggravated in M + EX group. In conclusion, MDMA and exercise per se increased body temperature but in conjunction did not have a cumulated effect. However, ecstasy and concomitant physical activity might severely accumulate with regard to skeletal muscle toxicity and may lead to rhabdomyolysis

  14. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect the cytokine response to strenuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, A.D.; Thorn, Mette; Ostrowski, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    -supplemented and the control group, showing incorporation of n-3 PUFA and less arachidonic acid in BMNC in the supplemented group. The plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-beta(1) peaked immediately after the run, the increase being 3-, 92-, and 1.1-fold, respectively......, compared with resting samples. The level of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist peaked 1.5 h after exercise, with the increase being 87-fold. However, the cytokine levels did not differ among the two groups. Furthermore, supplementation with fish oil did not influence exercise-induced increases in leucocytes...

  15. Combined effects of sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive performances during The North Face® Ultra Trail du Mont Blanc® (UTMB®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Pezé, Thierry; Daugherty, Johanna; Girard, Julien; Poussel, Mathias; Poletti, Laurence; Basset, Patrick; Theunynck, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of combined sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive and neurobehavioral performance among long-distance runners completing one of the most difficult ultramarathons in the world. Seventeen runners participated. Each had a wrist-worn actigraph throughout the race to record their sleep time. In addition, each individual's performance in 10-min response-time tests before and after the race was recorded and a questionnaire enabled participants to report any difficulties they experienced during the competition. During race completion times of 27 to 44 h, combined acute lack of sleep (12 ± 17 min of rest during the race) and strenuous exercise (168.0 km) had marked adverse effects on cognitive performances ranging from mere lengthening of response time to serious symptoms such as visual hallucinations. This study suggests that regardless of rest duration and time in race, cognitive performances of ultramarathoners are adversely affected.

  16. Near-infrared light therapy to attenuate strength loss after strenuous resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin-Kaiser, Kelly A; Christou, Evangelos; Tillman, Mark; George, Steven; Borsa, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) light therapy is purported to act as an ergogenic aid by enhancing the contractile function of skeletal muscle. Improving muscle function is a new avenue for research in the area of laser therapy; however, very few researchers have examined the ergogenic effects of NIR light therapy and the influence it may have on the recovery process during rehabilitation. To evaluate the ergogenic effect of NIR light therapy on skeletal muscle function. Crossover study. Controlled laboratory. Thirty-nine healthy men (n = 21) and women (n = 18; age = 20.0 ± 0.2 years, height = 169 ± 2 cm, mass = 68.4 ± 1.8 kg, body mass index = 23.8 ± 0.4 kg/m(2)). Each participant received active and sham treatments on the biceps brachii muscle on 2 separate days. The order of treatment was randomized. A class 4 laser with a cumulative dose of 360 J was used for the active treatment. After receiving the treatment on each day, participants completed an elbow-flexion resistance-exercise protocol. The dependent variables were elbow range of motion, muscle point tenderness, and strength (peak torque). Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to assess changes in these measures between treatments at baseline and at follow-up, 48 hours postexercise. Additionally, immediate strength loss postexercise was compared between treatments using a paired t test. Preexercise to postexercise strength loss for the active laser treatment, although small, was less than with the sham treatment (P = .05). Applied to skeletal muscle before resistance exercise, NIR light therapy effectively attenuated strength loss. Therefore, NIR light therapy may be a beneficial, noninvasive modality for improving muscle function during rehabilitation after musculoskeletal injury. However, future studies using higher treatment doses are warranted.

  17. Oral Supplementation with Baker's Yeast Beta Glucan Is Associated with Altered Monocytes, T Cells and Cytokines following a Bout of Strenuous Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. McFarlin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and physical labor in extreme environmental conditions causes transient decreases in immune cell and cytokine concentrations, likely increasing the susceptibility to opportunistic infection. Baker's yeast beta glucan (BYBG has been previously demonstrated to be an effective countermeasure in athletes, but its effectiveness in individuals of average fitness under similar physical stress is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if 10 days of oral supplementation with BYBG could modify previously observed suppression of monocytes, T cells, circulating and whole blood LPS-stimulated cytokines due to strenuous exercise. Venous blood samples were collected from 109 healthy volunteers prior to, immediately after, 2 and 4 h post-exercise. Monocyte and T cell concentration, cell-surface receptor expression and serum and LPS-stimulated cytokines were assessed. BYBG significantly (P < 0.05 altered total and classic monocyte concentration and expression of CD38, CD80, CD86, TLR2, and TLR4 on monocyte subsets. BYBG also significantly increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell concentration and the exercise response of CCR7+/CD45RA- central memory (TCM cells. Likewise, BYBG significantly (P < 0.05 altered serum IFN-γ and IL-2, and LPS-stimulated IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-7. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that oral BYBG supplementation modulates the expected exercise response for individuals of average fitness. This may result in a decrease in susceptibility to opportunistic infections after strenuous exercise.

  18. Acute Strenuous Exercise Induces an Imbalance on Histone H4 Acetylation/Histone Deacetylase 2 and Increases the Proinflammatory Profile of PBMC of Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson P. Dorneles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the response of global histone H4 acetylation (H4ac, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 activity, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines and monocyte phenotypes of lean and obese males after exercise. Ten lean and ten obese sedentary men were submitted to one session of strenuous exercise, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Global H4ac levels, HDAC2 activity in PBMC, and IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α production were analyzed. Monocyte phenotype was determined in accordance with the expression of CD14 and CD16. At rest, obese individuals presented higher frequency of proinflammatory CD14+CD16+ monocytes. LPS induced a significant augment in global H4ac and in the production of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α mainly in obese individuals. After exercise, the increased production of IL-8 and TNF-α and peripheral frequency of CD14+CD16+ were observed in both groups. In addition, exercise also induced a significant hyperacetylation of histone H4 and decreased HDAC2 activity in both nonstimulated and LPS-stimulated PBMC of obese individuals. Our data indicate that the obesity impacts on H4ac levels and that strenuous exercise leads to an enhanced chronic low-grade inflammation profile in obesity via an imbalance on H4ac/HDAC2.

  19. Cerebral oxygenation is reduced during hyperthermic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nybo, Lars; Volianitis, S.

    2010-01-01

    (CBF). Heat stress challenges exercise capacity as expressed by increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods: This study evaluated the effect of heat stress during exercise on P(mito)O(2) calculated based on a Kety-Schmidt-determined CBF and the arterial-to-jugular venous oxygen differences...... was reduced by 15 +/- 13% (P exercise with heat stress, RPE increased to 19 (19-20; P exercise in the heat lowers cerebral P(mito)O(2), and that exercise capacity......Abstract Aim: Cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension (P(mito)O(2)) is elevated during moderate exercise, while it is reduced when exercise becomes strenuous, reflecting an elevated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)) combined with hyperventilation-induced attenuation of cerebral blood flow...

  20. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance exercise. A J McKune (MMedSci)1. L L Smith (PhD)1 ..... sites).20. It was speculated that during strenuous exercise non-phagocytosable muscle/tissue fragments are liberated accounting, in analogy to the defence against ...

  1. Effect of strenuous exercise on urine concentrations of homovanillic acid, cortisol, and vanillylmandelic acid in sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Lawren L; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Williamson, Kathy K; McKenzie, Erica C; Holbrook, Todd C; Willard, Michael; Royer, Chris M; Davis, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether prolonged exercise by conditioned sled dogs affects urine concentrations of homovanillic acid (a metabolite of dopamine), vanillylmandelic acid (a metabolite of norepinephrine and epinephrine), and cortisol. 24 conditioned Alaskan sled dogs (2 to 8.5 years old) that were in training for a multiday endurance race. Voided urine samples were collected from 4 groups of dogs (randomly selected from 54 dogs) after no exercise (control group; n = 6 dogs), completion of a 160km run (group A; 3), completion of a 420-km run (group B; 7), and completion of a 560-km run (group C; 6). Urine cortisol concentrations were determined by use of an immunoassay technique; urine vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with the control group, urine cortisol concentration in groups A, B, and C was significantly different (5.33 x 10(4) +/- 2.62 x 10(4) microg/dL vs 1.04 x 10(4) +/- 2.31 x 10(5) microg/dL, 8.88 x 10(4) +/- 5.49 x 10(4) microg/dL, and 6.31 x 10(4) +/- 5.09 x 10(4) microg/dL, respectively). Urine homovanillic acid concentration did not differ among the 4 groups. Vanillylmandelic acid was not detected in any urine samples. Results indicated that prolonged exercise by sled dogs did not affect urine homovanillic acid concentration but did increase urinary cortisol secretion, which is indicative of adrenocortical stimulation. The apparent lack of vanillylmandelic acid in voided urine samples requires further investigation.

  2. Effects of Carbohydrate and Glutamine Supplementation on Oral Mucosa Immunity after Strenuous Exercise at High Altitude: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Venticinque Caris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation on salivary immunity after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. Fifteen volunteers performed exercise of 70% of VO2peak until exhaustion and were divided into three groups: hypoxia placebo, hypoxia 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min, and hypoxia after six days glutamine (20 g/day and 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min. All procedures were randomized and double-blind. Saliva was collected at rest (basal, before exercise (pre-exercise, immediately after exercise (post-exercise, and two hours after exercise. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey post hoc test were performed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. SaO2% reduced when comparing baseline vs. pre-exercise, post-exercise, and after recovery for all three groups. There was also a reduction of SaO2% in pre-exercise vs. post-exercise for the hypoxia group and an increase was observed in pre-exercise vs. recovery for both supplementation groups, and between post-exercise and for the three groups studied. There was an increase of salivary flow in post-exercise vs. recovery in Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Immunoglobulin A (IgA decreased from baseline vs. post-exercise for Hypoxia + Glutamine group. Interleukin 10 (IL-10 increased from post-exercise vs. after recovery in Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Reduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was observed from baseline vs. post-exercise and after recovery for the Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group; a lower concentration was observed in pre-exercise vs. post-exercise and recovery. TNF-α had a reduction from baseline vs. post-exercise for both supplementation groups, and a lower secretion between baseline vs. recovery, and pre-exercise vs. post-exercise for Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Five hours of hypoxia and exercise did not change IgA. Carbohydrates, with greater efficiency than glutamine, induced anti-inflammatory responses.

  3. Cambios en la función vascular de hombres saludables, después de ejercicio físico prolongado y vigoroso: (Función vascular y ejercicio vigoroso Changes in vascular function in healthy men after prolonged strenuous exercise: (Vascular function and strenuous exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del ejercicio prolongado y vigoroso sobre la función endotelial en nueve corredores no-élite, determinando la función dependiente del endotelio de la arteria femoral (FDE-AF. Se observó que el ejercicio prolongado y vigoroso se asocia con menor FDE-AF, con tendencia no significativa a la recuperación a partir de las 24 horas hasta siete días después de la carrera. Se requieren estudios que involucren más participantes para determinar el impacto del ejercicio prolongado y vigoroso sobre la función endotelial.The effect of prolonged and strenuous exercise on endothelial function in 9 non-elite runners was researched determining the endothelium-dependent function of the femoral artery (EDF-FA. We realized that prolonged and vigorous exercise is associated with lower EDF-FA, with non significant trend toward recovery from 24 hours to 7 days after the race. Studies with more participants are required to determine the impact of prolonged and vigorous exercise on endothelial function.

  4. Meralgia paresthetica after strenuous exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kho, K.H.; Blijham, P.J.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We present three patients with signs and symptoms of meralgia paresthetica (MP) after long-distance walking and cycling. No other possible causes of MP, such as trauma or exogenous compression, were present. A neuropathy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was confirmed in all patients with

  5. Supplementation Strategies to Reduce Muscle Damage and Improve Recovery Following Exercise in Females: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Köhne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD caused by unaccustomed or strenuous exercise can result in reduced muscle force, increased muscle soreness, increased intramuscular proteins in the blood, and reduced performance. Pre- and post-exercise optimal nutritional intake is important to assist with muscle-damage repair and reconditioning to allow for an accelerated recovery. The increased demand for training and competing on consecutive days has led to a variety of intervention strategies being used to reduce the negative effects of EIMD. Nutritional intervention strategies are largely tested on male participants, and few report on sex-related differences relating to the effects of the interventions employed. This review focuses on nutritional intervention strategies employed to negate the effects of EIMD, focussing solely on females.

  6. The effects of varying concentrations of dietary protein and fat on d blood gas, hematologic, serum chemistry and body temperature before and after strenuous exercise in Labrador Retreivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Wakshlag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes, that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically high protein: low fat (18:57% ME, high protein: high fat (27:57% ME, and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 x 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10 minutes and 20 minutes post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet (27:57% ME induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high fat diet (18:57% ME induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high fat: high protein diet and a low fat: high protein (32:27% ME diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the high fat: low protein diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.

  7. Effects of Pregnancy on Responses to Exercise Above and Below the Ventilatory Anaerobic THreshold

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, Larry

    1999-01-01

    ... vent). Results from Study #1 support the hypothesis that cardiac vagal/parasympathetic modulation is reduced in the resting state and that sympathoadrenal modulation is blunted during strenuous exercise above T to the vent in late gestation...

  8. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29 recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01, with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08. The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03, whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%. Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage

  9. Acute Effects of Moderate and Strenuous Running on Trace Element Distribution in the Brain, Liver, and Spleen of Trained Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kıvanç Ergen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trace elements such as manganese (Mn, cobalt (Co and chromium (Cr play key roles in metabolic reactions and are important in many physiological enzymatic processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the acute effects of moderate and strenuous running (treadmill exercise on the levels of Mn, Co and Cr in the brain, liver, and spleen of trained rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Material and Methods: Twenty-one Wistar-Albino adult male rats were used in the study. Rats were grouped as control group (no mandated exercise; n=8, moderate exercise group (30 min exercise duration; n=7, and strenuous exercise group (60 min exercise duration; n=6. The levels of Mn, Co, and Cr in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, liver, and spleen were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Cr levels in liver of rats increased in parallel to the time course of running supporting the exercise training effect on the action of insulin. Compared to the control group, the level of Co significantly decreased in the brain stem of rats in the moderate exercise group (p=0.009 and in the frontal lobe of rats in the strenuous exercise group (p=0.004. In the strenuous exercise group, an examination of the brain stem revealed that the level of Mn significantly decreased (p=0.001, and levels of Co and Cr were apparently depleted to the extent that these elements were no longer detectable. Conclusion: A notable finding is that during or after single bout strenuous exercise, levels of Co decreased in the spleen and particularly decreased in the brain stem of regularly trained rats. From this study, it can be inferred that sportsmen should aware trace element disturbances among the body parts or depletion of some trace elements after single bout of chronic strenuous running exercise.

  10. Exercise in pregnancy : an experimental study of maternal and fetal responses to exercise in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K. Lotgering (Fred)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractPregnant women in the western world usually reduce their physical activity as term approaches. However, in recent years increasing numbers of women also voluntarily engage in relatively strenuous exercise during pregnancy. Both pregnancy and physical activity increase the body's

  11. Isometric exercises reduce temporal summation of pressure pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H B; Handberg, G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2015-01-01

    tolerance (PTT) and reduce TSP with greater effects after higher-intensity exercises. METHODS: One hundred thirty-six healthy subjects (18-65 years; 68 women) participated in two randomized crossover experiments with trials on two different days. PTT and TSP were assessed before and after bicycling...... when assessed at the leg (p reduced VAS scores to sequential stimulation at the arm and leg (p ... of hypoalgesia between aerobic and isometric exercises were found. Isometric exercises reduced temporal summation illustrating the potential for exercise as a rehabilitation procedure also targeting the central mechanisms....

  12. Diet, Exercise and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exercise can improve mobility and help one maintain independence. In normal people, moderately strenuous exercise has been ... disease. Scientists at two medical institutions, the Wellesley College Center for Research on Women in Wellesley, Mass. ...

  13. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs...

  14. Physically strenuous work during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Iben Risager; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bondo, Sesilje

    2017-01-01

    computed by logistic regression using a population sample of gainfully employed women as reference (n = 345,915). The risk of preterm birth was increased in women lifting heavy loads during pregnancy (OR 1.40, 95% CI [0.88, 2.23]) but not in women with physically strenuous work (OR 0.98, 95% CI [0.66, 1......The aim of the study was to examine the risk of preterm birth following physically strenuous work during pregnancy. We included 343 pregnant women referred to an occupational medical clinic. Data on preterm birth and covariates were retrieved from the Danish Birth Registry. Risk estimates were.......46]). The mean gestational age in the heavy-lifting group compared to the reference group was 2.4 days shorter (95% CI [0.36, 4.41]). The study challenges earlier reassuring findings as heavy-lifting pregnant women had a reduced gestational age, indicating a possibility of increased risk of preterm birth....

  15. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  16. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taija Finni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect

  17. Piroxicam fails to reduce myocellular enzyme leakage and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-L. Croisier

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, ten healthy male subjects were studied. Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, each subject performed two isokinetic tests separated by a period of at least 6 weeks: once with placebo, and once with piroxicam (Feldene®. They were given one capsule containing either placebo or piroxicam (20 mg per day for 6 days with initial doses given starting 3 days prior to isokinetic testing. Exercise consisted of eight stages of five maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases, on a Kin Trex device at 60°/s angular velocity. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS were evaluated using a visual analogue scale immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after each test. The mean plasma concentration of PGE2 measured at rest and after exercise was significantly lower in the group treated with piroxicam (p < 0.05. However, statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA test revealed that exercise did not cause any significant change of mean plasma PGE2 over time in either of the two groups. Eccentric work was followed by severe muscle pain in extensor and flexor muscle groups. Maximal soreness was noted 48 h postexercise. Serum creatine kinase activity and the serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly, and reached peak values 48 h after exercise in both experimental conditions (p < 0.001. By paired t-test, it appeared that there were no significant differences in the serum levels of these two markers of muscle damage between the two groups at any time point. We conclude that: (1 oral administration of piroxicam fails to reduce muscle damage and DOMS caused by strenuous eccentric exercise; and (2 the hypothetical role of increased PGE2 production in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, DOMS, and reduced

  18. Exercise, especially combined stretching and strengthening exercise, reduces myofascial pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bergamaschine Mata Diz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Among people with myofascial pain, does exercise reduce the intensity of the pain and disability? Design: Systematic review of randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Participants: People with myofascial pain of any duration. Intervention: Exercise versus minimal or no intervention and exercise versus other intervention. Outcome measures: Pain intensity and disability. Results: Eight studies involving 255 participants were included. Pooled estimates from six studies showed statistically significant effects of exercise when compared with minimal or no intervention (support and encouragement or no treatment on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise was –1.2 points (95% CI –2.3 to –0.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Pooled estimates from two studies showed a non-significant effect of exercise when compared with other interventions (electrotherapy or dry needling on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise instead of other therapies was 0.4 points (95% CI –0.3 to 1.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Individual studies reported no significant effects of exercise on disability compared with minimal intervention (–0.4, 95% CI –1.3 to 0.5 and other interventions (0.0, 95% CI –0.8 to 0.8 at short-term follow-up. Sensitivity analysis suggested that combining stretching and strengthening achieves greater short-term effects on pain intensity compared with minimal or no intervention (–2.3, 95% CI –4.1 to –0.5. Conclusion: Evidence from a limited number of trials indicates that exercise has positive small-to-moderate effects on pain intensity at short-term follow-up in people with myofascial pain. A combination of stretching and strengthening exercises seems to achieve greater effects. These estimates may change with future high-quality studies. [Mata Diz JB, de Souza JRLM, Leopoldino AAO, Oliveira VC (2016 Exercise

  19. Exercise, especially combined stretching and strengthening exercise, reduces myofascial pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata Diz, Juliano Bergamaschine; de Souza, João Rodolfo Lauton Miranda; Leopoldino, Amanda Aparecida Oliveira; Oliveira, Vinícius Cunha

    2017-01-01

    Among people with myofascial pain, does exercise reduce the intensity of the pain and disability? Systematic review of randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. People with myofascial pain of any duration. Exercise versus minimal or no intervention and exercise versus other intervention. Pain intensity and disability. Eight studies involving 255 participants were included. Pooled estimates from six studies showed statistically significant effects of exercise when compared with minimal or no intervention (support and encouragement or no treatment) on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise was -1.2 points (95% CI -2.3 to -0.1) on a 0 to 10 scale. Pooled estimates from two studies showed a non-significant effect of exercise when compared with other interventions (electrotherapy or dry needling) on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise instead of other therapies was 0.4 points (95% CI -0.3 to 1.1) on a 0 to 10 scale. Individual studies reported no significant effects of exercise on disability compared with minimal intervention (-0.4, 95% CI -1.3 to 0.5) and other interventions (0.0, 95% CI -0.8 to 0.8) at short-term follow-up. Sensitivity analysis suggested that combining stretching and strengthening achieves greater short-term effects on pain intensity compared with minimal or no intervention (-2.3, 95% CI -4.1 to -0.5). Evidence from a limited number of trials indicates that exercise has positive small-to-moderate effects on pain intensity at short-term follow-up in people with myofascial pain. A combination of stretching and strengthening exercises seems to achieve greater effects. These estimates may change with future high-quality studies. [Mata Diz JB, de Souza JRLM, Leopoldino AAO, Oliveira VC (2016) Exercise, especially combined stretching and strengthening exercise, reduces myofascial pain: a systematic review.Journal of

  20. INTEGRATING PILATES EXERCISE INTO AN EXERCISE PROGRAM FOR 65+ YEAR-OLD WOMEN TO REDUCE FALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonul Babayigit Irez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p < 0. 05 in the exercise group when compared to the non-exercise group. In conclusion, Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women.

  1. Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert D; de Noronha, Marcos; Kamper, Steven J

    2011-07-06

    Many people stretch before or after engaging in athletic activity. Usually the purpose is to reduce risk of injury, reduce soreness after exercise, or enhance athletic performance. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2007. The aim of this review was to determine effects of stretching before or after exercise on the development of delayed-onset muscle soreness. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (to 10 August 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 8th February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to 8th February 2010), CINAHL (1982 to 23rd February 2010), SPORTDiscus (1949 to 8th February 2010), PEDro (to 15th February 2010) and reference lists of articles. Eligible studies were randomised or quasi-randomised studies of any pre-exercise or post-exercise stretching technique designed to prevent or treat delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). For the studies to be included, the stretching had to be conducted soon before or soon after exercise and muscle soreness had to be assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using The Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' tool and quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Estimates of effects of stretching were converted to a common 100-point scale. Outcomes were pooled in fixed-effect meta-analyses. Twelve studies were included in the review. This update incorporated two new studies. One of the new trials was a large field-based trial that included 2377 participants, 1220 of whom were allocated stretching. All other 11 studies were small, with between 10 and 30 participants receiving the stretch condition. Ten studies were laboratory-based and other two were field-based. All studies were exposed to either a moderate or high risk of bias. The quality of evidence was low to moderate.There was a high degree of consistency of results across studies. The pooled estimate showed that pre-exercise stretching reduced soreness at one

  2. Role of Exercise in Reducing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Michelle F; Artal, Raul

    2016-09-01

    Exercise plays an important role in reducing the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women with or without risk factors. GDM risk factors include obesity, family history of diabetes, high-risk ethnicity, increased maternal age, history of GDM, delivering a macrosomic infant, excessive gestational weight gain early in pregnancy (before glucose screening), sedentary behavior, low physical activity, and vitamin D deficiency. Most GDM patients can be managed with lifestyle modifications that include medical nutrition therapy and physical activity. When adherence is high and women are fully engaged in the exercise program, GDM can be effectively managed and prevented.

  3. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  4. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Rumbold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years completed a V̇O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V̇O2peak, either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water, which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ, were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001. Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005. There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

  5. Exercise Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Arthritis: Evidential Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Determine whether evidential value exists that exercise reduces depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. METHODS Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 29 published studies that included 2449 participants (1470 exercise, 979 control) with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, a novel, recently developed method, p-curve, was used to assess for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of statistically significant findings regarding exercise and depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Using the method of Stouffer, z-scores were used to test for selective-reporting bias with alpha (p) values ≤0.05 considered statistically significant. In addition, average power of the tests included in p-curve, adjusted for publication bias, was calculated. RESULTS Fifteen of 29 studies (51.7%) with exercise and depression results were statistically significant (p < 0.05) while 73.3% had p-values < 0.025. None of the results were statistically significant with respect to exercise increasing depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (z = −5.28, p = 0.99). The relative frequencies of p-values were 66.7% at 0.01, 6.7% each at 0.02 and 0.03, 13.3% at 0.04 and 6.7% at 0.05. The average power of the tests included in p-curve, corrected for publication bias, was 69%. Diagnostic plot results revealed that the observed power estimate was a better fit than the alternatives. CONCLUSION Evidential value results provide additional support that exercise improves depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. PMID:26587845

  6. Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses-Ech??vez, Jos?? F.; Gonz??lez Jim??nez, Emilio; Ram??rez-V??lez, Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Question: Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise), defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enha...

  7. Integrating Pilates Exercise into an Exercise Program for 65+ Year-Old Women to Reduce Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit; Ozdemir, Recep Ali; Evin, Ruya; Irez, Salih Gokhan; Korkusuz, Feza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women. Key points Pilates-based exercises improve dynamic balance, reaction time and muscle strength in the elderly. Pilates exercise may reduce the number of falls in elderly women by increasing these fitness parameters. PMID:24149302

  8. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogerson, David; Soltani, Hora; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-12-14

    Muscle soreness typically occurs after intense exercise, unaccustomed exercise or actions that involve eccentric contractions where the muscle lengthens while under tension. It peaks between 24 and 72 hours after the initial bout of exercise. Many people take antioxidant supplements or antioxidant-enriched foods before and after exercise in the belief that these will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of antioxidant supplements and antioxidant-enriched foods for preventing and reducing the severity and duration of delayed onset muscle soreness following exercise. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, trial registers, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings up to February 2017. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of all forms of antioxidant supplementation including specific antioxidant supplements (e.g. tablets, powders, concentrates) and antioxidant-enriched foods or diets on preventing or reducing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). We excluded studies where antioxidant supplementation was combined with another supplement. Two review authors independently screened search results, assessed risk of bias and extracted data from included trials using a pre-piloted form. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials, generally using the random-effects model. The outcomes selected for presentation in the 'Summary of findings' table were muscle soreness, collected at times up to 6 hours, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-exercise, subjective recovery and adverse effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Fifty randomised, placebo-controlled trials were included, 12 of which used a cross-over design. Of the 1089 participants, 961 (88.2%) were male and 128 (11.8%) were female. The age range for

  9. Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

  10. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Martarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.

  11. Short-term exercise training in humans reduces AMPK signalling during prolonged exercise independent of muscle glycogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConell, Glenn K; Lee-Young, Robert S; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Stepto, Nigel K; Huynh, Ngan N; Stephens, Terry J; Canny, Benedict J; Kemp, Bruce E

    2005-10-15

    We examined the effect of short-term exercise training on skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans. Eight sedentary males completed 120 min of cycling at 66 +/- 1% , then exercise trained for 10 days, before repeating the exercise bout at the same absolute workload. Participants rested for 72 h before each trial while ingesting a high carbohydrate diet (HCHO). Exercise training significantly (P free AMP: ATP ratio and glucose disposal and increased fat oxidation. Exercise training abolished the 9-fold increase in AMPK alpha2 activity observed during pretraining exercise. Since training increased muscle glycogen content by 93 +/- 12% (P glycogen content was essentially matched pre- and post-training by exercise and a low CHO diet (LCHO; post-training muscle glycogen 52 +/- 7% less than in HCHO, P glycogen levels in the two studies we obtained very similar results. In both studies the increase in ACCbeta Ser(221) phosphorylation was reduced during exercise after training. In conclusion, there is little activation of AMPK signalling during prolonged exercise following short-term exercise training suggesting that other factors are important in the regulation of glucose disposal and fat oxidation under these circumstances. It appears that muscle glycogen is not an important regulator of AMPK activation during exercise in humans when exercise is begun with normal or high muscle glycogen levels.

  12. Concomitant changes in cross-sectional area and water content in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Uhrbrand, Anders; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how one bout (1EX) and three bouts (3EX) of strenuous resistance exercise affected the cross-sectional area (CSA) and water content (WC) of the quadriceps muscle and patella tendon (PT), 4 h and 52 h after the last exercise bout. Ten healthy untrained male subjects performed...... was significantly reduced at 52 h (3EX: 14 ± 2%) compared with baseline and (3EX: 13 ± 1%) compared with 4 h. Present data demonstrate that strenuous resistance exercise results in an acute increase in muscle WC and underlines the importance of ensuring sufficient time between the last exercise bout...

  13. The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David; Reilly, Thomas; Gregson, Warren

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)°C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each bout was separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which one of four conditions were administered: ice vest (VEST), hand/forearm immersion (W), ice vest combined with hand/forearm immersion (VEST + W) and control (CON). Core temperature was significantly lower at the end of the recovery period in the VEST + W (37.97 ± 0.23°C) and W (37.96 ± 0.19°C) compared with the VEST (38.21 ± 0.12°C) and CON (38.29 ± 0.25°C) conditions and remained consistently lower throughout the second bout of exercise. Heart rate responses during the recovery period and bout 2 were similar between the VEST + W and W conditions which were significantly lower compared with the VEST and CON which did not differ from each other. Mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the start of bout 2 in the cooling conditions compared with CON; these differences reduced as exercise progressed. These findings demonstrate that hand/forearm immersion (~19°C) is more effective than ice vests in reducing the physiological strain when firefighters re-enter structural fires after short rest periods. Combining ice vests with hand/forearm immersion provides no additional benefit.

  14. Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Meneses-Echávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise, defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enhance health-related outcomes, and performed with systematic frequency, intensity and duration. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Secondary outcomes were physical and functional wellbeing assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue Scale, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale, Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Methodological quality, including risk of bias of the studies, was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Results: Eleven studies involving 1530 participants were included in the review. The assessment of quality showed a mean score of 6.5 (SD 1.1, indicating a low overall risk of bias. The pooled effect on fatigue, calculated as a standardised mean difference (SMD using a random-effects model, was –1.69 (95% CI –2.99 to –0.39. Beneficial reductions in fatigue were also found with combined aerobic and resistance training with supervision (SMD = –0.41, 95% CI –0.70 to –0.13 and with combined aerobic, resistance and stretching training with supervision (SMD = –0.67, 95% CI –1.17 to –0.17. Conclusion: Supervised physical activity interventions reduce cancer-related fatigue. These findings suggest that combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens with or without stretching should be included as part of rehabilitation programs for people who have been diagnosed with cancer

  15. Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Echávez, José F; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise), defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enhance health-related outcomes, and performed with systematic frequency, intensity and duration. The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Secondary outcomes were physical and functional wellbeing assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue Scale, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life QUESTIONnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale, Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Methodological quality, including risk of bias of the studies, was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Eleven studies involving 1530 participants were included in the review. The assessment of quality showed a mean score of 6.5 (SD 1.1), indicating a low overall risk of bias. The pooled effect on fatigue, calculated as a standardised mean difference (SMD) using a random-effects model, was -1.69 (95% CI -2.99 to -0.39). Beneficial reductions in fatigue were also found with combined aerobic and resistance training with supervision (SMD=-0.41, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.13) and with combined aerobic, resistance and stretching training with supervision (SMD=-0.67, 95% CI -1.17 to -0.17). Supervised physical activity interventions reduce cancer-related fatigue. These findings suggest that combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens with or without stretching should be included as part of rehabilitation programs for people who have been diagnosed with cancer. PROSPERO CRD42013005803. Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vascular Nitric Oxide-Superoxide Balance and Thrombus Formation after Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowski, Kamil; Proniewski, Bartosz; Czarny, Joanna; Smeda, Marta; Sitek, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    An acute bout of strenuous exercise in humans results in transient impairment of NO-dependent function, but it remains unknown whether this phenomenon is associated with increased risk of post-exercise thrombotic events. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a single bout of exhaustive running in mice on the balance of vascular nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and on thrombogenicity. At different time-points (0h, 2h and 4h) after exercise and in sedentary C57BL/6 mice the production of NO and superoxide (O2) in aorta was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping and by dihydroethidium (DHE)/HPLC-based method, respectively, while collagen-induced thrombus formation was analyzed in a microchip-based flow-chamber system (T-TAS). We also measured pre- and post-exercise plasma concentration of nitrite/nitrate and 6-keto-PGF1α. An acute bout of exhaustive running in mice resulted in decreased production of NO and increased production of O2 in aorta, with maximum changes 2h after completion of exercise when compared to sedentary mice. However, platelet thrombus formation was not changed by exercise as evidenced by unaltered time to start of thrombus formation (T10) and capillary occlusion (OT), and total thrombogenicity (AUC) as measured in a flow-chamber system. Strenuous exercise increased the plasma concentration of nitrite but did not affect nitrate and 6-keto-PGF1α concentrations. An acute bout of strenuous exercise in mice reduced NO and in parallel increased O2 production in aorta. This response was most pronounced 2h after exercise. Surprisingly, the reduced NO and increased O2 production did not result in increased post-exercise platelet-dependent thrombogenicity. These results show that transient reduction in NO bioavailability, caused by exercise-induced oxidative stress, does not modify post-exercise thromboresistance in healthy mice.

  17. Exercise reduces airway sodium ion reabsorption in cystic fibrosis but not in exercise asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, L; Wiebel, M; Frese, F; Dehnert, C; Zugck, C; Bärtsch, P; Mairbäurl, H

    2011-02-01

    When ventilating large volumes of air during exercise, airway fluid secretion is essential for airway function. Since these are impaired in cystic fibrosis and exercise-induced asthma, it was the aim of this study to determine how exercise affects airway Na(+) and Cl(-) transport and whether changes depend on exercise intensity. Nasal potential was measured in Ringer's solution, with amiloride to block Na(+) transport, and in low chloride-containing isoproterenol to assess Cl(-) channels. Nasal potential was measured at rest and during submaximal and maximal bicycle ergometer exercise in individuals with cystic fibrosis, exercise-induced asthma and controls. At rest, nasal potential was significantly higher in cystic fibroses than in the others. Maximal exercise decreased nasal potentials in cystic fibrosis and controls but not in exercise asthma. Submaximal exercise decreased nasal potentials only in cystic fibrosis. Cl(-) transport was not affected. Our results indicate that nasal potentials and Na(+) transport were decreased by maximal exercise in healthy and cystic fibrosis, whereas submaximal exercise decreased potentials in cystic fibrosis only. Exercise did not affect nasal potentials in asthmatics. Decreased reabsorption during exercise might favour airway fluid secretion during hyperpnoea. This protective effect appears blunted in patients with exercise-induced asthma.

  18. Reduced muscle strength, exercise intolerance and disabling symptoms in sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcellis, R.G.; Lenssen, A.F.; de Vries, J.; Drent, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This review focuses on innovations in the field of assessment and treatment of muscle weakness and exercise intolerance in sarcoidosis and the association between these and fatigue, dyspnea and quality of life (QoL). Recent findings: Muscle strength and exercise intolerance are

  19. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  20. Regular exercise is strongly associated with anticipated success for reducing health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John H

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise is a healthy behavior associated with desirable benefits. Regular exercise also makes manifest 2 fundamental behaviors-a choice and the discipline to continuously act on that choice. This cross-sectional analysis of more than 10 000 adults examines the association of regular exercise with unhealthy behaviors. Compared with people who are more regularly exercising, nonexercisers are less likely to choose to change an unhealthy habit. Nonexercisers are also much less likely to be confident of their success when they do choose a habit to change. Regular exercise seems to be a gateway behavior for reducing other unhealthy habits.

  1. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  2. Systemic Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Following Isometric Exercise Reduces Conditioned Pain Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsouhibani, Ali; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Hoeger Bement, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Physically active individuals show greater conditioned pain modulation (CPM) compared with less active individuals. Understanding the effects of acute exercise on CPM may allow for a more targeted use of exercise in the management of pain. This study investigated the effects of acute...... isometric exercise on CPM. In addition, the between-session and within-session reliability of CPM was investigated. Design: Experimental, randomized crossover study. Setting: Laboratory at Marquette University. Subjects: Thirty healthy adults (19.3±1.5 years, 15 males). Methods: Subjects underwent CPM....... Results: PPTs increased during ice water immersion (i.e., CPM), and quadriceps PPT increased after exercise (P CPM decreased similarly following exercise and quiet rest (P > 0.05). CPM within-session reliability was fair to good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0...

  3. The Band Effect—Physically Strenuous Music Making Increases Esthetic Appreciation of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas H.; Schneider, Lydia; Villringer, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal esthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed esthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants esthetically assessed similar music). Data are reported from two experiments with different patient groups: 1. Drug abuse patients, and 2. Chronic pain patients. Participants in both experiments performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments esthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more esthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion) is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived esthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal esthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical

  4. Reduced Tic Symptomatology in Tourette Syndrome After an Acute Bout of Exercise: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Elena; Glazebrook, Cris; Hollis, Chris; Jackson, Georgina M

    2014-03-01

    In light of descriptive accounts of attenuating effects of physical activity on tics, we used an experimental design to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on tic expression in young people (N = 18) with Tourette Syndrome (TS). We compared video-based tic frequency estimates obtained during an exercise session with tic rates obtained during pre-exercise (baseline) and post-exercise interview-based sessions. Results showed significantly reduced tic rates during the exercise session compared with baseline, suggesting that acute exercise has an attenuating effect on tics. Tic rates also remained reduced relative to baseline during the post-exercise session, likely reflecting a sustained effect of exercise on tic reduction. Parallel to the observed tic attenuation, exercise also had a beneficial impact on self-reported anxiety and mood levels. The present findings provide novel empirical evidence for the beneficial effect of exercise on TS symptomatology bearing important research and clinical implications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Reduced modulation of pain in older adults following isometric and aerobic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Naugle, Keith E.; Riley, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory based studies show that acute aerobic and isometric exercise reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli in young healthy individuals, indicative of a hypoalgesic response. However, little is known regarding the effect of aging on exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in EIH following submaximal isometric exercise, and moderate and vigorous aerobic exercise. Healthy older and younger adults completed one training session and four testing sessions consisting of either a submaximal isometric handgrip exercise, vigorous or moderate intensity stationary cycling, or quiet rest (control). The following measures were taken pre and post exercise/quiet rest: 1) pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), 2) suprathreshold pressure pain ratings, 3) pain ratings during 30-s of prolonged noxious heat stimulation, and 3) temporal summation of heat pain. The results revealed age differences in EIH following isometric and aerobic exercise, with younger adults experiencing greater EIH compared to older adults. The age differences in EIH varied across pain induction techniques and exercise type. These results provide evidence for abnormal pain modulation following acute exercise in older adults. PERSPECTIVE This article enhances our understanding of the influence of a single bout of exercise on pain sensitivity and perception in healthy older compared to younger adults. This knowledge could potentially help clinicians optimize exercise as a method of pain management. PMID:26993959

  6. A five-week exercise program can reduce falls and improve obstacle avoidance in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteyn, [No Value; Rijken, H; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J

    2006-01-01

    Background: Falls in the elderly are a major health problem. Although exercise programs have been shown to reduce the risk of falls, the optimal exercise components, as well as the working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of these programs, have not yet been established. Objective: To test

  7. Exercise to reduce work-related fatigue among employees: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). The effects of exercise on self-efficacy, sleep, work ability, cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness (secondary

  8. Exercise to reduce work-related fatigue among employees : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. de Vries (Juriena); M.L.M. van Hooff (Madelon); S.A.E. Geurts (Sabine); M.A.J. Kompier (Michiel)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objectives__ The present study evaluated the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). The effects of exercise on self-efficacy, sleep, work ability, cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness

  9. Reduced arterial diameter during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H L; Mitchell, J H; Friedman, D B

    1995-01-01

    for the radial and dorsalis pedis artery was 22 +/- 3 and 28 +/- 3% lower during handgrip than the relation during rest, respectively. After one-leg knee extension both arteries reached 30 +/- 4% lower values. This study demonstrated arterial constriction in the resting limbs within the first 30 s of static......In eight subjects luminal diameter of the resting limb radial and dorsalis pedis arteries was determined by high-resolution ultrasound (20 MHz). This measurement was followed during rest and during 2 min of static handgrip or of one-leg knee extension at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction...... of another limb. Static exercise increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, which were largest during one-leg knee extension. After exercise heart rate and mean arterial pressure returned to the resting level. No changes were recorded in arterial carbon dioxide tension, and the rate of perceived...

  10. Exercise training reduces sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure patients treated with carvedilol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Raffael; Franco, Fábio G; Roveda, Fabiana; de Matos, Luciana N J; Braga, Ana M F W; Rondon, Maria U P B; Rotta, Daniel R; Brum, Patricia C; Barretto, Antonio C P; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that carvedilol decreases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in patients with heart failure (HF) but carvedilol fails to improve forearm vascular resistance and overall functional capacity. Exercise training in HF reduces MSNA and improves forearm vascular resistance and functional capacity. To investigate whether the beneficial effects exercise training on MSNA are maintained in the presence of carvedilol. Twenty seven HF patients, NYHA Class II-III, EF <35%, peak VO(2) <20 ml/kg/min, treated with carvedilol were randomly divided into two groups: exercise training (n=15) and untrained (n=12). MSNA was recorded by microneurography. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. The four-month training program consisted of three 60-min exercise/week on a cycloergometer. Baseline parameters were similar between groups. Exercise training reduced MSNA (-14+/-3.3 bursts/100 HB, p=0.001) and increased forearm blood flow (0.6+/-0.1 mL/min/100 g, p<0.001) in HF patients on carvedilol. In addition, exercise training improved peak VO(2) in HF patients (20+/-6%, p=0.002). MSNA, FBF and peak VO(2) were unchanged in untrained HF patients on carvedilol. Exercise training reduces MSNA in heart failure patients treated with carvedilol. In addition, the beneficial effects of exercise training on muscle blood flow and functional capacity are still realized in patients on carvedilol.

  11. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nielsen, Jannie; Overgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate...... to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings...... of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced...

  12. Resistance Exercise Program: Intervention To Reduce Inflammation And Improve Nutritional Status In Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moraes

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, statistically significant improvements were observed in body composition, albumin and CRP levels after 6 months of resistance exercises. Therefore, RE provide better prognosis in HD patients reducing cardiovascular risk, inflammation and loss of muscle mass.

  13. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  14. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Judith Bretland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout.Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control. Randomised control trial design was employed.Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory.Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted.Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  15. Fatiguing exercise initiated later in life reduces incidence of fibrillation and improves sleep quality in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lan; Feng, Yue; Wen, Deng Tai; Wang, Hui; Wu, Xiu Shan

    2015-08-01

    As the human body ages, the risk of heart disease and stroke greatly increases. While there is evidence that lifelong exercise is beneficial to the heart's health, the effects of beginning exercise later in life remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether exercise training started later in life is beneficial to cardiac aging in Drosophila. We examined 4-week-old wild-type virgin female flies that were exposed to exercise periods of either 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 h per day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. Using M-mode traces to analyze cardiac function by looking at parameters including heart rate, rhythmicity, systolic and diastolic diameter, and interval and fractional shortening, we found that cardiac function declined with age, shown by an increase in the number of fibrillation events and a decrease in fractional shortening. About 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise per day displayed a reduced incidence of fibrillation events, and only physical exercise lasting 2.5-h period increased fractional shortening and total sleep time in Drosophila. These data suggested that training exercise needs to be performed for longer duration to exert physiological benefits for the aging heart. Additionally, climbing ability to assess the exercise-induced muscle fatigue was also measured. We found that 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise caused exercise-induced fatigue, and fatiguing exercise is beneficial for cardiac and healthy aging overall. This study provides a basis for further study in humans on the impact of beginning an exercise regimen later in life on cardiac health.

  16. Modified Qigong Breathing Exercise for Reducing the Sense of Hunger on an Empty Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Alexander P.; Wang, Zhixin; Marchenko, Elena V.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to determine whether a modified Qigong breathing exercise can reduce the sense of hunger and identify possible mechanisms. Methods. The results from the test group, which performed the exercise, are compared with the control group, which performed deep breathing. Intestinal pressure measurements, stomach pH monitoring, and participant surveys were used for assessment. Results. Stomach pH was increased by 3 (0.2) and intestinal pressure was reduced by 12 (0.5) mm Hg in the experimental group and did not change significantly in the control group. The study provides strong evidence that the exercise can significantly reduce, or even suppress the sense of hunger on an empty stomach. Conclusion. This breathing exercise provides comfort in different circumstances, such as lack of regular meals, limited volume or caloric diet, and even during temporary complete absence of food in therapeutic fasting. PMID:28497701

  17. Does Regular Exercise without Weight Loss Reduce Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YoonMyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts to tackle childhood obesity, it is recognized as one of the biggest health problems globally. Childhood obesity is a leading cause of many comorbid conditions such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as well as type 2 diabetes. A strong body of evidence suggests that regular exercise without calorie restriction or weight loss is associated with reduced insulin resistance as well as improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. However, despite the well-known benefits associated with regular exercise alone, the independent role of exercise training without calorie restriction on insulin resistance is still uncertain in youth. Some studies observed that both the aerobic and resistance type of exercise training without calorie restriction resulted in meaningful changes in insulin sensitivity, suggesting that exercise alone is an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing insulin resistance in overweight and obese youth. However, only few studies are available on the optimal dose of exercise training without calorie restriction or preferred exercise modality for reducing insulin resistance, which warrants further investigations in the pediatric population.

  18. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Megan B; Bond, Dale S; Lipton, Richard B; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T; Penzien, Donald B

    2016-02-01

    Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the many who presently remain

  19. Chronic exercise reduces platelet activation in hypertension: upregulation of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meirelles, L R; Mendes-Ribeiro, A C; Mendes, M A P; da Silva, M N S B; Ellory, J C John Clive; Mann, G E; Brunini, T M C

    2009-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits platelet function and plays a key role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Essential hypertension is characterized by an increased risk of thrombus formation, and by an inhibition of intraplatelet NO bioactivity. We have previously shown that membrane transport of L-arginine is a rate-limiting step for platelet-derived NO synthesis. This study examined the effects of exercise on the platelet L-arginine-NO pathway and aggregation and systemic inflammation markers in 13 sedentary hypertensive patients subjected to 60 min of training activity (exercise group), predominantly aerobic, three times a week for a period of 12 weeks. Six sedentary hypertensive patients participated in the control group. After 12 weeks, L-arginine transport was significantly increased and associated with increased platelet NO synthase activity and cGMP levels and reduced platelet aggregation. Moreover, exercise training reduced plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein and blood pressure. The control group did not change their previous intraplatelet L-arginine-NO results and systemic inflammatory markers levels. Thus, exercise training reduces inflammatory responses, restores NO synthesis in platelets and thereby contributes to the beneficial effects of exercise in hypertension. The present study adds exercise as a new tool to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with platelet activation in hypertension.

  20. Exercise reduces activation of microglia isolated from hippocampus and brain of aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kohman, Rachel A; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Wojcik, Elzbieta; Rhodes, Justin S

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that includes basal increases in proinflammatory cytokines and expression of inflammatory markers on microglia. Exercise can reduce neuroinflammation following infection in aged animals, but whether exercise modulates basal changes in microglia activation is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated changes in basal microglia activation in cells isolated from the hippocampus and remaining brain following running-wheel access. Methods Adul...

  1. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Chris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m, yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  2. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of 'natural' breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  3. Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Expression in Animals Susceptible to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eKukielka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Increased sodium/calcium exchanger activity (NCX1, an important regulator of cardiomyocyte cystolic calcium may provoke arrhythmias. Exercise training can decrease NCX1 expression in animals with heart failure improving cytosolic calcium regulation, and could thereby reduce the risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF. Methods: To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last min. of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 23 had VF (S, susceptible and 13 did not (R, resistant. The animals were randomly assigned to either 10-wk exercise training (progressively increasing treadmill running (S n = 9; R n = 8 or 10-wk sedentary (S n = 14; R n = 5 groups. At the end of the 10-wk period, the exercise + ischemia test provoked VF in sedentary but not trained susceptible dogs. On a subsequent day, cardiac tissue was harvested and NCX1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: In the sedentary group, NCX1 expression was significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05 higher in susceptible compared to resistant dogs. In contrast, NCX1 levels were similar in the exercise trained resistant and susceptible animals. Conclusion: These data suggest that exercise training can restore a more normal NCX1 level in dogs susceptible to ventricular fibrillation, improving cystolic calcium regulation and could thereby reduce the risk for sudden death following myocardial infarction.

  4. Reduced blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses during exercise in lowlanders acclimatizing to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Lindsey M; Lovering, Andrew T; Tymko, Michael M; Day, Trevor A; Stembridge, Mike; Nguyen, Trang Anh; Ainslie, Philip N; Foster, Glen E

    2017-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine, using the technique of agitated saline contrast echocardiography, whether exercise after 4-7 days at 5050 m would affect blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (Q̇IPAVA) compared with exercise at sea level. What is the main finding and its importance? Despite a significant increase in both cardiac output and pulmonary pressure during exercise at high altitude, there is very little Q̇IPAVA at rest or during exercise after 4-7 days of acclimatization. Mathematical modelling suggests that bubble instability at high altitude is an unlikely explanation for the reduced Q̇IPAVA. Blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (Q̇IPAVA) is elevated during exercise at sea level (SL) and at rest in acute normobaric hypoxia. After high altitude (HA) acclimatization, resting Q̇IPAVA is similar to that at SL, but it is unknown whether this is true during exercise at HA. We reasoned that exercise at HA (5050 m) would exacerbate Q̇IPAVA as a result of heightened pulmonary arterial pressure. Using a supine cycle ergometer, seven healthy adults free from intracardiac shunts underwent an incremental exercise test at SL [25, 50 and 75% of SL peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2 peak )] and at HA (25 and 50% of SL V̇O2 peak ). Echocardiography was used to determine cardiac output (Q̇) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), and agitated saline contrast was used to determine Q̇IPAVA (bubble score; 0-5). The principal findings were as follows: (i) Q̇ was similar at SL rest (3.9 ± 0.47 l min -1 ) compared with HA rest (4.5 ± 0.49 l min -1 ; P = 0.382), but increased from rest during both SL and HA exercise (P exercise (P = 0.003); (iii) Q̇IPAVA was increased from SL rest (0) to HA rest (median = 1; P = 0.04) and increased from resting values during SL exercise (P exercise (P = 0.91), despite significant increases in Q̇ and PASP. Theoretical

  5. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONKALA, SANNA M.; MOTIANI, KUMAIL K.; ESKELINEN, JARI-JOONAS; SAVOLAINEN, ANNA; SAUNAVAARA, VIRVA; VIRTANEN, KIRSI A.; LÖYTTYNIEMI, ELIISA; KAPANEN, JUKKA; KNUUTI, JUHANI; KALLIOKOSKI, KARI K.; HANNUKAINEN, JARNA C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). Methods A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7–30.0 kg·m−2, age = 40–55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8–33.5 kg·m−2, age = 43–53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by 1H-MRS. Results At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P < 0.05, all) compared with healthy subjects. In the whole group, HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = −42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (−5%) and PAT (−6%) fat (time P < 0.05) and not differently between the healthy and the DGT subjects. Conclusion Whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT masses are enlarged in DGT. Both HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC. PMID:28628064

  6. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sanna M; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna; Saunavaara, Virva; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kapanen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7-30.0 kg·m, age = 40-55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8-33.5 kg·m, age = 43-53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by H-MRS. At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = -42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (-5%) and PAT (-6%) fat (time P HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC.

  7. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Ines; Richter, Anja; Gordt, Katharina; Dymke, Jörn; Damm, Philipp; Duda, Georg N; Günzl, Reiner; Bergmann, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee) in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW). Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36-55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated individually in the

  8. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  9. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper eKrogh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPsychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15 to 20 years compared to the general population. Most years of lost life are due to excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength and weight.MethodsWe searched Pubmed, Embase, and Psycinfo including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions.ResultsWe identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found.ConclusionBased on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting little is known about the effect on cardiovascular fitness beyond the intervention and weight reduction. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally participants should be assessed beyond the intervention

  10. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F.; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

  11. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-11-01

    High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5×10 minutes per week. Physical exertion was assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. Physical exertion was reduced more in WORK than HOME (p<0.01). Between-group differences in physical exertion at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) was -0.5 points (95% CI -0.8 to -0.2). Within-group effect size (Cohen's d) in WORK and HOME was 0.43 and 0.13, respectively. Physical exercise performed at the workplace appears more effective than home-based exercise in reducing physical exertion during daily work tasks in healthcare workers. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Resistance exercise reduces memory impairment induced by monosodium glutamate in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Paulo Cesar Oliveira; Quines, Caroline Brandão; Jardim, Natália Silva; Leite, Marlon Regis; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Monosodium glutamate causes cognitive impairment. Does resistance exercise improve the performance of rats treated with monosodium glutamate? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance exercise is effective against monosodium glutamate-induced memory impairment in male and female rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavour enhancer in diets, causes cognitive impairment in rodents. Exercise has been reported to protect against impairment of memory in humans. In this study, we investigated whether resistance exercise improves the performance of male and female rats treated with MSG in tests of memory and motor co-ordination. Wistar rats received MSG [4 g (kg body weight) -1  day -1 , s.c.] from postnatal day 1 to 10. At postnatal day 60, the animals started a resistance exercise protocol in an 80 deg inclined vertical ladder apparatus and performed it during 7 weeks. Rats performed object recognition and location memory tests. Resistance exercise reduced impairment in motor co-ordination of male and female rats treated with MSG. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in exploratory preference in the long-term recognition memory for novel objects of male rats treated with MSG. In MSG-treated female rats, resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in exploratory preference in the novel object location test. The exploratory preference of female rats in the long-term recognition memory test was similar in all groups. The short-term memory was not altered by MSG or resistance exercise in male and female rats. This study demonstrates that MSG affected the memory of male and female rats in different ways. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in recognition for male rats and in location memory for female rats treated with MSG. This report demonstrates the beneficial effects of resistance exercise against the prejudice of motor condition and impairment of memory induced

  13. Regular aerobic exercise reduces endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Brunjes, Danielle L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does aerobic exercise training reduce endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight/obese adults? And, if so, does lower ET-1 vasoconstriction underlie the exercise-related enhancement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Regular aerobic exercise reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in previously sedentary overweight/obese adults, independent of weight loss. Decreased ET-1 vasoconstriction is an important mechanism underlying the aerobic exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in overweight/obese adults. Endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults have been studied, little is known regarding ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine the following: (i) whether regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so, (ii) whether the reduction in ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in this population. Forearm blood flow (FBF) in response to intra-arterial infusion of selective ET A receptor blockade (BQ-123, 100 nmol min -1 for 60 min), acetylcholine [4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] in the absence and presence of ET A receptor blockade and sodium nitroprusside [1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] were determined before and after a 3 month aerobic exercise training intervention in 25 (16 men and nine women) overweight/obese (body mass index 30.1 ± 0.5 kg m -2 ) adults. The vasodilator response to BQ-123 was

  14. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a Question Reviewed by Barry J. Make, ...

  15. Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan A; Sachinwalla, Toos; Walton, David W; Smith, Kate; Armstrong, Ashley; Thompson, Martin W; George, Jacob

    2009-10-01

    Weight loss remains the most common therapy advocated for reducing hepatic lipid in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Yet, reduction of body weight by lifestyle intervention is often modest, and thus, therapies which effectively modulate the burden of fatty liver but are not contingent upon weight loss are of the highest practical significance. However, the effect of aerobic exercise on liver fat independent of weight loss has not been clarified. We assessed the effect of aerobic exercise training on hepatic, blood, abdominal and muscle lipids in 19 sedentary obese men and women using magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Four weeks of aerobic cycling exercise, in accordance with current physical activity guidelines, significantly reduced visceral adipose tissue volume by 12% (P training did not alter body weight, vastus lateralis intramyocellular triglyceride concentration, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, (1)H-MRS-measured hepatic lipid saturation, or HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; P > 0.05). These data provide the first direct experimental evidence demonstrating that regular aerobic exercise reduces hepatic lipids in obesity even in the absence of body weight reduction. Physical activity should be strongly promoted for the management of fatty liver, the benefits of which are not exclusively contingent upon weight loss.

  16. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    2014-11-03

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis.

  17. Short-term regular aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress produced by acute in the adipose microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Austin T; Fancher, Ibra S; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Bian, Jing Tan; Cook, Marc D; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Ali, Mohamed M; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Brown, Michael D; Fukai, Tohru; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-05-01

    High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2 wk of voluntary running (~6 km/day) for comparison with sedentary controls. Hindlimb adipose resistance arteries were dissected from mice for measurements of flow-induced dilation (FID; with or without high intraluminal pressure exposure) or protein expression of NADPH oxidase II (NOX II) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Microvascular endothelial cells were subjected to high physiological laminar shear stress (20 dyn/cm 2 ) or static condition and treated with ANG II + pharmacological inhibitors. Cells were analyzed for the detection of ROS or collected for Western blot determination of NOX II and SOD. Resistance arteries from exercised mice demonstrated preserved FID after high pressure exposure, whereas FID was impaired in control mouse arteries. Inhibition of ANG II or NOX II restored impaired FID in control mouse arteries. High pressure increased superoxide levels in control mouse arteries but not in exercise mouse arteries, which exhibited greater ability to convert superoxide to H 2 O 2 Arteries from exercised mice exhibited less NOX II protein expression, more SOD isoform expression, and less sensitivity to ANG II. Endothelial cells subjected to laminar shear stress exhibited less NOX II subunit expression. In conclusion, aerobic exercise prevents high pressure-induced vascular dysfunction through an improved redox environment in the adipose microvasculature. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe potential mechanisms contributing to aerobic exercise-conferred protection against high intravascular pressure. Subcutaneous adipose microvessels from exercise mice express less NADPH oxidase (NOX) II and more superoxide

  18. Exercise and diet enhance fat oxidation and reduce insulin resistance in older obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Sistrun, Sakita N; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    Older, obese, and sedentary individuals are at high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise training improves metabolic anomalies associated with such diseases, but the effects of caloric restriction in addition to exercise in such a high-risk group are not known. Changes...... in body composition and metabolism during a lifestyle intervention were investigated in 23 older, obese men and women (aged 66 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 33.2 +/- 1.4 kg/m(2)) with impaired glucose tolerance. All volunteers undertook 12 wk of aerobic exercise training [5 days/wk for 60 min at 75% maximal...... oxygen consumption (Vo(2max))] with either normal caloric intake (eucaloric group, 1,901 +/- 277 kcal/day, n = 12) or a reduced-calorie diet (hypocaloric group, 1,307 +/- 70 kcal/day, n = 11), as dictated by nutritional counseling. Body composition (decreased fat mass; maintained fat-free mass), aerobic...

  19. Specific exercise training for reducing neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    2015-01-01

    ) or a reference group (RG). Participants in the TG performed 20-weeks of physical exercise training divided into sessions of 3 × 20 min per week. Training was completed within working hours and consisted of specific exercise training for the neck and shoulder muscles based on the principles of "Intelligent...... was to investigate whether a specifically tailored exercise intervention would reduce the prevalence and incidence rate of neck/shoulder pain among helicopter pilots and crew members. METHOD: This study used a prospective, parallel group, single blinded, randomized controlled design. Participants were military....... Secondary outcomes included: postural balance, strength, stability, and rate of force development for neck and shoulder muscles. Measurements at baseline and follow-up were conducted at four air force bases in Denmark. Sixty-nine participants were individually randomized to either a training group (TG...

  20. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Bibby, Bo Martin; Sollie, Ove; Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-01-01

    Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous training camp. In a randomized, double-blinded study, 18 elite cyclists consumed either a whey protein hydrolysate-carbohydrate beverage (PRO-CHO, 14 g protein/h and 69 g CHO/h) or an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage (CHO, 84 g/h) during each training session for six days (25-29 h cycling in total). Diet and training were standardized and supervised. The diet was energy balanced and contained 1.7 g protein/kg/day. A 10-s peak power test and a 5-min all-out performance test were conducted before and after the first training session and repeated at day 6 of the camp. Blood and saliva samples were collected in the morning after overnight fasting during the week and analyzed for biochemical markers of muscle damage, stress, and immune function. In both groups, 5-min all-out performance was reduced after the first training session and at day 6 compared to before the first training session, with no difference between groups. Peak power in the sprint test did not change significantly between tests or between groups. In addition, changes in markers for muscle damage, stress, and immune function were not significantly influenced by treatment. Intake of protein combined with carbohydrate during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested

  1. Acetazolamide and inhaled carbon dioxide reduce periodic breathing during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolo, Anna; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Contini, Mauro; Antonioli, Laura; Swenson, Erik R

    2014-04-01

    Periodic breathing (PB) during sleep and exercise in heart failure (HF) is related to respiratory acid-base status, CO2 chemosensitivity, and temporal dynamics of CO2 and O2 sensing. We studied inhaled CO2 and acetazolamide to alter these factors and reduce PB. We measured expired and arterial gases and PB amplitude and duration in 20 HF patients during exercise before and after acetazolamide given acutely (500 mg intravenously) and prolonged (24 hours, 2 g orally), and we performed overnight polysomnography. We studied CO2 inhalation (1%-2%) during constant workload exercise. PB disappeared in 19/20 and 2/7 patients during 2% and 1% CO2. No changes in cardiorespiratory parameters were observed after acute acetazolamide. With prolonged acetazolamide at rest: ventilation +2.04 ± 4.0 L/min (P = .001), tidal volume +0.11 ± 1.13 L (P = .003), respiratory rate +1.24 ± 4.63 breaths/min (NS), end-tidal PO2 +4.62 ± 2.43 mm Hg (P = .001), and end-tidal PCO2 -2.59 ± 9.7 mm Hg (P < .001). At maximum exercise: Watts -10% (P < .02), VO2 -61 ± 109 mL/min (P = .04) and VCO2 101 ± 151 mL/min (P < .02). Among 20 patients, PB disappeared in 1 and 7 subjects after acute and prolonged acetazolamide, respectively. PB was present 80% ± 26, 65% ± 28, and 43% ± 39 of exercise time before and after acute and prolonged acetazolamide, respectively. Overnight apnea/hypopnea index decreased from 30.8 ± 83.8 to 21.1 ± 16.9 (P = .003). In HF, inhaled CO2 and acetazolamide reduce exercise PB with additional benefits of acetazolamide on sleep PB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic alkalosis reduces exercise-induced acidosis and potassium accumulation in human skeletal muscle interstitium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Darrin; Nielsen, Jens-Jung; Bangsbo, Jens; Juel, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle releases potassium during activity. Interstitial potassium accumulation is important for muscle function and the development of fatigue resulting from exercise. In the present study we used sodium citrate ingestion as a tool to investigate the relationship between interstitial H+ concentration and K+ accumulation during exercise. Seven healthy subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise on two separate days with and without sodium citrate ingestion. Interstitial H+ and K+ concentrations were measured with the microdialysis technique. Citrate ingestion reduced the plasma H+ concentration and increased the plasma HCO3− concentration. Citrate had no effect on interstitial H+ at rest. The increase in interstitial H+ concentration during intense exercise was significantly lower (P alkalosis) compared to the control experiment (8.0 ± 0.9 versus 11.0 ± 2 mm) and interstitial K+ concentration remained lower during the rest of the exercise period. The present study demonstrated a link between interstitial H+ and K+ accumulation, which may be through the ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels), which are sensitive to changes in H+. PMID:15860529

  3. Prenatal stretching exercise and autonomic responses: preliminary data and a model for reducing preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe

    2010-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and it increases maternal risk for future cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships among stretching exercise, autonomic cardiac response, and the development of preeclampsia. Secondary data analysis. Heart rate and pulse pressure were longitudinally examined in this secondary data analysis among women who engaged in stretching exercise daily from 18 weeks of gestation to the end of pregnancy compared with women who did walking exercise daily during the same time period. A total of 124 women were randomized to either stretching (n=60) or walking (n=64) in the parent study. Heart rates in the stretching group were consistently lower than those in the walking group. Based on the results of this secondary data analyses, a physiologic framework for possible beneficial effects of stretching exercise by enhancing autonomic responses on reducing risks for preeclampsia is proposed and discussed. If the protective effect is established, stretching exercise can be translated into nursing intervention for prenatal care.

  4. Efficacy of group-adapted physical exercises in reducing back pain in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Teresa; Morone, Giovanni; Iosa, Marco; Grasso, Maria Rosaria; Buzi, Emigen; Zangrando, Federico; Paolucci, Stefano; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Fusco, Augusto

    2014-08-01

    The clinical effects of osteoporosis include pain, fractures, and physical disability, causing a loss of independence and necessitating long-term care. Whereas the effects of exercise therapy in decreasing body mass index and preventing fractures are well established, there is no consensus on back pain and quality of life in women with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a brief course of rehabilitation, comprising group-adapted physical exercises, with regard to back pain, disability, and quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis who had no evidence of fractures. The enrolled patients were randomized into two groups: the treatment group underwent ten sessions of rehabilitative exercises, and the control group received an instructional booklet with descriptions and figures of exercises that were to be performed at home. Sixty patients completed the trial and assessments, including a 6-month follow-up. The treatment was effective versus the control group, significantly improving pain (Visual Analogue Scale: p Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire: p = 0.021 at the end of treatment; p = 0.005 at follow-up). Our results suggest that group rehabilitation reduces back pain and improves functional status and quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, maintaining these outcomes for 6 months. The use of physical exercises might strengthen the habit to training.

  5. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners: effects of a worksite intervention RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas; Hansen, Åse Marie; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. Significant (p aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs of cardiovascular overload.

  6. Exercise coupled with dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in male adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Feng, Feihu; Xiong, Xiaoling; Li, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The increased oxidative stress is usually observed in obese population, but the control of body weight by calorie restriction and/or exercise training can ameliorate oxidative stress. In order to evaluate oxidative stress in response to exercise and dietary restriction in obese adolescents, a total of 20 obese volunteers were enrolled in a 4-week intervention program including exercise training and dietary restriction. Body compositions and blood samples were analysed before and after 4-week intervention, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress were examined. After 4-week exercise training coupled with dietary restriction, physical composition parameters including body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, body fat mass and fat mass ratio had obvious reduction by 12.43%, 13.51%, 5.83%, 25.05% and 14.52%, respectively. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) revealed a remarkable enhancement. On the other hand, protein carbonyls (PC) exhibited an obvious reduction. Moreover, total thiols and nitrites with respect to baseline revealed a reducing trend although no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the 4-week exercise intervention coupled with dietary restriction is benefit for the loss of body weight and the mitigation of oxidative stress in obese population so that it can be a recommendable intervention prescription for the loss of body weight.

  7. Supraglottoplasty as treatment of exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Breathing difficulties during exertion may be caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). The diagnosis depends on visualization of the larynx during exercise, i.e. by continuous laryngoscopic exercise (CLE) test. In case of severe supraglottic collapse and pronounced symptoms during...... or on very few patients. This study is the second larger-scale study that documents the positive effect of supraglottoplasty as treatment of EILO in terms of reduced respiratory symptoms and decreased laryngeal obstruction assessed by post-operative CLE test. We suggest that surgery is a well...... strenuous exertion, surgical treatment (supraglottoplasty) has been suggested. The aims of this study were to evaluate outcome and patient satisfaction after supraglottoplasty for EILO and to compare our results with previously reported data. During the period December 2010 to October 2013, 17 patients...

  8. The influence of strenuous muscle stimulation on the menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, F; Ichikawa, Y; Arakawa, M; Chiba, G

    1984-03-01

    Nowadays, the average age at which menarche begins is lowering by three to four years every century, that is, four months every decade, according to both Japanese, and European and American annual changes of the average age. It emerged that the menarche shows a tendency to occur later in female gymnasts, because of the influence of strenuous muscle stimulation, and the fact that a higher level of technic is required in gymnastic games each year. These conclusions have been drawn from replies submitted to a questionnaire distributed among a relatively small number of gymnasts who participated in the competitions including the Inter High School Championship and the World Cup Championship. For example, at the age of 14, the percentage of women who had menstruated is almost 100% among women in general, but only 24% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, the average age at menarche of the latter being later than that of the former by as many as 3 years. At the age of 16, the percentage of women who had menstruated is 100% among women in general, but on the other hand, it is only 60% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, in other words, only a low percentage of women, of the latter group, had menstruated. Finally in our study, we established that the age at menarche of gymnasts is three or five years later than that of women in general. From our study, we concluded that the excessive burden imposed on muscles might cause an abnormal menstrual cycle, and the influence on menstruation would be considerable.

  9. Intra-Articular Corticosteroids in Addition to Exercise for Reducing Pain Sensitivity in Knee Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of one intra-articular corticosteroid injection two weeks prior to an exercise-based intervention program for reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: Randomized, masked, parallel, placebo-controlled trial involving 100 particip......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of one intra-articular corticosteroid injection two weeks prior to an exercise-based intervention program for reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: Randomized, masked, parallel, placebo-controlled trial involving 100...... the injections all participants undertook a 12-week supervised exercise program. Main outcomes were changes from baseline in pressure-pain sensitivity (pressure-pain threshold [PPT] and temporal summation [TS]) assessed using cuff pressure algometry on the calf. These were exploratory outcomes from a randomized....... The mean group difference in changes from baseline at week 14 was 0.6 kPa (95% CI: -1.7 to 2.8; P = 0.626) for PPT and 384 mm×sec (95% CI: -2980 to 3750; P = 0.821) for TS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that adding intra-articular corticosteroid injection 2 weeks prior to an exercise program does...

  10. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kutzner

    Full Text Available Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW. Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36-55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated

  11. Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Valerie B; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Stetzer, Bradley P; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2006-05-01

    Exercise improves glucose metabolism and delays the onset and/or reverses insulin resistance in the elderly by an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we examined the effects of exercise training on glucose metabolism, abdominal adiposity, and adipocytokines in obese elderly. Sixteen obese men and women (age = 63 +/- 1 yr, body mass index = 33.2 +/- 1.4 kg/m2) participated in a 12-wk supervised exercise program (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, treadmill/cycle ergometry at 85% of heart rate maximum). Visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat, and total abdominal fat were measured by computed tomography. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by hydrostatic weighing. An oral glucose tolerance test was used to determine changes in insulin resistance. Exercise training increased maximal oxygen consumption (21.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 24.3 +/- 1.0 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), P 0.05). VF (176 +/- 20 vs. 136 +/- 17 cm2, P < 0.0001), subcutaneous fat (351 +/- 34 vs. 305 +/- 28 cm2, P < 0.03), and total abdominal fat (525 +/- 40 vs. 443 +/- 34 cm2, P < 0.003) were reduced through training. Circulating leptin was lower (P < 0.003) after training, but total adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained unchanged. Insulin resistance was reversed by exercise (40.1 +/- 7.7 vs. 27.6 +/- 5.6 units, P < 0.01) and correlated with changes in VF (r = 0.66, P < 0.01) and maximal oxygen consumption (r = -0.48, P < 0.05) but not adipocytokines. VF loss after aerobic exercise training improves glucose metabolism and is associated with the reversal of insulin resistance in older obese men and women.

  12. Physical exercise reduces pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) and contributes to hyperglycemia reduction in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto; Gaspar, Rafael Calais; Crisol, Barbara Moreira; Formigari, Guilherme Pedron; Sant'Ana, Marcella Ramos; Botezelli, José Diego; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; da Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys Esper; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2017-07-14

    The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed in the last experimental week. Twenty-four hours after the last physical exercise session, the animals were euthanized and the liver was harvested for molecular analysis. Firstly, DIO mice showed increased epididymal fat and serum glucose and these results were accompanied by increased PCB and decreased p-Akt in hepatic tissue. On the other hand, physical exercise was able to increase the performance of the mice and attenuate PCB levels and hyperglycemia in DIO + EXE mice. The above findings show that physical exercise seems to be able to regulate hyperglycemia in obese mice, suggesting the participation of PCB, which was enhanced in the obese condition and attenuated after a treadmill running protocol. This is the first study to be aimed at the role of exercise training in hepatic PCB levels, which may be a novel mechanism that can collaborate to reduce the development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in DIO mice.

  13. Eccentric Exercises Reduce Hamstring Strains in Elite Adult Male Soccer Players: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Ian B; Cacolice, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Hamstring strains are a common sport-related injury, which may limit athletic performance for an extended period of time. These injuries are common in the soccer setting. As such, it is important to determine an appropriate prevention program to minimize the risk of such an injury for these athletes. Eccentric hamstring training may be an effective and practical hamstring strain prevention strategy. What is the effect of eccentric exercises on hamstring strain prevention in adult male soccer players? Summary of Key Findings: Current literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effect of eccentric exercises in preventing hamstring strains in adult male soccer players. Three articles returned from the literature search met the inclusion criteria. A fourth article looked at differences in strength gains between eccentric and concentric hamstring strengthening exercises, but did not record hamstring strain incidence. A fifth article, a systematic review, met all the criteria except for the correct population. Of the 3 studies, 2 were randomized control trails and 1 was a cohort study. Clinical Bottom Line: There is robust supportive evidence that eccentric hamstring exercises can prevent a hamstring injury to an elite adult male soccer player. Therefore, it is recommended that athletic trainers and other sports medicine providers evaluate current practices relating to reducing hamstring strains and consider implementing eccentric exercise based prevention programs. Strength of Recommendation: All evidence was attained from articles with a level of evidence 2b or higher, based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) criteria, stating that eccentric exercises can decrease hamstring strains.

  14. The Effectiveness of Neck Stretching Exercises Following Total Thyroidectomy on Reducing Neck Pain and Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Hatice; Tastan, Sevinc; Iyigün, Emine; Oztürk, Erkan; Yildiz, Ramazan; Görgülü, Semih

    2016-06-01

    Although there are a limited number of studies showing effects of neck stretching exercises following a thyroidectomy in reducing neck discomfort symptoms, no study has specifically dealt with and examined the effect of neck stretching exercises on neck pain and disability. To analyze the effect of neck stretching exercises, following a total thyroidectomy, on reducing neck pain and disability. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. The participants were randomly assigned either to the stretching exercise group (n = 40) or to the control group (n = 40). The stretching exercise group learned the neck stretching exercises immediately after total thyroidectomy. The effects of the stretching exercises on the participants' neck pain and disability, neck sensitivity, pain with neck movements as well as on wound healing, were evaluated at the end of the first week and at 1 month following surgery. When comparing neck pain and disability scale (NPDS) scores, neck sensitivity and pain with neck movement before thyroidectomy, after 1 week and after 1-month time-points, it was found that patients experienced significantly less pain and disability in the stretching exercise group than the control group (p stretching exercise group were significantly lower than those of the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the scores at the 1-month evaluation (p > .05). Neck stretching exercises done immediately after a total thyroidectomy reduce short-term neck pain and disability symptoms. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Does Regular Exercise without Weight Loss Reduce Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, YoonMyung; Park, HaNui

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts to tackle childhood obesity, it is recognized as one of the biggest health problems globally. Childhood obesity is a leading cause of many comorbid conditions such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as well as type 2 diabetes. A strong body of evidence suggests that regular exercise without calorie restriction or weight loss is associated with reduced insulin resistance as well as improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. However, desp...

  16. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  17. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress.

  18. A shorter set reduces the loss of cardiac autonomic and baroreflex control after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Xián; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Carballeira-Fernández, Eduardo; Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Set configuration may affect the recovery pattern of cardiac vagal autonomic and reflex modulation after a resistance exercise, since it is closely associated with intensity and volume and determines the metabolic involvement of the session. We tested the hypothesis that longer set configurations have a higher impact on cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity compared with shorter set configurations. We studied the effects of three set configurations with the same components of work on the cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity. Seventeen subjects performed one control session and three experimental sessions of a leg-press exercise with the same volume (40 repetitions), resting time (720 s) and intensity (10RM load): (a) 5 sets of 8 repetitions with 3 min of rest between sets (8S), (b) 10 sets of 4 repetitions with 80 s of rest between sets (4S) and (c) 40 sets of 1 repetition with 18.5 s of rest between each repetition (1S). Longer set configurations (8S and 4S) induced greater reductions of the vagal cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity (p ≤ .001) compared with a shorter set configuration (1S). Also, 1S had non-significant reductions versus the control session (p > .05). These findings suggest that a shorter set configuration can reduce the impact of resistance exercise on the post-exercise cardiac vagal autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity.

  19. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Taubert de Freitas-Swerts

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain.METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test.RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet.CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress.

  20. Patient and practitioner perspectives on reducing sedentary behavior at an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aviroop; Faulkner, Guy E; Oh, Paul I; Alter, David A

    2017-06-06

    To understand the awareness of sedentary behavior, as well as the perceived facilitators and barriers to reducing sedentary behaviors from the perspectives of patients undertaking an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program, and from staff involved in supporting patient self-management. A qualitative study was conducted at a large cardiac rehabilitation program in a metropolitan city in Canada. Guided by an ecological framework, semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with 15 patients, and in two focus groups with six staff. Transcribed interviews were analyzed by thematic analysis. Patients placed little importance on reducing sedentary behavior as they were unconvinced of the health benefits, did not perceive themselves to be sedentary, or associated such behaviors with enjoyment and relaxation. While staff were aware of the risks, they saw them as less critical than other health behaviors. Intrapersonal factors (physical and psychosocial health) and environment factors (the information environment, socio-cultural factors) within leisure time, the home, and work, influenced sedentary behavior. While these findings require further testing, future interventions may be effective if aimed at increasing awareness of the health benefits of reducing sedentary behavior, utilizing existing behavior change strategies, and using a participatory approach to tailor strategies to patients. Implications for rehabilitation Cardiac rehabilitation programs effectively use exercise promotion to improve the health of people with established cardiovascular disease. As sedentary lifestyles become more prevalent, recommendations to reduce the health risks of prolonged sedentary behavior that are specific to the characteristics and prognostic profiles of cardiac rehabilitation patients are needed. Cardiac rehabilitation programs must consider extending existing behavior change strategies utilized for exercise promotion towards addressing sedentary behaviors in order

  1. Chronic endurance exercise training: a condition of inadequate blood pressure regulation and reduced tolerance to LBNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, P B; Pawelczyk, J A

    1993-06-01

    We review the hypotheses presented to account for the anecdotal and literature-based reports that chronic endurance exercise training reduces orthostatic tolerance. The findings from cross-sectional investigations of unfit subjects and endurance athletes are examined, as well as limited data from recent investigations of the changes in orthostatic tolerance and blood pressure regulation that occur after 8 d to 8 months of endurance exercise training. Statistical models have not found wide variations in maximal aerobic power (VO2max) to contribute to the prediction of orthostatic responses. However, research data are generally consistent that the orthostatic tolerance of athletes whose VO2max exceeds 65 ml.kg-1.min-1 is lower than that of sedentary control subjects. These two findings suggest that it is exercise training, rather than VO2max, that reduces orthostatic tolerance. Findings from a recent longitudinal investigation corroborate this theory. We conclude that at least four factors associated with exercise training contribute to the development of orthostatic intolerance. These include: a) increased limb compliance (although its effect is likely to be trivial), b) eccentric ventricular hypertrophy, and c) increases in total blood volume, which may attenuate cardiopulmonary baroreflex responsiveness, shift ventricular function to a steeper portion of the ventricular compliance curve, and increase the inhibitory effect of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors on carotid baroreflex responsiveness; and d) an independent effect that reduces carotid and aortic baroreflex responsiveness. These mechanisms mimic changes observed in pathological states such as heart failure and hypertension. Our conclusions are best summarized by Greenleaf et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 51:298-305, 1981): "Trained men can run, but they cannot stand.''

  2. Reduced satellite cell numbers and myogenic capacity in aging can be alleviated by endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Gabi; Rauner, Gat; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Benayahu, Dafna

    2010-10-12

    Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary. Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo). The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro). We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging.

  3. Reduced satellite cell numbers and myogenic capacity in aging can be alleviated by endurance exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Shefer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary.Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo. The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro. We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging.

  4. Improved heart rate recovery despite reduced exercise performance following heavy training: A within-subject analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Bellenger, Clint R; Howe, Peter R C; Karavirta, Laura; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-03-01

    The recovery of heart rate (HRR) after exercise is a potential indicator of fitness which has been shown to respond to changes in training. This study investigated the within-individual association between HRR and exercise performance following three different training loads. 11 male cyclists/triathletes were tested after two weeks of light training, two weeks of heavy training and two days of rest. Exercise performance was measured using a 5-min maximal cycling time-trial. HRR was measured over 60s during supine recovery. Exercise performance decreased 2.2±2.5% following heavy training compared with post-light training (p=0.01), and then increased 4.0±4.2% following rest (p=0.004). Most HRR indices indicated a more rapid recovery of heart rate (HR) following heavy training, and reverted to post light training levels following two days of rest. HRR indices did not differ between post-light training and after the rest period (p>0.6). There were inverse within-subject relationships between indices of HRR and performance (r=-0.6, p≤0.004). Peak HR decreased 3.2±5.1bpm following heavy training (p=0.06) and significantly increased 4.9±4.3bpm following recovery (p=0.004). There was a moderate within-subject relationship between peak HR and exercise performance (r=0.7, p≤0.001). Controlling for peak HR reduced the relationships between HRR and performance (r=-0.4-0.5, pHR can be compromised under conditions of fatigue, and needs to be taken into account in HRR analyses. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aerobic and combined exercise sessions reduce glucose variability in type 2 diabetes: crossover randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele R Figueira

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS.Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement, and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods.Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ∼16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P = 0.003 and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P = 0.004 were observed only after the COMB session.Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises.Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00887094.

  6. Feasibility of a portable pedal exercise machine for reducing sedentary time in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lucas J; Walaska, Kristen A; Marcus, Bess H

    2012-05-01

    Sedentary time is independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease. Worksite interventions designed to decrease sedentary time may serve to improve employee health. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility and use of a pedal exercise machine for reducing workplace sedentary time. Eighteen full-time employees (mean age+SD 40.2+10.7 years; 88% female) working in sedentary occupations were recruited for participation. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected at baseline and 4 weeks. Participants were provided access to a pedal exercise machine for 4 weeks at work. Use of the device was measured objectively by exercise tracking software, which monitors pedal activity and provides the user real-time feedback (eg, speed, time, distance, calories). At 4 weeks, participants completed a feasibility questionnaire. Participants reported sitting 83% of their working days. Participants used the pedal machines an average of 12.2+6.6 out of a possible 20 working days and pedalled an average of 23.4+20.4 min each day used. Feasibility data indicate that participants found the machines feasible for use at work. Participants also reported sedentary time at work decreased due to the machine. Findings from this study suggest that this pedal machine may be a feasible tool for reducing sedentary time while at work. These findings hold public health significance due to the growing number of sedentary jobs in the USA and the potential of the device for use in large-scale worksite health programmes.

  7. Exercise-based transportation reduces oil dependence, carbon emissions and obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, P.A.T.

    2005-09-15

    Societal dependence on oil leads to increasingly negative social consequences throughout the world, including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability, and habitat degradation. Reliance on the automobile for transportation also contributes to a sedentary lifestyle, an obesity epidemic and poor health. These problems are particularly pronounced in the USA, which currently consumes c. 27% of global oil production and produces c. 25% of global carbon emissions, and where c. 65% of adults are overweight or obese. Other countries throughout the world that replicate or hope to replicate the automobile-based lifestyle of the USA face similar problems now or in the near future. This paper develops and applies calculations relating the distances that could be travelled through recommended daily walking or cycling with weight loss, oil consumption and carbon emissions. These straightforward calculations demonstrate that widespread substitution of driving with distances travelled during recommended daily exercise could reduce the USA's oil consumption by up to 38%. This saving far exceeds the amount of oil recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, suggesting that exercise can reduce foreign oil dependence and provide an alternative to oil extraction from environmentally sensitive habitat. At the same time, an average individual who substitutes this amount of exercise for transportation would burn respectively c. 12.2 and 26.0 kg of fat per year for walking and cycling. This is sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without dangerous or draconian diet plans. Furthermore, a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of c. 35% is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. As a result, exercise-based transportation may constitute a favourable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently being implemented in the USA and may

  8. Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Foong Kiew; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Singh, Harbindar Jeet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To date, little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats. Methods A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) consisting of 200 ju...

  9. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on the serum concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS). Design. In 11 healthy, experienced volunteers (6 males, 5 females, age 43 ± 9.8 years) the serum concentrations of ...

  10. Exercise-Induced Catecholamines Activate the Hippo Tumor Suppressor Pathway to Reduce Risks of Breast Cancer Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Hansen, Louise S; Lillelund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    interventions, we aimed to identify exercise factors and signaling pathways involved in the exercise-dependent suppression of breast cancer. Exercise-conditioned serum from both women with breast cancer (n = 20) and healthy women (n = 7) decreased MCF-7 (hormone-sensitive) and MDA-MB-231 (hormone......Strong epidemiologic evidence documents the protective effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. Using human exercise-conditioned serum for breast cancer cell incubation studies and murine exercise......-insensitive) breast cancer cell viability in vitro by 11% to 19% and reduced tumorigenesis by 50% when preincubated MCF-7 breast cancer cells were inoculated into NMRI-Foxn1(nu) mice. This exercise-mediated suppression of cell viability and tumor formation was completely blunted by blockade of β-adrenergic signaling...

  11. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza-Silva, Eduardo; Wittrup Christensen, Steffan; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occur within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result...... anterior muscle. All measures were done bilaterally at day-0 (pre-exercise), day-2 and day-6 (post-exercise). Subjects scored the muscle soreness on a Likert scale for 6 days. Results: Eccentric exercise increased Likert scores at day-1 and day-2 compared with day-0 (P... in accumulated algesic substances being a part of the sensitization in DOMS. Methods: Twelve healthy subjects (5 women) performed dorsiflexion exercise (5 sets of 10 repeated eccentric contractions) in one leg, while the contralateral leg was the control. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the tibialis...

  12. Postoperative Respiratory Exercises Reduce the Risk of Developing Pulmonary Complications in Patients Undergoing Lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Vellosillo-Ortega, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Muneta, Carlos; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of an intensive postoperative physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises in patients undergoing lobectomy by open thoracotomy. Quasi-experimental study. Tertiary referral academic hospital. 208 patients undergoing lobectomy by open thoracotomy. Control group patients (n=102) received standard medical/nursing care, and experimental group patients (n=106) added to the standard clinical pathway a daily physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises until discharge. Analyzed outcomes were the frequency of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) more amenable to physiotherapy (pneumonia, atelectasis and respiratory insufficiency) and length of hospital stay (LOS). Both groups were comparable regarding preoperative and surgical characteristics. Incidence of PPCs was 20.6% in control and 6.6% in experimental group (P=.003). Median (IQR) LOS in control group was 14 (7) days (Huber M estimator 14.21) and 12 (6) days (Huber M estimator 12.81) in experimental. Logistic regression model identified the evaluated physiotherapy program (P=.017; EXP [B] 95% CI 0.081-0.780) and % FEV1 (P=.042; EXP [B] 95% CI 0.941-0.999) as protective factors for the development of PPCs in patients undergoing lobectomy. Implementing a postoperative intensive physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises reduces the risk of PPCs and resultant LOS on patients undergoing lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick; Chappell, Andrew; Jenkinson, Alison McE; Thies, Frank; Gray, Stuart R

    2014-04-01

    Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils-although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

  14. Resistance Exercise Reduces Skeletal Muscle Cachexia and Improves Muscle Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune, inflammatory disease associated with cachexia (reduced muscle and increased fat. Although strength-training exercise has been used in persons with RA, it is not clear if it is effective for reducing cachexia. A 46-year-old woman was studied to determine: (i if resistance exercise could reverse cachexia by improving muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional area, and muscle function; and (2 if elevated apoptotic signaling was involved in cachexia with RA and could be reduced by resistance training. A needle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the RA subject before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. Knee extensor strength increased by 13.6% and fatigue decreased by 2.8% Muscle mass increased by 2.1%. Average muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased by 49.7%, and muscle nuclei increased slightly after strength training from 0.08 to 0.12 nuclei/μm2. In addition, there was a slight decrease (1.6% in the number of apoptotic muscle nuclei after resistance training. This case study suggests that resistance training may be a good tool for increasing the number of nuclei per fiber area, decreasing apoptotic nuclei, and inducing fiber hypertrophy in persons with RA, thereby slowing or reversing rheumatoid cachexia.

  15. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2014-01-01

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats

  16. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives: The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8; sedentary diabetic (n = 8; and trained diabetic (n = 8. Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2% and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3% without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions: Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  17. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão [Departamento de Educação Física - UFS, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  18. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Hsu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR mice from four groups (n = 8 per group were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration.

  19. THE DIFFERENCE IN RESPIRATORY AND BLOOD GAS VALUES DURING RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE WITH SPONTANEOUS VERSUS REDUCED BREATHING FREQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Kapus

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Extrapolation from post-exercise measurements has been used to estimate respiratory and blood gas parameters during exercise. This may not be accurate in exercise with reduced breathing frequency (RBF, since spontaneous breathing usually follows exercise. This study was performed to ascertain whether measurement of oxygen saturation and blood gases immediately after exercise accurately reflected their values during exercise with RBF. Eight healthy male subjects performed an incremental cycling test with RBF at 10 breaths per minute. A constant load test with RBF (B10 was then performed to exhaustion at the peak power output obtained during the incremental test. Finally, the subjects repeated the constant load test with spontaneous breathing (SB using the same protocol as B10. Pulmonary ventilation (VE, end-tidal oxygen (PETO2, and carbon dioxide pressures (PETCO2 and oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured during both constant load tests. The partial pressures of oxygen (PO2 and carbon dioxide (PCO2 in capillary blood were measured during the last minute of exercise, immediately following exercise and during the third minute of recovery. At the end of exercise RBF resulted in lower PETO2, SaO2 and PO2, and higher PETCO2 and PCO2 when compared to spontaneous breathing during exercise. Lower SaO2 and PETO2 were detected only for the first 16s and 20s of recovery after B10 compared to the corresponding period in SB. There were no significant differences in PO2 between SB and B10 measured immediately after the exercise. During recovery from exercise, PETCO2 remained elevated for the first 120s in the B10 trial. There were also significant differences between SB and B10 in PCO2 immediately after exercise. We conclude that RBF during high intensity exercise results in hypoxia; however, due to post-exercise hyperpnoea, measurements of blood gas parameters taken 15s after cessation of exercise did not reflect the changes in PO2 and SaO2 seen during

  20. Effects of worksite health interventions involving reduced work hours and physical exercise on sickness absence costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of physical exercise during work hours (PE) and reduced work hours (RWH) on direct and indirect costs associated with sickness absence (SA). Sickness absence and related costs at six workplaces, matched and randomized to three conditions (PE, RWH, and referents), were retrieved from company records and/or estimated using salary conversion methods or value-added equations on the basis of interview data. Although SA days decreased in all conditions (PE, 11.4%; RWH, 4.9%; referents, 15.9%), costs were reduced in the PE (22.2%) and RWH (4.9%) conditions but not among referents (10.2% increase). Worksite health interventions may generate savings in SA costs. Costs may not be linear to changes in SA days. Combing the friction method with indirect cost estimates on the basis of value-added productivity may help illuminate both direct and indirect SA costs.

  1. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous......). Diet and training were standardized and supervised. The diet was energy balanced and contained 1.7 g protein/kg/day. A 10-s peak power test and a 5-min all-out performance test were conducted before and after the first training session and repeated at day 6 of the camp. Blood and saliva samples were...... collected in the morning after overnight fasting during the week and analyzed for biochemical markers of muscle damage, stress, and immune function. RESULTS: In both groups, 5-min all-out performance was reduced after the first training session and at day 6 compared to before the first training session...

  2. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  3. Effects of Combined exergame and conventional exercise to reduce and prevent fall risk among elderly people: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadeghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falling among old individuals has provoked ceaseless discussion among gerontologists and physical therapists and it is still one of the greatest issues among this population. Loss of the balance and functional mobility is the main reason of falling. There have been numerous studies conducting the effect of the conventional balance exercise and exergame independently on balance and functional mobility of elderly. Previous studies lacked dealing with the effect of combined exergame and conventional exercise on the balance and functional mobility. Combined exercises are enjoyable and may have more effective to improve balance and performance to reduce risk of fall among elderly people. This package would be preferable for older people. Objective: We hypothesize that while conventional balance exercise and exergame improve balance and functional mobility, combined both types of exercise would superior improvements in elderly performance. Conclusion: Ultimately we expect that this hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating combined exergame and conventional balance intervention in older people.

  4. A reduced cerebral metabolic ratio in exercise reflects metabolism and not accumulation of lactate within the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Quistorff, Bjørn; Danielsen, Else R

    2003-01-01

    During maximal exercise lactate taken up by the human brain contributes to reduce the cerebral metabolic ratio, O(2)/(glucose + 1/2 lactate), but it is not known whether the lactate is metabolized or if it accumulates in a distribution volume. In one experiment the cerebral arterio...... young subjects. In a second experiment magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed after exhaustive exercise to assess lactate levels in the brain (n = 5). Exercise increased the AV(O2) from 3.2 +/- 0.1 at rest to 3.5 +/- 0.2 mM (mean +/-s.e.m.; P ...-venous differences (AV) for O(2), glucose (glc) and lactate (lac) were evaluated in nine healthy subjects at rest and during and after exercise to exhaustion. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained through a lumbar puncture immediately after exercise, while control values were obtained from six other healthy...

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF MC KENZIE EXERCISES IN REDUCING NECK AND BACK PAIN AMONG MADRASSA STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this advanced era, neck and back pain has become a common musculoskeletal problem. These symptoms have a high prevalence in the community and now they are affecting even our adolescents leaving a major impact on youth’s functional and educational activities. Nevertheless, the burden of these musculoskeletal pains, which relates not only to its prevalence but also to increase in physiological and psychological stress among them, distressing their creativity. Madrassa students have a daily exposure to neck and back pain due to poor posture. The McKenzie method is a popular treatment for back and neck pain among physical therapists. So, the intention of this study is to test the effectiveness of McKenzie exercises in neck and back pain, because hardly any data is available on McKenzie technique and its outcome in Pakistan. The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of McKenzie exercises in reducing neck and back pain among madrassa students. Methods: The students were recruited from Madrassa Darul Akram (Baldia town and Jamia Ashraf-ul-madrassa (Gulshan-e-Iqbal Karachi. One sixty three students aged between 12–18 years of both genders who were fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from Madrassa Darul Akram (Baldia town and Jamia Ashraf-ul-madrassa (Gulshane-Iqbal. The participants received McKenzie exercises programs intervention for three consecutive weeks. Outcome Measure: Neck Disability Index (NDI, Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI and Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS Results: The present study showed significant results in all three scales in both genders (p<0.001.Among sections, the Hafiz students revealed greater score in all 3 scales before treatment as compared to ‘Alim/Alima’ and ‘Nazra’ students and after treatment showed significant results in all 3 domains (p<0.001. Conclusion: Findings of this study revealed that madrassa students were more prone to develop neck

  6. Alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students: A longitudinal test of 2 explanatory models of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A; Riley, Elizabeth N; Smith, Gregory T; Milich, Richard; Burris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students. Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively. Participants reported their alcohol use and strenuous physical activity on 2 occasions (baseline and follow-up) spaced approximately 1 or 2 years apart. For females, alcohol use quantity at baseline was associated with increased strenuous physical activity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups, and alcohol use frequency at baseline was associated with decreased strenuous physical activity at 2-year follow-up. For males, alcohol use frequency at baseline predicted decreased strenuous physical activity at 1-year follow-up. Gender differences may be explained from an eating disorders perspective such that women use physical activity as a compensatory strategy to combat potential weight gain from calories consumed during alcohol use.

  7. Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, Geoffrey M.; Duffield, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e., team sports) induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness, and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise. PMID:24550837

  8. Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Minett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e. team sports induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise.

  9. Can strenuous leisure time physical activity prevent psychological complaints in a working population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Jans, M.P.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Hendriksen, I.J.; Houtman, I.L.; Bongers, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the longitudinal relation between strenuous leisure time physical activity and psychological complaints (depression and emotional exhaustion) in a Dutch working population in order to find evidence For the preventive role of physical activity in the development of psychological

  10. Efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in school-aged children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial.A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine; sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints; and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage. Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score.Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10 D than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03 D and eyes closed group (0.07 D (P = 0.04. The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0% than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8% and the eyes closed group (34.9% (P = 0.03. No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes.Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the long-term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01756287.

  11. Four weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise reduce muscle injury risk factors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breno de A R Alvares, João; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-04-26

    The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a field-based exercise designed for knee-flexor eccentric strengthening, aimed at muscle strains prevention. However, possible effects of NHE programmes on other hamstring injury risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a NHE training programme on multiple hamstring injury risk factors. Twenty physically active young adults were allocated into two equal sized groups: control group (CG) and training group (TG). The TG was engaged in a 4-week NHE programme, twice a week, 3 sets of 6-10 repetitions; while CG received no exercise intervention. The knee flexor and extensor strength was assessed through isokinetic dynamometry, the biceps femoris long head muscle architecture through ultrasound images, and the hamstring flexibility through sit-and-reach test. The results showed that CG subjects had no significant change in any outcome. TG presented higher percent changes than CG for hamstring isometric peak torque (9%; effect size=0.27), eccentric peak torque (13%; effect size=0.60), eccentric work (18%; effect size=0.86), and functional hamstring-to-quadriceps torque ratio (13%; effect size=0.80). The NHE programme led also to increased fascicle length (22%; effect size=2.77) and reduced pennation angle (-17%; effect size=1.27) in biceps femoris long head of the TG, without significant changes on muscle thickness. In conclusion, a short-term NHE training programme (4 weeks; 8 training sessions) counteracts multiple hamstring injury risk factors in physically active young adults.

  12. Isometric Exercise for the Cervical Extensors Can Help Restore Physiological Lordosis and Reduce Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpayci, Mahmut; İlter, Server

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether isometric neck extension exercise restores physiological cervical lordosis and reduces pain. Sixty-five patients with loss of cervical lordosis were randomly assigned to exercise (27 women, 7 men; mean age, 32.82 ± 8.83 yrs) and control (26 women, 5 men; mean age, 33.48 ± 9.67 yrs) groups. Both groups received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 10 days. The exercise group received additional therapy as a home exercise program, which consisted of isometric neck extension for 3 mos. Neck pain severity and cervical lordosis were measured at baseline and at 3 mos after baseline. Compared with baseline levels, cervical lordosis angle was significantly improved in the exercise group (P pain intensity was significantly reduced in both groups compared with baseline levels (for all, P pain was about twice in the exercise group compared with the control group (P neck extension exercise improves cervical lordosis and pain.

  13. Physical exercise, use of Plantago ovata and aspirin, and reduced risk of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarranz, M; Calle-Purón, M-E; González-Navarro, A; Regidor-Poyatos, E; Soriano, T; Martínez-Hernandez, D; Rojas, V-D; Guinee, V F

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate certain risk and protective factors for colon cancer in our population, we conducted a paired case-control study where cases were all people diagnosed with colon cancer who were registered at the Cancer Data Exchange Systems of the Community of Madrid between January 1995 and December 1996, and controls were randomly taken from electoral lists. The study population consisted of 424 persons. Using SPSS for Windows, variables were adjusted by multiple logistic regression. The results indicate that lack of physical exercise is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.21) as compared with moderate activity 1-2 days a week. The risk decreases linearly with increasing physical exercise, and this association remains after stratifying the analysis for the existence of constipation. The consumption of is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer in constipated patients, with an OR of 0.094 (0.014-0.639), as is aspirin use, with an OR of 0.980 (0.898-0.999). These results were obtained after adjusting all the ORs for diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history and socio-demographic factors such as marital status and educational level.

  14. N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations in elite rugby players at rest and after active and passive recovery following strenuous training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; D'Eril, Gianlodovico Melzi; Barassi, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The serum biomarker N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a cleaved fragment of the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) precursor (amino acids 1-76), is accepted as a standard marker for evaluating and monitoring cardiac injury characterized by myocardial wall stress. Strenuous exercise may generate transitory ischemia, myocardial stress and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, possibly inducing increased concentrations of NT-proBNP. A purported caveat to prolonged strenuous exercise is based on evidence for biochemical and structural signs of heart dysfunction in recreational athletes after continuous exertion. We compared NT-proBNP levels in three groups of physically fit subjects: top-level rugby players, professional soccer players and healthy controls. NT-proBNP concentrations were measured at rest and after an intensive training session followed by two different recovery strategies (passive or active). A comparison of the three samples showed that NT-proBNP concentrations in the rugby players were lower than those in controls at rest and were similar to those in professional soccer players. Elevated post-training NT-proBNP levels were unaffected by the type of recovery. The relatively high NT-proBNP levels after active recovery when psychophysical stress is higher, because of cycling and cold water immersion, suggest that not only endurance exercise, but also strenuous, stressful short exercise can induce an increase in NT-proBNP concentrations. In this sample of professional athletes, NT-proBNP was low at rest, and the increase after physical exercise was physiological.

  15. Intense and exhaustive exercise induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thirumalai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in the skeletal muscle of male albino rats subjected to strenuous exercise programme. Methods: Wistar strain albino rats were subjected to exhaustive swimming exercise programme daily for a period of five days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, conjugated dienes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in the gastrocnemius muscle of the exercised animals. Results: The elevated levels of TBARS and conjugated dienes indicated the oxidative stress in the gastrocemius muscle of the exercised animals. The depleted activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in the exercise animals indicated the increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidative defense system in the muscle. Conclusions: The study suggests that prolonged strenuous exercise programme can induce oxidative stress and therefore an optimal level of exercise schedule should be advocated to obtain the maximum benefit of exercise programme.

  16. Advantage of meditation over exercise in reducing cold and flu illness is related to improved function and quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Obasi, Chidi N.; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola; Barlow, Shari; Gassman, Michele; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Coe, Christopher L.; Barrett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Obasi et?al. (2012) Advantage of meditation over exercise in reducing cold and flu illness is related to improved function and quality of life. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 00(0), 00?00. Purpose? To examine whether apparent advantages following training in meditation over exercise can be attributed to specific symptoms, functional impairments, or quality?of?life indicators assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS?24). Methods? Res...

  17. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  18. Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

  19. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Carfagna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

  20. Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Xiaoyan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older heart failure (HF patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (aged 68 ± 10 years without large (aorta or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2, b physical function, c cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.01. Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p p ≤ 0.03. Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow.

  1. Eight weeks of exercise training increases aerobic capacity and muscle mass and reduces fatigue in patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenith, Laura; Meena, Neha; Ramadi, Ailar; Yavari, Milad; Harvey, Andrea; Carbonneau, Michelle; Ma, Mang; Abraldes, Juan G; Paterson, Ian; Haykowsky, Mark J; Tandon, Puneeta

    2014-11-01

    Patients with cirrhosis have reduced exercise tolerance, measured objectively as decreased peak exercise oxygen uptake (peak VO2). Reduced peak VO2 is associated with decreased survival time. The effect of aerobic exercise training on peak VO2 has not been well studied in patients with cirrhosis. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of 8 weeks of supervised exercise on peak VO2, quadriceps muscle thickness, and quality of life. In a prospective pilot study, stable patients (79% male, 57.6 ± 6.7 years old) with Child-Pugh class A or B cirrhosis (mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, 10 ± 2.2) were randomly assigned to groups that received exercise training (n = 9) or usual care (controls, n = 10) at the University of Alberta Hospital in Canada from February through June 2013. Supervised exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer 3 days/week for 8 weeks at 60%-80% of baseline peak VO2. Peak VO2, quadriceps muscle thickness (measured by ultrasound), thigh circumference, answers from Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaires, EQ-visual analogue scales, 6-minute walk distance, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were evaluated at baseline and at week 8. Analysis of covariance was used to compare variables. At week 8, peak VO2 was 5.3 mL/kg/min higher in the exercise group compared with controls (95% confidence interval, 2.9-7.8; P = .001). Thigh circumference (P = .001), thigh muscle thickness (P = .01), and EQ-visual analogue scale determined self-perceived health status (P = .01) was also significantly higher in the exercise group compared with controls at week 8; fatigue subscores of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaires were lower in the exercise group compared with controls (P = .01). No adverse events occurred during cardiopulmonary exercise testing or training. In a controlled prospective pilot trial, 8 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise training increased peak VO2 and muscle mass and reduced fatigue in patients with cirrhosis. No

  2. Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the only pre-pregnancy factor related to gestational diabetes: exercise also lowered risk . Women who exercised more before ... became pregnant had a lower risk of gestational diabetes; the more intense the exercise, the lower the risk. For example, walking at ...

  3. Vitamin E supplementation and endurance exercise: are there benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanami, Y; Iwane, H; Kawai, Y; Shimomitsu, T

    2000-02-01

    It has been widely noted that vitamin E shows numerous beneficial effects through and beyond its antioxidative properties; consequently, vitamin E is expected to prevent degenerative diseases. In the field of sports medicine, many studies dealing with vitamin E have been conducted originally from the point of view of its effects on physical performance. Although some earlier studies indicated that vitamin E supplementation could improve physical performance, defects in the study design or statistical analysis were pointed out at a later time. The majority of subsequent well controlled studies have reported no significant effect on physical performance from vitamin E supplementation. Recent studies suggest that endurance exercise may promote free radical generation in the body, and vitamin E may play an important role in preventing the free radical damage associated with endurance exercise. Although there is evidence of free radical involvement in exercise-induced muscle injury, vitamin E supplementation might not be expected to prevent muscle damage caused by exercise in humans without a vitamin E deficiency. Since it is still unclear whether exercise induces lipid peroxidation in the human body, the beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation has not yet been established. However, it is proposed that as a result of exercise vitamin E may be mobilised from store tissues and redistributed in the body to prevent oxidative damage. Therefore, we are convinced that vitamin E contributes to preventing exercise-induced lipid peroxidation. It has also been indicated that strenuous endurance exercise may enhance the production of oxidised low density lipoprotein (LDL), which plays a key role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. It is also suggested that this enhanced production of oxidised LDL could be reduced if a higher vitamin E status is maintained. Supplementation with 100 to 200mg of vitamin E daily can be

  4. Capsiate supplementation reduces oxidative cost of contraction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Yashiro

    Full Text Available Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS. Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz, both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health.

  5. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Nicolas; Pilgrim, Malcolm; Gibala, Martin; Gillen, Jenna; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; MacQueen, Glenda; Becker, Suzanna

    2013-01-01

    Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as “similar.” Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as “similar.” Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as “similar,” while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information. PMID:23641193

  6. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDéry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a continuous recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as similar. Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as similar. Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as similar, while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information.

  7. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  8. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, E; Christensen, S W; Hirata, R P; Larsen, R G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2018-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occurs within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise, but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result in accumulated algesic substances being a part of the sensitization in DOMS. Twelve healthy subjects (five women) performed dorsiflexion exercise (five sets of 10 repeated eccentric contractions) in one leg, while the contralateral leg was the control. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the tibialis anterior muscle was recorded. Blood flow was assessed by ultrasound Doppler on the anterior tibialis artery (ATA) and within the anterior tibialis muscle tissue before and immediately after 1-second MVC, 5-seconds MVC, and 5-minutes thigh cuff occlusion. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded on the tibialis anterior muscle. All measures were done bilaterally at day 0 (pre-exercise), day 2, and day 6 (post-exercise). Subjects scored the muscle soreness on a Likert scale for 6 days. Eccentric exercise increased Likert scores at day 1 and day 2 compared with day 0 (Pcontraction/occlusion blood flow (~16%, Peccentric contractions decreased vessel diameter, impaired the blood flow response, and promoted hyperalgesia. Thus, the results suggest that the blood flow reduction may be involved in the increased pain response after eccentric exercise. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Treatment Reduces Exercise Performance in Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, K.; Doessing, S.; Nielsen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    between the groups in terms of changes in serum free fatty acids, glycerol, (V) over dotO(2), or relative fat oxidation. Conclusion: GH might be an important determinant of exercise capacity during prolonged exercise, but GHR antagonist did not alter fat metabolism during exercise. (J Clin Endocrinol......Context: The effects of GH on exercise performance remain unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of GH receptor (GHR) antagonist treatment on exercise performance. Design: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist pegvisomant or placebo for 16 d. After the treatment...... period, they exercised to determine exercise performance and hormonal and metabolic responses. Participants: Twenty healthy males participated in the study. Intervention: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist (n = 10; 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 10). After the treatment period, they performed...

  10. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    . With caffeine, pain perception was significantly higher in the deadlift and back squat compared to the bench press. However, with placebo, pain perception was significantly higher for the deadlift and back squat compared to the prone row only. Therefore, acute caffeine ingestion not only enhances resistance exercise performance to failure but also reduces perception of exertion and muscle pain.

  11. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Zhen Cheng; Liu, Dao Yan; Zhang, Li Li

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta)-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow...... or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p......Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta)-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow...

  12. Sixteen weeks of exercise reduces C-reactive protein levels in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Andrea Y; Thomas, William; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2011-06-01

    Regular exercise has been shown to protect against breast cancer risk, and one possible mechanism is through a reduction in inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 16 wk of aerobic exercise training on adipokines and inflammatory markers in healthy young women. Participants were 319 sedentary women aged 18-30 yr, with body mass index of 18-40 kg · m, randomized to an exercise intervention or no exercise for approximately 16 wk. Adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and amyloid A (AA) were measured at baseline and after 16 wk. Adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and AA, CRP, and leptin were measured by multiplex bead array assays. Exercise significantly decreased CRP levels in the exercise group compared with the control group (-1.41 mg · L in exercisers vs -0.005 mg · L in controls, P = 0.040), and this effect was largely driven by changes in CRP that occurred in the obese exercisers. There was no effect of exercise on levels of SAA, adiponectin, or leptin. There was also no effect of exercise on stress and depression scores. Neither change in percent body fat nor change in fitness influenced the effects of exercise on these inflammatory markers. This study demonstrated that a 16-wk aerobic exercise program significantly decreased levels of CRP in young women, especially in those who were obese. There was no evidence that this effect was mediated by changes in perceived stress, percent body fat, or fitness. These findings suggest that adopting an exercise routine early in life may decrease future risk of breast cancer and other chronic diseases in obese women.

  13. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  14. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Tossige-Gomes

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to

  15. Photobiomodulation Leads to Reduced Oxidative Stress in Rats Submitted to High-Intensity Resistive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenita Antonia de Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether oxidative stress markers are influenced by low-intensity laser therapy (LLLT in rats subjected to a high-intensity resistive exercise session (RE. Female Wistar rats divided into three experimental groups (Ctr: control, 4J: LLLT, and RE and subdivided based on the sampling times (instantly or 24 h postexercise underwent irradiation with LLLT using three-point transcutaneous method on the hind legs, which was applied to the gastrocnemius muscle at the distal, medial, and proximal points. Laser (4J or placebo (device off were carried out 60 sec prior to RE that consisted of four climbs bearing the maximum load with a 2 min time interval between each climb. Lipoperoxidation levels and antioxidant capacity were obtained in muscle. Lipoperoxidation levels were increased (4-HNE and CL markers instantly post-RE. LLLT prior to RE avoided the increase of the lipid peroxidation levels. Similar results were also notified for oxidation protein assays. The GPx and FRAP activities did not reduce instantly or 24 h after RE. SOD increased 24 h after RE, while CAT activity did not change with RE or LLLT. In conclusion, LLLT prior to RE reduced the oxidative stress markers, as well as, avoided reduction, and still increased the antioxidant capacity.

  16. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts.

  17. Effects of Motor Control Exercise Vs Muscle Stretching Exercise on Reducing Compensatory Lumbopelvic Motions and Low Back Pain: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-Nam; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Kim, Tae-Ho; Choi, Houng-Sik

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a 6-week motor control exercise (MCE) vs stretching exercise (SE) on reducing compensatory pelvic motion during active prone knee flexion (APKF) and intensity of low back pain. Thirty-six people in the lumbar-rotation-extension subgroup were randomly assigned equally into 2 exercise groups (18 people in each an MCE or SE group). A 3-dimensional motion-analysis system was used to measure the range and onset time of pelvic motion and knee flexion during APKF. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activity and onset time of the erector spinae and the hamstrings during APKF. The level of subjective low back pain was measured using a visual analog scale. The MCE group had more significant decreases in and delay of anterior pelvic tilt, pelvic rotation, and erector spinae muscle activity during APKF, as well as reduced intensity of low back pain compared with the SE group (P < .05). For rehabilitation in patients in the lumbar-rotation-extension subgroup, MCE was more effective than SE in reducing compensatory pelvic motion and muscle activity during APKF and minimizing low back pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Moderate-intensity exercise reduces fatigue and improves mobility in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Dennett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is there a dose-response effect of exercise on inflammation, fatigue and activity in cancer survivors? Design: Systematic review with meta-regression analysis of randomised trials. Participants: Adults diagnosed with cancer, regardless of specific diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Exercise interventions including aerobic and/or resistance as a key component. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures were markers of inflammation (including C-reactive protein and interleukins and various measures of fatigue. The secondary outcomes were: measures of activity, as defined by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including activities of daily living and measures of functional mobility (eg, 6-minute walk test, timed sit-to-stand and stair-climb tests. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale, and overall quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Research, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach. Results: Forty-two trials involving 3816 participants were included. There was very low-quality to moderate-quality evidence that exercise results in significant reductions in fatigue (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.52 and increased walking endurance (SMD 0.77, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.28. A significant negative association was found between aerobic exercise intensity and fatigue reduction. A peak effect was found for moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for improving walking endurance. No dose-response relationship was found between exercise and markers of inflammation or exercise duration and outcomes. Rates of adherence were typically high and few adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Exercise is safe, reduces fatigue and increases endurance in cancer survivors. The results support the recommendation of prescribing moderate-intensity aerobic exercise to reduce fatigue and improve activity in people with cancer. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD

  19. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key resul...

  20. Combined effect of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises to reduce anger among substance dependence subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Malhotra; Karobi Das; Sunita Sharma; Debasish Basu

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a strong association between certain exercises and anger management. Persons with a high tendency towards anger often abuse substances. Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the most common behavioural problems that occur due to uncontrolled anger. Substance dependence subjects when frustrated would show anger. Aim: To assess the anger among substance dependence subjects and the effect of physical exercises (surya namaskar and aerobic exercises) on anger management. Mate...

  1. A systematic review to evaluate exercise for anterior cruciate ligament injuries: does this approach reduce the incidence of knee osteoarthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan KJ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Koji J Duncan, Jaclyn N Chopp-Hurley, Monica R Maly School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Purpose: Among a variety of conservative and surgical options to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, we do not understand which options could potentially prevent knee osteoarthritis (OA. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence pertaining to exercise treatment of ACL injuries in the context of knee OA. Methods: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database databases were systematically searched using keywords encompassed within four primary key terms: knee, osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament, and exercise. Clinical studies evaluating the effect of an exercise treatment for ACL injuries on the development of knee OA in adult humans were included. The PEDro scale was used to critically assess the studies included in the review. Results: Eighteen studies were included in this review, with a median PEDro score of 6/11 (range, 2/11–9/11. Three studies provided statistical evidence that exercise following ACL injury lowered the risk for knee OA development. Nine studies demonstrated no benefit of exercise in preventing knee OA incidence relative to either operative treatment or the contralateral, unaffected knee. However, exercise resulted in higher knee instability. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in subjective or objective knee outcomes for early versus late ACL reconstruction. Limitations: This review was not registered through PROSPERO. Conclusion: The relationship between a rehabilitative exercise for ACL injuries and long-term knee OA prevalence is inconclusive. However, research suggests initial conservative treatment with optional late ACL reconstruction because this treatment strategy may reduce the risk of knee OA. More research, ideally randomized controlled trials or comparable designs, is required prior to establishing

  2. Response to Endurance Exercise Training in Older Adults with Heart Failure with Preserved or Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ambarish; Kitzman, Dalane W; Brubaker, Peter; Haykowsky, Mark J; Morgan, Timothy; Becton, J Thomas; Berry, Jarett D

    2017-08-01

    To systematically examine the relative magnitude and predictors of responses to exercise training in older adult with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and preserved EF (HFpEF). Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program. Individuals with HF (24 HFrEF, 24 HFpEF) who underwent supervised exercise training. The study included individual-level data from the exercise training arms of a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of 16 weeks of supervised moderate-intensity endurance exercise training in older adults with chronic, stable HFpEF and HFrEF. Changes in peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) in response to supervised training in individuals with HFpEF were compared with that of individuals with HFrEF. The significant clinical predictors of changes in VO 2peak with exercise training were assessed using univariate and multivariate regression models. Training-related improvement in VO 2peak was higher in participants with HFpEF than in those with HFrEF (change: 18.7 ± 17.6% vs -0.3 ± 15.4%, P exercise training. In multivariate regression analysis using stepwise selection, submaximal exercise systolic blood pressure, and resting early deceleration time were independent predictors of change in VO 2peak . The change in VO 2peak in response to endurance exercise training in older adults with HF differs significantly according to HF subtype, with greater VO 2peak improvement in HFpEF than HFrEF. These results suggest that the current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policy excluding individuals with HFpEF from reimbursement from cardiac rehabilitation may need to be revisited. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Preliminary study of an exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep among long-term haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Radha; Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Singh, Surindar Kaur Surat; Lim, Soo Kun; Chinna, Karuthan; Rosli, Roshaslina

    2014-09-01

    Fatigue and quality of sleep are the main factors that contribute to a poor quality of life among patients on long-term haemodialysis. Studies have also emphasised the importance of exercise for improving the wellbeing of dialysis patients. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a predialysis low-to-moderate-intensity exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep disorders among long-term haemodialysis patients. In this quasi-experimental study, an exercise programme was conducted three times a week for 12 weeks before long-term haemodialysis patients underwent dialysis at two centres. The patients were categorised into either the exercise group (n = 28) or control group (n = 27). The latter was asked to maintain their current lifestyles. Assessments of fatigue and sleep disorder levels were performed for both groups using self-reported questionnaires at baseline and after intervention. The patients' perception of the exercise programme was also determined using self-reported questionnaires. Paired sample t-test indicated improvements in fatigue level in the exercise group (mean fatigue score: post-treatment 40.5 ± 7.9 vs. pre-treatment 30.0 ± 10.9). Improvements in sleep disorders were also observed in the exercise group (mean score: post-treatment 7.6 ± 3.3 vs. pre-treatment 10.1 ± 3.8). However, sleep quality deteriorated in the control group (mean score: post-treatment 10.7 ± 2.9 vs. pre-treatment 9.3 ± 2.9). Simple low-to-moderate-intensity exercise is effective for improving fatigue, sleep disorders and the overall quality of life among haemodialysis patients.

  4. The efficacy of a movement control exercise programme to reduce injuries in youth rugby: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, M D; Stokes, K A; Williams, S; McKay, C D; England, M; Kemp, S P T

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. Objective To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players. Exercise programme compliance between trial arms and the effect of coach attitudes on compliance will also be evaluated. Setting School rugby coaches in England will be the target of the researcher intervention, with the effects of the injury prevention programmes being measured in male youth players aged 14–18 years in school rugby programmes over the 2015–2016 school winter term. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial with schools randomly allocated to either a movement control exercise programme or a sham exercise programme, both of which are coach-delivered. Injury measures will derive from field-based injury surveillance, with match and training exposure and compliance recorded. A questionnaire will be used to evaluate coach attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours both prior to and on the conclusion of the study period. Outcome measures Summary injury measures (incidence, severity and burden) will be compared between trial arms, as will the influence of coach attitudes on compliance and injury burden. Additionally, changes in these outcomes through using the exercise programmes will be evaluated. Trial registration number ISRTCNN13422001. PMID:27900148

  5. Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with reduced left ventricular contractile reserve and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, M; Kistorp, C N; Schou, M

    2013-01-01

    intolerance related to diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes, known or newly detected by OGTT, is independently associated with reduced LV contractile reserve and exercise...... intolerance in outpatients with systolic HF. These findings may offer one explanation for the excess mortality related to diabetes in HF....

  6. Erythropoietin does not reduce plasma lactate, H+, and K+ during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Robach, P; Boushel, R

    2015-01-01

    It is investigated if recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment for 15 weeks (n = 8) reduces extracellular accumulation of metabolic stress markers such as lactate, H(+) , and K(+) during incremental exhaustive exercise. After rHuEPO treatment, normalization of blood volume and composit...

  7. "Mind Blown"--Including Exercise Science Students as Research Assistants to Reduce Ageist Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Samuel T.; Bourassa, Dara

    2017-01-01

    The amount of older adults is increasing rapidly and the demands of an aging population will need to be met by professionals in many fields, including exercise science. However, many undergraduate students do not want to work with older adults. Therefore, this qualitative study sought to examine the experiences and perceptions of exercise science…

  8. Increased slow wave sleep and reduced stage 2 sleep in children depending on exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Markus; Wiater, Alfred; Alfer, Dirk; Stephan, Egon; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2008-03-01

    There is controversy about the consequences of physical exercise on human sleeping behaviors. Evidence suggests that voluntary physical exercise affects brain structures and functions. However, there are inconsistent data regarding the effects of exercise on sleep architecture and sleep continuity, especially the amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of moderate and high intense physical exercise on vigilance state and sleep patterns in school-aged children. Eleven healthy children (12.6+/-0.8 years old) were recruited for this polysomnographic study and underwent two exercise sessions. The two exercise sessions on a bicycle ergometer were performed 3-4h prior to bedtime, lasted 30min and varied in intensity. The moderate-intensity exercise was at 65-70% of maximal heart rate (HR(max)) while the high-intensity exercise was at 85-90% HR(max) to exhaustion. Polysomnographic and physiological measurements, including oximetry, were made on three nights in random order and separated by 1 week. Vigilance tests were carried out before and after the three sleep periods. Only high-intensity exercise resulted in a significantly elevated SWS proportion and less sleep in stage 2 as well as a higher sleep efficiency and shorter sleep onset latency. No significant effects on REM sleep were found. The results suggest that exercise intensity is responsible for the effects on stage 2 sleep and SWS in children and support the hypothesis of homeostatic sleep regulation.

  9. Modest Amounts of Voluntary Exercise Reduce Pain- and Stress-Related Outcomes in a Rat Model of Persistent Hind Limb Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Mark H; Tarum, Farid; Rauf, Imran Z; Low, Lucie A; Bushnell, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic exercise improves outcomes in a variety of chronic health conditions, yet the support for exercise-induced effects on chronic pain in humans is mixed. Although many rodent studies have examined the effects of exercise on persistent hypersensitivity, the most used forced exercise paradigms that are known to be highly stressful. Because stress can also produce analgesic effects, we studied how voluntary exercise, known to reduce stress in healthy subjects, alters hypersensitivity, stress, and swelling in a rat model of persistent hind paw inflammation. Our data indicate that voluntary exercise rapidly and effectively reduces hypersensitivity as well as stress-related outcomes without altering swelling. Moreover, the level of exercise is unrelated to the analgesic and stress-reducing effects, suggesting that even modest amounts of exercise may impart significant benefit in persistent inflammatory pain states. Modest levels of voluntary exercise reduce pain- and stress-related outcomes in a rat model of persistent inflammatory pain, independently of the amount of exercise. As such, consistent, self-regulated activity levels may be more relevant to health improvement in persistent pain states than standardized exercise goals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Inspiratory muscle training reduces diaphragm activation and dyspnea during exercise in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Daniel; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Faisal, Azmy; Webb, Katherine A; Neder, J Alberto; Gosselink, Rik; Dacha, Sauwaluk; Topalovic, Marko; Ivanova, Anna; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2018-03-15

    Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max). The effects of 8 weeks of controlled IMT on respiratory muscle function, dyspnea, respiratory mechanics, and diaphragm electromyography (EMGdi) during constant-work rate cycle exercise were evaluated in patients with activity-related dyspnea (Baseline Dyspnea Index training control group (n=10 each). Twenty subjects (FEV 1 = 47{plus minus}19 %predicted; Pi,max= -59{plus minus}14 cmH 2 O; cycle ergometer peak work rate= 47{plus minus}21 %predicted) completed the study; groups had comparable baseline lung function, respiratory muscle strength, activity-related dyspnea and exercise capacity. IMT, compared with control, was associated with greater increases in inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, with attendant improvements in exertional dyspnea and exercise endurance time (all pinspiratory pressures, breathing pattern and operating lung volumes during exercise. In conclusion, IMT improved inspiratory muscle strength and endurance in mechanically compromised patients with COPD and low Pi,max. The attendant reduction in EMGdi/EMGdi,max helped explain the decrease in perceived respiratory discomfort despite sustained high ventilation and intrinsic mechanical loading over a longer exercise duration.

  11. Acute exercise is associated with reduced exhaled nitric oxide in physically inactive adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hayley A; Latham, Jennifer R; Callister, Robin; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Baines, Katherine; Saltos, Nick; Upham, John W; Wood, Lisa G

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise has multiple health benefits, relatively little attention has been paid to its potential therapeutic effects in those with asthma. To examine the effects of acute exercise on inflammation in physically inactive and active adults with asthma. Fourteen adults with asthma (n = 6 physically inactive, n = 8 physically active) completed (1) 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a treadmill and (2) 30 minutes of rest in random order, with 4 weeks between sessions. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured before and after the intervention (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours). Blood inflammatory mediators were measured before and after the intervention (0, 2, and 24 hours). Physically inactive participants had a significant decrease in eNO 4 hours after exercise (-4.8 ppb, -6.4 to -0.5 ppb, P = .028), which was not observed in physically active participants (P = .362). Interluekin-1 receptor antagonist increased in the physically inactive group 2 hours after exercise, with this increase strongly correlated with the decrease in eNO at 4 hours (R = -0.685, P = .007) and 24 hours (R = -0.659, P = .014) after exercise. Interleukin-6 was increased significantly 2 hours after exercise in physically inactive participants. Blood neutrophils and nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 gene expression were increased 2 hours after exercise in the overall cohort. This study demonstrates that acute moderate-intensity exercise is associated with decreased eNO in physically inactive adults with asthma and suggests that interluekin-1 receptor antagonist could have a role in mediating this effect. The attenuated response in physically active participants might be due to the sustained anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training. Future studies should investigate the impact of exercise intensity and exercise training on airway inflammation in those with asthma. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au), registration number ACTRN

  12. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins reduces human skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, Henning; Gemmer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow......, respectively (P exercise in humans. These findings demonstrate an important synergistic role of NO and PG for skeletal muscle vasodilatation and hyperaemia during muscular contraction....... was quantified by near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green in six healthy humans during dynamic knee extension exercise with and without combined pharmacological inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) and PG by L-NAME and indomethacin, respectively. Microdialysis was applied to determine interstitial release...

  13. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology.

  14. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix

    2014-01-01

    in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness......, strength, and weight. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. RESULTS: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n = 94) and found little...... on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression, exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting, little...

  15. Reduced fat oxidation rates during submaximal exercise in adolescents with Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thanh; Ploeger, Hilde E.; Obeid, Joyce; Issenman, Robert M.; Baker, Jeff M.; Takken, Tim; Parise, Gianni; Timmons, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Children with Crohn's disease (CD) suffer from malnutrition. Understanding substrate utilization during exercise may help patients with CD sustain a healthy active lifestyle without compromising nutrition. The aim of this study was to determine whether substrate utilization and bioavailability

  16. L-arginine reduces exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, A; Piquard, F; Geny, B; Doutreleau, S; Lampert, E; Mettauer, B; Lonsdorfer, J

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the effect of L-arginine supplementation (L-ARG) on physiological and metabolic changes during exercise, we determined in a double-blind study the cardiorespiratory (heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)) and the metabolic (lactate and ammonia) responses to maximal exercise after either an intravenous L-ARG hydrochloride salt or placebo load in 8 healthy subjects. Exercise-induced increases in heart rate, VO(2) and VCO(2) were not significantly different after L-ARG or placebo. By contrast, peak plasma ammonia and lactate were significantly decreased after L-ARG load (60.6 +/- 8.2 vs. 73.1 +/- 9.1 micro mol x l(-1), p L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway during exercise.

  17. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPAR-δ)-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-δ. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-δ. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-δ by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 ± 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 ± 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-δ significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 ± 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-δ. Both CB1 and PPAR-δ are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor

  18. Combined effect of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises to reduce anger among substance dependence subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malhotra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong association between certain exercises and anger management. Persons with a high tendency towards anger often abuse substances. Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the most common behavioural problems that occur due to uncontrolled anger. Substance dependence subjects when frustrated would show anger. Aim: To assess the anger among substance dependence subjects and the effect of physical exercises (surya namaskar and aerobic exercises on anger management. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Specific exercise was planned for anger management based on a thorough literature review, which consisted of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises (brisk walking and jogging to be taught in a two-week period. Results: Anger was assessed by using standardised tool and after intervention for fifteen days, significant reduction in anger score was found in experimental group. Conclusion: Physical exercises were found to be effective for managing the anger among substance dependence subjects.

  19. Acute resistance exercise reduces increased gene expression in muscle atrophy of ovariectomised arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Furlanetto Jr

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied the effect of resistance exercise (RE on mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin in the gastrocnemius muscle of arthritic rats after loss of ovarian function (LOF. Material and methods : Thirty female Wistar rats (nine weeks old, 195.3 ±17.4 grams were randomly allocated into five groups: control group (CT-Sham; n = 6; group with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 6; group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAEX; n = 6; ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis (RAOV; n = 6; and an ovariectomy group with rheumatoid arthritis subjected to RE (RAOVEX; n = 6. After 15 days of intra-articular injections with Met-BSA the animals were subjected to RE and six hours after workout were euthanised. Results : The rheumatoid arthritis provoked reduction in the cross-sectional area (CSA of muscle fibres, but the CSA was lower in the RAOV when compared to the RA groups. Skeletal muscle atrogin-1 mRNA level was increased in arthritic rats (RA and RAOV, but the atrogin-1 level was higher in RAOV group when compared to other arthritic groups. The Muscle MuRF-1 mRNA level was also increased in the RAOV group. The increased atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 mRNA levels were lower in the RAOVEX group than in the RAOV group. The myostatin mRNA level was similar in all groups, except for the RAOVEX group, in which it was lower than the other groups. Conclusions : LOF results in increased loss of skeletal muscle-related ubiquitin ligases (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. However, the RE reduces the atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin mRNA levels in muscle of arthritic rats affected by LOF.

  20. Effect of eccentric exercise with reduced muscle glycogen on plasma interleukin-6 and neuromuscular responses of musculus quadriceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, James P; Myers, Stephen D; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-07-01

    Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart. Muscle glycogen was reduced using an established cycling protocol until exhaustion and dietary manipulation the evening before the morning run. Physiological responses were measured up to 48 h after the downhill runs. During recovery, force deficits of musculus quadriceps femoris by maximal isometric contractions were similar. Changes in low-frequency fatigue were larger with RG. Voluntary activation and plasma IL-6 levels were similar in recovery between conditions. It is concluded that unaccustomed, damaging eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen of the m. quadriceps femoris 1) exacerbated low-frequency fatigue but 2) had no additional effect on IL-6 secretion. Neuromuscular impairment after eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen appears to have a greater peripheral component in early recovery. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Efficacy of application technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment to reduce school anxiety first form pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the need to improve the mental state of first-graders and the possibility of achieving this goal, the lesson of physical culture at the expense of proper use of musical accompaniment exercise. Material : participated in the experiment experimental, control and background group (only 55 students of first class. Results : argues that music has a regulating effect on mental and physiological state of a person. It is noted that the combined effects of exercise and music on the body and psyche of a child reduces total anxiety in school. Also reduces the fear in a meaningful situation knowledge test. Found that the effect of exercise without music and with various embodiments use musical accompaniment in the lesson to address interpersonal relations student and the teacher has no significant difference. Conclusions : as a result of the pedagogical experiment to identify significantly positive, confirming the effectiveness of the technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment for the performance of most indicators of school anxiety.

  2. Green exercise as a workplace intervention to reduce job stress. Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Evensen, Katinka; Weydahl, Andi; Andersson, Kim; Patil, Grete; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Raanaas, Ruth K

    2015-01-01

    Stress and mental fatigue are major health threats to employees in office-based occupations. Physical activity is widely used as a stress-management intervention for employees. Moreover, experiences in contact with nature have been shown to provide stress-reduction and restoration from mental fatigue. In a pilot study designed as a randomized controlled trial we investigated the impact of a green-exercise intervention on psychological and physiological indicators of stress in municipality employees. Fourteen employees (7 females and 7 males, 49±8 yrs) volunteered in an exercise-based intervention in workplace either outdoors in a green/nature area or in an indoor exercise-setting. The intervention consisted of an information meeting and two exercise sessions, each including a biking bout and a circuit-strength sequence using elastic rubber bands (45-minutes, at about 55% of HR reserve, overall). Main outcomes were perceived environmental potential for restoration, affective state, blood pressure (BP) and cortisol awakening response (CAR AUC(G) and CAR AUC(I)) and cortisol levels in serum. Measurements were taken at baseline and in concomitance with the exercise sessions. Furthermore, affective state and self-reported physical activity levels were measured over a 10-weeks follow-up period. Compared with the indoor group, the nature group reported higher environmental potential for restoration (p Affect (p Affect at follow-up (p = 0.02). Differences at post-exercise were not found for any of the other components of affective state, systolic BP, CAR AUC(G) and cortisol levels measured in serum. Green-exercise at the workplace could be a profitable way to manage stress and induce restoration among employees. Further studies on larger samples are needed in order to improve the generalizability of the results.

  3. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. METHODS: 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity......: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per...... week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5×10 minutes per week. Physical exertion was assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. RESULTS: 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1...

  4. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegler Jason

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame, and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45 min rest + 60 min self-paced intense exercise differing only in their fluid intake: 1 carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C; 2 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA; 3 water (W; and 4 aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A. Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43% between pre-exercise and 30 min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone.

  5. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Katherine E.; Newsham, Katherine R.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  6. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Katherine E; Newsham, Katherine R; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R; Weiss, Edward P

    2016-03-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m(-2)) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  7. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale and red radish (Raphanus sativus compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day, and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day for seven days, and control group (n=14 was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER (p

  8. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Keijer, J.; Mensink, M.R.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, L.O.; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley; Verschuren, Martie C.M.; Pieters, Raymond; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals.
    Eleven

  9. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven

  10. The prolonged intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate reduces blood lactate accumulation and oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Brunner, Fritz; Faulhaber, Martin; Hotter, Barbara; Likar, Rudolf

    2005-09-01

    L-arginine-L-aspartate is widely used by athletes for its potentially ergogenic properties. However, only little information on its real efficacy is available from controlled studies. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of prolonged supplementation with L-arginine-L-aspartate on metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal exercise in healthy athletes by a double blind placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen healthy male volunteers (22 ± 3 years) performed incremental cycle spiroergometry up to 150 watts before and after intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate (3 grams per day) or placebo for a period of 3 weeks. After intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate, blood lactate at 150 watts dropped from 2.8 ± 0.8 to 2.0 ± 0.9 mmol·l(-1) (p L-arginine-L-aspartate supplementation effected an increased fat utilisation at 50 watts. L-arginine and L-aspartate seem to have induced synergistic metabolic effects. L-arginine might have reduced lactic acid production by the inhibition of glycolysis and L-aspartate may have favoured fatty acid oxidation. Besides, the results indicate improved work efficiency after L-arginine-L-aspartate intake. The resulting increases of submaximal work capacity and exercise tolerance may have important implications for athletes as well as patients. Key PointsAmino acids are among the most common nutritional supplements taken by athletes. They are involved in numerous metabolic pathways that affect exercise metabolism.Three weeks of L-arginine-L-aspartate supplementation resulted in lower blood lactate concentrations and oxygen consumption, diminished glucose and enhanced fat oxidation, and reduced heart rate and ventilation during submaximal cycle exercise.This implies increased submaximal work capacity and exercise tolerance, which may have important implications for both athletes as well as patients.

  11. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on intense intermittent exercise performance and muscle interstitial ion concentrations was examined. The study consists of two studies (S1 and S2). In S1 twelve subjects completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) test with prior caffeine (6...... mg/kg b.w.; CAF) or placebo (PLA) intake. In S2 six subjects performed one low intense (20 W) and three intense (50 W) 3-min (separated by 5 min) one-legged knee-extension exercise bouts with (CAF) and without (CON) prior caffeine supplementation for determination of muscle interstitial K(+) and Na...

  12. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins reduces human skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, Henning; Gemmer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow was quanti......The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow......, respectively (P important synergistic role of NO and PG for skeletal muscle vasodilatation and hyperaemia during muscular contraction....

  13. Evidence-Based Exercise Recommendations to Reduce Hepatic Fat Content in Youth- a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, María; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Labayen, Idoia

    2018-02-13

    The main purposes of this study were to elucidate the effects of supervised-exercise training (ET) interventions on hepatic fat content and on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence in children and adolescents and to provide information about the optimal ET prescription (type, intensity, volume, and frequency) needed to reduce hepatic fat content in youths. Supervised-ET interventions performed in children and adolescents (6-19 years) that provided results of exercise effects on hepatic fat content or NAFLD prevalence were included. Supervised-exercise significantly reduced hepatic fat content compared to the control groups. Lifestyle interventions that included supervised-ET significantly reduced the prevalence of NAFLD. This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that supervised-ET could be an effective strategy in the management and prevention of NAFLD in children and adolescents. Both aerobic and resistance ET, at vigorous or moderate-to-vigorous intensities, with a volume ≥60 min/session and a frequency ≥3 sessions/week, aiming to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength, had benefits on hepatic fat content reduction in youth. These data concur with the international recommendations of physical activity for health promotion in youth and may be useful when designing ET programs to improve and prevent hepatic steatosis in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endurance exercise per se reduces the cardiovascular risk marker t-PA antigen in healthy, younger, overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else Marie; Skov, Jane; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The cardiovascular risk marker tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA:Ag) can be reduced by long-term exercise interventions, but it is unknown, whether this is due to the weight loss induced by physical activity or due to the physical activity per se.  Materials and methods......-group difference in t-PA:Ag was observed at 12 weeks (p = 0.001), and this was due to lower values in T (p = 0.0005), D (p = 0.005) and T-iD (p = 0.009) compared with the control group. Total body fat mass was reduced in all three exercise groups, and we observed a positive correlation between changes in t...... obtained before and after 12 weeks of intervention and analyzed for plasma t-PA:Ag.  Results Body weight was reduced in groups T and D. We observed a decrease in t-PA:Ag from baseline to 12 weeks in all three exercise and diet intervention groups, and no change in the control group. A between...

  15. Intensive exercise reduces the fear of additional falls in elderly people: findings from the Korea falls prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong Hyun; Park, Ji Eun; Lee, Eon Sook; Oh, Sang Woo; Cho, Sung Il; Jang, Soong Nang; Baik, Hyun Wook

    2012-12-01

    Falls among older people are a major public health problem and may result in fracture, medical complications that require hospitalization, and fear of additional falls. Given the prevalence and impact of the fear of falling again, reducing the incidence of falls is important to prevent additional falls. This study analyzed whether exercise programs decrease the fear of future falls in elderly patients who have fallen previously. A randomized controlled study was performed that included 65 elderly community-dwelling subjects who had fallen in the previous year. Subjects were randomized into two groups: an exercise group (EG, n = 36) and a control group (CG, n = 29). The EG participated in three exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. Muscle strength, balance, agility, flexibility, and muscular endurance were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, the subjects in the EG demonstrated remarkable improvement in their walking speed, balance (p = 0.003), back strength (p = 0.08), lower extremity strength (p = 0.004), and flexibility (p flexibility, and muscle strength of the participants and was associated with improved quality of life.

  16. Enhancement of preoxygenation for decompression sickness protection: effect of exercise duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Fischer, Michele D.; Kannan, Nandini

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since strenuous exercise for 10 min during preoxygenation was shown to provide better protection from decompression sickness (DCS) incidence than resting preoxygenation, a logical question was: would a longer period of strenuous exercise improve protection even further? HYPOTHESIS: Increased strenuous exercise duration during preoxygenation increases DCS protection. METHODS: There were 60 subjects, 30 men and 30 women, who were exposed to 9,144 m (4.3 psia) for 4 h while performing mild, upper body exercise. Before the exposures, each subject performed three preoxygenation profiles on different days in balanced order: a 90-min resting preoxygenation control; a 240-min resting preoxygenation control; and a 90-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 15 min. The subjects were monitored at altitude for venous gas emboli (VGE) with an echo-imaging system and observed for signs and symptoms of DCS. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in occurrence of DCS following any of the three preoxygenation procedures. Results were also comparable to an earlier report of 42% DCS with a 60-min preoxygenation including a 10-min exercise. There was no difference between VGE incidence in the comparison of protection offered by a 90-min preoxygenation with or without 13 min of strenuous exercise. The DCS incidence following a 240-min resting preoxygenation, 40%, was higher than observed during NASA studies and nearly identical with the earlier 42% DCS after a 60-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 10 min. CONCLUSION: The protection offered by a 10 min exercise in a 60-min preoxygenation was not increased with extension of the preoxygenation exercise period to 15 min in a 90-min preoxygenation, indicating an upper time limit to the beneficial effects of strenuous exercise.

  17. Metabolic alkalosis reduces exercise-induced acidosis and potassium accumulation in human skeletal muscle interstitium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Street, D.; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle releases potassium during activity. Interstitial potassium accumulation is important for muscle function and the development of fatigue resulting from exercise. In the present study we used sodium citrate ingestion as a tool to investigate the relationship between interstitial H+ ...

  18. Active Recovery between Interval Bouts Reduces Blood Lactate While Improving Subsequent Exercise Performance in Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutiun M. Nalbandian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power with 4 min recovery between bouts followed by a Wingate test (WT. The recoveries were either active recovery (at 60% of the lactate threshold intensity or passive recovery (resting at sitting position. During the exercise, blood samples were taken to determine blood gasses, blood lactate, and blood pH, and peak and average power were calculated for the WT. When performing the active recovery trials, blood pH was significantly higher (p < 0.01 and blood lactate was significantly lower (p < 0.01 compared with the passive recovery trials. WT performance was significantly higher in the active recovery trials: peak power was 671 ± 88 and 715 ± 108 watts, and average power was 510 ± 70 and 548 ± 73 watts (passive and active respectively; p < 0.01. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the increased pH and the increased performance in the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery performed during high-intensity interval exercise favors the performance in a following WT. Moreover, the blood pH variations associated with active recovery did not explain the enhanced performance.

  19. A Comparison of Exercise and Meditation in Reducing Physiological Response to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Wesley E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of brief treadmill exercise and meditation with a placebo-control treatment for reduction in several physiological and psychological measures of stress, anxiety, and tension before and after a written final examination in 48 high-test anxiety subjects. The subjects, 24 men and 24 women,…

  20. Prolonged constant load cycling exercise is associated with reduced gross efficiency and increased muscle oxygen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J G; O'Grady, C; Pageaux, B

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of prolonged constant load cycling exercise on cycling efficiency and local muscle oxygen uptake responses. Fourteen well-trained cyclists each completed a 2-h steady-state cycling bout at 60% of their maximal minute power output to assess changes in gross cycling efficiency (GE) and muscle oxygen uptake (mVO 2 ) at time points 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to continually monitor tissue oxygenation of the Vastus Lateralis muscle, with arterial occlusions (OCC) applied to assess mVO 2 . The half-recovery time of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO 2 ) was also assessed pre and post the 2-h cycling exercise by measuring the hyperemic response following a 5-min OCC. GE significantly declined during the 2-h cycling bout (18.4 ± 1.6 to 17.4 ± 1.4%; P cycling exercise (+7.1 ± 19s), albeit not significantly (d: 0.48; P = 0.27). This study demonstrates that GE decreases during prolonged constant load cycling exercise and provides evidence of an increased mVO 2 , suggestive of progressive mitochondrial or contractile inefficiency. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. High-intensity training reduces CD8+ T-cell redistribution in response to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackman, S.R.; Tipton, K.D.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Kies, A.K.; Bosch, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether exercise-induced lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia are impaired with high-intensity training. Methods: Eight trained cyclists (V·O2max = 64.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) undertook 1 wk of normal-intensity training and a second week of high-intensity training. On day 7 of each

  2. Short-term exercise reduces markers of hepatocyte apoptosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fealy, Ciaran E; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    .2 kg/m(2), >5% intrahepatic lipid (IHL) assessed by (1)H-MR spectroscopy]. Exercise consisted of treadmill walking for 60 min/day on 7 consecutive days at ∼85% of maximal heart rate. Additionally, subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) test before...

  3. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  4. Can Patients Practice Strenuous Sports After Uncemented Ceramic-on-Ceramic Total Hip Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, Michel P.; Rollier, Jean-Charles; Chatelet, Jean-Christophe; Ait-Si-Selmi, Tarik; Chouteau, Julien; Jacquot, Laurent; Hannink, Gerjon; Saffarini, Mo; Fessy, Michel-Henri

    2018-01-01

    Background: Patients are often concerned about returning to sports after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Purpose: To (1) evaluate sports participation and motivation rates in a large cohort of patients who underwent uncemented THA with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings and (2) determine whether patients’ participation was associated with their motivation for each sport, preoperative demographics, or patient-reported outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We surveyed 1310 patients (aged sports as well as patient-reported outcome measure scores. A total of 1042 patients (1206 hips) returned questionnaires; the mean age at index surgery was 60.6 ± 8.8 years. Results: At least 51% of patients participated regularly or frequently in at least 1 light sport, 73% in at least 1 moderate sport, and 20% in at least 1 strenuous sport. Sports participation was strongly correlated with motivation (r = 0.97, P sports was significantly associated with age, body mass index, and sex. There were significant differences among patients who practiced various categories of sports as determined using the Oxford Hip Score (P = .008), but not with regard to the Forgotten Joint Score (P = .054). Conclusion: Only 20% of patients practiced strenuous sports regularly or frequently after THA, regardless of pain or discomfort. Participation in sports after THA is strongly correlated with motivation but not with level of discomfort. Longer term studies with a greater focus on complications and survival are necessary to determine whether high-impact sports compromise patient safety or implant longevity.

  5. Does physical exercise reduce excessive daytime sleepiness by improving inflammatory profiles in obstructive sleep apnea patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eduardo da Silva; Ackel-D'Elia, Carolina; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Cunha, Thays Crosara Abrahão; Carneiro, Gláucia; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with a variety of long-term consequences such as high rates of morbidity and mortality, due to excessive diurnal somnolence as well as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Obesity, recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction, progressive hypoxemia, and sleep fragmentation during sleep cause neural, cardiovascular, and metabolic changes. These changes include activation of peripheral sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory cytokines alterations, which predispose an individual to vascular damage. Previous studies proposed that OSAS modulated the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines from fat and other tissues. Independent of obesity, patients with OSAS exhibited elevated levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, which are associated with sleepiness, fatigue, and the development of a variety of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. OSAS and obesity are strongly associated with each other and share many common pathways that induce chronic inflammation. Previous studies suggested that the protective effect of exercise may be partially attributed to the anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise, and this effect was observed in obese patients. Although some studies assessed the effects of physical exercise on objective and subjective sleep parameters, the quality of life, and mood in patients with OSAS, no study has evaluated the effects of this treatment on inflammatory profiles. In this review, we cited some studies that directed our opinion to believe that since OSAS causes increased inflammation and has excessive daytime sleepiness as a symptom and being that physical exercise improves inflammatory profiles and possibly OSAS symptoms, it must be that physical exercise improves excessive daytime sleepiness due to its improvement in inflammatory profiles.

  6. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeay Yanita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. Results A significant (p p = 0.047 interaction effect was seen for peak isometric tension suggesting a faster rate of recovery in the blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p  Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage’s inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise

  7. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Chris

    2008-04-01

    This review will encompass definition, history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of exercise -induced bronchospasm in the pediatric individual with and without known asthma. Exercise induced asthma is the conventional term for transient airway narrowing in a known asthma in association with strenuous exercise usually lasting 5-10 minutes with a decline in pulmonary function by at least 10%. Exercise induced asthma will be referred to as exercise induced bronchospasm in an asthmatic. Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB ) is the same phenomenon in an individual without known asthma. EIB can be seen in healthy individuals including children as well as defense recruits and competitive or elite athletes. The diagnosis with objective exercise challenge methods in conjunction with history is delineated. Management is characterized with pharmacotherapy and non pharmacotherapeutic measures for underlying asthma as well as exercise induced bronchospasm and inhalant allergy. Children can successfully participate in all sports if asthma is properly managed.

  8. The harmful effect of exercise on reducing taurine concentration in the tissues of rats treated with CCl4 administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Teruo; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ikegami, Tadashi; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Doy, Mikio; Tanaka, Naomi; Bouscarel, Bernard

    2004-06-01

    We have previously reported that oral taurine administration reduced the frequency of painful muscle cramps in patients with liver cirrhosis, and that skeletal muscle taurine concentration was significantly decreased after exercise. The aim of this study was to examine taurine concentration in various tissues of a liver damaged with fibrosis (LD) in a rat model before and after exercise. Rats were divided into normal (NML) and LD groups. The LD group received CCl(4) injection for 10 weeks. Thereafter, both groups were divided into control (NML/CTL, LD/CTL) and exercise (NML/EX, LD/EX) groups, respectively. The rats in the EX groups were subjected to treadmill running. Plasma, liver, brain, heart, and skeletal muscle taurine concentration, as well as plasma and liver lipid peroxidase (LPO) concentration, were measured. The liver, brain, and skeletal muscle taurine concentration in the LD groups was significantly decreased compared to that in the respective NML groups. Furthermore, the taurine concentration in the heart and skeletal muscles in the LD/CTL group was significantly decreased post exercise. The respective plasma and liver LPO concentration in the LD groups was significantly increased compared to that in the corresponding NML group. Moreover, plasma LPO concentration in the LD/EX group was significantly higher than in the LD/CTL group. Tissue taurine concentration, particularly in skeletal muscle, was significantly decreased in the LD model rats induced by CCl(4) administration, and furthermore, the significantly decreased concentration, except for liver, was aggravated by exercise, even though at lower intensity.

  9. Triage of frail elderly with reduced exercise tolerance in primary care (TREE. a clustered randomized diagnostic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mourik Yvonne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise reduced tolerance and breathlessness are common in the elderly and can result in substantial loss in functionality and health related quality of life. Heart failure (HF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common underlying causes, but can be difficult to disentangle due to overlap in symptomatology. In addition, other potential causes such as obesity, anaemia, renal dysfunction and thyroid disorders may be involved. We aim to assess whether screening of frail elderly with reduced exercise tolerance leads to high detection rates of HF, COPD, or alternative diagnoses, and whether detection of these diseases would result in changes in patient management and increase in both functionality and quality of life. Methods/Design A cluster randomized diagnostic trial. Primary care practices are randomized to the diagnostic-treatment strategy (screening or care as usual. Patient population: Frail (defined as having three or more chronic or vitality threatening diseases and/or receiving five or more drugs chronically during the last year community-dwelling persons aged 65 years and older selected from the electronic medical files of the participating general practitioners. Those with reduced exercise tolerance or moderate to severe dyspnoea (≥2 score on the Medical Research Counsel dyspnoea scale are included in the study. The diagnostic screening in the intervention group includes history taking, physical examination, electrocardiography, spirometry, blood tests, and echocardiography. Subsequently, participants with new diagnoses will be managed according to clinical guidelines. Participants in the control arm receive care as usual. All participants fill out health status and other relevant questionnaires at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. Discussion This study will generate information on the yield of screening for previously unrecognized HF, COPD and other chronic diseases in frail elderly with

  10. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclist replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 x ~30-s sprints) 2......-3 times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 x 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for seven weeks and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol and protein expression...... and phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mTOR (12%), PLN (16%) and CaMKII γ/δ (25%) was higher (Ptraining intervention. In addition, after the intervention non-specific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P

  11. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Exercise-induced rib stress fractures have been reported frequently in elite rowers during the past decade. The etiology of rib stress fractures is unclear, but low bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for stress fractures in weight-bearing bones. The present...... study investigated BMD in seven Danish national team rowers with previous rib stress fracture (RSF) and 7 controls (C) matched for gender, age, height, weight and training experience. Total body scan and specific scans of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck and distal radius were performed using...... density may be a potential risk factor for the development of exercise-induced rib stress fractures in elite rowers....

  12. Stretching and joint mobilization exercises reduce call-center operators' musculoskeletal discomfort and fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Helena de Castro Lacaze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We sought to evaluate musculoskeletal discomfort and mental and physical fatigue in the call-center workers of an airline company before and after a supervised exercise program compared with rest breaks during the work shift. INTRODUCTION: This was a longitudinal pilot study conducted in a flight-booking call-center for an airline in São Paulo, Brazil. Occupational health activities are recommended to decrease the negative effects of the call-center working conditions. In practice, exercise programs are commonly recommended for computer workers, but their effects have not been studied in call-center operators. METHODS: Sixty-four call-center operators participated in this study. Thirty-two subjects were placed into the experimental group and attended a 10-min daily exercise session for 2 months. Conversely, 32 participants were placed into the control group and took a 10-min daily rest break during the same period. Each subject was evaluated once a week by means of the Corlett-Bishop body map with a visual analog discomfort scale and the Chalder fatigue questionnaire. RESULTS: Musculoskeletal discomfort decreased in both groups, but the reduction was only statistically significant for the spine and buttocks (p=0.04 and the sum of the segments (p=0.01 in the experimental group. In addition, the experimental group showed significant differences in the level of mental fatigue, especially in questions related to memory Rienzo, #181ff and tiredness (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results demonstrate that appropriately designed and supervised exercise programs may be more efficient than rest breaks in decreasing discomfort and fatigue levels in call-center operators.

  13. Physical activity and exercise performance in symptomatic Cambodia veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Soetekouw, P M M B; Van Der Meer, J W M; Folgering, H; Bleijenberg, G

    2002-02-01

    Dutch (ex-)servicemen who encounter health problems since return from the 1992-3 peace operation UNTAC, commonly complain of reduced activity levels, decreases in physical fitness and aggravation of symptoms after strenuous exercise. To evaluate these symptoms. A prospective study of 26 symptomatic Cambodia veterans and 26 matched controls (healthy Cambodia veterans). Using an actometer and diaries, both groups were followed for a 12-day baseline period prior to an incremental maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer, followed by 7 days of post-ergometer data. During baseline, symptomatic Cambodia veterans reported more symptoms, had lower levels of physical activity and took longer periods of rest after high activity periods. Symptomatic veterans did not perceive the exercise test needing more exertion than healthy veterans did, although their physical fitness was decreased. Post-ergometer, daily observed symptoms did not aggravate in symptomatic veterans. Four days post-ergometer, actometer and daily observed activity scores were lowered in both groups. As compared to baseline, one day post-ergometer, levels of physical activity were changed in healthy veterans, but not in controls. Complaints about reduced activity levels and decreases in physical fitness in symptomatic Cambodia veterans were confirmed. Post-exertion malaise was not found. The observed post-exertion effects were traced back to weekday patterns.

  14. Acute High-Intensity Intermittent Aerobic Exercise Reduces Plasma Angiopoietin-Like 2 in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Jean-François; Yu, Carol; Luo, Xiaoyan; Farhat, Nada; Guiraud, Thibaut; Lalongé, Julie; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Lambert, Jean; Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Thorin, Eric; Nigam, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Circulating levels of angiopoietin-like 2 (ANGPTL2), a proinflammatory and proatherogenic protein, are elevated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE), known to be beneficial in patients with CAD, would reduce circulating ANGPTL2 levels. Plasma levels of ANGPTL2 were measured before and 20 minutes, 24 hours, and 72 hours after an acute exercise session in a crossover study comparing HIIE to moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in 14 patients with CAD and 20 age-matched and 20 young healthy controls. Pre-exercise ANGPTL2 levels were 3-fold higher in patients with CAD than in age-matched controls (P < 0.05) and correlated negatively with Vo2max/lean body mass (P < 0.0001). In healthy controls, ANGPTL2 levels were low and not affected by HIIE or MICE. In patients with CAD, ANGPTL2 levels decreased significantly by 41% after 20 minutes of HIIE, a reduction that was maintained after 24 and 72 hours (P < 0.05). In contrast, although ANGPTL2 levels decreased by 47% after 20 minutes of MICE, they increased by 104% after 24 hours and returned to baseline values after 72 hours (P < 0.05). A negative correlation was observed between this increase in ANGPTL2 levels and the mean rate-pressure product (heart rate × systolic blood pressure; index of myocardial O2 consumption) measured during MICE, suggesting that subclinical ischemia might promote ANGPTL2 expression. In patients with CAD, circulating ANGPTL2 levels are acutely reduced after HIIE and transiently increased after MICE. A sustained reduction in circulating ANGPTL2 levels could contribute to the chronic beneficial cardiometabolic effects of HIIE in patients with CAD. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-02-02

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns.

  16. Exercise in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A review of current evidence, national guideline recommendations and a proposal for a new direction to fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindieh, Waseem; Adler, Arnon; Weissler-Snir, Adaya; Fourey, Dana; Harris, Sarah; Rakowski, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common genetic disorder with a prevalence of 1:500 in the general population. Amongst a varied spectrum of clinical presentations, the most feared complication of this cardiac disorder is sudden cardiac death. Although only a minority of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who suffer sudden cardiac death or resuscitated cardiac arrest do so during exercise, strenuous physical activity is regarded as an important trigger for these tragic outcomes. Furthermore, during exercise, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may develop augmentation of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, myocardial ischemia, diastolic dysfunction and/or inappropriate vasodilation in non-exercising vascular beds. This in turn may lead to exertional dyspnea, chest pain or syncope. Accordingly, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are disqualified from competitive sports and in many cases are recommended to avoid strenuous physical activity of any kind. Nevertheless, avoidance of physical activity comes with a price. The positive effects of regular exercise have been extensively reported to convey a wide range of benefits including reduced cardiovascular events, weight reduction and improved wellbeing. Therefore, finding the right exercise level that will offer some of the benefits of physical activity without increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death is of utmost importance. In this review, we discuss the current evidence for and against exercise in this patient population and review national guideline recommendations. We also propose alternative fitness strategies including a novel fitness program implemented by our hypertrophic cardiomyopathy center which may be of particular usefulness for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Intensity Exercise Reduces Cardiac Fibrosis and Hypertrophy but Does Not Restore the Nitroso-Redox Imbalance in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Novoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy refers to the manifestations in the heart as a result of altered glucose homeostasis, reflected as fibrosis, cellular hypertrophy, increased oxidative stress, and apoptosis, leading to ventricular dysfunction. Since physical exercise has been indicated as cardioprotective, we tested the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise training could reverse the cardiac maladaptations produced by diabetes. For this, diabetes was induced in rats by a single dose of alloxan. Diabetic rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or submitted to a program of exercise on a treadmill for 4 weeks at 80% of maximal performance. Another group of normoglycemic rats was used as control. Diabetic rat hearts presented cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Chronic exercise reduced both parameters but increased apoptosis. Diabetes increased the myocardial levels of the mRNA and proteins of NADPH oxidases NOX2 and NOX4. These altered levels were not reduced by exercise. Diabetes also increased the level of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS that was not reversed by exercise. Finally, diabetic rats showed a lower degree of phosphorylated phospholamban and reduced levels of SERCA2 that were not restored by high-intensity exercise. These results suggest that high-intensity chronic exercise was able to reverse remodeling in the diabetic heart but was unable to restore the nitroso-redox imbalance imposed by diabetes.

  18. An enhanced exercise and cognitive programme does not appear to reduce incident delirium in hospitalised patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Kimberley J; Berlowitz, David J; Grant, Shane; Lawlor, Vicki; Graco, Marnie; de Morton, Natalie A; Savige, Judith A; Lim, Wen K

    2013-06-20

    To determine if a programme of progressive resistance exercise, mobilisation and orientation, in addition to usual care, was superior to usual care alone in the prevention of incident delirium in older hospitalised patients. A randomised controlled trial. The study was performed at a secondary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia between May 2005 and December 2007. 648 consecutive medical inpatients aged 65 years or older who had been in hospital for less than 48 h and who did not have delirium. Participants were randomly allocated to a twice-daily programme of progressive resistance exercise tailored to individual ability, mobilisation and orientation in addition to usual care or to usual care alone. Delirium was measured using the Confusion Assessment Method at baseline and every 48 h until discharge. Secondary outcome measures were severity and duration of delirium, discharge destination and length of stay. Delirium occurred in 4.9% (95% CI 2.3% to 7.3%) of the intervention group (15/305) and in 5.9% (20/339; 95% CI 3.8% to 9.2%) of the group receiving usual care. No difference was observed between groups (χ(2); p=0.5). The intervention had no effect on delirium duration, severity, discharge destination or length of stay. A programme of progressive resistance exercise and orientation was not effective in reducing incident delirium in hospitalised elderly patients.

  19. Environmental enrichment and physical exercise revert behavioral and electrophysiological impairments caused by reduced adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalem, Marna Eliana; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Zhang, Mingyue; Saffari, Roja; Kravchenko, Mykola; Wördemann, Stephanie; Diederich, Kai; Schwamborn, Jens C; Zhang, Weiqi; Ambrée, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that adult neurogenesis occurs in two distinct regions, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone along the walls of the lateral ventricles. Until now, the contribution of these newly born neurons to behavior and cognition is still uncertain. The current study tested the functional impacts of diminished hippocampal neurogenesis on emotional and cognitive functions in transgenic Gfap-tk mice. Our results showed that anxiety-related behavior evaluated both in the elevated plus maze as well as in the open field, social interaction in the sociability test, and spatial working memory in the spontaneous alternation test were not affected. On the other hand, recognition and emotional memory in the object recognition test and contextual fear conditioning, and hippocampal long-term potentiation were impaired in transgenic mice. Furthermore, we evaluated whether environmental enrichment together with physical exercise could improve or even restore the level of adult neurogenesis, as well as the behavioral functions. Our results clearly demonstrated that environmental enrichment together with physical exercise successfully elevated the overall number of progenitor cells and young neurons in the dentate gyrus of transgenic mice. Furthermore, it led to a significant improvement in object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning, and reverted impairments in hippocampal long-term potentiation. Thus, our results confirm the importance of adult neurogenesis for learning and memory processes and for hippocampal circuitry in general. Environmental enrichment and physical exercise beneficially influenced adult neurogenesis after it had been disrupted and most importantly recovered cognitive functions and long-term potentiation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prescribed exercise programs may not be effective in reducing impairments and improving activity during upper limb fracture rehabilitation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Bruder

    2017-10-01

    Registration: CRD42016041818. [Bruder AM, Shields N, Dodd KJ, Taylor NF (2017 Prescribed exercise programs may not be effective in reducing impairments and improving activity during upper limb fracture rehabilitation: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 205–220

  1. Preconditioning by light-load eccentric exercise is equally effective as low-level laser therapy in attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage in collegiate men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausheen, Samar; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Raza, Shahid; Shareef, Mohammad Yakub; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad H

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have already reported an independent effect of light-load eccentric exercise (10% eccentric exercise contraction [EEC]) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as a protective measure against more strenuous eccentric exercise. However, the difference between these two interventions is largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the preconditioning effect of 10% EEC vs. LLLT on subjective, physiological, and biochemical markers of muscle damage in elbow flexors in collegiate men. All 36 enrolled subjects were randomly assigned to either 10% EEC or LLLT group. Subjects in 10% EEC group performed 30 repetitions of an eccentric exercise with 10% maximal voluntary contraction strength 2 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise bout, whereas subjects in LLLT group were given LLLT. All the indirect markers of muscle damage were measured pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol. The muscle soreness was reduced in both groups ( p = 0.024); however, soreness was attenuated more in LLLT group at 48 hours (33.5 vs. 42.7, p = 0.004). There was no significant difference between the effect of 10% EEC and LLLT groups on other markers of muscle damage like a maximum voluntary isometric contraction ( p = 0.47), range of motion ( p = 0.16), upper arm circumference ( p = 0.70), creatine kinase ( p = 0.42), and lactate dehydrogenase ( p = 0.08). Within-group analysis showed both interventions provided similar protection over time. This study indicated that light-load eccentric exercise confers similar protective effect against subsequent maximal eccentric exercise as LLLT. Both the treatments could be used reciprocally based on the patient preference, costs, and feasibility of the equipment.

  2. Endurance exercise per se reduces the cardiovascular risk marker t-PA antigen in healthy, younger, overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else Marie; Skov, Jane; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    -PA:Ag and changes in intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume.  Conclusions Our results demonstrate that t-PA:Ag was reduced in all three intervention groups. This suggests that 12 weeks of endurance training per se, irrespective of concomitant weight loss, beneficially affects cardiovascular risk......Introduction The cardiovascular risk marker tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA:Ag) can be reduced by long-term exercise interventions, but it is unknown, whether this is due to the weight loss induced by physical activity or due to the physical activity per se.  Materials and methods...... This was tested in 60 healthy, younger (20–40 years), overweight (BMI: 25–30 kg/m2) men randomly assigned to 12 weeks of intervention in one of four groups: training (T); energy-reduced diet (D); training and increased diet (T-iD); sedentary lifestyle and unchanged diet (controls, C). Fasting blood samples were...

  3. Both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduce the facing-the-viewer bias in biological motion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Heenan

    Full Text Available Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1 or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2 would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2 would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1 or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2, and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our

  4. The effect of depressive symptomatology on plasma cortisol responses to acute bicycle exercise among post-menopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G.; Bernards, N; Meijman, T.F.; Heijnen, C.J

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of depressive symptomatology on the cortisol response to strenuous exercise. Thirteen healthy, post-menopausal women participated in this study. The results show that acute bicycle exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  5. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Romeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twentythree healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1 a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics; 2 aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics; 3 resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min; and 4 a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises; totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009, 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009 and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004. A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion.

  6. Alcohol Use and Strenuous Physical Activity in College Students: A Longitudinal Test of 2 Explanatory Models of Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Riley, Elizabeth N.; Smith, Gregory T.; Milich, Richard; Burris, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students. Participants: Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively. Methods: Participants reported…

  7. Restricting dietary sodium reduces plasma sodium response to exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, E E; Franken, C P G; Cotter, J D; Thornton, S N; Rehrer, N J

    2017-11-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na + ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10). The trials were ≥2 week apart. Trials comprised 3 h (or if not possible to complete, to exhaustion) cycling (55% VO 2max ; 34 °C, 65% RH) with water intake approximating mass loss. Plasma [Na + ], hematocrit, sweat and urine [Na + ], heart rate, core temperature, and subjective perceptions were monitored. Urine [Na + ] was lower on lowNa 24 h prior to (31 ± 24, 76 ± 30 mmol/L, P = 0.027) and during trials (10 ± 10, 52 ± 32 mmol/L, P = 0.004). Body mass was lower on lowNa (79.6 ± 8.5, 80.5 ± 8.9, P = 0.03). Plasma [Na + ] was lower on lowNa before (137 ± 2, 140 ± 3, P = 0.007) and throughout exercise (P = 0.001). Sweat [Na + ] was unaffected by diet (54.5 ± 40, 54.5 ± 23 mmol/L, P = 0.99). Heart rate and core temperature were higher on lowNa (P ≤ 0.001). Despite decreased urinary sodium losses, plasma sodium was lower on lowNa, with decreased mass indicating (extracellular) water may have been less, explaining greater heart rate and core temperature. General population health recommendations to lower salt intake may not be appropriate for endurance athletes, particularly those training in the heat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The challenge of asthma in adolescent athletes: exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) with and without known asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Exercise induced bronchconstriction (EIB) is defined as a transient increase in airway resistance reflected as at least a 10% decline in FEV1 following at least 6-8 minutes of strenuous exercise. Up to 90% of asthmatics, 45% of individuals with allergic rhinitis, 50% of Olympic athletes, and 12% of the general population have EIB. EIB in adolescence may be either under- or over-diagnosed because of denial of symptoms or misperception of dyspnea or other respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis cannot always rely on history alone and may require an objective exercise challenge or surrogate measure. Management of EIB may require reduction in the exercise provoking the asthma but it can usually be successfully managed with training and the appropriate use of medications, including inhaled beta-agonists, inhaled steroids, and/or leukotriene antagonists. Nonpharmacologic therapy with face masks, warming up and down, and calisthenics may also be an effective adjunct in reducing medication needs. For most adolescents, proper pharmacotherapy will provide complete control of the airway and a normal healthy lifestyle without exercise restrictions.

  9. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta, E-mail: mrb-unesp@yahoo.com.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Motricidade, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle [Setor de Doenças Neuromusculares, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Sandra Lia do; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz [Departamento de Educação Física, Faculdade de Ciências, UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible.

  10. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Amaral, Sandra Lia do; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible

  11. Reduced Spanish Version of Participation Motives Questionnaire for Exercise and Sport: Psychometric Properties, Social/Sport Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Vílchez, Cristina De Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the motives that influence physical activity participation is important in order to orientate physical activity promotion and increase physical activity levels of practice of the population. Although many instruments been created and validated to measure motives to perform physical activity, one of the most frequently used scales during years is the Participation of Motives Questionnaire (PMQ by Gill et al. (1983. Unfortunately, despite being so used and translated into many languages, there is no psychometric support for some factors about due to a low internal consistency. The purpose of this research was to present a reduced model of the Spanish version of the PMQ and to analyze the motives for sports participation. The Spanish version of PMQ was applied to participants of both sexes with ages between 12 and 60 years (M = 19.20; SD = 6.37. Factorial validity of the questionnaire was checked using exploratory and confirmatory analyses. Analysis of items and internal consistency of the factors were carried out. Reduced version measures seven dimensions (competition, status, teamwork, energy release, family/peers, skill development and health/fitness with good values of validity and reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha were between 0.713 and 0.879. Different reasons for exercise and sport by sociodemographic variables were found. For example, females practice for exercise and sports for competition and teamwork than males Elite athletes practice more exercise and sport also for teamwork, skills development and health/fitness than amateurs. Finally those who have more experience, practice more physical activity and sport for competition, status and health/fitness.

  12. Process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise to reduce musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2014-01-01

    in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual...... at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12 min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions...... in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week...

  13. Increasing exercise intensity reduces heterogeneity of glucose uptake in human skeletal muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Heinonen

    Full Text Available Proper muscle activation is a key feature of survival in different tasks in daily life as well as sports performance, but can be impaired in elderly and in diseases. Therefore it is also clinically important to better understand the phenomenon that can be elucidated in humans non-invasively by positron emission tomography (PET with measurements of spatial heterogeneity of glucose uptake within and among muscles during exercise. We studied six healthy young men during 35 minutes of cycling at relative intensities of 30% (low, 55% (moderate, and 75% (high of maximal oxygen consumption on three separate days. Glucose uptake in the quadriceps femoris muscle group (QF, the main force producing muscle group in recreational cycling, and its four individual muscles, was directly measured using PET and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. Within-muscle heterogeneity was determined by calculating the coefficient of variance (CV of glucose uptake in PET image voxels within the muscle of interest, and among-muscles heterogeneity of glucose uptake in QF was expressed as CV of the mean glucose uptake values of its separate muscles. With increasing intensity, within-muscle heterogeneity decreased in the entire QF as well as within its all four individual parts. Among-muscles glucose uptake heterogeneity also decreased with increasing intensity. However, mean glucose uptake was consistently lower and heterogeneity higher in rectus femoris muscle that is known to consist of the highest percentage of fast twitch type II fibers, compared to the other three QF muscles. In conclusion, these results show that in addition to increased contribution of distinct muscle parts, with increases in exercise intensity there is also an enhanced recruitment of muscle fibers within all of the four heads of QF, despite established differences in muscle-part specific fiber type distributions. Glucose uptake heterogeneity may serve as a useful non-invasive tool to elucidate muscle activation

  14. Right ventricular oxygen supply/demand balance in exercising dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B J; Bian, X; Gwirtz, P A; Setty, S; Downey, H F

    2001-08-01

    This is the first investigation of right ventricular (RV) myocardial oxygen supply/demand balance in a conscious animal. A novel technique developed in our laboratory was used to collect right coronary (RC) venous blood samples from seven instrumented, conscious dogs at rest and during graded treadmill exercise. Contributions of the RV oxygen extraction reserve and the RC flow reserve to exercise-induced increases in RV oxygen demand were measured. Strenuous exercise caused a 269% increase in RV oxygen consumption. Expanded arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-V(Delta)O2) provided 58% of this increase in oxygen demand, and increased RC blood flow (RCBF) provided 42%. At less strenuous exercise, expanded A-V(Delta)O2 provided 60-80% of the required oxygen, and increases in RCBF were small and driven by increased aortic pressure. RC resistance fell only at strenuous exercise after the extraction reserve had been mobilized. Thus RC resistance was unaffected by large decreases in RC venous PO2 until an apparent threshold at 20 mmHg was reached. Comparisons of RV findings with published left ventricular data from exercising dogs demonstrated that increased O2 demand of the left ventricle is met primarily by increasing coronary flow, whereas increased O2 extraction makes a greater contribution to RV O2 supply.

  15. Muscle physiology changes induced by every other day feeding and endurance exercise in mice: effects on physical performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rodríguez-Bies

    Full Text Available Every other day feeding (EOD and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL or under EOD. After 18 weeks under EOD, animals were also trained by using a treadmill for another 6 weeks and then analyzed for physical activity. Both, EOD and endurance exercise increased the resistance of animals to extenuating activity and improved motor coordination. Among the groups that showed the highest performance, AL and EOD trained animals, ALT and EODT respectively, only the EODT group was able to increase glucose and triglycerides levels in plasma after extenuating exercise. No high effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities or protein levels neither on coenzyme Q levels were found in gastrocnemius muscle. However, exercise and EOD did increase β-oxidation activity in this muscle accompanied by increased CD36 levels in animals fed under EOD and by changes in shape and localization of mitochondria in muscle fibers. Furthermore, EOD and training decreased muscle damage after strenuous exercise. EOD also reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in muscle. Our results indicate that EOD improves muscle performance and resistance by increasing lipid catabolism in muscle mitochondria at the same time that prevents lipid peroxidation and muscle damage.

  16. Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Douglas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men. Methods Eight, healthy men (27.1 ± 6.9 yrs old who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising Results Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p = 0.080, with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p = 0.073 with 3.0 grams; p = 0.087 for both dosages combined. TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p = 0.035, while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p = 0.007. No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p > 0.05. Conclusion MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance.

  17. Movement control exercise versus general exercise to reduce disability in patients with low back pain and movement control impairment. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Jeannette; Kool, Jan; de Bie, Rob A; Sieben, Judith M; Luomajoki, Hannu

    2011-09-23

    Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) in subacute and chronic stages can be treated effectively with exercise therapy. Research guidelines recommend evaluating different treatments in defined subgroups of patients with NSLBP. A subgroup of patients with movement control impairment (MCI) improved significantly on patient specific function and disability in a previous case series after movement control exercises. In a randomised controlled trial (RCT) we will compare the effectiveness of movement control and general exercise in patients with MCI. 106 participants aged 18 - 75 will be recruited in 5 outpatient hospital departments and 7 private practices.Patients randomly assigned to the movement control exercise group will be instructed to perform exercises according to their MCI. The general exercise group will follow an exercise protocol aimed at improving endurance and flexibility. Patients in both groups will receive 9 - 18 treatments and will be instructed to do additional exercises at home.The primary outcome is the level of disability assessed using the patient specific functional scale (PSFS) which links the perceived pain to functional situations and is measured before treatment and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes concern low back pain related disability (Roland Morris questionnaire, RMQ), graded chronic pain scale (GCPS), range of motion and tactile acuity. To our knowledge this study will be the first to compare two exercise programs for a specific subgroup of patients with NSLBP and MCI. Results of this study will provide insight into the effectiveness of movement control exercise and contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms behind MCI and its relation to NSLBP. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN80064281.

  18. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Dai, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Pei, Zhong; Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); synaptic function was investigated with Thy1 -green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95) increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition. These data suggest

  19. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the interstitial fluid (ISF. A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4, astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; synaptic function was investigated with Thy1–green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95 increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition

  20. Acu-TENS Reduces Breathlessness during Exercise in People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley P. C. Ngai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exertional dyspnoea limits level of physical activity in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. This randomized, double-blinded, crossover study evaluated the effect of Acu-TENS, application of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on acupoints, on breathlessness during exercise in people with COPD. Methods. Twenty-one participants, mean% predicted FEV1  50±21%, attended assessment followed by two intervention days, one week apart. On each intervention day, participants performed two endurance shuttle walk tests (ESWT (Walk 1 and Walk 2. Walk 1 was performed without intervention and Walk 2 was performed with either Acu-TENS or Sham-TENS, in random order, for 45 minutes before and during Walk 2. Duration of each ESWT and dyspnoea score at isotime of Walk 1 and Walk 2 on each intervention day were compared. Between-group differences in ESWT duration and isotime dyspnoea were also compared. Results. At isotime of Walk 1 and Walk 2, Acu-TENS showed significant reduction in dyspnoea of −0.8 point (95% CI −0.2 to −1.4 but not in Sham-TENS [0.1 point (95% CI −0.4 to 0.6]. Compared to Sham-TENS, Acu-TENS showed significant reduction in dyspnoea of −0.9 point (95% CI −0.2 to −1.6 while no between-group significance was found in ESWT duration. Conclusion. Acu-TENS alleviated dyspnoea during walking in people with COPD but did not increase walking duration.

  1. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Corder, Katherine R. Newsham, Jennifer L. McDaniel, Uthayashanker R. Ezekiel, Edward P. Weiss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2 were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS, swelling (arm circumference, muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension, skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02. Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006, indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78 or arm swelling (p = 0.75. Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby

  2. Exercise Trajectories of Women from Entry to a 6-Month Cardiac Rehabilitation Program to One Year after Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity is associated with reduced mortality and morbidity. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR is an effective intervention for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Unfortunately, women are less likely to engage in, or sustain, regular physical activity. Objectives were to (1 describe women’s guidelines-based levels of physical activity during and after CR and (2 determine the physical activity trajectories of women from entry to CR to one year after CR. Methods and Results. A prospective, longitudinal study of 203 women with CVD enrolled in a 6-month CR program. Physical activity was measured using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LSI, focusing on moderate-strenuous activity. Data were analyzed using latent class growth analysis (LCGA and logistic regression. Mean scores on the LSI showed women to be “active” at all follow-up points. LCGA revealed a two-class model, respectively, called “inactive relapsers” and “moderately active relapsers.” Predictors of the “moderately active relapsers” class were employment status and diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Conclusions. Women achieved the recommended physical activity levels by the end of CR and sustained them until one year after CR. LCGA allowed us to determine the class trajectories associated with moderate-strenuous activity and, from these, to identify implications for targeted intervention.

  3. Aerobic exercise training-induced changes in serum adropin level are associated with reduced arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-11-15

    Aging-induced arterial stiffening is reduced by aerobic exercise training, and elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) participates in this effect. Adropin is a regulator of endothelial NO synthase and NO release, and circulating adropin level decreases with age. However, the effect of habitual aerobic exercise on circulating adropin levels in healthy middle-aged and older adults remains unclear. We sought to determine whether serum adropin level is associated with exercise training-induced changes in arterial stiffness. First, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between serum adropin level and both arterial stiffness and cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (65.6 ± 0.9 yr). Second, in an intervention study, we examined the effects of 8-wk aerobic exercise training on serum adropin level and arterial stiffness in 40 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (67.3 ± 1.0 yr) divided into two groups: aerobic exercise training and sedentary controls. In the cross-sectional study, serum adropin level was negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.437, P aerobic exercise training intervention, and training-induced changes in serum adropin level were correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.399, P exercise-induced reduction of arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Reduced endothelial activation after exercise is associated with improved HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrkjeland, Rune; Njerve, Ida U; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Solheim, Svein

    2017-03-01

    We have previously reported insignificant changes in HbA 1c after exercise in patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of exercise on endothelial function and possible associations between changes in endothelial function and HbA 1c . Patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease ( n = 137) were randomised to 12 months exercise or standard follow-up. Endothelial function was assessed by circulating biomarkers (E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor, tissue plasminogen activator antigen, asymmetric dimethylarginine and L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio). Differences between the randomised groups were analysed by analysis of covariance and correlations by Spearman's rho or Pearson's correlation. No effect of exercise on endothelial function was demonstrated. The changes in HbA 1c in the exercise group correlated with changes in E-selectin ( r = 0.56, p Exercise did not affect biomarkers of endothelial function in patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. However, changes in biomarkers of endothelial activation correlated with changes in HbA 1c , and reduced endothelial activation was associated with improved HbA 1c after exercise.

  5. A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y; ...... and prevention of inflammation and hyperglycemia. A low-glycemic index diet has antiinflammatory and antidiabetogenic effects when combined with exercise in older, obese prediabetics.......Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y......; BMI: 34.2 ± 0.7 kg · m(-2)) to a 12-wk, low (LGI = 40) or high- (HGI = 80) glycemic index diet plus aerobic exercise (5 d · wk(-1), 60 min · d(-1), 80-85% heart rate(max)) intervention. All food and fluids were provided during the study. Inflammation was assessed from cytokine (TNFα and IL-6...

  6. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during intense static exercise is dominated by a Valsalva maneuver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, Frank; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Ide, Kojiro; Madsen, Per; Secher, Niels H.

    2003-01-01

    Lifting of a heavy weight may lead to "blackout" and occasionally also to cerebral hemorrhage, indicating pronounced consequences for the blood flow through the brain. We hypothesized that especially strenuous respiratory straining (a Valsalva-like maneuver) associated with intense static exercise

  7. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studie...

  8. Moderate, but not vigorous, intensity exercise training reduces C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Michael V; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Higgins, Simon; Forehand, Ronald L; Schmidt, Michael D; Evans, Ellen M

    2017-08-28

    Sprint interval cycle training is a contemporary popular mode of training but its relative efficacy, under conditions of matched energy expenditure, to reduce risk factors for cardiometabolic disease is incompletely characterised, especially in young women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative efficacy of six weeks of moderate-intensity cycling (MOD-C) and vigorous sprint-interval cycling (VIG-SIC) on lipid profile, insulin (INS) and insulin resistance using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in inactive, overweight/obese (OW/OB) young women. Participants (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 , waist circumference ≥88 cm) were randomly assigned to MOD-C (20-30 min at 60-70% of heart rate reserve(HRR)) or VIG-SIC (5-7 repeated bouts 30-second maximal effort sprints, followed by four minutes of active recovery) supervised training three days/week for six weeks, with each group matched on energy expenditure. Adiposity (%Fat) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Forty-four participants (20.4 ± 1.6 years, 65.9% Caucasian, 29.8 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 ) were included in the analysis. The improvement in CRP observed in the MOD-C group was larger than the VIG-C group (p = .034). Overall, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels improved following training (p  .05). These results indicate MOD-C training may be more effective in reducing CRP than VIG-SIC.

  9. Aerobic Exercise Training Selectively Changes Oxysterol Levels and Metabolism Reducing Cholesterol Accumulation in the Aorta of Dyslipidemic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silva Ferreira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training (AET prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration.Methods: Sixteen-week old male apo E KO mice fed a chow diet were included in the protocol. Animals were trained in a treadmill running, 15 m/min, 5 days/week, for 60 min (T; n = 29. A control group was kept sedentary (S; n = 32. Plasma lipids and glucose were determined by enzymatic techniques and glucometer, respectively. Cholesterol and oxysterols in aortic arch and macrophages were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined by RT-qPCR. The effect of AMPK in oxysterols metabolism was determined in J774 macrophages treated with 0.25 mM AICAR.Results: Body weight and plasma TC, TG, HDL-c, glucose, and oxysterols were similar between groups. As compared to S group, AET enhanced 7β-hydroxycholesterol (70% and reduced cholesterol (32% in aorta. In addition, exercise increased Cyp27a1 (54%, Cd36 (75%, Cat (70%, Prkaa1 (40%, and Prkaa2 (51% mRNA. In macrophages, the activation of AMPK followed by incubation with HDL2 increased Abca1 (52% and Cd36 (220% and decrease Prkaa1 (19%, Cyp27a1 (47% and 7α-hydroxycholesterol level.Conclusion: AET increases 7β-hydroxycholesterol in the aortic arch of dyslipidemic mice, which is related to the enhanced expression of Cd36. In addition, the increase

  10. THE PROLONGED INTAKE OF L-ARGININE-L-ASPARTATE REDUCES BLOOD LACTATE ACCUMULATION AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION DURING SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Burtscher

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available L-arginine-L-aspartate is widely used by athletes for its potentially ergogenic properties. However, only little information on its real efficacy is available from controlled studies. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of prolonged supplementation with L-arginine-L-aspartate on metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal exercise in healthy athletes by a double blind placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen healthy male volunteers (22 ± 3 years performed incremental cycle spiroergometry up to 150 watts before and after intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate (3 grams per day or placebo for a period of 3 weeks. After intake of L-arginine-L-aspartate, blood lactate at 150 watts dropped from 2.8 ± 0.8 to 2.0 ± 0.9 mmol·l-1 (p < 0.001 and total oxygen consumption during the 3-min period at 150 watts from 6.32 ± 0.51 to 5.95 ± 0.40 l (p = 0.04 compared to placebo (2.7 ± 1.1 to 2.7 ± 1.4 mmol·l-1; p = 0.9 and 6.07 ± 0.51 to 5.91 ± 0.50 l; p = 0.3. Additionally, L-arginine-L-aspartate supplementation effected an increased fat utilisation at 50 watts. L-arginine and L-aspartate seem to have induced synergistic metabolic effects. L-arginine might have reduced lactic acid production by the inhibition of glycolysis and L-aspartate may have favoured fatty acid oxidation. Besides, the results indicate improved work efficiency after L-arginine-L-aspartate intake. The resulting increases of submaximal work capacity and exercise tolerance may have important implications for athletes as well as patients

  11. Increased fibre and reduced trans fatty acid intake are primary predictors of metabolic improvement in overweight polycystic ovary syndrome-Substudy of randomized trial between diet, exercise and diet plus exercise for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Åsa; Hellström, Per M; Hirschberg, Angelica L

    2017-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly affected by obesity. PCOS phenotypes are prone to increased waist/hip ratio, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. This substudy was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lifestyle interventions on metabolic biomarkers in overweight/obese PCOS women and the interventional effects of dietary components related to metabolic outcomes. Randomized three-arm parallel study. Fifty-seven PCOS women body mass index (BMI >27 kg/m 2 , age 18-40) were randomly assigned to diet (D, n = 19), exercise (E, n = 19) or diet plus exercise (DE, n = 19) in three-arm fashion over 16 weeks. The D group received nutritional counselling by a dietician to reduce their energy intake by at least 600 kcal/d. The E group received an ambulatory exercise regimen from a physiotherapist. The DE group had both interventions. Self-reported food intake over 4 days, exercise pedometers, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, body composition and oral glucose tolerance test were performed before and at the end of intervention. BMI, waist circumference and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the D and DE groups, as well as low-density lipoprotein and Homeostasis Model of Assessment index in the D group. In the E group, exercise was increased along with a decrease in BMI and waist circumference. The strongest predictor of reduced BMI was increased fibre intake (-0.44, P = .03), while a decrease in trans fatty acid intake predicted reduced insulinogenic index (0.44, P dieting is clearly effective to improve metabolic disturbances in overweight/obese women with PCOS. Increased fibre and reduced trans fatty acid intake are primary predictors of metabolic improvement and weight control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juriena D de Vries

    Full Text Available Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery. Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning were also investigated.Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49 or wait list (no intervention, n = 48. All participants were measured before the intervention (T0, and immediately after the intervention (T1. Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2 and 12 weeks (T3 after the intervention.Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3. At 12-week follow up (T3, 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality.These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects that were found in this study imply

  13. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Juriena D; van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-01-01

    Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning) were also investigated. Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49) or wait list (no intervention, n = 48). All participants were measured before the intervention (T0), and immediately after the intervention (T1). Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3) after the intervention. Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery) as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3). At 12-week follow up (T3), 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality. These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects that were found in this study imply that

  14. Nutrition and exercise--a consensus view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, M

    1995-11-01

    The ability to perform exercise is impaired if the diet is inadequate. Conversely, performance may be improved by appropriate dietary manipulation. The primary need for the diet of athletes in training is to meet additional nutrient requirements imposed by the training load. Many athletes consider that a high protein diet is essential to stimulate muscle growth and promote repair. Evidence shows that hard exercise increases the protein requirement, but athletes eating a varied diet in sufficient quantity to meet their energy demands will obtain adequate protein. Carbohydrate is the main fuel used by the muscle in hard exercise, and carbohydrate intake must be sufficient to enable the training load to be sustained. During each strenuous training session, depletion of the glycogen stores in the exercising muscles and in the liver takes place. If this carbohydrate reserve is not replenished before the next training session, training intensity must be reduced, leading to corresponding decrements in the training response. It is recommended for athletes in training that carbohydrate should account for 60-70% of total energy intake, but the type of carbohydrate consumed is not crucial. With regular training, there must be an increased total energy intake to balance the increased energy expenditure. Provided that a reasonably normal diet is consumed this will supply more than adequate amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins and other micronutrients. Possible exceptions are iron and calcium, especially when energy intake is restricted to control body weight. There is no good evidence to suggest that specific supplementation with any of these dietary components is necessary or that it will improve performance. Attention must be paid, however, to ensure an adequate water intake during training: dehydration will reduce performance. The body does not adapt to dehydration. Consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet for the few days before competition with a reduction in the training

  15. Improved ejection fraction after exercise training in obesity is accompanied by reduced cardiac lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Meex, Ruth; van der Made, Sanne; Schär, Michael; Lamb, Hildo; Wildberger, Joachim E; Glatz, Jan; Snoep, Gabriel; Kooi, M Eline; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Skeletal muscle and cardiac lipid accumulation are associated with diminished insulin sensitivity and cardiac function, respectively. In skeletal muscle, physical activity paradoxically increases fat accumulation, despite improvement in insulin sensitivity. Whether cardiac muscle responds similarly remains unknown. The objective of the study was to investigate cardiac lipid content and cardiac function after a 12-wk training program. This was an intervention study with pre/postmeasurements. The study was conducted at Maastricht University Medical Center. Participants included 14 healthy, male overweight/obese subjects (age 58.4 +/- 0.9 yr, body mass index 29.9 +/- 0.01 kg/m(2)). Intervention included a supervised 12-wk training program with three sessions per week (endurance and strength training). Maximal whole-body oxygen uptake, fasting plasma parameters, systolic function (by CINE-magnetic resonance imaging), and cardiac lipid content (by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were measured. Maximal whole-body oxygen uptake increased (from 2559 +/- 131 to 2702 +/- 124 ml/min after training, P = 0.05). Plasma concentrations of glucose decreased (from 6.3 +/- 0.2 to 5.7 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter, P < 0.001); plasma triacylglycerols and (free) fatty acids did not change. Also, body weight (from 94.2 +/- 3.6 to 92.9 +/- 3.6 kg, P = 0.10) and fat percentage (from 33.6 +/- 1.7 to 32.5 +/- 2.0%, P = 0.14) was unchanged. Left ventricular ejection fraction improved (from 52.2 +/- 1.3 to 54.2 +/- 1.2%, P = 0.02), and cardiac lipid content in the septum was decreased after training (0.99 +/- 0.15 to 0.54 +/- 0.04%, P = 0.02). Twelve weeks of endurance/strength training significantly reduced cardiac lipid content in overweight subjects and was paralleled by improved ejection fraction. This is in line with a lipotoxic action of (excess) cardiac lipids on cardiac function, although a causal relationship cannot be derived from this study. Further research is needed to clarify the

  16. Interleukin-6 maintains glucose homeostasis to support strenuous masseter muscle activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Kiyama, Tomomi; Tsuchiya, Shinobu; Takano, Hirohisa; Nemoto, Eiji; Sasaki, Keiichi; Watanabe, Makoto; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2012-06-01

    The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is released from working skeletal muscles and reportedly plays key roles in their glucose homeostasis. However, it is unclear whether IL-6 plays such roles in the masseter muscle (MM), which is important in normal and pathological chewing behaviors, such as bruxism and/or prolonged clenching. When restrained (R+) in a narrow cylinder blocked at the front end with a thin plastic strip, a mouse gnaws away (G+) the strip to escape. The absolute weight of plastic gnawed away serves as an index of MM activity. Using this model, we examined the roles of IL-6 in MM with the following results. R+G+ increased the expression levels of IL-6 and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) mRNAs in MM and the serum level of IL-6 protein. IL-6-deficient mice exhibited about 60% less gnawing activity than wild-type mice at 3-4 h after the start of R+G+, slower recovery of glycogen levels (indicating poorer glucose supply) in MM after R+G+, and no significant change in Glut4 mRNA in MM upon R+G+. During an R+G+ test conducted after "training" (repeated R+G+ sessions), wild-type mice exhibited greater gnawing activity than untrained controls, but no increase in IL-6 mRNA in MM. IL-6 mRNA increased in MM when hard food was eaten by mice raised on soft food for 3 weeks from weaning, but not in those raised on (accustomed to) hard food. Thus, IL-6 may maintain glucose homeostasis in MM in support of unusually strenuous activity, but not of accustomed activity levels.

  17. High-intensity interval exercise improves cognitive performance and reduces matrix metalloproteinases-2 serum levels in persons with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmer, Philipp; Bloch, Wilhelm; Schenk, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise can improve cognitive performance in healthy elderly people. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a 3-week high-intensity aerobic exercise programme (high-intensity training group (HIT)) on cognitive performance in persons with multiple...... sclerosis (MS) compared with a standard exercise programme (control training (CT)). METHODS: A total of 60 persons with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 1.0-6.5) were randomized to a HIT group (3×/week for 20 minutes, including five 3-minute exercise intervals at 80% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2...

  18. High-intensity extended swimming exercise reduces pain-related behavior in mice: involvement of endogenous opioids and the serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Martins, Daniel F; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dos Santos, Ubirajara D; Speckhann, Breno; Gadotti, Vinícius M; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme A; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the hyponociceptive effect of swimming exercise in a chemical behavioral model of nociception and the mechanisms involved in this effect. Male mice were submitted to swimming sessions (30 min/d for 5 days). Twenty-four hours after the last session, we noticed that swimming exercise decreased the number of abdominal constriction responses caused by acetic acid compared with the nonexercised group. The hyponociception caused by exercise in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment of mice with naloxone (a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg), ρ-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, 100 mg/kg once a day for 4 consecutive days), and by bilateral adrenalectomy. Collectively, the present results provide experimental evidences indicating for the first time that high-intensity extended swimming exercise reduces pain-related behavior in mice. The mechanisms involve an interaction with opioid and serotonin systems. Furthermore, endogenous opioids released by adrenal glands probably are involved in this effect. Our results indicate that high-intensity extended exercise endogenously controls acute pain by activation of opioidergic and serotonergic pathways. Furthermore, these results support the use of exercise as a nonpharmacological approach for the management of acute pain. Copyright © 2010 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in College-Age Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Danielle T.; Pintauro, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 males) were randomly assigned to either BCAA (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) groups. Subjects performed a squatting exercise to elicit DOMS and rated their muscle soreness every 24 hours for four days following exercise while continuing to consume the BCAA or placebo. Following a three-week recovery period, subjects returned and received the alternate BCAA or placebo treatment, repeating the same exercise and DOMS rating protocol for the next four days. BCAA supplementation in female subjects resulted in a significant decrease in DOMS versus placebo at 24 hours following exercise (P = 0.018). No significant effect of BCAA supplementation versus placebo was noted in male subjects nor when male and female results were analyzed together. This gender difference may be related to dose per body weight differences between male and female subjects. PMID:24967261

  20. Running wheel exercise reduces renewal of extinguished instrumental behavior and alters medial prefrontal cortex neurons in adolescent, but not adult, rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Green, John T

    2017-12-01

    Physical exercise in rodents has repeatedly been shown to trigger positive effects on brain function, including increased neurotrophic factors and improved learning and memory. However, most of this work has focused on the adult hippocampus and hippocampal-dependent behavior. Here we examined the effect of running wheel exercise in adult and adolescent male rats on ABA renewal of extinguished instrumental conditioning, in which acquisition occurs in Context A, extinction in Context B, and renewal testing occurs back in Context A. In the first experiment, rats were given unlocked (exercise) or locked (no exercise) running wheel access in their home cages beginning at postnatal Day 30 (adolescent) or postnatal Day 56 (adult). Rats underwent lever-press acquisition in Context A and extinction in Context B. ABA renewal testing took place 2 weeks after the start of running wheel exposure. Nonexercising adolescent rats showed greater ABA renewal than nonexercising adult rats and exercise reduced ABA renewal in adolescents but not adults. ABA renewal depends on medial prefrontal cortex function. In a second experiment, we compared adolescent and adult apical dendrite branch length, branch number, and spine density of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons after 2 weeks of unlocked or locked running wheel access. The results revealed a higher density of dendritic spines and a lower dendritic branch length in adolescent exercisers than adolescent nonexercisers. Adult exercisers and nonexercisers did not differ. Collectively, these experiments suggest that exercise may have particularly strong effects on adolescent medial prefrontal cortex function and structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Physical activity levels in children and adolescents are reduced after the Fontan procedure, independent of exercise capacity, and are associated with lower perceived general health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrindle, Brian W; Williams, Richard V; Mital, Seema; Clark, Bernard J; Russell, Jennifer L; Klein, Gloria; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2007-06-01

    To determine physical activity levels in paediatric patients who underwent the Fontan procedure, and their relationship to functional status and exercise capacity. We studied 147 patients (ages 7-18 years) at a median of 8.1 years after Fontan, as part of the Pediatric Heart Network cross-sectional study of Fontan survivors. Assessment included medical history, self-reported physical activity, parent-completed Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), cardiopulmonary exercise testing and physical activity level measured by accelerometry (MTI Actigraph). Measured time spent in moderate and vigorous activity was markedly below normal at all ages, particularly in females, and was not significantly related to self-reported activity levels, or to maximum Vo2, Vo2 at anaerobic threshold or maximum work rate on exercise testing. Lower measured activity levels were significantly related to lower perceived general health but not to self-esteem, physical functioning, social impact of physical limitations or overall physical or psychosocial health summary scores. Reduced exercise capacity was more strongly related than measured activity levels to lower scores in general health, self-esteem and physical functioning. Physical activity levels are reduced after Fontan, independent of exercise capacity, and are associated with lower perceived general health but not other aspects of functional status.

  2. Choosing an Appropriate Physical Exercise to Reduce Stereotypic Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Non-Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, C. Y. Andy; Pang, C. L.; Lee, Paul H.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable evidence has shown that physical exercise could be an effective treatment in reducing stereotypical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in children. The present study seeks to examine the underlying mechanism by considering the theoretical operant nature of stereotypy. Children with ASD (n = 30) who exhibited hand-flapping and…

  3. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance ...

  4. Twenty-four hour total and dietary fat oxidation in lean, obese and reduced-obese adults with and without a bout of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean

  5. Preventive and Regenerative Foam Rolling are Equally Effective in Reducing Fatigue-Related Impairments of Muscle Function following Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-12-01

    Objectives of the study were to compare the effects of a single bout of preventive or regenerative foam rolling (FR) on exercise-induced neuromuscular exhaustion. Single-centre randomised-controlled study was designed. Forty-five healthy adults (22 female; 25±2 yrs) were allocated to three groups: 1) FR of the lower limb muscles prior to induction of fatigue, 2) FR after induction of fatigue, 3) no-treatment control. Neuromuscular exhaustion was provoked using a standardized and validated functional agility short-term fatigue protocol. Main outcome measure was the maximal isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF). Secondary outcomes included pain and reactive strength (RSI). Preventive (-16%) and regenerative FR (-12%) resulted in a decreased loss in MIVF compared to control (-21%; p 0.8, p < 0.1). Differences over time (p < 0.001) between groups regarding pain and RSI did not turn out to be clinically meaningful. A single bout of foam rolling reduces neuromuscular exhaustion with reference to maximal force production. Regenerative rather than preventive foam rolling seems sufficient to prevent further fatigue.

  6. Preventive and Regenerative Foam Rolling are Equally Effective in Reducing Fatigue-Related Impairments of Muscle Function following Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Fleckenstein, Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study were to compare the effects of a single bout of preventive or regenerative foam rolling (FR on exercise-induced neuromuscular exhaustion. Single-centre randomised-controlled study was designed. Forty-five healthy adults (22 female; 25±2 yrs were allocated to three groups: 1 FR of the lower limb muscles prior to induction of fatigue, 2 FR after induction of fatigue, 3 no-treatment control. Neuromuscular exhaustion was provoked using a standardized and validated functional agility short-term fatigue protocol. Main outcome measure was the maximal isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF. Secondary outcomes included pain and reactive strength (RSI. Preventive (-16% and regenerative FR (-12% resulted in a decreased loss in MIVF compared to control (-21%; p 0.8, p < 0.1. Differences over time (p < 0.001 between groups regarding pain and RSI did not turn out to be clinically meaningful. A single bout of foam rolling reduces neuromuscular exhaustion with reference to maximal force production. Regenerative rather than preventive foam rolling seems sufficient to prevent further fatigue.

  7. Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewitt J

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Hewitt,1 Kathryn M Refshauge,1 Stephen Goodall,2 Timothy Henwood,3 Lindy Clemson1 1Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, 2Centre for Health Economic Research and Evaluation, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, 3University of Queensland/Blue Care Research and Practice Development Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Introduction: Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question: Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design: Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting: 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention: Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control: Usual care. Measurements: Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis: The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion: This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact

  8. Poor glycaemic control is associated with reduced exercise performance and oxygen economy during cardio-pulmonary exercise testing in people with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Othmar; Eckstein, Max L; McCarthy, Olivia; Deere, Rachel; Bain, Stephen C; Haahr, Hanne L; Zijlstra, Eric; Bracken, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    To explore the impact of glycaemic control (HbA 1c ) on functional capacity during cardio-pulmonary exercise testing in people with type 1 diabetes. Sixty-four individuals with type 1 diabetes (age: 34 ± 8 years; 13 females, HbA 1c : 7.8 ± 1% (62 ± 13 mmol/mol), duration of diabetes: 17 ± 9 years) performed a cardio-pulmonary cycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion. Stepwise linear regression was used to explore relationships between HbA 1c and cardio-respiratory data with p ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, participants were divided into quartiles based on HbA 1c levels and cardio-respiratory data were analysed by one-way ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the relationships between changes in time to exhaustion and cardio-respiratory data. Data were adjusted for confounder. HbA 1c was related to time to exhaustion and oxygen consumption at the power output elicited at the sub-maximal threshold of the heart rate turn point (r = 0.47, R 2  = 0.22, p = 0.03). Significant differences were found at time to exhaustion between Q I vs. Q IV and at oxygen consumption at the power output elicited at the heart rate turn point between Q I vs. Q II and Q I vs. Q IV (p cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. However, exercise training could have the same potential to counteract the influence of poor glycaemic control on functional capacity. Trial registration NCT01704417. Date of registration: October 11, 2012.

  9. Perceived exercise barriers are reduced and benefits are improved with lifestyle modification in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Buckley, Jonathan D; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2016-03-09

    This study assessed the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise participation in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and monitored changes in response to a lifestyle intervention. Forty-three overweight/obese PCOS women (Age, 30.3(6.2) yrs; BMI, 36.4(5.6) kg/m(2)) were randomised to one of three 20-week lifestyle programs: diet only (DO, n = 13), diet and aerobic exercise (DA, n = 11) and diet and combined aerobic-resistance exercise (DC, n = 19). Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS), weight, aerobic fitness, depression and PCOS specific health-related quality of life were measured. Barriers score was related to depression (r = 0.45, P = 0.002) and aerobic fitness (r = -0.32, P = 0.04), while benefits score was related to aerobic fitness (r = 0.41, P = 0.007). EBBS, benefits and barriers scores improved overtime (P ≤ 0.001). Benefits subscales psychological outlook and social interaction increased (P ≤ 0.001) and life enhancement and preventative health did not change (P ≥ 0.3). Physical performance increased only in DA (P = 0.009). There were no differences between treatments for any of the other subscales (P ≥ 0.2). Barriers subscales exercise milieu, time expenditure and physical exertion reduced (P ≤ 0.003) and family discouragement did not change (P = 0.6). This study demonstrated that lifestyle modification consisting of an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise training improved the perceived benefits from and barriers to exercise. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12606000198527, registered 26 May 2006.

  10. A spectrum of exercise training reduces soluble Aβ in a dose-dependent manner in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kaitlin M; Girens, Renee E; Larson, Sara K; Jones, Maria R; Restivo, Jessica L; Holtzman, David M; Cirrito, John R; Yuede, Carla M; Zimmerman, Scott D; Timson, Benjamin F

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has long been hypothesized to influence the risk and pathology of Alzheimer's disease. However, the amount of physical activity necessary for these benefits is unclear. We examined the effects of three months of low and high intensity exercise training on soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in extracellular enriched fractions from the cortex and hippocampus of young Tg2576 mice. Low (LOW) and high (HI) intensity exercise training animals ran at speeds of 15m/min on a level treadmill and 32 m/min at a 10% grade, respectively for 60 min per day, five days per week, from three to six months of age. Sedentary mice (SED) were placed on a level, non-moving, treadmill for the same duration. Soleus muscle citrate synthase activity increased by 39% in the LOW group relative to SED, and by 71% in the HI group relative to LOW, indicating an exercise training effect in these mice. Soluble Aβ40 concentrations decreased significantly in an exercise training dose-dependent manner in the cortex. In the hippocampus, concentrations were decreased significantly in the HI group relative to LOW and SED. Soluble Aβ42 levels also decreased significantly in an exercise training dose-dependent manner in both the cortex and hippocampus. Five proteins involved in Aβ clearance (neprilysin, IDE, MMP9, LRP1 and HSP70) were elevated by exercise training with its intensity playing a role in each case. Our data demonstrate that exercise training reduces extracellular soluble Aβ in the brains of Tg2576 mice in a dose-dependent manner through an up-regulation of Aβ clearance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation via the peroneal nerve is superior to graduated compression socks in reducing perceived muscle soreness following intense intermittent endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Richard A; Dodd, Matthew J; Paley, Victoria R

    2014-10-01

    A novel technique of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) via the peroneal nerve has been shown to augment limb blood flow which could enhance recovery following exercise. The present study examined the effects of NMES, compared to graduated compression socks on muscle soreness, strength, and markers of muscle damage and inflammation following intense intermittent exercise. Twenty-one (age 21 ± 1 years, height 179 ± 7 cm, body mass 76 ± 9 kg,) healthy males performed a 90-min intermittent shuttle running test on three occasions. Following exercise, the following interventions were applied: passive recovery (CON), graduated compression socks (GCS) or NMES. Perceived muscle soreness (PMS) and muscle strength (isometric maximal voluntary contraction of knee extensors and flexors) were measured and a venous blood sample taken pre-exercise and 0, 1, 24, 48 and 72 h following exercise for measurement of creatine kinase (CK) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and IL-6 and CRP concentrations. PMS increased in all conditions immediately, 1 and 24 h post-exercise. At 24 h PMS was lower in NMES compared to GCS and CON (2.0 ± 1.6, 3.2 ± 2.1, 4.6 ± 2.0, respectively). At 48 h PMS was lower in NMES compared to CON (1.3 ± 1.5 and 3.1 ± 1.8, respectively). There were no differences between treatments for muscle strength, CK and LDH activity, IL-6 and CRP concentrations. The novel NMES technique is superior to GCS in reducing PMS following intense intermittent endurance exercise.

  12. Crew Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalik, Kerrie K.

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes sustaining the current suite of on-orbit exercise devices by reducing maintenance, addressing obsolescence, and increasing reliability through creative engineering solutions. Advanced exercise systems technology development efforts focus on the sustainment of crew's physical condition beyond Low Earth Orbit for extended mission durations with significantly reduced mass, volume, and power consumption when compared to the ISS.

  13. Acute effects of static active or dynamic active stretching on eccentric-exercise-induced hamstring muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Hsiu; Chen, Trevor C; Jan, Mei-Hwa; Lin, Jiu-Jenq

    2015-04-01

    To examine whether an acute bout of active or dynamic hamstring-stretching exercises would reduce the amount of muscle damage observed after a strenuous eccentric task and to determine whether the stretching protocols elicit similar responses. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Thirty-six young male students performed 5 min of jogging as a warm-up and were allocated to 1 of 3 groups: 3 min of static active stretching (SAS), 3 min of dynamic active stretching (DAS), or control (CON). All subjects performed eccentric exercise immediately after stretching. Heart rate, core temperature, maximal voluntary isometric contraction, passive hip flexion, passive hamstring stiffness (PHS), plasma creatine kinase activity, and myoglobin were recorded at prestretching, at poststretching, and every day after the eccentric exercises for 5 d. After stretching, the change in hip flexion was significantly higher in the SAS (5°) and DAS (10.8°) groups than in the CON (-4.1°) group. The change in PHS was significantly higher in the DAS (5.6%) group than in the CON (-5.7%) and SAS (-6.7%) groups. Furthermore, changes in muscle-damage markers were smaller in the SAS group than in the DAS and CON groups. Prior active stretching could be useful for attenuating the symptoms of muscle damage after eccentric exercise. SAS is recommended over DAS as a stretching protocol in terms of strength, hamstring range of motion, and damage markers.

  14. It is highly unlikely that the development of an abdominal wall hernia can be attributable to a single strenuous event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Samir; Poston, Graeme J

    2006-03-01

    There is a commonly held belief that the development of a hernia can be attributed to a single strenuous or traumatic event. Hence, many litigants are successful in compensation claims, causing mounting financial burdens on employers, the courts, insurance companies and the tax-payer. However, there is very little scientific evidence to support this assertion. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there was any causal link in this process. A total of 133 new patients with 135 abdominal herniae of all varieties (115 inguinal, 3 femoral, 9 umbilical, 4 incisional, and 4 ventral or epigastric), of which 25 were recurrent received structured questionnaires on arrival in the surgical clinic. These questionnaires covered all possible aetiological factors for hernia development (type of work, COAD, smoking, pregnancy, obesity, chronic bladder outflow obstruction, previous surgery including appendicectomy), in addition to any possible attribution to a single strenuous or traumatic event. We then reviewed the GP records in the surgery of all patients who answered positively to the latter possible cause. In the study group, 119 (89%) reported a gradual onset of symptoms. Of the 15 (12 male, 3 female; 11%) who believed that their hernia might be related to a single strenuous or traumatic event, 5 had no other aetiological factors. However, not one of the 15 was found to have contemporaneous forensic medical evidence to support their possible claim. We conclude that we are unable to find any clinical evidence to support the hypothesis that a hernia might develop as the result of one single strenuous or traumatic event. While we accept that this mechanism might still possibly occur, we believe that, at best, it is extremely uncommon. If a medical expert is preparing a report on such a case in a claim for personal injury, then they have a duty to the court to examine carefully all the contemporaneous medical records. If no clinical evidence exists to support the claim

  15. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lima, Andressa Ribeiro Veiga; Nunes, Ingrid Edwiges; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gondim, Paula Novato; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Alves, Fernando Henrique Ferrari; Pereira, Luciano José

    2016-12-17

    Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ-35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats.

  16. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lima, Andressa Ribeiro Veiga; Nunes, Ingrid Edwiges; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gondim, Paula Novato; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Alves, Fernando Henrique Ferrari; Pereira, Luciano José

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats. PMID:27999319

  17. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Francelino Andrade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM was induced by high-fat diet (HFD associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg. Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, triglycerides (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ diabetic rats.

  18. Air quality and exercise-related health benefits from reduced car travel in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Maggie L; Spak, Scott N; Holloway, Tracey; Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C; Patz, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities. In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 km in 11 metropolitan areas in the upper midwestern United States using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Next, we estimated annual changes in health outcomes and monetary costs expected from pollution changes using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Benefits Mapping Analysis Program (BenMAP). In addition, we used the World Health Organization Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) to calculate benefits of increased physical activity if 50% of short trips were made by bicycle. We estimate that, by eliminating these short automobile trips, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by 0.1 µg/m3 and that summer ozone (O3) would increase slightly in cities but decline regionally, resulting in net health benefits of $4.94 billion/year [95% confidence interval (CI): $0.2 billion, $13.5 billion), with 25% of PM2.5 and most O3 benefits to populations outside metropolitan areas. Across the study region of approximately 31.3 million people and 37,000 total square miles, mortality would decline by approximately 1,295 deaths/year (95% CI: 912, 1,636) because of improved air quality and increased exercise. Making 50% of short trips by bicycle would yield savings of approximately $3.8 billion/year from avoided mortality and reduced health care costs (95% CI: $2.7 billion, $5.0 billion]. We estimate that the combined benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $8 billion/year. Our findings suggest that significant health and economic benefits are possible if bicycling replaces short

  19. Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Scott N.; Holloway, Tracey; Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C.; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities. Objective: In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. Methods: We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 km in 11 metropolitan areas in the upper midwestern United States using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Next, we estimated annual changes in health outcomes and monetary costs expected from pollution changes using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Benefits Mapping Analysis Program (BenMAP). In addition, we used the World Health Organization Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) to calculate benefits of increased physical activity if 50% of short trips were made by bicycle. Results: We estimate that, by eliminating these short automobile trips, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by 0.1 µg/m3 and that summer ozone (O3) would increase slightly in cities but decline regionally, resulting in net health bene-fits of $4.94 billion/year [95% confidence interval (CI): $0.2 billion, $13.5 billion), with 25% of PM2.5 and most O3 bene-fits to populations outside metropolitan areas. Across the study region of approximately 31.3 million people and 37,000 total square miles, mortality would decline by approximately 1,295 deaths/year (95% CI: 912, 1,636) because of improved air quality and increased exercise. Making 50% of short trips by bicycle would yield savings of approximately $3.8 billion/year from avoided mortality and reduced health care costs (95% CI: $2.7 billion, $5.0 billion]. We estimate that the combined benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $8 billion/year. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that significant health and

  20. Early postmenopausal phase is associated with reduced prostacyclin-induced vasodilation that is reversed by exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2016-01-01

    to prostacyclin, the overall balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor prostanoids does not seem to be altered. Exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular sensitivity to epoprostenol and acetylcholine, suggesting that beneficial vascular adaptations with exercise training are preserved in recent......The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We...... examined the function of the vascular prostanoid system in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1±0.5 [mean±SE] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50±0 versus 54±1) years of age...

  1. The effects of muscle exercise and bed rest on [{sup 18}F]methylcholine PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roef, Mark; Vogel, Wouter V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    This study evaluated the impact of limited and strenuous physical exercise on [{sup 18}F]methylcholine uptake in muscle. Ten consecutive patients participated, three of whom had strict bed rest, three were allowed to walk around and four performed strenuous single arm exercise by lifting a 7.5-kg weight. [{sup 18}F]Methylcholine uptake was measured in the biceps and gluteus muscles on both sides. Strenuous exercise resulted in a 202% increase in [{sup 18}F]methylcholine uptake in the activated biceps muscle as well as a 112% increase in muscle groups used to retain body position. This resulted in asymmetrical images that were visually less easy to interpret. In walking patients there was a more limited increase in biceps (45%) and gluteus (74%) muscle uptake, without visually recognizable differences. Strenuous exercise may result in a considerable increase in [{sup 18}F]methylcholine uptake in muscle and should be avoided prior to imaging. Strict bed rest does not seem to be required. Tracer injection while resting on the scanner remains a safe approach. (orig.)

  2. Equine Welfare during Exercise: An Evaluation of Breathing, Breathlessness and Bridles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J; Beausoleil, Ngaio J

    2017-05-26

    Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses. In addition, we investigate the influence of management factors such as rein and bit use and of respiratory pathology on the likelihood and intensity of equine breathlessness occurring during exercise. In ridden horses, rein use that reduces the jowl angle, sometimes markedly, and conditions that partially obstruct the nasopharynx and/or larynx, impair airflow in the upper respiratory tract and lead to increased flow resistance. The associated upper airway pressure changes, transmitted to the lower airways, may have pathophysiological sequelae in the alveolae, which, in their turn, may increase airflow resistance in the lower airways and impede respiratory gas exchange. Other sequelae include decreases in respiratory minute volume and worsening of the hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and acidaemia commonly observed in healthy horses during strenuous exercise. These and other factors are implicated in the potential for ridden horses to experience three forms of breathlessness-"unpleasant respiratory effort", "air hunger" and "chest tightness"-which arise when there is a mismatch between a heightened ventilatory drive and the adequacy of the respiratory response. It is not known to what extent, if at all, such mismatches would occur in strenuously exercising horses unhampered by low jowl angles or by pathophysiological changes at any level of the respiratory tract. However

  3. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates accumulate at the onset of intense exercise in man but are not essential for the increase in muscle oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gibala, Martin J.; Howarth, Krista R.

    2006-01-01

    dichloroacetate (DCA) in an attempt to alter the level of TCAI. Five men performed strenuous leg kicking exercise (64+/-8 W) under noninfused control (CON) and DCA-supplemented conditions; biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and after 5, 15, and 180 s of exercise. In CON, the total concentration...... seconds of exercise; however, this increase is not essential for the contraction-induced increase in mitochondrial respiration....

  4. L-arginine increases endothelial nitric oxide production and reduces blood pressure of rest without changing the exercise pressor response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Mota de Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available L-arginine supplementation has been proposed to improve endothelial. The hypothesis that L-arginine also improves post-exercise hypotension (PEH in hypertensive individuals was tested in this study. Physically active hypertensive women were divided into supplemented (SUP (n = 12, 50 ± 1.8 years and placebo (PLA (n = 14, 51.5 ± 1.6 years groups performing two walking sessions at moderate intensity with interval of 32 days between sessions. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure (BP was measured before and after exercise. In the period between sessions, they remained physically active and received daily 6g of L-arginine or placebo. PLA showed no change in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration and blood pressure at rest or in response to exercise. SUP showed increased basal nitrite/nitrate plasma concentration (26.6 ± 2 to 44.6 ± 4µM, p < .05, which was followed by reduction of basal BP (137/86.2 to 125.8/79mmHg, p < .05. The exercise performed before supplementation did not change the serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. After supplementation, the exercise promoted increases in levels from 44.6 ± 4 to 51.8 ± 6µM (p < .05. However, it did not change the PEH. L-arginine supplementation improves the nitrite/nitrate production and decreases the resting BP, but does not change the PEH in hypertensive middle-aged women.

  5. Improved arterial flow-mediated dilation after exertion involves hydrogen peroxide in overweight and obese adults following aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Austin T; Franklin, Nina C; Norkeviciute, Edita; Bian, Jing Tan; Babana, James C; Szczurek, Mary R; Phillips, Shane A

    2016-07-01

    Acute strenuous physical exertion impairs arterial function in sedentary adults. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of regular aerobic exercise training on acute physical exertion-induced arterial dysfunction in sedentary, overweight, and obese adults. Twenty-five overweight and obese adults (BMI 30.5 ± 7.2 years) were assigned to 8 weeks of aerobic training or to a control group. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed before and after acute leg press exercise at weeks 0 and 8. Gluteal adipose biopsies were performed at rest and post acute leg press to measure microvessel FMD with and without nitric oxide synthase inhibition via L-nitroarginine methyl ester or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging with Catalase. Microvessel nitric oxide and H2O2 production were assessed via fluorescence microscopy. Brachial artery dilation was reduced post acute leg press at week 0 in the aerobic exercise and control groups, but was preserved in the aerobic-exercise group post acute leg press at week 8 (P aerobic exercise group but impaired in the control group at week 8 (P aerobic exercise group was more sensitive to H2O2 scavenging than inhibition of nitric oxide, and post acute leg press microvessel H2O2 production was increased compared with at rest (P Aerobic exercise prevents acute exertion-induced arterial dysfunction in overweight and obese adults via a phenotypic switch from nitric oxide-mediated dilation at rest to a predominately H2O2-mediated dilation after acute physical exertion.

  6. Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik; Orthenblad, N.

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of xanthine oxidase is elevated in injured human skeletal muscle in association with inflammatory events. Seven male subjects performed five bouts of strenuous one-legged eccentric exercise. Muscle biopsies from both the exercised...... and the control leg, together with venous blood samples, were obtained prior to exercise and at 45 min, 24, 48 and 96 h after exercise. The time courses of xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity and indicators of muscle damage and inflammation were examined. 2. The number of xanthine oxidase structures observed...... by immunohistological methods in the exercised muscle was up to eightfold higher than control from day 1 to day 4 after exercise (P

  7. Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik; Orthenblad, N.

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of xanthine oxidase is elevated in injured human skeletal muscle in association with inflammatory events. Seven male subjects performed five bouts of strenuous one-legged eccentric exercise. Muscle biopsies from both the exercised...... and the control leg, together with venous blood samples, were obtained prior to exercise and at 45 min, 24, 48 and 96 h after exercise. The time courses of xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity and indicators of muscle damage and inflammation were examined. 2. The number of xanthine oxidase structures observed...... by immunohistological methods in the exercised muscle was up to eightfold higher than control from day 1 to day 4 after exercise (P xanthine oxidase in microvascular endothelial cells and an invasion of leucocytes containing xanthine oxidase. 3...

  8. Genetic impairment of AMPK{alpha}2 signaling does not reduce muscle glucose uptake during treadmill exercise in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine Just; Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Rose, Adam John

    2009-01-01

    Some studies suggest that the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important in regulating muscle glucose uptake in response to intense electrically stimulated contractions. However, it is unknown if AMPK regulates muscle glucose uptake during in vivo exercise. We studied this in male and fe...... signaling is not essential in regulating glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle during treadmill exercise and that other unknown mechanisms play a central role. Key words: exercise, glucose uptake, AMPK.......-KD mouse. Muscle glucose clearance was measured using [3H]-2-deoxy-glucose as tracer. In wildtype mice glucose clearance was increased at 30% and 70% of maximal running speed by 40% and 350% in the quadriceps muscle, and by 120% and 380% in gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. Glucose clearance...

  9. An update on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction with and without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is defined as transient, reversible bronchoconstriction that develops after strenuous exercise. It is a heterogeneous syndrome made up of a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from the asymptomatic military recruit whose condition is detected by diagnostic exercise challenge to the athlete with known asthma to the elite athlete for whom EIB represents an overuse or injury syndrome. If exercise is the only identified trigger for bronchoconstriction, it is called EIB. However, when it is associated with known asthma, then it is defined as EIB with asthma. This review discusses the pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and management of EIB and EIB with asthma.

  10. Hypoalgesia After Exercise and the Cold Pressor Test is Reduced in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Patients With High Pain Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik B; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In chronic pain patients, impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) have been reported. No studies have compared CPM and EIH in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity (HPS) and low pain sensitivity (LPS). MATERIALS.......005). Pain tolerance increased after the cold pressor test and exercise in both groups (PCPM and EIH were partly impaired in chronic pain patients with high versus less pain sensitivity, suggesting that the CPM and EIH responses depend on the degree of pain sensitivity. This has clinical...

  11. Long-Term Exercise and Bone Mineral Density Changes in Postmenopausal Women--Are There Periods of Reduced Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical exercise can prevent fractures in postmenopausal women. However, even with careful adaptation of the exercise program to subjects' changing bone, health, and fitness status, effectivity may still decrease over the time. This could be specifically the case where the limitations of higher age collide with the specification of the exercise program. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor bone mineral density (BMD) changes over a 16-year period of supervised exercise. Our hypothesis was that BMD differences at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) between exercisers (EG) and nontraining controls (CG) increased throughout the intervention with significant differences for each of the four 4-year observation periods. Sixty-seven (EG, n = 39 versus CG, n = 28) initially early-postmenopausal osteopenic women of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS) with complete BMD data sets for baseline (1998) and 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-year follow-up were included in the analysis. The exercise protocol initially focused on a high-intensity strategy that addressed bone but increasingly shifted to a more comprehensive intervention. LS-BMD differences between the EG and CG continuously increased (year 4: 2.4% (95%- Confidence Interval 1.0% to 3.8%), year 8: 3.1% (1.6% to 4.7%), year 12: 3.9% (1.9% to 5.8), year 16: 4.5% (2.5% to 6.6%). Correspondingly, rising differences for FN-BMD (0.9% (-0.2% to 2.1%) versus 1.9% (0.4% to 3.3%) versus 2.0% (0.5% to 3.8%) versus 3.0% (1.0% to 5.0%)) were observed. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, group differences within the four 4-year periods were not consistently significant (LS, p = 0.001 to 0.097; FN, p = 0.026 to 0.673); further, BMD kinetics among the groups varied between LS and FN. Of particular importance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.030) for both regions were still found in the final period. We conclude that exercise-even when adapted for subjects' decreasing bone

  12. A 12-Week Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Hepatic Fat Accumulation and Insulin Resistance in Obese, Hispanic Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chu, Zili D.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Haymond, Morey W.; Rodriguez, Luisa M.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2010-01-01

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized

  13. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  14. Milk protein enriched beverage reduces post-exercise energy intakes in women with higher levels of cognitive dietary restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virgilio, Nicolina; Donno, De Roberta; Bandini, Enrica; Napolitano, Aurora; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the satiating efficacy of milk proteins compared to carbohydrates in twenty women during post-exercise period. Methods: A milk protein-enriched beverage (MPB), and an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched beverage (CB) containing respectively 9.3. g and 0.3.

  15. Preventive exercises reduced injury-related costs among adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krist, M.R.; Beijsterveldt, A.M.C van; Backx, F.J.G.; Wit, G.A. de

    2013-01-01

    QUESTION: Is an injury prevention program consisting of 10 exercises designed to improve stability, muscle strength, co-ordination, and flexibility of the trunk, hip and leg muscles (known as The11) cost effective in adult male amateur soccer players?DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a

  16. A COX-2 inhibitor reduces muscle soreness, but does not influence recovery and adaptation after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, G; Egner, I M; Drange, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor on the recovery of muscle function, inflammation, regeneration after, and adaptation to, unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Thirty-three young males and females participated in a double-blind, placebo-controll...

  17. Effects of acute caffeine supplementation on reducing exercise-associated hypoglycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, D P; Miadovnik, L A; Rowan, C P; Gumieniak, R J; Jamnik, V K; Riddell, M C

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effects of acute caffeine ingestion on glycaemia during moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic exercise and in recovery in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 13 patients with Type 1 diabetes [eight women, five men: mean ± sd age 25.9 ± 8.8 years, BMI 71.9 ± 11.0 kg, maximal oxygen consumption 46.6 ± 12.7 ml/kg/min, body fat 19.9 ± 7.2%, duration of diabetes 14.4 ± 10.1 years and HbA1c 55 ± 8 mmol/mol (7.4 ± 0.8%)] were recruited. Participants ingested capsules that contained gelatin or pure caffeine (6.0 mg/kg body mass) and performed afternoon exercise for 45 min at 60% maximal oxygen consumption on two separate visits with only circulating basal insulin levels. The main finding was that a single caffeine dose attenuates the drop in glycaemia by 1.8 ± 2.8 mmol/l compared with placebo intake during exercise (P=0.056). Continuous glucose monitoring data, however, showed that caffeine was associated with elevated glycaemia at bedtime after exercise, compared with placebo, but lower glucose concentrations in the early morning the next day. Caffeine intake should be considered as another strategy that may modestly attenuate hypoglycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes during exercise, but should be taken with precautionary measures as it may increase the risk of late-onset hypoglycaemia. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  18. Evaluation of post-exercise magnetic resonance images of the rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahoy, P.M.; Orwin, J.F.; Tuite, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effect of strenuous exercise on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of the rotator cuff tendon. A second objective was to define an optimal time to image the rotator cuff and possibly eliminate exercise-induced false positives. Design and patients. Five male subjects from 24 to 38 years old with normal rotator cuffs by history, physical examination, and screening MRI underwent a rotator cuff exercise session on the Biodex System 2 (Biodex, Shirley, New York). The exercise sessions were followed by sequential MRI scans of the exercised shoulder. These were performed immediately and at 8 h and 24 h after exercise. Results and conclusions. The rotator cuff tendon and subacromial-subdeltoid bursal signal remained unchanged from the pre-exercise through the 24-h post-exercise scans. The rotator cuff muscle signal was increased in five of five subjects on the immediate post-exercise fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. This signal returned to baseline by the 8-h scan. Positive findings of rotator cuff pathology on MRI after strenuous athletic activity should not be discounted as normal exercise-induced changes. Also, diagnostic MRI scanning may take place after a practice session without an increased risk of false positives. (orig.). With 1 fig

  19. A controlled intervention to promote a healthy body image, reduce eating disorder risk and prevent excessive exercise among trainee health education and physical education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum.

  20. Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benatti FB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fabiana Braga Benatti1, Fábio Santos Lira2, Lila Missae Oyama2, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento2, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior11School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Physiology, Division of Nutrition Physiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the

  1. Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

  2. Preconditioning by light-load eccentric exercise is equally effective as low-level laser therapy in attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage in collegiate men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Samar Nausheen,1 Jamal Ali Moiz,1 Shahid Raza,1 Mohammad Yakub Shareef,2 Shahnawaz Anwer,3,4 Ahmad H Alghadir3 1Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 2Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 3Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India Background/objective: Previous studies have already reported an independent effect of light-load eccentric exercise (10% eccentric exercise contraction [EEC] and low-level laser therapy (LLLT as a protective measure against more strenuous eccentric exercise. However, the difference between these two interventions is largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the preconditioning effect of 10% EEC vs. LLLT on subjective, physiological, and biochemical markers of muscle damage in elbow flexors in collegiate men.Methods: All 36 enrolled subjects were randomly assigned to either 10% EEC or LLLT group. Subjects in 10% EEC group performed 30 repetitions of an eccentric exercise with 10% maximal voluntary contraction strength 2 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise bout, whereas subjects in LLLT group were given LLLT. All the indirect markers of muscle damage were measured pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol.Results: The muscle soreness was reduced in both groups (p = 0.024; however, soreness was attenuated more in LLLT group at 48 hours (33.5 vs. 42.7, p = 0.004. There was no significant difference between the effect of 10% EEC and LLLT groups on other markers of muscle damage like a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (p = 0.47, range of motion (p = 0.16, upper arm circumference (p = 0.70, creatine kinase (p = 0.42, and lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.08. Within-group analysis showed both interventions provided

  3. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    as maximal oxygen uptake and 10-km performance time, remained unaltered in both groups. In SET, the capillary-to-fiber ratio was the same before and after the IT period. The present study showed that speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during submaximal exercise, which is not mediated......We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance......-trained runners were assigned to either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 9) or a control (Con; n = 8) group. For a 4-wk intervention (IT) period, SET replaced the ordinary training ( approximately 45 km/wk) with frequent high-intensity sessions each consisting of 8-12 30-s sprint runs separated by 3 min...

  4. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružič Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day of the disease beginning with a suspicious diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. In the hospital course of the disease, a further elevation of serum aminotransferases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were registered. Additional serological analyses were done to exclude other possible causes of acute liver lesion. In the neurological status prolonged decontraction of quadriceps muscle was detected and the electromyography was suspicious on neuromyositis. Conclusion. Excessive muscular activity with the strenuous exercise is the leading, but very frequently overlooked, cause of rhabdomyolysis in healthy people. Excessive physical exercise may lead to elevation of the serum activity of aminotransferases and to suspicion of hepatitis.

  5. Intelligent Physical Exercise Training proves effective in enhancing muscle strength and reducing musculoskeletal pain in a workplace setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    Background: Physical exercise training interventions at the workplace may cause health benefits but not all employees may benefit from the same program despite having the same occupational exposure. The present aim was to individually tailor Intelligent Physical Exercise Training (IPET) for office...... workers based on health checks and to assess the effect on musculoskeletal health (Sjøgaard G et al. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:652). Methods: Office workers were at each of 6 companies randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N=194) or a reference group, REF (N=195). TG received one-hour supervised high...... of clinical relevance and was attained with different combinations of IPET. When targeting the workplace as a setting, it is important to not only address the occupational exposure but also to tailor the training to the diversity of the employees’ capacity and disorders....

  6. Capillary ultrastructure and mitochondrial volume density in skeletal muscle in relation to reduced exercise capacity of patients with intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Oliver; Torchetti, Eleonora; Malik, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most commonly reported symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Impaired limb blood flow is a major casual factor of lower exercise tolerance in PAD, but cannot entirely explain it. We hypothesized that IC is associated with structural changes...... of the capillary-mitochondria interface that could contribute to the reduction of exercise tolerance in IC-patients. Capillary and mitochondrial morphometry were performed after light and transmission electron microscopy using vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 14 IC-patients and 10 age-matched controls and peak...... power output (PPO) was determined for all participants using an incremental single-leg knee-extension protocol. Capillary density was lower (411±90 mm(-2)versus 506±95 mm(-2); P≤0.05) in the biopsies of the IC patients than in those of the controls. The basement membrane (BM) around capillaries...

  7. Three months of strictly controlled daily endurance exercise reduces thrombin generation and fibrinolytic risk markers in younger moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Skov, Jane

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, but dose dependency of long-term physical exercise on biomarkers within coagulation and fibrinolysis is unknown. We aimed to investigate effects of two doses of daily endurance exercise on biomarkers...... of 600 kcal/day (HIGH), 300 kcal/day (MOD), or to maintain their habitual lifestyle (CON). Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention and analysed for thrombin generation (endogenous thrombin potential, ETP) and concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t......-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). RESULTS: We observed significant within-group decreases in ETP (MOD 7 %; HIGH 6 %) and in t-PA (MOD 22 %; HIGH 21 %) and PAI-1 (MOD 16 %; HIGH 32 %) in both training groups, and no changes in the CON group. At 3 months, between...

  8. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested immediately after each training session in both groups. These findings suggest......BACKGROUND: Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during...... sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous...

  9. The Prolonged Intake of L-Arginine-L-Aspartate Reduces Blood Lactate Accumulation and Oxygen Consumption During Submaximal Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Burtscher, Martin; Brunner, Fritz; Faulhaber, Martin; Hotter, Barbara; Likar, Rudolf

    2005-01-01

    L-arginine-L-aspartate is widely used by athletes for its potentially ergogenic properties. However, only little information on its real efficacy is available from controlled studies. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of prolonged supplementation with L-arginine-L-aspartate on metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal exercise in healthy athletes by a double blind placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen healthy male volunteers (22 ± 3 years) performed incremental cycle spiroergometr...

  10. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =−1.06 [−1.67 to −0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [−1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =−0.10 [−0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

  11. Qigong Exercise May Reduce Serum TNF-α Levels and Improve Sleep in People with Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sanghee; Schmidt, Marshall; Smirnova, Irina V; Colgrove, Yvonne; Liu, Wen

    2017-04-23

    Background: Inflammatory cytokine levels are often elevated in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). People with PD often experience sleep disturbances that significantly impact quality of life. Past studies suggest inflammatory cytokines may be associated with various symptoms of PD. Benefits of Qigong, a mind-body exercise, have been shown in different neurological conditions, but there is still a lack of clinical evidence in the PD population. Methods: Ten people with PD were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups receiving six weeks of Qigong (experimental group) or sham Qigong (control group) intervention. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in subjects' serum and sleep quality were measured before and after the intervention. Results: After the intervention, the serum level of TNF-α in the experimental group was significantly decreased in all subjects, while the level in the control group showed a trend to increase. Qigong exercise significantly improved sleep quality at night. There was a strong correlation between changes in the level of TNF-α and sleep quality. Conclusion: Qigong exercise decreased TNF-α level in people with PD and helped improve sleep quality. TNF-α may have a potential to influence the sleep quality in people with PD.

  12. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2014-07-15

    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ≥ 0.41, P ≤ 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.

  13. Respiratory muscle training with normocapnic hyperpnea improves ventilatory pattern and thoracoabdominal coordination, and reduces oxygen desaturation during endurance exercise testing in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi E

    2015-09-01

    expected, NH improves inspiratory muscle performance, exercise capacity, and QoL. New results are significant change in ventilatory pattern, which improves oxygen saturation, and an improvement in thoracoabdominal coordination (lower PhA. These two facts could explain the reduced dyspnea during the endurance test. All these results together may play a role in improving exercise capacity after NH training.Keywords: COPD, exercise, inspiratory muscle, pulmonary rehabilitation

  14. A systematic review of the association between a single strenuous event and the development of an inguinal hernia: A medicolegal grey area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Timothy; Currie, Peter; Spence, Robert; McNally, Sinead; Spence, Gary

    2018-03-10

    Inguinal hernia is a common surgical presentation. Evidence for its causation regarding occupational and recreational physical exposures is limited. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review objectively evaluating the evidence for a causal link between a single strenuous event and the development of an inguinal hernia. A systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library were searched. In addition, the ISRCTN register, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTR Platform, and EU Clinical Trials Register were searched. Identified publications were collated and both reviewers independently reviewed their contents. 5508 records were identified, resulting in 5 studies being selected. These 5 studies were all case series. Of 957 patients identified, 1003 hernias were described, of which 983 were inguinal hernias which 255 (26%) were attributed by patients to a single strenuous event. Only two of these studies applied Smith's Criteria (causation of a hernia from a single strenuous event): officially reported, severe pain at the time of the event, no prior history of inguinal hernia, and the diagnosis was made by a doctor within 30 days (preferably 3 days). Only 2 of 54 patients (4%) met all four criteria and so could be considered as having an inguinal hernia relating to a single strenuous event. Many patients associate hernias to a single episode, however upon application of more stringent criteria such as Smith's, a much smaller proportion are deemed to be actually attributable to a single strenuous event. Copyright © 2018 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of a “Selected Exercise Training” on Reducing Symptoms of Dementia Caused by Alzheimer\\'s Disease in People with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sarlak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a selected exercise training on reducing symptoms of dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome. Methods: 27 men with Down syndrome were randomized to intervention (n=13 and control (n=13 groups. All persons in experimental group followed 12 weeks selected exercise training, three times a week. Prior to the start of the study, and after three-month training, each member in both groups was assessed according to the DSQIID questionnaire filled by caregivers of these peoples. Data were analysed by independent t-test. Results: The results indicated that the first questionnaire subscales that assess memory disorders and confusion in the experimental group between pre and post test showed a significant decrease (P=0.028. Also in third part of questionnaire that asked about the individual skills, social withdrawal, physical symptoms and speech abnormalities, the variable scores in post-test of experimental group were significantly lower than pre-test scores (P=0.047. Discussion: These result showed that the combination of selected exercises training could cause a significant reduction in the incidence of initial dementia symptoms and can be an important step to prevent of the dementia in these people.

  16. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2007-01-01

    -Ex but was lower than Pre-Ex at Rec (P Muscle uncoupling protein 3, measured......The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise...... (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured...

  17. A hip abduction exercise prior to prolonged standing increased movement while reducing cocontraction and low back pain perception in those initially reporting low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiani, Daniel; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-12-01

    Persons who develop low back pain from prolonged standing exhibit increased muscle cocontraction, decreased movement and increased spine extension. However, it is unclear how these factors relate to pain development. The purpose of this study was to use hip abductor fatigue to manipulate muscle activity patterns and determine its effects on standing behaviours and pain development. Forty participants stood for two hours twice, once following a hip abductor fatigue exercise (fatigue), and once without exercise beforehand (control). Trunk and gluteal muscle activity were measured to determine cocontraction. Lumbo-pelvic angles and force plates were used to assess posture and movement strategies. Visual analog scales differentiated pain (PDs) and non-pain developers (NPDs). PDs reported less low back pain during the fatigue session, with females having earlier reductions of similar scale than males. The fatigue session reduced gluteal and trunk cocontraction and increased centre of pressure movement; male and female PDs had opposing spine posture compensations. Muscle fatigue prior to standing reduced cocontraction, increased movement during standing and reduced the low back pain developed by PDs; the timing of pain reductions depended on spine postures adopted during standing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1,2 Vinicius Cavalheri,1 Richard Adams,3 Colleen Oakley Browne,4 Petra Bovery-Spencer,4 Audra M Fenton,3 Bruce W Campbell,5 Keith D Hill1,6 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Research Department, Silver Chain, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Community Services, West Gippsland Healthcare Group, Warragul, VIC, Australia; 4Falls Prevention for People Living with Dementia Project, Central West Gippsland Primary Care Partnership, Moe, VIC, Australia; 5Allied Health, Latrobe Regional Hospital, Traralgon, VIC, Australia; 6Preventive and Public Health Division, National Ageing Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Objective: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community.Method: Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted.Results: Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =-1.06 [-1.67 to -0.46] falls. Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]. Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment. No

  19. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  20. Utilization of lipids during exercise in human subjects: metabolic and dietary constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F; van der Vusse, G J

    1998-02-01

    During endurance exercise, skeletal muscle relies mainly on both carbohydrate (CHO) and fat oxidation to cover energy needs. Numerous scientific studies have shown that increasing the exercise intensity leads to a progressive utilization of CHO. The latter will induce a state of glycogen depletion which is generally recognized as being a limiting factor for the continuation of strenuous exercise. Different dietary interventions have been proposed to overcome this limitation. A high-CHO diet during periods of intense training and competition, as well as CHO intake during exercise, are known to maintain a high rate of CHO oxidation and to delay fatigue. However, it has been recognized also that enhancing fatty acid (FA) oxidation during exercise induces a reduced rate of glycogen degradation, resulting in an improved endurance capacity. This is most strikingly observed as a result of frequent endurance exercise which improves a number of factors known to govern the FA flux and the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Such factors are: (1) blood flow and capillarization; (2) lipolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipose tissue and circulating TAG and transport of FA from blood plasma to the sarcoplasm; (3) availability and rate of hydrolysis of intramuscular TAG; (4) activation of the FA and transport across the mitochondrial membrane; (5) the activity of enzymes in the oxidative pathway; (6) hormonal adaptations, i.e. sensitivity to catecholamines and insulin. The observation that the plasma FA concentration is an important factor in determining the rate of FA oxidation, and that some dietary factors may influence the rate of FA supply to muscle as well as to the mitochondria, has led to a number of dietary interventions with the ultimate goal to enhance FA oxidation and endurance performance. It appears that experimental data are not equivocal that dietary interventions, such as a high-fat diet, medium-chain TAG-fat emulsions and caffeine intake during exercise

  1. Reduced Chest and Abdominal Wall Mobility and Their Relationship to Lung Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Exercise Tolerance in Subjects With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideo; Shiranita, Shuichi; Horie, Jun; Hayashi, Shinichiro

    2016-11-01

    Advanced air-flow limitation in patients with COPD leads to a reduction in vital capacity, respiratory muscle strength, and exercise capacity. However, its impact on chest and abdominal wall mobility is unknown. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of patients with COPD with reduced chest and abdominal wall mobility and to investigate the effect of reduced chest and abdominal wall mobility on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and exercise capacity. In 51 elderly male subjects with COPD, chest and abdominal wall mobility, FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, maximal inspiratory pressure (P Imax ), maximal expiratory pressure (P Emax ), and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were assessed. Chest and abdominal wall mobility were measured using the breathing movement scale (0-8) at the 3 regions (upper chest, lower chest, and abdomen). Reduced mobility was defined as a value lower than the lower limit of the normal scale. The unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The percentages of subjects with reduced mobility were 78% for the upper chest, 76% for the lower chest, and 53% for the abdomen. The subjects with reduced mobility had significantly low FVC, FEV 1 , and 6MWD in each region and significantly low FEV 1 /FVC, P Imax , and P Emax in the abdominal region compared with those with nonreduced mobility. FVC and 6MWD were independently associated with the scale values in each region and with the abdominal scale value, respectively. The majority of subjects with COPD had reduced chest and abdominal wall mobility, which was independently associated with FVC. Even though abdominal wall mobility was relatively preserved compared with chest wall mobility, it was also independently associated with 6MWD. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. An in-school exercise intervention to enhance bone and reduce fat in girls: the CAPO Kids trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Rossana C; Weeks, Benjamin K; Beck, Belinda R

    2014-11-01

    The CAPO Kids trial was a 9-mo, controlled, school-based intervention to examine the effects of a novel, brief, high intensity exercise regime on indices of musculoskeletal and metabolic health in pre- and early-pubertal girls. A total of 151 pre- and early-pubertal girls (10.6±0.6years), recruited from two different schools consented to participate; 76 in the exercise group (EX) and 75 in the control group (CON). EX performed 10min bouts of thrice-weekly jumping plus capoeira (a Brazilian sport that combines martial art with dance), along with usual physical education (PE) activities. CON continued usual PE alone. Maturity, weight, height, waist circumference, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal vertical jump, and aerobic capacity were determined using standard clinical and field measures. Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and stiffness index (SI) were determined from quantitative ultrasonometry. A subsample of children also underwent DXA and pQCT measures. Prior physical activity participation and daily calcium consumption were determined from validated instruments. EX girls improved BUA more than CON (+4.5% vs. +1.4%, p=0.019). Resting heart rate (-7.2% vs. -1.8%, pcapoeira and jumping) three times a week in the primary school setting enhances musculoskeletal and metabolic outcomes in pre- and early-pubertal girls without disrupting the academic schedule. The programme, amenable to broad-scale school implementation, would confer meaningful public health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mild aerobic exercise blocks elastin fiber fragmentation and aortic dilatation in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Christine; Nielsen, Cory; Alex, Ramona; Cooper, Kimbal; Farney, Michael; Gaufin, Douglas; Cui, Jason Z; van Breemen, Cornelis; Broderick, Tom L; Vallejo-Elias, Johana; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2017-07-01

    Regular low-impact physical activity is generally allowed in patients with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. However, being above average in height encourages young adults with this syndrome to engage in high-intensity contact sports, which unfortunately increases the risk for aortic aneurysm and rupture, the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary (cage-wheel) or forced (treadmill) aerobic exercise at different intensities on aortic function and structure in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. Four-week-old Marfan and wild-type mice were subjected to voluntary and forced exercise regimens or sedentary lifestyle for 5 mo. Thoracic aortic tissue was isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies. Our data showed that exercise improved aortic wall structure and function in Marfan mice and that the beneficial effect was biphasic, with an optimum at low intensity exercise (55-65% V̇o 2max ) and tapering off at a higher intensity of exercise (85% V̇o 2max ). The mechanism underlying the reduced elastin fragmentation in Marfan mice involved reduction of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 within the aortic wall. These findings present the first evidence of potential beneficial effects of mild exercise on the structural integrity of the aortic wall in Marfan syndrome associated aneurysm. Our finding that moderate, but not strenuous, exercise protects aortic structure and function in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome could have important implications for the medical care of young Marfan patients. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study provides conclusive scientific evidence that daily exercise can improve aortic health in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm, and it establishes the threshold for the exercise intensity beyond which exercise may not be as protective. These findings establish a platform

  4. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Compulsive Exercise KidsHealth / For Parents / Compulsive Exercise What's in this ... for both physical and psychological problems. About Compulsive Exercise Compulsive exercise (also called obligatory exercise and anorexia ...

  5. Action Mechanism of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Intervened by Exercise Therapy in Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liu, Jia-Hong; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chung, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), an imbalance between androgen/estrogen, overexpression of stromal, and epithelial growth factors associated with chronic inflammation, has become an atypical direct cause of mortality of aged male diseases. Ginkgo possesses anti-inflammatory, blood flow-enhancing, and free radical scavenging effects. Considering strenuous exercise can reduce BPH risks, we hypothesize Ginkgo + exercise (Ginkgo + Ex) could be beneficial to BPH. To verify this, rat BPH model was induced by s.c. 3.5 mg testosterone (T) and 0.1 mg estradiol (E2) per head per day successively for 8 weeks, using mineral oil as placebo. Cerenin® 8.33 μL/100 g was applied s.c. from the 10th to the 13th week, and simultaneously, Ex was applied (30 m/min, 3 times/week). In BPH, Ginkgo alone had no effect on T, 5α-reductase, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but suppressed androgen receptor (AR), aromatase, E2 and estrogen receptor (ER), and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); Ex alone significantly reduced T, aromatase, E2, ER, AR, and PCNA, but highly raised DHT. While Ginkgo + Ex androgenically downregulated T, aromatase, E2, and ER, but upregulated DHT, AR, and PCNA, implying Ginkgo + Ex tended to worsen BPH. Conclusively, Ginkgo or Ex alone may be more beneficial than Ginkgo + Ex for treatment of BPH. PMID:23690843

  6. Action Mechanism of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Intervened by Exercise Therapy in Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Chi Peng

    2013-01-01

    overexpression of stromal, and epithelial growth factors associated with chronic inflammation, has become an atypical direct cause of mortality of aged male diseases. Ginkgo possesses anti-inflammatory, blood flow-enhancing, and free radical scavenging effects. Considering strenuous exercise can reduce BPH risks, we hypothesize Ginkgo + exercise (Ginkgo + Ex could be beneficial to BPH. To verify this, rat BPH model was induced by s.c. 3.5 mg testosterone (T and 0.1 mg estradiol (E2 per head per day successively for 8 weeks, using mineral oil as placebo. Cerenin® 8.33 μL/100 g was applied s.c. from the 10th to the 13th week, and simultaneously, Ex was applied (30 m/min, 3 times/week. In BPH, Ginkgo alone had no effect on T, 5α-reductase, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, but suppressed androgen receptor (AR, aromatase, E2 and estrogen receptor (ER, and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA; Ex alone significantly reduced T, aromatase, E2, ER, AR, and PCNA, but highly raised DHT. While Ginkgo + Ex androgenically downregulated T, aromatase, E2, and ER, but upregulated DHT, AR, and PCNA, implying Ginkgo + Ex tended to worsen BPH. Conclusively, Ginkgo or Ex alone may be more beneficial than Ginkgo + Ex for treatment of BPH.

  7. Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Vanessa H; Ferguson, James E

    2017-10-01

    Routine exercise should be recommended to healthy pregnant women after consultation with an obstetric provider. Even pregnant women who have not been exercising regularly can gradually increase their exercise during pregnancy. Regular exercise during pregnancy promotes overall wellness and helps maintain appropriate gestational weight gain and appropriate fetal weight gain. Exercise in pregnancy may also reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes, and may be associated with shorter first stage of labor and decreased risk for cesarean section. Exercise in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and their fetuses and can have multiple health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Exercise and "the pill": putting a rumor to rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkun, P H

    1991-03-01

    Every once in a while, female athletes hear the rumor that oral contraceptives (OCs) keep them from performing their best. Yet, studies that have tried to evaluate the effects of OCs on physically active women have not been conclusive. This rumor probably started with the initial, higher-dose formulations instead of with the current biphasic or triphasic OCs. Side effects of the higher-dose OCs included weight gain, nausea, fatigue, headaches, and increased risks of hypertension, thromboembolism, and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Current OCs minimize these side effects and the risk of complications. In fact, the aerobic exercise female athletes undergo most likely neutralizes the negative effects of OCs on coagulation and lipid metabolism. Further, OCs may even improve athletic performance because they can decrease bleeding, the risk of iron deficiency, and frequency of cramps. Moreover, athletes can use OCs to orchestrate their menstrual cycles around competitive meets. Some studies with small sample sizes show that athletes on OCs experience a slight reduction in functional aerobic capacity and endurance capability. A Swedish study of female soccer players reported that OC users suffer fewer traumatic injuries than nonusers. It is difficult to attribute this to OCs, because there is considerable psychological control over sports performance. A sports physician in Hawaii is aware of rumors that OCs induce sluggishness or fatigue during certain days of the month, but he does not know a female athlete who believes this. The head trainer of the US Olympic Committee says that many female Olympic athletes use OCs. Strenuous exercise, considerable weight loss, and possibly other stress factors induce athletic amenorrhea, especially in adolescent females. In many cases, OCs can treat it. They are especially needed to minimize the risk of reduced bone density and musculoskeletal injury.

  10. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jens M; Helge, Jørn W; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    RNA expression of adiponectin (P macrophage-specific markers (CD14, CD68), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P macrophage infiltration in AT, only IL-6 mRNA was decreased (P markers were......Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of a 15-wk lifestyle intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) on inflammatory markers in plasma, adipose tissue (AT), and skeletal muscle...... found in SM. The intervention had no effect on adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA in AT or SM. Thus hypocaloric diet and increased physical activity improved insulin sensitivity and reduced low-grade inflammation. Markers of inflammation were particularly reduced in AT, whereas SM does not contribute...

  11. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; Stuiver, Martijn M.; van Harten, Willem H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may

  12. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES): a randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; Stuiver, Martijn M.; van Harten, Wim H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to

  13. Design of the physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES): a randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, H.; Stuiver, M.M.; van Harten, W.H.; Sonke, G.S.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may

  14. A diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promote neuroprotection, reduced cell apoptosis and glial cell activation in the hypothalamus of old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Marlon R; Cechella, José L; Pinton, Simone; Nogueira, Cristina W; Zeni, Gilson

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a process characterized by deterioration of the homeostasis of various physiological systems; although being a process under influence of multiple factors, the mechanisms involved in aging are not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet (1ppm, 4weeks) and swimming exercise (1% of body weight, 20min per day, 4weeks) on proteins related to glial cells activation, apoptosis and neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old male Wistar rats (27month-old). Old rats had activation of astrocytes and microglia which was demonstrated by the increase in the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) in hypothalamus. A decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 levels as well as an increase of the cleaved PARP/full length PARP ratio (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, PARP) and the pJNK/JNK ratio (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK) were observed. The levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF), the pAkt/Akt ratio (also known as protein kinase B) and NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron marker, were decreased in the hypothalamus of old rats. Old rats that received a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and performed swimming exercise had the hypothalamic levels of Iba-1 and GFAP decreased. The combined treatment also increased the levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 and decreased the ratios of cleaved PARP/full length PARP and pJNK/JNK in old rats. The levels of mBDNF and NeuN, but not the pAkt/Akt ratio, were increased by combined treatment. In conclusion, a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promoted neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old rats, reducing apoptosis and glial cell activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrophysiologic Study of Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Babaee Bigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaustive exercise is well known to pose a variety ofhealth hazards, such as sudden cardiac death reported in ultra-marathon runners.Depressed parasympathetic tone is associated with increased risk of suddencardiac death, thus parasympathetic withdrawal in post-exercise phase may be ahigh risk period for sudden death. To date, the effect on cardiacelectrophysiology after exhaustive strenuous exercise has not been described.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of severe exhaustive exerciseon cardiac electrophysiology.Methods: The subjects in ranger training were invited to participatein this prospective study. The parameters measured consisted of PR interval, QRSduration, and macro T wave alternans as well as corrected QT, QTc dispersion,Tpeak –Tend interval and Tpeak –Tend dispersion.Results: The study group consisted of 40 consecutive male rangers whocompleted training and the control group (22 healthy age and height matched malesubjects. In regard to electrocardiographic criteria, no differences were foundbetween rangers before and after training program. In respect of therepolarization markers, there were no significant differences between therangers before and after training program.

  16. Specific exercise training for reducing neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-08-19

    Flight-related neck/shoulder pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew members. With a lifetime prevalence of 81% for pilots and 84% for crew members, the prevalence of neck pain is considered high compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a specifically tailored exercise intervention would reduce the prevalence and incidence rate of neck/shoulder pain among helicopter pilots and crew members. This study used a prospective, parallel group, single blinded, randomized controlled design. Participants were military helicopter pilots and crew members recruited from the Royal Danish Air Force. Inclusion criteria were: 1) employed within the Royal Danish Air Force as a helicopter pilot or onboard crew member (technician, systems-operator, tactical helicopter observer and/or navigator), 2) maintaining operational flight status at enrollment, and 3) operational flying within the previous 6 months. Primary outcome was change in neck and shoulder pain assessed by 1) a modified version of the "Standardized Nordic questionnaire for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms" and by 2) pressure pain threshold measurements. Secondary outcomes included: postural balance, strength, stability, and rate of force development for neck and shoulder muscles. Measurements at baseline and follow-up were conducted at four air force bases in Denmark. Sixty-nine participants were individually randomized to either a training group (TG) or a reference group (RG). Participants in the TG performed 20-weeks of physical exercise training divided into sessions of 3 × 20 min per week. Training was completed within working hours and consisted of specific exercise training for the neck and shoulder muscles based on the principles of "Intelligent Physical Exercise Training". The RG received no training. In spite of the high prevalence of flight related neck/shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members there are currently no

  17. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients' Participation, Attitude and Preferences Toward Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, J; Yang, H I; Kim, B; Park, S J; Jeon, J Y

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the level of exercise participation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to investigate their intention, attitude and preference toward exercise. The data of 158 IBD patients that participated in a self-administered survey at Severance Hospital between March 2013 and November 2013 were included in this cross sectional and descriptive analysis. Questionnaires included 3 sections to determine the IBD patient's current exercise participation, attitude toward exercise, and exercise preferences. This study investigated IBD patients both collectively, and according to their specific disease: Crohn's disease (CD) (n=62), Ulcerative colitis (UC) (n=73) and intestinal Behçet's disease (BD) (n=23). IBD patients currently participate in 103 min/week of exercise including mild, moderate and strenuous intensity, with BD patients being the least active, followed by CD, and UC being most active. The majority of IBD patients found exercise to be pleasant (57.7%), beneficial (80.5%), sensible (71.8%), uplifting (61%) and good (70.5%), and 44.4% found exercise to be enjoyable. This study shows the IBD patients' participation, attitude and preferences toward exercise and provides much needed information for the development of evidence based exercise programs that are specific to IBD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich C. Jassil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2 completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT, physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p=0.043, increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, p=0.043, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p=0.034, reduced consumption of ready meals (p=0.034, and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p=0.039. The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p=0.027. Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted.

  19. Reducing musculoskeletal injury and concussion risk in schoolboy rugby players with a pre-activity movement control exercise programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Michael D; Stokes, Keith A; Williams, Sean; McKay, Carly D; England, Mike E; Kemp, Simon P T; Trewartha, Grant

    2017-08-01

    Injury risk in youth rugby has received much attention, highlighting the importance of establishing evidence-based injury reduction strategies. To determine the efficacy of a movement control exercise programme in reducing injuries in youth rugby players and to investigate the effect of programme dose on injury measures. In a cluster-randomised controlled trial, 40 independent schools (118 teams, 3188 players aged 14-18 years) were allocated to receive either the intervention or a reference programme, both of which were to be delivered by school coaches. The intervention comprised balance training, whole-body resistance training, plyometric training, and controlled rehearsal of landing and cutting manoeuvres. Time-loss (>24 hours) injuries arising from school rugby matches were recorded by coaches and medical staff. 441 time-loss match injuries (intervention, 233; control, 208) were reported across 15 938 match exposure-hours (intervention, 9083; control, 6855). Intention-to-treat results indicated unclear effects of trial arm on overall match injury incidence (rate ratio (RR)=0.85, 90% confidence limits 0.61 to 1.17), although clear reductions were evident in the intervention arm for concussion incidence (RR=0.71, 0.48 to 1.05). When trial arm comparisons were limited to teams who had completed three or more weekly programme sessions on average, clear reductions in overall match injury incidence (RR=0.28, 0.14 to 0.51) and concussion incidence (RR=0.41, 0.17 to 0.99) were noted in the intervention group. A preventive movement control exercise programme can reduce match injury outcomes, including concussion, in schoolboy rugby players when compared with a standardised control exercise programme, although to realise the greatest effects players should complete the programme at least three times per week. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  20. Exercise-Induced Cardiac Remodeling: Lessons from Humans, Horses, and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave, Rob; Howatson, Glyn; Dickson, Dave; Young, Lesley

    2017-02-12

    Physical activity is dependent upon the cardiovascular system adequately delivering blood to meet the metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of exercise. Animals who regularly exercise therefore require a well-adapted heart to support this delivery. The purpose of this review is to examine cardiac structure, and the potential for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, in animals that regularly engage in strenuous activity. Specifically, we draw upon the literature that has studied the "athlete's heart" in humans, horses, and dogs, to enable the reader to compare and contrast cardiac remodeling in these three athletic species. The available literature provides compelling evidence for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling in all three species. However, more work is required to understand the influence of species/breed specific genetics and exercise-related hemodynamics, in order to fully understand the impact of exercise on cardiac structure.

  1. The CSF and arterial to internal jugular venous hormonal differences during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ott, Peter; Dela, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    the brain (a-v diff) of hormones that could influence its carbohydrate uptake (n= 9). In addition, neuroendocrine activity and a potential uptake of hormones via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were assessed by lumbar puncture postexercise and at rest (n= 6). Exercise increased the arterial concentration...... protein (HSP72), insulin, or insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. The findings indicate that for maximal exercise, the concentration of noradrenaline is increased within the brain, whereas blood borne hormones and cytokines are seemingly unimportant. The results support the notion that the exercise......Strenuous exercise increases the cerebral uptake of carbohydrate out of proportion to that of oxygen, but it is unknown whether such enhanced carbohydrate uptake is influenced by the marked endocrine response to exercise. During exhaustive exercise this study evaluated the a-v differences across...

  2. Transit of micro-bubbles through the pulmonary circulation of Thoroughbred horses during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Gerche, A; Daffy, J R; Mooney, D J; Forbes, G; Davie, A J

    2013-10-01

    It has been observed that microbubbles may pass through the pulmonary circulation of dogs and humans during exercise. In humans, this phenomenon has been associated with lower pulmonary artery pressures, enhanced right ventricular function and greater exercise capacity. In the exercising Thoroughbred horse, extraordinarily high cardiac outputs exert significant pulmonary vascular stresses. The aim of this study was to determine, using contrast echocardiography, whether Thoroughbred horses performing strenuous exercise developed pulmonary transit of agitated contrast microbubbles (PTAC). At rest, agitated contrast was observed in the right ventricle, but not in the left ventricle. However, post-exercise microbubbles were observed in the left ventricle, confirming the occurrence of PTAC with exercise but not at rest. Further investigation is warranted to investigate whether this phenomenon may be associated with superior physiology and performance measures as has been implicated in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exercise-Induced Cardiac Remodeling: Lessons from Humans, Horses, and Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Shave

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is dependent upon the cardiovascular system adequately delivering blood to meet the metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of exercise. Animals who regularly exercise therefore require a well-adapted heart to support this delivery. The purpose of this review is to examine cardiac structure, and the potential for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, in animals that regularly engage in strenuous activity. Specifically, we draw upon the literature that has studied the “athlete’s heart” in humans, horses, and dogs, to enable the reader to compare and contrast cardiac remodeling in these three athletic species. The available literature provides compelling evidence for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling in all three species. However, more work is required to understand the influence of species/breed specific genetics and exercise-related hemodynamics, in order to fully understand the impact of exercise on cardiac structure.

  4. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  5. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  6. Task failure during exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia is due to reduced muscle activation caused by central mechanisms while muscle metaboreflex does not limit performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eTorres-Peralta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22±2 years performed a 10s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg during 10 or 60s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P<0.05 than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P<0.05. Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF and median (IS-MdPF power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P<0.05. Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23% and burst duration (+10% increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (-24%, P<0.05, with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within one minute even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the recovery of

  7. Prolonged endurance exercise and sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, H S; Rogers, G G; Mitchell, D; Borrow, S J; Allen, M; Luus, H G; Shapiro, C M

    1994-07-01

    To determine whether exercise duration effects the recovery sleep following exercise, eight fit male endurance athletes, ages 23-42 yr, had their sleep electrophysiologically studied. This was done on four separate occasions: after a day on which no specific exercise was performed; after a day of a 15-km run; after a 42.2-km run day; after a day in which the athletes participated in a strenuous ultra-triathlon. Sleep patterns following the no exercise day and the 15-km and the 42.2-km run days were similar. The sleep pattern of the ultra-triathlon day when compared with the other three days showed significantly increased wakefulness and delayed and decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in the first 6 h after lights out, however, was no different. The increased wakefulness and decreased REM clearly indicate increased stress after the ultra-triathlon. REM sleep appears to be a more sensitive index of exercise induced stress than SWS.

  8. Reduced body weight or increased muscle quality: Which is more important for improving physical function following exercise and weight loss in overweight and obese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Berg, Alison C; Reed, Rachelle A; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2018-04-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d). Body composition was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle quality (N-m/kg) was defined as maximal concentric isokinetic knee torque divided by upper-leg lean mass. The standardized scores of four objective measures of physical function were summed to yield a composite LEPF Z-score. At 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (-9.6 ± 3.5%, p quality (+1.6 ± 1.8 N-m/kg, p quality was the strongest independent predictor of an improvement in LEPF Z-score (standardized β = 0.64, p quality. In conclusion, muscle quality can be increased in the presence of clinically meaningful weight loss, and is the primary determinant of improved physical function in overweight/obese older women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Fernström, Maria; Sahlin, Kent; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance-trained runners were assigned to either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 9) or a control (Con; n = 8) group. For a 4-wk intervention (IT) period, SET replaced the ordinary training ( approximately 45 km/wk) with frequent high-intensity sessions each consisting of 8-12 30-s sprint runs separated by 3 min of rest (5.7 +/- 0.1 km/wk) with additional 9.9 +/- 0.3 km/wk at low running speed, whereas Con continued the endurance training. After the IT period, oxygen uptake was 6.6, 7.6, 5.7, and 6.4% lower (P speeds of 11, 13, 14.5, and 16 km/h, respectively, in SET, whereas remained the same in Con. No changes in blood lactate during submaximal running were observed. After the IT period, the protein expression of skeletal muscle UCP3 tended to be higher in SET (34 +/- 6 vs. 47 +/- 7 arbitrary units; P = 0.06). Activity of muscle citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, as well as maximal oxygen uptake and 10-km performance time, remained unaltered in both groups. In SET, the capillary-to-fiber ratio was the same before and after the IT period. The present study showed that speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during submaximal exercise, which is not mediated by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training.

  10. Depression and Anxiety: Exercise Eases Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and exercise shows that the psychological and physical benefits of exercise can also help improve mood and reduce anxiety. ... such as running or bicycling. The mental health benefits of exercise and physical activity may last only if you ...

  11. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWeight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health.MethodsTwenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI. Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated.ResultsWeight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes.ConclusionThese findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.

  12. Bi-Directional Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Improved Eating: Temporal Associations With Exercise, Reduced Fatigue, and Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Severely obese men and women (body mass index ≥ 35 ≤ 55 kg/m(2); M(age) = 44.8 years, SD = 9.3) were randomly assigned to a 6-month physical activity support treatment paired with either nutrition education (n = 83) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 82) methods for weight loss. Both groups had significant improvements in physical activity, fatigue, self-regulation for eating, and fruit and vegetable intake. Compared to those in the nutrition education group, participants in the behavioral group demonstrated greater overall increases in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. These group differences were associated with changes that occurred after Month 3. Increased physical activity predicted reduced fatigue, β = -.19, p =.01. A reciprocal relationship between the mediators of that relationship, which were changes in self-regulation and fruit and vegetable intake, was identified. There was significantly greater weight loss over six months in the behavioral nutrition group when contrasted with the nutrition education group. Self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake were significant predictors of weight loss over both three and six months. Findings enabled a better understanding of psychosocial effects on temporal aspects of weight loss and may lead to more effective behavioral treatments for weight loss.

  13. Prior eccentric exercise augments muscle pain and perception of effort during cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher D; Dobson, Richard M

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on the physiological and perceptual responses to 30 minutes of submaximal cycling at 60% of oxygen consumption (VO2 peak). Ten participants completed two 30-minute bouts of cycling, one before and one 48 hours after performance of strenuous (24 contractions with 120% of concentric 1-repeition maximum) eccentric exercise. Eccentric exercise resulted in a significant delayed-onset muscle pain (1.6±1.6 mm to 44.8±20 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale; P30±0.56; P=0.003) and perceived exertion (RPE; 13.0±0.30 vs. 13.8±0.61; P=0.02) were elevated during cycling after EIMD at identical work rates. No changes were observed in VO2 (29.6±4.6 vs. 30.2±4.4 mL/kg/min; P=0.41), heart rate (154±15 vs. 155±9 beats/min; P=0.58), and ventilation (57.2±12.1 vs. 59.8±12.7 L/min; P=0.13) during exercise after EIMD. The mean change in RPE was significantly correlated (r=0.56; Pcycling and delayed-onset pain during resistance exercise (r=0.86; Pcycling exercise.

  14. Morning and evening exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yun Seo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise may contribute to preventing pathological changes, treating multiple chronic diseases, and reducing mortality and morbidity ratios. Scientific evidence moreover shows that exercise plays a key role in improving health-related physical fitness components and hormone function. Regular exercise training is one of the few strategies that has been strictly adapted in healthy individuals and in athletes. However, time-dependent exercise has different outcomes, based on the exercise type, duration, and hormone adaptation. In the present review, we therefore briefly describe the type, duration, and adaptation of exercise performed in the morning and evening. In addition, we discuss the clinical considerations and indications for exercise training.

  15. Self-rating level of perceived exertion for guiding exercise intensity during a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme and the influence of heart rate reducing medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lars H.; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Taylor, Rod S

    2016-01-01

    radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation or following heart valve surgery and participating in exercise-based rehabilitation were included. The 12-week rehabilitation outpatient programme comprised three weekly training sessions, each consisting of 20min aerobic exercise divided into three steps. Patients......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether self-rating level of perceived exertion can adequately guide exercise intensity during a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme. DESIGN: Linear regression analysis using rehabilitation data from two randomised controlled trials. METHODS: Patients undergoing...... were asked to base their exercise intensity for each step on a predefined rating of perceived exertion specified in a training diary. Exercise intensity was objectively measured by heart rate during the last 2min for each exercise step. Comparative analysis and linear regression of the rating...

  16. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B Parr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO or protein ingestion. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO, alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹, 12±2 standard drinks co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO, or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO. Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass⁻¹ 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. RESULTS: Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05. Phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05, while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05. Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29-109%, P<0.05. However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05 and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation

  17. Exercise reduces body fat and improves insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function in overweight and obese male Taiwanese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Kuang-Chung; Kwok, Ching-Fai

    2018-01-01

    Background Improvements in insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function have been shown following exercise in adults with obesity; however, few adolescent-based studies have been conducted. This study examined the impact of exercise training on body fat and insulin sensitivity and secretion in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods The effects of a 12-week exercise program on the parameters of adiposity and glucose homeostasis were investigated in 47 overweight and obese male adolesce...

  18. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Exercise is known to induce stress-related physiological responses, such as changes in intestinal barrier function. Our aim was to determine the test-retest repeatability of these responses in well-trained individuals. What is the main finding and its importance? Responses to strenuous exercise, as indicated by stress-related markers such as intestinal integrity markers and myokines, showed high test-retest variation. Even in well-trained young men an adapted response is seen after a single repetition after 1 week. This finding has implications for the design of studies aimed at evaluating physiological responses to exercise. Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com), we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven well-trained men (27 ± 4 years old) completed an exercise protocol that consisted of intensive cycling intervals, followed by an overnight fast and an additional 90 min cycling phase at 50% of maximal workload the next morning. The day before (rest), and immediately after the exercise protocol (exercise) a lactulose and rhamnose solution was ingested. Markers of energy metabolism, lactulose-to-rhamnose ratio, several cytokines and potential stress-related markers were measured at rest and during exercise. In addition, untargeted urine metabolite profiles were obtained. The complete procedure (Test) was repeated 1 week later (Retest) to assess repeatability. Metabolic effect parameters with regard to energy metabolism and urine metabolomics were similar for both the Test and Retest period, underlining comparable exercise load. Following exercise, intestinal permeability (1 h plasma lactulose-to-rhamnose ratio) and the serum interleukin-6, interleukin-10, fibroblast growth factor-21 and muscle creatine

  19. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  20. Increased left ventricular myocardial extracellular volume is associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance in children after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Luining, Wietske; Seed, Mike; Chungsomprasong, Paweena; Manlhiot, Cedric; Elders, Bernadette; McCrindle, Brian W; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-10-26

    Unfavorable left ventricular (LV) remodelling may be associated with adverse outcomes after Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. We sought to assess T1 cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) markers of diffuse LV myocardial fibrosis in children after TOF repair, and associated factors. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, native (=non-contrast) T1 times and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were quantified in the LV myocardium using CMR. Results were related to ventricular volumes and function, degree of pulmonary regurgitation, as well as surgical characteristics, and exercise capacity. There was no difference in native T1 times or ECV between 31 TOF patients (age at CMR 13.9 ± 2.4 years, 19 male) and 15 controls (age at CMR 13.4 ± 2.6 years, 7 male). Female TOF patients had higher ECVs than males (25.2 ± 2.9 % versus 22.7 ± 3.3 %, p < 0.05). In the patient group, higher native T1 and ECV correlated with higher Z-Scores of right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes, but not with reduced left and right ventricular ejection fraction or higher pulmonary regurgitation fraction. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery correlated with increased native T1 times and ECVs (r = 0.48, p < 0.05 and r = 0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). Maximum workload (percent of predicted for normal) correlated inversely with ECV (r = -0.62, p < 0.05). Higher native T1 times correlated with worse LV longitudinal (r = 0.50, p < 0.05) and mid short axis circumferential strain (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). As compared to controls, TOF patients did not express higher markers of diffuse fibrosis. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery as well as biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance are associated with markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis after TOF repair. Female patients have higher markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis than males.

  1. Decrease of fear avoidance beliefs following person-centered progressive resistance exercise contributes to reduced pain disability in women with fibromyalgia: secondary exploratory analyses from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstam, Annie; Larsson, Anette; Löfgren, Monika; Ernberg, Malin; Bjersing, Jan; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2016-05-21

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by persistent widespread pain, increased pain sensitivity and tenderness. Women with FM also report disability, in terms of negative consequences on activities of daily living. Our recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the first study of resistance exercise to show positive effects on pain disability. The resistance exercise program of our RCT emphasized active involvement of participants in planning and progression of the exercise, using the principles of person-centeredness, to support each participant's ability to manage the exercise and the progress of it. The aim of this sub-study was to investigate explanatory factors for reduced pain disability in women with FM participating in a 15-week person-centered progressive resistance exercise program. A total of 67 women with FM were included in this sub-study of an RCT examining the effects of person-centered progressive resistance exercise performed twice a week for 15 weeks. Tests of physical capacity and health-related questionnaires were assessed at baseline and after the intervention period. Multivariable stepwise regression was used to analyze explanatory factors for improvements in pain disability. Reduced pain disability was explained by higher pain disability at baseline together with decreased fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity (R (2) = 28, p = 0.005). The improvements in the disability domains of recreation and social activity were explained by decreased fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity together with higher baseline values of each disability domain respectively (R (2) = 32, p = 0.025 and R (2) = 30, p = 0.017). The improvement in occupational disability was explained by higher baseline values of occupational disability (R (2) = 19, p = 0.001). The person-centered resistance exercise intervention, based on principles of self-efficacy, had a positive effect on recreational, social and occupational disability

  2. Early preventive exercises versus usual care does not seem to reduce trismus in patients treated with radiotherapy for cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgdal, Nina; Juhl, Carsten; Aadahl, Mette; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In head and neck cancer patients undergoing curative radiotherapy, we investigated the benefits and harms of an early exercise regime on trismus. Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy were centrally randomised to exercises 5-6 times for 45 minutes during and after radiotherapy supervised by a physiotherapist in addition to usual care versus usual care alone. The primary outcome was change in maximal interincisor distance (MID) measured at 5 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes were change in cervical ranges of motion, tissue tightness, and health-related quality of life. Mixed model analysis of repeated measures adjusted for tumour size and operation was conducted to assess the effect of early preventive exercises across time periods. Of the 100 patients included, two patients withdrew and one died before the onset of radiotherapy. The unadjusted mean difference in MID at 12 months after having completed radiotherapy was 0.83 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) -3.64-5.29, p = 0.71) in the exercise intervention group compared with the control group. When adjusted for operation and tumour size, the effect of the exercise intervention on mean MID from baseline to 12-month follow-up was 5.92 mm (95% CI -0.48-12.33, p = 0.07). Of the secondary outcomes, cervical rotation showed a statistically significant deterioration in the exercise group compared with the control group (p = 0.01). No significant effects were observed on the other secondary outcomes. In patients with cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx, early supervised exercises combined with self-care treatment focusing on mobility exercises to reduce trismus do not seem to provide additional beneficial effects compared with usual care during curative radiotherapy.

  3. Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Report and Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of a Rare but Potentially Life-Threatening Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T. Jaqua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old male Marine with an uncomplicated medical history and a long history of strenuous, daily exercise presented to the emergency department after experiencing anaphylactic shock while running. Symptoms resolved following administration of intramuscular diphenhydramine, ranitidine, intravenous methylprednisolone, and intravenous fluids. On followup in the allergy clinic, a meticulous clinical history was obtained which elucidated a picture consistent with exercise-induced anaphylaxis. He had experienced diffuse pruritus and urticaria while exercising on multiple occasions over the last three years. His symptoms would usually increase as exercise continued. Prior to the first episode, he regularly exercised without symptoms. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a rare but potentially life-threatening syndrome that requires a careful clinical history and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Treatment is primarily exercise avoidance. Prophylactic mediations are inconsistently effective but are empirically used. Successful treatment with omalizumab was recently reported in a case of refractory exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

  4. Return to knee-strenuous sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a report from a rehabilitation outcome registry of patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin Senorski, Eric; Samuelsson, Kristian; Thomeé, Christoffer; Beischer, Susanne; Karlsson, Jón; Thomeé, Roland

    2017-05-01

    To characterise patients who returned to knee-strenuous sports after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Data from isotonic tests of muscle function and patient-reported outcome measures, Tegner activity scale (Tegner and Lysholm in Clin Orthop Relat Res 198:43-49, 1985), physical activity scale, knee injury and osteoarthritis scale and knee self-efficacy scale were extracted from a registry. The 157 included patients, 15-30 years of age, had undergone primary ACL reconstruction and were all involved in knee-strenuous sports, i.e. pre-injury Tegner of 6 or higher. Return to sport was studied in two different ways: return to pre-injury Tegner and return to knee-strenuous sport (Tegner 6). Fifty-two patients (33 %), who returned to pre-injury Tegner, 10 months after surgery, were characterised by better subjective knee function measured with the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (p physical activity (p < 0.01) and higher self-efficacy of future knee function (p < 0.05). Strength measurements showed that women who returned to sports were stronger in leg extension than women who did not. No differences were found in Limb Symmetry Index for knee strength or jumping ability. Patients who returned to sports after ACL reconstruction had better subjective knee function and higher self-efficacy of knee function. Results highlight that further emphasis should be placed at psychological factors during rehabilitation of patients after ACLR. II.

  5. Exercise training, menstrual irregularities and bone development in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Beyth, Yoram

    2003-08-01

    Weight bearing physical activity plays an important role in bone development. This is particularly important in children and adolescents since bone mineral density reaches about 90% of its peak by the end of the second decade, and because about one quarter of adult bone is accumulated during the two years surrounding the peak bone growth velocity. Recent studies suggested that the exercise-induced increase in bone mineralization is maturity dependent, and that there is a "window of opportunity" and a critical period for bone response to weight bearing exercise during early puberty and premenarchal years. This supports the idea that increase in physical activity during childhood and adolescence can prevent bone disorders (like osteoporosis) later in life. In contrast, strenuous physical activity may affect the female reproductive system and lead to "athletic amenorrhea". The prevalence of "athletic amenorrhea" is 4-20 times higher than the general population. As a consequence, bone demineralization may develop with increased risk of skeletal fragility, fractures, vertebral instability, and curvature. Menstrual abnormalities in the female athlete result from hypothalamic suppression of the spontaneous pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone. Recent studies suggested that reduced energy availability (increased energy expenditure with inadequate caloric intake) is the main cause of the central suppression of the hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, effort should be made to optimize the nutritional state of female athletes, and if not successful, to reduce the training load in order to prevent menstrual abnormalities, and deleterious bone effects in particular during the critical period of rapid bone growth.

  6. Active recovery and post-exercise white blood cell count, free fatty acids, and hormones in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigernaes, I; Høstmark, A T; Strømme, S B; Kierulf, P; Birkeland, K

    2001-04-01

    Strenuous endurance exercise in fasted subjects is accompanied by increased plasma levels of catecholamines, leucocytosis, low insulin, and elevated plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Immediately after such exercise, plasma FFA may rise to high and potentially harmful levels, whereas the white blood cell count (WBCC) rapidly decreases towards or below baseline values. The present work investigated how active recovery (AR) for 15 min at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), after 60 min of uphill running at 83% of VO2max, influenced plasma FFA, lymphocyte, neutrophil, granulocyte, and monocyte count, as well as adrenaline, noradrenaline, insulin and cortisol concentrations until 120 min post-exercise. Thirteen endurance athletes participated in the study [24.2 (3.7) years, 1.82 (0.06) m, 76.7 (7.9) kg and VO2max 69.2 (6.8) ml min-1 kg-1]. In a randomized order, the subjects completed two sets of strenuous workouts, followed by either AR or complete rest in the supine position (RR). Compared with RR, AR strongly counteracted the rapid increase in plasma FFA 5 min post-exercise. The decreases in neutrophil and monocyte counts post-exercise were nullified by AR, and the cell count stayed above resting values throughout the observation period. AR also counteracted the rapid return of hormone concentration towards baseline levels. It would appear that active recovery at low intensity after strenuous exercise can maintain sufficient adrenergic activation to counteract the post-exercise drop in WBCC. However, in spite of keeping the catecholamine concentration high and insulin levels low, AR can also maintain a low plasma FFA concentration, probably because of the continued use of FFA in muscle. It remains to be elucidated whether the observed high FFA and low WBCC values after RR have a negative effect on health. If so, AR could be a preventive measure.

  7. Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Saleh A Al Attar

    2017-10-01

    Trial registration: ACTRN12615001206516. [Al Attar WSA, Soomro N, Pappas E, Sinclair PJ, Sanders RH (2017 Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 235–242

  8. Early preventive exercises versus usual care does not seem to reduce trismus in patients treated with radiotherapy for cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdal, Nina; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose. In head and neck cancer patients undergoing curative radiotherapy, we investigated the benefi ts and harms of an early exercise regime on trismus. Material and methods. Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy were centrally randomised to exercises 5 – 6 times...

  9. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  10. Reduced malonyl-CoA content in recovery from exercise correlates with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Roepstorff, Carsten; Brandt, Nina

    2009-01-01

    compared with a high-carbohydrate diet [65 energy-% (CHO)]. After 4 days of isocaloric diet on two occasions (Fat/CHO), 12 male subjects performed 1 h of one-legged knee extensor exercise (approximately 80% peak workload). Four hours after exercise, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was determined in both...

  11. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2013-12-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20, and 60 minutes after treatment 48 hours posteccentric exercise. Immediately before treatment, the intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for the intensity of soreness (p soreness and increased PPT (i.e., reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment, the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, whereas the effect on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage. Coaches, therapists, and athletes can use either active warm-up or massage to reduce DOMS acutely, for example, to prepare

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  15. The Effects of an Acute Bout of Strenuous Aerobic Exercise on Plasma, Erythrocyte, Urinary and Dietary Values for Selected Trace Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    TRACE MINERALS A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF TEXAS...Dietary Values for Selected Trace Minerals ." I have examined this thesis for form and content and recommend that it be accepted in partial fulfillment... Trace Minerals Kimberly K. Edgren December 1996. Nineteen competitive cyclists participated in a week-long study to determine if prolonged, intense

  16. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES:A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonke Gabe S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360 are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at

  17. Effect of resistance exercise under conditions of reduced blood insulin on AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation and AMPK pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Kohei; Yokokawa, Takumi; Ato, Satoru; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    Insulin stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake via activation of the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) pathway. Recent studies suggest that insulin downregulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity via Ser485/491 phosphorylation of the AMPK α-subunit. Thus lower blood insulin concentrations may induce AMPK signal activation. Acute exercise is one method to stimulate AMPK activation; however, no study has examined the relationship between blood insulin levels and acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation would be augmented by disruptions in insulin secretion through a decrease in AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation. To test the hypothesis, 10-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the toxin streptozotocin (STZ; 55 mg/kg) to destroy the insulin secreting β-cells. Three days postinjection, the right gastrocnemius muscle from STZ and control rats was subjected to resistance exercise by percutaneous electrical stimulation. Animals were killed 0, 1, or 3 h later; activation of the Akt/AMPK and downstream pathways in the muscle tissue was analyzed by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Notably, STZ rats showed a significant decrease in basal Akt and AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation, but substantial exercise-induced increases in both AMPKα Thr172 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) Ser79 phosphorylation were observed. Although no significant impact on resistance exercise-induced Akt pathway activation or glucose uptake was found, resistance exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) gene expression was augmented by STZ treatment. Collectively, these data suggest that circulating insulin levels may regulate acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation and AMPK-dependent gene expression relating to basal AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017

  18. Why Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do I have to exercise to gain health benefits? Even small amounts of exercise are better than none at all. Start with ... As you become used to exercising, try to exercise within your target heart rate zone so that you get the most benefit. To take your pulse, gently rest 2 fingers ...

  19. DANGEROUS EXERCISES

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Daneshmandi

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that many exercises are contraindicated and may do more harm thanbenefits. Many of the warm-up exercises we practiced each day have now found to be dangerous.While different levels of athletics do have different levels of stretching; it is necessary to knowwhat the dangerous exercises are and how to use safer alternatives. Certain exercises are toorisky and should not be performed at all. Exercises must be performed in certain ways and ifperformed incorrectly can cause inju...

  20. Exercise Experiences and Changes in Affective Attitude: Direct and Indirect Effects of In Situ Measurements of Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeck, Gorden; Schmid, Julia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exercise experiences (perceptions of competence, perceived exertion, acute affective responses to exercise) and affective attitudes toward exercise. This relationship was analyzed in a non-laboratory setting during a 13-weeks exercise program. 56 women and 49 men (aged 35-65 years; M age = 50.0 years; SD = 8.2 years) took part in the longitudinal study. Affective responses to exercise (affective valence, positive activation, calmness) as well as perceptions of competence and perceived exertion were measured at the beginning, during, and end of three exercise sessions within the 13-weeks exercise program. Affective attitude toward exercise were measured before and at the end of the exercise program. A two-level path analysis was conducted. The direct and indirect effects of exercise experiences on changes in affective attitude were analyzed on the between-person level: firstly, it was tested whether perceptions of competence and perceived exertion directly relate to changes in affective attitude. Secondly, it was assessed whether perceptions of competence and perceived exertion indirectly relate to changes in affective attitudes-imparted via the affective response during exercise. At the between-person level, a direct effect on changes in affective attitude was found for perceptions of competence (β = 0.24, p attitude via positive activation: on average, the less strenuous people perceive physical exercise to be, the more awake they will feel during exercise (β = -0.57, p exercise exhibit more improvements in affective attitudes toward exercise from the beginning to the end of the 13-weeks exercise program (β = 0.24, p attitude during multi-week exercise programs. These relevant in situ experiences encompass cognitive factors, the sensation of interoceptive cues, and affective responses to exercise. Considering the predictive role of affective attitudes for exercise behavior, these findings suggest

  1. Reduced susceptibility to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in resistance-trained men is not linked to resistance training-related neural adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Ye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of maximal concentric vs. eccentric exercise on the isometric strength of the elbow flexor, as well as the biceps brachii muscle electromyographic (EMG responses in resistance-trained (RT vs. untrained (UT men. Thirteen RT men (age: 24 ± 4 years; height: 180.2 ± 7.7 cm; body weight: 92.2 ± 16.9 kg and twelve UT men (age: 23 ± 4 years; height: 179.2 ± 5.0 cm; body weight: 81.5 ± 8.6 kg performed six sets of ten maximal concentric isokinetic (CON or eccentric isokinetic (ECC elbow flexion exercise in two separate visits. Before and after the exercise interventions, maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs were performed for testing isometric strength. In addition, bipolar surface EMG signals were detected from the biceps brachii muscle during the strength testing. Both CON and ECC caused isometric strength to decrease, regardless of the training status. However, ECC caused greater isometric strength decline than CON did for the UT group (p = 0.006, but not for the RT group. Both EMG amplitude and mean frequency significantly decreased and increased, respectively, regardless of the training status and exercise intervention. Resistance-trained men are less susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, but this advantage is not likely linked to the chronic resistance training-induced neural adaptations.

  2. The role of insulin and glucagon in regulating glucose turnover in dogs during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranic, M; Kawamori, R; Wrenshall, G A

    1975-01-01

    During exercise the flux of glucose is regulated so that the increased demand of glucose by the muscle is met by a corresponding increased release of glucose by the liver; plasma glucose concentration does not change markedly, while glucose turnover increases. These precise regulatory mechanisms can be studied by quantitative isotope dilution methods; measurements of plasma glucose concentrations do not necessarily reflect any changes in glucose fluxes. Insulin is considered to be an important regulatory hormone during exercise. Its concentration decreases during exercise in part because of a decrease in insulin secretion by the pancreas and in part because the removal of insulin is increased. This conclusion was reached because insulin concentration in plasma decreased both in normal and in depancreatized insulin-infused dogs. A sudden decrease of portal insulin concentration facilitates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. At the same time blood flow decreases in those areas which are inactive during exercise such as the splanchnic beds, while increased blood flow and opening of the capillary beds increases the total amount of insulin perfusing the muscle. Therefore, even in presence of low insulin concentration in plasma the insulin supply to the working muscle can presumably be maintained at an adequate level. We considered that exercise changes the distribution of insulin in relation to the liver and the muscle; such a distribution pattern may represent an important physiological regulatory mechanism. The question whether glucagon is essential in regulating glucose production during exercise could not be resolved because depancreatized insulin-infused dogs had essentially normal plasma concentrations of immunoreactive glucagon. Glucagon concentration increases during strenuous but not during moderate exercise of normal dogs. This increase is apparently not indispensable because during strenuous exercise depancreatized insulin-infused dogs did not

  3. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes......Regular exercise induces a variety of adaptive responses that enhance the oxidative and metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle. Although the physiological adjustments of regular exercise have been known for decades, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The hypoxia inducible factors 1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  4. Exercise may reduce depression but not anxiety in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Post-hoc analysis of data from the 'Body & Cancer' trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Stage, Maria; Møller, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. The diagnosis and treatment of cancer may cause clinically significant and persistent psychological morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of a six week exercise intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing...... chemotherapy (The 'Body & Cancer' trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine self-referred patients (52 males, 157 females, mean age 47 years) were randomised into an intervention group and a waiting-list control group. Anxiety and depression was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results.......021). Conclusion. Anti-depressant effects could be caused by exercise in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Dedicated trials and follow-up studies are needed to clarify the optimal duration and content of exercise interventions to meet the needs of clinically depressive or anxious patients....

  5. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  6. Endocrine Responses to Exercise in the Developing Child and Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of exercise training on the neuroendocrine control of the pituitary in the developing child is complex and the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Multiple determinants influence adaptive hypothalamic-pituitary secretory responses to physical stress, namely, training intensity and duration, nutrition and energy balance, gender, age, sex, and sexual maturation status. The increase in growth hormone (GH) in response to acute exercise is dependent on pubertal status; children in more advanced pubertal stages respond with larger peak GH concentrations compared to those in earlier stages. The adolescent female athlete is more prone to menstrual disorders than the more mature athlete, and recent data suggest that athletes may be able to reverse menstrual disorders by increasing their dietary energy intake without decreasing their exercise levels. The thyroid changes observed are of minor impact, practically reflecting the relative negative energy balance during strenuous exercise. Studies that evaluated changes in cortisol secretion during aerobic exercise in children and adolescents show either an increase or no change in response to the exercise bout. Recent research showed that physical activity is an important contributor to bone strength prior to adolescence and increasing levels of physical activity during childhood likely enhance optimal bone strength. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Exercising, sleep-EEG patterns, and psychological functioning are related among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2010-03-01

    Lay and scientific opinion alike hold that physical activity is efficient as both remedy and preventative measure for poor sleep. There is evidence that strenuous exercising of adolescent elite athletes leads to favourable sleep patterns. However, research on this in non-elite athletes is limited. The aim of the present study was to compare sleep-EEG patterns of higher leisure time exercisers and controls. A total 38 adolescents (M = 18.59) took part in the study; 17 were high, and 21 were low exercisers. Mean weekly exercise duration was 8.5 h for high and 2 h for low exercisers. Sleep-EEG recordings were performed following a day without exercise. Participants also completed questionnaires regarding their psychological functioning. Compared to low exercisers, high exercisers had more slow wave sleep, and less light and REM sleep, higher scores for positive coping and curiosity, and lower scores for depressive symptoms and somatosensory amplification. Multiple regression analyses showed that weekly exercise duration predicted shortened SOL, low number of awakenings, and increased slow wave sleep. Regular, though not necessarily vigorous, exercise is related to improvement in objective sleep patterns and better psychological functioning. Regular physical activity should be promoted and access to sports facilities should be facilitated.

  8. What interventions should we add to weight reducing diets in adults with obesity? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of adding drug therapy, exercise, behaviour therapy or combinations of these interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenell, A; Brown, T J; McGee, M A; Campbell, M K; Grant, A M; Broom, J; Jung, R T; Smith, W C S

    2004-08-01

    Evidence is needed for the effectiveness of interventions given with reducing diets for obese adults: drug therapy, exercise, or behaviour therapy. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials in any language. We searched 13 databases and handsearched journals. Trials lasted 1 year or more. One investigator extracted data and a second checked data extraction. Trial quality was assessed. Adding orlistat to diet was associated with weight change for up to 24 months (-3.26 kg, 95% CI, -4.15 to -2.37 kg), and statistically significant beneficial changes were found for total and LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and glycaemic control. Adding sibutramine to diet was associated with a 12 month weight change of -4.18 kg (95% CI, -5.14 to -3.21 kg), and statistically significant beneficial effects on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TGs), but an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Adding exercise to diet, or to diet and behaviour therapy, was associated with improved weight loss for up to 36 months and improvements in HDL, TGs and blood pressure. Adding behaviour therapy to diet, or to diet and sibutramine together, was associated with improved weight loss for up to 18 months. Adding drugs, exercise or behaviour therapy to dietary advice was each associated with similar weight change. Adding orlistat, sibutramine, exercise, or behaviour modification to dietary advice can improve long-term weight loss.

  9. Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise increase circulating cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA without development of tolerance in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert; Walczak, Konrad; Kosielski, Piotr; Meissner, Pawel; Budlewski, Tomasz; Padula, Gianluca; Nowak, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Acute single strenuous exercise increases circulating cell free DNA (cf DNA). We tested whether three repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced the cf DNA response without development of tolerance in healthy men. Eleven average-trained men (age 34.0±5.2 years, body mass index 26.2±3.1 kg/m2, maximal oxygen consumption-VO2max 49.6±4.5 ml/kg*min) performed three treadmill exercise tests to exhaustion at speed corresponding to 70% VO2max separated by 72 hours of resting. Blood was collected before and after each bout of exercise for determination of cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (cf n-DNA, cf mt-DNA) by real-time PCR, selected markers of muscle damage, and blood cell count. Each bout induced the increase (pexercise, respectively. In a congruent way, cf mt-DNA rose significantly after the second (from 229±216 to 450±228*103 GE/mL) and third bout of exercise (from 173±120 to 462±314*103 GE/mL). Pre-exercise cf mt-DNA decreased (pexercise induced percentage increment of cf n-DNA was always many times higher than corresponding increments of the afore-mentioned markers at any occasion. Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced remarkable increase in circulating cf n-DNA without signs of tolerance development. Baseline cf mt-DNA decreased in response to series of strenuous exercise. Since percentage increments of cf n-DNA in response to exercise were many times higher than those observed for other markers, measurement of circulating cf n-DNA could be a sensitive tool for monitoring acute exercise effects in human body.

  10. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  11. Human muscle net K+ release during exercise is unaffected by elevated anaerobic metabolism, but reduced after prolonged acclimatization to 4100 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Sander, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    It was investigated if skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 weeks of acclimatization to 4100 m. The highest workload completed...... (Pproduction and that acclimatization...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as ... doctor or physical therapist to prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is ...

  13. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are ... a Success Story to Share? | Contact Us SPINE CARE PROVIDERS GO HERE © 2018 North American Spine Society | ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. ... repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  17. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or months before you notice some of the benefits of exercise, such as weight loss. If you miss a ... can also keep you accountable. Think of the benefits of regular exercise. Write down the benefits and goals, and keep ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain ... area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, ...

  20. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC......), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts...

  1. Diabetes and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Peirce, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significa...

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    sympathoadrenal stress. The acute increasing effect of a single walking session on cortisol was seen only after the first day when there was a 60% increase. Responses after skiing were greater (2.2- and 2.6-fold. The acute reductions in testosterone concentrations were seen after the first two marching sessions, when they were decreased by 18-22%. LH concentration was decreased by 31-44% after the second and third day. For FSH concentrations suppression was consistently seen after the second march, but not after skiing. The total mood disturbance score remained unchanged during the events. The Fatigue-Inertia affective state was higher after exercise than before the events. This study demonstrates that the pituitary-gonadal axis, excluding the secretion of FSH and the adrenal cortex, adapted to four days of repeated moderate 8 h walking, but not to two days of repeated strenuous 3 h skiing. However, when using the sensitive IFMA, which can detect low concentrations of gonadotropins, secretion of FSH was seen to remain reduced and no adaptation was seen in walking. This study indicated that daily repeated long lasting acute but non-competitive walk and skiing of intensity at approximately 60-90% of the maximum heart rate is well within the physiological capabilities of individuals with good aerobic capacity.

  3. A workplace exercise versus health promotion intervention to prevent and reduce the economic and personal burden of non-specific neck pain in office personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, V; O'Leary, S; Comans, T

    2014-01-01

    -intervention and 12 months after commencement. PROCEDURE: 640 volunteering office personnel will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or control arm in work group clusters. ANALYSIS: Analysis will be on an 'intent-to-treat' basis and per protocol. Multilevel, generalised linear models will be used......INTRODUCTION: Non-specific neck pain is a major burden to industry, yet the impact of introducing a workplace ergonomics and exercise intervention on work productivity and severity of neck pain in a population of office personnel is unknown. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does a combined workplace-based best...... controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Office personnel aged over 18 years, and who work>30 hours/week. INTERVENTION: Individualised best practice ergonomics intervention plus 3×20 minute weekly, progressive neck/shoulder girdle exercise group sessions for 12 weeks. CONTROL: Individualised best practice...

  4. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  5. Protocol for Work place adjusted Intelligent physical exercise reducing Musculoskeletal pain in Shoulder and neck (VIMS: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feveile Helene

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Specific strength training is a promising type of physical exercise for relieving neck and shoulder pain in office workers. However, the optimal combination of frequency and exercise duration, as well as the importance of exercise supervision, is unknown. The VIMS study investigates in a cluster randomized controlled design the effectiveness of different time wise combinations of specific strength training with identical accumulated volume, and the relevance of training supervision for safe and effective training. Methods/design A cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks duration where employed office workers are randomized to 1 × 60 min, 3 × 20 min, 9 × 7 min per week of specific strength training with training supervision, to 3 × 20 min per week of specific strength training with a minimal amount of training supervision, or to a reference group without training. A questionnaire will be sent to 2000 employees in jobs characterized by intensive computer work. Employees with cardiovascular disease, trauma, hypertension, or serious chronic disease will be excluded. The main outcome measure is pain in the neck and shoulders at week 20. Trial Registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027390.

  6. Qigong Exercise May Reduce Serum TNF-α Levels and Improve Sleep in People with Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghee Moon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory cytokine levels are often elevated in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD. People with PD often experience sleep disturbances that significantly impact quality of life. Past studies suggest inflammatory cytokines may be associated with various symptoms of PD. Benefits of Qigong, a mind–body exercise, have been shown in different neurological conditions, but there is still a lack of clinical evidence in the PD population. Methods: Ten people with PD were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups receiving six weeks of Qigong (experimental group or sham Qigong (control group intervention. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in subjects’ serum and sleep quality were measured before and after the intervention. Results: After the intervention, the serum level of TNF-α in the experimental group was significantly decreased in all subjects, while the level in the control group showed a trend to increase. Qigong exercise significantly improved sleep quality at night. There was a strong correlation between changes in the level of TNF-α and sleep quality. Conclusion: Qigong exercise decreased TNF-α level in people with PD and helped improve sleep quality. TNF-α may have a potential to influence the sleep quality in people with PD.

  7. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise-induced apoptosis in athletes: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Rahman; Mirzaei, Bahman; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Salehi, Zivar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been shown to be beneficial to health due to its antioxidant potential. Strenuous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, which could lead to apoptosis. We investigated the ability of CrM in amelioration of apoptosis induced by incremental aerobic exercise (AE) to exhaustion in young athletes. Materials and Methods: In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 31 young athletes (age 19.52 ± 2.75 years, body mass 79.24 ± 16...

  8. Do physical exercise and reading reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease? a cross-sectional study on factors associated with Parkinson's disease in elderly Chinese veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y M; Tan, J P; Li, N; Yang, J S; Yu, B C; Yu, J M; Zhao, Y M; Wang, L N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for and factors protecting against Parkinson's disease (PD) in elderly Chinese veterans. Using a database containing detailed information on the health status of the nervous system in elderly Chinese veterans, univariate and multivariate analyses of factors that may be associated with PD were performed. Univariate analysis of qualitative data was done using the Pearson Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and the Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test was used for univariate analysis of quantitative data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for and factors protecting against PD in elderly Chinese veterans. A total of 9,676 elderly Chinese veterans were enrolled, including 228 cases with PD and 183 cases with Parkinson's syndrome, with 9,265 non-PD subjects serving as controls. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.343, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.028-1.755) and medical history of essential tremor (OR 1.228, 95% CI 1.081-1.396) were identified as independent risk factors for PD, with age being the most important risk factor. Physical exercise (OR 0.478, 95% CI 0.355-0.643) and reading (OR 0.513, 95% CI 0.357-0.735) were identified as independent factors protecting against PD, and physical exercise showed better protection against PD relative to reading. Smoking, alcohol use, anemia, cerebral trauma, education level, and electromagnetic field exposure showed no association with PD. Physical exercise and reading may be independent factors that protect against PD among elderly Chinese veterans, while advancing age and medical history of essential tremor may be independent risk factors for PD. This study was cross-sectional, so further research is needed to confirm its results.

  9. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Menopause and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindler, Natalia M; Santoro, Nanette F

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating data suggest that regular physical exercise reduces mortality and extends the functional life span of men and women. This review seeks to describe the current state of the medical literature on this topic. A narrative review of the current medical literature including randomized clinical trials and clinical guidelines that address the benefits of physical fitness and regular exercise on the health of midlife and postmenopausal women. Reduction and avoidance of obesity and its related comorbidities (hypertension, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and heart disease) are one major benefit of exercise. However, long-term physical exercise is also associated with reduced rates of cancer, dementia and cognitive decline, adverse mood and anxiety symptoms, and reduction of osteoporosis, osteopenia, falls, and fractures. Beneficial physical activity includes exercise that will promote cardiovascular fitness (aerobic), muscle strength (resistance), flexibility (stretching), and balance (many of the preceding, and additional activities such as yoga). Given that it is unambiguously beneficial, inexpensive, and minimal risk, maintaining a healthy exercise regimen should be a goal for every participant to enhance lifelong wellness. Clinicians should use a number of behavioral strategies to support the physical fitness goals of their participants.

  11. Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Wesam Saleh A; Soomro, Najeebullah; Pappas, Evangelos; Sinclair, Peter J; Sanders, Ross H

    2017-10-01

    Does adding a post-training Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduce injury rates among male amateur soccer players? Cluster-randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation. Twenty-one teams of male amateur soccer players aged 14 to 35 years were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=10 teams, 160 players) or the control group (n=11 teams, 184 players). Both groups performed pre-training FIFA 11+ exercises for 20minutes. The experimental group also performed post-training FIFA 11+ exercises for 10minutes. The primary outcomes measures were incidence of overall injury, incidence of initial and recurrent injury, and injury severity. The secondary outcome measure was compliance to the experimental intervention (pre and post FIFA 11+ program) and the control intervention (pre FIFA 11+ program). During one season, 26 injuries (team mean=0.081 injuries/1000 exposure hours, SD=0.064) were reported in the experimental group, and 82 injuries were reported in the control group (team mean=0.324 injuries/1000hours, SD=0.084). Generalised Estimating Equations were applied with an intention-to-treat analysis. The pre and post FIFA 11+ program reduced the total number of injuries (χ 2 (1)=11.549, p=0.001) and the incidence of initial injury (χ 2 (2)=8.987, p=0.003) significantly more than the pre FIFA 11+ program alone. However, the odds of suffering a recurrent injury were not different between the two groups (χ 2 (1)=2.350, p=0.125). Moreover, the severity level of injuries was not dependent upon whether or not the pre and post FIFA 11+ program was implemented (χ 2 (1)=0.016, p=0.898). Implementation of the FIFA 11+ program pre-training and post-training reduced overall injury rates in male amateur soccer players more than the pre FIFA 11+ program alone. ACTRN12615001206516. [Al Attar WSA, Soomro N, Pappas E, Sinclair PJ, Sanders RH (2017) Adding a post

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections ...

  14. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.

  15. The role of behavioural modification and exercise in the management of cancer-related fatigue to reduce its impact during and after cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Ollie; Jo, Foster; Jane, Maher

    2015-05-01

    Fatigue is a symptom that can occur during treatment as an acute side effect but can also result in persistent fatigue as a long-term side effect or late effect. We undertook a narrative review of the current literature and discuss the current evidence of assessment of fatigue and we specifically focus on the role of promoting behavioural change and focused rehabilitation to minimise these long-term effects and update the literature relating to this area from 2012 to date. We suggest there are behavioural change models that can be scaled up to enable patients to manage long-term fatigue using exercise. However, from this updated review there are limitations to the current infrastructure and evidence base that will impact on the ability to do this. We continually need to raise awareness amongst health professionals to continue to suggest modifications to impact on fatigue at all stages of cancer treatment and into survivorship and late effects. These can range from simple brief interventions suggested in the clinic to full scale rehabilitation programmes if the correct infrastructure is available. Whichever approach is adopted we suggest exercise will be the mainstay of the treatment of fatigue in this group.

  16. Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Colleen Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007. We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission.

  17. A workplace exercise versus health promotion intervention to prevent and reduce the economic and personal burden of non-specific neck pain in office personnel: protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, V; O'Leary, S; Comans, T; Straker, L; Melloh, M; Khan, A; Sjøgaard, G

    2014-12-01

    Non-specific neck pain is a major burden to industry, yet the impact of introducing a workplace ergonomics and exercise intervention on work productivity and severity of neck pain in a population of office personnel is unknown. Does a combined workplace-based best practice ergonomic and neck exercise program reduce productivity losses and risk of developing neck pain in asymptomatic workers, or decrease severity of neck pain in symptomatic workers, compared to a best practice ergonomic and general health promotion program? Prospective cluster randomised controlled trial. Office personnel aged over 18 years, and who work>30 hours/week. Individualised best practice ergonomic intervention plus 3×20 minute weekly, progressive neck/shoulder girdle exercise group sessions for 12 weeks. Individualised best practice ergonomic intervention plus 1-hour weekly health information sessions for 12 weeks. Primary (productivity loss) and secondary (neck pain and disability, muscle performance, and quality of life) outcome measures will be collected using validated scales at baseline, immediate post-intervention and 12 months after commencement. 640 volunteering office personnel will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or control arm in work group clusters. Analysis will be on an 'intent-to-treat' basis and per protocol. Multilevel, generalised linear models will be used to examine the effect of the intervention on reducing the productivity loss in dollar units (AUD), and severity of neck pain and disability. The findings of this study will have a direct impact on policies that underpin the prevention and management of neck pain in office personnel. Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. If any of the following ... balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES ... The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. If any of the following ... balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low ...

  1. Glucocorticoids improve high-intensity exercise performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Melskens, Lars; Bruhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise.......It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise....

  2. Protocol for work place adjusted intelligent physical exercise reducing musculoskeletal pain in shoulder and neck (VIMS): a cluster randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Zebis, Mette K.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2010-01-01

    of training supervision for safe and effective training. METHODS/DESIGN: A cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks duration where employed office workers are randomized to 1 x 60 min, 3 x 20 min, 9 x 7 min per week of specific strength training with training supervision, to 3 x 20 min per week...... of specific strength training with a minimal amount of training supervision, or to a reference group without training. A questionnaire will be sent to 2000 employees in jobs characterized by intensive computer work. Employees with cardiovascular disease, trauma, hypertension, or serious chronic disease......BACKGROUND: Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Specific strength training is a promising type of physical exercise for relieving neck and shoulder pain in office workers. However, the optimal combination...

  3. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  4. Light and exercise and melatonin production in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Julia A; Thompson, Suzanne; Raboud, Janet M; Hoffman, Barry R

    2005-12-01

    Melatonin may protect against breast cancer. Light and other factors influence melatonin, but the evidence is limited. The authors conducted a study to determine factors related to melatonin. Women volunteers recruited in Toronto, Canada, from 2002 to 2004 collected urine for three nights (winter and summer), took periodic light measurements, and recorded exposures in a diary. The relation of each variable to log-transformed creatinine-corrected 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in overnight urine was determined by use of generalized estimating equation linear regression. The final model was based on 1,054 measurement days from 213 participating women. None of the light variables was related to the log of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. A significant interaction between season and day length was included in the final model. The most significant factor was duration of exercise (beta = 0.072; p = 0.004, two-tailed), which increased the amount of melatonin produced. Exercise duration later in the day was more significant (beta = 0.108; p = 0.0009, two-tailed). There was no difference between moderate or strenuous exercise. The failure to find a relation between light brightness and melatonin may be due to the difficulty of measuring this, as well as the importance of the light spectrum, which could not be measured. It is possible that the protective effect of exercise with respect to breast cancer may operate in part through an effect on melatonin.

  5. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  6. Ghrelin mediates exercise endurance and the feeding response post-exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath K. Mani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exercise training has several well-established health benefits, including many related to body weight, appetite control, and blood glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms and, in particular, the hormonal systems that mediate and integrate these beneficial effects are poorly understood. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of the hormone ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor, in mediating the effects of exercise on food intake and blood glucose following exercise as well as in regulating exercise endurance capacity. Methods: We used two mouse models of treadmill running to characterize the changes in plasma ghrelin with exercise. We also assessed the role of the ghrelin system to influence food intake and blood glucose after exercise, exercise endurance, and parameters potentially linked to responses to exercise. Mice lacking GHSRs (GHSR-null mice and wild-type littermates were studied. Results: An acute bout of exercise transiently elevated plasma acyl-ghrelin. Without the action of this increased ghrelin on GHSRs (as in GHSR-null mice, high intensity interval exercise markedly reduced food intake compared to control mice. The effect of exercise to acutely raise blood glucose remained unmodified in GHSR-null mice. Exercise-induced increases in plasma ghrelin positively correlated with endurance capacity, and time to exhaustion was reduced in GHSR-null mice as compared to wild-type littermates. In an effort to mechanistically explain their reduced exercise endurance, exercised GHSR-null mice exhibited an abrogated sympathoadrenal response, lower overall insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, and altered glycogen utilization. Conclusions: Exercise transiently increases plasma ghrelin. GHSR-null mice exhibit decreased food intake following high intensity interval exercise and decreased endurance when submitted to an exercise endurance protocol. These data

  7. Regular Exercisers Have Stronger Pelvic Floor Muscles than Non-Regular Exercisers at Midpregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Ellstrøm Engh, Marie; Hilde, Gunvor

    2017-12-26

    exercisers at mid pregnancy have stronger pelvic floor muscles than their sedentary counterparts. However, pelvic floor muscle strength and not regular general exercise was associated with urinary incontinence. There is a need for additional studies in elite athletes and women performing more strenuous exercise regimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Amaral, Sandra Lia do; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-02-13

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO database