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Sample records for strengthened nickel-base alloy

  1. The strengthening mechanism of a nickel-based alloy after laser shock processing at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinghong; Zhou, Liucheng; He, Weifeng; He, Guangyu; Wang, Xuede; Nie, Xiangfan; Wang, Bo; Luo, Sihai; Li, Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the strengthening mechanism of laser shock processing (LSP) at high temperatures in the K417 nickel-based alloy. Using a laser-induced shock wave, residual compressive stresses and nanocrystals with a length of 30–200 nm and a thickness of 1 μm are produced on the surface of the nickel-based alloy K417. When the K417 alloy is subjected to heat treatment at 900 °C after LSP, most of the residual compressive stress relaxes while the microhardness retains good thermal stability; the nanocrystalline surface has not obviously grown after the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, which shows a comparatively good thermal stability. There are several reasons for the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline surface, such as the low value of cold hardening of LSP, extreme high-density defects and the grain boundary pinning of an impure element. The results of the vibration fatigue experiments show that the fatigue strength of K417 alloy is enhanced and improved from 110 to 285 MPa after LSP. After the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, the fatigue strength is 225 MPa; the heat treatment has not significantly reduced the reinforcement effect. The feature of the LSP strengthening mechanism of nickel-based alloy at a high temperature is the co-working effect of the nanocrystalline surface and the residual compressive stress after thermal relaxation. (paper)

  2. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  3. Computational design of precipitation-strengthened titanium-nickel-based shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Matthew D.

    Motivated by performance requirements of future medical stent applications, experimental research addresses the design of novel TiNi-based, superelastic shape-memory alloys employing nanoscale precipitation strengthening to minimize accommodation slip for cyclic stability and to increase output stress capability for smaller devices. Using a thermodynamic database describing the B2 and L21 phases in the Al-Ni-Ti-Zr system, Thermo-Calc software was used to assist modeling the evolution of phase composition during 600°C isothermal evolution of coherent L21 Heusler phase precipitation from supersaturated TiNi-based B2 phase matrix in an alloy experimentally characterized by atomic-scale Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP) microanalysis. Based on measured evolution of the alloy hardness (under conditions stable against martensitic transformation) a model for the combined effects of solid solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening was calibrated, and the optimum particle size for efficient strengthening was identified. Thermodynamic modeling of the evolution of measured phase fractions and compositions identified the interfacial capillary energy enabling thermodynamic design of alloy microstructure with the optimal strengthening particle size. Extension of alloy designs to incorporate Pt and Pd for reducing Ni content, enhancing radiopacity, and improving manufacturability were considered using measured Pt and Pd B2/L2 1 partitioning coefficients. After determining that Pt partitioning greatly increases interphase misfit, full attention was devoted to Pd alloy designs. A quantitative approach to radiopacity was employed using mass attenuation as a metric. Radiopacity improvements were also qualitatively observed using x-ray fluoroscopy. Transformation temperatures were experimentally measured as a function of Al and Pd content. Redlich-Kister polynomial modeling was utilized for the dependence of transformation reversion Af temperature on B2 matrix phase

  4. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    The specified alloys consist of Ni, Cr and Fe as main constituents, and Mo, Nb, Si, Zr, Ti, Al, C and B as minor constituents. They are said to exhibit high weldability and long-time structural stability, as well as low swelling under nuclear radiation conditions, making them especially suitable for use as a duct material and control element cladding for sodium-cooled nuclear reactors. (U.K.)

  5. Grinding as an approach to the production of high-strength, dispersion-strengthened nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, N. W.; Quatinetz, M.; Weeton, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Mechanical process produces dispersion-strengthened metal alloys. Power surface contamination during milling is removed by a cleaning method that involves heating thin shapes or partially-compacted milled powder blends in hydrogen to carefully controlled temperature schedules.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of cladded nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Ruczinski, D.; Nolde, M.; Blum, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the high cost of nickel base alloys their use as surface layers is convenient. In this paper the properties of SA-as well as RES-cladded NiMo 16Cr16Ti and NiCr21Mo14W being produced in single and multi-layer technique are compared and discussed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. Decisive criteria describing the qualities of the claddings are the mass loss, the susceptibility against intergranular corrosion and the pitting corrosion resistance. The results prove that RES cladding is the most suitable technique to produce corrosion resistant nickel base coatings. The corrosion behaviour of a two-layer RES deposition shows a better resistance against pitting than a three layer SAW cladding. 7 refs

  7. Segregation in welded nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.I.; Shoaib, K.A.; Ahmad, M.; Shaikh, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    Segregation effects have been investigated in nickel-base alloys monel 400, inconel 625, hastelloy C-276 and incoloy 825, test welded under controlled conditions. Deviations from the normal composition have been observed to varying extents in the welded zone of these alloys. Least effect of this type occurred in Monel 400 where the content of Cu increased in some of the areas. Enhancement of Al and Ti has been found over large areas in the other alloys which has been attributed to the formation of low melting slag. Another common feature is the segregation of Cr, Fe or Ti, most likely in the form of carbides. Enrichment of Al, Ti, Nb, Mb, Mo, etc., to different amounts in some of the areas of these materials is in- terpretted in terms of the formation of gamma prime precipitates or of Laves phases. (author)

  8. Thermogravimetric study of reduction of oxides present in oxidized nickel-base alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbell, T. P.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon, hydrogen, and hydrogen plus carbon reduction of three oxidized nickel-base alloy powders (a solid solution strengthened alloy both with and without the gamma prime formers aluminum and titanium and the solid solution strengthened alloy NiCrAlY) were evaluated by thermogravimetry. Hydrogen and hydrogen plus carbon were completely effective in reducing an alloy containing chromium, columbium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. However, with aluminum and titanium present the reduction was limited to a weight loss of about 81 percent. Carbon alone was not effective in reducing any of the alloys, and none of the reducing conditions were effective for use with NiCrAlY.

  9. A sulfidation-resistant nickel-base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, G.Y.

    1989-01-01

    For applications in mildly to moderately sulfidizing environments, stainless steels, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys (e.g., alloys 800 and 330), and more recently Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloys (e.g., alloy 556) are frequently used for construction of process equipment. However, for many highly sulfidizing environments, few existing commercial alloys have adequate performance. Thus, a new nickel-based alloy containing 27 wt.% Co, 28 wt.% Cr, 4 wt.% Fe, 2.75 wt.% Si, 0.5 wt.% Mn and 0.05 wt.% C (Haynes alloy HR-160) was developed

  10. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  11. Creep rupture properties under varying load/temperature conditions on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy strengthened by boron addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Nakajima, Hajime

    1994-01-01

    A series of constant load and temperature creep rupture tests and varying load and temperature creep rupture tests was carried out on Hastelloy XR whose boron content level is 60 mass ppm at 900 and 1000 C in order to examine the behavior of the alloy under varying load and temperature conditions. The life fraction rule completely fails in the prediction of the creep rupture life under varying load and temperature conditions though the rule shows good applicability for Hastelloy XR whose boron content level is below 10 mass ppm. The modified life fraction rule has been proposed based on the dependence of the creep rupture strength on the boron content level of the alloy. The modified rule successfully predicts the creep rupture life under the test conditions from 1000 to 900 C. The trend observed in the tests from 900 to 1000 C can be qualitatively explained by the mechanism that the oxide film which is formed during the prior exposure to 900 C plays the role of the protective barrier against the boron dissipation into the environment. (orig.)

  12. Creep rupture properties under varying load/temperature conditions on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy strengthened by boron addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko.

    1993-09-01

    A series of constant load and temperature creep rupture tests and varying load and temperature creep rupture tests was carried out on Hastelloy XR whose boron content level is 60 mass ppm at 900 and 1000degC in order to examine the behavior of the alloy under varying load and temperature conditions. The life fraction rule completely fails in the prediction of the creep rupture life under varying load and temperature conditions though the rule shows good applicability for Hastelloy XR whose boron content level is below 10 mass ppm. The modified life fraction rule has been proposed based on the dependence of the creep rupture strength on the born content level of the alloy. The modified rule successfully predicts the creep rupture life under the test conditions from 1000degC to 900degC. The trend observed in the tests from 900degC to 1000degC can be qualitatively explained by the mechanism that the oxide film which is formed during the prior exposure to 900degC plays the role of the protective barrier against the boron dissipation into the environment. (author)

  13. Stress corrosion crack tip microstructure in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shei, S.A.; Yang, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behavior of several nickel-base alloys in high temperature caustic environments has been evaluated. The crack tip and fracture surfaces were examined using Auger/ESCA and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) to determine the near crack tip microstructure and microchemistry. Results showed formation of chromium-rich oxides at or near the crack tip and nickel-rich de-alloying layers away from the crack tip. The stress corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys in caustic may be explained by the preferential oxidation and dissolution of different alloying elements at the crack tip. Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) shows good general corrosion and intergranular attack resistance in caustic because of its high nickel content. Thermally treated Alloy 690 (UNS N06690) and Alloy 600 provide good stress corrosion cracking resistance because of high chromium contents along grain boundaries. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) does not show as good stress corrosion cracking resistance as Alloy 690 or Alloy 600 because of its high molybdenum content

  14. Galvanic corrosion resistance of welded dissimilar nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.; Snyder, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A program for evaluating the corrosion resistance of various dissimilar welded nickel-base alloy combinations is outlined. Alloy combinations included ALLCORR, Hastelloy C-276, Inconel 72 and Inconel 690. The GTAW welding process involved both high and minimum heat in-put conditions. Samples were evaluated in the as-welded condition, as well as after having been aged at various condtions of time and temperature. These were judged to be most representative of process upset conditions which might be expected. Corrosion testing evaluated resistance to an oxidizing acid and a severe service environment in which the alloy combinations might be used. Mechanical properties are also discussed

  15. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

  16. Precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys for sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, M.; Mukai, S.; Kudo, T.; Okada, Y.; Ikeda, A.

    1987-01-01

    SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) in sour gas environments of γ'(gamma prime: Ni/sub 3/(Ti and/or Al)) and γ''(gamma double prime: Ni/sub 3/Nb) precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys has been studied using the SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test, anodic polarization measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The γ'-type alloy containing Ti was more susceptible to SCC in the SSRT tests up to 350 0 F(450 K) than the γ''-type alloy containing Nb. The susceptibility to SCC was related to their deformation structures in terms of stress localization and sensitivity to pitting corrosion in H/sub 2/S solutions. TEM observation showed the γ'-type alloy deformed by the superlattice dislocations in coplanar structures. This mode of deformation induced the stress localization to some boundaries such as grain boundary and as a result the susceptibility to SCC of the γ'-type alloy was increased. On the other hand, the γ''-type alloy deformed by the massive dislocation not in coplanar structures so that it was less susceptible to SCC in terms of the stress localization. The anodic polarization measurement suggested the γ'-type alloy was more susceptible to pitting corrosion compared with the γ''-type alloy

  17. High chromium nickel base alloys hot cracking susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirand, G.; Primault, C.; Robin, V.

    2014-01-01

    High Chromium nickel based alloys (FM52) have a higher ductility dip cracking sensitivity. New filler material with higher niobium and molybdenum content are developed to decrease the hot crack formation. The behavior of these materials is studied by coupling microstructural analyses and hot cracking test, PVR test. The metallurgical analyses illustrate an Nb and Mo enrichment of the inter-dendritic spaces of the new materials. A niobium high content (FM52MSS) induces the formation of primary carbide at the end of solidification. The PVR test reveal a solidification crack sensitivity of the new materials, and a lowest ductility dip cracking sensitivity for the filler material 52MSS. (authors)

  18. Aqueous electrochemistry of precipitation-hardened nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, K.; Ballinger, R.; Prybylowski, J.; Hwang, I.S.

    1990-11-01

    An investigation has been conducted to explore the importance of local crack tip electrochemical processes in precipitation-hardened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys driven by galvanic couples between grain boundary precipitates and the local matrix. The electrochemical behavior of γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] has been determined as a function of titanium concentration, temperature, and solution pH. The electrochemical behavior of Ni-Cr-Fe solid solution alloys has been investigated as a function of chromium content for a series of 10 Fe-variable Cr (6--18%)-balance Ni alloys, temperature, and pH. The investigation was conducted in neutral and pH3 solutions over the temperature range 25--300 degree C. The results of the investigation show that the electrochemical behavior of these systems is a strong function of temperature and composition. This is especially true for the γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] system where a transition from active/passive behavior to purely active behavior and back again occurs over a narrow temperature range near 100 degree C. Behavior of this system was also found to be a strong function of titanium concentration. In all cases, the Ni 3 (Al,Ti) phase was active with respect to the matrix. The peak in activity near 100 degree C correlates well with accelerated crack growth in this temperature range, observed in nickel-base alloy X-750 heat treated to precipitate γ' on the grain boundaries. 20 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Tungsten wire-nickel base alloy composite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Moracz, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W-Hf-C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/square meters (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics.

  20. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel base alloys characterization and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarini, G.; Pinard-Legry, G.

    1988-01-01

    For many years, studies have been carried out in several laboratories to characterize the IGSCC (Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking) behaviour of nickel base alloys in aqueous environments. For their relative shortness, CERTs (Constant Extension Rate Tests) have been extensively used, especially at the Corrosion Department of the CEA. However, up to recently, the results obtained with this method remained qualitative. This paper presents a first approach to a quantitative interpretation of CERT results. The basic datum used is the crack trace depth distribution determined on a specimen section at the end of a CERT. It is shown that this information can be used for the calculation of initiation and growth parameters which quantitatively characterize IGSCC phenomenon. Moreover, the rationale proposed should lead to the determination of intrinsic cracking parameters, and so, to in-service behaviour prediction

  1. Studies on neutron irradiation effects of iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    1987-09-01

    The present paper describes the results of neutron irradiation effects on iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys. As for the iron alloys, irradiation hardening and embrittlement were investigated using internal friction measurement, electron microscopy and tensile testings. The role of alloying elements was also investigated to understand the irradiation behavior of iron alloys. The essential factors affecting irradiation hardening and embrittlement were thus clarified. On the other hand, postirradiation tensile and creep properties were measured of Hastelloy X alloy. Irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures is discussed. (author)

  2. Machinability of nickel based alloys using electrical discharge machining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Adam; Gokul, A. K.; Bharani Dharan, M. P.; Jeevakarthikeyan, R. V. S.; Uthayakumar, M.; Thirumalai Kumaran, S.; Duraiselvam, M.

    2018-04-01

    The high temperature materials such as nickel based alloys and austenitic steel are frequently used for manufacturing critical aero engine turbine components. Literature on conventional and unconventional machining of steel materials is abundant over the past three decades. However the machining studies on superalloy is still a challenging task due to its inherent property and quality. Thus this material is difficult to be cut in conventional processes. Study on unconventional machining process for nickel alloys is focused in this proposed research. Inconel718 and Monel 400 are the two different candidate materials used for electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Investigation is to prepare a blind hole using copper electrode of 6mm diameter. Electrical parameters are varied to produce plasma spark for diffusion process and machining time is made constant to calculate the experimental results of both the material. Influence of process parameters on tool wear mechanism and material removal are considered from the proposed experimental design. While machining the tool has prone to discharge more materials due to production of high energy plasma spark and eddy current effect. The surface morphology of the machined surface were observed with high resolution FE SEM. Fused electrode found to be a spherical structure over the machined surface as clumps. Surface roughness were also measured with surface profile using profilometer. It is confirmed that there is no deviation and precise roundness of drilling is maintained.

  3. Microstructural, mechanical and weldability assessments of the dissimilar welds between γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naffakh Moosavy, Homam, E-mail: homam_naffakh@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aboutalebi, Mohammad-Reza; Seyedein, Seyed Hossein [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mapelli, Carlo [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Massa 34, Milan 20156 (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys has been investigated to identify the relationship between the microstructure of the welds and the resultant mechanical and weldability characteristics. γ′-Strengthened nickel-base Alloy 500 and γ″-strengthened nickel-base Alloy 718 were used for dissimilar welding. Gas tungsten arc welding operations were utilized for performing the autogenous dissimilar welding. Alloy 500 and Alloy 718 base metals showed various types of phases, carbides, intermetallics and eutectics in their microstructure. The results for Alloy 500 weld metal showed severe segregation of titanium to the interdendritic regions. The Alloy 718 weld metal compositional analysis confirmed the substantial role of Nb in the formation of low-melting eutectic-type morphologies which can reduce the weldability. The microstructure of dissimilar weld metal with dilution level of 65% wt.% displayed semi-developed dendritic structure. The less segregation and less formation of low-melting eutectic structures caused to less susceptibility of the dissimilar weld metal to the solidification cracking. This result was confirmed by analytic modeling achievements. Dissolution of γ″-Ni{sub 3}Nb precipitations took place in the Alloy 718 heat-affected zone leading to sharp decline of the microhardness in this region. Remelted and resolidified regions were observed in the partially-melted zone of Alloy 500 and Alloy 718. Nevertheless, no solidification and liquation cracking happened in the dissimilar welds. Finally, this was concluded that dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys can successfully be performed. - Highlights: • Dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys is studied. • Microstructural, mechanical and weldability aspects of the welds are assessed. • Microstructure of welds, bases and heat-affected zones is characterized in detail. • The type

  4. Process of welding gamma prime-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speigel, Lyle B.; White, Raymond Alan; Murphy, John Thomas; Nowak, Daniel Anthony

    2003-11-25

    A process for welding superalloys, and particularly articles formed of gamma prime-strengthened nickel-base superalloys whose chemistries and/or microstructures differ. The process entails forming the faying surface of at least one of the articles to have a cladding layer of a filler material. The filler material may have a composition that is different from both of the articles, or the same as one of the articles. The cladding layer is machined to promote mating of the faying surfaces, after which the faying surfaces are mated and the articles welded together. After cooling, the welded assembly is free of thermally-induced cracks.

  5. An overview of advanced high-strength nickel-base alloys for LWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybylowski, J.; Ballinger, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the behavior of high strength nickel base alloys used in light water reactor (LWR) applications. Emphasis is placed on understanding the fundamental mechanisms controlling crack propagation in these environments. To provide a foundation for this survey, general mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement are first reviewed. The behavior of high strength nickel base alloys in LWR environments, as well as in other relevant environments is then reviewed. Suggested mechanisms of crack propagation are discussed. Alternate alloys and microstructural modifications that may result in improved behavior are presented. It is now clear that, at temperatures near 100C, alloy X-750, the predominant high strength nickel base alloy used today in LWR applications, is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. A review of published data from hydrogen embrittlement studies of nickel base superalloys during electrolytic charging and in hydrogen sulfide/brine solutions suggests that other nickel base superalloys are available possessing resistance to hydrogen embrittlement superior to that of alloy X-750. Available results of tests in gaseous hydrogen suggest that reduced grain boundary precipitation and a fine distribution of intragranular precipitates that act as irreversible hydrogen traps is the optimum microstructure for hydrogen embrittlement resistance. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Improved creep strength of nickel-base superalloys by optimized γ/γ′ partitioning behavior of solid solution strengthening elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pröbstle, M.; Neumeier, S.; Feldner, P.; Rettig, R.; Helmer, H.E.; Singer, R.F.; Göken, M.

    2016-01-01

    Solid solution strengthening of the γ matrix is one key factor for improving the creep strength of single crystal nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures. Therefore a strong partitioning of solid solution hardening elements to the matrix is beneficial for high temperature creep strength. Different Rhenium-free alloys which are derived from CMSX-4 are investigated. The alloys have been characterized regarding microstructure, phase compositions as well as creep strength. It is found that increasing the Titanium (Ti) as well as the Tungsten (W) content causes a stronger partitioning of the solid solution strengtheners, in particular W, to the γ phase. As a result the creep resistance is significantly improved. Based on these ideas, a Rhenium-free alloy with an optimized chemistry regarding the partitioning behavior of W is developed and validated in the present study. It shows comparable creep strength to the Rhenium containing second generation alloy CMSX-4 in the high temperature / low stress creep regime and is less prone to the formation of deleterious topologically close packed (TCP) phases. This more effective usage of solid solution strengtheners can enhance the creep properties of nickel-base superalloys while reducing the content of strategic elements like Rhenium.

  7. The development of additive manufacturing technique for nickel-base alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, Ahmad; Basuki, Arif

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-base alloys are an attractive alloy due to its excellent mechanical properties, a high resistance to creep deformation, corrosion, and oxidation. However, it is a hard task to control performance when casting or forging for this material. In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) process has been implemented to replace the conventional directional solidification process for the production of nickel-base alloys. Due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing process, AM is considered as a substitute technique for the existing. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the previous work related to the AM techniques for Ni-base alloys while highlighting current challenges and methods to solving them. The properties of conventionally manufactured Ni-base alloys are also compared with the AM fabricated alloys. The mechanical properties obtained from tension, hardness and fatigue test are included, along with discussions of the effect of post-treatment process. Recommendations for further work are also provided.

  8. Nickel-based materials and high-alloy, special stainless steels. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubner, U.; Brill, U.; Hoffmann, T.; Jasner, M.; Kirchheiner, R.; Koecher, R.; Richter, H.; Rockel, M.; White, F.

    1993-01-01

    The book is intended as a source of information on nickel-based materials and special stainless steels and apart from the up-to-date materials data presents information on recent developments and knowledge gained, so that it may be a valuable aid to materials engineers looking for cost-effective resolutions of their materials problems in the chemical process industry, power plant operation, and high-temperature applications. The book presents eight individual contributions entitled as follows: (1) Nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels. - Materials survey and data sheets (Ulrich Heubner). (2) Corrosion of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels (Manfred Rockel). (3) Welding of nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels (Theo Hoffmann). (4) High-temperature resistant materials (Ulrich Brill). (5) Application and processing of nickel-base materials in the chemical process industry and in pollution abatement equipment (Reiner Koecher). (6) Selected examples of applications of nickel-base materials in chemical plant (Manfred Jasner, Frederick White). (7) Applications of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels in power plant. (8) The use of nickel-base alloys and stainless steels in pollution abatement processes (R. Kirchheiner). (orig./MM). 151 figs., 226 refs [de

  9. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  10. Tungsten determination in heat resistant nickel-base-alloys by the method of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorczyk, S.; Wycislik, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of atomic absorption was developed. It allows for the tungsten to be determined in heatresistant nickel-base-alloys within the range 0.01 to 7%. It consists in precipitating tungsten acid in the presence of alkaloids with its following decomposition by hydrofluoric acid in the teflon bomb. (author)

  11. Nickel-base alloy forgings for advanced high temperature power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donth, B.; Diwo, A.; Blaes, N.; Bokelmann, D. [Saarschmiede GmbH Freiformschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The strong efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions lead to the demand for improved thermal efficiency of coal fired power plants. An increased thermal efficiency can be realised by higher steam temperatures and pressures in the boiler and the turbine. The European development aims for steam temperatures of 700 C which requires the development and use of new materials and also associated process technology for large components. Temperatures of 700 C and above are too high for the application of ferritic steels and therefore only Nickel-Base Alloys can fulfill the required material properties. In particular the Nickel-Base Alloy A617 is the most candidate alloy on which was focused the investigation and development in several German and European programs during the last 10 years. The goal is to verify and improve the attainable material properties and ultrasonic detectability of large Alloy 617 forgings for turbine rotors and boiler parts. For many years Saarschmiede has been manufacturing nickel and cobalt alloys and is participating the research programs by developing the manufacturing routes for large turbine rotor forgings up to a maximum diameter of 1000 mm as well as for forged tubes and valve parts for the boiler side. The experiences in manufacturing and testing of very large forgings made from nickel base alloys for 700 C steam power plants are reported. (orig.)

  12. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, John E.; Kelly, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  13. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  14. Hot corrosion studies on nickel-based alloys containing silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.W.; Simkovich, G.

    1976-01-01

    Alloys of Ni--Cr, Ni--Si and Ni--Cr--Si were oxidized and ''hot corroded'' in pure oxygen at 1000 0 C. In the oxidation experiments it was found that small amounts of either chromium or silicon in nickel increased the oxidation rates in comparison to pure nickel in accord with Wagner's parabolic oxidation theory. At high concentrations of the alloying elements the oxidation rates decreased due to the formation of oxide phases other than nickel oxide in the scale. Hot corrosion experiments were conducted on both binary and ternary alloys by oxidizing samples coated with 1.0 mg/cm 2 of Na 2 SO 4 in oxygen at 1000 0 C. In general it was found that high chromium and high silicon alloys displayed excellent resistance to the hot corrosion process gaining or losing less than 0.5 mg/cm 2 in 1800 min at temperature. Microprobe and x-ray diffraction studies of the alloy and the scale indicate that amorphous SiO 2 probably formed to aid in retarding both the oxidation and the hot corrosion process

  15. Heat treatment effect on ductility of nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnakov, K.K.; Khasin, G.A.; Danilov, V.F.; Oshchepkov, B.V.; Listkova, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Causes of low ductility of the KhN75MBTYu and KhN78T alloys were studied along with the heat treatment effects. Samples were tested at 20, 900, 1100, 1200 deg C. Large amount of inclusions was found in intercrystalline fractures of the above low-ductile alloys. The inclusions of two types took place: (α-Al 2 O 3 , FeO(Cr 2 O 3 xAl 2 O 3 )) dendrite-like ones and large-size laminated SiO 2 , FeO,(CrFe) 2 O 3 inclusions situated as separate colonies. Heat treatment of the alloys does not increase high-temperature impact strength and steel ductility. The heating above 1000 deg C leads to a partial dissolution and coagulation of film inclusions which results in an impact strength increase at room temperature

  16. Swelling in neutron irradiated nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Bell, W.L.

    1972-01-01

    Inconel 625, Incoloy 800 and Hastelloy X were neutron irradiated at 500 to 700 0 C. It was found that of the three alloys investigated, Inconel 625 offers the greatest swelling resistance. The superior swelling resistance of Inconel 625 relative to that of Hastelloy-X is probably related to differences in the concentrations of the minor rather than major alloy constituents, and can involve (a) enhanced recombination of defects in the Inconel 625 and (b) preferential attraction of vacancies to incoherent precipitates. (U.S.)

  17. Surface alloying of nickel based superalloys by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.P.; Garcia, I.; Damborenea, J.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Ni based superalloys present a high oxidation resistance at high temperature as well as good mechanical properties. But new technology developments force to research in this materials to improve their properties at high temperature. In this work, two Ni based superalloys (Nimonic 80A and Inconel 600) were surface alloyed with aluminium using a high power laser. SEM and EDX were used to study the microstructure of the obtained coatings. Alloyed specimens were tested at 1.273 K between 24 and 250 h. Results showed the generation of a protective and continuous coating of alumina on the laser treated specimens surface that can improve oxidation resistance. (Author) 8 refs

  18. Fracture behavior of nickel-based alloys in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.J.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-08-01

    The cracking resistance of Alloy 600, Alloy 690 and their welds, EN82H and EN52, was characterized by conducting J{sub IC} tests in air and hydrogenated water. All test materials displayed excellent toughness in air and high temperature water, but Alloy 690 and the two welds were severely embrittled in low temperature water. In 54 C water with 150 cc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O, J{sub IC} values were typically 70% to 95% lower than their air counterparts. The toughness degradation was associated with a fracture mechanism transition from microvoid coalescence to intergranular fracture. Comparison of the cracking response in water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that susceptibility to low temperature cracking is due to hydrogen embrittlement of grain boundaries. The effects of water temperature, hydrogen content and loading rate on low temperature crack propagation were studied. In addition, testing of specimens containing natural weld defects and as-machined notches was performed to determine if low temperature cracking can initiate at these features. Unlike the other materials, Alloy 600 is not susceptible to low temperature cracking as the toughness in 54 C water remained high and a microvoid coalescence mechanism was operative in both air and water.

  19. Investigations of carbon diffusion and carbide formation in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Bongartz, K.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Nickel, H.

    1989-11-01

    The present thesis describes the carburization behaviour of nickel based alloys in heavily carburizing environments. The mechanisms of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in NiCr alloys with and without ternary additions of iron, cobalt or molybdenum have been investigated. Using the results of carburization experiments, a mathematical model which describes carbon diffusion and carbide formation, was developed. The simulation of the carburization process was carried out by an iterative calculation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in the alloy. An accurate description of the carbon profiles as a function of time became possible by using a finite-difference calculation. (orig.) [de

  20. Long-life fatigue test results for two nickel-base structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowbray, D.F.; Giaquinto, E.V.; Mehringer, F.J.

    1978-11-01

    The results are reported of fatigue tests on two nickel--base alloys, hot-cold-worked and stress-relieved nickel--chrome--iron Alloy 600 and mill-annealed nickel--chrome--moly--iron Alloy 625 in which S-N data were obtained in the life range of 10 6 to 10 10 cycles. The tests were conducted in air at 600 0 F, in the reversed membrane loading mode, at a frequency of approx. 1850 Hz. An electromagnetic, closed loop servo-controlled machine was built to perform the tests. A description of the machine is given

  1. High temperature cathodic charging of hydrogen in zirconium alloys and iron and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    These investigations lead to the development of a new technique for charging hydrogen into metals and alloys. In this technique a mixture of sulfates and bisulfates of sodium and potassium is kept saturated with water at 250-300degC in an open pyrex glass beaker and electrolysed using platinum anode and the material to be charged as the cathode. Most of the studies were carried out on Zr alloys. It is shown that because of the high hydrogen flux available at the surface and the high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals at these temperatures the materials pick up hydrogen faster and more uniformly than the conventional electrolytic charging at room temperature and high temperature autoclaving in LiOH solutions. Chemical analysis, metallographic examination and XRD studies confirm this. This technique has been used to charge hydrogen into many iron and nickel base austentic alloys, which are very resistant to hydrogen pick up and to H-embrittlement. Since this involved a novel method of electrolysing water, the hydrogen/deuterium isotopic ratio has been studied. At this temperatures the D/H ratio in the evolved hydrogen gas was found to be closer to the value in the liquid water, which means a smaller separation factor. This confirm the earlier observation that separation factor decreases with increase of temperature. (author). 16 refs., 21 fi gs., 6 tabs

  2. Combined thermodynamic study of nickel-base alloys. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, C.R.; Meschter, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Achievements during this period are the following: (1) initiation of a high-temperature study of the Ni-Ta system using the galvanic cell technique, (2) emf study of high-temperature thermodynamics in the Ni-Mo system, (3) measured heat capacity data on ordered and disordered Ni 4 Mo, (4) heat capacities of Ni and disordered Ni 3 Fe, and (5) computer correlation of thermodynamic and phase diagram data in binary Ni-base alloys

  3. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2001-01-01

    Existing Dual Microstructure Heat Treat (DMHT) technology was successfully applied to Alloy 10, a high strength, nickel-base disk alloy, to produce a disk with a fine grain bore and coarse grain rim. Specimens were extracted from the DMHT disk and tested in tension, creep, fatigue, and crack growth using conditions pertinent to disk applications. These data were then compared with data from "traditional" subsolvus and supersolvus heat treatments for Alloy 10. The results showed the DMHT disk to have a high strength, fatigue resistant bore comparable to that of subsolvus Alloy 10. Further, creep resistance of the DMHT rim was comparable to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. Crack growth resistance in the DMHT rim, while better than that for subsolvus, was inferior to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. The slow cool at the end of the DMHT conversion and/or the subsolvus resolution step are thought to be responsible for degrading rim DMHT crack growth resistance.

  4. Hydrogen Induced Intergranular Cracking of Nickel-Base Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    alloys are discussed. Experimental The steel used in the present investigation is a fully bainitic 2 1/4 Cr-lMo pressure vessel steel , ASTM A542 Class 3...Appendix A describes recent experiments performed in order to study the influence of plastic deformation on hydrogen transport in a 214 Cr-lMo steel (8...PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN 2 1/4 Cr-lMo STEEL M. Kurkela, G.S. Frankel, and R.M. Latanision Department of Materials Science and

  5. Development of phased array UT procedure for crack depth sizing on nickel based alloy weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Taiji; Okada, Hisao; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) has been occurred at the nickel based alloy weld components such as steam generator safe end weld, reactor vessel safe end weld, and so on, in PWR. Defect detection and sizing is important in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plants. In the reactor vessel safe end weld, it was impossible to measure crack depth of PWSCC. The crack was detected in the axial direction of the safe end weld. Furthermore, the crack had some features such as shallow, large aspect ratio (ratio of crack depth and length), sharp geometry of crack tip, and so on. Therefore, development and improvement of defect detection and sizing capabilities for ultrasonic inspection technique is required. Phased array UT technique was applied to nickel based alloy weld specimen with SCC cracks. From the experimental results, good accuracy of crack depth sizing by phased array UT for the inside inspection was shown. From these results, UT procedure for crack depth sizing was verified. Therefore, effectiveness of phased array UT for crack depth sizing in the nickel based alloy welds was shown. (author)

  6. Analysis of nickel-base alloys by Grimm-type glow discharge emission and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, N.P.; Strauss, J.A.; Van Maarseveen, I.; Ivanfy, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-base alloys can be analysed as satisfactorily as steels by XRF as well as by the Grimm-type source, in spite of problems caused by element combinations, spectral line overlap and the influence of the structure and heat conduction properties on sputtering in the glow discharge source. This extended abstract briefly discusses the use of Grimm-type glow discharge emission and XRF as techniques for the analysis of nickel-base alloys

  7. Chromium depletion on the surface of nickel based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dille, E.R.; McDonald, J.L.; Berry, P.

    1988-01-01

    Successful selection of corrosion resistant materials for flue gas desuflurization applications is tricky business at best. Most simulated, accelerated, concentrated corrosion tests try to rank materials to known corrosive condition. If you check the actual data, occasionally you find anomalies such as highly corrosion resistant materials performing below what was expected, while the rest of the group is performing normally. In the field the authors have observed similar results with few acceptable explanations. Recently the authors have found numerous cases of Ni/Cr/Mo alloys with a surface analysis below the ASTM specified range for the element chromium. These surface analysis have been done with a portable X-ray Fluorescent Instrument with the initial results confirmed by an independent laboratory

  8. Hydrogen-plasticity interactions in nickel and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.

    2004-03-01

    We evaluate the different contributions of the hydrogen-dislocation interactions to the plasticity of fcc materials in order to feed predictive models of stress corrosion cracking. Static strain ageing experiments are used to quantify the hardening contribution of solute drag by dislocations to the flow stress. We demonstrate the role of hydrogen transport by dislocations on the fracture mechanism. We model the influence of the screening of the elastic field of dislocations by hydrogen on elementary plasticity mechanisms and we conclude that the decrease of the cross slip ability arises from the combined action of elastic and core effects. The testing of single crystals shows that the major effect is on the cross slip mechanism. Tensile tests on polycrystals enlighten the diversity of macroscopic responses observed in alloys. (author)

  9. Straining electrode behavior and corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys in high temperature acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    Repassivation behavior and IGA resistance of nickel base alloys containing 0∼30 wt% chromium was investigated in high temperature acid sulfate solution. (1) The repassivation rate was increased with increasing chromium content. And so the amounts of charge caused by the metal dissolution were decreased with increasing chromium content. (2) Mill-annealed Alloy 600 suffered IGA at low pH environment below about 3.5 at the fixed potentials above the corrosion potential in 10%Na 2 SO 4 +H 2 SO 4 solution at 598K. On the other hand, thermally-treated Alloy 690 was hard to occur IGA at low pH environments which mill-annealed Alloy 600 occurred IGA. (3) It was considered that the reason, why nickel base alloys containing high chromium content such as Alloy 690 (60%Ni-30%Cr-10%Fe) had high IGA/SCC resistance in high temperature acidic solution containing sulfate ion, is due to both the promotion of the repassivation and the suppression of the film dissolution by the formation of the dense chromium oxide film

  10. Evolution of precipitate in nickel-base alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Luo, Fengfeng; Ma, Shuli; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a nickel-base superalloy whose strength derives from γ′(Ni 3 (Al,Ti)) and γ″(Ni 3 Nb) precipitates. The evolution of the precipitates in alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature were examined via transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated superlattice spots disappeared after argon ion irradiation, which showing that the ordered structure of the γ′ and γ″ precipitates became disordered. The size of the precipitates became smaller with the irradiation dose increasing at 290 °C

  11. Localized electrochemical corrosion of nickel-based alloys. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Oyeleye, O.; Davidson, M.; Dudek, D.; Hatton, T.A.; Tester, J.W.; Helling, R.K.; Erickson, J.C.

    1986-09-01

    The technique of monitoring open-circuit potential over time to study pitting corrosion of Alloy 600 was demonstrated at 95 0 C. Chloride ion and oxygen levels were varied to determine the conditions required for pit initiation and propagation at 25 0 C and 95 0 C. Without applied potential pitting was not observed at 25 0 C in solutions of up to 2.6 M NaCl. At 95 0 C pit initiation occurred above 0.22 M NaCl for a nitrogen sparged system, 0.042 M NaCl for a contaminated air sparged system and 0.059 M for an O 2 sparged system. At 95 0 C initiation followed by propagation was observed at 0.22 M, 0.12 M and 0.11 M NaCl for the N 2 , air and O 2 sparged systems, respectively. A theoretical model, using a hemispherical pit geometry and transport based on the Nernst-Einstein equation, was developed to predict changes in ion concentration, current and pit size. For a pit with an initial radius of 100 A, a fixed potential difference of 0.5 V and constant ionic diffusivities on the order of 10 -5 , cm 2 /sec, the model predicts that the solution within the pit will become saturated with metal chloride within 2 x 10 -7 seconds. The current density increases exponentially with time and reaches a maximum value of 7.2 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at the point of saturation

  12. Study of cutting speed on surface roughness and chip formation when machining nickel-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A.; Mohamed, Bashir

    2010-01-01

    Nickel- based alloy is difficult-to-machine because of its low thermal diffusive property and high strength at higher temperature. The machinability of nickel- based Hastelloy C-276 in turning operations has been carried out using different types of inserts under dry conditions on a computer numerical control (CNC) turning machine at different stages of cutting speed. The effects of cutting speed on surface roughness have been investigated. This study explores the types of wear caused by the effect of cutting speed on coated and uncoated carbide inserts. In addition, the effect of burr formation is investigated. The chip burr is found to have different shapes at lower speeds. Triangles and squares have been noticed for both coated and uncoated tips as well. The conclusion from this study is that the transition from thick continuous chip to wider discontinuous chip is caused by different types of inserts. The chip burr has a significant effect on tool damage starting in the line of depth-of-cut. For the coated insert tips, the burr disappears when the speed increases to above 150 m/min with the improvement of surface roughness; increasing the speed above the same limit for uncoated insert tips increases the chip burr size. The results of this study showed that the surface finish of nickel-based alloy is highly affected by the insert type with respect to cutting speed changes and its effect on chip burr formation and tool failure

  13. Nickel-base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Hirano; Kenji, Hirano; Masayuki, Watando; Takahiro, Arakawa; Minoru, Maeda

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel-base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause. The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions. By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding. Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel. Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than 350 HV. (author)

  14. The machinability of nickel-based alloys in high-pressure jet assisted (HPJA turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kramar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to their mechanical, thermal and chemical properties, nickel-based alloys are generally included among materials that are hard to machine. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the capabilities of conventional and high-pressure jet assisted (HPJA turning of hard-to-machine materials, namely Inconel 718. The capabilities of different hard turning procedures are compared by means of chip breakability. The obtained results show that HPJA method offers a significant increase in chip breakability, under the same cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut.

  15. Quality assurance when surface welding nickel-based alloys; Qualitaetssicherung bei der Auftragsschweissung von Nickelbasislackierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metschke, J. [Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The cladding of evaporator heat exchanger surfaces in refuse incineration boilers with alloy 625 can effectively protect against the corrosive wear of the basic tube if the described rules concerning the pre-treatment, processing, quality control and after-care are observed. This statement is supported by the positive experience with this alloy at the Schwandorf refuse-fired power plant over a period of eight years now. Since the maximum service temperature is limited to 420 C, alloy 625 is only suitable for protecting superheater pipes subject to certain conditions. Long-term experience with alternative nickel-based alloys (alloy 622, alloy 686 and others) are not yet available. (orig.) [German] Die Schweissplattierung von Verdampferwaermetauscherflaechen in Muellverbrennungskesseln mit Alloy 625 kann einen wirksamen Schutz gegen den korrosiven Verschleiss des Grundrohres darstellen, wenn die vorstehenden Regeln ueber Vorbehandlung, Verarbeitung, Qualitaetskontrolle und laufende Nachsorgearbeiten beachtet werden. Diese Aussage wird durch die positiven Erfahrungen mit dieser Legierung im Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf ueber einen Zeitraum von nunmehr acht Jahren gestuetzt. (orig.)

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel base alloys in PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerre, C.; Chaumun, E.; Crepin, J.; De Curieres, I.; Duhamel, C.; Heripre, E.; Herms, E.; Laghoutaris, P.; Molins, R.; Sennour, M.; Vaillant, F.

    2013-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of nickel base alloys and associated weld metals in primary water is one of the major concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWR). Since the 90's, highly cold-worked stainless steels (non-sensitized) were also found to be susceptible to SCC in PWR primary water ([1], [2], [3]). In the context of the life extension of pressurized water reactors, laboratory studies are performed in order to evaluate the SCC behaviour of components made of nickel base alloys and of stainless steels. Some examples of these laboratory studies performed at CEA will be given in the talk. This presentation deals with both initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks. The aims of these studies is, on one hand, to obtain more data regarding initiation time or crack growth rate and, one the other hand, to improve our knowledge of the SCC mechanisms. The aim of these approaches is to model SCC and to predict components life duration. Crack growth rate (CGR) tests on Alloy 82 with and without post weld heat treatment are performed in PWR primary water (Figure 1). The heat treatment seems to be highly beneficial by decreasing the CGR. This result could be explained by the effect of thermal treatment on the grain boundary nano-scopic precipitation in Alloy 82 [4]. The susceptibility to SCC of cold worked austenitic stainless steels is also studied. It is shown that for a given cold-working procedure, SCC susceptibility increases with increasing cold-work ([2], [5]). Despite the fact that the SCC behaviour of Alloy 600 has been widely studied for many years, recent laboratory experiments and analysis ([6], [7], [8]) showed that oxygen diffusion is not a rate-limiting step in the SCC mechanism and that chromium diffusion in the bulk close the crack tip could be a key parameter. (authors)

  17. Effect of surface treatments on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, Masaru; Kaneda, Junya; Tamako, Hiroaki; Hato, Hisamitsu; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    Effect of surface treatment on SCC susceptibility of Ni base alloys was investigated. Cracks were observed in all grinding specimens in a creviced bent beam (CBB) test. On the other hand, no cracks occurred in shot peening (SP), water jet peening (WJP) specimens. It was indicated that these surface treatments effectively reduced the SCC susceptibility of nickel-base alloys. As a result of a residual stress test, the surface of specimens with grinding had high tensile residual stress. However, SP and WJP improved surface residual stress to compressive stress. The depth of the compressive effect of WJP was almost the same as that of SP. However, the surface hardness of WJP specimens differed from that of SP and it was found that WJP had less impact on surface hardening. This difference was consistent with their surface microstructures. The surface of SP specimens had clearly the deformation region, but the surface of WJP specimens was localized. (author)

  18. Cast thermally stable high temperature nickel-base alloys and casting made therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuncius, D.A.; Herchenroeder, R.B.; Kirchner, R.W.; Silence, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A cast thermally stable high temperature nickel-base alloy characterized by superior oxidation resistance, sustainable hot strength and retention of ductility on aging is provided by maintaining the alloy chemistry within the composition molybdenum 13.7% to 15.5%; chromium 14.7% to 16.5%; carbon up to 0.1%, lanthanum in an effective amount to provide oxidation resistance up to 0.08%; boron up to 0.015%; manganese 0.3% to 1.0%; silicon 0.2% to 0.8%; cobalt up to 2.0%; iron up to 3.0%; tungsten up to 1.0%; copper up to 0.4%; phosphorous up to 0.02%; sulfur up to 0.015%; aluminum 0.1% to 0.5% and the balance nickel while maintaining the Nv number less than 2.31

  19. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2002-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic aircraft will require nickel-base disk alloys that can be used at temperatures in excess of 1300 F. Smaller turbine engines, with higher rotational speeds, also require disk alloys with high strength. To address these challenges, NASA funded a series of disk programs in the 1990's. Under these initiatives, Honeywell and Allison focused their attention on Alloy 10, a high-strength, nickel-base disk alloy developed by Honeywell for application in the small turbine engines used in regional jet aircraft. Since tensile, creep, and fatigue properties are strongly influenced by alloy grain size, the effect of heat treatment on grain size and the attendant properties were studied in detail. It was observed that a fine grain microstructure offered the best tensile and fatigue properties, whereas a coarse grain microstructure offered the best creep resistance at high temperatures. Therefore, a disk with a dual microstructure, consisting of a fine-grained bore and a coarse-grained rim, should have a high potential for optimal performance. Under NASA's Ultra-Safe Propulsion Project and Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, a disk program was initiated at the NASA Glenn Research Center to assess the feasibility of using Alloy 10 to produce a dual-microstructure disk. The objectives of this program were twofold. First, existing dual-microstructure heat treatment (DMHT) technology would be applied and refined as necessary for Alloy 10 to yield the desired grain structure in full-scale forgings appropriate for use in regional gas turbine engines. Second, key mechanical properties from the bore and rim of a DMHT Alloy 10 disk would be measured and compared with conventional heat treatments to assess the benefits of DMHT technology. At Wyman Gordon and Honeywell, an active-cooling DMHT process was used to convert four full-scale Alloy 10 disks to a dual-grain microstructure. The resulting microstructures are illustrated in the

  20. Internal nitridation of nickel-base alloys; Innere Nitrierung von Nickelbasis-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupp, U.; Christ, H.J. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik

    1998-12-31

    The chromuim concentration is the crucial variable in nitridation processes in nickel-base alloys. Extensive nitridation experiments with various specimen alloys of the system Ni-Cr-Al-Ti have shown that the Cr itself starts to form nitrides as from elevated initial concentrations of about 10 to 20 weight%, (depending on temperature), but that lower concentrations have an earlier effect in that they induce a considerable increase in the N-solubility of the nickel-base alloys. This causes an accelerated nitridation attack on the alloying elements Ti and Al. Apart from experimental detection and analysis, the phenomenon of internal nitridation could be described as well by means of a mathematical model calculating the diffusion with the finite-differences method and determining the precipitation thermodynamics by way of integrated equilibrium calculations. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Verlauf der Hochtemperaturkorrosion von Nickelbasis-Superlegierungen kann durch beanspruchungsbedingte Schaedigungen der Oxiddeckschicht ein Verlust der Schutzwirkung erfolgen und als Konsequenz Stickstoff aus der Atmosphaere in den Werkstoff eindringen. Der eindiffundierende Stickstoff bildet vor allem mit den Legierungselementen Al, Cr und Ti Nitridausscheidungen, die zu einer relativ rasch fortschreitenden Schaedigung fuehren koennen. Eine bedeutende Rolle bei diesen Nitrierungsprozessen in Nickelbasislegierungen spielt die Cr-Konzentration in der Legierung. So ergaben umfangreiche Nitrierungsexperimente an verschiedenen Modellegierungen des Systems Ni-Cr-Al-Ti, dass Cr zwar selbst erst ab Ausgangskonzentrationen von ca. 10-20 Gew.% (abhaengig von der Temperatur) Nitride bildet, allerdings bereits bei geringen Konzentrationen die N-Loeslichkeit von Nickelbasis-Legierungen entscheidend erhoeht. Dies hat zur Folge, dass es zu einem beschleunigten Nitrierungsangriff auf die Legierungselemente Ti und Al kommt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen konnte das Phaenomen der inneren

  1. Optical modeling of nickel-base alloys oxidized in pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, A. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France); Foucault, M.; Calonne, O. [Areva ANP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l' industrie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Finot, E., E-mail: Eric.Finot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France)

    2012-10-01

    The knowledge of the aging process involved in the primary water of pressurized water reactor entails investigating a mixed growth mechanism in the corrosion of nickel-base alloys. A mixed growth induces an anionic inner oxide and a cationic diffusion parallel to a dissolution-precipitation process forms the outer zone. The in situ monitoring of the oxidation kinetics requires the modeling of the oxide layer stratification with the full knowledge of the optical constants related to each component. Here, we report the dielectric constants of the alloys 600 and 690 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry and fitted to a Drude-Lorentz model. A robust optical stratification model was determined using focused ion beam cross-section of thin foils examined by transmission electron microscopy. Dielectric constants of the inner oxide layer depleted in chromium were assimilated to those of the nickel thin film. The optical constants of both the spinels and extern layer were determined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic ellipsometry of Ni-base alloy oxidation in pressurized water reactor Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements of the dielectric constants of the alloys Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical simulation of the mixed oxidation process using a three stack model Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scattered crystallites cationic outer layer; linear Ni-gradient bottom layer Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the refractive index of the spinel and the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers.

  2. Ignition characteristics of the nickel-based alloy UNS N07001 in pressurized oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransford, J. W.; Billiard, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The development of ignition and combustion in pressurized oxygen atmospheres was studied for the nickel-based alloy UNS N07001. Ignition of the alloy was achieved by heating the top surface of a cylindrical specimen with a continuous-wave CO2 laser. Two heating procedures were used. In the first, laser power was adjusted to maintain an approximately linear increase in surface temperature. In the second, laser power was periodically increased until autoheating (self-heating) was established. It was found that the alloy would autoheat to combustion from temperatures below the solidus temperature. In addition, the alloy had a tendency to develop combustion zones (hot spots) at high oxygen pressures when the incremental (step) heating test mode was used. Unique points on the temperature-time curves that describe certain events are defined and the temperatures at which these events occur are given for the oxygen pressure range of 1.72 to 13.8 MPa (250 to 2000 psia).

  3. Applicability of creep damage rules to a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy Hastelloy XR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Najime; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Nakasone, Yuji

    1992-01-01

    A series of constant load and temperature creep rupture tests and varying load and/or temperature creep rupture tests was carried out on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy Hastelloy XR, which was developed for applications in the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1000deg C in order to examine the applicability of the conventional creep damage rules, i.e., the life fraction, the strain fraction and their mixed rules. The life fraction rule showed the best applicability of these three criteria. The good applicability of the rule was considered to result from the fact that the creep strength of Hastelloy XR was not strongly affected by the change of the chemical composition and/or the microstructure during exposure to the high-temperature simulated HTGR helium environment. In conclusion the life fraction rule is applicable in engineering design of high-temperature components made of Hastelloy XR. (orig.)

  4. New Mechanistic Models of Long Term Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzic, Jamie J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Evans, T. Matthew [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Greaney, P. Alex [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2018-05-15

    The report describes the development of a discrete element method (DEM) based modeling approach to quantitatively predict deformation and failure of typical nickel based superalloys. A series of experimental data, including microstructure and mechanical property characterization at 600°C, was collected for a relatively simple, model solid solution Ni-20Cr alloy (Nimonic 75) to determine inputs for the model and provide data for model validation. Nimonic 75 was considered ideal for this study because it is a certified tensile and creep reference material. A series of new DEM modeling approaches were developed to capture the complexity of metal deformation, including cubic elastic anisotropy and plastic deformation both with and without strain hardening. Our model approaches were implemented into a commercially available DEM code, PFC3D, that is commonly used by engineers. It is envisioned that once further developed, this new DEM modeling approach can be adapted to a wide range of engineering applications.

  5. Corrosion of Nickel-Based Alloys in Ultra-High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2017-03-01

    MgCl2-KCl binary system has been proposed to be used as high temperature reactor coolant. Due to its relatively low melting point, good heat capacity and excellent thermal stability, this system can also be used in high operation temperature concentrating solar power generation system as heat transfer fluid (HTF). The corrosion behaviors of nickel based alloys in MgCl2-KCl molten salt system at 1,000 °C were determined based on long-term isothermal dipping test. After 500 h exposure tests under strictly maintained high purity argon gas atmosphere, the weight loss and corrosion rate analysis were conducted. Among all the tested samples, Ni-201 demonstrated the lowest corrosion rate due to the excellent resistance of Ni to high temperature element dissolution. Detailed surface topography and corrosion mechanisms were also determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS).

  6. EIS pitting temperature determination of A182 nickel based alloy in simulated BWR environment containing dilute seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavigne, Olivier; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Stable pitting events in function of the temperature are monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. • The pitting temperature for the nickel based alloy A182 in solution containing 450 ppm Cl − is defined as above 160 °C. • The presented method can be applied for others passive alloys as stainless steel in solution containing aggressive anions. - Abstract: A method based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to monitor the pitting temperature of passive alloys in a given media is developed in this communication. The pitting corrosion behavior of the nickel based alloy 182 in water containing 450 ppm by weight of chloride is presented in this study. The analysis of the EIS fit parameters from the proposed equivalent electrical circuit allows to determine the temperature from which stable pitting event occurs at open circuit potential. For the A182 sample this temperature is measured above 160 °C

  7. Mechanical and Microstructure Study of Nickel-Based ODS Alloys Processed by Mechano-Chemical Bonding and Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Belachew N.

    Due to the need to increase the efficiency of modern power plants, land-based gas turbines are designed to operate at high temperature creating harsh environments for structural materials. The elevated turbine inlet temperature directly affects the materials at the hottest sections, which includes combustion chamber, blades, and vanes. Therefore, the hottest sections should satisfy a number of material requirements such as high creep strength, ductility at low temperature, high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such requirements are nowadays satisfied by implementing superalloys coated by high temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to protect from high operating temperature required to obtain an increased efficiency. Oxide dispersive strengthened (ODS) alloys are being considered due to their high temperature creep strength, good oxidation and corrosion resistance for high temperature applications in advanced power plants. These alloys operating at high temperature are subjected to different loading systems such as thermal, mechanical, and thermo-mechanical combined loads at operation. Thus, it is critical to study the high temperature mechanical and microstructure properties of such alloys for their structural integrity. The primary objective of this research work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructure properties of nickel-based ODS alloys produced by combined mechano-chemical bonding (MCB) and ball milling subjected to high temperature oxidation, which are expected to be applied for high temperature turbine coating with micro-channel cooling system. Stiffness response and microstructure evaluation of such alloy systems was studied along with their oxidation mechanism and structural integrity through thermal cyclic exposure. Another objective is to analyze the heat transfer of ODS alloy coatings with micro-channel cooling system using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine their feasibility as a stand-alone structural

  8. The speed of growth of the gamma phase comes prime in nickel based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretti, M.M; Ges, A.M; Versaci, R.A

    2004-01-01

    Nickel-based alloys have a high fraction in volume of precipitate phase. This precipitate phase provides the characteristics of high mechanical resistance to high temperatures and, therefore, a study of the growth of this phase can predict the behavior of the components in service. This work studies the speed of growth in the alloy INCONEL 713C at temperatures of 800 o C, 875 o C and 950 o C with different treatment times. The present phase in this alloy is Ni3(AlTi), with a very high fraction in volume. The follow-up on the growth of the phase was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The speed of growth presents modifications that increase and decrease as a function of time. These variations in speed are attributed to modifications in the size and morphology of the precipitate particles. The changes in size and morphology directly influence the interfacial energy that produces the change in the speed of growth (CW)

  9. Weldability of neutron-irradiated stainless steel and nickel-base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyabu, Ken; Asano, Kyoichi; Takahashi, Hidenori; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shohei; Nakamura, Tomomi; Hashimoto, Tsuneyuki; Koshiishi, Masato; Kato, Takahiko; Katsura, Ryoei; Nishimura, Seiji

    2000-01-01

    Degradation of of weldability caused by helium, which is generated by nuclear transmutation irradiated material, is an important issue to be addressed in planning of proactive maintenance of light water reactor core internal components. In this work, the weldability of neutron.irradiated stainless steel and nickel-base alloy, which are major constituting materials for components, was practically evaluated. The weldability was first examined by TIG welding in relation to the weld heat input and helium content using various specimens (made of SUS304 and SUS316L) sampled from reactor internal components. The specimens were neutron irradiated in a boiling water reactor to fluences from 4 x 10 24 to 1.4 x 10 26 n/ m 2 (E> l MeV ), and resulting helium generation ranged from 0.1 to 103 appm. The weld defects were characterized by dye penetrant test and cross-sectional metallography. The weldability of neutron-irradiated stainless steel was shown to be better at lower weld heat input and lower helium content. To evaluate mechanical properties of welded joints, thick plates (20 mm) specimens of SUS304 and Alloy 600 were prepared and irradiated in Japan Material Test Reactor (JMTR). The helium content of the specimens was controlled to range from 0.11 to 1.34 appm selected to determine threshold helium content to weld successfully. The welded joints had multiple passes by TIG welding process at 10 and 20 kJ/cm heat input. The welded joints of thick plate were characterized by dye penetrant test, cross-sectional metallography, tensile test, side bend test and root bend test. It was shown that irradiated stainless steel containing below 0.14 appm of helium could be welded with conventional TIG welding process (heat input below 20 kJ/cm). Nickel-base alloy, which contained as much helium as stainless steel could be welded successfully, could also be welded with conventional TIG welding process, These results served as basis to evaluate the applicability of repair welding to

  10. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Characterization of Aged Nickel-based Alloy 625 Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cleiton Carvalho; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C.; Miná, Emerson Mendonça; Moura, Elineudo P.; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the different phases formed during solidification and after thermal aging of the as-welded 625 nickel-based alloy, as well as the influence of microstructural changes on the mechanical properties. The experiments addressed aging temperatures of 650 and 950 °C for 10, 100, and 200 hours. The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy, microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction in order to identify the secondary phases. Mechanical tests such as hardness, microhardness, and Charpy-V impact test were performed. Nondestructive ultrasonic inspection was also conducted to correlate the acquired signals with mechanical and microstructural properties. The results show that the alloy under study experienced microstructural changes when aged at 650 °C. The aging was responsible by the dissolution of the Laves phase formed during the solidification and the appearance of γ″ phase within interdendritic region and fine carbides along the solidification grain boundaries. However, when it was aged at 950 °C, the Laves phase was continuously dissolved and the excess Nb caused the precipitation of the δ-phase (Ni3Nb), which was intensified at 10 hours of aging, with subsequent dissolution for longer periods such as 200 hours. Even when subjected to significant microstructural changes, the mechanical properties, especially toughness, were not sensitive to the dissolution and/or precipitation of the secondary phases.

  11. Fatigue properties of MA 6000E, a gamma-prime strengthened ODS alloy. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ni-base alloy for gas turbine blade applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Merrick, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    MA 6000E is a corrosion resistant, gamma-prime strengthened ODS alloy under development for advanced turbine blade applications. The high temperature, 1093 C, rupture strength is superior to conventional nickel-base alloys. This paper addresses the fatigue behavior of the alloy. Excellent properties are exhibited in low and high cycle fatigue and also thermal fatigue. This is attributed to a unique combination of microstructural features, i.e., a fine distribution of dispersed oxides and other nonmetallics, and the highly elongated grain structure which advantageously modify the deformation characteristics and crack initiation and propagation modes from that characteristic of conventional gamma-prime hardened superalloys.

  12. Strengthening mechanisms in an inertia friction welded nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiley, J.S., E-mail: Jaimie.Tiley@us.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Mahaffey, D.W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Alam, T.; Rojhirunsakool, T. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Senkov, O.; Parthasarthy, T. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Banerjee, R. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2016-04-26

    This research investigated the strengthening mechanisms associated with the as-welded microstructure developed during inertia friction welding of dissimilar superalloys LHSR and Mar-M247. The weld interface and heat affected regions of the sample were analyzed using hardness indentation techniques and subsequently characterized using SEM, TEM and advanced atom probe tomography. The yield strength of the welded joint was modeled to determine the impact of the gradients in the as-welded microstructure on strengthening mechanisms within the LSHR material. Characterization centered on formation of γ′, γ grain size and chemical segregation within the heat affected regions. Results indicate an increased hardness in the vicinity of the weld interface, resulting from the refined dispersion of γ′ and γ grains.

  13. Effect of Alloy 625 Buffer Layer on Hardfacing of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Using Nickel Base Hardfacing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C. R.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-04-01

    Dashpot piston, made up of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, is a part of diverse safety rod used for safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. This component was hardfaced using nickel base AWS ER NiCr-B alloy and extensive cracking was experienced during direct deposition of this alloy on dashpot piston. Cracking reduced considerably and the component was successfully hardfaced by application of Inconel 625 as buffer layer prior to hardface deposition. Hence, a separate study was undertaken to investigate the role of buffer layer in reducing the cracking and on the microstructure of the hardfaced deposit. Results indicate that in the direct deposition of hardfacing alloy on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, both heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed and the deposit layer are hard making the thickness of the hard layer formed equal to combined thickness of both HAZ and deposit. This hard layer is unable to absorb thermal stresses resulting in the cracking of the deposit. By providing a buffer layer of Alloy 625 followed by a post-weld heat treatment, HAZ formed in the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is effectively tempered, and HAZ formed during the subsequent deposition of the hardfacing alloy over the Alloy 625 buffer layer is almost completely confined to Alloy 625, which does not harden. This reduces the cracking susceptibility of the deposit. Further, unlike in the case of direct deposition on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, dilution of the deposit by Ni-base buffer layer does not alter the hardness of the deposit and desired hardness on the deposit surface could be achieved even with lower thickness of the deposit. This gives an option for reducing the recommended thickness of the deposit, which can also reduce the risk of cracking.

  14. Oxidation-induced phase transformations and lifetime limits of chromia-forming nickel-base alloy 625

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyrkin, Anton

    2011-12-05

    For its high creep resistance the commercial nickel-base alloy 625 relies on solid solution strengthening in combination with precipitation hardening by formation of δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb and (Ni,Mo,Si){sub 6}C precipitates during high-temperature service. In oxidizing environments the alloy forms a slow growing, continuous chromia layer on the material surface which protects the alloy against rapid oxidation attack. The growth of the chromia base oxide scale results during exposure at 900-1000 C in oxidation-induced chromium depletion in the subsurface zone of the alloy. Microstructural analyses of the cross-sectioned specimens revealed that this process results in formation of a wide subsurface zone in which the mentioned strengthening phases are dissolved, in spite of the fact that both phases do not contain substantial amounts of the scale-forming element chromium. The cross-sectional analyses revealed that, in parallel to the formation of a precipitate depleted zone, a thin, continuous layer of niobium-rich intermetallic precipitates formed in the immediate vicinity of the scale/alloy interface. The Subsurface Phase Enrichment (abbreviated as SPE) was shown to be the result of an uphill-diffusion of niobium, i.e. the element stabilizing the strengthening precipitates δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb, in the chromium activity gradient and is thus a natural consequence of the oxidation-induced chromium depletion beneath the chromia scale. The thermodynamic calculations carried out using the Thermo-Calc/DICTRA software packages revealed that in alloy 625 the chemical activity of niobium decreases with decreasing chromium content. As chromium is being continuously removed from the alloy as the result of the chromia scale growth, the zone of lowest Nb-activity is formed in the location with the lowest chromium concentration, i.e. the scale/alloy interface. This creates a driving force for Nb to diffuse towards the scale/alloy interface against its own concentration gradient, which is known

  15. Glow discharge mass spectrometric analysis of nickel-based heat-resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Ryosuke

    1996-01-01

    GD-MS analysis of nickel-based heat-resisting alloys has been performed using a VG 9000 glow discharge (GD) mass spectrometer. Concentrations of not only alloying elements (Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Y, Nb, Mo and W) but also trace elements (B, C, Mg, P, S, Zn, Ga, As, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Pb and Bi) were successfully determined in disk shaped samples. The examination of spectral interference confirmed the following. The influence of manganese argide ( 55 Mn 40 Ar + ) on the ion beam intensity of 95 Mo + was negligible because manganese content of the alloys is usually less than 1 mass%. Mass spectra of 31 P + and 32 S + may be affected by the spectral interference of 62 Ni 2+ and 64 Ni 2+ , respectively, due to the matrix element. However, these ion species were sufficiently separated at the mass resolution 5000 (m/Δm, at 5% peak height) used in this study. Relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: JAERI CRMs, a NIST SRM, a BS CRM, BCS CRMs and the alloys prepared in our Institute. The average RSF-values obtained for Ni=1 were 0.436 for Al, 0.826 for Si, 0.281 for Ti, 0.375 for V, 1.480 for Cr, 1.122 for Mn, 0.754 for Fe, 0.653 for Co, 3.321 for Cu, 0.303 for Y, 0.436 for Nb, 0.862 for Mo, 0.935 for Ta and 1.052 for W. The analytical accuracy (σ d ) obtained was comparable to that of FP-XRF analysis, except for chromium and iron determinations. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of five replicate measurements were within about 2.5%, except for phosphorus (P; 0.003 mass%, RSD; 3.31%) and sulfur (S; 0.005 mass%, RSD; 3.08%). GD-MS analytical values for ODS MA6000 alloy were obtained using a RSF correction program, and the values were in good agreement with those obtained by FP-XRF and by chemical analysis (author)

  16. Microstructural evolutions and mechanical behaviour of the nickel based alloys 617 and 230 at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomette, S.

    2009-11-01

    High Temperature Reactors (HTR), is one of the innovative nuclear reactor designed to be inherently safer than previous generation and to produce minimal waste. The most critical metallic component in that type of reactor is the Intermediate Heat exchanger (IHX). The constraints imposed by the conception and the severe operational conditions (high temperature of 850 C to 950 C, lifetime of 20,000 h) have guided the IHX material selection toward two solid solution nickel base alloys, the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230. Inconel 617 is the primary candidate alloy thanks to its good high temperature mechanical and corrosion properties and the large data base developed in previous programs. However, its high cobalt content has to be considered as an issue (nuclear activation). The more recent alloy Haynes 230, in which most of the cobalt has been replaced by tungsten, present characteristics similar to the 617 alloy. The objective of this thesis is to study the high temperature mechanical behaviour of both alloys in relation with their microstructural evolutions. The as received microstructural observations have revealed primary carbides (M 6 C). Most of this precipitates are evenly distributed in the materials. Few M 23 C 6 secondary carbides are observed in both alloys in the as received state. Thermal ageing treatments at 850 C lead to an important M 23 C 6 precipitation on slip lines and at grain boundaries. The size of this carbides increases and their number decreases with increasing ageing duration. The intragranular precipitation of secondary carbides at 950 C is more limited and the intergranular evolution more important than at 850 C. The microstructural observations and the hardness evolution of both alloys show that the main microstructural evolutions occur before 1,000 h at both studied temperatures. The mechanical properties of the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230 have been studied using tensile, creep, fatigue and relaxation-fatigue tests. Particularly, the

  17. Fatigue-crack propagation response of two nickel-base alloys in a liquid sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The elevated temperature fatigue-crack propagation response of Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 was characterized within a linear-elastic fracture mechanics framework in air and low-oxygen liquid sodium environments. The crack growth rates of both nickel-base alloys tested in liquid sodium were found to be considerably lower than those obtained in air. This enhanced fatigue resistance in sodium was attributed to the very low oxygen content in the inert sodium environment. Electron fractographic examination of the Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that operative crack growth mechanisms were dependent on the prevailing stress intensity level. Under low growth rate conditions, Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 fracture surfaces exhibited a faceted, crystallographic morphology in both air and sodium environments. In the higher growth rate regime, fatigue striations were observed; however, striations formed in sodium were rather ill-defined. These indistinct striations were attributed to the absence of oxygen in the liquid sodium environment. Striation spacing measurements were found to be in excellent agreement with macroscopic growth rates in both environments

  18. The French regulatory experience and views on nickel-base alloy PWSCC prevention and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turluer, G.; Cattiaux, G.; Monnot, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Emond, D.; Reuchet, J.; Chartier, Ph. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents the experience feedback and views of the French Regulatory Authority (ASN) and of the technical support institute (IRSN) on PWSCC prevention since the initiation in 1989 of the 'Inconel Zones Review' requested by ASN to Electricite de France (EDF), the national operator of a fleet of 58 PWRs. This proactive requirement, launched before the discovery, in September 1991, of the only CRDM nozzle leak in France, on Bugey unit 3, was then triggered by the recurrence of many alloy 600 rapid degradations and leaks, world wide, and also in France in the late 1980's, particularly on steam generator tubes and on some pressurizer penetrations. Thus, the ASN requested that EDF, perform a comprehensive (generic) proactive assessment on all the nickel-base alloy components and parts of the main primary circuits, which of course included vessel head penetrations and bottom vessel head penetrations, and some other zones as a first priority. This proactive 'review' did, a minima, include the following tasks and actions: - Update and complete, by an extensive R and D program, the understanding and characterization of the Ni base alloys prone to PWSCC, - Analyze the various materials, metallurgical features, mechanical stresses, and physicochemical conditions of the parts exposed to primary water, in order to predict the occurrence of PWSCC initiation and propagation, - Provide a prioritization of the zones to be inspected, - Implement by improved NDE techniques a practical inspection program on the 58 PWRs, - Prepare and implement any needed mitigation actions as a result of the components conditions assessment. The present paper relates the main features of the French regulatory experience over more than 13 years and recalls the main principles of the assessment, which were applied by ASN. These principles, which are formalized in the current regulation rules revised in 1999, are briefly listed hereunder: - It is based on avoiding and

  19. The French regulatory experience and views on nickel-base alloy PWSCC prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turluer, G.; Cattiaux, G.; Monnot, B.; Emond, D.; Reuchet, J.; Chartier, Ph.

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents the experience feedback and views of the French Regulatory Authority (ASN) and of the technical support institute (IRSN) on PWSCC prevention since the initiation in 1989 of the 'Inconel Zones Review' requested by ASN to Electricite de France (EDF), the national operator of a fleet of 58 PWRs. This proactive requirement, launched before the discovery, in September 1991, of the only CRDM nozzle leak in France, on Bugey unit 3, was then triggered by the recurrence of many alloy 600 rapid degradations and leaks, world wide, and also in France in the late 1980's, particularly on steam generator tubes and on some pressurizer penetrations. Thus, the ASN requested that EDF, perform a comprehensive (generic) proactive assessment on all the nickel-base alloy components and parts of the main primary circuits, which of course included vessel head penetrations and bottom vessel head penetrations, and some other zones as a first priority. This proactive 'review' did, a minima, include the following tasks and actions: - Update and complete, by an extensive R and D program, the understanding and characterization of the Ni base alloys prone to PWSCC, - Analyze the various materials, metallurgical features, mechanical stresses, and physicochemical conditions of the parts exposed to primary water, in order to predict the occurrence of PWSCC initiation and propagation, - Provide a prioritization of the zones to be inspected, - Implement by improved NDE techniques a practical inspection program on the 58 PWRs, - Prepare and implement any needed mitigation actions as a result of the components conditions assessment. The present paper relates the main features of the French regulatory experience over more than 13 years and recalls the main principles of the assessment, which were applied by ASN. These principles, which are formalized in the current regulation rules revised in 1999, are briefly listed hereunder: - It is based on avoiding and preventing any leaking on

  20. Generalized corrosion of nickel base alloys in high temperature aqueous media: a contribution to the comprehension of the mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti-Sillans, L.

    2007-11-01

    In France, nickel base alloys, such as alloy 600 and alloy 690, are the materials constituting steam generators (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The generalized corrosion resulting from the interaction between these alloys and the PWR primary media leads, on the one hand, to the formation of a thin protective oxide scale (∼ 10 nm), and on the other hand, to the release of cations in the primary circuit, which entails an increase of the global radioactivity of this circuit. The goal of this work is to supply some new comprehension elements about nickel base alloys corrosion phenomena in PWR primary media, taking up with underlining the effects of metallurgical and physico-chemical parameters on the nature and the growth mechanisms of the protective oxide scale. In this context, the passive film formed during the exposition of alloys 600, 690 and Ni-30Cr, in conditions simulating the PWR primary media, has been analyzed by a set of characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, PEC and MPEC, XPS). The coupling of these methods leads to a fine description, in terms of nature and structure, of the multilayered oxide forming during the exposition of nickel base alloys in primary media. Thus, the protective part of the oxide scale is composed of a continuous layer of iron and nickel mixed chromite, and Cr 2 O 3 nodules dispersed at the alloy / mixed chromite interface. The study of protective scale growth mechanisms by tracers and markers experiments reveals that the formation of the mixed chromite is the consequence of an anionic mechanism, resulting from short circuits like grain boundaries diffusion. Besides, the impact of alloy surface defects has also been studied, underlining a double effect of this parameter, which influences the short circuits diffusion density in oxide and the formation rate of Cr 2 O 3 nodules. The sum of these results leads to suggest a description of the nickel base alloys corrosion mechanisms in PWR primary media and to tackle some

  1. Proposal of fatigue crack growth rate curve in air for nickel-base alloys used in BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Takuya; Itatani, Masao; Nagase, Hiroshi; Aoike, Satoru; Yoneda, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    When the defects are detected in the nuclear components in Japan, structural integrity assessment should be performed for the technical judgment on continuous service based on the Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Code (JSME FFS Code). Fatigue crack growth analysis is required when the cyclic loading would be applied for the components. Recently, fatigue crack growth rate curve in air environment for Nickel-base alloys weld metal used in BWR was proposed by the authors and it was adopted as a code case of JSME FFS Code to evaluate the embedded flaw. In this study, fatigue crack growth behavior for heat-affected zone (HAZ) of Nickel-base alloys in air was investigated. And a unified fatigue crack growth rate curve in air for HAZ and weld metal of Nickel-base alloys used in BWR was evaluated. As a result, it was found that the curve for weld metal could be applied as a curve for both HAZ and weld metal since moderately conservative assessment of fatigue crack growth rate of HAZ is possible by the curve for weld metal in the Paris region. And the threshold value of stress intensity far range (ΔK th ) is determined to 3.0 MPa√m based on the fatigue crack growth rate of HAZ. (author)

  2. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of the nickel base alloy (Alloy 600) after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Stela Maria de Carvalho

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of microstructural and mechanical properties of cold rolled and heat treated alloys 600 made in Brazil were investigated. The recovery and recrystallization behavior as well as solubilization and aging have been studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and tensile testing have been carried out. The recovery process of the cold rolled alloy 600 occurred until 600 deg C and the recrystallization stage was situated between 600 and 850 deg C. The primary recrystallization temperature was obtained at 850 deg C after 1 hour (isochronal heat treatments). The aged alloy 600 shows carbide precipitation on grains bu with ductility maintenance. (author)

  3. Microstructural and wear characteristics of cobalt free, nickel base intermetallic alloy deposited by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kumar, Santosh; Viswanadham, C.S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Limaye, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the microstructural and wear characteristics of Ni base intermetallic hardfacing alloy (Tribaloy-700) deposited on stainless steel-316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Cobalt base hardfacing alloys have been most commonly used hardfacing alloys for application involving wear, corrosion and high temperature resistance. However, the high cost and scarcity of cobalt led to the development of cobalt free hardfacing alloys. Further, in the nuclear industry, the use of cobalt base alloys is limited due to the induced activity of long lived radioisotope 60 Co formed. These difficulties led to the development of various nickel and iron base alloys to replace cobalt base hardfacing alloys. In the present study Ni base intermetallic alloy, free of Cobalt was deposited on stainless steel- 316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Traditionally, welding and thermal spraying are the most commonly employed hardfacing techniques. Laser cladding has been explored for the deposition of less diluted and fusion-bonded Nickel base clad layer on stainless steel substrate with a low heat input. The laser cladding parameters (Laser power density: 200 W/mm 2 , scanning speed: 430 mm/min, and powder feed rate: 14 gm/min) resulted in defect free clad with minimal dilution of the substrate. The microstructure of the clad layer was examined by Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction technique. The clad layer exhibited sharp substrate/clad interface in the order of planar, cellular, and dendritic from the interface upwards. Dilution of clad with Fe from substrate was very low passing from ∼ 15% at the interface (∼ 40 μm) to ∼ 6% in the clad layer. The clad layer was characterized by the presence of hexagonal closed packed (hcp, MgZn 2 type) intermetallic Laves phase dispersed in the eutectic of Laves and face centered cubic (fcc) gamma solid solution. The

  4. The interaction of reaction-bonded silicon carbide and inconel 600 with a nickel-based brazing alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, J. R.; Pugh, M. D.; Drew, R. A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The objective of the present research was to join reaction-bonded silicon carbide (RBSC) to INCONEL 600 (a nickel-based superalloy) for use in advanced heat engine applications using either direct brazing or composite interlayer joining. Direct brazing experiments employed American Welding Society (AWS) BNi-5, a commercial nickel-based brazing alloy, as a filler material; composite interlayers consisted of intimate mixtures of α-SiC and BNi-5 powders. Both methods resulted in the liquid filler metal forming a Ni-Si liquid with the free Si in the RBSC, which, in turn, reacted vigorously with the SiC component of the RBSC to form low melting point constituents in both starting materials and Cr carbides at the metal-ceramic interface. Using solution thermodynamics, it was shown that a Ni-Si liquid of greater than 60 at. pct Ni will decompose a-SiC at the experimental brazing temperature of 1200 ‡C; these calculations are consistent with the experimentally observed composition profiles and reaction morphology within the ceramic. It was concluded that the joining of RBSC to INCONEL 600 using a nickel-based brazing alloy is not feasible due to the inevitability of the filler metal reacting with the ceramic, degrading the high-temperature properties of the base materials.

  5. Characterization of nickel-based C276 alloy coatings by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on different steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, L.S.; Graf, K.; Scheid, A., E-mail: scheid@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nickel-based coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) for protection of components are widely applied to withstand operations under corrosion in different media. This paper characterized Nickel-based C276 alloy coatings obtained by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on two different substrates, AISI 316L and API 5L X70 steels, correlating their features to hardness. Coatings were deposited utilizing three different intensity current levels, 120, 150 and 180 A and were characterized by optical, Laser confocal and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Vickers hardness profiles on transversal section were carried out. Produced coatings exhibited a microstructure of austenite (FCC) dendrites with interdendritic regions with carbides. Dilution levels from 4,9 to 41,5 % leaded to hardness ranging from 225 to 283 HV{sub 0,5}, showing coatings dependence on intensity current level and substrate. (author)

  6. Characterization of nickel-based C276 alloy coatings by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on different steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.S.; Graf, K.; Scheid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel-based coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) for protection of components are widely applied to withstand operations under corrosion in different media. This paper characterized Nickel-based C276 alloy coatings obtained by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on two different substrates, AISI 316L and API 5L X70 steels, correlating their features to hardness. Coatings were deposited utilizing three different intensity current levels, 120, 150 and 180 A and were characterized by optical, Laser confocal and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Vickers hardness profiles on transversal section were carried out. Produced coatings exhibited a microstructure of austenite (FCC) dendrites with interdendritic regions with carbides. Dilution levels from 4,9 to 41,5 % leaded to hardness ranging from 225 to 283 HV_0_,_5, showing coatings dependence on intensity current level and substrate. (author)

  7. Creep and residual mechanical properties of cast superalloys and oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Tensile, stress-rupture, creep, and residual tensile properties after creep testing were determined for two typical cast superalloys and four advanced oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. The superalloys examined included the nickel-base alloy B-1900 and the cobalt-base alloy MAR-M509. The nickel-base ODS MA-757 (Ni-16CR-4Al-0.6Y2O3 and the iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 (Fe-20Cr-5Al-0.8Y2O3) were extensively studied, while limited testing was conducted on the ODS nickel-base alloys STCA (Ni-16Cr-4.5Al-2Y2O3) with a without Ta and YD-NiCrAl (Ni-16Cr-5Al-2Y2O3). Elevated temperature testing was conducted from 114 to 1477 K except for STCA and YD-NiCrAl alloys, which were only tested at 1366 K. The residual tensile properties of B-1900 and MAR-M509 are not reduced by prior creep testing (strains at least up to 1 percent), while the room temperature tensile properties of ODS nickel-base alloys can be reduced by small amounts of prior creep strain (less than 0.5 percent). The iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 does not appear to be susceptible to creep degradation at least up to strains of about 0.25 percent. However, MA-956 exhibits unusual creep behavior which apparently involves crack nucleation and growth.

  8. TEM characterisation of stress corrosion cracks in nickel based alloys: effect of chromium content and chemistry of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabrouille, F.

    2004-11-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a damaging mode of alloys used in pressurized water reactors, particularly of nickel based alloys constituting the vapour generator tubes. Cracks appear on both primary and secondary sides of the tubes, and more frequently in locations where the environment is not well defined. SCC sensitivity of nickel based alloys depends of their chromium content, which lead to the replacement of alloy 600 (15 % Cr) by alloy 690 (30 % Cr) but this phenomenon is not yet very well understood. The goal of this thesis is two fold: i) observe the effect of chromium content on corrosion and ii) characterize the effect of environment on the damaging process of GV tubes. For this purpose, one industrial tube and several synthetic alloys - with controlled chromium content - have been studied. Various characterisation techniques were used to study the corrosion products on the surface and within the SCC cracks: SIMS; TEM - FEG: thin foil preparation, HAADF, EELS, EDX. The effect of chromium content and surface preparation on the generalised corrosion was evidenced for synthetic alloys. Moreover, we observed the penetration of oxygen along triple junctions of grain boundaries few micrometers under the free surface. SCC tests show the positive effect of chromium for contents varying from 5 to 30 % wt. Plastic deformation induces a modification of the structure, and thus of the protective character, of the internal chromium rich oxide layer. SCC cracks which developed in different chemical environments were characterised by TEM. The oxides which are formed within the cracks are different from what is observed on the free surface, which reveals a modification of medium and electrochemical conditions in the crack. Finally we were able to evidence some structural characteristics of the corrosion products (in the cracks and on the surface) which turn to be a signature of the chemical environment. (author)

  9. Corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steel, nickel-base alloy and its weldments in aqueous LiBr solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco-Tamarit, E.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia Anton, J.; Garcia-Garcia, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. E.T.S.I.Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012 E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    With the advances in materials production new alloys have been developed, such as High- Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steels and Nickel-base alloys, with high corrosion resistance. These new alloys are finding applications in Lithium Bromide absorption refrigeration systems, because LiBr is a corrosive medium which can cause serious corrosion problems, in spite of its favourable properties as absorbent. The objective of the present work was to study the corrosion resistance of a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031) used as base metal, a Nickel-base alloy (UNS N06059) used as its corresponding filler metal, and the weld metal obtained by the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) procedure. The materials have been tested in different LiBr solutions (400 g/l, 700 g/l, 850 g/l and a commercial 850 g/l LiBr heavy brine containing Lithium Chromate as corrosion inhibitor), at 25 deg. C. Open Circuit Potential tests and potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves have been carried out to obtain information about the general electrochemical behaviour of the materials. The polarization curves of all the alloys tested were typical of passivable materials. Pitting corrosion susceptibility has been evaluated by means of cyclic potentiodynamic curves, which provide parameters to analyse re-passivation properties. The galvanic corrosion generated by the electrical contact between the welded and the base material has been estimated from the polarization diagrams according to the Mixed Potential Method. Samples have been etched to study the microstructure by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrate that the pitting resistance of all these materials increases as the LiBr concentration decreases. In general, the presence of chromate tended to shift the pitting potential to more positive values than those obtained in the 850 g/l LiBr solution. (authors)

  10. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbroeck, P. van.

    1976-10-01

    The publication gives the available data on the DTO2 dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy developed at C.E.N./S.C.K. Mol, Belgium. DTO2 is a Fe-Cr-Mo ferritic alloy, strengthened by addition of titanium oxide and of titanium leading to the formation of Chi phase. It was developed for use as canning material for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  11. High temperature corrosion of nickel-base alloys in environments containing alkali sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Rachel; Flyg, Jesper; Caddeo, Sophie [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Fredrik [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspong (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This work is directed towards producing data to assist in lifetime assessment of components in gas turbines run in severely polluted industrial environments where the main corrosive species is SO{sub 2}, which can condense to form alkali sulphates. Corrosion rates have been measured for the base materials, in order to assess the worst-case scenario, in which cracks or other damage has occurred to the protective coating. The information is expected to be of value to manufacturers, owners and inspectors of gas turbines. Six nickel-base superalloys were subject to thermal cycles of 160 hours duration, and 0.8mg/cm{sup 2} of 20 mol % Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 80mol% K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was applied before each cycle. The test temperatures were 850 deg C and 900 deg C, with maximum test durations of 24 cycles and 12 cycles respectively. The metal loss was assessed by metallography of cross sections and the sulphidation attack was found to be very uneven. Mass change data indicated that the corrosion process was largely linear in character, and probability plots and estimations of the propagation rate of corrosion based on the linear growth assumption were produced. The performance of the alloys increased with increasing chromium content. The single crystal materials CMSX4 and MD2 showed such high corrosion rates that their use in severely contaminated industrial environments is considered inadvisable. The best performance was shown by Inconel 939 and Inconel 6203, so that even if cracks occur in the protective coating, a reasonable remaining lifetime can be expected for these materials. Sulphide formation occurred at the reaction front in all cases and mixed sulphides such as Ta-Ni or Ti-Nb sulphides were often present. The work has news value since very little long-term data is currently available for materials performance in severely sulphidising environments. The project goals in terms of exposures and metrology have been fully realised. Contributions have been made to the

  12. A preliminary investigation of the initiation of pitting corrosion in austenitic stainless steels and nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, A.

    1984-01-01

    Pitting corrosion in a number of austenitic stainless steels and nickel-based alloys that differ widely in their resistance to corrosion was studed by electrochemical and electron-optical techniques. The effect of contamination of the sulphuric acid electrolyte by chloride ions was also investigated. Preliminary results for the surface analysis of samples of 316 stainless steel by Auger electron spectroscopy are presented, and suggestions are included for further application of this technique to the examination of pitting corrosion. A comprehensive review of the literature concerning the initiation of pitting corrosion is included

  13. Corrosion of nickel-base heat resistant alloys in simulated VHTR coolant helium at very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Masami; Kondo, Tatsuo

    1976-01-01

    A comparative evaluation was made on three commercial nickel-base heat resistant alloys exposed to helium-base atmosphere at 1000 0 C, which contained several impurities in simulating the helium cooled very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) environment. The choice of alloys was made so that the effect of elements commonly found in commercial alloys were typically examined. The corrosion in helium at 1000 0 C was characterized by the sharp selection of thermodynamically unstable elements in the oxidizing process and the resultant intergranular penetration and internal oxidation. Ni-Cr-Mo-W type solution hardened alloy such as Hastelloy-X showed comparatively good resistance. The alloy containing Al and Ti such as Inconel-617 suffered adverse effect in contrast to its good resistance to air oxidation. The alloy nominally composed only of noble elements, Ni, Fe and Mo, such as Hastelloy-B showed least apparent corrosion, while suffered internal oxidation due to small amount of active impurities commonly existing in commercial heats. The results were discussed in terms of selection and improvement of alloys for uses in VHTR and the similar systems. (auth.)

  14. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper in nickel-base alloys with various chemical modifiers*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Shiue, Chia-Chann; Chang, Shiow-Ing

    1997-07-01

    The analytical characteristics of copper in nickel-base alloys have been investigated with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Deuterium background correction was employed. The effects of various chemical modifiers on the analysis of copper were investigated. Organic modifiers which included 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino-phenol) (Br-PADAP), ammonium citrate, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-naphthol, 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100 were studied. Inorganic modifiers palladium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, aluminum chloride, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate were also applied in this work. In addition, zirconium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide precipitation methods have also been studied. Interference effects were effectively reduced with Br-PADAP modifier. Aqueous standards were used to construct the calibration curves. The detection limit was 1.9 pg. Standard reference materials of nickel-base alloys were used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The copper contents determined with the proposed method agreed closely with the certified values of the reference materials. The recoveries were within the range 90-100% with relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Good precision was obtained.

  15. Influence of the alloy composition on the oxidation and internal-nitridation behaviour of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, U.; Christ, H.-J.

    1999-01-01

    Internal nitridation of nickel-base superalloys takes place as a consequence of the failure of protecting oxide scales (Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 , respectively) and leads to a deterioration of the material properties due to near-surface embrittlement caused by the nitrides precipitated (TiN and AlN, respectively) and due to near-surface dissolution of the γ' phase. By using thermogravimetric methods in a temperature range between 800 C and 1100 C supplemented by microstructural examinations, the failure potential due to internal nitridation could be documented. A quantification was carried out by extending the experimental program to thermogravimetric studies in a nearly oxygen-free nitrogen atmosphere which was also applied to various model alloys of the system Ni-Cr-Al-Ti. It could be shown that the nitrogen diffusivity and solubility in nickel-base alloys is influenced particularly by the chromium concentration. An increasing chromium content leads to an enhanced internal-nitridation attack. (orig.)

  16. dK/da effects on the SCC growth rates of nickel base alloys in high-temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Jiamei; Du, Donghai; Andresen, Peter L.; Zhang, Lefu

    2018-05-01

    The effect of dK/da on crack growth behavior of nickel base alloys has been studied by conducting stress corrosion cracking tests under positive and negative dK/da loading conditions on Alloys 690, 600 and X-750 in high temperature water. Results indicate that positive dK/da accelerates the SCC growth rates, and the accelerating effect increases with dK/da and the initial CGR. The FRI model was found to underestimate the dK/da effect by ∼100X, especially for strain hardening materials, and this underscores the need for improved insight and models for crack tip strain rate. The effect of crack tip strain rate and dK/dt in particular can explain the dK/da accelerating effect.

  17. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  18. Titanium oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, W.; Vandermeulen, W.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on the DT02 and DT3911 ferritic dispersion strengthened alloys, developed at SCK/CEN, Mol, Belgium, are presented. Both alloys consist of Fe - 13% Cr - 1.5% Mo to which 2% TiO 2 and about 3.5% Ti are added (wt.%). Their main use is for the fabrication of fast breeder reactor cladding tubes but their application as turbine blade material is also envisaged for cases where high damping is important. (auth.)

  19. Corrosion of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys in solutions of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, E.M.; Renner, M.

    1992-01-01

    Reactions involving nitric acid may always result in the contamination of this acid with fluorides. In highly concentrted nitric acid, the presence of small amounts of HF will substantially reduce the corrosion of metallic materials. Mixtures consisting of hydrofluoric acid and hypo-azeotropic nitric acid on the other hand will strongly attack: the metal loss will markedly increase with increasing HNO 3 and HF concentrations as well as with rising temperatures. The investigation covered 12 stainless steel grades and nickel-base alloys. With constant HNO 3 content, corrosion rates will rise linearly when increasing the HF concentration. With constant HF concentration (0,25 M), corrosion rates will increase rapidly with increasing nitric acid concentration (from 0.3 M to 14.8 M). This can best be described by superimposing a linear function and a hyperbolic function that is reflecting the change in the HNO 3 content. Alloys containing as much chromium as possible (up to 46 wt.%) will exhibit the best corrosion resistance. Alloy NiCr30FeMo (Hastelloy alloy G-30) proved to be well suitable in this investigation. (orig.) [de

  20. Tungsten wire--nickel base alloy composite development. Contractor report, 1 Jun 1974--29 Feb 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brentnall, W.D.; Moracz, D.J.

    1976-03-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed, and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W--Hf--C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/m 2 (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics

  1. Using the PSCPCSP computer software for optimization of the composition of industrial alloys and development of new high-temperature nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtishchev, V. V.

    1995-11-01

    Using computer programs some foreign firms have developed new deformable and castable high-temperature nickel-base alloys such as IN, Rene, Mar-M, Udimet, TRW, TM, TMS, TUT, with equiaxial, columnar, and single-crystal structures for manufacturing functional and nozzle blades and other parts of the hot duct of transport and stationary gas-turbine installations (GTI). Similar investigations have been carried out in Russia. This paper presents examples of the use of the PSCPCSP computer software for a quantitative analysis of structural und phase characteristics and properties of industrial alloys with change (within the grade range) in the concentrations of the alloying elements for optimizing the composition of the alloys and regimes of their heat treatment.

  2. Effect of Laser Power on Metallurgical, Mechanical and Tribological Characteristics of Hardfaced Surfaces of Nickel-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, S.; Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this present work, nickel based alloy was deposited on 316 LN austenitic stainless steel (ASS) by a laser hardfacing technique to investigate the influence of laser power on macrostructure, microstructure, microhardness, dilution and wear characteristics. The laser power varied from 1.1 to 1.9 kW. The phase constitution, microstructure and microhardness were examined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The wear characteristics of the hardfaced surfaces and substrate were evaluated at room temperature (RT) under dry sliding wear condition (pin-on-disc). The outcome demonstrates that as the laser power increases, dilution increases and hardness of the deposit decreases. This is because excess heat melts more volume of substrate material and increases the dilution; subsequently it decreases the hardness of the deposit. The microstructure of the deposit is characterized by Ni-rich carbide, boride and silicide.

  3. Corrosion characterisation of laser beam and tungsten inert gas weldment of nickel base alloys: Micro-cell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Geogy J.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.; Raja, V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Grain matrix showed better corrosion resistance than grain boundary. • Microcell studies showed distinct corrosion behaviour of individual regions of weldment. • TIG welding resulted in increased stable anodic current density on weld fusion zone. • LB welding resulted in high stable anodic current density for heat affected zone. - Abstract: The electrochemical studies using micro-cell technique gave new understanding of electrochemical behaviour of nickel base alloys in solution annealed and welded conditions. The welding simulated regions depicted varied micro structural features. In case of tungsten inert gas (TIG) weldments, the weld fusion zone (WFZ) showed least corrosion resistance among all other regions. For laser beam (LB) weldments it was the heat-affected zone (HAZ) that showed comparatively high stable anodic current density. The high heat input of TIG welding resulted in slower heat dissipation hence increased carbide precipitation and segregation in WFZ resulting in high stable anodic current density

  4. Modeling the initiation of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in nickel base alloys 182 and 82 of Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehbi, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    Nickel base welds are widely used to assemble components of the primary circuit of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) plants. International experience shows an increasing number of Stress Corrosion Cracks (SCC) in nickel base welds 182 and 82 which motivates the development of models predicting the time to SCC initiation for these materials. SCC involves several parameters such as materials, mechanics or environment interacting together. The goal of this study is to have a better understanding of the physical mechanisms occurring at grains boundaries involved in SCC. In-situ tensile test carried out on oxidized alloy 182 evidenced dispersion in the susceptibility to corrosion of grain boundaries. Moreover, the correlation between oxidation and cracking coupled with micro-mechanical simulations on synthetic polycrystalline aggregate, allowed to propose a cracking criterion of oxidized grain boundaries which is defined by both critical oxidation depth and local stress level. Due to the key role of intergranular oxidation in SCC and since significant dispersion is observed between grain boundaries, oxidation tests were performed on alloys 182 and 82 in order to model the intergranular oxidation kinetics as a function of chromium carbides precipitation, temperature and dissolved hydrogen content. The model allows statistical analyses and is embedded in a local initiation model. In this model, SCC initiation is defined by the cracking of the intergranular oxide and is followed by slow and fast crack growth until the crack depth reaches a given value. Simplifying assumptions were necessary to identify laws used in the SCC model. However, these laws will be useful to determine experimental conditions of future investigations carried out to improve the calibration used parameters. (author)

  5. Nickel-based gadolinium alloy for neutron adsorption application in ram packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robino, C.; McConnell, P.; Mizia, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will outline the results of a metallurgical development program that is investigating the alloying of gadolinium into a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy matrix. Gadolinium has been chosen as the neutron absorption alloying element due to its high thermal neutron absorption cross section and low solubility in the expected U.S. repository environment. The nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy family was chosen for its known corrosion performance, mechanical properties, and weldability. The workflow of this program includes chemical composition definition, primary and secondary melting studies, ingot conversion processes, properties testing, and national consensus codes and standards work. The microstructural investigation of these alloys shows that the gadolinium addition is not soluble in the primary austenite metallurgical phase and is present in the alloy as gadolinium-rich second phase. This is similar to what is observed in a stainless steel alloyed with boron. The mechanical strength values are similar to those expected for commercial Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. The alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated Yucca Mountain aqueous chemistries with acceptable results. The initial results of weldability tests have also been acceptable. Neutronic testing in a moderated critical array has generated favorable results. An American Society for Testing and Materials material specification has been issued for the alloy and a Code Case has been submitted to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for code qualification. The ultimate goal is acceptance of the alloy for use at the Yucca Mountain repository

  6. Electroless nickel-plating for the PWSCC mitigation of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility study has been performed as an effort to apply the electroless nickel-plating method for a proposed countermeasure to mitigate primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants. In order to understand the corrosion behavior of nickel-plating at high temperature water, the electrochemical properties of electroless nickel-plated alloy 600 specimens exposed to simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water were experimentally characterized in high temperature and high pressure water condition. And, the resistance to the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) test was investigated to check the durability of plated layers in high-velocity water-flowing environment at high temperature. The plated surfaces were examined by using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after exposures to the condition. From this study, it is found that the corrosion resistance of electroless nickel-plated Alloy 600 is higher than that of electrolytic plating in 290 deg. C water

  7. Nickel-base alloys having a low coefficient of thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.F.; Maxwell, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Alloy compositions consisting predominantly of nickel, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, and boron are disclosed. The alloys possess a duplex structure consisting of a nickel--chromium--molybdenum matrix and a semi-continuous network of refractory carbides and borides. A combination of desirable properties is provided by these alloys, including elevated temperature strength, resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion, and a very low coefficient of thermal expansion

  8. Influence of Chromium and Molybdenum on the Corrosion of Nickel Based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J R; Gray, J; Szmodis, A W; Orme, C A

    2005-01-01

    The addition of chromium and molybdenum to nickel creates alloys with exceptional corrosion resistance in a diverse range of environments. This study examines the complementary roles of Cr and Mo in Ni alloy passivation. Four nickel alloys with varying amounts of chromium and molybdenum were studied in 1 molar salt solutions over a broad pH range. The passive corrosion and breakdown behavior of the alloys suggests that chromium is the primary element influencing general corrosion resistance. The breakdown potential was nearly independent of molybdenum content, while the repassivation potential is strongly dependant on the molybdenum content. This indicates that chromium plays a strong role in maintaining the passivity of the alloy, while molybdenum acts to stabilize the passive film after a localized breakdown event

  9. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakine, C.; Prioul, C.; Alamo, A.; Francois, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two 13%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys, DT and DY, exhibiting different oxide particle size distribution and a χ phase precipitation were studied. Their tensile properties have been tested from 20 to 700 C. Experimental observations during room temperature tensile tests performed in a scanning electronic microscope have shown that the main damage mechanism consists in microcracking of the χ phase precipitates on grain boundaries. These alloys are high tensile and creep resistant between 500 and 700 C. Their strongly stress-sensitive creep behaviour can be described by usual creep laws and incorporating a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. (orig.)

  10. Preparation of nickel-based amorphous alloys with finely dispersed lead and lead-bismuth particles and their superconducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Oguchi, M.; Harakawa, Y.; Masumoto, T.; Matsuzaki, K.

    1986-01-01

    The application of the melt-quenching technique to Ni-Si-B-Pb, Ni-P-B-Pb, Ni-Si-B-Pb-Bi and Ni-P-B-Pb-Bi alloys containing immiscible elements such as lead and bismuth has been tried and it has been found to result in the formation of a new type of material consisting of fine fcc Pb or hcp epsilon(Pb-Bi) + bct X(Pb-Bi) particles dispersed uniformly in the nickel-based amorphous matrix. The particle size and interparticle distance were 1 to 3 and 1 to 4 μm, respectively, for the lead phase, and less than 0.2 to 0.5 μm and 0.2 to 1.0 μm for the Pb-Bi phase. The uniform dispersion of such fine particles into the amorphous matrix was achieved in the composition range below about 6 at% Pb and 7 at% (Pb+Bi). Additionally, these amorphous alloys have been found to exhibit a superconductivity by the proximity effect of fcc Pb or epsilon(Pb-Bi) superconducting particles. The transition temperature Tsub(c) was in the range 6.8 to 7.5 K for the Ni-Si (or P)-B-Pb alloys and 8.6 to 8.8 K for the Ni-Si (or P)-B-Pb-Bi alloys. The upper critical field Hsub(c2) and the critical current density Jsub(c) for (Nisub(0.8)Psub(0.1)Bsub(0.1)) 95 Pb 3 Bi 2 at 4.2 K were, respectively, about 1.6 T and of the order of 7 x 10 7 Am -2 at zero applied field. (author)

  11. Mathematical simulation and optimization of cutting mode in turning of workpieces made of nickel-based heat-resistant alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoljubova, M. N.; Afonasov, A. I.; Kozlov, B. N.; Shavdurov, D. E.

    2018-05-01

    A predictive simulation technique of optimal cutting modes in the turning of workpieces made of nickel-based heat-resistant alloys, different from the well-known ones, is proposed. The impact of various factors on the cutting process with the purpose of determining optimal parameters of machining in concordance with certain effectiveness criteria is analyzed in the paper. A mathematical model of optimization, algorithms and computer programmes, visual graphical forms reflecting dependences of the effectiveness criteria – productivity, net cost, and tool life on parameters of the technological process - have been worked out. A nonlinear model for multidimensional functions, “solution of the equation with multiple unknowns”, “a coordinate descent method” and heuristic algorithms are accepted to solve the problem of optimization of cutting mode parameters. Research shows that in machining of workpieces made from heat-resistant alloy AISI N07263, the highest possible productivity will be achieved with the following parameters: cutting speed v = 22.1 m/min., feed rate s=0.26 mm/rev; tool life T = 18 min.; net cost – 2.45 per hour.

  12. A model for strain hardening, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth with applications to forming processes of nickel base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.riedel@iwm.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Materials Mechanics, Wöhlerstr. 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Svoboda, Jiri, E-mail: svobj@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-05-17

    An ensemble of n spherical grains is considered, each of which is characterized by its radius r{sub i} and by a hardening variable a{sub i}. The hardening variable obeys a Chaboche-type evolution equation with dynamic and static recovery. The grain growth law includes the usual contribution of the grain boundary energy, a term for the stored energy associated with the hardening variable, and the Zener pinning force exerted by particles on the migrating grain boundaries. New grains develop by recrystallization in grains whose stored energy density exceeds a critical value. The growth or shrinkage of the particles, which restrain grain boundary migration, obeys a thermodynamic/kinetic evolution equation. This set of first order differential equations for r{sub i}, a{sub i} and the particle radius is integrated numerically. Fictitious model parameters for a virtual nickel base alloy are used to demonstrate the properties and capabilities of the model. For a real nickel alloy, model parameters are adjusted using measured stress-strain curves, as well as recrystallized volume fractions and grain size distributions. Finally the model with adjusted parameters is applied to a forming process with complex temperature-strain rate histories.

  13. Effect of test temperature on tensile and fatigue properties of nickel-base heat-resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime

    1987-01-01

    A series of tensile and strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from RT to 900 0 C on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy, Hastelloy XR-II, which is one of the candidate alloys for applications in the process heating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Fatigue tests at room temperature and all tensile tests were conducted in air, while fatigue tests at and above 400 0 C were conducted in the simulated HTGR helium environment. In those tests the effect of test temperature on tensile and fatigue properties was investigated. The ductility minimum point was observed near 600 0 C, while tensile and fatigue strengths decreased with increasing test temperature. The fatigue lives estimated with the method proposed by Manson were compatible with the experimental results under the given conditions. For the specimens fatigued at and above 700 0 C, the percentage of the intergranular fracture mode gradually increased with increasing test temperature. (orig.)

  14. Design criteria for rhenium-reduced nickel-based single-crystal alloys. Identification and computer-assisted conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, design criteria and property models for the creep strength optimization of rhenium-free nickel based single crystal Superalloys are investigated. The study focuses on a typical load condition of 1050 C and 150 MPa, which is representative for flight engine applications. Thereby the key aspect is to link chemical composition, manufacturing processes, microstructure formation and mechanistic understanding of dislocation creep through a computational materials engineering approach. Beside the positive effect of rhenium on solid solution hardening, a second mechanism in which rhenium increases high temperature creep strength is identified. It indirectly stabilizes precipitation hardening by reducing the coarsening kinetics of γ'-rafting. Five 1st and 2nd generation technical Superalloys show a comparable microstructure evolution for up to 2 % plastic elongation, while creep times differ by a factor of five. The application of a microstructure sensitive creep model shows that these coarsening processes can activate γ-cutting and thus lead to an increasing creep rate. Based on these calculations a threshold value of φ γ/γ' > 2,5 at 150 MPa is estimated. This ratio of matrix channel to raft thickness has been proofed for multiple positions by microstructure analysis of interrupted creep tests. The mechanism described previously can be decelerated by the enrichment of the γ-matrix with slow diffusing elements. The same principle also increases the solid solution strength of the γ-matrix. Therefore, the present work delivers an additional mechanistic explanation why creep properties of single phase nickel based alloys can be transferred to two phase technical Superalloys with rafted γ'-structure. Following, the best way to substitute both rhenium fundamental properties, namely a slow diffusion coefficient and a small solubility in g', has been investigated by means of CALPHAD-modeling. Only molybdenum and especially tungsten

  15. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Until 2050 the renewable energies should provide 80% of the power in Germany according to Renewable Energy law. Due to that reason the conventional power plants are not used for base load, but rather for the supply of average and peak load. The change of the operating mode leads to shorter times at stationary temperatures and the number of faster start-ups/shut-downs of the power plants will increase. As a result of this the components are exposed to an interacting load of creep and fatigue which reduces the lifetimes. The aim of this thesis is the development and verification of a lifetime assessment procedure for components made of the nickel-base alloys Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 under creep fatigue loading conditions based on numerical phenomenological models and on the approaches of different standards/recommendations. The focus lies on two components of the high temperature material test rig II (HWT II), a header made of Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 as well as a formed part made of Alloy 617 mod. For the basis characterization of the HWT II melts, specimens of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 are tested in uniaxial tensile tests, (creep-)fatigue tests, creep tests and charpy tests in a temperature range between 20 C and 725 C. From the comparisons of the test results and the material specifications respectively the results of the projects COORETEC DE4, MARCKO DE2 and MARCKO700 no deviations were obvious for both materials with the exception of the creep test results with Alloy 617 mod. material. The creep tests with Alloy 617 mod. material of the HWT II melt show differences regarding the deformation and damage behavior. In addition to the basis characterization tests some complex lab tests for the characterization of the material behavior under creep-fatigue and multiaxial loading conditions were conducted. The developments of the microstructure, the precipitations as well as the structure of dislocations are investigated in the light optical microscope

  16. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al 2 O 3 , is very similar to the GlidCop trademark alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to ∼3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90 degrees C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of ±0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as ∼2 x 10 -9 s -1 . These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys

  17. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  18. Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Han, Jiesheng; Lu, Jinjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jianmin, E-mail: chenjm@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 was studied by ultrasonic apparatus. • The cavitation-induced precipitates formed in the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. • The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. - Abstract: The cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 alloy was investigated using an ultrasonic vibratory apparatus and compared with that of 316L stainless steel. The mean depth of erosion (MDE) and erosion rate (ER) curves vs. test time were attained for Hastelloy C-276 alloy. Morphology and microstructure evolution of the eroded surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the predominant erosion mechanism was also discussed. The results show that the MDE is about 1/6 times lower than that of the stainless steel after 9 h of testing. The incubation period of Hastelloy C-276 alloy is about 3 times longer than that of 316L stainless steel. The cavitation-induced nanometer-scaled precipitates were found in the local zones of the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. The formation of nanometer-scaled precipitates in the eroded surface may play a significant role in the cavitation erosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276.

  19. Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen; Han, Jiesheng; Lu, Jinjun; Chen, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 was studied by ultrasonic apparatus. • The cavitation-induced precipitates formed in the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. • The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. - Abstract: The cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 alloy was investigated using an ultrasonic vibratory apparatus and compared with that of 316L stainless steel. The mean depth of erosion (MDE) and erosion rate (ER) curves vs. test time were attained for Hastelloy C-276 alloy. Morphology and microstructure evolution of the eroded surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the predominant erosion mechanism was also discussed. The results show that the MDE is about 1/6 times lower than that of the stainless steel after 9 h of testing. The incubation period of Hastelloy C-276 alloy is about 3 times longer than that of 316L stainless steel. The cavitation-induced nanometer-scaled precipitates were found in the local zones of the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. The formation of nanometer-scaled precipitates in the eroded surface may play a significant role in the cavitation erosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276

  20. Low cycle fatigue life of two nickel-base casting alloys in a hydrogen environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of low cycle fatigue tests on alloy Mar-M-246 and Inconel 713 are presented. Based on the limited data, it was concluded that the Mar-M-246 material had a cyclic life in hydrogen that averaged three times higher than the alloy 713LC material for similar strain ranges. The hydrogen environment reduced life for both materials. The life reduction was more than an order of magnitude for the 713LC material. Porosity content of the cast specimens was as expected and was an important factor governing low cycle fatigue life

  1. High temperature oxidation and electrochemical investigations on nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obigodi-Ndjeng, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined high-temperature oxidation behavior of different Ni-base alloys. In addition, electrochemical characterization of the alloy's corrosion behavior was carried out, including comparison of the properties of native passive films grown at room temperature and high temperature oxide scales. PWA 1483 (single-crystalline Ni-base superalloy) and model alloys Ni-Cr-X (where X is either Co or Al) were oxidized at 800 and 900 C in air for different time periods. The superalloy showed the best oxidation behavior at both temperatures, which might be due to the fact that the oxidation growth function is subparabolic for the model alloys and parabolic for the superalloy at 800 C. At higher temperatures, changes in the kinetics are induced, as the oxides grow faster, thus only PWA 1483 growth follows the parabolic law. Different scales in a typical sandwich form were detected, with the inner layer comprised of mostly Cr 2 O 3 , the middle layer was mixture of different oxides and spinels, depending on the alloying elements, and the oxide at the interface oxygen/oxide was found to be NiO. The influence of sample preparation could also be shown, as rougher surfaces change the oxidation kinetics from parabolic and subparabolic for polished samples to linear. The influence of moisture on the oxidation behavior of the 2 nd generation single crystal Ni-base superalloys (PWA 1484, PWA 1487, CMSX 4, Rene N5 and Rene N5+) was studied at 1000 C after 100 h oxidation period. It was found that the moisture increased the oxidation rate and mostly the transient oxides growth rate. The water vapor content in air also influenced the behavior of these alloys, as they showed a higher mass gain in air + 30% water vapor than in air + 10% water vapor. The alloys PWA 1484 and CMSX 4 showed respectively the worst and best behavior in all the studied atmospheres. The addition of reactive elements, such as Yttrium, Hafnium and Lanthanum is likely to enhance the oxidation behavior of PWA

  2. Growth Stresses in Thermally Grown Oxides on Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, Luke H.; Laux, Britta; He, Ming Y.; Hovis, David; Heuer, Arthur H.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-03-01

    Growth stresses that develop in α-Al2O3 scale that form during isothermal oxidation of three Ni-based single crystal alloys have been studied to elucidate their role in coating and substrate degradation at elevated temperatures. Piezospectroscopy measurements at room temperature indicate large room temperature compressive stresses in the oxides formed at 1255 K or 1366 K (982 °C or 1093 °C) on the alloys, ranging from a high of 4.8 GPa for René N4 at 1366 K (1093 °C) to a low of 3.8 GPa for René N5 at 1255 K (982 °C). Finite element modeling of each of these systems to account for differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of the oxide and substrate indicates growth strains in the range from 0.21 to 0.44 pct at the oxidation temperature, which is an order of magnitude higher than the growth strains measured in the oxides on intermetallic coatings that are typically applied to these superalloys. The magnitudes of the growth strains do not scale with the parabolic oxidation rate constants measured for the alloys. Significant spatial inhomogeneities in the growth stresses were observed, due to (i) the presence of dendritic segregation and (ii) large carbides in the material that locally disrupts the structure of the oxide scale. The implications of these observations for failure during cyclic oxidation, fatigue cycling, and alloy design are considered.

  3. Stiffness-constant variation in nickel-based alloys: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennion, M.; Hennion, B.

    1979-01-01

    Recent measurements of the spin-wave stiffness constant in several nickel alloys at various concentrations are interpreted within a random-phase approximation, coherent-potential approximation (RPA-CPA) band model which uses the Hartree-Fock approximation to treat the intraatomic correlations. We give a theoretical description of the possible impurity states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. This allows the determination of the Hartree-Fock solutions which can account for the stiffness-constant behavior and the magnetic moment on the impurity for all the investigated alloys. For alloys such as NiCr, NiV, NiMo, and NiRu, the magnetizations of which deviate from the Slater-Pauling curve, our determination does not correspond to previous works and is consequently discussed. The limits of the model appear mainly due to local-environment effects; in the case of NiMn, it is found that a ternary-alloy model with some Mn atoms in the antiferromagnetic state can account for both stiffness-constant and magnetization behaviors

  4. Study of superficial films and of electrochemical behaviour of some nickel base alloys and titanium base alloys in solution representation of granitic, argillaceous and salted ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quang, K.V.; Da Cunha Belo, M.; Benabed, M.S.; Bourelier, F.; Jallerat, N.; Pari, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of the stainless steels 304, 316 Ti, 25Cr-20Ni-Mo-Ti, nickel base alloys Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Ti and Ti-0.2% Pd alloy has been studied in the aerated or deaerated solutions at 20 0 C and 90 0 C whose compositions are representative of interstitial ground waters: granitic or clay waters or salt brine. The electrochemical techniques used are voltametry, polarization resistance and complexe impedance measurements. Electrochemical data show the respective influence of the parameters such as temperature, solution composition and dissolved oxygen, addition of soluble species chloride, fluoride, sulfide and carbonates, on which depend the corrosion current density, the passivation and the pitting potential. The inhibition efficiency of carbonate and bicarbonate activities against pitting corrosion is determined. In clay water at 90 0 C, Ti and Ti-Pd show very high passivation aptitude and a broad passive potential range. Alloying Pd increases cathodic overpotential and also transpassive potential. It makes the alloy less sensitive to the temperature effect. Optical Glow Discharge Spectra show three parts in the composition depth profiles of surface films on alloys. XPS and SIMS spectrometry analyses are also carried out. Electron microscopy observation shows that passive films formed on Ti and Ti-Pd alloy have amorphous structure. Analysis of the alloy constituents dissolved in solutions, by radioactivation in neutrons, gives the order of magnitude of the Ni base alloy corrosion rates in various media. It also points out the preferential dissolution of alloying iron and in certain cases of chromium

  5. Effect of preconditioning cobalt and nickel based dental alloys with Bacillus sp. extract on their surface physicochemical properties and theoretical prediction of Candida albicans adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balouiri, Mounyr, E-mail: b.mounyr@gmail.com [Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, BP 2202, 30007 Fez (Morocco); Bouhdid, Samira [Faculté des Sciences de Tétouan, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Avenue de Sebta, Mhannech II, 93002 Tétouan (Morocco); Sadiki, Moulay; Ouedrhiri, Wessal; Barkai, Hassan; El Farricha, Omar [Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, BP 2202, 30007 Fez (Morocco); Ibnsouda, Saad Koraichi [Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, BP 2202, 30007 Fez (Morocco); Cité de l' innovation, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, BP 2626, 30007 Fez (Morocco); Harki, El Houssaine [Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, BP 2202, 30007 Fez (Morocco)

    2017-02-01

    Biofilm formation on dental biomaterials is implicated in various oral health problems. Thus the challenge is to prevent the formation of this consortium of microorganisms using a safe approach such as antimicrobial and anti-adhesive natural products. Indeed, in the present study, the effects of an antifungal extract of Bacillus sp., isolated from plant rhizosphere, on the surface physicochemical properties of cobalt and nickel based dental alloys were studied using the contact angle measurements. Furthermore, in order to predict the adhesion of Candida albicans to the treated and untreated dental alloys, the total free energy of adhesion was calculated based on the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approach. Results showed hydrophobic and weak electron-donor and electron-acceptor characteristics of both untreated dental alloys. After treatment with the antifungal extract, the surface free energy of both dental alloys was influenced significantly, mostly for cobalt based alloy. In fact, treated cobalt based alloy became hydrophilic and predominantly electron donating. Those effects were time-dependent. Consequently, the total free energy of adhesion of C. albicans to this alloy became unfavorable after treatment with the investigated microbial extract. A linear relationship between the electron-donor property and the total free energy of adhesion has been found for both dental alloys. Also, a linear relationship has been found between this latter and the hydrophobicity for the cobalt based alloy. However, the exposure of nickel based alloy to the antifungal extract failed to produce the same effect. - Highlights: • Assessment of dental alloys physicochemical properties using contact angle method • Evaluation for the first time of microbial coating impact on dental alloys surface • Decrease of hydrophobicity of treated cobalt-chromium alloy with antifungal extract • Increase of Lewis base property of treated cobalt-chromium with treatment

  6. Effect of preconditioning cobalt and nickel based dental alloys with Bacillus sp. extract on their surface physicochemical properties and theoretical prediction of Candida albicans adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balouiri, Mounyr; Bouhdid, Samira; Sadiki, Moulay; Ouedrhiri, Wessal; Barkai, Hassan; El Farricha, Omar; Ibnsouda, Saad Koraichi; Harki, El Houssaine

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation on dental biomaterials is implicated in various oral health problems. Thus the challenge is to prevent the formation of this consortium of microorganisms using a safe approach such as antimicrobial and anti-adhesive natural products. Indeed, in the present study, the effects of an antifungal extract of Bacillus sp., isolated from plant rhizosphere, on the surface physicochemical properties of cobalt and nickel based dental alloys were studied using the contact angle measurements. Furthermore, in order to predict the adhesion of Candida albicans to the treated and untreated dental alloys, the total free energy of adhesion was calculated based on the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approach. Results showed hydrophobic and weak electron-donor and electron-acceptor characteristics of both untreated dental alloys. After treatment with the antifungal extract, the surface free energy of both dental alloys was influenced significantly, mostly for cobalt based alloy. In fact, treated cobalt based alloy became hydrophilic and predominantly electron donating. Those effects were time-dependent. Consequently, the total free energy of adhesion of C. albicans to this alloy became unfavorable after treatment with the investigated microbial extract. A linear relationship between the electron-donor property and the total free energy of adhesion has been found for both dental alloys. Also, a linear relationship has been found between this latter and the hydrophobicity for the cobalt based alloy. However, the exposure of nickel based alloy to the antifungal extract failed to produce the same effect. - Highlights: • Assessment of dental alloys physicochemical properties using contact angle method • Evaluation for the first time of microbial coating impact on dental alloys surface • Decrease of hydrophobicity of treated cobalt-chromium alloy with antifungal extract • Increase of Lewis base property of treated cobalt-chromium with treatment

  7. Corrosion behaviour of material no. 1. 4539 and nickel based alloys in gas waters. Korrosionsverhalten des Werkstoffs 1. 4539 und von Nickelbasis-Legierungen in Gaswaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolle, D [Didier Saeurebau GmbH, Koenigswinter (Germany); Buehler, H E [Didier-Werke AG, Anlagentechnik, Wiesbaden (Germany); Kalfa, H

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory tests with synthetic gas waters containing the gases ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen cyanide were carried out in order to examine the influence of medium components on the corrosion of material No. 1.4539 and nickel based alloys Hastelloy C-4, C-22 and C-276. Hydrogen sulfide was identified as the decisive component for corrosion. For stainless steel corrosion rates of about 2 mm.a[sup -1] were already found at 50deg C in a critical pH-range with sulfide concentrations > 2%. As cyanide stimulates corrosion by dissolving sulfide surface layers by complexation of the iron ions, an increased material loss rate per unit area was found in the critical range with increasing cyanide concentration. The much more stable nickel based alloys only revealed considerable weight losses after being exposed in the autoclave at 100deg C. The graduation of the loss rates C-22 > C-4 > C-276 can be explained by the different contents of high grade alloy elements. The testing of nickel based alloys of the Hastelloy type and of material No. 1.4539 and 1.4571 by means of the dynamic tensile test (CERT-method) revealed no risks of stress corrosion cracking in the tested media. (orig.).

  8. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)]|[Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Jolivet, P.; Scott, P. [Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Foucault, M.; Combrade, P. [Framatome ANP, Centre Technique, F-71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2004-07-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  9. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machet, A.; Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P.; Jolivet, P.; Scott, P.; Foucault, M.; Combrade, P.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr 2 O 3 oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  10. Quantitative analysis of chromium concentration in nickel based alloys by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure using a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.P.; Suri, B.M.; Verma, A.; Sundararaman, M.; Unnikrishnan, V.K.; Alti, K.; Kartha, V.B.; Santhosh, C.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been well recognized as a simple, fast and direct analytical technique of elemental analysis of multi-element materials by a number of research groups all over the world. It is based on the focusing of a high-power pulsed laser beam with a power density > 100 MW/cm 2 onto a sample surface followed by optical emission spectroscopy of the plasma produced over the surface. In the present work, they have carried out the quantitative analysis of chromium in nickel-based-alloys using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in air at atmospheric pressure. In the present work the quantitative analysis of chromium in nickel-based-alloys using laser-induced break-down spectroscopy (LIBS) in air at atmospheric pressure has been carried out

  11. Characterization of wear mechanism by tribo-corrosion of nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Some components of nuclear power plants, as steam generator tubes are made from Ni base alloys. These components are exposed to severe environment of high temperature and high pressure and submitted to contact mechanical stresses. These Ni - based alloys properties are determined by their ability to form on their surface an inner protective barrier film mainly composed of Cr 2 O 3 . The steam generator tubes are among the most difficult components to maintain, on the hand, because of their safety importance and secondly, the exchange tubes are subject to various degradation mechanisms, because of the harsh conditions of work. Wear by tribo-corrosion is a physicochemical aging mechanism which occurs in the management of the nuclear power plants life time. Tribo-corrosion is an irreversible process which involves mechanical and chemical / electrochemical interactions between surfaces in relative motion, in the presence of a corrosive environment. The goal of this study was to quantify in terms of quantity and quality the wear generated by tribo-corrosion process on Ni - Cr model alloys. Two model alloys: Ni -15Cr and Ni -30Cr were used to highlight, evaluate and compare the influence of the chromium content on the formation of the protective oxide layer and the role played by the latter one on the kinetics and mechanisms of wear by tribo-corrosion. The tribo-corrosion experiments were performed by using a pin-on-disc tribometer under controlled electrochemical conditions in LiOH - H 3 BO 3 solution. The corrosion - wear degradation of the protective layer during continuous and intermittent unidirectional sliding tests was investigated by a three-stage tribo-corrosion protocol. In the first stage, electrochemical techniques (open circuit potential measurements and electrochemical impedance measurements) were used without applying unidirectional sliding to monitor and evaluate the characteristics of protective oxide layer formed on the surface of the two model alloys

  12. Lubricating Properties of Ceramic-Bonded Calcium Fluoride Coatings on Nickel-Base Alloys from 75 to 1900 deg F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1962-01-01

    The endurance life and the friction coefficient of ceramic-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) coatings on nickel-base alloys were determined at temperatures from 75 F to 1900 F. The specimen configuration consisted of a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad.) sliding against the flat surface of a rotating disk. Increasing the ambient temperature (up to 1500 F) or the sliding velocity generally reduced the friction coefficient and improved coating life. Base-metal selection was critical above 1500 F. For instance, cast Inconel sliding against coated Inconel X was lubricated effectively to 1500 F, but at 1600 F severe blistering of the coatings occurred. However, good lubrication and adherence were obtained for Rene 41 sliding against coated Rene 41 at temperatures up to 1900 F; no blisters developed, coating wear life was fairly good, and the rider wear rate was significantly lower than for the unlubricated metals. Friction coefficients were 0.12 at 1500 F, 0.15 at 1700 F, and 0.17 at 1800 F and 1900 F. Because of its ready availability, Inconel X appears to be the preferred substrate alloy for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 1500 F. Rene 41 would have to be used in applications involving higher temperatures. Improved coating life was derived by either preoxidizing the substrate metals prior to the coating application or by applying a very thin (less than 0.0002 in.) burnished and sintered overlay to the surface of the coating. Preoxidation did not affect the friction coefficient. The overlay generally resulted in a higher friction coefficient than that obtained without the overlay. The combination of both modifications resulted in longer coating life and in friction coefficients intermediate between those obtained with either modification alone.

  13. Nickel based alloys for molten salt applications in pyrochemical reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningshen, S.; Ravi Shankar, A.; Rao, Ch. Jagadeeswara; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing route is one of the best option for reprocessing of spent metallic nuclear fuel from future fast breeder in many countries, especially in the US (Integral fast reactor, IFR), Russia (Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, RIAR), Japan, Korea and India. This technology with intrinsic nuclear proliferation resistance is regarded as one of the most promising nuclear fuel cycle technologies of the next-generation. However, the selection of materials of construction for pyrochemical reprocessing plants is challenging because of the extreme environments, i.e., high radiation, corrosive molten salt (LiCl-KCl, LiCl-KCl-CsCl, KCl-NaCl-MgCl 2 , etc.), reactive molten metals, and high temperature. Efforts have been made to develop compatible materials for various unit operations like salt preparation, electrorefining, cathode processing and alloy casting in pyrochemical reprocessing. Nickel and its alloy are the candidate materials for salt purification exposed to molten LiCl-KCl under Cl 2 bubbling, in air or ultra high purity argon environment. In the present study, the corrosion behavior of candidate materials like Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel 690 exposed to molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt environment at 500 to 600 °C have been carried out. The surface morphology of the exposed samples and scales were examined by SEM/EDX and XRD. The weight loss results indicated that Inconel 600 and Inconel 690 offer better corrosion resistance compared to Inconel 625 in air and chlorine environment. Higher corrosion of Inconel 625 is attributed to development of Mo rich salt layers. However, Ni base alloys exhibited a decreasing trend of weight loss with increasing time of exposure and weight gain was observed under UHP Ar environment. The mechanism of corrosion of Ni base alloys appeared to be due to formation of Cr rich and Ni rich layers of Cr 2 O 3 , NiO and spinel oxides at the surface and subsequent spallation. Based on the present studies, Inconel 690

  14. Comparison of brazed joints made with BNi-1 and BNi-7 nickel-base brazing alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorc, Borut

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of the processes are different with different types of brazing alloys. Precipitation processes in the parent metal close to the brazing gap are of great importance. They control the mechanical properties of the joint area when the brittle eutectic has disappeared from the gap. A comparative study of brazed joints on austenitic stainless alloys made with BNi-7 (Ni-P type and BNi-1 (Ni-Si-B type brazing alloys was made. Brazing alloys containing phosphorus behave in a different manner to those containing boron.

    Las aleaciones de níquel se producen mediante tres sistemas de aleación: Ni-P, Ni-Si y Ni-B. Durante las reacciones metalúrgicas con el metal de base, la eutéctica frágil en la separación soldada puede transformarse en la solución dúctil-sólida con todas aleaciones. La cinética del proceso varía según el tipo de aleación. Los procesos de precipitación en el metal de base cerca de la separación soldada son de mucha importancia, ya que controlan las propiedades mecánicas de la área de unión después de desaparecer la eutéctica frágil de la separación. Se ha hecho un análisis comparativo de uniones soldadas en aleaciones austeníticas inoxidables realizadas con aleaciones BNi-7 (tipo Ni-P y BNi-1 (tipo Ni-Si-B. Las aleaciones que contienen fósforo se comportan de una manera diferente, tanto con el cambio de la eutéctica a la solución sólida, como con los procesos de precipitación en el metal de base cerca de la unión soldada.

  15. Transient liquid phase bonding of titanium-, iron- and nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. H. M. Esfakur

    The operating temperature of land-based gas turbines and jet engines are ever-increasing to increase the efficiency, decrease the emissions and minimize the cost. Within the engines, complex-shaped parts experience extreme temperature, fatigue and corrosion conditions. Ti-based, Ni-based and Fe-based alloys are commonly used in gas turbines and jet engines depending on the temperatures of different sections. Although those alloys have superior mechanical, high temperature and corrosion properties, severe operating conditions cause fast degradation and failure of the components. Repair of these components could reduce lifecycle costs. Unfortunately, conventional fusion welding is not very attractive, because Ti reacts very easily with oxygen and nitrogen at high temperatures, Ni-based superalloys show heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking, and stainless steels show intergranular corrosion and knife-line attack. On the other hand, transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding method has been considered as preferred joining method for those types of alloys. During the initial phase of the current work commercially pure Ti, Fe and Ni were diffusion bonded using commercially available interlayer materials. Commercially pure Ti (Ti-grade 2) has been diffusion bonded using silver and copper interlayers and without any interlayer. With a silver (Ag) interlayer, different intermetallics (AgTi, AgTi2) appeared in the joint centerline microstructure. While with a Cu interlayer eutectic mixtures and Ti-Cu solid solutions appeared in the joint centerline. The maximum tensile strengths achieved were 160 MPa, 502 MPa, and 382 MPa when Ag, Cu and no interlayers were used, respectively. Commercially pure Fe (cp-Fe) was diffusion bonded using Cu (25 m) and Au-12Ge eutectic interlayer (100 microm). Cu diffused predominantly along austenite grain boundaries in all bonding conditions. Residual interlayers appeared at lower bonding temperature and time, however, voids were observed in the joint

  16. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  17. Application of ultrasonic inspection technique for crack depth sizing on nickel based alloy weld. Part 3. Establishment of UT procedure for crack depth sizing by phased array UT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Taiji; Okada, Hisao; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) was occurred at the nickel based alloy weld components such as steam generator safe end weld, reactor vessel safe end weld, and so on, in PWR. Defect detection and sizing is important in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plants. In the reactor vessel safe end weld, it was impossible to measure crack depth of PWSCC. The crack was detected in the axial direction of the safe end weld. Furthermore, the crack had some features such as shallow, large aspect ratio (ratio of crack depth and length), sharp geometry of crack tip, and so on. Therefore, development and improvement of defect detection and sizing capabilities for ultrasonic testing (UT) is required. Phased array technique was applied to nickel based alloy weld specimen with SCC cracks. From the experimental results, good accuracy of crack depth sizing by phased array UT for the inside inspection was shown. From these results, UT procedure for crack depth sizing was verified. Therefore, effectiveness of phased array UT for crack depth sizing in the nickel based alloy welds was shown. (author)

  18. Modelling of hydrogen assisted cracking of nickel-base Alloy X-750 in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Ballinger, R.G.; Hwang, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    A closed-form, semi-empirical, electrochemical model has been developed to rationalize the intergranular corrosion fatigue behavior of alloy X-750 in aqueous electrolytes. The model is based on the assumption that, in the electrolytes investigated and for the microstructures studied, that hydrogen assisted crack growth is the dominant mechanism. Further, it is assumed that the rate of hydrogen reduction is a controlling factor in the magnitude of the environmental component of crack growth. Electrolyte conductivity, dissolution and passivation kinetics of precipitates, grain boundary coverage of precipitates are identified as important environmental and microstructural variables governing the hydrogen reduction rate at the crack tip. The model is compared with experimental data for fatigue crack growth where hydrogen is supplied by external charging and with data where galvanically-generated local hydrogen is responsible for enhanced crack growth. It is shown that predicted results characterize the observed effects of frequency, microstructure, electrolyte conductivity, and stress intensity factor. The agreement between the hydrogen reduction model and measured crack growth rate is believed to support the proposed galvanic corrosion mechanism for the intergranular cracking of alloy X-750 in low temperature water

  19. Study of the corrosion of nickel base alloys in molten fluorides medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, St.; Finne, J.; Noel, D.; Catalette, H.; Cabet, C.; Chamelot, P.; Taxil, P.; Cassayre, L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the corrosion mechanisms of nickel and its alloys in molten fluoride media. In a first part, the behaviour of the pure alloy metals has been studied (Ni, Mo, W, Fe and Cr) in three different salts mixtures: LiF-NaF, LiF-CaF 2 and LiF-AlF 3 in a temperature range of 700-1000 C. An experimental assembly allowing the implementation of electrochemical methods has been fabricated and validated. Linear scanning volt-amperometry has been used for studying the corrosion reactions of metals. It has then been possible to obtain intensity-potential curves and to determine the currents and corrosion potentials by the plotting of Tafel straight lines. These experimental results have finely been interpreted in considering the thermodynamic data accessible in literature (potential-oxo-acidity diagrams of metals in salts built from HSC Chemistry 5.1) and the influence of temperature and the nature of the bath have been estimated. (O.M.)

  20. Fiber laser cladding of nickel-based alloy on cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-González, F., E-mail: felipeag@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Val, J. del [Applied Physics Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Comesaña, R. [Materials Engineering, Applied Mechanics and Construction Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Penide, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Fiber laser cladding of Ni-based alloy on cast iron was experimentally studied. • Two different types of cast iron have been analyzed: gray and ductile cast iron. • Suitable processing parameters to generate a Ni-based coating were determined. • Dilution is higher in gray cast iron samples than in ductile cast iron. • Ni-based coating presents higher hardness than cast iron but similar Young's modulus. - Abstract: Gray cast iron is a ferrous alloy characterized by a carbon-rich phase in form of lamellar graphite in an iron matrix while ductile cast iron presents a carbon-rich phase in form of spheroidal graphite. Graphite presents a higher laser beam absorption than iron matrix and its morphology has also a strong influence on thermal conductivity of the material. The laser cladding process of cast iron is complicated by its heterogeneous microstructure which generates non-homogeneous thermal fields. In this research work, a comparison between different types of cast iron substrates (with different graphite morphology) has been carried out to analyze its impact on the process results. A fiber laser was used to generate a NiCrBSi coating over flat substrates of gray cast iron (EN-GJL-250) and nodular cast iron (EN-GJS-400-15). The relationship between processing parameters (laser irradiance and scanning speed) and geometry of a single laser track was examined. Moreover, microstructure and composition were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The hardness and elastic modulus were analyzed by means of micro- and nanoindentation. A hardfacing coating was generated by fiber laser cladding. Suitable processing parameters to generate the Ni-based alloy coating were determined. For the same processing parameters, gray cast iron samples present higher dilution than cast iron samples. The elastic modulus is similar for the coating and the substrate, while the Ni

  1. Preliminary assessment of stress corrosion cracking of nickel based alloy 182 in nuclear reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Luciana Iglesias Lourenco; Bracarense, Alexandre Queiroz; Schvartzman, Monica Maria de Abreu Mendonca; Quinan, Marco Antonio Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) in a primary circuit of a nuclear pressurized water reactor consists of a degradation process in which aggressive media, stress and material susceptibility are present. Over the last thirty years, SCC has been observed in dissimilar metal welds. This study presents a comparative work between the SCC in the alloy 182 filler metal weld in two different hydrogen concentrations (25 e 50 cm 3 H 2 /kg H 2 O) in primary water. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking was assessed using the slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. The results of the SSRT test indicated that the material is more susceptible to SCC at 25 cm 3 H 2 /kg H 2 O. (author)

  2. Metallographic examination of TD-nickel base alloys. [thermal and chemical etching technique evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. D.; Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques are evaluated for chemical, electrochemical, and thermal etching of thoria dispersed (TD) nickel alloys. An electrochemical etch is described which yielded good results only for large grain sizes of TD-nickel. Two types of thermal etches are assessed for TD-nickel: an oxidation etch and vacuum annealing of a polished specimen to produce an etch. It is shown that the first etch was somewhat dependent on sample orientation with respect to the processing direction, the second technique was not sensitive to specimen orientation or grain size, and neither method appear to alter the innate grain structure when the materials were fully annealed prior to etching. An electrochemical etch is described which was used to observe the microstructures in TD-NiCr, and a thermal-oxidation etch is shown to produce better detail of grain boundaries and to have excellent etching behavior over the entire range of grain sizes of the sample.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of age-hardenable nickel-base alloys in LWR-conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, T.; Haenninen, H.

    1985-01-01

    At present it seems that the microstructure most resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in high temperature water is obtained by a solution annealing treatment at a relatively high temperature (appr. 1100 deg C) followed by water quenching and a single aging treatment (appr. 700 deg C/20 h). This should produce a microstructure with a high M 23 Cc 6 :MC ratio, semi-continous coherent M 23 C 6 precipitation, and an evenly distributed gamma prime in the matrix. However, since the actual mechanism of SCC in age-hardenable Ni-base alloys is unclear, the microstructural features resulting in the good resistance to SCC cannot be specified. Furthermore, the possible microstructural changes caused by prolonged use in LWR-conditions are unknown

  4. Prediction of PWSCC in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Ford/Andresen slip dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material condition. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides,, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxide found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip. (author). 12 refs, 27 figs

  5. Physical and welding metallurgy of Gd-enriched austenitic alloys for spent nuclear fuel applications. Part II, nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Michael, Joseph Richard; Williams, David Brian; Dupont, John Neuman; Robino, Charles Victor

    2004-01-01

    The physical and welding a metallurgy of gadolinium- (Gd-) enriched Ni-based alloys has been examined using a combination of differential thermal analysis, hot ductility testing. Varestraint testing, and various microstructural characterization techniques. Three different matrix compositions were chosen that were similar to commercial Ni-Cr-Mo base alloys (UNS N06455, N06022, and N06059). A ternary Ni-Cr-Gd alloy was also examined. The Gd level of each alloy was ∼2 wt-%. All the alloys initiated solidification by formation of primary austenite and terminated solidification by a Liquid γ + Ni 5 Gd eutectic-type reaction at ∼1270 C. The solidification temperature ranges of the alloys varied from ∼100 to 130 C (depending on alloy composition). This is a substantial reduction compared to the solidification temperature range to Gd-enriched stainless steels (360 to 400 C) that terminate solidification by a peritectic reaction at ∼1060 C. The higher-temperature eutectic reaction that occurs in the Ni-based alloys is accompanied by significant improvements in hot ductility and solidification cracking resistance. The results of this research demonstrate that Gd-enriched Ni-based alloys are excellent candidate materials for nuclear criticality control in spent nuclear fuel storage applications that require production and fabrication of large amounts of material through conventional ingot metallurgy and fusion welding techniques

  6. Laser cladding of nickel base alloy on SS316L for improved wear and corrosion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kushwaha, R.P.; Chandra, Kamlesh; Viswanadham, C.S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Limaye, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Laser cladding by an Nd:YAG laser was employed to deposit Ni base alloy (Ni-Mo-Cr-Si) on stainless steel-316 L substrate. The resulting defect-free clad with minimum dilution of the substrate was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness test. Dry sliding wear of the cladding and the substrate was evaluated using a ball-on-plate reciprocating wear tester against different counter bodies (WC and 52100 Cr steel). The reciprocating sliding wear resistance of the coating was evaluated as a function of the normal load, keeping the sliding amplitude and sliding speed constant. Wear mechanisms were analyzed by observation of wear track morphology using SEM-EDS. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of clad layer was studied in reducing environment (HCl) to estimate the general corrosion resistance of the laser clad layer in comparison with the substrate SS-316L. The clad layer showed higher wear resistance under reducing condition than that of the substrate material stainless steel 316L. (author)

  7. Strengthening Hadfield steel welds by nitrogen alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, C.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening Hadfield steel weld repairs by introducing nitrogen into the weld region was proven to be feasible via two welding techniques. The first technique required a pure Hadfield steel filler material to be diffusion treated in a high pressure nitrogen gas environment, and subsequently used during tungsten inert gas welding with a pure argon shielding gas. The second technique used a Hadfield steel filler material, and a 10% nitrogen containing argon shielding gas during tungsten inert gas welding. Both techniques increased the yield strength, the hardening rate, and the ultimate strength of the weld region. Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy, we determined that the increased strength of the weld region resulted from a combination of nitrogen alloying and microstructural refinement

  8. Alloying Solid Solution Strengthening of Fe-Ga Alloys: A First-Principle Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Kuiying; Cheng, Leon M

    2006-01-01

    ... and Co in cubic solid solution of Fe-Ga alloys. Mayer bond order "BO" values were used to evaluate the atomic bond strengths in the alloys, and were then used to assess the alloying strengthening characteristics...

  9. Corrosion behavior of Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center; Kim, Min Jung [Sungkyunkwan Univ, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Materials Technology Research Center

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes {sup registered} 556 {sup registered}.

  10. Corrosion behavior of Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes registered 556 registered .

  11. Interfacial failure in dissimilar weld joint of high boron 9% chromium steel and nickel-based alloy under high-temperature creep condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Tetsuya, E-mail: MATSUNAGA.Tetsuya@nims.go.jp; Hongo, Hiromichi, E-mail: HONGO.Hiromichi@nims.go.jp; Tabuchi, Masaaki, E-mail: TABUCHI.Masaaki@nims.go.jp

    2017-05-17

    The advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) power generation system is expected to become the next-generation base-load power station in Japan. Dissimilar weld joints between high-Cr heat-resistant steels and nickel-based alloys with a nickel-based filler metal (Alloy 82) will need to be adopted for this purpose. However, interfacial failure between the steels and weld metal has been observed under high-temperature creep conditions. Fractography and microstructure observations showed the failure initiated in a brittle manner by an oxide notch at the bottom of the U-groove. The fracture then proceeded along the bond line in a ductile manner with shallow dimples, where micro-Vickers hardness tests showed remarkable softening in the steel next to the bond line. In addition, the steel showed a much larger total elongation and reduction of area than the weld metal at low stresses under long-term creep conditions, leading to mismatch deformation at the interface. According to the results, it can be concluded that the interfacial failure between the 9Cr steels and Alloy 82 weld metal is initiated by an oxide notch and promoted by softening and the difference in the plasticity of the steels and weld metal.

  12. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    OpenAIRE

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type t...

  13. Fireside corrosion of nickel base alloys in future 700 C coal fired power plants; Rauchgasseitige Korrosion von Nickelbasislegierungen fuer zukuenftige 700 C-Dampfkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettschwager, Frank

    2011-09-27

    Coal is still the most important energy source in Germany. In 2009 it produced 42.9 % of the overall German electrical power. Coal is available world-wide in large quantities and can be delivered economically. One of the possible ways to reduce CO{sub 2} pollution is the increase of efficiency of coal fired power plants, which requires steam conditions of up to 700 C - 730 C and 350 bar. Because many German power units will reach the end of their technical lifespan in a few years or the following decade, one will have the possibility to build up modern types of power plants with increased efficiency of more than 50 %. Some international standards (European Pressure Equipment Directive or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) require 100 000 hour creep rupture strength of 100 MPa at 750 C. Therefore, nickel base alloys are in the focus of material qualification processes. Nickel base alloys are well investigated due to their hot corrosion behaviour. It is known that sodium sulphate may generate hot corrosion on those alloys at temperatures above its melting point of 884 C. On nickel base alloys an eutectic mixture of nickel sulphate and sodium sulphate with a melting point of 671 C can be generated, which leads to accelerated corrosion. This work examines, whether the high amount of sulphur and alkali metals will induce hot corrosion at the estimated working temperature on devices manufactured from nickel base alloy. Two synthetic coal ash deposits, according to the chemical composition of hard coal and lignite, and typical flue gases with and without sulphur dioxide were blended of pure agents. The reactions of the deposits with heater tubes' materials and synthetic flue gases are examined in the temperature range from 650 C to 800 C and different time ranges up to 2000 hours. The corroded specimen are examined with SEM/EDX to identify relevant corrosion products and determine the corrosivity of deposited compounds. Deposits increase the corrosion rate of

  14. Oxygen-induced intergranular fracture of the nickel-base alloy IN718 during mechanical loading at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupp Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a transition in the mechanical-failure behavior of nickel-base superalloys from ductile transgranular crack propagation to time-dependent intergranular fracture when the temperature exceeds about 600 °C. This transition is due to oxygen diffusion into the stress field ahead of the crack tip sufficient to cause brittle decohesion of the grain boundaries. Since very high cracking rates were observed during fixed-displacement loading of IN718, it is not very likely that grain boundary oxidation governs the grain-boundary-separation process, as has been proposed in several studies on the fatigue-damage behavior of the nickel-base superalloy IN718. Further studies on bicrystal and thermomechanically processed specimens of IN718 have shown that this kind of brittle fracture, which has been termed "dynamic embrittlement", depends strongly on the structure of the grain boundaries.

  15. Analysis of degradation in nickel-based alloys using focused ion beam imaging and specimen preparation combined with analytical electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, M.W.; Botton, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) microscopes have become well-established in the semiconductor industry during the past decade, and are rapidly gaining attention in the field of materials science, both as a tool for producing site specific, parallel sided transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens and as stand alone specimen preparation and imaging systems. FIB secondary electron imaging (SEI) of nickel-based alloys, such as commercially produced Alloy 600 (approximately Ni 15Cr 10Fe 0.5C), has been demonstrated to show a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of deformation in the alloy, and FIB secondary ion imaging (SII) is particularly useful for identifying the presence of grain boundary corrosion, as secondary ion yields from metallic specimens can increase by three orders of magnitude in the presence of oxygen. This 'oxygen enhanced yield', makes FIB SII ideal for detection of corrosion at grain boundaries down to thicknesses of only a few tens of nanometers. Historically, while TEM has been considered the tool of choice for high resolution chemical and crystallographic analysis of specimens, the technique has suffered from difficulties in producing suitable samples from site-specific areas with a high probability of success. The advent of FIB specimen preparation for TEM has largely changed that. FIB imaging can be combined with FIB 'nano-machining' techniques to produce site-specific, parallel sided TEM specimens well-suited to analytical electron microscopy (AEM) analyses in the TEM, including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and electron diffraction. When combined with new FIB-based methodologies for surveying large areas to exactly select the regions of interest, such as crack tips or the maximum extent of penetration of intergranular attack (IGA), subsequent FIB TEM specimen preparation and TEM analysis unite to produce a powerful tool to study these phenomena. Examples of these applications of FIB

  16. Synthesis and characterization of binder-free Cr3C2 coatings on nickel-based alloys for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brupbacher, Michael C.; Zhang, Dajie; Buchta, William M.; Graybeal, Mark L.; Rhim, Yo-Rhin; Nagle, Dennis C.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Under various conditions, chromium carbides appear to be relatively stable in the presence of molten fluoride salts and this suggests that their use in corrosion resistant coatings for fluoride salt environments could be beneficial. One method for producing these coatings is the carburization of sprayed Cr coatings using methane-containing gaseous precursors. This process has been investigated for the synthesis of binder-free chromium carbide coatings on nickel-based alloy substrates for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance. The effects of the carburization process on coating microstructure have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both plasma-sprayed and cold-sprayed Cr coatings have been successfully converted to Cr 3 C 2 , with the mechanism of conversion being strongly influenced by the initial porosity in the as-deposited coatings

  17. X-ray diffraction measurement of residual stress in sol-gel grown lead zirconate titanate thick films on nickel-based super alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshyarmanesh, Hamidreza; Nehzat, Naser; Salehi, Mehdi [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman)

    2015-02-15

    Residual compressive stress of Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} thick films was investigated using residual strains derived from X-ray diffraction patterns. Sin{sup 2}ψ method was applied for the 5, 10 and 15 μm sol-gel derived thick films annealed at 700 .deg. C for 1 hr as high frequency structural health monitoring square-shape transducers of 10 x10 mm, deposited onto the curved nickel-based super alloy substrates. A triaxial model was proposed based on piezoelectric constitutive equations, and Bragg's law at a large diffraction angle (∼89°) was utilized considering the electromechanical coupling factor as well as elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric constants. Thickness variations led to a significant change in residual stress magnitudes delineated from more-accurate triaxial model compared to small angle plane-stress results not considering the piezoelectric coupling effects.

  18. Thermally oxidized Inconel 600 and 690 nickel-based alloys characterizations by combination of global photoelectrochemistry and local near-field microscopy techniques (STM, STS, AFM, SKPFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechehoud, F.; Benaioun, N. E.; Hakiki, N. E.; Khelil, A.; Simon, L.; Bubendorff, J. L.

    2018-03-01

    Thermally oxidized nickel-based alloys are studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) and photoelectro-chemical techniques as a function of oxidation time at a fixed temperature of 623 K. By photoelectrochemistry measurements we identify the formation of three oxides NiO, Fe2O3, Cr2O3 and determine the corresponding gap values. We use these values as parameter for imaging the surface at high bias voltage by STM allowing the spatial localization and identification of both NiO, Fe2O3 oxide phases using STS measurements. Associated to Kelvin probe measurements we show also that STS allow to distinguished NiO from Cr2O3 and confirm that the Cr2O3 is not visible at the surface and localized at the oxide/steel interface.

  19. Physics-based simulation modeling and optimization of microstructural changes induced by machining and selective laser melting processes in titanium and nickel based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Yigit Muzaffer

    Manufacturing processes may significantly affect the quality of resultant surfaces and structural integrity of the metal end products. Controlling manufacturing process induced changes to the product's surface integrity may improve the fatigue life and overall reliability of the end product. The goal of this study is to model the phenomena that result in microstructural alterations and improve the surface integrity of the manufactured parts by utilizing physics-based process simulations and other computational methods. Two different (both conventional and advanced) manufacturing processes; i.e. machining of Titanium and Nickel-based alloys and selective laser melting of Nickel-based powder alloys are studied. 3D Finite Element (FE) process simulations are developed and experimental data that validates these process simulation models are generated to compare against predictions. Computational process modeling and optimization have been performed for machining induced microstructure that includes; i) predicting recrystallization and grain size using FE simulations and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model, ii) predicting microhardness using non-linear regression models and the Random Forests method, and iii) multi-objective machining optimization for minimizing microstructural changes. Experimental analysis and computational process modeling of selective laser melting have been also conducted including; i) microstructural analysis of grain sizes and growth directions using SEM imaging and machine learning algorithms, ii) analysis of thermal imaging for spattering, heating/cooling rates and meltpool size, iii) predicting thermal field, meltpool size, and growth directions via thermal gradients using 3D FE simulations, iv) predicting localized solidification using the Phase Field method. These computational process models and predictive models, once utilized by industry to optimize process parameters, have the ultimate potential to improve performance of

  20. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2013-09-01

    In Russia, R&D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF-BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80М-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80МТY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80МТW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and ЕМ-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. If the redox state the fuel salt is characterized by uranium ratio [U(IV)]/[U(III)] uranium intermetallic compounds and alloys with nickel and molybdenum. This leads to spontaneous behavior of alloy formation processes on the specimens' surface and further diffusion of uranium deep into the metallic phase. As consequence of this films of intermetallic compounds and alloys of nickel, molybdenum, tungsten with uranium are formed on the alloys specimens' surface, and intergranular corrosion does not take place. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 4-20 the potentials of uranium

  1. Evaluation of bonding strength of porcelain to some commercial nickel-base dental alloys and comparing their interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Asghari Salavat

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: To replace the replacing of deleterious elements from the chemical composition of dental alloys. The added new elements should control through the oxide layer and the formation of Cr2O3 in porcelain-alloy interfaces for adequate bond strength.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium in nickel-base alloys with Arsenazo III after separation by froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, K.; Onishi, H.

    1977-01-01

    0.02-0.1% of zirconium can be determined in nickel alloys by spectrophotometry with Arsenazo III after its separation from the sample solution by means of froth flotation using Arsenazo III and Zephiramine. Nickel, chromium and iron do not interfere. Analysis of standard alloys yielded a standard deviation of 2.2%. (orig.) [de

  3. Cobalt-free nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Michio; Harada, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Cobalt-free nickel-base cast superalloys have been developed. Cobalt is considered to be a beneficial element to strengthen the alloys but should be eliminated in alloys to be used for direct cycle helium turbine driven by helium gas from HTGR (high temp. gas reactor). The elimination of cobalt is required to avoid the formation of radioactive 60 Co from the debris or scales of the alloys. Cobalt-free alloys are also desirable from another viewpoint, i.e. recently the shortage of the element has become a serious problem in industry. Cobalt-free Mar-M200 type alloys modified by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2 wt% B and 1 - 1.5 wt% Hf were found to have a creep rupture strength superior or comparable to that of the original Mar-M200 alloy bearing cobalt. The ductility in tensile test at 800 0 C, as cast or after prolonged heating at 900 0 C (the tensile test was done without removing the surface layer affected by the heating), was also improved by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2% B and 1 - 1.5% Hf. The morphology of grain boundaries became intricated by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2% B and 1 - 1.5% Hf, to such a degree that one can hardly distinguish grain boundaries by microscopes. The change in the grain boundary morphology was considered, as suggested previously by one of the authors (M.Y.), to be the reason for the improvements in the creep rupture strength and tensile ductility. (author)

  4. A probabilistic-based approach to monitoring tool wear state and assessing its effect on workpiece quality in nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Niaki, Farbod

    The objective of this research is first to investigate the applicability and advantage of statistical state estimation methods for predicting tool wear in machining nickel-based superalloys over deterministic methods, and second to study the effects of cutting tool wear on the quality of the part. Nickel-based superalloys are among those classes of materials that are known as hard-to-machine alloys. These materials exhibit a unique combination of maintaining their strength at high temperature and have high resistance to corrosion and creep. These unique characteristics make them an ideal candidate for harsh environments like combustion chambers of gas turbines. However, the same characteristics that make nickel-based alloys suitable for aggressive conditions introduce difficulties when machining them. High strength and low thermal conductivity accelerate the cutting tool wear and increase the possibility of the in-process tool breakage. A blunt tool nominally deteriorates the surface integrity and damages quality of the machined part by inducing high tensile residual stresses, generating micro-cracks, altering the microstructure or leaving a poor roughness profile behind. As a consequence in this case, the expensive superalloy would have to be scrapped. The current dominant solution for industry is to sacrifice the productivity rate by replacing the tool in the early stages of its life or to choose conservative cutting conditions in order to lower the wear rate and preserve workpiece quality. Thus, monitoring the state of the cutting tool and estimating its effects on part quality is a critical task for increasing productivity and profitability in machining superalloys. This work aims to first introduce a probabilistic-based framework for estimating tool wear in milling and turning of superalloys and second to study the detrimental effects of functional state of the cutting tool in terms of wear and wear rate on part quality. In the milling operation, the

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Investigation of the Stress Corrosion Cracking in Nickel-Base Alloys, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this program is to evaluate the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) susceptibility of high chromium alloy 690 and its weld metals, establish quantitative measurements of crack-growth rates and determine relationships among cracking susceptibility, environmental conditions and metallurgical characteristics. Stress-corrosion, crack-growth rates have been determined for 12 alloy 690 specimens, 11 alloy 152/52/52M weld metal specimens, 4 alloy 52M/182 overlay specimens and 2 alloy 52M/82 inlay specimens in simulated PWR primary water environments. The alloy 690 test materials included three different heats of extruded control-rod-drive mechanism (CRDM) tubing with variations in the initial material condition and degree of cold work for one heat. Two cold-rolled (CR) alloy 690 plate heats were also obtained and evaluated enabling comparisons to the CR CRDM materials. Weld metal, overlay and inlay specimens were machined from industry mock ups to provide plant-representative materials for testing. Specimens have been tested for one alloy 152 weld, two alloy 52 welds and three alloy 52M welds. The overlay and inlay specimens were prepared to propagate stress-corrosion cracks from the alloy 182 or 82 material into the more resistant alloy 52M. In all cases, crack extension was monitored in situ by direct current potential drop (DCPD) with length resolution of about +1 µm making it possible to measure extremely low growth rates approaching 5x10-10 mm/s. Most SCC tests were performed at 325-360°C with hydrogen concentrations from 11-29 cc/kg; however, environmental conditions were modified during a few experiments to evaluate the influence of temperature, water chemistry or electrochemical potential on propagation rates. In addition, low-temperature (~50°C) cracking behavior was examined for selected alloy 690 and weld metal specimens. Extensive characterizations have been performed on material microstructures and stress-corrosion cracks by

  6. Manufacturing Experience for Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doherty, Ann L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Mark T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This report documents the results of the development and the manufacturing experience gained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) while working with the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) materials MA 956, 14YWT, and 9YWT. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy has implemented a program to develop a Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel for light water reactors. ODS materials have the potential to provide improved performance for the U-Mo concept.

  7. Mechanisms of oxide layer formation and destruction on a chromia former nickel base alloy in HTR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouillard, F.

    2007-10-01

    Haynes 230 alloy which contains 22 wt.% chromium could be a promising candidate material for structures and heat exchangers (maximum operating temperature: 850-950 C) in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). The feasibility demonstration involves to valid its corrosion resistance in the reactor specific environment namely impure helium. The alloys surface reactivity was investigated at temperatures between 850 and 1000 C. We especially focused on the influence of different parameters such as concentrations of impurities in the gas phase (carbon monoxide and methane, water vapour/hydrogen ratio), alloy composition (activities of Cr and C, alloying element contents) and temperature. Two main behaviours have been revealed: the formation of a Cr/Mn rich oxide layer at 900 C and its following reduction at higher temperatures. At 900 C, the water vapour is the main oxidizing gas. However in the initial times, the carbon monoxide reacts at the metal/oxide interface which involves a gaseous transport through the scale; CO mainly oxidizes the minor alloying elements aluminium and silicon. Above a critical temperature TA, the carbon in solution in the alloy reduces chromia. To ascribe the scale destruction, a model is proposed based on thermodynamic interfacial data for the alloy, oxide layer morphology and carbon monoxide partial pressure in helium; the model is then validated regarding experimental results and observations. (author)

  8. Analysis of zirconium and nickel based alloys and zirconium oxides by relative and internal monostandard neutron activation analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Acharya, Raghunath; Reddy, Annareddy V. R.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical characterization of metallic alloys and oxides is conventionally carried out by wet chemical analytical methods and/or instrumental methods. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is capable of analyzing samples nondestructively. As a part of a chemical quality control exercise, Zircaloys 2 and 4, nimonic alloy, and zirconium oxide samples were analyzed by two INAA methods. The samples of alloys and oxides were also analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and direct current Arc OES methods, respectively, for quality assurance purposes. The samples are important in various fields including nuclear technology. Samples were neutron irradiated using nuclear reactors, and the radioactive assay was carried out using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Major to trace mass fractions were determined using both relative and internal monostandard (IM) NAA methods as well as OES methods. In the case of alloys, compositional analyses as well as concentrations of some trace elements were determined, whereas in the case of zirconium oxides, six trace elements were determined. For method validation, British Chemical Standard (BCS)-certified reference material 310/1 (a nimonic alloy) was analyzed using both relative INAA and IM-NAA methods. The results showed that IM-NAA and relative INAA methods can be used for nondestructive chemical quality control of alloys and oxide samples

  9. Analysis of zirconium and nickel based alloys and zirconium oxides by relative and internal monostandard neutron activation analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Acharya, Raghunath; Reddy, Annareddy V. R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    The chemical characterization of metallic alloys and oxides is conventionally carried out by wet chemical analytical methods and/or instrumental methods. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is capable of analyzing samples nondestructively. As a part of a chemical quality control exercise, Zircaloys 2 and 4, nimonic alloy, and zirconium oxide samples were analyzed by two INAA methods. The samples of alloys and oxides were also analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and direct current Arc OES methods, respectively, for quality assurance purposes. The samples are important in various fields including nuclear technology. Samples were neutron irradiated using nuclear reactors, and the radioactive assay was carried out using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Major to trace mass fractions were determined using both relative and internal monostandard (IM) NAA methods as well as OES methods. In the case of alloys, compositional analyses as well as concentrations of some trace elements were determined, whereas in the case of zirconium oxides, six trace elements were determined. For method validation, British Chemical Standard (BCS)-certified reference material 310/1 (a nimonic alloy) was analyzed using both relative INAA and IM-NAA methods. The results showed that IM-NAA and relative INAA methods can be used for nondestructive chemical quality control of alloys and oxide samples.

  10. Mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grain precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kaka; Wen, Haiming; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the relationships between precipitation phenomena, grain size and mechanical behavior in a complex precipitation-strengthened alloy system, Al 7075 alloy, a commonly used aluminum alloy, was selected as a model system in the present study. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk materials were fabricated through cryomilling, degassing, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials were analyzed and compared directly to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography was utilized to investigate the intermetallic precipitates and oxide dispersoids formed in the as-extruded UFG material. UFG 7075 exhibits higher strength than the CG 7075 alloy for each equivalent condition. After a T6 temper, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of UFG 7075 achieved 734 and 774 MPa, respectively, which are ∼120 MPa higher than those of the CG equivalent. The strength of as-extruded UFG 7075 (YS: 583 MPa, UTS: 631 MPa) is even higher than that of commercial 7075-T6. More importantly, the strengthening mechanisms in each material were established quantitatively for the first time for this complex precipitation-strengthened system, accounting for grain-boundary, dislocation, solid-solution, precipitation and oxide dispersoid strengthening contributions. Grain-boundary strengthening was the predominant mechanism in as-extruded UFG 7075, contributing a strength increment estimated to be 242 MPa, whereas Orowan precipitation strengthening was predominant in the as-extruded CG 7075 (∼102 MPa) and in the T6-tempered materials, and was estimated to contribute 472 and 414 MPa for CG-T6 and UFG-T6, respectively

  11. Lifetime assessment of thick-walled components made of nickel-base alloys under near-service loading conditions; Lebensdauerbewertung dickwandiger Bauteile aus Nickelbasislegierungen unter betriebsnahen Beanspruchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueggenberg, Daniel

    2015-11-06

    Until 2050 the renewable energies should provide 80% of the power in Germany according to Renewable Energy law. Due to that reason the conventional power plants are not used for base load, but rather for the supply of average and peak load. The change of the operating mode leads to shorter times at stationary temperatures and the number of faster start-ups/shut-downs of the power plants will increase. As a result of this the components are exposed to an interacting load of creep and fatigue which reduces the lifetimes. The aim of this thesis is the development and verification of a lifetime assessment procedure for components made of the nickel-base alloys Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 under creep fatigue loading conditions based on numerical phenomenological models and on the approaches of different standards/recommendations. The focus lies on two components of the high temperature material test rig II (HWT II), a header made of Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 as well as a formed part made of Alloy 617 mod. For the basis characterization of the HWT II melts, specimens of the Alloy 617 mod. and Alloy 263 are tested in uniaxial tensile tests, (creep-)fatigue tests, creep tests and charpy tests in a temperature range between 20 C and 725 C. From the comparisons of the test results and the material specifications respectively the results of the projects COORETEC DE4, MARCKO DE2 and MARCKO700 no deviations were obvious for both materials with the exception of the creep test results with Alloy 617 mod. material. The creep tests with Alloy 617 mod. material of the HWT II melt show differences regarding the deformation and damage behavior. In addition to the basis characterization tests some complex lab tests for the characterization of the material behavior under creep-fatigue and multiaxial loading conditions were conducted. The developments of the microstructure, the precipitations as well as the structure of dislocations are investigated in the light optical microscope

  12. Application of powder metallurgy to an advanced-temperature nickel-base alloy, NASA-TRW 6-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ashbrook, R. L.; Waters, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Bar stock of the NASA-TRW 6-A alloy was made by prealloyed powder techniques and its properties evaluated over a range of temperatures. Room temperature ultimate tensile strength was 1894 MN/sq m (274 500 psi). The as-extruded powder product showed substantial improvements in strength over the cast alloy up to 649 C (1200 F) and superplasticity at 1093 C (2000 F). Both conventional and autoclave heat treatments were applied to the extruded powder product. The conventional heat treatment was effective in increasing rupture life at 649 and 704 C (1200 and 1300 F); the autoclave heat treatment, at 760 and 816 C (1400 and 1500 F).

  13. Numerical multi-criteria optimization methods for alloy design. Development of new high strength nickel-based superalloys and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettig, Ralf; Mueller, Alexander; Ritter, Nils C.; Singer, Robert F. [Institute of Science and Technology of Metals, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new approach for the design of optimum balanced metallic alloys is presented. It is based on a mathematical multi-criteria optimization method which uses different property models to predict the alloy behavior in dependency of composition. These property models are mostly based on computational thermodynamics (CALPHAD-method). The full composition range of the alloying elements can be considered using these models. In alloy design usually several contradicting goals have to be fulfilled. This is handled by the calculation of so-called Pareto-fronts. The aim of our approach is to guide the experimental research towards new alloy compositions that have a high probability of having very good properties. Consequently the number of required test alloys can be massively reduced. The approach will be demonstrated for the computer-aided design of a new Re-free superalloy with nearly identical creep strength as that of Re-containing superalloys. Our starting point for the design was to maintain the good properties of the gamma prime-phase in well-known alloys like CMSX-4 and to maximize the solid solution strengthening of W and Mo. The presented experimental measurements proof the excellent properties.

  14. Mechanism of formation of corrosion layers on nickel and nickel-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tzvety; Gencheva, Petia

    2003-01-01

    A review of the corrosion of Ni and Ni-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions (nitrate, sulphate, hydroxide and carbonate) is presented, emphasising the mechanism of growth, the composition and structure of the passivating oxide films formed on the material in such conditions. First, the thermodynamical background involving solubility and point defect chemistry calculations for oxides formed on Ni, Cr and Ni-Cr alloys in molten salt media is briefly commented. The main passivation product on the Ni surface has been reported to be cubic NiO. In the transition stage, further oxidation of the compact NiO layer has been shown to take place in which Ni(III) ions and nickel cation vacancies are formed. Transport of nickel cation vacancies has been proposed to neutralise the charges of the excess oxide ions formed in the further oxidation reaction. Ex situ analysis studies reported in the literature indicated the possible formation of Ni 2 O 3 phase in the anodic layer. During the third stage of oxidation, a survey of the published data indicated that oxygen evolution from oxyanion melts is the predominant reaction taking place on the Ni/NiO electrode. This has been supposed to lead to a further accumulation of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice presumably as oxygen interstitials, and a NiO 2 phase formation has been also suggested. Literature data on the composition of the oxide film on industrial Ni-based alloys and superalloys in melts containing oxyanions are also presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the alloy, the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers

  15. The roles of auxeticity and volume fraction on γ‧ precipitate microstructures in nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    New correlations are found between the elastic constants and late-stage precipitate microstructures in Ni-Al, Ni-Ga, Ni-Ge and Ni-Si alloys. The auxetic behaviour of Poisson's ratio, ν, measured parallel to [0 0 1] or ? in response to [1 1 0] loading, favours the amalgamation of Ni3Al and Ni3Ga precipitates into non-equilibrium shapes along cube directions when δν = (νγ‧ - νγ)/νγ‧ > 0, the superscripts referring to the γ‧ (Ni3X) and γ (Ni-X) phases, respectively. When δν 0 amalgamation of Ni3Al and Ni3Ga occurs readily, primarily producing laths of both phases. The γ‧ volume fraction, f, is also shown to play a role in the late-stage microstructures of Ni-Al alloys, with an increasing tendency to form Ni3Al laths, rather than plates, as f increases. The shapes of elastically soft γ precipitates in inverse Ni-Al and Ni-Ge alloys are different; Ni-Al precipitates are lath shaped, but Ni-Ge precipitates are plate shaped. The Ni-Ge plate shape, in a non-auxetic Ni3Ge matrix (Ni3Ge being the sole non-auxetic Ni3X phase of the four studied), is the only example of persistent plates in any of the Ni-base alloys investigated to date. The combination of an elastically soft precipitate (Ni-Ge) in a non-auxetic matrix suggests a connection between auxeticity and shape.

  16. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum in steels and nickel base high-temperature alloys as a ternary complex with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.R.P.; Kumar, P.V.S.; Shyamsundar, J.P.; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The red coloured, ternary complex formed by molybdenum(VI) with hydroxylamine hydrchloride and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), on heating for 20 minutes in a hot water bath at pH 6-8, can be extracted with a mixture of n-butanol and benzene (4:1). This complex exhibits absorption maximum at 530nm with a molar absorptivity of 2.8x10 4 lit. mol -1 cm -1 and obeys Beer's law upto 4.5μg/ml of Mo(VI). The composition of the complex is found to be 1:1:1, for Mo(VI): hydroxylamine hydrochloride: PAR. Large amounts of tartaric acid and 2, 2-diamino-cyclohexane tetra acetic acid (CyDTA) can be tolerated in this method. The extraction becomes highly selective in presence of CyDTA (3ml of 5x10 -2 M) and interference of ions like Fe(III)(5mg), Pb(II)(4mg), Zn(II)(2mg), Cu(II)(4mg), Mn(II)(3mg), Ni(II)(4mg), Sn(II)(3mg), Cr(VI)(2mg) and Bi(III)(0.5mg) can be effectively supressed in the determination of 10-45μg of molybdenum. The method can be successfully applied for the determination of molybdenum in steels and nickel base high temperature alloys. (author). 2 tabs., 8 refs

  17. Damage and service life of nickel-base alloys under thermal-mechanical fatigue stress at different phase positions; Schaedigung und Lebensdauer von Nickelbasislegierungen unter thermisch-mechanischer Ermuedungsbeanspruchung bei verschiedenen Phasenlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guth, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    This work considers the behaviour of two nickel-base alloys (NiCr22Co12Mo9 and MAR-M247 LC) under thermo-mechanical fatigue loading with varying phase angles between mechanical strain and temperature. The investigations focus on the characterisation of microstructures and damage mechanisms as a function of the phase angle. Based on the results, a life prediction model is proposed.

  18. Generalized corrosion of nickel base alloys in high temperature aqueous media: a contribution to the comprehension of the mechanisms; Corrosion generalisee des alliages a base nickel en milieu aqueux a haute temperature: apport a la comprehension des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti-Sillans, L

    2007-11-15

    In France, nickel base alloys, such as alloy 600 and alloy 690, are the materials constituting steam generators (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The generalized corrosion resulting from the interaction between these alloys and the PWR primary media leads, on the one hand, to the formation of a thin protective oxide scale ({approx} 10 nm), and on the other hand, to the release of cations in the primary circuit, which entails an increase of the global radioactivity of this circuit. The goal of this work is to supply some new comprehension elements about nickel base alloys corrosion phenomena in PWR primary media, taking up with underlining the effects of metallurgical and physico-chemical parameters on the nature and the growth mechanisms of the protective oxide scale. In this context, the passive film formed during the exposition of alloys 600, 690 and Ni-30Cr, in conditions simulating the PWR primary media, has been analyzed by a set of characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, PEC and MPEC, XPS). The coupling of these methods leads to a fine description, in terms of nature and structure, of the multilayered oxide forming during the exposition of nickel base alloys in primary media. Thus, the protective part of the oxide scale is composed of a continuous layer of iron and nickel mixed chromite, and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules dispersed at the alloy / mixed chromite interface. The study of protective scale growth mechanisms by tracers and markers experiments reveals that the formation of the mixed chromite is the consequence of an anionic mechanism, resulting from short circuits like grain boundaries diffusion. Besides, the impact of alloy surface defects has also been studied, underlining a double effect of this parameter, which influences the short circuits diffusion density in oxide and the formation rate of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules. The sum of these results leads to suggest a description of the nickel base alloys corrosion mechanisms in PWR primary

  19. Kinetics of corrosion products release from nickel-base alloys corroding in primary water conditions. A new modeling of release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrette, F.; Guinard, L.; Pieraggi, B.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity in the primary circuit arises mainly from the activation of corrosion products in the core of pressurised water reactors; corrosion products dissolve from the oxide scales developed on steam generator tubes of alloy 690. The controlling and modelling of this process require a detailed knowledge of the microstructure and chemical composition of oxide scales as well as the kinetics of their corrosion and dissolution. Alloy 690 was studied as tubes and sheets, with three various surface states (as-received, cold-worked, electropolished). Corrosion tests were performed at 325 C and 155 bar in primary water conditions (B/Li - 1000/2 ppm, [H 2 ] 30 cm 3 .kg -1 TPN, [O 2 ] < 5 ppb); test durations ranged between 24 and 2160 hours. Corrosion tests in the TITANE loop provided mainly corrosion and oxidation kinetics, and tests in the BOREAL loop yielded release kinetics. This study revealed asymptotic type kinetics. Characterisation of the oxide scales grown in representative conditions of the primary circuit was performed by several techniques (SEM, TEM, SIMS, XPS, GIXRD). These analyses revealed the essential role of the fine grained cold-worked scale present on as-received and cold-worked materials. This scale controls the corrosion and release phenomena. The kinetic study and the characterisation of the oxide scales contributed to the modelling of the corrosion/release process. A growth/dissolution model was proposed for corrosion product scales grown in non-saturated dynamic fluid. This model provided the temporal evolution of oxide scales and release kinetics for different species (Fe, Ni, Cr). The model was validated for several surface states and several alloys. (authors)

  20. Design of a Nickel-Based Bond-Coat Alloy for Thermal Barrier Coatings on Copper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Fiedler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To increase the lifetime of rocket combustion chambers, thermal barrier coatings (TBC may be applied on the copper chamber wall. Since standard TBC systems used in gas turbines are not suitable for rocket-engine application and fail at the interface between the substrate and bond coat, a new bond-coat material has to be designed. This bond-coat material has to be chemically compatible to the copper substrate to improve the adhesion and needs a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of copper to reduce thermal stresses. One approach to achieve this is to modify the standard NiCrAlY alloy used in gas turbines by adding copper. In this work, the influence of copper on the microstructure of NiCrAlY-alloys is investigated with thermodynamical calculations, optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and calorimetry. Adding copper leads to the formation of a significant amount of \\(\\beta\\ and \\(\\alpha\\ Reducing the aluminum and chromium content leads furthermore to a two-phase fcc microstructure.

  1. Design and screening of nanoprecipitates-strengthened advanced ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Tianyi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); He, Li [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Advanced nuclear reactors as well as the life extension of light water reactors require advanced alloys capable of satisfactory operation up to neutron damage levels approaching 200 displacements per atom (dpa). Extensive studies, including fundamental theories, have demonstrated the superior resistance to radiation-induced swelling in ferritic steels, primarily inherited from their body-centered cubic (bcc) structure. This study aims at developing nanoprecipitates strengthened advanced ferritic alloys for advanced nuclear reactor applications. To be more specific, this study aims at enhancing the amorphization ability of some precipitates, such as Laves phase and other types of intermetallic phases, through smart alloying strategy, and thereby promote the crystalline®amorphous transformation of these precipitates under irradiation.

  2. Slag inclusions in vacuum-melted ingots of the KhN73MBTYu nickel base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, V.A.; Kleshchev, A.S.; Kazharskaya, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of slag inclusions in ingots of the vacuum-arc-remelted nickel alloy KhN73MBTYu are considered. Type 1 inclusions are those in the surface zone; type 2 inclusions are agglomerations of nitrides and oxides formed due to the fall of lining slag; type 3 inclusions consist of agglomerations of nitrides and oxides as a result of interaction of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen with melt components. The inclusions are removed by machining of the lateral surface. It should be noted that the presence of a large amount of slag on the surface of the molten pool adversely affects the stability of the electrical regime of melting. Strict adherence to the recommendations on the melting and pouring of the initial metal reduces the pollution of the consumable electrode with nonmetallic inclusions

  3. A multiple linear regression analysis of hot corrosion attack on a series of nickel base turbine alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine an equation for estimating hot corrosion attack for a series of Ni base cast turbine alloys. The U transform (i.e., 1/sin (% A/100) to the 1/2) was shown to give the best estimate of the dependent variable, y. A complete second degree equation is described for the centered" weight chemistries for the elements Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, W, Cb, Ta, and Co. In addition linear terms for the minor elements C, B, and Zr were added for a basic 47 term equation. The best reduced equation was determined by the stepwise selection method with essentially 13 terms. The Cr term was found to be the most important accounting for 60 percent of the explained variability hot corrosion attack.

  4. Effects of thermal aging and stress triaxiality on PWSCC initiation susceptibility of nickel-based Alloy 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Ji Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In present study, effects of thermal aging and triaxial stress were investigated in terms of primary water stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. The thermal aging was applied via heat treatment at 400°C and triaxial stress was applied via notched tensile test specimen. The crack initiation time of each specimen were then measured by direct current potential drop method during slow strain rate test at primary water environment. Alloys with 10 years thermal aging exhibited the highest susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking and asreceived specimen shows lowest susceptibility. The trend was different with triaxial stress applied; 20 years thermal aging specimen shows highest susceptibility and as-received specimen shows lowest. It would be owing to change of precipitate morphology during thermal aging and different activated slip system in triaxial stress state.

  5. Prediction of pure water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.D.; Krasodomski, H.T.; Lewis, N.; Makar, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Ford/Andresen slip dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material condition. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxides found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip

  6. High-throughput computational search for strengthening precipitates in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirklin, S.; Saal, James E.; Hegde, Vinay I.; Wolverton, C.

    2016-01-01

    The search for high-strength alloys and precipitation hardened systems has largely been accomplished through Edisonian trial and error experimentation. Here, we present a novel strategy using high-throughput computational approaches to search for promising precipitate/alloy systems. We perform density functional theory (DFT) calculations of an extremely large space of ∼200,000 potential compounds in search of effective strengthening precipitates for a variety of different alloy matrices, e.g., Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, Co, and Ti. Our search strategy involves screening phases that are likely to produce coherent precipitates (based on small lattice mismatch) and are composed of relatively common alloying elements. When combined with the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), we can computationally screen for precipitates that either have a stable two-phase equilibrium with the host matrix, or are likely to precipitate as metastable phases. Our search produces (for the structure types considered) nearly all currently known high-strength precipitates in a variety of fcc, bcc, and hcp matrices, thus giving us confidence in the strategy. In addition, we predict a number of new, currently-unknown precipitate systems that should be explored experimentally as promising high-strength alloy chemistries.

  7. Kinetic study of hydrogen-material interactions in nickel base alloy 600 and stainless steel 316L through coupled experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, Caitlin-Mae

    2015-01-01

    In France all of the nuclear power plant facilities in service today are pressurized water reactors (PWR). Some parts of the PWR in contact with the primary circuit medium, such as the steam generator tubes (fabricated in nickel base alloy A600) and some reactor core internal components (fabricated in stainless steel 316L), can fall victim to environmental degradation phenomena such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In the late 1950's, H. Coriou observed experimentally and predicted this type of cracking in alloys traditionally renowned for their SCC resistance (A600). Just some 20 to 30 years later his predictions became a reality. Since then, numerous studies have focused on the description and comprehension of the SCC phenomenon in primary water under reactor operating conditions. In view of reactor lifetime extension, it has become both critical and strategic to be capable of simulating SCC phenomenon in order to optimize construction materials, operating conditions, etc. and to understand the critical parameters in order to limit the damage done by SCC. This study focuses on the role hydrogen plays in SCC phenomenon and in particular H-material interactions. Hydrogen, from primary medium in the form of dissolved H gas or H from the water, can be absorbed by the alloy during the oxidation process taking place under reactor operating conditions. Once absorbed, hydrogen may be transported across the material, diffusing in the interstitial sites of the crystallographic structure and interacting with local defects, such as dislocations, precipitates, vacancies, etc. The presence of these [local defect] sites can slow the hydrogen transport and may provoke local H accumulation in the alloy. This accumulation could modify the local mechanical properties of the material and favor premature rupture. It is therefore essential to identify the nature of these H-material interactions, specifically the rate of H diffusion and hydrogen trapping kinetics at these

  8. Ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahar, Kerry N., E-mail: KerryAllahar@boisestate.edu [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd., Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Burns, Jatuporn [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd., Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Jaques, Brian [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Wu, Y.Q. [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd., Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Charit, Indrajit [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, McClure Hall Room 405D, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Cole, James [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Butt, Darryl P. [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd., Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate a Fe–16Cr–3Al (wt.%) powder that was mechanically alloyed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ti powders to produce 0.5 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 0.5 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}–1Ti powders. The effects of mechanical alloying and sintering conditions on the microstructure, relative density and hardness of the sintered oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are presented. Scanning electron microscopy indicated a mixed fine-grain and coarse-grain microstructure that was attributed to recrystallization and grain growth during sintering. Analysis of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) data identified Y–O and Y–O–Ti nanoclusters. Elemental ratios of these nanoclusters were consistent with that observed in hot-extruded ODS alloys. The influence of Ti was to refine the grains as well as the nanoclusters with there being greater number density and smaller sizes of the Y–O–Ti nanoclusters as compared to the Y–O nanoclusters. This resulted in the Ti-containing samples being harder than the Ti-free alloys. The hardness of the alloys with the Y–O–Ti nanoclusters was insensitive to sintering time while smaller hardness values were associated with longer sintering times for the alloys with the Y–O nanoclusters. Pressures greater than 80 MPa are recommended for improved densification as higher sintering temperatures and longer sintering times at 80 MPa did not improve the relative density beyond 97.5%.

  9. Hot mechanical behaviour of dispersion strengthened Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, Jose; Espinoza G, Rodrigo; Palma H, Rodrigo; Sepulveda O, Aquiles

    2003-01-01

    This work is part of a research project which objective is the improvement of the high-temperature mechanical properties of copper, without an important decrease of the electrical or thermal conduction properties. The general hypothesis is that this will be done by the incorporation of nanometric ceramic dispersoids for hindering the dislocation and grain boundaries movement. In this context, the object of the present work is the study of the resistance to hot deformation of dispersion-strengthened copper alloys which have prepared by reactive milling. Two different alloys, Cu-2,39wt.%Ti-0.56wt.%C and Cu-1.18wt.%Al, were prepared so as obtain a copper matrix reinforced with nanometric TiC y Al 2 O 3 particles with a nominal total amount of 5 vol.%. The particles were developed by an in-situ formation process during milling. The materials were prepared in an attritor mill, and consolidated by extrusion at 750 o C, with an area reduction rate of 10:1. The resistance to hot deformation was evaluated by hot compression tests at 500 and 850 o C, at initial strain rates of 10 -3 and 10 -4 s-1. To evaluate the material softening due temperature, annealing at 400, 650 y 900 o C during 1h were applied; after that, hardness was measured at room temperature. Both studies alloys presented a higher resistance to hot deformation than pure copper, with or without milling. Moreover, the Cu-Ti-C alloy presented a mechanical resistance higher than that of the Cu-Al one. Both alloys presented strain-stress compression curves with a typical hot-work shape: an initial maximum followed by a stationary plateau. The Cu-Ti-C alloy had a higher hardness and did not present a hardness decay even after annealings at the higher temperature imposed (900 o C), while the Cu-Al alloy did exhibit a strong decay of hardness after the annealing at 900 o C. The best behaviour exhibited by the Cu-Ti C alloy, was attributed to the formation of a major quantity of dispersoids that in the Cu-Al alloy. In

  10. Nitrogen solubility in nickel base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, L.A.; Stomakhin, A.Ya.; Sokolov, V.M.; Teterin, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Applicability of various methods for calculation of nitrogen solubility in high-alloyed nickel base alloys, containing Cr, Fe, W, Mo, Ti, Nb, has been estimated. A possibility is shown to use the formUla, derived for the calculation of nitrogen solubility in iron on the basis of statistical theory for a grid model of solution which does not require limitations for the content of a solvent component. The calculation method has been used for nickel alloys, with the concentration of solvent, iron, being accepted equal to zero, and employing parameters of nitrogen interaction as determined for iron-base alloys

  11. Dispersion strengthening of precipitation hardened Al-Cu-Mg alloys prepared by rapid solidification and mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.; Sankaran, K. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several Al-4Cu-1Mg-1.5Fe-0.75Ce alloys have been processed from either rapidly solidified or mechanically alloyed powder using various vacuum degassing parameters and consolidation techniques. Strengthening by the fine subgrains, grains, and the dispersoids individually or in combination is more effective when the alloys contain shearable precipitates; consequently, the strength of the alloys is higher in the naturally aged rather than the artificially aged condition. The strengths of the mechanically alloyed variants are greater than those produced from prealloyed powder. Properties and microstructural features of these dispersion strengthened alloys are discussed in regards to their processing histories.

  12. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental embrittlement and crack tip visco-plastic stress relaxation play a significant role in determining the dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) resistance of nickel-based disk superalloys. In the current study performed on the Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) disk alloy, the influence of these two mechanisms were separated so that the effects of each could be quantified and modeled. Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress

  13. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  14. Material properties in turbine blades of nickel-base alloy IN792 after long operating time; Materialegenskaper hos turbinskovlar av nickelbaslegeringen IN792 efter laang drifttid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Fredrik [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspaang (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Research on nickel-base alloys almost always includes mechanical testing of new material in order to ensure sufficient lifetime for the intended application. Metallographic examinations of service exposed components are sometimes performed but there are rarely any mechanical testing done in order to verify the assumptions made from the changes of in the microstructure that are observed. The testing presented in the report is aimed at observing the difference in mechanical properties for the material IN792 after it has been service exposed in a gas turbine for 60,000 operating hours at temperatures and stresses up to 780 deg C and 220 MPa. To try to couple changes of mechanical properties to the change of the microstructure, a metallographic examination was performed on both new and service exposed material. The two most significant changes in the microstructure was the overall formation of continuous bands of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}-carbides in the grain boundaries and formation of {sigma}-phase in the area close to the surface of the service exposed material. The results from the mechanical testing were probably not influenced of the formation of {sigma}-phase since the test bars weren't taken in areas where {sigma}-phase had formed. The mechanical testing showed that the impact toughness in service exposed material has been reduced by 30-60 % in the temperature interval 20-800 deg C and that the ductility of the material has been reduced approximately 20 % at room temperature and 30-50 % at service temperature. The reduction is assumed to be related to the Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}-carbide formation in the grain boundaries. An increase of the stress at 0,02 % inelastic strain with approximately 10 % was observed at room temperature after service exposure and a reduction of the same stress with 20 % was seen at service temperature. The difference in stress at 0,2 % inelastic strain was significantly less. The rupture stress was unchanged except in the test bars taken

  15. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  16. Quantitative prediction of solute strengthening in aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyson, Gerard Paul M; Curtin, William A; Hector, Louis G; Woodward, Christopher F

    2010-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computational materials science, a quantitative, parameter-free prediction of the mechanical properties of alloys has been difficult to achieve from first principles. Here, we present a new analytic theory that, with input from first-principles calculations, is able to predict the strengthening of aluminium by substitutional solute atoms. Solute-dislocation interaction energies in and around the dislocation core are first calculated using density functional theory and a flexible-boundary-condition method. An analytic model for the strength, or stress to move a dislocation, owing to the random field of solutes, is then presented. The theory, which has no adjustable parameters and is extendable to other metallic alloys, predicts both the energy barriers to dislocation motion and the zero-temperature flow stress, allowing for predictions of finite-temperature flow stresses. Quantitative comparisons with experimental flow stresses at temperature T=78 K are made for Al-X alloys (X=Mg, Si, Cu, Cr) and good agreement is obtained.

  17. Effects of cobalt on structure, microchemistry and properties of a wrought nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, R. N.; Tien, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the basic mechanical properties and microstructure of wrought nickel-base superalloys has been investigated experimentally by systematically replacing cobalt by nickel in Udimet 700 (17 wt% Co) commonly used in gas turbine (jet engine) applications. It is shown that the room temperature tensile yield strength and tensile strength only slightly decrease in fine-grained (disk) alloys and are basically unaffected in coarse-grained (blading) alloys as cobalt is removed. Creep and stress rupture resistances at 760 C are found to be unaffected by cobalt level in the blading alloys and decrease sharply only when the cobalt level is reduced below 8 vol% in the disk alloys. The effect of cobalt is explained in terms of gamma prime strengthening kinetics.

  18. Mechanical properties of nanostructured nickel based superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhtarov, Sh; Ermachenko, A, E-mail: shamil@anrb.r [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems RAS, 39, Khalturina, Ufa, 450001 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This paper will describe the investigations of a nanostructured (NS) state of nickel based INCONEL alloy 718. This structure was generated in bulk semiproducts by severe plastic deformation (SPD) via multiple isothermal forging (MIF) of a coarse-grained alloy. The initial structure consisted of {gamma}-phase grains with disperse precipitations of {gamma}{sup -}phase in the forms of discs, 50-75 nm in diameter and 20 nm in thickness. The MIF generated structures possess a large quantity of non-coherent plates and rounded precipitations of {delta}-phase, primarily along grain boundaries. In the duplex ({gamma}+{delta}) structure the grains have high dislocation density and a large number of nonequilibrium boundaries. Investigations to determine mechanical properties of the alloy in a nanostructured state were carried out. Nanocrystalline Inconel 718 (80 nm) possesses a very high room-temperature strength after SPD. Microcrystalline (MC) and NS states of the alloy were subjected to strengthening thermal treatment, and the obtained results were compared in order to determine their mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures.

  19. Synergistic alloying effect on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Cu precipitation-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.R.; Li, Y.P.; Hirata, A.; Zhang, Y.; Fujita, T.; Furuhara, T.; Liu, C.T.; Chiba, A.; Chen, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    We report the influence of alloying elements (Ni, Al and Mn) on the microstructural evolution of Cu-rich nanoprecipitates and the mechanical properties of Fe–Cu-based ferritic alloys. It was found that individual additions of Ni and Al do not give rise to an obvious strengthening effect, compared with the binary Fe–Cu parent alloy, although Ni segregates at the precipitate/matrix interface and Al partitions into Cu-rich precipitates. In contrast, the co-addition of Ni and Al results in the formation of core–shell nanoprecipitates with a Cu-rich core and a B2 Ni–Al shell, leading to a dramatic improvement in strength. The coarsening rate of the core–shell precipitates is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of monolithic Cu-rich precipitates in the binary and ternary Fe–Cu alloys. Reinforcement of the B2 Ni–Al shells by Mn partitioning further improves the strength of the precipitation-strengthened alloys by forming ultrastable and high number density core–shell nanoprecipitates

  20. Irradiation performance of oxide dispersion strengthened copper alloys to 150 dpa at 415 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.J.; Kumar, A.S.; Anderson, K.R.; Stubbins, J.F.; Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    Results have been obtained on the post-irradiation properties of various oxide dispersion strengthened copper alloys irradiated from 34 to 150 dpa at 415 degrees C in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The GlidCop alloys strengthened by Al 2 O 3 continue to outperform other alloys with respect to swelling resistance, and retention of both electrical conductivity and yield strength. Several castable ODS alloys and a Cr 2 O 3 -strengthened alloy show increasingly poor resistance to radiation, especially in their swelling behavior. A HfO 2 -strengthened alloy retains most of its strength and its electrical conductivity reaches a constant level after 50 dpa, but it exhibits a higher residual radioactivity

  1. Dynamic recrystallization of a new nickel-based alloy for 700 °C A-USC power plant applications with different initial states: as-homogenized and as-forged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yunsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Maicang, E-mail: mczhang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xie, Xishan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin, Fusheng; Zhao, Shuangqun [Shanghai Power Equipment Research Institute, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-04-26

    The hot deformation behavior of a new-designed nickel-based alloy with different initial states were investigated by isothermal compression at temperature range of 1000–1200 °C with strain rate of 0.01–20 s{sup −1} and nominal strain of 15–70% on a Gleeble-1500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The correlation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism and initial alloy states as well as deformation parameters were analyzed in detail by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). For homogenized alloy with extremely large grains, the DRX mechanism transforms partly from discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) characterized with serrated and bulging grain boundary into continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) operated by progressive sub-grain merging and rotation with the increasing strain rate and decreasing deformation temperature, which results from the poor deformation compatibility in the alloy with extremely large grains. However, the dominant DRX mechanism in as-forged alloy is DDRX almost at all the deformation conditions, and CDRX is only an assistant mechanism, which caused by the initial inhomogeneous dislocation distribution and fine grains. In consequence, the initial alloy states have a significant influence on the DRX, which cannot be ignored in the hot deformation research.

  2. The Study of the Impact of Surface Preparation Methods of Inconel 625 and 718 Nickel-Base Alloys on Wettability by BNi-2 and BNi-3 Brazing Filler Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lankiewicz K.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of surface preparation method of Inconel 625 and 718 nickel-base alloys in the form of sheets on wettability of the surface. The results of the investigations of surface preparation method (such as nicro-blasting, nickel plating, etching, degreasing, abrasive blasting with grit 120 and 220 and manually grinding with grit 120 and 240 on spreading of BNi-2 and BNi-3 brazing filler metals, widely used in the aerospace industry in high temperature vacuum brazing processes, are presented. Technological parameters of vacuum brazing process are shown. The macro- and microscopic analysis have shown that nicro-blasting does not bring any benefits of wettability of the alloys investigated.

  3. The Study Of The Impact Of Surface Preparation Methods Of Inconel 625 And 718 Nickel-Base Alloys On Wettability By BNi-2 And BNi-3 Brazing Filler Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lankiewicz K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of surface preparation method of Inconel 625 and 718 nickel-base alloys in the form of sheets on wettability of the surface. The results of the investigations of surface preparation method (such as nicro-blasting, nickel plating, etching, degreasing, abrasive blasting with grit 120 and 220 and manually grinding with grit 120 and 240 on spreading of BNi-2 and BNi-3 brazing filler metals, widely used in the aerospace industry in high temperature vacuum brazing processes, are presented. Technological parameters of vacuum brazing process are shown. The macro- and microscopic analysis have shown that nicro-blasting does not bring any benefits of wettability of the alloys investigated.

  4. Study on Strengthening and Toughening Mechanisms of Aluminum Alloy 2618-Ti at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Ma; Tingting, Liu; Ya, Liu; Xuping, Su; Jianhua, Wang

    2018-01-01

    The tensile properties of the alloy 2618 and 2618-Ti were tested using a tensile testing machine. The morphologies of the fracture of tensile samples were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The strengthening and toughening mechanisms of alloy 2618-Ti at elevated temperature were systematically investigated based on the analyses of experimental results. The results showed that the tensile strength of alloy 2618-Ti is much higher than that of alloy 2618 at the temperature range of 250 and 300 °C. But the elongation of alloy 2618-Ti is much higher than that of alloy 2618 at the temperature range of 200 and 300 °C. The equal-strength temperature of intragranular and grain boundary of alloy 2618-Ti is about 235 °C. When the temperature is lower than 235 °C, the strengthening of alloy 2618-Ti is ascribed to the strengthening effect of fine grains and dispersed Al3Ti/Al18Mg3Ti2 phase. When the temperature is higher than 235 °C, the strengthening effect of alloy 2618-Ti is mainly attributed to the load transfer of Al3Ti and Al18Mg3Ti2 particles. The toughening of alloy 2618-Ti at elevated temperature is mainly ascribed to the fine grain microstructure, excellent combination between matrix and dispersed Al3Ti/Al18Mg3Ti2 particles as well as the recrystallization of the alloy at elevated temperature.

  5. Characterization of Dispersion Strengthened Copper Alloy Prepared by Internal Oxidation Combined with Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziqian; Xiao, Zhu; Li, Zhou; Zhu, Mengnan; Yang, Ziqi

    2017-11-01

    Cu-3.6 vol.% Al2O3 dispersion strengthened alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) of internal oxidation Cu-Al powders. The lattice parameter of Cu matrix decreased with milling time for powders milled in argon, while the abnormal increase of lattice parameter occurred in the air resulting from mechanochemical reactions. With a quantitative analysis, the combined method makes residual aluminum oxidized completely within 10-20 h while mechanical alloying method alone needs longer than 40 h. Lamellar structure formed and the thickness of lamellar structure decreased with milling time. The size of Al2O3 particles decreased from 46 to 22 nm after 40 h milling. After reduction, core-shell structure was found in MAed powders milled in the air. The compacted alloy produced by MAed powders milled in the argon had an average hardness and electrical conductivity of 172.2 HV and 82.1% IACS while the unmilled alloy's were 119.8 HV and 74.1% IACS due to the Al2O3 particles refinement and residual aluminum in situ oxidization.

  6. Dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy for use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy is provided which has high-temperature strength and is readily fabricable at ambient temperatures, and which is useful as structural elements of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. 4 tables

  7. Change in mechanical properties of low-alloyed molybdenum alloys at two-stage strengthening during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernshtejn, L.M.; Zakharov, A.M.; Arbuzov, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Change in mechanical properties of hardened low-alloyed molybdenum alloys (Mo-Zr-C and Mo-Zr-Nb-C) at two-stage strengthening during ageing at 1400 deg C is studied. The initial strengthening maximum following ageing for 5 hr is caused by separation of dispersed ZrC particles and is accompanied by worsened plasticity, a development characteristic of precipitation hardening processes. The second increase in strength after a 10-hr ageing is not accompanied by reduced plasticity, this being characteristic of strengthening as a result of reconstruction of the dislocation structure. Niobium (0.16 wt.%) added to Mo-Zr-C alloys simultaneously increases their plastic and strength properties. The said effect is caused by prevention of premature decomposition of alloys on account of increased low-temperature plasticity, which permits to obtain high resistance to plastic deformation

  8. The role of solid-solution strengthening in the development of alloys for HTR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A.V.

    1978-09-01

    In this paper the fundamental factors (lattice distortion, stacking fault energy and diffusion rates) which contribute to solid-solution strengthening are examined and used as a basis for indicating the composition of alloys likely to posses the highest strength at elevated temperatures. Alloys based on Ni-Cr-W-Mo should possess the best properties but alloys based on Ni-Cr-Nb-Ti are also recommended for further study. The effect of alloy composition on corrosion resistance has been excluded from this examination but it should be possible to adjust alloy composition in order to optimise corrosion resistance. (orig./IHOE) [de

  9. Strengthening and elongation mechanism of Lanthanum-doped Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ping, E-mail: huping1985@126.com [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jinduicheng Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710068 (China); Hu, Bo-liang; Wang, Kuai-she; Song, Rui; Yang, Fan [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Yu, Zhi-tao [Ruifulai Tungsten & Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 721914 (China); Tan, Jiang-fei [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Cao, Wei-cheng; Liu, Dong-xin; An, Geng [Jinduicheng Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710068 (China); Guo, Lei [Ruifulai Tungsten & Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 721914 (China); Yu, Hai-liang [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    The microstructural contributes to understand the strengthening and elongation mechanism in Lanthanum-doped Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum alloy. Lanthanum oxide particles not only act as heterogeneous nucleation core, but also act as the second phase to hinder the grain growth during sintering crystallization. The molybdenum substrate formed sub-grain under the effect of second phase when the alloy rolled to plate.

  10. The response of dispersion-strengthened copper alloys to high fluence neutron irradiation at 415 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.J.; Newkirk, J.W.; Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Nadkarni, A.; Samal, P.

    1993-01-01

    Various oxide-dispersion-strengthened copper alloys have been irradiated to 150 dpa at 415 degrees C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The Al 2 O 3 -strengthened GlidCop TM alloys, followed closely by a HfO 2 -strengthened alloy, displayed the best swelling resistance, electrical conductivity, and tensile properties. The conductivity of the HfO 2 -strengthened alloy reached a plateau at the higher levels of irradiation, instead of exhibiting the steady decrease in conductivity observed in the other alloys. A high initial oxygen content results in significantly higher swelling for a series of castable oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloys, while a Cr 2 O 3 -strengthened alloy showed poor resistance to radiation

  11. Response of solute and precipitation-strengthened copper alloys at high neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Shikama, T.; Edwards, D.J.; Newkirk, J.W.

    1991-11-01

    A variety of solute and precipitation strengthened copper base alloys have been irradiated to neutron-induced displacement levels of 34 to 150 dpa at 415 degrees C and 32 dpa at 529 degrees C in the Fast Flux Test Facility to assess their potential for high heat flux applications in fusion reactors. Several MZC-type alloys appear to offer the most promise for further study. For low fluence applications CuBeNi and spinodally strengthened CuNiTi alloys may also be suitable. Although Cu-2Be resists swelling, it is not recommended for fusion reactor applications because of its low conductivity

  12. Response of solute and precipitation-strengthened copper alloys at high neutron exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shikama, T. [Tohoku Univ., Oarai Branch (Japan); Edwards, D.J.; Newkirk, J.W. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States)

    1991-11-01

    A variety of solute and precipitation strengthened copper base alloys have been irradiated to neutron-induced displacement levels of 34 to 150 dpa at 415{degrees}C and 32 dpa at 529{degrees}C in the Fast Flux Test Facility to assess their potential for high heat flux applications in fusion reactors. Several MZC-type alloys appear to offer the most promise for further study. For low fluence applications CuBeNi and spinodally strengthened CuNiTi alloys may also be suitable. Although Cu-2Be resists swelling, it is not recommended for fusion reactor applications because of its low conductivity.

  13. Simulation of precipitation and strengthening in MG-RE alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium - rare earth (Mg-RE) alloys have received considerable attention in the past decades for wider applications in the aerospace industry due to their relatively high strength and excellent creep resistance. Most rare-earth containing magnesium alloys, such as Mg-Y, Mg-Gd, and Mg-Y-Nd, are precipitation hardenable. A technical barrier to the wider applications of such alloys is the lack of a sufficiently large age hardening response. To further improve this response, an improved underst...

  14. Role of hydrogen in the intergranular cracking mechanism by stress corrosion in primary medium of nickel based alloys 600 and 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Jambon, F.; Chene, J.; Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Chene, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement of alloys 600 and 690 in order to better understand the eventual role of hydrogen in the stress corrosion mechanism which affects these alloys when they are exposed in PWR primary medium. (O.M.)

  15. In-Situ Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Base 718 Alloy Under Various CO2 Partial Pressures at 150 and 205 °C in NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubi; Zhao, Yongtao; Tang, An; Yang, Wenjie; Li, Enzuo

    2018-03-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behavior of nickel-base alloy 718 was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization techniques at various partial pressures of CO2 (P_{{{CO}2 }} s) in a 25 wt% NaCl solution at 150 and 205 °C. The passive films composed of FeCO3 exhibit good corrosion resistance with a feature of Warburg impedance, Tafel plots show a complete passivation and the anodic reactions was dominated by a diffusion process at low P_{{{CO}2 }} s (1.8-9.8 MPa) at 150 °C. While numerous dented corrosion areas appeared on the sample surface for the P_{{{CO}2 }} of 11.6 MPa at 205 °C, the Tafel plot with three anodic peaks and the Nyquist diagram with an atrophied impedance arc were present. This dented corrosion attribute to the synergistic effects of stress, temperature, P_{{{CO}2 }} and Cl-, the temperature and stress could play crucial roles on the corrosion of the alloy 718.

  16. Part of the hydrogen in the intergranular crack by stress corrosion in primary circuit for the 600 and 690 nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Jambon, F.; Chene, J.; Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Chene, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is, in a first part, to characterize the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity of the 600 and 690 based alloys in order to better understand the hydrogen role in the stress corrosion mechanism which appears in theses alloys in the primary circuit of the PWR type reactors. The authors studies how the hydrogen embrittlement is resulting from an interaction between the hydrogen and the plastic deformation. (A.L.B.)

  17. Overview of welding of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for advanced nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvala, Prasad Rao; Raja, K.S.; Misra, Manoranjan; Tache, Ricard A.

    2009-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are very promising materials for Generation IV reactors with a potential to be used at elevated temperatures under severe neutron exposure environment. Welding of the ODS alloys is an understudied problem. In this paper, an overview of welding of the ODS alloys useful for advanced nuclear reactor applications is presented. The microstructural changes and the resultant mechanical properties obtained by various solid state welding processes are reviewed. Based on our results on PM2000, an approach for future work on welding of the ODS alloys is suggested. (author)

  18. Hydrogen absorption mechanisms and hydrogen interactions - defects: implications to stress corrosion of nickel based alloys in pressurized water reactors primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambon, F.

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1960's, a special form of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been identified for Alloy 600 exposed to pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary water: intergranular cracks develop during the alloy exposure, leading, progressively, to the complete ruin of the structure, and to its replacement. The main goal of this study is therefore to evaluate in which proportions the hydrogen absorbed by the alloy during its exposure to the primary medium can be responsible for SCC crack initiation and propagation. This study is aimed at better understanding of the hydrogen absorption mechanism when a metallic surface is exposed to a passivating PWR primary medium. A second objective is to characterize the interactions of the absorbed hydrogen with the structural defects of the alloy (dislocations, vacancies...) and evaluate to what extent these interactions can have an embrittling effect in relation with SCC phenomenon. Alloy 600-like single-crystals were exposed to a simulated PWR medium where the hydrogen atoms of water or of the pressuring hydrogen gas were isotopically substituted with deuterium, used as a tracer. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth-profiling of deuterium was performed to characterize the deuterium absorption and localization in the passivated alloy. The results show that the hydrogen absorption during the exposure of the alloy to primary water is associated with the water molecules dissociation during the oxide film build-up. In an other series of experiments, structural defects were created in recrystallized samples, and finely characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, before or after the introduction of cathodic hydrogen. These analyses exhibited a strong hydrogen/defects interaction, evidenced by their structural reorganization under hydrogenation (coalescence, migrations). However, thermal desorption spectroscopy analyses indicated that these interactions are transitory, and dependent on

  19. Design criteria for rhenium-reduced nickel-based single-crystal alloys. Identification and computer-assisted conversion; Designkriterien fuer rheniumreduzierte Nickelbasis-Einkristalllegierungen. Identifikation und rechnergestuetzte Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehler, Thomas

    2016-06-17

    In the present work, design criteria and property models for the creep strength optimization of rhenium-free nickel based single crystal Superalloys are investigated. The study focuses on a typical load condition of 1050 C and 150 MPa, which is representative for flight engine applications. Thereby the key aspect is to link chemical composition, manufacturing processes, microstructure formation and mechanistic understanding of dislocation creep through a computational materials engineering approach. Beside the positive effect of rhenium on solid solution hardening, a second mechanism in which rhenium increases high temperature creep strength is identified. It indirectly stabilizes precipitation hardening by reducing the coarsening kinetics of γ'-rafting. Five 1st and 2nd generation technical Superalloys show a comparable microstructure evolution for up to 2 % plastic elongation, while creep times differ by a factor of five. The application of a microstructure sensitive creep model shows that these coarsening processes can activate γ-cutting and thus lead to an increasing creep rate. Based on these calculations a threshold value of φ{sub γ/γ'} > 2,5 at 150 MPa is estimated. This ratio of matrix channel to raft thickness has been proofed for multiple positions by microstructure analysis of interrupted creep tests. The mechanism described previously can be decelerated by the enrichment of the γ-matrix with slow diffusing elements. The same principle also increases the solid solution strength of the γ-matrix. Therefore, the present work delivers an additional mechanistic explanation why creep properties of single phase nickel based alloys can be transferred to two phase technical Superalloys with rafted γ'-structure. Following, the best way to substitute both rhenium fundamental properties, namely a slow diffusion coefficient and a small solubility in g', has been investigated by means of CALPHAD-modeling. Only molybdenum and especially

  20. Development of Austenitic ODS Strengthened Alloys for Very High Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Heuser, Brent [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Robertson, Ian [Kyushu Univ. (Japan); Sehitoglu, Huseyin [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Sofronis, Petros [Kyushu Univ. (Japan); Gewirth, Andrew [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    2015-04-22

    This “Blue Sky” project was directed at exploring the opportunities that would be gained by developing Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys based on the Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloy system. A great deal of research effort has been directed toward ferritic and ferritic/martensitic ODS alloys which has resulted in reasonable advances in alloy properties. Similar gains should be possible with austenitic alloy which would also take advantage of other superior properties of that alloy system. The research effort was aimed at the developing an in-depth understanding of the microstructural-level strengthening effects of ODS particles in austentic alloys. This was accomplished on a variety of alloy compositions with the main focus on 304SS and 316SS compositions. A further goal was to develop an understanding other the role of ODS particles on crack propagation and creep performance. Since these later two properties require bulk alloy material which was not available, this work was carried out on promising austentic alloy systems which could later be enhanced with ODS strengthening. The research relied on a large variety of micro-analytical techniques, many of which were available through various scientific user facilities. Access to these facilities throughout the course of this work was instrumental in gathering complimentary data from various analysis techniques to form a well-rounded picture of the processes which control austenitic ODS alloy performance. Micromechanical testing of the austenitic ODS alloys confirmed their highly superior mechanical properties at elevated temperature from the enhanced strengthening effects. The study analyzed the microstructural mechanisms that provide this enhanced high temperature performance. The findings confirm that the smallest size ODS particles provide the most potent strengthening component. Larger particles and other thermally- driven precipitate structures were less effective contributors and, in some cases, limited

  1. XPS and STM study of the growth and structure of passive films in high temperature water on a nickel-base alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A.; Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Klein, L.; Maurice, V.; Jolivet, P.; Foucault, M.; Combrade, P.; Scott, P.; Marcus, P

    2004-09-15

    The early stages of passivation in high temperature water of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The samples (polycrystal Ni-16Cr-9Fe (wt. %) and single crystal Ni-17Cr-7Fe (1 1 1)) have been exposed for short time periods (0.4-8.2 min) to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water, under controlled hydrogen pressure, in a microautoclave designed to transfer the samples from and to the XPS spectrometer without air exposure. In the early stages of oxidation of the alloy (0.4-4 min), an ultra-thin oxide layer (about 1 nm) is formed, which consists of chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}), according to the Cr 2p{sub 3/2} core level spectrum. An outer layer of Cr(OH){sub 3} with a very small amount of Ni(OH){sub 2} is also revealed by the Cr 2p{sub 3/2}, Ni 2p{sub 3/2}, and O 1s core level spectra. At this early stage, there is a temporary blocking of the growth of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For longer exposures (4-8 min), the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} inner layer becomes thicker, at the expense of the outer Cr(OH){sub 3} layer. This implies the transport of Cr and Ni through the oxide layer, and release of Ni{sup 2+} in the solution. The structure of the ultra-thin oxide film formed on a single crystal Ni-17Cr-7Fe(1 1 1) alloy was analysed by STM in the constant current mode; STM images reveal that, in the early stages of oxidation, the oxide is crystalline, and the observed structure is consistent with the hexagonal structure of the oxygen sub-lattice in the basal plane (0 0 0 1) of {alpha}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  2. Method of thermally processing superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloys to obtain optimum strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Claire E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Optimum strengthening of a superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloy structure is achieved via a thermal processing technique which eliminates the conventional step of solution heat-treating immediately following the step of superplastic forming of the structure. The thermal processing technique involves quenching of the superplastically formed structure using static air, forced air or water quenching.

  3. Study of the corrosion of nickel base alloys in molten fluorides medium; Etude de la corrosion des alliages base nickel en milieu de fluorures fondus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, St.; Finne, J.; Noel, D.; Catalette, H. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD), Dept. Materiaux et Mecanique des Composants, Groupe Chimie et Corrosion, 77 - Ecuelles (France); Cabet, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chamelot, P.; Taxil, P.; Cassayre, L. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Dept. Procedes Electrochimiques, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the corrosion mechanisms of nickel and its alloys in molten fluoride media. In a first part, the behaviour of the pure alloy metals has been studied (Ni, Mo, W, Fe and Cr) in three different salts mixtures: LiF-NaF, LiF-CaF{sub 2} and LiF-AlF{sub 3} in a temperature range of 700-1000 C. An experimental assembly allowing the implementation of electrochemical methods has been fabricated and validated. Linear scanning volt-amperometry has been used for studying the corrosion reactions of metals. It has then been possible to obtain intensity-potential curves and to determine the currents and corrosion potentials by the plotting of Tafel straight lines. These experimental results have finely been interpreted in considering the thermodynamic data accessible in literature (potential-oxo-acidity diagrams of metals in salts built from HSC Chemistry 5.1) and the influence of temperature and the nature of the bath have been estimated. (O.M.)

  4. On the superposition of strengthening mechanisms in dispersion strengthened alloys and metal-matrix nanocomposites: Considerations of stress and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. B.; Schultz, Benjamin F.; Venugopalan, Dev; Lopez, Hugo F.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.; Cho, Kyu; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Yield strength improvement in dispersion strengthened alloys and nano particle-reinforced composites by well-known strengthening mechanisms such as solid solution, grain refinement, coherent and incoherent dispersed particles, and increased dislocation density resulting from work-hardening can all be described individually. However, there is no agreed upon description of how these mechanisms combine to determine the yield strength. In this work, we propose an analytical yield strength prediction model combining arithmetic and quadratic addition approaches based on the consideration of two types of yielding mechanisms; stress-activated and energy-activated. Using data available in the literature for materials of differing grain sizes, we consider the cases of solid solutions and coherent precipitates to show that they follow stress-activated behavior. Then, we applied our model with some empirical parameters to precipitationhardenable materials of various grain sizes in both coherent and incoherent precipitate conditions, which demonstrated that grain boundary and Orowan-strengthening can be treated as energy-activated mechanisms.

  5. Mechanical characteristics of heterogeneous structures obtained by high-temperature brazing of corrosion-resistant steels with rapidly quenched non-boron nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, B.; Penyaz, M.; Ivannikov, A.; Sevryukov, O.; Bachurina, D.; Fedotov, I.; Voennov, A.; Abramov, E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing nickel filler metals for high temperature brazing corrosion resistance steels different classes is perspective. The use of these alloys leads to the formation of a complex heterogeneous structure in the diffusion zone that contains separations of intermediate phases such as silicides and borides. This structure negatively affects the strength characteristics of the joint, especially under dynamic loads and in corrosive environment. The use of non-boron filler metals based on the Ni-Si-Be system is proposed to eliminate this structure in the brazed seam. Widely used austenitic 12Cr18Ni10Ti and ferrite-martensitic 16Cr12MoSiWNiVNb reactor steels were selected for research and brazing was carried out. The mechanical characteristics of brazed joints were determined using uniaxial tensile and impact toughness tests, and fractography was investigated by electron microscopy.

  6. Thermal cycling influence on microstructural characterization of alloys with high nickel content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrudeanu, M.; Gradin, O.; Vulpe, S. C.; Ohai, D.

    2013-01-01

    The IV nuclear energy generation systems are aimed at making revolutionary improvements in economics, safety and reliability, and sustainability. To achieve these goals, Generation IV systems will operate at higher temperatures and in higher radiation fields. This paper shows the thermal cycling influences on microstructure and hardness of nickel based alloys: Incoloy 800 HT and Inconel 617. These alloys were meekly at a thermal cycling of 25, 50, 75 and 100 cycles. The temperature range of a cycle was between 400 O C and 700 O C. Nickel base alloys develop their properties by solid solution and/or precipitation strengthening. (authors)

  7. Intercrystalline and transcrystalline vibration fatigue failure in the inconel 718 nickel-based alloy; Inter- und transkristalliner Schwingbruch in der Nickelbasislegierung Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanzek, Horst; Fruhner, Annett [Lufthansa Technik AG, Hamburg (Germany). Metallurgical Lab., HAM WR123

    2011-07-01

    The fracture of the turbine rotor disc resulted in the breakdown of the APU and high expenses. The APU is located below the vertical tailplane, at the tail of every major-sized aircraft. The vane receptacle failed in the mode of a vibration fatigue failure of an intercrystalline and transcrystalline progression. The cause of this damage is attributable to the fatigue of the material. This can result from the long service life (21 131 h) and the fact that 9 more vane receptacles exhibited a comparable damage pattern. In INCONEL 718 alloys, cracks propagate in a transcrystalline way when under an alternate bend stress and at temperatures below abt. 600 C. In contrast, cracks propagate because of grain boundary oxidation above abt. 600 C in an intercrystalline way. The phenomenon that the two crack modi occurred alternately on the same fracture area is explained from the fact that the component part was exposed to different temperatures during operation. While the crack progress was transcrystalline in the ''cooler'' starting and stopping phase crack propagation occurred along the grain boundaries (was intercrystalline) in a normal operation above 600 C. Besides a limitation of the running time in its service life, other measures could not be taken for this component part. (orig.)

  8. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened W alloys produced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.; Savoini, B.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2011-01-01

    A powder metallurgy technique has been developed to produce oxide strengthened W-Ti and W-V alloys using elemental powders and nanosized powders of La 2 O 3 or Y 2 O 3 as starting materials. The alloys consolidated by hot isostatic pressing resulted in high-density materials having an ultrafine-grained structure and microhardness values in the range 7-13 GPa. Atom force microscopy studies show a topographic relief in the Ti and V pools that appear in the consolidated alloys. This relief is attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation of martensite plates. The preliminary transmission electron microscopy studies have revealed that a dispersion of nanoparticles can be induced in these alloys produced via the present technique.

  9. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened W alloys produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.; Savoini, B.; Monge, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Munoz, A., E-mail: angel.munoz@uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A powder metallurgy technique has been developed to produce oxide strengthened W-Ti and W-V alloys using elemental powders and nanosized powders of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as starting materials. The alloys consolidated by hot isostatic pressing resulted in high-density materials having an ultrafine-grained structure and microhardness values in the range 7-13 GPa. Atom force microscopy studies show a topographic relief in the Ti and V pools that appear in the consolidated alloys. This relief is attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation of martensite plates. The preliminary transmission electron microscopy studies have revealed that a dispersion of nanoparticles can be induced in these alloys produced via the present technique.

  10. Strengthening behavior of beta phase in lamellar microstructure of TiAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang; Seo, D. Y.; Maruyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    β phase can be introduced to TiAl alloys by the additions of β stabilizing elements such as Cr, Nb, W, and Mo. The β phase has a body-centered cubic lattice structure and is softer than the α2 and γ phases in TiAl alloys at elevated temperatures, and hence is thought to have a detrimental effect on creep strength. However, fine β precipitates can be formed at lamellar interfaces by proper heat treatment conditions and the β interfacial precipitate improves the creep resistance of fully lamellar TiAl alloys, since the phase interface of γ/β retards the motion of dislocations during creep. This paper reviews recent research on high-temperature strengthening behavior of the β phase in fully lamellar TiAl alloys.

  11. Plasticity of alloys strengthened with nano-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praud, M.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the development of the new generation of nuclear power plant, especially sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered as potential candidates for cladding materials. Their main advantages are their excellent dimensional stability under irradiation, thanks to their body centered cubic structure, and their high thermal creep resistance due to the nano-particles. The aim of this work is to understand the plasticity of such materials through a multiscale approach. First, the microstructure of 9% and 14% Cr ODS steels has been finely characterized. Then, their mechanical behavior has been studied through tensile tests and creep tests. In addition, in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy straining experiments have been carried out to observe the dynamic behavior at a finer scale. This work emphasizes an evolution of the deformation and damage mechanisms with temperature. At room temperature, a mechanism with a strong intragranular contribution is noticed. At high temperature, an increase in the intergranular component has been pointed out. Consequently, it leads to more severe damage. Finally, the hardening role of the precipitates on the mechanical properties and the plasticity has been evaluated thanks to a 'model' material, without precipitate. (author) [fr

  12. Investigation of alloying effects in aluminum dispersion strengthened with Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, G.L.

    1975-10-01

    Two types of alloying elements were investigated to determine if the room-temperature strength could be improved and if, through lowering the oxide content, the high-temperature ductility could be improved. Mg was investigated for its solid solution strengthening in one type alloy. The other type alloy involved further dispersion strengthening through adding Fe, Mo, Zr, Cr, V, and Ti which form highly stable intermetallic compounds with Al. Fabrication techniques were developed which produced uniform and reproducible rods for testing. Prealloyed powders were produced by atomizing the molten alloys and collecting the powders in water. This procedure produced uniform powders with a very fine distribution of the intermetallic compounds. Fabrication into rods then included ball-milling, vacuum hot pressing, vacuum heat treating, and hot extrusion. Mg additions improved strengths up to 200 0 C with little effect above that temperature. Room-temperature tensile strengths up to 77,000 psi were obtained which are comparable to the strengths obtained in conventional aluminum alloys. The additional dispersion strengthening of the intermetallic compounds is additive to that of the oxide from room temperature to 450 0 C. No significant improvements in ductility are obtained by reducing the oxide content since even at very low ball-milling times (i.e., low oxide contents) the uniform elongation at 450 0 C is typically 0.5 percent. Good combinations of strength and ductility at 450 0 C were obtained in some of the alloys containing intermetallic compounds with no ball-milling. Typical properties at this temperature were tensile strengths of 7,000 psi, uniform elongation of 3 percent, and total elongation of 35 percent. (21 tables, 33 fig, 43 references) (auth)

  13. Precipitation Strengthenable NiTiPd High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Glen; Garg, Anita; Benafan, Othmane; Noebe, Ronald; Gaydosh, Darrell; Padula, Santo, II

    2017-01-01

    In binary NiTi alloys, it has long been known that Ni-rich alloys can be heat treated to produce precipitates which both strengthen the matrix against dislocations and improve the behavior of the material under thermal and mechanical cycling. Within recent years, the same effect has been observed in Ni-rich NiTiHf high temperature shape memory alloys and heat treatment regimens have been defined which will reliably produce improved properties. In NiTiPd alloys, precipitation has also been observed, but studies are still underway to define reliable heat treatments and compositions which will provide a balance of strengthening and good thermomechanical properties. For this study, a series of NiTi-32 at.Pd alloys was produced to determine the effect of changing nickeltitanium content on the transformation behavior and heat treatability of the material. Samples were aged at temperatures between 350C and 450C for times up to 100 hours. Actuation type behavior was evaluated using uniaxial constant force thermal cycling (UCFTC) to determine the effect of composition and aging on the material behavior. TEMSEM was used to evaluate the microstructure and determine the types of precipitates formed. The correlation between composition, heat treat, microstructure, and thermomechanical behavior will be addressed and discussed.

  14. Some microstructural characterisations in a friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, F.; Poissonnet, S.; Bonnaillie, P.; Boulanger, L.; Forest, L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize microstructure of a friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened alloy. The welded material is constituted by two sheets of an yttria-dispersion-strengthened PM 2000 ferritic steel. Different areas of the friction stir welded product were analyzed using field emission gun secondary electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and electron microprobe whereas nanoindentation was used to evaluate mechanical properties. The observed microstructural evolution, including distribution of the yttria dispersoids, after friction stir welding process is discussed and a correlation between the microstructure and the results of nanoindentation tests is established.

  15. Microscopy of Alloy Formation on Arc Plasma Sintered Oxide Dispersion Strengthen (ODS) Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandriyana, B.; Sujatno, A.; Salam, R.; Dimyati, A.; Untoro, P.

    2017-07-01

    The oxide dispersed strengthened (ODS) alloys steel developed as structure material for nuclear power plants (NPP) has good resistant against creep due to their unique microstructure. Microscopy investigation on the microstructure formation during alloying process especially at the early stages was carried out to study the correlation between structure and property of ODS alloys. This was possible thanks to the arc plasma sintering (APS) device which can simulate the time dependent alloying processes. The ODS sample with composition of 88 wt.% Fe and 12 wt.% Cr powder dispersed with 1 wt.% ZrO2 nano powder was mixed in a high energy milling, isostatic compressed to form sample coins and then alloyed in APS. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (EDX) line scan and mapping was used to characterize the microstructure and elemental composition distribution of the samples. The alloying process with unification of each Fe and Cr phase continued by the alloying formation of Fe-Cr by inter-diffusion of both Fe and Cr and followed by the improvement of the mechanical properties of hardness.

  16. Swelling in several commercial alloys irradiated to very high neutron fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.; Pintler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Swelling values have been obtained from a set of commercial alloys irradiated in EBR-II to a peak fluence of 2.5 x 10 23 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) or approx. 125 dpa covering the range 400 to 650 0 C. The alloys can be ranked for swelling resistance from highest to lowest as follows: the martensitic and ferritic alloys, the niobium based alloys, the precipitation strengthened iron and nickel based alloys, the molybdenum alloys and the austenitic alloys

  17. First-principles investigations of solid solution strengthening in Al alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Duancheng

    2012-01-01

    Any material properties, in principle, can be reproduced or predicted by performing firstprinciples calculations. Nowadays, however, we are dealing with complex alloy compositions and processes. The complexities cannot be fully described by first-principles, because of the limited computational power. The primary objective of this study is to investigate an important engineering problem, solid solution strengthening, in a simplified manner. The simplified scheme should allow fast and reliable...

  18. Effect of sulphur on the strengthening of a Zr-Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.I.; Hong, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sulphur on the strengthening and the thermally activated deformation of cold-worked Zr-1 Nb alloy was investigated. In the present study, the sulphur strengthening was observed even at room temperature unlike the previous study of Ferrer et al. The flow stress increased by 65 MPa at room temperature with the addition of sulphur as little as 20 ppm. With further increase of sulphur content up to 300 ppm, negligible change of the flow stress was observed. The additive strengthening behavior in which the entire stress-strain curve shift upward by the friction stress due to the addition of sulphur was observed in the Zr-Nb alloy of the present study. The activation volume decreased slightly (from 110b 3 to 80b 3 ) with the addition of 300 ppm sulphur at room temperature. The rate-controlling mechanism of the deformation can best be explained by the dislocation interaction mechanism in which the segregation of alloying elements such as oxygen and sulphur atoms affects the activation length of dislocations

  19. Welding and Weldability of Directionally Solidified Single Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitek, J M; David, S A; Reed, R W; Burke, M A; Fitzgerald, T J

    1997-09-01

    Nickel-base superalloys are used extensively in high-temperature service applications, and in particular, in components of turbine engines. To improve high-temperature creep properties, these alloys are often used in the directionally-solidified or single-crystal form. The objective of this CRADA project was to investigate the weldability of both experimental and commercial nickel-base superalloys in polycrystalline, directionally-solidified, and single-crystal forms.

  20. TEM characterisation of stress corrosion cracks in nickel based alloys: effect of chromium content and chemistry of environment; Caracterisation par MET de fissures de corrosion sous contrainte d'alliages a base de nickel: influence de la teneur en chrome et de la chimie du milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrouille, F

    2004-11-15

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a damaging mode of alloys used in pressurized water reactors, particularly of nickel based alloys constituting the vapour generator tubes. Cracks appear on both primary and secondary sides of the tubes, and more frequently in locations where the environment is not well defined. SCC sensitivity of nickel based alloys depends of their chromium content, which lead to the replacement of alloy 600 (15 % Cr) by alloy 690 (30 % Cr) but this phenomenon is not yet very well understood. The goal of this thesis is two fold: i) observe the effect of chromium content on corrosion and ii) characterize the effect of environment on the damaging process of GV tubes. For this purpose, one industrial tube and several synthetic alloys - with controlled chromium content - have been studied. Various characterisation techniques were used to study the corrosion products on the surface and within the SCC cracks: SIMS; TEM - FEG: thin foil preparation, HAADF, EELS, EDX. The effect of chromium content and surface preparation on the generalised corrosion was evidenced for synthetic alloys. Moreover, we observed the penetration of oxygen along triple junctions of grain boundaries few micrometers under the free surface. SCC tests show the positive effect of chromium for contents varying from 5 to 30 % wt. Plastic deformation induces a modification of the structure, and thus of the protective character, of the internal chromium rich oxide layer. SCC cracks which developed in different chemical environments were characterised by TEM. The oxides which are formed within the cracks are different from what is observed on the free surface, which reveals a modification of medium and electrochemical conditions in the crack. Finally we were able to evidence some structural characteristics of the corrosion products (in the cracks and on the surface) which turn to be a signature of the chemical environment. (author)

  1. TEM characterisation of stress corrosion cracks in nickel based alloys: effect of chromium content and chemistry of environment; Caracterisation par MET de fissures de corrosion sous contrainte d'alliages a base de nickel: influence de la teneur en chrome et de la chimie du milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrouille, F

    2004-11-15

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a damaging mode of alloys used in pressurized water reactors, particularly of nickel based alloys constituting the vapour generator tubes. Cracks appear on both primary and secondary sides of the tubes, and more frequently in locations where the environment is not well defined. SCC sensitivity of nickel based alloys depends of their chromium content, which lead to the replacement of alloy 600 (15 % Cr) by alloy 690 (30 % Cr) but this phenomenon is not yet very well understood. The goal of this thesis is two fold: i) observe the effect of chromium content on corrosion and ii) characterize the effect of environment on the damaging process of GV tubes. For this purpose, one industrial tube and several synthetic alloys - with controlled chromium content - have been studied. Various characterisation techniques were used to study the corrosion products on the surface and within the SCC cracks: SIMS; TEM - FEG: thin foil preparation, HAADF, EELS, EDX. The effect of chromium content and surface preparation on the generalised corrosion was evidenced for synthetic alloys. Moreover, we observed the penetration of oxygen along triple junctions of grain boundaries few micrometers under the free surface. SCC tests show the positive effect of chromium for contents varying from 5 to 30 % wt. Plastic deformation induces a modification of the structure, and thus of the protective character, of the internal chromium rich oxide layer. SCC cracks which developed in different chemical environments were characterised by TEM. The oxides which are formed within the cracks are different from what is observed on the free surface, which reveals a modification of medium and electrochemical conditions in the crack. Finally we were able to evidence some structural characteristics of the corrosion products (in the cracks and on the surface) which turn to be a signature of the chemical environment. (author)

  2. Strengthening mechanisms and deformation behavior of cryomilled Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmanaeva, Lilia, E-mail: lkurmanaeva@ucdavis.com [Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Topping, Troy D. [Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); California State University, Sacramento, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Wen, Haiming; Sugahara, Haruka; Yang, Hanry; Zhang, Dalong; Schoenung, Julie M.; Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Ultra-fine and coarse grained Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy samples were processed by methods of powder metallurgy. • Despite thermal exposure during consolidation,cryomilled materials retain an ultra-fine grained structure due to the presence of nano-dispersoids at grain boundaries. • Cryomilling results in a change in precipitation kinetics, due to the depletion of Mg atoms at the grain interiors and segregation of Mg, Cu and Ag atoms at grain boundaries. • Dominant deformation mechanisms in cryomilled samples were grain boundary strengthening and dispersion strengthening from oxides and nitrides. - Abstract: In the last decade, the commercially available heat-treatable aluminum alloy (AA) 2139 (Al–Cu–Mg–Ag) has generated interest within the aerospace and defense communities because of its high strength and damage tolerance as compared to those of other AA 2XXX alloys. In this work we investigate the possibility of enhancing the performance of AA 2139 via a nanostructuring approach involving the consolidation of cryomilled powders. For comparison purposes, two types of feedstock powders (cryomilled and unmilled, gas-atomized powder), were consolidated via dual mode dynamic forging. Our results show that, following heat treatment (HT), the strength of the cryomilled material increases in the range of ∼25% to ∼200% relative to that of the unmilled counterparts, depending on specific processing parameters. We present microstructural data, including grain size and precipitate chemistry, to provide insight into the underlying strengthening mechanisms. Vickers microhardess tests are used to evaluate peak heat treatments, and tensile testing is performed to characterize mechanical behavior. The kinetics of precipitation, strengthening mechanisms and deformation behavior are discussed. It is proposed that the combination of elemental segregation with the presence of oxides along grain boundaries, both facilitated by enhanced diffusion paths, are

  3. High-temperature deformation of dispersion-strengthened Cu-Zr-Ti-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Rodrigo H.; Sepulveda, Aquiles; Espinoza, Rodrigo; Dianez, M. Jesus; Criado, Jose M.; Sayagues, M. Jesus

    2005-01-01

    The hot mechanical behaviour and microstructure of Cu-5 vol.% TiC, Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 and Cu-2.5 vol.% TiC-2.5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys prepared by reaction milling were studied. After a test of 1 h annealing at 1173 K, the Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloy presented the lower softening resistance to annealing, while the other two ones kept their initial room-temperature hardness (about 2 GPa). Hot-compression tests at 773 and 1123 K, at initial true strain rates of 0.85 x 10 -3 and 0.85 x 10 -4 s -1 were performed. The Cu-2.5 vol.% TiC-2.5 vol.% ZrO 2 and the Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys were the strongest and softest materials, respectively. Moreover, by electron microscopy, nanometric TiC and micrometric particles were detected in the Cu-5 vol.% TiC and Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys, respectively. A possible explanation for the observed behaviour of these materials is proposed. In the compression tests, it was also found that strain rate has a low effect on flow stress, as it has been previously observed by various authors in dispersion-strengthened alloys deformed at high temperatures

  4. Study of microstructure evolution and strengthening mechanisms in novel TiZrAlB alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S.G.; Feng, Z.H.; Xia, C.Q.; Zhang, Z.G.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.Y., E-mail: xyzhang@ysu.edu.cn; Ma, M.Z.; Liu, R.P., E-mail: riping@ysu.edu.cn

    2017-04-24

    In this paper, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the as-cast Ti-χZr-4Al-0.005B (TχZAB and χ=0, 10, 20, 30, 40 wt%) alloys were systematically investigated. Only the α phase was detected from the X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-cast TχZAB quaternary alloy series. As the Zr content increased, the average size and length-diameter ratio of the α grains were decreased from 69.8 μm to 17.1 µm and 37.5 to 8.4, respectively. The analysis of the results from the tensile and microhardness tests demonstrated that both the strength and hardness increased significantly as the Zr content increased (from 0 wt% to 40 wt%). Nevertheless, the ductility exhibited an opposite trend. The fracture mode of the ductile-brittle transfer was consistent with the ductility alteration. The as-cast Ti-40Zr-4Al-0.005B alloys demonstrated the highest tensile strength (σ{sub b}=1134 MPa), which increased by 53% compared to the Ti-4Al-0.005B alloys, whereas the lowest elongation-to-failure was of 6.77%. The mechanical properties of the TχZAB alloy series were discussed based on the microstructural evolution and the solid solution strengthening mechanisms.

  5. B2-ordered iron-aluminium alloys strengthening. Influence of additions (Ni and B) and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, David

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of additions (Ni and B) and microstructure on the mechanical behaviour of 40 at. % Al iron-aluminium alloys. From a macroscopic point of view, we show that nickel reinforces FeAl alloys over the whole temperature range, but that it simultaneously leads to emphasize the room temperature brittleness of these alloys through a cleavage stress decrease. We confirm powder metallurgy grain refining interest to enhance yield stress as well as fracture resistance. We show that nickel-induced yield stress effect is additive to 'Hall-Petch' one. Also, we point out that the strengthening phenomena (nickel or grain size) cause the yield stress anomaly, which these alloys usually present, to be hidden. Through a dislocation structures analysis of deformed materials we precise that low temperature nickel-induced solid solution hardening (SSH) cannot be explained on the basis of classical SSH theories but more probably through nickel influence upon the Peierls stress. Moreover, we show that the APB tubes dragging model may be compatible with our microscopic and macroscopic results about the anomaly. Eventually, we put into relation a dynamic super-dislocations multiplication process observation (in situ transmission microscopy) with the nickel-containing alloys tendency to cleavage. (author) [fr

  6. Strengthening mechanisms of Fe nanoparticles for single crystal Cu–Fe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Guodong; Chen, Xiaohua; Jiang, Han; Wang, Zidong; Tang, Hao; Fan, Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    A single crystal Cu–Fe alloy with finely dispersed precipitate Fe nanoparticles was fabricated in this study. The interface relationship of iron nanoparticle and copper matrix was analyzed with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the effect of Fe nanoparticles on mechanical properties of single crystal Cu–Fe alloy was discussed. Results show that, the finely dispersed Fe nanoparticles can be obtained under the directional solidification condition, with the size of 5–50 nm and the coherent interface between the iron nanoparticle and the copper matrix. Single crystal Cu–Fe alloy possesses improved tensile strength of 194.64 MPa, and total elongation of 44.72%, respectively, at room temperature, in contrast to pure Cu sample. Nanoparticles which have coherent interface with matrix can improve the dislocation motion state. Some dislocations can slip through the nanoparticle along the coherent interface and some dislocations can enter into the nanoparticles. Thus to improve the tensile strength of single crystal Cu–Fe alloy without sacrificing the ductility simultaneously. Based on the above analyses, strengthening mechanisms of Fe nanoparticles for single crystal Cu–Fe alloy was described

  7. Prediction of Precipitation Strengthening in the Commercial Mg Alloy AZ91 Using Dislocation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagesen, L. K.; Miao, J.; Allison, J. E.; Aubry, S.; Arsenlis, A.

    2018-03-01

    Dislocation dynamics simulations were used to predict the strengthening of a commercial magnesium alloy, AZ91, due to β-Mg17Al12 formed in the continuous precipitation mode. The precipitate distributions used in simulations were determined based on experimental characterization of the sizes, shapes, and number densities of the precipitates for 10-hour aging and 50-hour aging. For dislocations gliding on the basal plane, which is expected to be the dominant contributor to plastic deformation at room temperature, the critical resolved shear stress to bypass the precipitate distribution was 3.5 MPa for the 10-hour aged sample and 16.0 MPa for the 50-hour aged sample. The simulation results were compared to an analytical model of strengthening in this alloy, and the analytical model was found to predict critical resolved shear stresses that were approximately 30 pct lower. A model for the total yield strength was developed and compared with experiment for the 50-hour aged sample. The predicted yield strength, which included the precipitate strengthening contribution from the DD simulations, was 132.0 MPa, in good agreement with the measured yield strength of 141 MPa.

  8. Enhanced Age Strengthening of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr Alloy via Pre-Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjun Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-stretching was carried out to modify the microstructure of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy to enhance its age strengthening. The results indicated that more heterogeneous nucleation sites can be provided by the high density of dislocations caused by the plastic pre-stretching deformation, as well as speeding up the growth rate of precipitates. Comparison of microstructure in non-pre-stretched specimens after artificial aging showed that pre-stretched specimens exhibited a higher number density of precipitates. The fine and coarse plate-shaped precipitates were found in the matrix. Due to an increase in the number density of precipitates, the dislocation slipping during the deformation process is effectively hindered, and the matrix is strengthened. The yield strength stabilizes at 4% pre-stretching condition, and then the evolution is stable within the error bars. The 8% pre-stretched specimens can achieve an ultimate tensile strength of 297 MPa. However, further pre-stretching strains after 8% cannot supply any increase in strength. Tensile fracture surfaces of specimens subjected to pre-stretching strain mainly exhibit a trans-granular cleavage fracture. This work indicated that a small amount of pre-stretching strain can further increase strength of alloy and also effectively enhance the formation of precipitates, which can expand the application fields of this alloy.

  9. Contribution of Lattice Distortion to Solid Solution Strengthening in a Series of Refractory High Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Kauffmann, A.; Laube, S.; Choi, I.-C.; Schwaiger, R.; Huang, Y.; Lichtenberg, K.; Müller, F.; Gorr, B.; Christ, H.-J.; Heilmaier, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present an experimental approach for revealing the impact of lattice distortion on solid solution strengthening in a series of body-centered-cubic (bcc) Al-containing, refractory high entropy alloys (HEAs) from the Nb-Mo-Cr-Ti-Al system. By systematically varying the Nb and Cr content, a wide range of atomic size difference as a common measure for the lattice distortion was obtained. Single-phase, bcc solid solutions were achieved by arc melting and homogenization as well as verified by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The atomic radii of the alloying elements for determination of atomic size difference were recalculated on the basis of the mean atomic radii in and the chemical compositions of the solid solutions. Microhardness (μH) at room temperature correlates well with the deduced atomic size difference. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of microscopic slip lead to pronounced temperature dependence of mechanical strength. In order to account for this particular feature, we present a combined approach, using μH, nanoindentation, and compression tests. The athermal proportion to the yield stress of the investigated equimolar alloys is revealed. These parameters support the universality of this aforementioned correlation. Hence, the pertinence of lattice distortion for solid solution strengthening in bcc HEAs is proven.

  10. Effects of Zr Addition on Strengthening Mechanisms of Al-Alloyed High-Cr ODS Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Yu, Liming; Liu, Yongchang; Liu, Chenxi; Li, Huijun; Wu, Jiefeng

    2018-01-12

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels with different contents of zirconium (denoted as 16Cr ODS, 16Cr-0.3Zr ODS and 16Cr-0.6Zr ODS) were fabricated to investigate the effects of Zr on strengthening mechanism of Al-alloyed 16Cr ODS steel. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) results show that the mean grain size of ODS steels could be decreased by Zr addition. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results indicate that Zr addition could increase the number density but decrease the mean diameter and inter-particle spacing of oxide particles. Furthermore, it is also found that in addition to Y-Al-O nanoparticles, Y-Zr-O oxides with finer size were observed in 16Cr-0.3Zr ODS and 16Cr-0.6Zr ODS steels. These changes in microstructure significantly increase the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of ODS steels through mechanisms of grain boundary strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

  11. Ductility and microstructure of precipitation-strengthened alloys irradiated in HFIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.S.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    Six γ' and γ'/γ'' strengthened Ni-base alloys have shown near-zero ductility after irradiation at 300 to 600 0 C in HFIR to a peak exposure of 9 dpa. Microstructural examination of the irradiated specimens showed that the loss of ductility in these alloys arises from the simultaneous existence of a strong matrix and weak grain boundaries. The strong matrix is attributed to the irradiation-induced γ' and γ'/γ'' precipitates, the faulted loops and a high density of fine helium bubbles. The weak grain boundaries are attributed to the formation of an unfavorable precipitate, such as eta-plates, recrystallized grains, a thin layer of γ' and helium bubbles

  12. Effect of alumina strengthening particles on brazed joints of GlidCop Al-15 copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, J.Y.; Chin, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    Brazed joints of the alumina dispersion-strengthened copper alloy were developed using resistance heating brazing with BCuP-3 braze alloy. Experimental results show that tensile strength and fatigue properties are a function of the brazing process temperature cycle. Maximum tensile and fatigue properties can be obtained by choice of an optimal braze time and temperature. However, in both tensile and fatigue tests the brazed joints exhibited low ductility. Metallography of the fractured tensile and fatigue samples showed that cracks always initiated in and propagated along the interface between the transition layer and the braze metal. EDS analysis across the joint showed that P diffused very quickly into base metal along grain boundaries. A strong Al peak (associated with the detection of Al 2 O 3 ) was found that corresponded with the transition layer. Fractography showed an intergranular fracture pattern across this transition zone indicating that the observed segregation of alumina particles reduces the ductility of this region. ((orig.))

  13. Comparison of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Behavior in Two Similar Ferritic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jesus; Rementeria, Rosalia; Aranda, Maria; Capdevila, Carlos; Gonzalez-Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    The ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) behavior of two similar Fe-Cr-Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) stainless steels was analyzed following the Cottrell–Petch model. Both alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) but by different forming routes. One was manufactured as hot rolled tube, and the other in the form of hot extruded bar. The two hot forming routes considered do not significantly influence the microstructure, but cause differences in the texture and the distribution of oxide particles. These have little influence on tensile properties; however, the DBT temperature and the upper shelf energy (USE) are significantly affected because of delamination orientation with regard to the notch plane. Whereas in hot rolled material the delaminations are parallel to the rolling surface, in the hot extruded material, they are randomly oriented because the material is transversally isotropic. PMID:28773764

  14. Comparison of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Behavior in Two Similar Ferritic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jesus; Rementeria, Rosalia; Aranda, Maria; Capdevila, Carlos; Gonzalez-Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2016-07-29

    The ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) behavior of two similar Fe-Cr-Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) stainless steels was analyzed following the Cottrell-Petch model. Both alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) but by different forming routes. One was manufactured as hot rolled tube, and the other in the form of hot extruded bar. The two hot forming routes considered do not significantly influence the microstructure, but cause differences in the texture and the distribution of oxide particles. These have little influence on tensile properties; however, the DBT temperature and the upper shelf energy (USE) are significantly affected because of delamination orientation with regard to the notch plane. Whereas in hot rolled material the delaminations are parallel to the rolling surface, in the hot extruded material, they are randomly oriented because the material is transversally isotropic.

  15. Complementary AES and AEM of grain boundary regions in irradiated γ'-strengthened alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, K.; Kishimoto, N.; Clausing, R.E.; Heatherly, L.; Lehman, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two microchemical analysis techniques are used to measure solute segregation at grain boundaries in two γ'-strengthened, fcc Fe-Ni-Cr alloys that display radiation-induced intergranular fracture. Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) of grain boundary fracture surfaces and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) of intact grain boundaries using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show good agreement on the nature and extent of segregation. The elements Ni, Si, Ti, and Mo are found to accumulate in G, Laves and γ' phases on the grain boundaries. Segregation of P is detected by AES. The complementary features of the two analytical techniques are discussed briefly

  16. Tribological properties of Al 7075 alloy based composites strengthened with Al2O3 fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of 7075 aluminium alloy based composite materials reinforced with Al2O3 Saffil fibres was investigated. The measurementsof wear were performed applying the pin-on-disc method at dry friction conditions with the gray iron counterpart. The effects ofpressure of composite samples on the counterpart made of gray iron and the orientation of fibers in relation to the friction surface on wear rate were determined. The materials were produced by squeeze casting method where 80-90% porous ceramic preform were infiltrated.After T6 heat treatment hardness increased about 50-60% both for unreinforced alloy and composites containing strengthening Saffilfibres. Wear resistance of composite materials in relation to the unreinforced 7075 alloy was slightly worse at lower pressure of 0.8 MPa. Under higher pressure of 1.2 MPa wear resistance of unreinforced 7075 alloy was even better whereas no effect of orientation of fibers on wear in composite materials was observed. Additionally, significant wear of counterface in the presence of debris with fragmented Al2O3 fibres as abrasives was observed. Wear resistance improvement of composite materials was obtained when with alumina Saffil fibres Carbon C fibres in the preforms were applied.

  17. Analysis of Strengthening Mechanisms in an Artificially Aged Ultrafine Grain 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Rezaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study adopted a quantitative approach to investigating the mechanical properties, and their relationship to the microstructural features, of precipitation-strengthened 6061 aluminum alloy processed through accumulative roll bonding (ARB and aging heat treatment.  To serve this purpose, the contributions of different strengthening mechanisms including grain refinement, precipitation, dislocation and solid-solution strengthening to the yield strength of five-cycle ARB samples processed under pre-aged (ARBed and aged (ARBed+Aged conditions were examined and compared. Microstructural characterizations were performed on the samples through the transmission electron microscope (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Also, the mechanical properties of the samples were investigated through the tensile test. The obtained results showed that an equiaxed ultrafine grain structure with nano-sized precipitates was created in the both ARBed and ARBed+Aged samples. The grain refinement was the predominant strengthening mechanism which was estimated to contribute 151 and 226 MPa to the ARBed and ARBed+Aged samples, respectively, while the dislocation and Orowan strengthening mechanisms were ranked second with regard to their contributions to the ARBed and ARBed+Aged samples, respectively. The overall yield strength, calculated through the root mean square summation method, was found to be in good agreement with the experimentally determined yield strength. It was also found that the presence of non-shearable precipitates, which interfered with the movement of the dislocations, would be effective for the simultaneous improvement of the strength and ductility of the ARBed+Agedsample .

  18. Fabrication technological development of the oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA957 for fast reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; GD Johnson; WF Brown; MM Paxton; RJ Puigh; CR Eiholzer; C Martinez; MA Blotter

    2000-01-01

    A significant amount of effort has been devoted to determining the properties and understanding the behavior of the alloy MA957 to define its potential usefulness as a cladding material, in the fast breeder reactor program. The numerous characterization and fabrication studies that were conducted are documented in this report. The alloy is a ferritic stainless steel developed by International Nickel Company specifically for structural reactor applications. It is strengthened by a very fine, uniformly distributed yttria dispersoid. Its fabrication involves a mechanical alloying process and subsequent extrusion, which ultimately results in a highly elongated grain structure. While the presence of the dispersoid produces a material with excellent strength, the body centered cubic structure inherent to the material coupled with the high aspect ratio that results from processing operations produces some difficulties with ductility. The alloy is very sensitive to variations in a number of processing parameters, and if the high strength is once lost during fabrication, it cannot be recovered. The microstructural evolution of the alloy under irradiation falls into two regimes. Below about 550 C, dislocation development, αprime precipitation and void evolution in the matrix are observed, while above about 550 C damage appears to be restricted to cavity formation within oxide particles. The thermal expansion of the alloy is very similar to that of HT9 up to the temperature where HT9 undergoes a phase transition to austenitic. Pulse magnetic welding of end caps onto MA957 tubing can be accomplished in a manner similar to that in which it is performed on HT9, although the welding parameters appear to be very sensitive to variations in the tubing that result from small changes in fabrication conditions. The tensile and stress rupture behavior of the alloy are acceptable in the unirradiated condition, being comparable to HT9 below about 700 C and exceeding those of HT9 at

  19. Fabrication technological development of the oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA957 for fast reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; GD Johnson; WF Brown; MM Paxton; RJ Puigh; CR Eiholzer; C Martinez; MA Blotter

    2000-03-27

    A significant amount of effort has been devoted to determining the properties and understanding the behavior of the alloy MA957 to define its potential usefulness as a cladding material, in the fast breeder reactor program. The numerous characterization and fabrication studies that were conducted are documented in this report. The alloy is a ferritic stainless steel developed by International Nickel Company specifically for structural reactor applications. It is strengthened by a very fine, uniformly distributed yttria dispersoid. Its fabrication involves a mechanical alloying process and subsequent extrusion, which ultimately results in a highly elongated grain structure. While the presence of the dispersoid produces a material with excellent strength, the body centered cubic structure inherent to the material coupled with the high aspect ratio that results from processing operations produces some difficulties with ductility. The alloy is very sensitive to variations in a number of processing parameters, and if the high strength is once lost during fabrication, it cannot be recovered. The microstructural evolution of the alloy under irradiation falls into two regimes. Below about 550 C, dislocation development, {alpha}{prime} precipitation and void evolution in the matrix are observed, while above about 550 C damage appears to be restricted to cavity formation within oxide particles. The thermal expansion of the alloy is very similar to that of HT9 up to the temperature where HT9 undergoes a phase transition to austenitic. Pulse magnetic welding of end caps onto MA957 tubing can be accomplished in a manner similar to that in which it is performed on HT9, although the welding parameters appear to be very sensitive to variations in the tubing that result from small changes in fabrication conditions. The tensile and stress rupture behavior of the alloy are acceptable in the unirradiated condition, being comparable to HT9 below about 700 C and exceeding those of HT9

  20. Welding Metallurgy of Nickel-Based Superalloys for Power Plant Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, David C.

    Increasing the steam temperature and pressure in coal-fired power plants is a perpetual goal driven by the pursuit of increasing thermal cycle efficiency and reducing fuel consumption and emissions. The next target steam operating conditions, which are 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi) are known as Advanced Ultra Supercritical (AUSC), and can reduce CO2 emissions up to 13% but this cannot be achieved with traditional power plant construction materials. The use of precipitation-strengthened Nickel-based alloys (superalloys) is required for components which will experience the highest operating temperatures. The leading candidate superalloys for power plant construction are alloys 740H, 282, and 617. Superalloys have excellent elevated temperature properties due to careful microstructural design which is achieved through very specific heat treatments, often requiring solution annealing or homogenization at temperatures of 1100 °C or higher. A series of postweld heat treatments was investigated and it was found that homogenization steps before aging had no noticeable effect on weld metal microhardness, however; there were clear improvements in weld metal homogeneity. The full abstract can be viewed in the document itself.

  1. Fatigue and creep–fatigue deformation of an ultra-fine precipitate strengthened advanced austenitic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.C.; Carroll, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. To investigate the behavior in more representative conditions than are offered by uniaxial creep tests, the low-cycle continuous fatigue and combined creep–fatigue response of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 °C and 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of −1 and hold times at peak tensile strain of up to 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure between the two alloys are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in both fatigue and creep–fatigue of each alloy at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present following the application of hold times of 60 min and longer, and considerably more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ substantially; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in the microstructure of 316 SS, whereas HT-UPS exhibits widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep–fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as the microstructure evolves with continued cycling.

  2. Fatigue and creep-fatigue deformation of an ultra-fine precipitate strengthened advanced austenitic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.C., E-mail: Mark.Carroll@INL.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 Fremont, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2218 (United States); Carroll, L.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 Fremont, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2218 (United States)

    2012-10-30

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. To investigate the behavior in more representative conditions than are offered by uniaxial creep tests, the low-cycle continuous fatigue and combined creep-fatigue response of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 Degree-Sign C and 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of -1 and hold times at peak tensile strain of up to 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure between the two alloys are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in both fatigue and creep-fatigue of each alloy at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present following the application of hold times of 60 min and longer, and considerably more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ substantially; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in the microstructure of 316 SS, whereas HT-UPS exhibits widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep-fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as the microstructure evolves with continued cycling.

  3. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Gupta, Vipul [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Huang, Shenyan [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Soare, Monica [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Zhao, Pengyang [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Wang, Yunzhi [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The goal of this project is to model long-term creep performance for nickel-base superalloy weldments in high temperature power generation systems. The project uses physics-based modeling methodologies and algorithms for predicting alloy properties in heterogeneous material structures. The modeling methodology will be demonstrated on a gas turbine combustor liner weldment of Haynes 282 precipitate-strengthened nickel-base superalloy. The major developments are: (1) microstructure-property relationships under creep conditions and microstructure characterization (2) modeling inhomogeneous microstructure in superalloy weld (3) modeling mesoscale plastic deformation in superalloy weld and (4) a constitutive creep model that accounts for weld and base metal microstructure and their long term evolution. The developed modeling technology is aimed to provide a more efficient and accurate assessment of a material’s long-term performance compared with current testing and extrapolation methods. This modeling technology will also accelerate development and qualification of new materials in advanced power generation systems. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from October 2014 to December 2016.

  4. Characterization of dispersion strengthened copper with 3wt%Al2O3 by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Višeslava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper matrix has been dispersion strengthened with 3wt.%Al2O3 by mechanical alloying. Commercial alumina powder with an average particle size of 0.75mm was used for alloying. The mechanical alloying process was performed in a planetary ball mill up to 20h in air. After milling all powders were treated in H2 at 4000C for 1h, and finally hot pressing was used for compaction (800oC, 3h, Ar. Structure observations revealed a lamellar structure (Al2O3 particles largely restricted to interlamellar planes between adjacent copper lamellae accompanied also by structure refinement. These structural changes were mostly completed in the early stage of milling, and retained after compaction. Micro hardness was found to progressively increase with milling time. So, after 5h of milling the micro hardness of the Cu+3twt%Al2O3 compact was 1540MPa, i.e. 2.5 times greater than for the as-received electrolytic copper powder (638MPa compacted under identical conditions, while after 20h of milling it was 2370 MPa. However after exposing the tested compact at 800oC up to 5h, the achieved hardening effect vanished.

  5. Post irradiation fracture properties of precipitation-strengthened alloy D21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    The precipitation strengthened alloys have the potential for use in fuel cladding and duct applications for liquid metal reactors due to their high strength and low swelling rate. Unfortunately, these high strength alloys tend to exhibit poor fracture toughness, and the effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture properties of the material are of concern. Compact tension specimens of alloy D21 were irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II to a fluence of 2.7 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 425, 500, 550 and 600 0 C. Fracture toughness tests on these specimens wre performed using electric potential techniques at temperatures ranging from 205 to 425 C. The material exhibited low postirradiation fracture toughness which increased with either increasing test or irradiation temperature. The tearing modulus, however, increased with increasing irradiation temperature but decreased with increasing test temperature. Results wre analyzed using the J-integral approach. The fracture toughness of irradiated D21 was evaluated essentially following the procedure recommended in ASTM Test Method E813. It was found that the data elimination limits illustrated in E813 were too large for the specimens tested, although the thickness criterion was satisfied. The precautions needed to determine J/sub 1c/ based on a reduced data qualification range were disussed

  6. Strengthening of Cu–Ni–Si alloy using high-pressure torsion and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungwon, E-mail: chominamlsw@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsunaga, Hirotaka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sauvage, Xavier [University of Rouen, CNRS UMR 6634, Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences, BP 12, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Horita, Zenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    An age-hardenable Cu–2.9%Ni–0.6%Si alloy was subjected to high-pressure torsion. Aging behavior was investigated in terms of hardness, electrical conductivity and microstructural features. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the grain size is refined to ∼ 150 nm and the Vickers microhardness was significantly increased through the HPT processing. Aging treatment of the HPT-processed alloy led to a further increase in the hardness. Electrical conductivity is also improved with the aging treatment. It was confirmed that the simultaneous strengthening by grain refinement and fine precipitation is achieved while maintaining high electrical conductivity. Three dimensional atom probe analysis including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanosized precipitates having compositions of a metastable Cu{sub 3}Ni{sub 5}Si{sub 2} phase and a stable NiSi phase were formed in the Cu matrix by aging of the HPT-processed samples and these particles are responsible for the additional increase in strength after the HPT processing. - Highlights: • Grain refinement is achieved in Corson alloy the size of ∼150nm by HPT. • Aging at 300°C after HPT leads to further increase in the mechanical property. • Electrical conductivity reaches 40% IACS after aging for 100 h. • 3D-APT revealed the formation of nanosized-precipitates during aging treatment. • Simultaneous hardening in both grain refinement and precipitation is achieved.

  7. Nanosized-Particle Dispersion-Strengthened Al Matrix Composites Fabricated by the Double Mechanical Alloying Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungseok

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate an Al metal matrix composite strengthened by nanosized Al3Ti particles via double mechanical alloying process. Several Al-xTi alloys were fabricated, including Al-12%Ti, Al-15%Ti, and Al-12%Ti-1%Y2O3. The lattice parameter of as-milled state was calculated to be 4.0485 Å; after a milling time of 540 min, it was 4.0401 Å. This decrease was induced by Ti solutionizing into the Al matrix. The equivalent size of a coarse Al3Ti particle was 200-500 nm after the heat treatment; however, the particles were uniformly distributed and were refined through the MA2 process. The particle size of a Al3Ti phase was 30 nm or less, and the particles were uniformly distributed. These particles remained in a fine state in the matrix without growth and coarsening, even after the hot extrusion process. The microstructure of hot extruded alloys consisted of a uniform distribution of Al3Ti particles and other dispersoids in the Al matrix.

  8. Preparation of Si and O co-solution strengthened Ti alloys by using rice husks as SiO2 resource and quantitative descriptions on their strengthening effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lei; Chen, Jiang-xian; Lu, Zhen-lin; Li, Shu-feng; Umeda, Junko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2018-04-01

    Ti alloys strengthened by both Si and O solutes were prepared by powder metallurgy method from pure Ti and amorphous SiO2 powder obtained by combusting rice husks. At the same time, Ti alloys singly strengthened by Si or O were also prepared for studying the strengthening effect of Si and O solutes. Results showed that amorphous SiO2 powder originated from rice husks could almost fully dissolve into pure Ti matrix when the content was not higher than 1.0 wt%, while higher content of SiO2 addition resulted in the formation of Ti5Si3 intermetallics. Si and O elements leaded to negative and positive distortion of Ti lattice, and the influencing degrees were ‑0.02 and +0.014 Å/wt% for lattice constant a, while ‑0.05 and +0.046 Å/wt% for constant c, respectively. Solid solution of Si and O would also result in the increase of hardness, which was 98.5 and 209.43 HV/wt%, respectively. When Si and O were co-exsited in Ti matrix, the negative and positive distortion cancelled each other, while the strengthening effect did not cancel but enhance each other.

  9. A TEM quantitative evaluation of strengthening in an Mg-RE alloy reinforced with SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabibbo, Marcello; Spigarelli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium alloys containing rare earth elements are known to have high specific strength, good creep and corrosion resistance up to 523 K. The addition of SiC ceramic particles strengthens the metal matrix composite resulting in better wear and creep resistance while maintaining good machinability. The role of the reinforcement particles in enhancing strength can be quantitatively evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This paper presents a quantitative evaluation of the different strengthening contributions, determined through TEM inspections, in an SiC Mg-RE composite alloy containing yttrium, neodymium, gadolinium and dysprosium. Compression tests at temperatures ranging between 290 and 573 K were carried out. The microstructure strengthening mechanism was studied for all the compression conditions. Strengthening was compared to the mechanical results and the way the different contributions were combined is also discussed and justified. - Research Highlights: → TEM yield strengthening terms evaluation on a Mg-RE SiC alloy. → The evaluation has been extended to different compression temperature conditions. → Linear and Quadratic sum has been proposed and validated. → Hall-Petch was found to be the most prominent strengthening contributions.

  10. Instantaneous strain measurements during high-temperature stress cycling of a dispersion-strengthened niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, D.M.; Mishra, R.S.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results obtained from stress cycling tests performed during high-temperature creep of a dispersion strengthened niobium alloy indicate that the instantaneous strain following the stress change decreases with accumulated strain. The true work-hardening rate was shown to be a small fraction of the elastic modulus which remained fairly constant throughout the strain history. The instantaneous strain change from a stress addition was typically greater than the strain from the corresponding stress reduction. This effect is quite pronounced for small stress changes and diminishes as the magnitude of the stress change increases. This implies that the mobility of dislocations is impeded in the reverse direction unless the magnitude of stress reduction exceeds the value of the internal stress

  11. Stability of nanoscale secondary phases in an oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V. de; Marquis, E.A.; Lozano-Perez, S.; Pareja, R.; Jenkins, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography were used to characterize on a near-atomic scale the microstructure and oxide and carbide phases that form during thermo-mechanical treatments of a model oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12 wt.% Cr-0.4 wt.% Y 2 O 3 alloy. It was found that some of the Y-rich nanoparticles retained their initial crystallographic structure but developed a Cr-enriched shell, while others evolved into ternary oxide phases during the initial processing. The Y- and Cr-rich oxide phases formed remained stable after annealing at 1023 K for 96 h. However, the number of Cr-rich carbides appeared to increase, inducing Cr depletion in the matrix.

  12. Stability of nanoscale secondary phases in an oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12Cr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, V. de, E-mail: vanessa.decastro@uc3m.es [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Marquis, E.A.; Lozano-Perez, S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Jenkins, M.L. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography were used to characterize on a near-atomic scale the microstructure and oxide and carbide phases that form during thermo-mechanical treatments of a model oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12 wt.% Cr-0.4 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy. It was found that some of the Y-rich nanoparticles retained their initial crystallographic structure but developed a Cr-enriched shell, while others evolved into ternary oxide phases during the initial processing. The Y- and Cr-rich oxide phases formed remained stable after annealing at 1023 K for 96 h. However, the number of Cr-rich carbides appeared to increase, inducing Cr depletion in the matrix.

  13. Some new characteristics of the strengthening phase in β-phase magnesium-lithium alloys containing aluminum and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Guangsheng; Staiger, Mark; Kral, Milo

    2004-01-01

    Hardness, optical-microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies on the strengthening phase in β-phase magnesium-lithium alloys containing different content of aluminum were carried out to give some new characteristics of the strengthening phase affecting lattice distortion and α-Mg precipitation in the β-matrix. In the presence of the strengthening-phase precipitates, the matrix lattice undergoes substantial strain characterized by peak broadening. The peak width in the β-matrix phase pattern can provide an indication of lattice strain caused by the strengthening-phase precipitates. The origin of α-Mg precipitation resulting from the decomposition of the strengthening phase into stable AlLi compound is also explained in the present work

  14. Effects of cobalt in nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, J. K.; Jarrett, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The role of cobalt in a representative wrought nickel-base superalloy was determined. The results show cobalt affecting the solubility of elements in the gamma matrix, resulting in enhanced gamma' volume fraction, in the stabilization of MC-type carbides, and in the stabilization of sigma phase. In the particular alloy studied, these microstructural and microchemistry changes are insufficient in extent to impact on tensile strength, yield strength, and in the ductilities. Depending on the heat treatment, creep and stress rupture resistance can be cobalt sensitive. In the coarse grain, fully solutioned and aged condition, all of the alloy's 17% cobalt can be replaced by nickel without deleteriously affecting this resistance. In the fine grain, partially solutioned and aged condition, this resistance is deleteriously affected only when one-half or more of the initial cobalt content is removed. The structure and property results are discussed with respect to existing theories and with respect to other recent and earlier findings on the impact of cobalt, if any, on the performance of nickel-base superalloys.

  15. Microstructure evolution of the oxide dispersion strengthened CLAM steel during mechanical alloying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Liangliang [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Liu, Shaojun, E-mail: shaojun.liu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Mao, Xiaodong [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A nano-sized oxides dispersed ODS-CLAM steel was obtained by MA and HIP. • A minimum saturated grain size of down to 30 nm was achieved by varying the milling time from 0 to 100 h. • Solution of W in the MA powder could be significantly improved by increasing MA rotation speed. - Abstracts: Oxide dispersion strengthened Ferritic/Martensitic steel is considered as one of the most potential structural material for future fusion reactor, owing to its high mechanical properties and good irradiation resistance. The oxide dispersion strengthened China Low Activation Martensitic (ODS-CLAM) steel was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The microstructural evolutions during the process of ball milling and subsequent consolidation were investigated by SEM, XRD and TEM. The results showed that increasing the milling time during the first 36 h milling could effectively decrease the grain size to a value of around 30 nm, over which grain sized remained nearly constant. Increasing the rotation speed promoted the solution of tungsten (W) element obviously and decreased the grain size to a certain degree. Observation on the consolidated and further heat-treated ODS-CLAM steel samples indicated that a martensite microstructure with a high density of nano-particles was achieved.

  16. Development and Testing of Dispersion-Strengthened Tungsten Alloys via Spark Plasma Sinterin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eric; Madden, Nathan; Smith, Charles; Krogstad, Jessica; Allain, Jean Paul

    2017-10-01

    Tungsten (W) is a common plasma-facing component (PFC) material in the divertor region of tokamak fusion devices due to its high melting point and high sputter threshold. However, W is intrinsically brittle and is further embrittled under neutron irradiation, and the low recrystallization temperature pose complications in fusion environments. More ductile W alloys, such as dispersion-strengthened tungsten are being developed. In this work, W samples are processed via spark plasma sintering (SPS) with TiC, ZrC, and TaC dispersoids alloyed from 0.5 to 10 weight %. SPS is a powder compaction technique that provides high pressure and heating rates via electrical current, allowing for a lower final temperature and hold time for compaction. Initial testing of material properties, smicrostructure, and composition of specimens will be presented. Deuterium and helium irradiations have been performed in IGNIS, a multi-functional, in-situ irradiation and characterization facility at the University of Illinois. High-flux, low-energy exposures at the Magnum-PSI facility at DIFFER exposed samples to a D fluence of 1×1026 cm-2 and He fluence of 1x1025-1x1026 cm-2 at temperatures of 300-1000 C. In-situ chemistry changes via XPS and ex-situ morphology changes via SEM will be studied. Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-SC0014267.

  17. The Mechanisms of Dispersion Strengthening and Fracture in Al-based XD (TM) Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, R. M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of reinforcement size, volume fraction, and matrix deformation behavior on room and elevated temperature strength, and the fracture toughness of metal matrix composites of both pure aluminum and Al(4 percent)Cu(1.5 percent)Mg with 0 to 15 vol percent TiB2 were examined. Higher TiB2 volume fractions increased the tensile yield strength both at room and elevated temperatures, and reduced the elongation to fracture. Tensile tests also indicate that small particles provided a greater increase in strength for a given volume fraction than larger particles, whereas elongation to fracture appeared to be insensitive to reinforcement size. The fracture toughness of the Al(4 percent)Cu(1.5 percent)Mg alloys decreased rapidly with TiB2 additions of 0 to 5 vol percent and more slowly with TiB2 additions of 5 to 15 vol percent. Fracture toughness appears to be independent of TiB2 particle size. The isothermal-aging response of the precipitation strengthened Al(4 percent)Cu(1.5 percent)Mg alloys was not altered by the presence of TiB2.

  18. High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Strengthened by Multiply Nanoscale Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. F.; Zuo, L.

    Recently, we have being focused on improving the strength without sacrificing ductility of High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels by designing nanostructures. Several developments have been obtained, summarized as the following three parts: (a) Depressively nanoscale precipitates: A ferritic steel with finely dispersed precipitates reveals a yield strength of 760 MPa, approximately three times higher than that of conventional Ti-bearing high strength hot-rolled sheet steels, and its ultimate tensile strength reaches 850 MPa with an elongation-to-failure value of 18%. The finely dispersed TiC precipitates in the matrix provide matrix strengthening. The estimated magnitude of precipitation strengthening is around 458 MPa. The effects of the particle size, particle distribution and intrinsic particle strength have been investigated through dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. The DD results show that strengthening is not only a function of the density of the nano-scale precipitates but also of their size. (b) Ultrafinely ferritic plate: An interstitial-free (IF) steel sheet with a cold-rolling reduction of 75% shows a high tensile strength (710MPa) while preserving a considerable plastic strain (13%). The ductility recovery with increasing the rolling reduction up to 75% is related with the decreasing both in lamellar spacings and cell blocks sizes. (c) Parallel nano-laminated austenite: A composite microstructure consisting of ferrite, bainitic ferrite (BF) laths and retained austenite (RA) platelets has been found for the steel with a chemical composition of 0.19C-0.30Si-1.76Mn-1.52Al (in mass fraction), processed with annealing and bainitic holding. The sample annealed at 820oC (for 120s) and partitioned at 400oC (for 300s) has the best combination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS, 682 MPa) and elongation to failure ( 70%) with about 26% of BF plates 16% RA in its microstructure.

  19. Oxide nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened steel: crystallographic structure and interface with ferrite matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Oxide nanoparticles are quintessential for ensuring the extraordinary properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. In this study, the crystallographic structure of oxide nanoparticles, and their interface with the ferritic steel matrix in an Al-alloyed ODS steel, i.e. PM2000, were...

  20. Quantification of oxide particle composition in model oxide dispersion strengthened steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, A.J., E-mail: andrew.london@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lozano-Perez, S.; Moody, M.P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Amirthapandian, S.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Sundar, C.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Grovenor, C.R.M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels (ODS) are being considered for structural components of future designs of fission and fusion reactors because of their impressive high-temperature mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage, both of which arise from the nanoscale oxide particles they contain. Because of the critical importance of these nanoscale phases, significant research activity has been dedicated to analysing their precise size, shape and composition (Odette et al., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38 (2008) 471–503 [1]; Miller et al., Mater. Sci. Technol. 29(10) (2013) 1174–1178 [2]). As part of a project to develop new fuel cladding alloys in India, model ODS alloys have been produced with the compositions, Fe–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe–0.2Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe–14Cr–0.2Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The oxide particles in these three model alloys have been studied by APT in their as-received state and following ion irradiation (as a proxy for neutron irradiation) at various temperatures. In order to adequately quantify the composition of the oxide clusters, several difficulties must be managed, including issues relating to the chemical identification (ranging and variable peak-overlaps); trajectory aberrations and chemical structure; and particle sizing. This paper presents how these issues can be addressed by the application of bespoke data analysis tools and correlative microscopy. A discussion follows concerning the achievable precision in these measurements, with reference to the fundamental limiting factors.

  1. Quantification of oxide particle composition in model oxide dispersion strengthened steel alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, A J; Lozano-Perez, S; Moody, M P; Amirthapandian, S; Panigrahi, B K; Sundar, C S; Grovenor, C R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels (ODS) are being considered for structural components of future designs of fission and fusion reactors because of their impressive high-temperature mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage, both of which arise from the nanoscale oxide particles they contain. Because of the critical importance of these nanoscale phases, significant research activity has been dedicated to analysing their precise size, shape and composition (Odette et al., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38 (2008) 471-503 [1]; Miller et al., Mater. Sci. Technol. 29(10) (2013) 1174-1178 [2]). As part of a project to develop new fuel cladding alloys in India, model ODS alloys have been produced with the compositions, Fe-0.3Y2O3, Fe-0.2Ti-0.3Y2O3 and Fe-14Cr-0.2Ti-0.3Y2O3. The oxide particles in these three model alloys have been studied by APT in their as-received state and following ion irradiation (as a proxy for neutron irradiation) at various temperatures. In order to adequately quantify the composition of the oxide clusters, several difficulties must be managed, including issues relating to the chemical identification (ranging and variable peak-overlaps); trajectory aberrations and chemical structure; and particle sizing. This paper presents how these issues can be addressed by the application of bespoke data analysis tools and correlative microscopy. A discussion follows concerning the achievable precision in these measurements, with reference to the fundamental limiting factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Strengthening effect of nano-scaled precipitates in Ta alloying layer induced by high current pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Guangze; Luo, Dian; Fan, Guohua [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Xinxin, E-mail: maxin@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Ta alloying layer are fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high current pulsed electron beam. • Nano-scaled TaC precipitates forms within the δ-Fe grain after tempering treatment. • The mean diameter of TaC particles is about 5–8 nm. • The hardness of alloying layer increased by over 50% after formation of nano-scaled TaC particle. - Abstract: In this study, the combination of magnetron sputtering and high current pulsed electron beam are used for surface alloying treatment of Ta film on high speed steel. And the Ta alloying layer is about 6 μm. After tempering treatment, TaC phase forms in Ta alloying layer when the treated temperature is over 823 K. Through the TEM and HRTEM observation, a large amount of nano-scaled precipitates (mean diameter 5–8 nm) form within the δ-Fe grain in Ta alloying layer after tempering treatment and these nano-scaled precipitates are confirmed as TaC particles, which contribute to the strengthening effect of the surface alloying layer. The hardness of tempered alloying layer can reach to 18.1 GPa when the treated temperature is 823 K which increase by 50% comparing with the untreated steel sample before surface alloying treatment.

  3. Effect of laser shock on tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, G.X.; Liu, J.D.; Qiao, H.C.; Zhou, Y.Z.; Jin, T.; Zhao, J.B.; Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation focused on the tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy, both in virgin condition and after laser shock processing (LSP) with varied technology parameters. Nanoindention tests were carried out on the sectioned specimens after LSP treatment to characterize the surface strengthening effect. Stress strain curves of tensile specimens were analyzed, and microstructural observations of the fracture surface and the longitudinal cross-sections of ruptured specimens were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), in an effort to clarify the fracture mechanisms. The results show that a surface hardening layer with the thickness of about 0.3–0.6 mm was gained by the experimental alloys after LSP treatment, but the formation of surface hardening layer had not affected the yield strength. Furthermore, fundamental differences in the plastic responses at different temperatures due to LSP treatment had been discovered. At 700 °C, the slip deformation was held back when it extended to the surface hardening layer and the ensuing slip steps improved the plasticity; however, at 1000 °C, surface hardening layer hindered the macro necking, which resulted in the relatively lower plasticity.

  4. Effect of laser shock on tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, G.X. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, J.D., E-mail: jdliu@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Qiao, H.C. [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 114 Nanta Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhou, Y.Z. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jin, T., E-mail: tjin@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhao, J.B. [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 114 Nanta Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2017-02-16

    This investigation focused on the tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy, both in virgin condition and after laser shock processing (LSP) with varied technology parameters. Nanoindention tests were carried out on the sectioned specimens after LSP treatment to characterize the surface strengthening effect. Stress strain curves of tensile specimens were analyzed, and microstructural observations of the fracture surface and the longitudinal cross-sections of ruptured specimens were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), in an effort to clarify the fracture mechanisms. The results show that a surface hardening layer with the thickness of about 0.3–0.6 mm was gained by the experimental alloys after LSP treatment, but the formation of surface hardening layer had not affected the yield strength. Furthermore, fundamental differences in the plastic responses at different temperatures due to LSP treatment had been discovered. At 700 °C, the slip deformation was held back when it extended to the surface hardening layer and the ensuing slip steps improved the plasticity; however, at 1000 °C, surface hardening layer hindered the macro necking, which resulted in the relatively lower plasticity.

  5. Friction behavior of cobalt base and nickel base hardfacing materials in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Syotaro; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Kohichi; Atsumo, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    A friction behavior of the hardfacing materials such as cobalt base alloy ''Stellite'' and nickel base alloy ''Colmonoy'' used in the sliding components of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor was investigated in various sodium environments. Also, friction tests on these materials were carried out in argon environment. And they were compared with those in sodium environment. The results obtained are as follows: (1) In argon, the cobalt base hardfacing alloy showed better friction behavior than the nickel base hardfacing alloy. In sodium, the latter was observed to have the better friction behavior being independent of the sodium temperature. (2) The friction coefficient of each material tends to become lower by pre-exposure in sodium. Particularly, this tendency was remarkable for the nickel base hardfacing alloy. (3) The friction coefficient between SUS 316 and one of these hardfacing materials was higher than that between latter materials. Also, some elements of hardfacing alloys were recognized to transfer on the friction surface of SUS 316 material. (4) It was observed that each tested material has a greater friction coefficient with a decrease of the oxygen content in sodium. (author)

  6. Microstructural studies of carbides in MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotok, A.; Rodak, K.

    2012-05-01

    Carbides play an important role in the strengthening of microstructures of nickel-based superalloys. Grain boundary carbides prevent or retard grain-boundary sliding and make the grain boundary stronger. Carbides can also tie up certain elements that would otherwise promote phase instability during service. Various types of carbides are possible in the microstructure of nickel-based superalloys, depending on the superalloy composition and processing. In this paper, scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies of carbides occurring in the microstructure of polycrystalline MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy were carried out. In the present work, MC and M23C6 carbides in the MAR-M247 microstructure were examined.

  7. Degradation of creep properties in a long-term thermally exposed nickel base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrnik, J.; Strunz, P.; Vrchovinsky, V.; Muransky, O.; Novy, Z.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    When exposed for long time at elevated temperatures of 430 and 650 deg. C the nickel base superalloy EI 698 VD can experience a significant decrease in creep resistance. The cause of the creep degradation of nickel base superalloy is generally attributed to the microstructural instability at prolonged high temperature exposure. In this article, the creep-life data, generated on long thermally exposed nickel base superalloy EI698 VD were related to the local microstructural changes observed using SEM and TEM analysing techniques. While structure analysis provided supporting evidence concerning the changes associated with grain boundary carbide precipitation, no persuasive evidence of a morphological and/or dimensional gamma prime change was showed. For clarifying of the role of gamma prime precipitates on alloy on creep degradation, the SANS (small angle neutron scattering) experiment was crucial in the characterization of the bulk-averaged gamma prime morphology and its size distribution with respect to the period of thermal exposure

  8. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys; Plasticite des alliages ferritiques renforces par dispersion d`oxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakine, C

    1994-07-05

    The object of this work is to study the plasticity mechanisms of two oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys, DT and DY. Microstructural characterisation has been performed on DT and DY alloys by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These materials, strengthened by an oxide dispersion, contain an intermetallic {chi} phase precipitated on grain boundaries. The {chi} phase, stable up to 900 deg, can be dissolved into the matrix by heat treatment beyond 1 000 deg. Between 20 and 700 deg, according to tensile tests, the DY alloy which is strengthened by a fine dispersion of yttria particles is more resistant and less ductile than DT alloy, strengthened by titanium oxides. Tensile tests performed at room temperature, in the chamber of a SEM, have shown that micro-cracking of the {chi} phase coincides with the first stage of the macroscopic yielding. The cavities initiated by the {chi} phase micro-cracking induce a ductile fracture of the matrix. A dynamic strain ageing mechanism has been observed around 400 deg, which is attributed to the Mo contribution. Between 20 and 700 deg, comparison of tensile properties of alloys with or without {chi} phase has shown that the intermetallic phase has a detrimental effect on the ductility, but has no influence on the mechanical strength. Creep tests have been performed between 500 and 700 deg. Thermally activated plasticity mechanisms are observed in this temperature range. The {chi} phase, which is always micro-cracked after tensile testing, is not damaged after creep testing below a critical stress. This behaviour is explained by the influence of strain rate through the competition between strain hardening and relaxation of the matrix. (author).

  9. Development of Fe-Ni and Ni-base alloys without {gamma}' strengthening for advanced USC boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semba, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hirokazu; Igarashi, Masaaki; Hirata, Hiroyuki [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Corporate Research and Development Labs.; Yoshizawa, Mitsuru [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Steel Tube Works

    2010-07-01

    An Fe-Ni base alloy, 23Cr-45Ni-7W alloy (HR6W) strengthened by Fe{sub 2}W-type Laves phase is one of the candidate materials for the piping application. Stability of long-term creep strength and superior creep rupture ductility have been proved by creep rupture tests up to 60000h at 650-800 C. The 10{sup 5}h extrapolated creep rupture strength at 700 C approved by TUV is 85MPa. It has also been confirmed that HR6W has excellent microstructural stability by means of microstructural observations after term creep tests and aging. A thick wall pipe of HR6W, which is 457mm in diameter and 60mm in wall thickness, has successfully been manufactured by the Erhart Push Bench press method. This trial production has shown that hot workability of HR6W is sufficient for manufacturing thick wall piping for A-USC plants. A new Ni-base alloy, 30r-50Ni-4W alloy (HR35) has been proposed for piping application having comparable creep rupture strength with Alloy 617 at 700 C. This alloy is not strengthened by {gamma}' phase but mainly by {alpha}-Cr phase. The 10{sup 5}h extrapolated creep rupture strength is estimated to be 114 MPa at 700 C. It has sufficient creep rupture ductility compared with Alloy 617. A thick wall pipe of HR35 has also been successfully manufactured. Capability of HR6W and HR35 as structural materials for A-USC plants has been examined in detail. They have high resistance to relaxation cracking after welding. It is, therefore, concluded that both the alloys are promising candidates especially for thick wall piping in A-USC power plants. (orig.)

  10. Method and alloys for fabricating wrought components for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.D.; Johnson, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Wrought, nickel-based alloys, suitable for components of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor exhibit strength and excellent resistance to carburization at elevated temperatures and include aluminum and titanium in amounts and ratios to promote the growth of carburization resistant films while preserving the wrought character of the alloys. These alloys also include substantial amounts of molybdenum and/or tungsten as solid-solution strengtheners. Chromium may be included in concentrations less than 10% to assist in fabrication. Minor amounts of carbon and one or more carbide-forming metals also contribute to high-temperature strength. The range of compositions of these alloys is given. (author)

  11. Enhanced age-strengthening by two-step progressive solution treatment in an Mg–Zn–Al–Re alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Fuqing; Du, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-step progressive solution treatment schedule was proposed. • The treatment enhanced dissolution of ternary eutectic phases in Mg–Zn–Al alloy. • Solution temperature could break the limit of the ternary eutectic temperature. • There was no microstructural over-heating defect during the progressive heating. • The τ precipitates have a remarkable dispersion strengthening effect. - Abstract: A two-step progressive solution treatment was designed and performed on an as-extruded Mg–7Zn–3Al–0.7Er alloy. The resultant microstructure and mechanical properties were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimetry and hardness testing. The results showed that the two-step progressive solution treatment could enhance the dissolution of the ternary eutectic phases in the Mg–Zn–Al system without the formation of microstructure over-heating defects. After homogenization for 50 h at 325 °C, the volume fraction of the undissolved particles in the Mg–7Zn–3Al–0.7Er alloy ingot was ∼4.1%. Two-step progressive solution treatment performed on the as-extruded alloy could further dissolve the particles. Only 1.5% undissolved particles remained after the treatment. The supersaturated degree of both the dissolved solute atoms and vacancies in the α-Mg matrix was expected to be increased, resulting in an enhanced age-strengthening, compared with normal solution and aging treatments. Moreover, the processed alloy exhibited a homogenous and stable fine grain structure. Remarkable dispersion strengthening effect of ternary τ (Mg 32 (Al,Zn) 49 ) precipitates occurred in Mg–Zn–Al alloy was also identified

  12. Microstructure strengthening mechanisms in an Al–Mg–Si–Sc–Zr equal channel angular pressed aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabibbo, Marcello, E-mail: m.cabibbo@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Scienze Matematiche (DIISM), Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Microstructure dislocation strengthening mechanisms in severely deformed aluminium strongly depend on the different boundary evolutions. Thereafter, models of proof stress determination should take into account the different nature of the boundaries that form during severe plastic deformation. In the last few decades, Hall–Petch modified relationship and other proof stress modelling were extensively discussed. This paper deals with further insights into the Hansen's and other authors approach to the modelling of aluminium poof stress after equal channel angular pressing. The present model is based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy microstructure characterization of the different strengthening contributions in an age-hardened Al–Mg–Si–Sc–Zr alloy.

  13. Microstructure strengthening mechanisms in an Al–Mg–Si–Sc–Zr equal channel angular pressed aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabibbo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Microstructure dislocation strengthening mechanisms in severely deformed aluminium strongly depend on the different boundary evolutions. Thereafter, models of proof stress determination should take into account the different nature of the boundaries that form during severe plastic deformation. In the last few decades, Hall–Petch modified relationship and other proof stress modelling were extensively discussed. This paper deals with further insights into the Hansen's and other authors approach to the modelling of aluminium poof stress after equal channel angular pressing. The present model is based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy microstructure characterization of the different strengthening contributions in an age-hardened Al–Mg–Si–Sc–Zr alloy.

  14. Cerium Titanate Nano dispersoids in Ni-base ODS Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Young-Bum; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Jang, Jinsung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee-Suk [Korea Basic Science Institute, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) nickel-base alloys have potential for use in rather demanding elevated-temperature environments, such as aircraft turbine engines, heat exchanger of nuclear reactor. For improved high temperature performance, several ODS alloys were developed which possess good elevated temperature strength and over-temperature capacity plus excellent static oxidation resistance. The high temperature strength of ODS alloys is due to the presence of a uniform dispersion of fine, inert particles. Ceria mixed oxides have been studied because of their application potential in the formation of nanoclusters. By first principle study, it was estimated that the formation energy of the Ce-O dimer with voids in the nickel base alloy is lower than other candidates. The result suggests that the dispersion of the Ceria mixed oxides can suppress the voiding or swelling behavior of nickel base alloy during neutron irradiation. In this study, the evolution of cerium titanate nano particles was investigated using in-situ TEM. It was found that the Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 9} phase was easily formed rather than remain as CeO{sub 2} during annealing; Ti was effective to form the finer oxide particles. Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 9} is expected to do the great roll as dispersoids in Ni-base alloy, contribute to achieve the better high temperature property, high swelling resistance during neutron radiation.

  15. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe(sub 3)Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kad, B.K.

    1999-07-01

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe3Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100C in the power generation industry. A particular 'in service application' anomaly of Fe3Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism.

  16. Gas atomized precursor alloy powder for oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieken, Joel [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-12-13

    Gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was employed as a simplified method for producing precursor powders for oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic stainless steels (e.g., Fe-Cr-Y-(Ti,Hf)-O), departing from the conventional mechanical alloying (MA) process. During GARS processing a reactive atomization gas (i.e., Ar-O2) was used to oxidize the powder surfaces during primary break-up and rapid solidification of the molten alloy. This resulted in envelopment of the powders by an ultra-thin (t < 150 nm) metastable Cr-enriched oxide layer that was used as a vehicle for solid-state transport of O into the consolidated microstructure. In an attempt to better understand the kinetics of this GARS reaction, theoretical cooling curves for the atomized droplets were calculated and used to establish an oxidation model for this process. Subsequent elevated temperature heat treatments, which were derived from Rhines pack measurements using an internal oxidation model, were used to promote thermodynamically driven O exchange reactions between trapped films of the initial Cr-enriched surface oxide and internal Y-enriched intermetallic precipitates. This novel microstructural evolution process resulted in the successful formation of nano-metric Y-enriched dispersoids, as confirmed using high energy X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), equivalent to conventional ODS alloys from MA powders. The thermal stability of these Y-enriched dispersoids was evaluated using high temperature (1200°C) annealing treatments ranging from 2.5 to 1,000 hrs of exposure. In a further departure from current ODS practice, replacing Ti with additions of Hf appeared to improve the Y-enriched dispersoid thermal stability by means of crystal structure modification. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the dispersoids was found to depend strongly on the original rapidly solidified microstructure. To exploit this, ODS microstructures were engineered from

  17. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests of ion irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K.H., E-mail: kaylayano@u.boisestate.edu [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Swenson, M.J. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Wu, Y. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID, 83401 (United States); Wharry, J.P. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The growing role of charged particle irradiation in the evaluation of nuclear reactor candidate materials requires the development of novel methods to assess mechanical properties in near-surface irradiation damage layers just a few micrometers thick. In situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) mechanical testing is one such promising method. In this work, microcompression pillars are fabricated from a Fe{sup 2+} ion irradiated bulk specimen of a model Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy. Yield strengths measured directly from TEM in situ compression tests are within expected values, and are consistent with predictions based on the irradiated microstructure. Measured elastic modulus values, once adjusted for the amount of deformation and deflection in the base material, are also within the expected range. A pillar size effect is only observed in samples with minimum dimension ≤100 nm due to the low inter-obstacle spacing in the as received and irradiated material. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests hold great promise for quantitatively determining mechanical properties of shallow ion-irradiated layers.

  18. Evaluation of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum and molybdenum-rhenium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.J.; Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum alloys being developed for high temperature applications possess excellent high temperature strength and creep resistance. In addition they exhibit a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBIT) in the worked and stress-relieved condition under longitudinal tensile load well below room temperature. However, in the recrystallized condition, the DBTT maybe near or above room temperature, depending on the volume fraction of oxide dispersion and the amount of prior work. Dilute rhenium additions (7 and 14 wt.%) to ODS molybdenum were evaluated to determine their effect on low temperature ductility. The addition of 7 wt.% rhenium to the ODS molybdenum did not significantly enhance the mechanical properties. However, the addition of 14 wt.% rhenium to the ODS molybdenum resulted in a DBTT well below room temperature in both the stress-relieved and recrystallized condition. Additionally, the tensile strength of ODS Mo-14Re is greater than the base ODS molybdenum at 1,000 to 1,250 C

  19. The physical metallurgy of mechanically-alloyed, dispersion-strengthened Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Powder processing of Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys by mechanical alloying (MA) is described, with a discussion of physical and mechanical properties of early experimental alloys of these compositions. The experimental samples were mechanically alloyed in a Szegvari attritor, extruded at 343 and 427 C, and some were solution-treated at 520 and 566 C and naturally, as well as artificially, aged at 170, 190, and 210 C for times of up to 1000 hours. All alloys exhibited maximum hardness after being aged at 170 C; lower hardness corresponds to the solution treatment at 566 C than to that at 520 C. A comparison with ingot metallurgy alloys of the same composition shows the MA material to be stronger and more ductile. It is also noted that properly aged MA alloys can develop a better combination of yield strength and notched toughness at lower alloying levels.

  20. Mechanisms of oxide layer formation and destruction on a chromia former nickel base alloy in HTR environment; Mecanismes de formation et de destruction de la couche d'oxyde sur un alliage chrominoformeur en milieu HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouillard, F

    2007-10-15

    Haynes 230 alloy which contains 22 wt.% chromium could be a promising candidate material for structures and heat exchangers (maximum operating temperature: 850-950 C) in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). The feasibility demonstration involves to valid its corrosion resistance in the reactor specific environment namely impure helium. The alloys surface reactivity was investigated at temperatures between 850 and 1000 C. We especially focused on the influence of different parameters such as concentrations of impurities in the gas phase (carbon monoxide and methane, water vapour/hydrogen ratio), alloy composition (activities of Cr and C, alloying element contents) and temperature. Two main behaviours have been revealed: the formation of a Cr/Mn rich oxide layer at 900 C and its following reduction at higher temperatures. At 900 C, the water vapour is the main oxidizing gas. However in the initial times, the carbon monoxide reacts at the metal/oxide interface which involves a gaseous transport through the scale; CO mainly oxidizes the minor alloying elements aluminium and silicon. Above a critical temperature TA, the carbon in solution in the alloy reduces chromia. To ascribe the scale destruction, a model is proposed based on thermodynamic interfacial data for the alloy, oxide layer morphology and carbon monoxide partial pressure in helium; the model is then validated regarding experimental results and observations. (author)

  1. Evaluation of nickel-based materials for VHTR heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlet, H.; Gentzbittel, J.M.; Cabet, C.; Lamagnere, P.; Blat, M.; Renaud, D.; Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Pierron, D.

    2008-01-01

    Two available conventional nickel-based alloys (617 and 230) have been selected as structural materials for the advanced gas-cooled reactors, especially for the heat exchanger. An extensive research programme has been launched in France within the framework of the ANTARES programme to evaluate the performances of these materials in VHTR service environment. The experimental work is focused on mechanical properties, thermal stability and corrosion resistance in the temperature range (700-1 000 deg C) over long time. Thus the experimental work includes creep and fatigue tests on as-received materials, short- and medium-term thermal exposure tests followed by tensile and impact toughness tests, short- and medium-term corrosion exposure tests under impure He environment. The status of the results obtained up to now is given in this paper. Additional tests such as long-term thermal ageing and long-term corrosion tests are required to conclude on the selection of the material. (author)

  2. High Temperature Deformation Mechanism in Hierarchical and Single Precipitate Strengthened Ferritic Alloys by In Situ Neutron Diffraction Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Li, Lin; Clausen, Bjørn; Zhang, Shu Yan; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2017-04-07

    The ferritic Fe-Cr-Ni-Al-Ti alloys strengthened by hierarchical-Ni 2 TiAl/NiAl or single-Ni 2 TiAl precipitates have been developed and received great attentions due to their superior creep resistance, as compared to conventional ferritic steels. Although the significant improvement of the creep resistance is achieved in the hierarchical-precipitate-strengthened ferritic alloy, the in-depth understanding of its high-temperature deformation mechanisms is essential to further optimize the microstructure and mechanical properties, and advance the development of the creep resistant materials. In the present study, in-situ neutron diffraction has been used to investigate the evolution of elastic strain of constitutive phases and their interactions, such as load-transfer/load-relaxation behavior between the precipitate and matrix, during tensile deformation and stress relaxation at 973 K, which provide the key features in understanding the governing deformation mechanisms. Crystal-plasticity finite-element simulations were employed to qualitatively compare the experimental evolution of the elastic strain during tensile deformation at 973 K. It was found that the coherent elastic strain field in the matrix, created by the lattice misfit between the matrix and precipitate phases for the hierarchical-precipitate-strengthened ferritic alloy, is effective in reducing the diffusional relaxation along the interface between the precipitate and matrix phases, which leads to the strong load-transfer capability from the matrix to precipitate.

  3. Solid solution strengthening and diffusion in nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Hamad ur

    2016-07-01

    Nickel and cobalt-based superalloys with a γ-γ{sup '} microstructure are known for their excellent creep resistance at high temperatures. Their microstructure is engineered using different alloying elements, that partition either to the fcc γ matrix or to the ordered γ{sup '} phase. In the present work the effect of alloying elements on their segregation behaviour in nickel-based superalloys, diffusion in cobalt-based superalloys and the temperature dependent solid solution strengthening in nickel-based alloys is investigated. The effect of dendritic segregation on the local mechanical properties of individual phases in the as-cast, heat treated and creep deformed state of a nickel-based superalloy is investigated. The local chemical composition is characterized using Electron Probe Micro Analysis and then correlated with the mechanical properties of individual phases using nanoindentation. Furthermore, the temperature dependant solid solution hardening contribution of Ta, W and Re towards fcc nickel is studied. The room temperature hardening is determined by a diffusion couple approach using nanoindentation and energy dispersive X-ray analysis for relating hardness to the chemical composition. The high temperature properties are determined using compression strain rate jump tests. The results show that at lower temperatures, the solute size is prevalent and the elements with the largest size difference with nickel, induce the greatest hardening consistent with a classical solid solution strengthening theory. At higher temperatures, the solutes interact with the dislocations such that the slowest diffusing solute poses maximal resistance to dislocation glide and climb. Lastly, the diffusion of different technically relevant solutes in fcc cobalt is investigated using diffusion couples. The results show that the large atoms diffuse faster in cobalt-based superalloys similar to their nickel-based counterparts.

  4. Solid solution strengthening and diffusion in nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Hamad ur

    2016-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt-based superalloys with a γ-γ ' microstructure are known for their excellent creep resistance at high temperatures. Their microstructure is engineered using different alloying elements, that partition either to the fcc γ matrix or to the ordered γ ' phase. In the present work the effect of alloying elements on their segregation behaviour in nickel-based superalloys, diffusion in cobalt-based superalloys and the temperature dependent solid solution strengthening in nickel-based alloys is investigated. The effect of dendritic segregation on the local mechanical properties of individual phases in the as-cast, heat treated and creep deformed state of a nickel-based superalloy is investigated. The local chemical composition is characterized using Electron Probe Micro Analysis and then correlated with the mechanical properties of individual phases using nanoindentation. Furthermore, the temperature dependant solid solution hardening contribution of Ta, W and Re towards fcc nickel is studied. The room temperature hardening is determined by a diffusion couple approach using nanoindentation and energy dispersive X-ray analysis for relating hardness to the chemical composition. The high temperature properties are determined using compression strain rate jump tests. The results show that at lower temperatures, the solute size is prevalent and the elements with the largest size difference with nickel, induce the greatest hardening consistent with a classical solid solution strengthening theory. At higher temperatures, the solutes interact with the dislocations such that the slowest diffusing solute poses maximal resistance to dislocation glide and climb. Lastly, the diffusion of different technically relevant solutes in fcc cobalt is investigated using diffusion couples. The results show that the large atoms diffuse faster in cobalt-based superalloys similar to their nickel-based counterparts.

  5. Strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grained Al-Mg-Si alloy processed by hydrostatic extrusion – Influence of ageing temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrominski, Witold, E-mail: wichr@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Wenner, Sigurd [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Marioara, Calin D. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Holmestad, Randi [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lewandowska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-04

    Microstructure of hydrostatically extruded Al-Mg-Si alloy was studied by the combination of electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Three different grain types which feature various defects arrangements were detected. Post deformation ageing at two temperatures caused different precipitation phenomena which were strongly dependent on type of grain boundaries in the considered grain types. Thus, a combination of plastic deformation and ageing resulted in a material with complex microstructure. Based on transmission electron microscopy observations, contributions of different strengthening mechanisms were estimated and compared to experimental results. A good agreement between obtained data points confirmed that depending on grain type, different strengthening mechanisms are operative and the overall strength is a sum of hardening given by each of them. Ageing of ultrafine grain structure results in efficient precipitation strengthening. On the other hand ageing causes annihilation of low and high angle grains boundaries in which leads to softening of investigated material. This effect cannot be compensated by precipitation hardening.

  6. Microstructural influences on strengthening in a naturally aged and overaged Al–Cu–Li–Mg based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovri, Henry; Jägle, Eric A.; Stark, Andreas; Lilleodden, Erica T.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography and high-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the influence of local microstructural changes on strengthening in a commercial Al–Cu–Li–Mg based alloy, AA2198, in the stretched and naturally aged, and overaged states. Strengthening in the stretched and naturally aged temper was shown to be governed by a combination of Cu–Cu clusters, δ′/β′ phase and solution strengthening. This is in contrast to another report which suggests that strength in this temper is only due to Cu-rich clusters [B. Decreus, et al., Acta Mater., 61 (2013) 2207]. On the other hand, although large volume fractions of equilibrium phases such as T B , and θ were present in the overaged temper, its strengthening was largely governed by order hardening, which is the strengthening mechanism associated with the δ′/β′ phase. The δ′/β′ phase remained in the matrix even after extensive overaging

  7. Microstructural influences on strengthening in a naturally aged and overaged Al–Cu–Li–Mg based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovri, Henry, E-mail: henry.ovri@hzg.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Jägle, Eric A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Department of Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Stark, Andreas [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Physics, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Lilleodden, Erica T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2015-06-18

    A combination of transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography and high-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the influence of local microstructural changes on strengthening in a commercial Al–Cu–Li–Mg based alloy, AA2198, in the stretched and naturally aged, and overaged states. Strengthening in the stretched and naturally aged temper was shown to be governed by a combination of Cu–Cu clusters, δ′/β′ phase and solution strengthening. This is in contrast to another report which suggests that strength in this temper is only due to Cu-rich clusters [B. Decreus, et al., Acta Mater., 61 (2013) 2207]. On the other hand, although large volume fractions of equilibrium phases such as T{sub B}, and θ were present in the overaged temper, its strengthening was largely governed by order hardening, which is the strengthening mechanism associated with the δ′/β′ phase. The δ′/β′ phase remained in the matrix even after extensive overaging.

  8. Phase Transformations in Nickel base Superalloy Inconel 718 during Cyclic Loading at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jambor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel base superalloys are hi-tech materials intended for high temperature applications. This property owns a complex microstructure formed by matrix of Ni and variety of precipitates. The type, form and the amount of these phases significantly affect the resulting properties of these alloys. At sufficiently long exposure to high temperatures, the transformation phase can occur, which can lead to degradation of properties of these alloys. A cyclic plastic deformation can accelerate these changes, and they could occur at significantly lower temperatures or in shorter time of exposure. The aim of this study is to describe phase transformation, which can occur by a cyclic plastic deformation at high temperatures in nickel base superalloy Inconel 718.

  9. Effects of fabrication practices and techniques on the corrosion and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-Mo nickel based alloys UNS N10276, N06022, N06686, and N06625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, E.B.; Crum, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Ni-Cr-Mo alloys have excellent resistance to both oxidizing and reducing type environments; however, heat treating, surface condition, welding, and type of welding consumable can have a significant affect on the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of these alloys. It is also important when performing standard ASTM intergranular corrosion tests on welded test coupons to make an accurate comparison of alloys being tested. A standard weld procedure and consistent post-weld sample conditioning method should be incorporated into the comparison test program. An evaluation of the effect of various fabrication practices on the corrosion resistance of the alloy was performed using accelerated corrosion tests ASTM G28B. The fabrication conditions examined were as-welded, welded-pickled, welded-annealed-pickled, welded annealed ground, welded-ground, using over matching filler metals, and various levels of heat input. In addition to fabrication techniques, the effect of ASTM G28B test duration on corrosion rates of UNS N10276, N06022, N06686, and N06625 was evaluated. ASTM G28A intergranular corrosion and mechanical testing using welded coupons of UNS N06625 were also performed to determine the affect of post-weld annealing and aging heat treatments on the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of UNS N06625

  10. Improving significantly the failure strain and work hardening response of LPSO-strengthened Mg-Y-Zn-Al alloy via hot extrusion speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xinghe; Chee, Winston; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2017-07-01

    The effect of hot extrusion speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of MgY1.06Zn0.76Al0.42 (at%) alloy strengthened by the novel long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase was systematically investigated. Increase in the speed of extrusion accelerated dynamic recrystallization of α-Mg via particle-stimulated nucleation and grain growth in the alloy. The intensive recrystallization and grain growth events weakened the conventional basal texture and Hall-Petch strengthening in the alloy which led to significant improvement in its failure strain from 4.9% to 19.6%. The critical strengthening contribution from LPSO phase known for attributing high strength to the alloy was observed to be greatly undermined by the parallel competition from texture weakening and the adverse Hall-Petch effect when the alloy was extruded at higher speed. Absence of work hardening interestingly observed in the alloy extruded at lower speed was discussed in terms of its ultra-fine grained microstructure which promoted the condition of steady-state defect density in the alloy; where dislocation annihilation balances out the generation of new dislocations during plastic deformation. One approach to improve work hardening response of the alloy to prevent unstable deformation and abrupt failure in service is to increase the grain diameter in the alloy by judiciously increasing the extrusion speed.

  11. Detection of creep damage in a nickel base superalloy using NDE techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, H.; Mora, B.; Barrera, G.

    2009-10-01

    Due to elevated temperatures, excessive stresses and severed corrosion conditions, turbine engine components are subject to creep processes that limit the components life such as a turbine bucket. The failure mechanism of a turbine bucket is related primarily to creep and corrosion and secondarily to thermal fatigue. As a result, it is desirable to assess the current conditions of such turbine component. This study uses the eddy current nondestructive evaluation technique in an effort to monitor the creep damage in a nickel base super-alloy, turbine bucket after service. The experimental results show an important electrical conductivity variation in eddy current images on the creep damage zone of nickel base super-alloy samples cut from a turbine bucket. Thermoelectric power measurements were also conducted in order to obtain a direct correlation between the presence of material changes due to creep damage and the electrical conductivity measurements. This research work shows an alternative non-destructive method in order to detect creep damage in a nickel base super-alloy turbine bucket. (Author)

  12. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process. PMID:28772747

  13. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt % were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD, Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  14. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-04-06

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5-2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni₃Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo₂C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall-Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  15. Depositing laser-generated nanoparticles on powders for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersed strengthened alloy parts via laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, René; Wilms, Markus B.; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Weisheit, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Henrich Schleifenbaum, Johannes; Gökce, Bilal

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel route for the adsorption of pulsed laser-dispersed nanoparticles onto metal powders in aqueous solution without using any binders or surfactants. By electrostatic interaction, we deposit Y2O3 nanoparticles onto iron-chromium based powders and obtain a high dispersion of nano-sized particles on the metallic powders. Within the additively manufactured component, we show that the particle spacing of the oxide inclusion can be adjusted by the initial mass fraction of the adsorbed Y2O3 particles on the micropowder. Thus, our procedure constitutes a robust route for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys via oxide nanoparticles supported on steel micropowders.

  16. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys. 14/20% chromium: effects of processing on deformation texture, recrystallization and tensile properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regle, H.

    1994-01-01

    The ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising candidates for high temperature application materials, in particular for long life core components of advanced nuclear reactors. The aim of this work is to control the microstructure, in order to optimise the mechanical properties. The two ferritic alloys examined here, MA956 and MA957, are obtained by Mechanical Alloying techniques. They are characterised by quite anisotropic microstructure and mechanical properties. We have investigated the influence of hot and cold working processes (hot extrusion, swaging and cold-drawing) and recrystallization heat treatments on deformation textures, microstructures and tensile properties. The aim was to control the size of the grains and their anisotropic shape, using recrystallization heat treatments. After consolidation and hot extrusion, as-received materials present a extremely fine microstructure with elongated grains and a very strong (110) deformation texture with single-crystal character. At that stage of processing, recrystallization temperature are very high (1450 degrees C for MA957 alloy and 1350 degrees C for MA956 alloy) and materials develop millimetric recrystallized grains. Additional hot extrusion induce a fibre texture. Cold-drawing maintains a fibre texture, but the intensity decreases with increasing cold-work level. For both materials, the decrease of texture intensities correspond to a decrease of the recrystallization temperatures (from 1350 degrees C for a low cold-work level to 750 degrees C for 60 % cold-deformation, case of MA956 alloy) and a refinement of the grain size (from a millimetric size to less than an hundred of micrometer). Swaging develop a cyclic component where the intensity increases with increasing deformation in this case, the recrystallization temperature remains always very high and the millimetric grain size is slightly modified, even though cold-work level increases. Technologically, cold-drawing is the only way

  17. Investigation of irradiation strengthening of bcc metals and their alloys. Progress report, January 1977--October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the areas of (a) the effect of neutron damage on the dislocation kinetics in bcc metals and their alloys, and (b) the effect of 3 He on the deformation characteristics of body centered cubic metals and their alloys. Results obtained from these projects are discussed

  18. Nanocavity formation and hardness increase by dual ion beam irradiation of oxide dispersion strengthened FeCrAl alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegler, R., E-mail: r.koegler@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Anwand, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Richter, A. [Department of Engineering, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Bahnhofstrasse 1, 15745 Wildau (Germany); Butterling, M.; Ou, Xin; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Chen, C.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Open volume defects generated by ion implantation into oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy and the related hardness were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy and nanoindentation measurements, respectively. Synchronized dual beam implantation of Fe and He ions was performed at room temperature and at moderately enhanced temperature of 300 Degree-Sign C. For room temperature implantation a significant hardness increase after irradiation is observed which is more distinctive in heat treated than in as-received ODS alloy. There is also a difference between the simultaneous and sequential implantation mode as the hardening effect for the simultaneously implanted ODS alloy is stronger than for sequential implantation. The comparison of hardness profiles and of the corresponding open volume profiles shows a qualitative agreement between the open volume defects generated on the nanoscopic scale and the macroscopic hardness characteristics. Open volume defects are drastically reduced for performing the simultaneous dual beam irradiation at 300 Degree-Sign C which is a more realistic temperature under application aspects. Few remaining defects are clusters of 3-4 vacancies in connection with Y oxide nanoparticles. These defects completely disappear in a shallow layer at the surface. The results are in agreement with hardness measurements showing little hardness increase after irradiation at 300 Degree-Sign C. Suitable characteristics of ODS alloy for nuclear applications and the close correlation between He-related open volume defects and the hardness characteristics are verified.

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nano-Size Zirconium Carbide Dispersion Strengthened Tungsten Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhuoming; Liu Rui; Fang Qianfeng; Zhang Tao; Jiang Yan; Wang Xianping; Liu Changsong

    2015-01-01

    W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC alloys with a relative density above 97.5% were fabricated through the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The grain size of W-1.0wt% ZrC is about 2.7 μm, smaller than that of pure W and W-(0.2, 0.5)wt% ZrC. The results indicated that the W-ZrC alloys exhibit higher hardness at room temperature, higher tensile strength at high temperature, and a lower ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) than pure W. The tensile strength and total elongation of W-0.5wt% ZrC alloy at 700 °C is 535 MPa and 24.8%, which are respectively 59% and 114% higher than those of pure W (337 MPa, 11.6%). The DBTT of W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC materials is in the range of 500°C–600°C, which is about 100 °C lower than that of pure W. Based on microstructure analysis, the improved mechanical properties of the W-ZrC alloys were suggested to originate from the enhanced grain boundary cohesion by ZrC capturing the impurity oxygen in tungsten and nano-size ZrC dispersion strengthening. (paper)

  20. Vacuum hot-pressed beryllium and TiC dispersion strengthened tungsten alloy developments for ITER and future fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Chen, Jiming; Lian, Youyun; Wu, Jihong; Xu, Zengyu; Zhang, Nianman; Wang, Quanming; Duan, Xuro [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Zhanhong; Zhong, Jinming [Northwest Rare Metal Material Research Institute, CNMC, Ningxia Orient Group Co. Ltd.,No.119 Yejin Road, Shizuishan City, Ningxia,753000 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Beryllium and tungsten have been selected as the plasma facing materials of the ITER first wall (FW) and divertor chamber, respectively. China, as a participant in ITER, will share the manufacturing tasks of ITER first-wall mockups with the European Union and Russia. Therefore ITER-grade beryllium has been developed in China and a kind of vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) beryllium, CN-G01, was characterized for both physical, and thermo-mechanical properties and high heat flux performance, which indicated an equivalent performance to U.S. grade S-65C beryllium, a reference grade beryllium of ITER. Consequently CN-G01 beryllium has been accepted as the armor material of ITER-FW blankets. In addition, a modification of tungsten by TiC dispersion strengthening was investigated and a W–TiC alloy with TiC content of 0.1 wt.% has been developed. Both surface hardness and recrystallization measurements indicate its re-crystallization temperature approximately at 1773 K. Deuterium retention and thermal desorption behaviors of pure tungsten and the TiC alloy were also measured by deuterium ion irradiation of 1.7 keV energy to the fluence of 0.5–5 × 10{sup 18} D/cm{sup 2}; a main desorption peak at around 573 K was found and no significant difference was observed between pure tungsten and the tungsten alloy. Further characterization of the tungsten alloy is in progress.

  1. New concept of composite strengthening in Co-Re based alloys for high temperature applications in gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, D.; Roesler, J.; Fricke, T.; Schmitz, F. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW); Piegert, S. [Siemens AG, Berlin (DE). Energy Sector (F PR GT EN)

    2010-07-01

    High temperature material development is mainly driven by gas turbine needs. Today, Ni-based superalloys are the dominant material class in the hot section of turbines. Material development will continue to push the maximum service temperature of Ni-superalloys upwards. However, this approach has a fundamental limit and can not be sustained indefinitely, as the Ni-superalloys are already used very close to their melting point. Within the frame work of a DFG Forschergruppe program (FOR 727) - ''Beyond Ni-base Superalloys'' - Co-Re based alloys are being developed as a new generation of high temperature materials that can be used at +100 C above single crystal Ni-superalloys. Along with other strengthening concepts, hardening by second phase is explored to develop a two phase composite alloy. With quaternary Co-Re-Cr-Ni alloys we demonstrate this development concept, where Co{sub 2}Re{sub 3}-type {sigma} phase is used in a novel way as the hardening phase. Thermodynamic calculation was used for designing model alloy compositions. (orig.)

  2. Microstructural investigation of thermally aged nickel-based superalloy 718Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, Lawrence; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Stockinger, Martin; Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin; Kozeschnik, Ernst; Leitner, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The effects of thermal aging upon the nickel-based 718Plus superalloy are investigated and modelled. Yield strength and micro-hardness measurements are made after solution annealing and after aging at 788 °C for 4 h. In order to explain the differences in strength and hardness, a detailed investigation of the microstructure is performed using transmission electron microscopy. The size and phase fraction of the γ′ precipitates are measured and related to the measured hardness and yield strength using a theoretical model of precipitation strengthening based on the shearing of precipitates in terms of coherency strengthening and the formation of an antiphase boundary

  3. Salt fog corrosion behavior in a powder-processed icosahedral-phase-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, T.J.; Gordillo, M.A.; Ernst, A.T.; Bedard, B.A.; Aindow, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pitting corrosion resistance has been evaluated for an Al-Cr-Mn-Co-Zr alloy. • Pit densities and depths are far lower than for other high-strength Al alloys. • Corrosion proceeds by selective oxidation of the Al matrix around the other phases. - Abstract: The pitting corrosion resistance has been evaluated for a powder-processed Al-Cr-Mn-Co-Zr alloy which contains ≈35% by volume of an icosahedral quasi-crystalline phase and a little Al 9 Co 2 in an Al matrix. ASTM standard salt fog exposure tests show that the alloy exhibits far lower corrosion pit densities and depths than commercial high-strength aerospace Al alloys under the same conditions. Electron microscopy data show that the salt fog exposure leads to the selective oxidation of the face-centered cubic Al matrix around the other phases, and to the development of a porous outer oxide scale.

  4. Summary of Prior Work on Joining of Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Ian G [ORNL; Tatlock, Gordon J [ORNL; Badairy, H. [University of Liverpool; Chen, C-L. [University of Liverpool

    2009-08-01

    There is a range of joining techniques available for use with ODS alloys, but care should be exercised in matching the technique to the final duty requirements of the joint. The goal for joining ODS alloys is a joint with no local disruption of the distribution of the oxide dispersion, and no significant change in the size and orientation of the alloy microstructure. Not surprisingly, the fusion welding processes typically employed with wrought alloys produce the least satisfactory results with ODS alloys, but some versions, such as fusion spot welding, and the laser and electron-beam welding technologies, have demonstrated potential for producing sound joints. Welds made using solid-state spot welding reportedly have exhibited parent metal properties. Thus, it is possible to employ processes that result in significant disruption of the alloy microstructure, as long as the processing parameters are adjustment to minimize the extent of or influence of the changes in the alloy microstructure. Selection among these joining approaches largely depends on the particular application and component configuration, and an understanding of the relationships among processing, alloy microstructure, and final properties is key. Recent developments have resulted in friction welding evolving to be a prime method for joining ODS sheet products, and variants of brazing/diffusion bonding have shown excellent promise for use with tubes and pipes. The techniques that come closest to the goal defined above involve solid-state diffusion bonding and, in particular, it has been found that secondary recrystallization of joints made by pulsed plasma-assisted diffusion can produce the desired, continuous, large alloy grain structure through the joint. Such joints have exhibited creep rupture failure at >82% of the load needed to fail the monolithic parent alloy at 1000 C.

  5. Studying the effect of Ruthenium on High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Superalloys and Determining the Universal Behavior of Ruthenium at Atomic Scale with respect to alloying elements, Stress and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriswaroop Dasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Any property of a material is a function of its microstructure and microstructure is a function of material composition. So, to maximize the desired properties of a material, one has to understand the evolution of microstructure which in turn is nothing but the reflection of the role of alloying elements. Research has not been done to understand the universal behavior of a certain base/alloying element. Let’s take the example of Cl- ion in HCl, we all know that in general, chloride ion can only be replaced by Fluoride or oxygen ion and that no other ion can replace it. But when you consider a metal like Ni, Co, Cr, Fe etc. there is no establishment that it behaves only in a certain way. Though I concord to the fact that discovery of universal behavior of Ni is lot complex than chloride ion, I think that future research should be focused in this direction also. Superalloys are the candidate materials required to improve thermal efficiency of a gas turbine by allowing higher turbine inlet gas temperatures. Gas turbines are the heart of local power systems, next generation jet engines and high performance space rockets. Recent research in superalloys showed that addition of some alloying elements in minor quantities can result in drastic change in properties. Such an alloying element is Ruthenium (Ru. Addition of Ruthenium to superalloys has shown improvement in mechanical properties by an order of magnitude. However reasons for such improvement are not known yet. Hence, there is a need to identify its role and discover the universal behavior of ruthenium to utilize it efficiently. In this proposal, we study materials with different compositions that are derived based on one ruthenium containing superalloy, and different thermomechanical history. Based on the evolution of microstructures and results of mechanical testing, we plan to determine the exact role of Ruthenium and prediction of its behavior with respect to other elements in the material

  6. Study on microstructure and strengthening mechanism of AZ91-Y magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huisheng; Guo, Feng; Su, Juan; Liu, Liang; Chen, Baodong

    2018-03-01

    AZ91-Y magnesium alloy with different thicknesses were prepared by die casting process. The main existence forms of Y in alloy and the effects of Y on microstructure and mechanical properties of alloy were studied, the main reason for the change of mechanical properties and fracture mechanism were analyzed. The results show that, yttrium exists mainly in the forms of Al2Y phase and trace solid solution in α-Mg. Yttrium can refine the grain of α-Mg, reduce the amount of eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase and promote its discrete distribution. The room temperature tensile strength and elongation of alloy increased first and then decreased with the increase of Y content. The designed alloys containing 0.6% Y (measured containing 0.63% Y) have better mechanical properties. The change of mechanical properties of alloy is a comprehensive reflection of the effect of solid solution, grain refinement and second phase. The cracking of Al2Y phase and β-Mg17Al12 phase and crack propagation through Al2Y phase and β-Mg17Al12 phase are the main fracture mechanism of magnesium alloy containing yttrium. The cooling rate does not change the trend of the influence of Y, but affects the degree of influence of Y.

  7. Oxide dispersion strengthened CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadraba, Hynek; Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Antonín; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Roupcová, Pavla; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 689, MAR (2017), s. 252-256 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25246S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : Creep * High-entropy alloy (HEA) * Mechanical alloying * Oxide dispersion strength ened (ODS) alloy * Powder metallurgy * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (UFP-V) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering; Materials engineering (UFM-A); Materials engineering (UFP-V) Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  8. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X Experimental study of YAG laser welding of nickel base alloy Hastelloy X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graneix Jérémie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique. The YAG laser welding process is contemplated to replace the manual TIG welding process for the production of parts of turbojet in Hastelloy X. This experimental study has identified the field of weldability of this alloy to meet the specific requirements of the aerospace industry.

  9. Scanning Precession Electron Diffraction Study of 2xxx Series Aluminium Alloys Exhibiting Several Coexisting Strengthening Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Sunde, Jonas Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this thesis, scanning precession electron diffraction is applied to heat-treated Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Cu-Ag alloys, shedding light on the distribution of phases present and the complex interplay between these microstructural features. The employed technique yielded high quality data sets, which through subsequent data processing enabled a detailed phase mapping of these multi-component Al alloys. Among the main results presented, are virtual dark field images highlighting all separat...

  10. Theromdynamics of carbon in nickel-based multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1978-04-01

    The activity coefficient of carbon in nickel, nickel-titanium, nickel-titanium-chromium, nickel-titanium-molybdenum and nickel-titanium-molybdenum-chromium alloys has been measured at 900, 1100 and 1215 0 C. The results indicate that carbon obeys Henry's Law over the range studied (0 to 2 at. percent). The literature for the nickel-carbon and iron-carbon systems are reviewed and corrected. For the activity of carbon in iron as a function of composition, a new relationship based on re-evaluation of the thermodynamics of the CO/CO 2 equilibrium is proposed. Calculations using this relationship reproduce the data to within 2.5 percent, but the accuracy of the calibrating standards used by many investigators to analyze for carbon is at best 5 percent. This explains the lack of agreement between the many precise sets of data. The values of the activity coefficient of carbon in the various solid solutions are used to calculate a set of parameters for the Kohler-Kaufman equation. The calculations indicate that binary interaction energies are not sufficient to describe the thermodynamics of carbon in some of the nickel-based solid solutions. The results of previous workers for carbon in nickel-iron alloys are completely described by inclusion of ternary terms in the Kohler-Kaufman equation. Most of the carbon solid solution at high temperatures in nickel and nickel-titantium alloys precipitates from solution on quenching in water. The precipitate is composed of very small particles (greater than 2.5 nm) of elemental carbon. The results of some preliminary thermomigration experiments are discussed and recommendations for further work are presented

  11. Radiation-induced strengthening and absorption of dislocation loops in ferritic Fe–Cr alloys: the role of Cr segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentyev, D; Bakaev, A

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of radiation-induced strengthening in ferritic FeCr-based steels remains an essential issue in the assessment of materials for fusion and fission reactors. Both early and recent experimental works on Fe–Cr alloys reveal Cr segregation on radiation-induced nanostructural features (mainly dislocation loops), whose impact on the modification of the mechanical response of the material might be key for explaining quantitatively the radiation-induced strengthening in these alloys. In this work, we use molecular dynamics to study systematically the interaction of dislocations with 1/2〈111〉 and 〈100〉 loops in all possible orientations, both enriched by Cr atoms and undecorated, for different temperatures, loop sizes and dislocation velocities. The configurations of the enriched loops have been obtained using a non-rigid lattice Monte Carlo method. The study reveals that Cr segregation influences the interaction mechanisms with both 1/2〈111〉 and 〈100〉 loops. The overall effect of Cr enrichment is to penalize the mobility of intrinsically glissile 1/2〈111〉 loops, modifying the reaction mechanisms as a result. The following three most important effects associated with Cr enrichment have been revealed: (i) absence of dynamic drag; (ii) suppression of complete absorption; (iii) enhanced strength of small dislocation loops (2 nm and smaller). Overall the effect of the Cr enrichment is therefore to increase the unpinning stress, so experimentally ‘invisible’ nanostructural features may also contribute to radiation-induced strengthening. The reasons for the modification of the mechanisms are explained and the impact of the loading conditions is discussed. (paper)

  12. The mechanisms of dispersion strengthening and fracture in Al-based XD(tm) alloys, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, R. M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of reinforcement size, volume fraction, and matrix deformation behavior on room and elevated temperature strength; the fracture toughness; and the fatigue crack growth rate of metal matrix composites of Al-4(pct)Cu-1.5(pct)Mg with TiB2 were examined. The influence of reinforcement volume fraction was also examined for pure aluminum with TiB2. Higher TiB2 volume fractions increased the tensile yield strength at both room and elevated temperatures, and reduced the elongation to fracture. Tensile tests also indicate that small particles provided a greater increase in strength for a given volume fraction than larger particles, whereas elongation to fracture appeared to be insensitive to reinforcement size. Interparticle spacing appears to be the factor that controls the strength of these alloys, with the exact nature of the dependence relying on the nature of dislocation slip in the matrix (planar vs. diffuse). The isothermal aging response of the precipitation strengthened Al-4(pct)Cu-1.5(pct)Mg alloys was not accelerated by the presence of TiB2. Cold work prior to artificial aging created additional geometrically necessary dislocations which serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites leading to accelerated aging, a finer precipitate size, and an increase in the strength of the alloy.

  13. Effects of nanometric inclusions on the microstructural characteristics and strengthening of a friction-stir processed aluminum–magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabakhshi, F., E-mail: farzadkhodabakhshi83@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Boulevard, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Švec, P. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Simančík, F. [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, Bratislava (Slovakia); Gerlich, A.P. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2015-08-26

    An aluminum–magnesium alloy was friction-stir processed in the presence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles which were pre-placed in a groove on the surface to produce a composite. Field emission-scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies show that solid state chemical reactions occur between the Al–Mg matrix and the ceramic particles upon the severe plastic deformation process. The microstructure of the aluminum alloy consists of a coarse grain structure, large complex (Fe,Mn,Cr){sub 3}SiAl{sub 12} particles, and small Mg{sub 2}Si precipitates. After friction stir processing, a deformed grain structure containing rod-like Al–Fe–Mn–Si precipitates is attained, along with cuboidal (~100 nm) Cr{sub 2} precipitates and spherical (~100 and 5 nm) Mg{sub 2}Si particles. In the presence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, magnesium oxide (MgO) and titanium aluminide (Al{sub 3}Ti) nanophases are formed. It is shown that these microstructural modifications lead to a significant enhancement in the hardness and tensile strength of the aluminum alloy. The relationship between the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties and the role of hard inclusions are presented and discussed. An analysis based on strengthening models indicates that the yield strength of the nanocomposite is mainly controlled by dislocations and grain boundaries rather than the nano-scale inclusions.

  14. Laser surface treatment on a nickel based alloy in order to form chromium oxide to reduce cations release in primary circuit. Experimental and numerical study of laser mater interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouton, Lucille

    2015-01-01

    Alloy 690 (60%Ni, 30%Cr, 10%Fe) is mainly used in primary circuit pipes for nuclear power plants.The aim of this thesis is to form a Cr 2 O 3 layer, using laser surface melting, with the objective of creating a chromium-rich oxide layer. In order to optimize the treatment, it was first important to determine parameters influence on the layer oxide properties then, with the objective of a deeper understanding of mechanisms involved, to address thermo-physical phenomena occurring during and after the laser pulse striking the upper surface. A deep parametric study first enabled to find an optimized laser surface treatment which produces chromium enrichment of the upper surface and a dense and continuous oxide layer. This treatment has been applied on samples, set in a primary medium simulation loop. Experiments and calculations were carried out to provide understanding of surface chromium enrichment by laser process. The results were shown to explain chromium enrichment until melt pool solidification occurred on the upper surface, assumingly just before chromium oxide formation. This was also promoted by a high affinity with oxygen and a higher stability of Cr 2 O 3 oxide compared with other potential oxide formation. (author) [fr

  15. Microstructural characterization of dispersion-strengthened Cu-Ti-Al alloys obtained by reaction milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Rodrigo A.; Palma, Rodrigo H.; Sepulveda, Aquiles O.; Fuenzalida, Victor; Solorzano, Guillermo; Craievich, Aldo; Smith, David J.; Fujita, Takeshi; Lopez, Marta

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure, electrical conductivity and hot softening resistance of two alloys (G-10 and H-20), projected to attain Cu-2.5 vol.% TiC-2.5 vol.% Al 2 O 3 nominal composition, and prepared by reaction milling and hot extrusion, were studied. The alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and several chemical analysis techniques. The first alloy, G-10, showed the formation of Al 2 O 3 nanodispersoids and the presence of particles from non-reacted raw materials (graphite, Ti and Al). A second alloy, H-20, was prepared employing different fabrication conditions. This alloy exhibited a homogeneous distribution of Al 2 O 3 and Ti-Al-Fe nanoparticles, with the microstructure being stable after annealing and hot compression tests. These nanoparticles acted as effective pinning sites for dislocation slip and grain growth. The room-temperature hardness of the H-20 consolidated material (330 HV) was approximately maintained after annealing for 1 h at 1173 K; the electrical conductivity was 60% IACS (International Annealing Copper Standard)

  16. Effect of initial structure on strengthening and properties of the 35NKhTYu alloy bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, N.M.; Shugaenko, V.K.; Drapiko, P.E.; Chernyakova, L.E.; Patseka, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Variation in the structure, mechanical strength, plasticity, and elasticity of thin (about 0.15 mm thick) bands of 36NKhTYu alloy after their cold rolling to the reduction degree up to 70% was examined. The influence of the cold plastic deformation on the dislocation structure of the alloy has been determined. By resorting to the method of transmission electron microscopy, the distribution of dislocations depending on the reduction degree has been shown. The character of the influence of the initial structure of bands after their plastic deformation on the process of decomposition of the solid solution and the formation of γ 1 -phase in tempering and a variation in the mechanical properties of 36NKhTYu alloy have been established

  17. Development and Characterization of Improved NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys by Solid-Solution Strengthening and Thermomechanical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Glen; Noebe, Ronald; Padula, Santo, II; Garg, Anita; Olson, David

    2006-01-01

    The need for compact, solid-state actuation systems for use in the aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries is currently motivating research in high-temperature shape-memory alloys (HTSMA) with transformation temperatures greater than 100 C. One of the basic high-temperature alloys investigated to fill this need is Ni(19.5)Ti(50.5)Pd30. Initial testing has indicated that this alloy, while having acceptable work characteristics, suffers from significant permanent deformation (or ratcheting) during thermal cycling under load. In an effort to overcome this deficiency, various solid-solution alloying and thermomechanical processing schemes were investigated. Solid-solution strengthening was achieved by substituting 5at% gold or platinum for palladium in Ni(19.5)Ti(50.5)Pd30, the so-called baseline alloy, to strengthen the martensite and austenite phases against slip processes and improve thermomechanical behavior. Tensile properties, work behavior, and dimensional stability during repeated thermal cycling under load for the ternary and quaternary alloys were compared. The relative difference in yield strength between the martensite and austenite phases and the dimensional stability of the alloy were improved by the quaternary additions, while work output was only minimally impacted. The three alloys were also thermomechanically processed by cycling repeatedly through the transformation range under a constant stress. This so-called training process dramatically improved the dimensional stability in these samples and also recovered the slight decrease in work output caused by quaternary alloying. An added benefit of the solid-solution strengthening was maintenance of enhanced dimensional stability of the trained material to higher temperatures compared to the baseline alloy, providing a greater measure of over-temperature capability.

  18. Simulation of Concurrent Precipitation of Two Strengthening Phases in Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weihua; Zhang, Chuan; Klarner, Andrew D.; Cao, Weisheng; Luo, Alan A.

    The precipitation kinetics and microtructure in Mg-Sn binary and Mg-Al-Sn ternary alloys are simulated using PanPrecipitation coupled with Mg thermodynamic database and a newly established mobility database of the Mg-Al-Sn ternary system. Both Mg2Sn and Mg17Al12 precipitates are considered in this work. The obtained kinetic parameters for these two precipitates can be used in the simulation of both individual and concurrent precipitations of Mg17Al12 and Mg2Sn in Mg-Al-Sn alloys. The simulated microstructure evolution, such as the particle size and number density, are in agreement with experimental data.

  19. Development of a dispersion strengthened copper alloy using a MA-HIP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yamada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Cu-Al alloy was fabricated by a MA-HIP method for application to the heat sink materials of divertors. With the increase in MA time, the grain size and Vickers hardness decreased and increased, respectively. At MA time of 32hrs, the hardness of the alloy was comparable to that of Glidcop® although the grain size was much larger. X-ray diffractometry, electrical resistivity measurements and STEM-EDS analyses suggested precipitation of Al-rich phase by MA for 32hrs followed by HIP.

  20. Heat affected zone liquation cracking in electron beam welded third generation nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, O.A.; Wang, Y.L.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The weldability of directionally solidified nickel base superalloy TMS-75 and TMS-75+C was investigated by autogenous bead-on-plate electron beam welding. The analysis of microsegregation that occurred during solidification of the as-cast alloys indicated that while W and Re segregated into the γ dendrites of both the alloys, Ta, Hf and C were rejected into the interdendritic liquid in the TMS-75+C. Heat affected zone intergranular liquation cracking was observed in both the materials and was observed to be closely associated with liquated γ-γ' eutectic microconstituent. The TMS-75+C alloy, however, exhibited a reduced extent of HAZ cracking compared to TMS-75. Suppression of terminal solidification reaction involving non-invariant γ-γ' eutectic transformation due to modification of primary solidification path by carbon addition is suggested to be an important factor contributing to reduced susceptibility of TMS-75+C alloy to HAZ liquation cracking relative to the TMS-75 superalloy

  1. Experimental analysis of compressive notch strengthening in closed-cell aluminum alloy foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, A; Onck, PR; Bastawros, Ashraf F.

    2004-01-01

    The notch strengthening effect is studied experimentally in closed cell aluminum foams. The limit loads, net section strength were found for a set of double-edge-notched (DEN) and single-edge-notched (SEN) specimens loaded in compression. In addition, the evolution of the deformation is monitored

  2. ISOTHERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL FATIGUE OF A NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carvalho Engler-Pinto Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal gradients arising during transient regimes of start-up and shutdown operations produce a complex thermal and mechanical fatigue loading which limits the life of turbine blades and other engine components operating at high temperatures. More accurate and reliable assessment under non-isothermal fatigue becomes therefore mandatory. This paper investigates the nickel base superalloy CM 247LC-DS under isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF. Test temperatures range from 600°C to 1,000°C. The behavior of the alloy is strongly affected by the temperature variation, especially in the 800°C-1,000°C range. The Ramberg-Osgood equation fits very well the observed isothermal behavior for the whole temperature range. The simplified non-isothermal stress-strain model based on linear plasticity proposed to represent the thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior was able to reproduce the observed behavior for both in-phase and out-of-phase TMF cycling.

  3. Stacking fault energy measurements in solid solution strengthened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unfried-Silgado, Jimy [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP, Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica FEM, Campinas (Brazil); Universidad Autonoma del Caribe, Grupo IMTEF, Ingenieria Mecanica, Barranquilla (Colombia); Wu, Leonardo [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Furlan Ferreira, Fabio [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas (CCNH), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mario Garzon, Carlos [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia); Ramirez, Antonio J, E-mail: antonio.ramirez@lnnano.org.br [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The stacking fault energy (SFE) in a set of experimental Ni-Cr-Fe alloys was determined using line profile analysis on synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. The methodology used here is supported by the Warren-Averbach calculations and the relationships among the stacking fault probability ({alpha}) and the mean-square microstrain (<{epsilon}{sup 2}{sub L}>). These parameters were obtained experimentally from cold-worked and annealed specimens extracted from the set of studied Ni-alloys. The obtained results show that the SFE in these alloys is strongly influenced by the kind and quantity of addition elements. Different effects due to the action of carbide-forming elements and the solid solution hardening elements on the SFE are discussed here. The simultaneous addition of Nb, Hf, and, Mo, in the studied Ni-Cr-Fe alloys have generated the stronger decreasing of the SFE. The relationships between SFE and the contributions on electronic structure from each element of additions were established.

  4. Effect of equal-channel angular pressing on the creep resistance of precipitation-strengthened alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Kvapilová, Marie; Kawasaki, M.; Langdon, T. G.

    667-669, - (2011), s. 897-902 ISSN 0255-5476. [NanoSPD5 - International Conference on Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation /5./. Nanjing, 21.03.2011-25.03.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : creep * equal-channel angular pressing * precipitation- strength ened alloys * creep damage Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  5. Fabrication Technological Development of the Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloy MA957 for Fast Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Margaret L.; Gelles, David S.; Lobsinger, Ralph J.; Johnson, Gerald D.; Brown, W. F.; Paxton, Michael M.; Puigh, Raymond J.; Eiholzer, Cheryl R.; Martinez, C.; Blotter, M. A.

    2000-02-28

    A significant amount of effort has been devoted to determining the properties and understanding the behavior of the alloy MA957 to define its potential usefulness as a cladding material in the fast breeder reactor program. The numerous characterization and fabrication studies that were conducted are documented in this report.

  6. Use of Nitrocarburizing for Strengthening Threaded Joints of Drill Pipes from Medium-Carbon Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Stepanchukova, A. V.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    Nitrocarburizing is tested at the Drill Equipment Plant for reinforcing threaded joints of drill pipes for units with retrievable core receiver (RCR). The effect of the nitrocarburizing on the mechanical properties of steels of different alloying systems is considered. Steels for the production of threaded joints of drill pipes are recommended.

  7. Effects in Mg-Zn-based alloys strengthened by quasicrystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlček, M; Čížek, J; Lukáč, F; Melikhova, O; Hruška, P; Procházka, I; Vlach, M; Stulíková, I; Smola, B; Jäger, A

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium Mg-based alloys are promising lightweight structural materials for automotive, aerospace and biomedical applications. Recently Mg-Zn-Y system attracted a great attention due to a stable icosahedral phase (I-phase) with quasicrystalline structure which is formed in these alloys. Positron lifetime spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction were used to study thermal stability of I-phase and precipitation effects in Mg-Zn-Y and Mg- Zn-Al alloys. All alloys containing quasicrystalline I-phase exhibit misfit defects characterized by positron lifetime of ∼ 300 ps. These defects are associated with the interfaces between I- phase particles and Mg matrix. The quasicrystalline I-phase particles were found to be stable up to temperatures as high as ∼ 370°C. The W-phase is more stable and melts at ∼ 420°C. Concentration of defects associated with I-phase decreases after annealing at temperatures above ∼ 300°C. (paper)

  8. Friction stir welding and processing of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju

    2014-11-11

    A method of welding including forming a filler material of a first oxide dispersoid metal, the first oxide dispersoid material having first strengthening particles that compensate for decreases in weld strength of friction stir welded oxide dispersoid metals; positioning the filler material between a first metal structure and a second metal structure each being comprised of at least a second oxide dispersoid metal; and friction welding the filler material, the first metal structure and the second metal structure to provide a weld.

  9. Design of Fatigue Resistant Heusler-strengthened PdTi-based Shape Memory Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Dana J.

    The development of non-surgical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques, which utilize collapsible artificial heart valves with shape memory alloy (SMA)-based frames, pushes performance requirements for biomedical SMAs beyond those for well-established vascular stent applications. Fatigue life for these devices must extend into the ultra-high cycle fatigue (UHCF) regime (>600M cycles) with zero probability of failure predicted at applied strain levels. High rates of Ni-hypersensitivity raise biocompatibility concerns, driving the development of low-Ni and Ni-free SMAs. This work focuses on the development of biocompatible, precipitation-strengthened, fatigue-resistant PdTi-based SMAs for biomedical applications. Functional and structural fatigue are both manifestations of cyclic instability resulting in accumulation of slip and eventual structural damage. While functional fatigue is easily experimentally evaluated, structural fatigue is more difficult to measure without the proper equipment. Therefore, in this work a theoretical approach using a model well validated in steels is utilized to investigate structural fatigue behavior in NiTi in the UHCF regime, while low cycle functional fatigue is evaluated in order to monitor the core phenomena of the cyclic instability. Results from fatigue simulations modeling crack nucleation at non-metallic inclusions in commercial NiTi underscore the importance of increasing yield strength for UHCF performance. Controlled precipitation of nanoscale, low-misfit, L21 Heusler aluminides can provide effective strengthening. Phase relations, precipitation kinetics, transformation temperature, transformation strain, cyclic stability, and mechanical properties are characterized in both Ni-free (Pd,Fe)(Ti,Al) and low-Ni high-strength "hybrid" (Pd,Ni)(Ti,Zr,Al) systems. Atom probe tomography is employed to measure phase compositions and particle sizes used to calibrate LSW models for coarsening kinetics and Gibbs

  10. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  11. Microstructure, plastic deformation and strengthening mechanisms of an Al–Mg–Si alloy with a bimodal grain structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori Oskooie, M.; Asgharzadeh, H.; Kim, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Al6063 with bimodal grain structures was fabricated by a powder metallurgy route. • The bimodal alloys showed a reasonable ductility together with a high strength. • Grain boundary strengthening was reduced at higher fraction of coarse grains. • The enhanced tensile ductility was attributed to crack blunting and delamination. - Abstract: Al6063 alloys with bimodal grain size distributions comprised of ultrafine-grained (UFG) and coarse-grained (CG) regions were produced via mechanical milling followed by hot extrusion. High-energy planetary ball milling for 22.5 h with a rotational speed of 350 rpm was employed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline Al6063 powders. The as-milled Al6063 powders were mixed with 15, 30, and 45 vol.% of the unmilled powders and then the powder mixtures were consolidated via extrusion at 450 °C with an extrusion ratio of 9:1. The microstructure of the bimodal extrudates was investigated using optical microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) detector. The deformation behavior was investigated by means of uniaxial tensile tests. The bimodal Al6063 exhibited balanced mechanical properties, including high yield stress and ultimate tensile strength resulting from the UFG regions together with reasonable ductility attained from the CG areas. The fracture surfaces demonstrated a ductile fracture mode, in which the dimple size was correlated with the grain structure. The strengthening mechanisms are discussed based on the dislocation models and the functions of the CGs in the deformation behavior and ductility enhancement of bimodal Al6063 are explored

  12. Precipitation and strengthening phenomena in Al-Si-Ge and Al-Cu-Si-Ge alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitlin, D.; Morris, J.W.; Dahmen, U.; Radmilovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine whether Al rich Al-Si-Ge and 2000 type Al-Cu-Si-Ge alloys have sufficient hardness to be useful for structural applications. It is shown that in Al-Si-Ge it is not possible to achieve satisfactory hardness through a conventional heat treatment. This result is explained in terms of sluggish precipitation of the diamond-cubic Si-Ge phase coupled with particle coarsening. However, Al-Cu-Si-Ge displayed a uniquely fast aging response, a high peak hardness and a good stability during prolonged aging. The high hardness of the Cu containing alloy is due to the dense and uniform distribution of fine θ' precipitates (metastable Al 2 Cu) which are heterogeneously nucleated on the Si-Ge particles. High resolution TEM demonstrated that in both alloys all the Si-Ge precipitates start out, and remain multiply twinned throughout the aging treatment. Since the twinned section of the precipitate does not maintain a low index interface with the matrix, the Si-Ge precipitates are equiaxed in morphology. Copyright (2000) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  13. Superior creep strength of a nickel-based superalloy produced by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pröbstle, M., E-mail: martin.proebstle@fau.de [Department of Materials Science & Engineering Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Neumeier, S.; Hopfenmüller, J.; Freund, L.P. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Niendorf, T. [Institut für Werkstofftechnik (Materials Engineering), Universität Kassel, Mönchebergstr. 3, D-34125 Kassel (Germany); Schwarze, D. [SLM Solutions GmbH, Roggenhorster Straße 9c, D-23556 Lübeck (Germany); Göken, M. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-09-30

    The creep properties of a polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy produced via selective laser melting were investigated in this study. All heat treatment conditions of the additively manufactured material show superior creep strength compared to conventional cast and wrought material. The process leads to a microstructure with fine subgrains. In comparison to conventional wrought material no Niobium rich δ phase is necessary to control the grain size and thus more Niobium is available for precipitation hardening and solid solution strengthening resulting in improved creep strength.

  14. Characterization of uniaxial fatigue behavior of precipitate strengthened Cu-Ni-Si alloy (SICLANIC(TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saadouki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue tests were conducted on cylindrical bars specimens to understand the fatigue behavior of SICLANIC. Although it displays good resistance in monotonic tension, this material weakens and shows a softening in repeated solicitation. This has been verified through a SEM observation, the Cu-Ni-Si alloy presents transgranular failure by cleavage. The MansonCoffin diagram exhibited the plastic deformation accommodation. The plastic deformation becomes periodic and decreases progressively as the cycle number increases. The approximations of Manson Coffin give fatigue parameters values which are in good agreement with the experience

  15. Microstructure of the Nickel-Base Superalloy CMSX-4 Fabricated by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsperger, Markus; Singer, Robert F.; Körner, Carolin

    2016-03-01

    Powder bed-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes are characterized by very high-temperature gradients and solidification rates. These conditions lead to microstructures orders of magnitude smaller than in conventional casting processes. Especially in the field of high performance alloys, like nickel-base superalloys, this opens new opportunities for homogenization and alloy development. Nevertheless, the high susceptibility to cracking of precipitation-hardenable superalloys is a challenge for AM. In this study, electron beam-based AM is used to fabricate samples from gas-atomized pre-alloyed CMSX-4 powder. The influence of the processing strategy on crack formation is investigated. The samples are characterized by optical and SEM microscopy and analyzed by microprobe analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to demonstrate the effect of the fine microstructure on characteristic temperatures. In addition, in situ heat treatment effects are investigated.

  16. Synergistic effect of rhenium and ruthenium in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, X.X. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, C.Y., E-mail: cywang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, X.N. [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yan, P. [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Z., E-mail: zezhang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Re and Ru synergistic effects in nickel-based superalloys are investigated. • The Al site occupation of Re atom in the γ′ phase is observed directly. • The addition of Ru results in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase. -- Abstract: The microstructures of ternary Ni–Al–Re and quaternary Ni–Al–Re–Ru single-crystal alloys were investigated at atomic and electronic levels to clarify the synergistic effect of Re and Ru in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys. In the Ni–Al–Re alloy, it was directly observed that Re atom occupied the Al site of γ′ phase. In the Ni–Al–Re–Ru alloy, the mechanisms of Re repartition between γ and γ′ phases were proposed. In the dendritic cores, high concentrations of Re exceeded the solubility limit of γ′ phase and partitioned to γ phase, which led to the homogenization. In the interdendritic regions, Ru resulted in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase which was proved by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations.

  17. Stabilizing the strengthening precipitates in aluminum-manganese alloys by the addition of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yangyang; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M., E-mail: mmm@wpi.edu

    2017-04-13

    The Al-Mn-W system has considerable potential as a basis for lightweight aluminum alloys that are intended for use at temperatures approaching 350 °C (623 K). In this ternary system, aluminum, manganese, and tungsten co-precipitate to form the meta-stable Al{sub 12}(Mn{sub (1-x)}W{sub x}) phase, which is thermally stable and will not coarsen when held at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time. This enhanced thermal stability of the Al{sub 12}(Mn{sub (1-x)}W{sub x}) phase in comparison to the Al{sub 12}Mn phase which forms in binary Al-Mn alloys is explained in terms of the Gibbs free energy of the two phases. It is shown that co-precipitating tungsten with aluminum and manganese lowers the Gibbs free energy of the precipitated phase and by so doing, it slows down its coarsening rate and enhances its thermal stability.

  18. Mechanism-based modeling of solute strengthening: application to thermal creep in Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report focuses on the development of a physics-based thermal creep model aiming to predict the behavior of Zr alloy under reactor accident condition. The current models used for this kind of simulations are mostly empirical in nature, based generally on fits to the experimental steady-state creep rates under different temperature and stress conditions, which has the following limitations. First, reactor accident conditions, such as RIA and LOCA, usually take place in short times and involve only the primary, not the steady-state creep behavior stage. Moreover, the empirical models cannot cover the conditions from normal operation to accident environments. For example, Kombaiah and Murty [1,2] recently reported a transition between the low (n~4) and high (n~9) power law creep regimes in Zr alloys depending on the applied stress. Capturing such a behavior requires an accurate description of the mechanisms involved in the process. Therefore, a mechanism-based model that accounts for the evolution with time of microstructure is more appropriate and reliable for this kind of simulation.

  19. Strength and structure during hot deformation of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, N.D.; Sellars, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of deformational variables on the flow stress and microstructure developed by plane strain compression testing and experimental rolling of three otherwise well characterized nickel-base super alloys, Nimonic 80A, Nimonic 90 and Waspaloy are presented. Rolled or tested samples were sectioned longitudinally at mid-width and were prepared for optical metallography. X-ray analysis of particles observed in several samples was carried out on polished and lightly etehed surfaces using a diffractometer with CoKα radiation. For other samples, energy dispersive x-ray analysis was also carried out in a scanning microscope. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Solid state welding processes for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Solid-state welding processes were evaluated for joining TD-NiCrAl (Ni-16Cr-4Al-2ThO2) alloy sheet. Both hot-press and resistance spot welding techniques were successfully applied in terms of achieving grain growth across the bond line. Less success was achieved with a resistance seam welding process. In stress-rupture shear and tensile shear tests of lap joints at 1100 C, most failures occurred in the parent material, which indicates that the weld quality was good and that the welds were not a plane of weakness. The overall weld quality was not as good as previously attained with TD-NiCr, probably because the presence of alumina at the faying surfaces and the developmental TD-NiCrAl sheet, which was not of the quality of the TD-NiCr sheet in terms of surface flatness and dimensional control.

  1. Effects of cobalt on creep rupture properties and dislocation structures in nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.Z.; Jin, T.; Jia, J.H.; Liu, J.L.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The influences of cobalt (Co) on creep rupture lives and dislocation structures in nickel base superalloys with and without rhenium (Re) are investigated. The creep rupture test conditions were high temperature low stress (1100 °C/150 MPa), intermediate temperature and stress (982 °C, 1010 °C) and low temperature high stress (850 °C/586 MPa). The results show that increasing Co content could enhance the creep rupture lives at low and intermediate temperature, and does not degrade the creep rupture lives of alloys at high temperature. In Re-containing alloys, at high temperature low stress (1100 °C/150 MPa), the effects of Co on the dislocation structures are negligible, while at low temperature high stress (850 °C/586 MPa), stacking faults are generated in alloy with 12% Co, and in alloy with 3% Co and free of Co, gamma prime particles are sheared by dislocation pairs. In Re-free alloys, at intermediate temperature and stress (1010 °C/248 MPa), large quantities of stacking faults appear in alloy without Co, while in alloy having 12% Co, gamma prime particles are sheared by dislocation pairs coupled by anti-phase boundary (APB). The gamma prime sheared by stacking faults or by dislocation pairs coupled by APB depends on the competition of stacking faults energy and APB energy which is affected by temperature and the interaction of Re and Co

  2. A continuum approach to combined $\\gamma/\\gamma'$ evolution and dislocation plasticity in Nickel-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ronghai; Zaiser, Michael; Sandfeld, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Creep in single crystal Nickel-based superalloys has been a topic of interest since decades, and nowadays simulations are more and more able to complement experiments. In these alloys, the $\\gamma/\\gamma'$ phase microstructure co-evolves with the system of dislocations under load, and understanding the mutual interactions is essential for understanding the resulting creep properties. Predictive modeling thus requires multiphysics frameworks capable of modeling and simulating both the phase an...

  3. Study on the fabrication of Al matrix composites strengthened by combined in-situ alumina particle and in-situ alloying elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zanjun; Yang Bin; Cui Hua; Zhang Jishan

    2003-01-01

    A new idea to fabricate aluminum matrix composites strengthened by combined in-situ particle strengthening and in-situ alloying has been proposed. Following the concept of in-situ alloying and in-situ particle strengthening, aluminum matrix composites reinforced by Cu and α-Al 2 O 3 particulate (material I) and the same matrix reinforced by Cu, Si alloying elements and α-Al 2 O 3 particulate (material II) have been obtained. SEM observation, EDS and XRD analysis show that the alloy elements Cu and Si exist in the two materials, respectively. In-situ Al 2 O 3 particulates are generally spherical and their mean size is less than 0.5 μm. TEM observation shows that the in-situ α-Al 2 O 3 particulates have a good cohesion with the matrix. The reaction mechanism of the Al 2 O 3 particulate obtained by this method was studied. Thermodynamic considerations are given to the in-situ reactions and the distribution characteristic of in-situ the α-Al 2 O 3 particulate in the process of solidification is also discussed

  4. Fabrication and characterization of Y2O3 dispersion strengthened copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, G.; Muñoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Savoini, B.; Pareja, R.; Ballesteros, C.; Adeva, P.

    2014-01-01

    Three copper base materials were fabricated following different routes: cast Cu–1 wt.%Y (C-Cu1Y) produced by vacuum induction melting, and Cu–1 wt.%Y (PM-Cu1Y) and Cu–1 wt.%Y 2 O 3 (PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 ) both processed by a powder metallurgy route and sintering by hot isostatic pressing. PM-Cu1Y alloy was prepared by cryomilling and PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 by conventional milling at room temperature. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. C-Cu1Y presents a characteristic eutectic microstructure while PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 exhibits a composite like microstructure. Electron microscopy analyses of as-HIP PM-Cu1Y revealed irregular decoration of yttrium-rich oxides at the grain boundaries and an inhomogeneous dispersion of polygonal shaped yttrium-rich oxides dispersed in the Cu matrix. Tensile tests performed on PM-Cu–1Y on the temperature range of 293–773 K have showed a decrease of the yield strength at temperatures higher than 473 K, and monotonically decrease of the ultimate tensile strength and maximum plastic strain on increasing temperature

  5. Fabrication and characterization of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion strengthened copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carro, G.; Muñoz, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Monge, M.A., E-mail: mmonge@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Savoini, B.; Pareja, R.; Ballesteros, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Adeva, P. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Three copper base materials were fabricated following different routes: cast Cu–1 wt.%Y (C-Cu1Y) produced by vacuum induction melting, and Cu–1 wt.%Y (PM-Cu1Y) and Cu–1 wt.%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (PM-Cu1Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both processed by a powder metallurgy route and sintering by hot isostatic pressing. PM-Cu1Y alloy was prepared by cryomilling and PM-Cu1Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by conventional milling at room temperature. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. C-Cu1Y presents a characteristic eutectic microstructure while PM-Cu1Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits a composite like microstructure. Electron microscopy analyses of as-HIP PM-Cu1Y revealed irregular decoration of yttrium-rich oxides at the grain boundaries and an inhomogeneous dispersion of polygonal shaped yttrium-rich oxides dispersed in the Cu matrix. Tensile tests performed on PM-Cu–1Y on the temperature range of 293–773 K have showed a decrease of the yield strength at temperatures higher than 473 K, and monotonically decrease of the ultimate tensile strength and maximum plastic strain on increasing temperature.

  6. Strengthening effect of nano-scale precipitates in a die-cast Mg–4Al–5.6Sm–0.3Mn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Bu, Fanqiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yangzhou Hongfu Aluminium Co. Ltd, Yangzhou 100049 (China); Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong [E-ande Scientific & Technology Co. Ltd, Dongguan 523000 (China); Sun, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu, Xiaojuan, E-mail: lxjuan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Meng, Jian, E-mail: jmeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-04-25

    In this paper we report a quantitative study of the age-hardening in the high-pressure die-cast Mg–4Al−5.6Sm−0.3Mn alloy. The results indicate that a number of nano-scale spherical precipitates identified as Al{sub 3}Sm using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, precipitated in Mg matrix after aging at 150–225 °C, with no obvious changes on grain sizes, intermetallic phases formed during solidification, and dislocation densities. From the existing strengthening theory equations in which some lacking parameters were taken from the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a quantitative insight into the strengthening mechanisms of the nano-scale precipitate was formulated. The results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values, and the operative mechanism of precipitation strengthening was revealed as Orowan dislocation bypassing. - Highlights: • The yield strength of Mg–Al–Sm alloy was improved by aging treatment. • A number of nano-scale precipitates formed in matrix after aging treatments. • The nanoscale precipitate was confirmed as Al{sub 3}Sm based on the data of HAADF-STEM study. • The strengthening mechanisms of the nano-scale precipitate were quantitatively formulated. • The operative mechanism of precipitate strengthening is Orowan dislocation bypassing.

  7. Influence of the brazing parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of brazed joints of Hastelloy B2 nickel base alloy; Influencia de los parametros de soldeo fuerte en la microestructura y propiedades mecanicas de la union de la aleacion base niquel Hastelloy B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo, J. C.; Gonzalez, M.; Porto, E.

    2014-07-01

    A study of the high vacuum brazing process of solid solution strengthened Hastelloy B2 nickel alloy has been done. A first stage of research has focused on the selection of the most appropriate brazing filler metal to the base material and vacuum furnace brazing process. The influence of welding parameters on joint microstructure constituents, relating the microstructure of the joint to its mechanical properties, has been evaluated. Two gaps of 50 and 200 micrometers, and two dwell times at brazing temperature of 10 and 90 minutes were studied. The braze joint mainly consists of the nickel rich matrix, nickel silicide and ternary compounds. Finally, the results of this study have shown the high bond strength for small gaps and increased dwell times of 90 minutes. (Author)

  8. Investigations on avoidance of hot cracks during laser welding of austenitic Cr-Ni steels and nickel-based alloys using temperature field tailoring. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Vermeidung von Heissrissen beim Laserstrahlschweissen von austenitischen Cr-Ni-Staehlen und Nickelbasislegierungen mittels Temperaturfeld-Tailoring. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-08

    The aim of the project was to transfer the developed method of laser beam welding of heat treated machining steels of temperature field tailoring on hot crack endangered austenitic Cr-Ni steels and nickel-based alloys. With this method, transient thermal stresses adjacent to the weld are produced by an travelling induction heating so that the hot cracking is prevented during welding. As test materials the austenitic Cr-Ni steel with sulfur additive 1.4305, the Cr-Ni steels 1.4404 and 1.4435 and the nickel-based alloy Udimet 720 were selected. As a result of the research it was shown that a hot crack-free laser welding in the investigated materials using at least three different welding and material-technical approaches is possible. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens bestand darin, das fuer das Laserstrahlschweissen verguetbarer Automatenstaehle entwickelte Verfahren des Temperaturfeld-Tailorings auf heissrissgefaehrdete austenitische Cr-Ni-Staehle und Nickelbasislegierungen zu uebertragen. Mit diesem Verfahren werden waehrend des Schweissens transiente thermische Spannungen neben der Schweissnaht durch eine mitlaufende induktive Erwaermung so erzeugt, dass die Heissrissbildung verhindert wird. Als Versuchswerkstoffe wurden der austenitische Cr-Ni-Stahl mit Schwefelzusatz 1.4305, die Cr-Ni-Staehle 1.4404 und 1.4435 sowie die Nickelbasislegierung Udimet 720 ausgewaehlt. Im Ergebnis des Forschungsvorhabens konnte gezeigt werden, dass ein heissrissfreies Laserstrahlschweissen bei den untersuchten Werkstoffen unter Nutzung von mindestens drei verschiedenen schweiss- und werkstofftechnischen Ansaetzen moeglich ist: Erstens koennen mit einem Temperaturfeld-Tailoring bei im Stumpfstoss zu verschweissenden Blechen aus austenitischen Staehlen bis mindestens 6 mm Dicke senkrecht zur Naht und parallel zur Blechoberflaeche wirkende transiente Druckspannungen erzeugt werden, die der Bildung von Mittelrippenrissen oder dazu parallel liegenden Heissrissen entgegenwirken

  9. Oxide nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened steel: crystallographic structure and interface with ferrite matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    Oxide nanoparticles are quintessential for ensuring the extraordinary properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. In this study, the crystallographic structure of oxide nanoparticles, and their interface with the ferritic steel matrix in an Al-alloyed ODS steel, i.e. PM2000, were systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The majority of oxide nanoparticles were identified to be orthorhombic YAlO3. During hot consolidation and extrusion, they develop a coherent interface and a near cuboid-on-cube orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix in the material. After annealing at 1200 °C for 1 h, however, the orientation relationship between the oxide nanoparticles and the matrix becomes arbitrary, and their interface mostly incoherent. Annealing at 1300 °C leads to considerable coarsening of oxide nanoparticles, and a new orientation relationship of pseudo-cube-on-cube between oxide nanoparticles and ferrite matrix develops. The reason for the developing interfaces and orientation relationships between oxide nanoparticles and ferrite matrix under different conditions is discussed.

  10. Dynamic precipitation of nickel-based superalloys undergoing severe deformation below the solvus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotnik, Andrzej; Rokicki, Pawel; Mrowka-Nowotnik, Grazyna; Sieniawski, Jan [Rzeszow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Material Science

    2015-07-15

    The authors performed uniaxial compression tests of nickel-based superalloys: single crystal CMSX-4, also precipitation hardened; Inconel 718 and X750, at temperatures below the γ' solvus, in order to study the effect of temperature and strain rate on their flow stress and microstructural development. On the basis of the obtained flow stress values, the activation energy of a high-temperature deformation process was estimated. Microstructural observations of the deformed samples at high temperatures, previously solution heat treated and aged CMSX-4 and Inconel alloys revealed non-uniform deformation effects. Distribution of either molybdenum- or niobium-rich carbides was found to be affected by localized flow within the investigated strain range at relatively low deformation temperatures, 720-850 C. Microstructural examination of the alloys also showed that shear banding and cavity growth were responsible for the decrease in flow stress and a specimen fracture at larger strains.

  11. Investigation and modeling of Al3(Sc, Zr) precipitation strengthening in the presence of enhanced supersaturation and within Al-Cu binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Kyle

    Diffuse Al-Sc and Al-Zr alloys have been demonstrated in literature to be relatively coarsening resistant at higher temperatures when compared with commonly used precipitation strengthening alloys (e.g. 2000 series, 6000 series). However, because of a limited strengthening due to the low solubility of scandium and zirconium in aluminum, and owing to the scarcity and therefore sizeable price tag attached to scandium, little research has been done in the way of optimizing these alloys for commercial applications. With this in mind, this dissertation describes research which aims to tackle several important areas of Al-Sc-Zr research that have been yet unresolved. In Chapter 4, rapid solidification was utilized to enhance the achievable supersaturation of the alloy in an effort to increase the achievable precipitate strengthening. In Chapter 5, Additive Friction Stir processing (AFS), a novel method of mechanically combining materials without melting, was employed in an attempt to pass the benefits of supersaturation from melt spun ribbon into a more structurally useful bulk material. In Chapter 6, a Matlab program written to predict precipitate nucleation, growth, and coarsening with a modified Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model, was used to predict heat treatment regimens for more efficient strengthening. Those predictions were then tested experimentally to test the validity of the results. And lastly, in Chapter 7, the effect of zirconium on Al-Cu secondary precipitates was studied in an attempt to increase their thermal stability, as much higher phase fractions of Al-Cu precipitates are achievable than Al-Zr precipitates.

  12. Effects of nano-particles strengthening activating flux on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TIG welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xiong; Shen, Jun; Cheng, Liang; Li, Yang; Pu, Yayun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increased nano-particles strengthening activating flux degraded TIGed seams. • The reaction between SiC particles and Mg alloy produced Al 4 C 3 and Mg 2 Si phases. • Al 4 C 3 and SiC particles promoted the nucleation and suppressed the growth of α-Mg. • Refined α-Mg grains, precipitated phase and SiC particles enhanced TIGed joints. - Abstract: In this paper, AZ31 magnesium alloy joints were processed by nano-particles strengthening activating flux tungsten inert gas (NSA-TIG) welding, which was achieved by the mixed TiO 2 and nano-SiC particles coated on the samples before welding tests. The macro/micro structural observation and mechanical properties evaluation of the welding joints were conducted by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and tension and microhardness tests. The results showed that nano-particles strengthening activating flux effective improved the microstructure, microhardness in fusion zone, ultimate tensile strength of the TIG welding joints. In addition, the chemical reaction between part of SiC particles and AZ31 magnesium alloy produced Al 4 C 3 and Mg 2 Si in the joints. The Al 4 C 3 performed as nucleating agents for α-Mg and the dispersed Mg 2 Si and SiC particles enhanced the mechanical properties of the NSA-TIG welding joints. However, large heat input induced by the increase of the surface coating density of the nano-particles strengthening activating flux, increased the α-Mg grain sizes and weakened the mechanical properties of the welded joints. Therefore, the grain size of α-Mg, distribution of β-Mg 17 Al 12 , Mg 2 Si and SiC particles together influenced the evolution of the mechanical properties of the NSA-TIG welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joints

  13. Strengthening mechanisms in a high-strength bulk nanostructured Cu–Zn–Al alloy processed via cryomilling and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Haiming; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    A bulk nanostructured alloy with the nominal composition Cu–30Zn–0.8Al wt.% (commercial designation brass 260) was fabricated by cryomilling of brass powders and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) of the cryomilled powders, yielding a compressive yield strength of 950 MPa, which is significantly higher than the yield strength of commercial brass 260 alloys (∼200–400 MPa). Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that cryomilling results in an average grain diameter of 26 nm and a high density of deformation twins. Nearly fully dense bulk samples were obtained after SPS of cryomilled powders, with average grain diameter 110 nm. After SPS, 10 vol.% of twins is retained with average twin thickness 30 nm. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography studies demonstrate that the distribution of Al is highly inhomogeneous in the sintered bulk samples, and Al-containing precipitates including Al(Cu,Zn)–O–N, Al–O–N and Al–N are distributed in the matrix. The precipitates have an average diameter of 1.7 nm and a volume fraction of 0.39%. Quantitative calculations were performed for different strengthening contributions in the sintered bulk samples, including grain boundary, twin boundary, precipitate, dislocation and solid-solution strengthening. Results from the analyses demonstrate that precipitate and grain boundary strengthening are the dominant strengthening mechanisms, and the calculated overall yield strength is in reasonable agreement with the experimentally determined compressive yield strength

  14. Solidification phenomena in nickel base brazes containing boron and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, S.K.; Lim, L.C.; Lai, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel base brazes containing boron and/or silicon as melting point depressants are used extensively in the repair and joining of aero-engine hot-section components. These melting point depressants form hard and brittle intermetallic compounds with nickel which are detrimental to the mechanical properties of brazed joints. The present investigation studied the microstructural evolution in nickel base brazes containing boron and/or silicon as melting point depressant(s) in simple systems using nickel as the base metal. The basic metallurgical reactions and formation of intermetallic compounds uncovered in these systems will be useful as a guide in predicting the evolution of microstructures in similar brazes in more complex systems involving base metals of nickel base superalloys. The four filler metal systems investigated in this study are: Ni-Cr-Si; Ni-Cr-B; Ni-Si-B and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B

  15. Experimental Design for Evaluation of Co-extruded Refractory Metal/Nickel Base Superalloy Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek

    2005-01-01

    Prior to the restructuring of the Prometheus Program, the NRPCT was tasked with delivering a nuclear space reactor. Potential NRPCT nuclear space reactor designs for the Prometheus Project required dissimilar materials to be in contact with each other while operating at extreme temperatures under irradiation. As a result of the high reactor core temperatures, refractory metals were the primary candidates for many of the reactor structural and cladding components. They included the tantalum-base alloys ASTAR-811C and Ta-10W, the niobium-base alloy FS-85, and the molybdenum base alloys Moly 41-47.5 Rhenium. The refractory metals were to be joined to candidate nickel base alloys such as Haynes 230, Alloy 617, or Nimonic PE 16 either within the core if the nickel-base alloys were ultimately selected to form the outer core barrel, or at a location exterior to the core if the nickel-base alloys were limited to components exterior to the core. To support the need for dissimilar metal joints in the Prometheus Project, a co-extrusion experiment was proposed. There are several potential methods for the formation of dissimilar metal joints, including explosive bonding, friction stir welding, plasma spray, inertia welding, HIP, and co-extrusion. Most of these joining methods are not viable options because they result in the immediate formation of brittle intermetallics. Upon cooling, intermetallics form in the weld fusion zone between the joined metals. Because brittle intermetallics do not form during the initial bonding process associated with HIP, co-extrusion, and explosive bonding, these three joining procedures are preferred for forming dissimilar metal joints. In reference to a Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory report done under a NASA sponsored program, joints that were fabricated between similar materials via explosive bonding had strengths that were directly affected by the width of the diffusion barrier. It was determined that the diffusion zone should not exceed

  16. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe3Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kad, B.K.

    2002-02-08

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe{sub 3}Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100% in the power generation industry. A particular ''in service application'' anomaly of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200 C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism. Thus, the challenges of this program are manifold: (1) to produce thin walled ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes, employing powder extrusion methodologies, with (2) adequate increased strength for service at operating temperatures, and (3) to mitigate creep failures by enhancing the as-processed grain size in ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes. Our research progress till date has resulted in the successful batch production of typically 8 Ft. lengths of 1-3/8 inch diameter, 1/8 inch wall thickness, ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes via a proprietary single step extrusion consolidation process. The process parameters for such consolidation methodologies have been prescribed and evaluated as being routinely reproducible. Such processing parameters (i.e., extrusion ratios, temperature, can design etc.) were particularly guided by the need to effect post-extrusion recrystallization and grain growth at a sufficiently low temperature, while still meeting the creep requirement at service temperatures. Static recrystallization studies show that elongated grains (with their long axis parallel to the extrusion axis), typically 200-2000 {micro}m in diameter, and several millimeters long can be obtained routinely, at 1200 C. The growth kinetics are affected by the interstitial impurity content in the powder batches. For example complete recrystallization, across the tube wall thickness, is

  17. Strengthening Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles of Al203 and Al3-X Compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the effect of nanoparticles A12O3 and A13-X compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum matrix at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. Samples were prepared from A12O3 nanoparticle preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. A12O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with aluminum powder and consolidated into samples through hot pressing and sintering. On the other hand, the Al3-X nanoparticles are produced as precipitates via in situ reactions with molten aluminum alloys using conventional casting techniques. The degree of alloy strengthening using nanoparticles will depend on the materials, particle size, shape, volume fraction, and mean inter-particle spacing.

  18. Relationship of heat treatment-mechanical properties of nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora R, L.

    1997-01-01

    The nickel-base superalloys have high strength, excellent corrosion resistant, and good creep and fatigue resistance. These alloy improved properties at high temperature derive their mechanical and creep behavior on γ precipitate morphology, and the evolution of such morphology during different heat treatment conditions. The main microstructural variable of Nickel-based superalloys, responsible for the mechanical properties are: a) amount and morphology of precipitates; b) size and shape of grains; and c) carbide distribution. In this work, a Nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 80A, modified little with Zr prepared by melting and casting practices of materials electrolytic in vacuum-induction melting (VIM) type Balzers, to obtain five alloys different and ingots of 2 Kg and 1 Kg, with composition in weight % of Nimonic 80-A is: Ni = bal (76.66), C = 0.01, Cr = 19.83, Fe = 2.4, Mn = 0.17, Si 0.47, Al = 0.19, Zr = 0.4. The solidification process is made in a steel mold. After having realized four thermal treatments, the most representative microstructures there were obtained. The results from tensile tests performed on Instron Servohydraulic testing systems at uniaxial dynamic testing, at constant speeds to ,0.2 cm/min, were: the yield strength, the ultimate strength value, percentage elongation and area reduction. Creep tests were performed at in stress of 90 and 129 MPa, at a temperature of 600 and 680 Centigrades at different times and width of specimen of 1 mm. The alloys were analyzed by MEB(JEOL 35CF) at different magnifications. The nucleation and growth of intergranular cavities during creep of alloy Nimonic M3, were investigated. One sample was deformed in creep at 129 MPa and 680 Centigrades during 110 hs. Creep samples were annealing heat treated at 800 Centigrades, during 7 days. After a careful sample preparation procedure, 3100 of cavities were measured in the sample . The cavity size distributions in the sample were obtained. The cavity growth rate, was

  19. Impact of creep-fatigue interaction on the lifetime of a dispersion strengthened copper alloy in unirradiated and irradiated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Stubbins, J.F.

    2001-06-01

    Creep-fatigue interaction behaviour of a dispersion strengthened copper alloy was investigated at 22 and 250 deg. C. To determine the effect of irradiation a number of fatigue specimens were irradiated at 250 deg. C to a dose level of 0.3 dpa and were tested at 250 deg. C. The creep-fatigue interaction was simulated by applying a certain hold-time on both tension and compression sides of the cyclic loading with a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Hold-times of 0,2, 5, 10, 100 and 1000 seconds were used. For a given hold-time, the real lifetime and the number of cycles to failure were determined at different strain amplitudes. Post-deformation micro-structures and fracture surfaces were investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopes, respectively. The main results of these investigations are presented and their implications are briefly discussed in the present report. The central conclusion emerging from the present work is that a hold-time of 10 seconds or less causes a drastic decrease in the real lifetime as well as in the number of cycles to failure, particularly at low levels of strain amplitudes. A combination of higher temperature, higher strain amplitude and longer hold-time, on the other hand, may lead to an improvement in the lifetime. The irradiation at 250 deg. C to a dose level of 0.3 dpa does not play any significant role in determining the lifetime under creep-fatigue testing conditions. (au)

  20. Creep and creep rupture properties of unalloyed vanadium and solid-solution-strengthened vanadium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, T.; Iwao, N.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, R.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and creep rupture properties of vanadium and vanadium-base alloys were studied at 700 and 1000 0 C. The alloys were vanadium-base binary alloys containing about 5 - 21 at.% Al, Ti, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo or Fe, three V-20wt.%Nb-base ternary alloys containing 5 or 10 wt.% Al, Cr or Mo, V-10wt.%Ta-10wt.%Al and V-25wt.%Cr-0.8wt.%Zr. The creep rupture stress of the binary alloys, except the V-Al and V-Ti alloys, increased linearly with increasing concentration of the alloying elements. The V-Nb alloy had the best properties with respect to the rupture stress and creep rate at 700 0 C and the rupture stress at 1000 0 C, but the V-Mo alloy appeared likely to have better creep properties at longer times and higher temperatures. Of the five ternary alloys, V-20wt.%Nb-5wt.%Cr and V-20wt.%Nb-10wt.%Mo showed the best creep properties. The creep properties of these two alloys were compared with those of other vanadium alloys and of type 316 stainless steel. (Auth.)

  1. Composites Strengthened with Graphene Platelets and Formed in Semisolid State Based on α and α/β MgLiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jan; Rogal, Łukasz; Fima, Przemyslaw; Ozga, Piotr

    2018-05-01

    MgLiAl base composites strengthened with graphene platelets were prepared by semisolid processing of ball-milled alloy chips with 2% of graphene platelets. Composites strengthened with graphene platelets show higher hardness and yield stress than the cast alloys, i.e., 160 MPa as compared to 90 MPa for as-cast alloy MgLi9Al1.5. Mechanical properties for MgLiAl-based composites were similar or higher than for composites based on conventional AZ91 or WE43 alloys. The strengthening however was not only due to the presence of graphene, but also phases resulting from the reaction between carbon and lithium, i.e., Li2C2 carbide. Graphene platelets were located at globules boundaries resulting from semisolid processing for all investigated composites. Graphene platelets were in agglomerates forming continuous layers at grain boundaries in the composite based on the alloy MgLi4.5Al1.5. The shape of agglomerates was more complex and wavy in the composite based on MgLi9Al1.5 alloy most probably due to lithium-graphene reaction. Electron diffraction from the two-phase region α + β in MgLi9Al1.5 indicated that [001]α and [110]β directions are rotated about 4° from the ideal relationship [001] hex || [110] bcc phases. It showed higher lattice rotation than in earlier studies what is most probably caused by lattice slip and rotation during semisolid pressing causing substantial deformation particularly within the β phase. Raman spectroscopy studies confirmed the presence of graphene platelets within agglomerates and in addition the presence mainly of Li2C2 carbides in composites based on MgLi4.5Al1.5 and Mg9Li1.5Al alloys. From the character of Raman spectra refinement of graphene platelets was found in comparison with their initial size. The graphene areas without carbides contain graphene nanoplatelets with lateral dimension close to initial graphene sample. Electron diffraction allowed to confirm the presence of Li2C2 carbide at the surface of agglomerates found from

  2. Nanosize boride particles in heat-treated nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.R.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Grain boundary microconstituents in aged nickel-based superalloys were studied by transmission electron microscopy techniques. A nanosized M 5 B 3 boride phase, possibly formed by intergranular solute desegregation-induced precipitation, was positively identified. The presence of these intergranular nanoborides provides reasonable clarification of a previously reported reduction of grain boundary liquation temperature during the weld heat affected zone thermal cycle

  3. Effect of Microstructure on Electrical Conductivity of Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Castagne, Sylvie; Annamalai, Swaminathan; Fan, Zheng; Chan, Wai Luen

    2017-08-01

    Eddy current spectroscopy is one of the promising non-destructive methods for residual stress evaluation along the depth of subsurface-treated nickel-base superalloys, but it is limited by its sensitivity to microstructure. This paper studies the influence of microstructure on the electrical conductivity of two nickel-base alloys, RR1000 and IN100. Different microstructures were attained using heat treatment cycles ranging from solution annealing to aging, with varying aging time and temperature. Eddy current conductivity was measured using conductivity probes of frequencies ranging between 1 and 5 MHz. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the microstructure was performed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. For the heat treatment conditions between the solution annealing and the peak aging, the electrical conductivity of RR1000 increased by 6.5 pct, which is duly substantiated by the corresponding increase in hardness (12 pct) and the volume fraction of γ' precipitates (41 pct). A similar conductivity rise of 2.6 pct for IN100 is in agreement with the increased volume fraction of γ' precipitates (12.5 pct) despite an insignificant hardening between the heat treatment conditions. The observed results with RR1000 and IN100 highlight the sensitivity of electrical conductivity to the minor microstructure variations, especially the volume fraction of γ' precipitates, within the materials.

  4. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  5. Influence of a cyclic load on the embrittlement kinetics of alloys by the example of the 475 C embrittlement of duplex steel and the dynamic embrittlement of a nickel base alloy; Einfluss einer zyklischen Belastung auf die Versproedungskinetik von Legierungen am Beispiel der 475 C-Versproedung von Duplexstahl und der dynamischen Versproedung einer Nickelbasislegierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackermann, Ken

    2015-07-07

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dependence of high temperature embrittlement mechanisms on high temperature fatigue and vice versa. As model embrittlement mechanisms the 475 C Embrittlement of ferritic austenitic duplex stainless steel (1.4462) and the Dynamic Embrittlement of nickel-based superalloys (IN718) were selected. The 475 C Embrittlement is a thermally activated decomposition of the ferritic phase which hardens the material. In contrast to this a cyclic plastic deformation weakens the steel by a deformation-induced dissolution of the decomposition. Fatigue tests with different frequencies, loading amplitudes at room temperature and at 475 C with Duplex Stainless Steel in different states of embrittlement show that the ongoing 475 C Embrittlement and the deformation-induced dissolution are competing mechanisms. It depends on the frequency, the loading amplitude and the temperature which mechanism is dominant. Applying the model of the yield stress distribution function to the hysteresis branches of the fatigue tests allows an analysis of the fatigue behaviour of each phase individually. This analysis shows that the global fatigue behaviour for the test conditions applied in this study is mainly controlled by the ferritic phase. According to the existing understanding of Dynamic Embrittlement it is an oxygen grain boundary diffusion arising by tensile stress at elevated temperatures with the result of a fast intercrystalline crack propagation. In reference tests under vacuum conditions without oxygen grain boundary diffusion, a slow transcrystalline fracture appears. To analyse the Dynamic Embrittlement, the crack propagation was tested at 650 C with different frequencies and superimposed hold times in the fatigue cycle at maximum stress. The results shows that the existing model of Dynamic Embrittlement needs to be adapted to the effects of cyclic plastic deformation. In hold times, the oxygen grain boundary diffusion in front of the

  6. On the microstructural origin of primary creep in nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, M.; Reppich, B.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of primary creep in nickel-base superalloys is strongly correlated to the different hardening species present in the material. In fine-grained single-phase material the classical assumption of a homogeneous dislocation distribution enables the prediction of the transition from normal via sigmoidal to inverse primary creep with decreasing applied stress σ. In coarse-grained material the back stress σ b of hard subgrain boundaries evolving during plastic deformation must be additionally taken into account. Second-phase particles influence creep in a 2-fold manner via reducing the effective stress σ eff , namely directly by the stress σ p * for particle overcoming, and indirectly by increasing the dislocation density ρ. The proposed approach accounts for the observed pronounced normal primary creep in particle-strengthened superalloys. (orig.)

  7. Tensile behavior of nickel-base single-crystal superalloy DD6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xinhong, E-mail: xiongxh@whut.edu.cn [School of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063 (China); Quan, Dunmiao; Dai, Pengdan; Wang, Zhiping [School of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063 (China); Zhang, Qiaoxin [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yue, Zhufeng [School of Mechanics Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2015-06-11

    Tensile behavior of the nickel-base single-crystal superalloy DD6 was studied from room temperature to 1020 °C. The plate specimens were along [001] orientation parallel to the loading axis in tension. The microstructures on the surface and fracture morphology were investigated after tensile test to rupture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the present investigation indicate that the yield strength at 650 °C is superior to that at room temperature, 850 °C and 1020 °C. Low ductility and serrated flow in stress–strain curves were also observed at 650 °C. The microstructures on the surface of the plate specimens and fracture morphology observation indicated that localized slip which resulted in glide plane decohesion caused the low ductility of DD6 alloy.

  8. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnken, N., E-mail: n.warnken@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ma, D. [Foundry Institute of the RWTH-Aachen, Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Drevermann, A. [ACCESS e.V., Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Reed, R.C. [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fries, S.G. [SGF Consultancy, 52064 Aachen (Germany)] [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Steinbach, I. [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  9. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnken, N.; Ma, D.; Drevermann, A.; Reed, R.C.; Fries, S.G.; Steinbach, I.

    2009-01-01

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  10. High-temperature performance of a new nickel-based filler metal for power generation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingledecker, J.; Coleman, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Siefert, J.; Tanzosh, J. [Babcok and Wilcox Research Center, Barberton, OH (United States); Newell, W. [Euroweld, Mooresville, NC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A new nickel-based weld filler metal, EPRI P87, has been developed as a superior alternative to ERNiCr-3 for use in dissimilar metal welds (DMW) between ferritic and austenitic materials. EPRI P87 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion more closely matching alloys such as Grade 91 and 92 than other available filler metals. Additionally, the size of the carbon denuded region adjacent to the weld in the heat-affected-zone is minimized/eliminated by proper control of weld metal composition. In this work the high-temperature mechanical behavior of DMWs utilizing EPRI P87 (GTAW and GMAW processes) was characterized through tensile and long-term creep-rupture testing. Microstructure analysis was also conducted on tested specimens to evaluate the HAZ regions and failure modes. Performance of the weld metal and welded joints is discussed and compared with ERNiCr-3 and typical 9%Cr-MoV filler metals. (orig.)

  11. Microstructural comparison of effects of hafnium and titanium additions in spark-plasma-sintered Fe-based oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yina, E-mail: huangyina1981@hotmail.com [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); School of Electronic Science & Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Zhang, Hongtao [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Auger, Maria A.; Hong, Zuliang [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Ning, Huanpo [School of Engineering of Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Nanoforce Technology Ltd, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Gorley, Michael J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Grant, Patrick S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Reece, Michael J.; Yan, Haixue [School of Engineering of Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Nanoforce Technology Ltd, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Roberts, Steve G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Two oxide dispersion strengthened alloys: 14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.22Hf (wt.%) and Fe-14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Ti (wt.%) were fabricated by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Electron backscatter diffraction showed grain sizes in the range 0.5–15 μm in both alloys. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy showed a homogeneous distribution of nano-oxides precipitated during SPS. Using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atom probe tomography, several different oxide phases were found in both alloys, but the majority of dispersoids were Y-Hf-O type in Fe-14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.22Hf and Y-Ti-O type in Fe-14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Ti. There were a variety of orientation relationships between the different dispersoids and the ferritic matrix. Both alloys had dispersoid densities of ∼10{sup 23}/m{sup 3}, with average diameters of 4.3 nm and 3.5 nm in the 0.22Hf and 0.4Ti containing alloys, respectively. Per atom added, Hf (0.07 at.%) is suggested to be more potent than Ti (0.46 at.%) in refining the nano-oxides.

  12. Solute nanostructures and their strengthening effects in Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloy F357

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sha, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The solute nanostructures formed in the primary a-Al grains of a semi-solid metal cast Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloy (F357) during ageing at 180°C, and the age-hardening response of the alloy, have been systematically investigated by transmission electron...

  13. Morphology Dependent Flow Stress in Nickel-Based Superalloys in the Multi-Scale Crystal Plasticity Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Keshavarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a framework to obtain the flow stress of nickel-based superalloys as a function of γ-γ’ morphology. The yield strength is a major factor in the design of these alloys. This work provides additional effects of γ’ morphology in the design scope that has been adopted for the model developed by authors. In general, the two-phase γ-γ’ morphology in nickel-based superalloys can be divided into three variables including γ’ shape, γ’ volume fraction and γ’ size in the sub-grain microstructure. In order to obtain the flow stress, non-Schmid crystal plasticity constitutive models at two length scales are employed and bridged through a homogenized multi-scale framework. The multi-scale framework includes two sub-grain and homogenized grain scales. For the sub-grain scale, a size-dependent, dislocation-density-based finite element model (FEM of the representative volume element (RVE with explicit depiction of the γ-γ’ morphology is developed as a building block for the homogenization. For the next scale, an activation-energy-based crystal plasticity model is developed for the homogenized single crystal of Ni-based superalloys. The constitutive models address the thermo-mechanical behavior of nickel-based superalloys for a large temperature range and include orientation dependencies and tension-compression asymmetry. This homogenized model is used to obtain the morphology dependence on the flow stress in nickel-based superalloys and can significantly expedite crystal plasticity FE simulations in polycrystalline microstructures, as well as higher scale FE models in order to cast and design superalloys.

  14. Effect of processing on microstructure and physical properties of three nickel-based superalloys with different hardening mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strondl, Annika; Frommeyer, Georg [Department of Materials Technology, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Klement, Uta [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Milenkovic, Srdjan; Schneider, Andre

    2012-07-15

    The nickel-based superalloys Inconel alloy 600, Udimet alloy 720, and Inconel alloy 718 were produced by electron beam melting (EBM), casting, and directional solidification (DS). The distance between dendrites and the size of the precipitates indicated the difference in solidification rates between the three processes. In this study, the solidification rate was fastest with EBM, closely followed by casting, whereas it was much slower with DS. In the directional solidified materials the <100> direction was the fastest and thus, preferred growth direction. The EBM samples show a sharp (001)[100] texture in the building direction and in the two scanning directions of the electron beam. Macrosegregation was observed in some cast and directionally solidified samples, but not in the EBM samples. The melting temperatures are in good agreement with literature and the narrow melting interval of IN600 compare to UD720 and IN718 might reduce the risk of incipient melting during EBM processing. Porosity was observed in the EBM samples and the reasons are discussed. However, EBM seems to be a feasible process route to produce nickel-based superalloys with well-defined texture, no macrosegregation and a rapidly solidified microstructure. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Tobias; Rommel, Daniel; Scherm, Florian; Gorywoda, Marek; Glatzel, Uwe

    2017-03-10

    Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co-28Cr-9W-1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE) study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  16. Characterization and Modeling of Microstructure Development in Nickel-base Superalloy Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Miller, M.K.; Vitek, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    Welding is important for economical reuse and reclamation of used and failed nickel-base superalloy blades, respectively [1]. Solidification and solid state decomposition of {gamma} (Face Centered Cubic, FCC) phase into {gamma}{prime} (L1{sub 2}-ordered) phase control the properties of these welds. In previous publications, the microstructure development in electron beam welds of PWA-1480 alloy [2] and laser beam welds of CMSX-4 alloy [3] were presented. These results showed that the weld cracking in these alloys were associated with low melting point eutectic at the dendrite boundaries [1,2]. The eutectic-{gamma}{prime} precipitation was reduced at rapid weld cooling rates and the partitioning between {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} phase was found to be far from equilibrium conditions [3,4]. This observation was related to diffusional growth of {gamma}{prime} precipitate into {gamma} phase. Subsequent to the above work, the precipitation characteristics of {gamma}{prime} phase from {gamma} phase were evaluated during continuous cooling conditions [5]. The results show that the number density of {gamma} precipitates increased with an increase in cooling rate. However, the details of this decomposition and also the fine-scale elemental partitioning characteristics between {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} were not investigated. In this paper, the precipitation characteristics of {gamma}{prime} from {gamma} during continuous cooling conditions were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe field ion microscopy. In addition, thermodynamic and kinetic models were used to describe microstructure development in Ni-base superalloy welds.

  17. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co–28Cr–9W–1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  18. Development of welding technology for improving the metallurgical and mechanical properties of 21st century nickel based superalloy 686

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmurugan, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India); Manikandan, M., E-mail: mano.manikandan@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2017-04-13

    Alloy 686 is a highly corrosion resistant 21st-Century Nickel based superalloy derived from Ni-Cr-Mo ternary system. The alloying elements chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) are added to improve the resistance to corrosion in the broad range of service environment. The presence of a higher percentage of alloying elements Cr and Mo lead to microsegregation and end up with hot cracking in the fusion zone of Nickel-based superalloys. However, there is scanty of information regarding the welding of alloy 686 with respect to the microsegregation of alloying elements. The present study investigates the possibility of bringing down the microsegregation to cut down the formation of secondary phases in the fusion zone. The weld joints were fabricated by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) with ERNiCrMo-10 filler and without filler wire (autogenous) mode. The microstructural properties of the weld joints were studied with optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The joints fabricated by pulsed current (PC) technique shows refined microstructure, narrower weld bead and practically no heat affected zone (HAZ). Scanning Electron Microscope demonstrates the presence of secondary phases in the interdendritic regions of GTAW case. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was carried out to evaluate the microsegregation of alloying element. The results show that the segregation of Mo noticed in the interdendritic zone of GTAW both autogenous and filler wire. Tensile and Impact tests were done to evaluate the strength, ductility, and toughness of the weld joints. The results show that the PCGTA helps to obtain improved strength, ductility and toughness of the weld joints compared to their respective GTAW. Bend test did not lead to cracking irrespective of the type of welding adopted in the present study.

  19. Concurrent strengthening of ultrafine-grained age-hardenable Al-Mg alloy by means of high-pressure torsion and spinodal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yongpeng; Goto, Wataru; Hirosawa, Shoichi; Horita, Zenji; Lee, Seungwon; Matsuda, Kenji; Terada, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the age-hardening behavior and precipitate microstructures of severely-deformed and then artificially-aged Al-13.4 wt%Mg alloy has been investigated by Vickers hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). The combined processing of high-pressure torsion (HPT) and aging treatment at a temperature below spinodal lines results in a higher attained hardness of ∼HV296 with an age-hardenability (i.e ΔHV31 ± 2) comparable to that of the undeformed specimen without HPT (i.e. ΔHV33 ± 2). The corresponding TEM microstructures consist of modulated structures associated with spinodal decomposition, and quantitative estimation of the amplitude, as well as the wavelength, of Mg fluctuations was successfully conducted by APT for the first time for this alloy system. The linear relationship between the increment of Vickers hardness and the estimated amplitude of the undeformed specimen supposed that Kato's spinodal-hardening mechanism works even in the HPTed specimen with a high number density of grain boundaries. Therefore, our proposed strategy; i.e. taking advantage of spinodal decomposition, is regarded as a convincing approach to achieving concurrent strengthening by ultrafine-grained and precipitation hardenings for the alloys that decompose via spinodal decomposition.

  20. Creep rupture properties of laves phase strengthened Fe--Ta--Cr--W and Fe--Ta--Cr--W--Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.

    1975-12-01

    A small addition of tungsten (0.5 at. percent) was shown to have an effect similar to that of molybdenum on the phase transformation characteristics of alloy Ta7Cr (with a nominal composition of 1 at. percent Ta, 7 at. percent Cr, balance Fe). The existence of time-temperature dependent transformation behavior in alloy Ta7Cr0.5W was confirmed. The effect of spheroidization time and temperature on creep strength was determined. In addition, effect of mechanical processing prior to aging, on creep strength was also determined. It was also shown that by suitable modifications of composition, the grain boundary film can be broken during the aging treatment without the use of spheroidization treatment. Microhardness, tensile and creep properties have been determined. Optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy have been used to follow the microstructural changes and mode of fracture. The creep rupture strength of alloy Ta7CrW alloy was found to be superior to many of the best commercially available ferritic alloys at 1200 0 F. (21 fig., 8 tables)

  1. Emission spectral analysis of nickel-base superalloys with fixed time intergration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Haruno; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Shunichi; Sudo, Emiko

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of multielements (C, B, Mo, Ta, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, Nb, Cu, Ti, Zr, and Al) in nickel-base superalloys (Ni: 68 -- 76%) was performed by emission spectral analysis. At first, samples which had various nickel contents (ni: 68 -- 76%) were prepared by using JAERI R9, nickel and other metals (Fe, Co, or Cr). It was confirmed that in the internal standard method (Ni II 227.73 nm), analytical values of all the elements examined decreased with a decrease of the integration time (ca. 3.9 -- 4.6 s), that is, an increase of the nickel content. On the other hand, according to the fixed time integration method, elements except for C, Mo, and Cr were not interfered within the range of nickel contents examined. A series of nickel-base binary alloys (Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Nb, Mo, and W series) were prepared by high frequency induction melting and the centrifugal casting method and formulae for correcting interferences with near spectral lines were obtained. Various synthetic samples were prepared and analysed by this method. The equations of calibration curves were derived from the data for standard samples (JAERI R1 -- R6, NBS 1189, 1203 -- 1205, and B.S. 600B) by curve fitting with orthogonal polynomials using a computer. For the assessment of this method studied, the F-test was performed by comparison of variances of both analytical values of standard and synthetic samples. The surfaces of specimens were polished with a belt grinder using No. 80 of alumina or silicon carbide endless-paper. The preburn period and integration one were decided at 5 and 6 s respectively. A few standard samples which gave worse reproducibility in emission spectral analysis was investigated with an optical microscope and an electron probe X-ray microanalyser. (author)

  2. Investigation of irradiation strengthening of b.c.c. metals and their alloys. Progress report, January 1976--October 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Research on irradiation of bcc metals and alloys is reported. Data and information are presented in appendixes on low temperature neutron irradiation of Nb, effects of tritium on the yield stress of Nb, multiple dislocation motion, dislocation group motion, dislocation kinetics, and computer simulation of dislocation motion

  3. Microstructure and phase analysis of Zirconia-ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthen) alloy sintered by APS with milling time variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Bambang; Bandriyana, B.; Sugeng, Bambang; Salam, Rohmad; Sumariyo; Sujatno, Agus; Dimyati, Arbi

    2018-03-01

    Investigation on the relationship between the process conditions of milling time and the microstructure on the synthesis of the zirconia-ODS steel alloy has been performed. The elemental composition of the alloy was determined on 20 wt% Cr and zirconia dispersoid of 0.50 wt%. The synthesis was carried out by powder metallurgy method with milling time of 3, 5 and 7 hours, static compression of 20 Ton and sintering process for 4 minutes using the APS (Arc Plasma Sintering) equipment. SEM-EDX and XRD test was carried out to characterize the phase and morphology of the alloy and the effect to the mechanical properties was evaluated by the Vickers Hardness testing. The synthesis produced sample of ODS steel with good dense and very little porous with the Fe-Cr phase that clearly observed in the XRD peak pattern. In addition milling time increased the homogeneously of Fe-Cr phase formulation, enhanced the grain refinement of the structure and increase the hardness of the alloy.

  4. Precipitation strengthened high strength, high conductivity Cu-Cr-Nb alloys produced by chill block melt spinning. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    A series of Cu-based alloys containing 2 to 10 a/o Cr and 1 to 5 a/o Nb were produced by chill block melt spinning (CBMS). The melt spun ribbons were consolidated and hot rolled to sheet to produce a supersaturated Cu-Cr-Nb solid solution from which the high melting point intermetallic compound Cr2Nb could be precipitated to strengthen the Cu matrix. The results show that the materials possess electrical conductivities in excess of 90 percent that of pure Cu at 200 C and above. The strengths of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys were much greater than Cu, Cu-0.6 Cr, NARloy-A, and NARloy-Z in the as-melt spun condition. The strengths of the consolidated materials were less than Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr below 500 C and 600 C respectively, but were significantly better above these temperatures. The strengths of the consolidated materials were greater than NARloy-Z, at all temperatures. The GLIDCOP possessed similar strength levels up to 750 C when the strength of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys begins to degrade. The long term stability of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys was measured by the microhardness of aged samples and the growth of precipitates. The microhardness measurements indicate that the alloys overage rapidly, but do not suffer much loss in strength between 10 and 100 hours which confirms the results of the electrical resistivity measurements taken during the aging of the alloys at 500 C. The loss in strength from peak strength levels is significant, but the strength remains exceptionally good. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the as-melt spun samples revealed that Cr2Nb precipitates formed in the liquid Cu during the chill block melt spinning, indicating a very strong driving force for the formation of the precipitates. The TEM of the aged and consolidated materials indicates that the precipitates coarsen considerably, but remain in the submicron range.

  5. Effect of tensile holds on the deformation behaviour of a nickel base superalloy subjected to low cycle fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zrnik, J.; Semenak, J.; Wangyao, P.; Vrchovinsky, V.; Hornak, P. [Dept. of Materials Science, Technical Univ. of Kosice, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2002-07-01

    The deformation behaviour of the wrought nickel base superalloy EI698 VD has been investigated in conditions of low cycle fatigue. The tensile hold periods, imposing a constant stress into the fatigue loading, have been introduced at the maximum stress value. The individual hold periods were in the range of 1 minute to 10 hours. The fatigue tests were of tension-tension type defined by a stress ratio R = 0.027 and were conducted at temperature of 650 C. The tests were performed until fracture. The time to failure, the time to failure corresponding to total load at peak amplitude and the number of cycles to failure have been criteria to evaluate the deformation behaviour of the alloy subjected to complex cyclic creep loading. In order to predict lifetime of alloy, regarding the respective types cyclic test, the Kitagawa's modified the linear cumulative damage criterion has been considered. The two regression functions for applied hold period interval were proposed time to calculate the time to failure. The formulae can be used to predict the life of nickel base superalloy considering the specific conditions of low cycle fatigue with tensile hold period introduced at stress amplitude peaks. The failure analysis of fracture surfaces contributed to evaluation of the role of repeatedly reduced stress in damage process. (orig.)

  6. Development of precipitation strengthened brass with Ti and Sn alloying elements additives by using water atomized powder via powder metallurgy route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shufeng, E-mail: shufengli@hotmail.com [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Hisashi; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Kojima, Akimichi; Kosaka, Yoshiharu [San-Etsu Metals Co. LTD., 1892 OHTA, Tonami, Toyama (Japan); Yamamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Motoi [Nippon Atomized Metal Powders Corporation, 87-16, Nishi-Sangao, Noda, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Effect of Ti and Sn alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical properties of 60/40 brass has been studied via the powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The water-atomized BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti (Cu40wt%Zn-0.6wt%Sn1.0wt%Ti) pre-alloyed powder was consolidated at various temperatures within range of 400-600 Degree-Sign C using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot extrusion was carried out at 500 Degree-Sign C. Effects of extrusion temperature on microstructure and tensile strength were investigated by employing SEM-EDS/EBSD, TEM, XRD and tensile test. Results indicated that super-saturated solid solution Ti and Sn elements created high chemical potential for a precipitate reaction in rapidly solidified brass powder, which showed significant strengthening effects on the extruded sample consolidated at lower temperature. Solid solubility of Ti in brass matrix decreased with increasing of sintering temperature, thus resulted in degradation of mechanical properties. Consequently, lower hot processing temperature is necessary to obtain excellent mechanical properties for BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti during sintering and extrusion. An yield strength of 398 MPa and ultimate tensile strength of 615 MPa were achieved, they respectively showed 31.3% and 22.9% higher values than those of extruded Cu40Zn brass. -- Graphical abstract: The Ti and Sn alloying elements additions showed significant grain refinement on Cu40Zn-0.6Sn1.0Ti brass (b) as comparing with that of the conventional Cu40Zn brass (a), detected by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The grain boundaries maps of (a) BS40 (b) BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti SPS compact sintered at 400 Degree-Sign C reveals by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alloying elements Ti and Sn are proposed as additives in 60/40 brass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Super-saturated Ti in powder creates high chemical potential for precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuSn{sub 3}Ti{sub 5

  7. Structure and tensile properties of Fe-Cr model alloy strengthened by nano-scale NbC particles derived from controlled crystallization of Nb-rich clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lei [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Guo, Qianying [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Liu, Yongchang, E-mail: licmtju@163.com [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Yu, Liming; Li, Huijun [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China)

    2016-09-30

    This article describes the microstructural evolution and tensile properties of Fe-Cr model alloy strengthened by nano-scale NbC particles. According to the results obtained from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, the bcc ultrafine grains and the disordered phase of Nb-rich nano-clusters were observed in the milled powders. The hot pressing (HP) resulted in a nearly equiaxed ferritic grains and dispersed nano-scale NbC (~8 nm) particles. The microstructure studies reveal that the formation of NbC nanoparticles is composed of nucleation and growth of the Nb-rich nano-clusters involving diffusion of their component. At room temperature the material exhibits an ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa, yield strength of 650 MPa, and total elongation of 11.7 pct. The fracture surface studies reveal that a typical ductile fracture mode has occurred during tensile test.

  8. Optimization of HIP bonding conditions for ITER shielding blanket/first wall made from austenitic stainless steel and dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Hatano, T.; Kuroda, T.; Furuya, K.; Hara, S.; Enoeda, M.; Takatsu, H.

    1998-01-01

    Optimum bonding conditions were studied on the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonded joints of type 316L austenitic stainless steel and dispersion strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) for application to the ITER shielding blanket / first wall. HIP bonded joints were fabricated at temperatures in a 980-1050 C range, and a series of mechanical tests and metallurgical observations were conducted on the joints. Also, bondability of two grades of DSCu (Glidcop Al-25 trademark and Al-15 trademark ) with SS316L was examined in terms of mechanical properties of the HIP bonded joints. From those studies it was concluded that the HIP temperature of 1050 C was an optimal condition for obtaining higher ductility, impact values and fatigue strength. Also, SS316L/Al-15 joints showed better results in terms of ductility and impact values compared with SS316L/Al-25 joints. (orig.)

  9. On the Time-Temperature-Transformation Behavior of a New Dual-Superlattice Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignanelli, P. M.; Jones, N. G.; Hardy, M. C.; Stone, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    Recent research has identified compositions of nickel-based superalloys with microstructures containing appreciable and comparable volume fractions of γ' and γ″ precipitates. In this work, an alloy capable of forming such a dual-superlattice microstructure was subjected to a range of thermal exposures between 873 K and 1173 K (600 °C and 900 °C) for durations of 1 to 1000 hours. The microstructures and nature of the precipitating phases were characterized using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. These data have enabled the construction of a T-T-T diagram for the precipitating phases. Hardness measurements following each thermal exposure have identified the age-hardening behavior of this alloy and allowed preliminary mechanical properties to be assessed.

  10. Strengthening of the brazed joint for single-crystalline molybdenum by using Mo-40%Ru-B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Y. [Okayama Univ. of Science (Japan). Department of Applied Physics; Igarashi, T. [Tokyo Tungsten Co. Ltd., Toyama (Japan). Research and Development Division

    1998-12-01

    In this study, the bend properties of the single-crystalline molybdenum brazed by using Mo-40%Ru alloys containing boron of 1-6 mass%Ru alloy for the improvement of the joint strength was determined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durchgefuehrt wurde die Herstellung von Verbindungen aus einkristallinem Molybdaen. Hierbei kamen Mo-40%Ru-Legierungen mit 1 bis 6 Gew.-% Bor als Lotmaterialien zum Einsatz. Festigkeit und Duktilitaet der Verbindungen wurden mittels 3-Punkt-Biegepruefung bei Raumtemperatur und unter fluessigem Stickstoff ermittelt. Die Bruchflaechen der Proben wurden mit Hilfe eines Rasterelektronenmikroskopes untersucht. Die Ergebnisse lassen sich wie folgt zusammenfassen: Der optimale Borgehalt bezueglich Festigkeit und Duktilitaet der geloeteten Verbindung liegt bei 2 Gew.-%. Die entsprechende Probe hat bei einem Biegewinkel von 100 bei Raumtemperatur nicht versagt. Auch unter fluessigem Stickstoff zeigte diese Probe eine Festigkeit in der Groessenordnung des einkristallinen Vollmaterials. (orig.)

  11. Numerical analysis of residual stress of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy subjected to surface strengthening by shot peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Stegliński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the results of the analysis of the stresses in the Al-Mg5%-Mn1,5%-Sc0,8%-Zr0,4% alloy after shot peening process using solver ANSYSANSYSANSYS LS-Dyna. The computational model illustrates the phenomena occurring as a result of plastic deformation caused by hitting a steel ball on the surface of the analyzed aluminium alloy. We analyzed two input variables: diameter and speed of a ball. The resulting normal stress distribution centred exposes the minimum compressive stress at a position located at a depth point of Belayev 0.125 mm with a value of σ = –345 MPa. Variable parameter shows the correlation of the boundary conditions of minimum stress increase with increasing ball’s diameter and its speed. Selected points of numerical analysis were verified with experimental results.[b]Keywords[/b]: materials science, numerical analysis, metal forming, shot peening, aluminium

  12. Precipitation in Powder Metallurgy, Nickel Base Superalloys: Review of Modeling Approach and Formulation of Engineering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0333 PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF...PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF ENGINEERING (POSTPRINT) 5a...and kinetic parameters required for the modeling of γ′ precipitation in powder- metallurgy (PM), nickel-base superalloys are summarized. These

  13. Influence of scandium addition on the high-temperature grain size stabilization of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lulu, E-mail: lli18@ncsu.edu; Xu, Weizong; Saber, Mostafa; Zhu, Yuntian; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2015-06-11

    The influence of 1–4 at% Sc addition on the thermal stability of mechanically alloyed ODS ferritic alloy was studied in this work. Sc addition was found to significantly stabilize grain size and microhardness at high temperatures. Grain sizes of samples with 1 and 4 at% Sc was found maintained in the nanoscale range at temperatures up to 1000 °C with hardness maintained at 5.6 and 6.7 GPa, respectively. The detailed microstructure was also investigated from EDS elemental mapping, where nanofeatures [ScTiO] were observed, while nanosized [YTiO] particles were rarely seen. This is probably due to the concentration difference between Sc and Y, leading to the formation of [ScTiO] favoring that of [YTiO]. Precipitation was considered as the major source for the observed high temperature stabilization. In addition, 14YT–Sc alloys without large second phases such as Ti-oxide can exhibit better performance compared to conventional ODS materials.

  14. Deformation induced dynamic recrystallization and precipitation strengthening in an Mg−Zn−Mn alloy processed by high strain rate rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jimiao; Song, Min [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yan, Hongge [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ni, Song, E-mail: song.ni@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-11-15

    The microstructure of a high strain-rate rolled Mg−Zn−Mn alloy was investigated by transmission electron microscopy to understand the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results indicate that: (1) a bimodal microstructure consisting of the fine dynamic recrystallized grains and the largely deformed grains was formed; (2) a large number of dynamic precipitates including plate-like MgZn{sub 2} phase, spherical MgZn{sub 2} phase and spherical Mn particles distribute uniformly in the grains; (3) the major facets of many plate-like MgZn{sub 2} precipitates deviated several to tens of degrees (3°–30°) from the matrix basal plane. It has been shown that the high strength of the alloy is attributed to the formation of the bimodal microstructure, dynamic precipitation, and the interaction between the dislocations and the dynamic precipitates. - Highlights: •A bimodal microstructure was formed in a high strain-rate rolled Mg−Zn−Mn alloy. •Plate-like MgZn{sub 2}, spherical MgZn{sub 2} and spherical Mn phases were observed. •The major facet of the plate-like MgZn{sub 2} deviated from the matrix basal plane.

  15. Microstructure of oxide dispersion strengthened Eurofer and iron-chromium alloys investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintze, C. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Bergner, F., E-mail: f.bergner@fzd.de [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Ulbricht, A. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Hernandez-Mayoral, M. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Keiderling, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Lindau, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Weissgaerber, T. [Fraunhofer Institute IFAM-Dresden, Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of ferritic/martensitic chromium steels is a promising route for the extension of the range of operation temperatures for nuclear applications. The investigation of dedicated model alloys is an important means in order to separate individual effects contributing to the mechanical behaviour under irradiation and to improve mechanistic understanding. A powder metallurgy route based on spark plasma sintering was applied to fabricate oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe9Cr model materials. These materials along with Eurofer97 and ODS-Eurofer were investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and TEM. For Fe9Cr-0.6 wt.%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TEM results indicate a peak radius of the size distribution of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles of 4.2 nm with radii ranging up to 15 nm, and a volume fraction of 0.7%, whereas SANS indicates a peak radius of 3.8 nm and a volume fraction of 0.6%. It was found that the non-ODS Fe9Cr and Eurofer97 are suitable reference materials for ODS-Fe9Cr and ODS-Eurofer, respectively, and that the ODS-Fe9Cr variants are suitable model materials for the separated investigation of irradiation-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle interaction effects.

  16. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Peng, E-mail: doup@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko, E-mail: kimura@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okuda, Takanari, E-mail: okuda.takanari@kki.kobelco.com [Kobelco Research Institute, 1-5-5 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Inoue, Masaki, E-mail: inoue.masaki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Nuclear System R& D Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ukai, Shigeharu, E-mail: s-ukai@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ohnuki, Somei, E-mail: ohnuki@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Fujisawa, Toshiharu, E-mail: fujisawa@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Abe, Fujio, E-mail: ABE.Fujio@nims.go.jp [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Jiang, Shan, E-mail: js93518@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Zhigang, E-mail: zgyang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-16 were found to be consistent with cubic Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.

  17. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Peng; Kimura, Akihiko; Kasada, Ryuta; Okuda, Takanari; Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Ohnuki, Somei; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Abe, Fujio; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y 2 O 3 ), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y 2 O 3 ), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-16 were found to be consistent with cubic Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.

  18. The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on precipitation strengthened Cu40Zn brass using powder metallurgy and hot extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shufeng, E-mail: shufenglimail@gmail.com [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University (Japan); Imai, Hisashi; Atsumi, Haruhiko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University (Japan); Kojima, Akimichi; Kosaka, Yoshiharu [San-Etsu metals Co. Ltd., 1892, OHTA, Tonami, Toyama (Japan); Yamamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Motoi [Nippon Atomized Metal Powders Corporation, 87-16, Nishi-Sangao, Noda, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alloying elements Ti and Sn are proposed as additives in 60/40 brass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Super-saturated Ti in powder creates high chemical potential for precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti is readily segregated in primary particle boundaries in BS40-1.0Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sn was proposed as an additive to inhibit segregation of Ti in BS40-1.0Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The introduction of Sn to BS40-1.0Ti brass effectively impedes Ti segregation. - Abstract: The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on the microstructural and mechanical properties of 60/40 brass were studied by powder metallurgy processing. The super-saturated solid solution of Ti creates a high precipitation reaction chemical potential in water-atomized BS40-1.0Ti brass powder. Consequently, BS40-1.0Ti brass was remarkably strengthened by the addition of Ti. However, Ti readily segregated in the primary particle boundaries at elevated temperatures, which detrimentally affected the mechanical properties of BS40-1.0Ti brass. Accordingly, Sn was proposed as an additive to BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti to inhibit the segregation of Ti. Consequently, the Ti precipitate was retained in the form of CuSn{sub 3}Ti{sub 5} in the interior of grains and grain boundaries rather than in the primary particle boundaries. This result demonstrates that the addition of Sn can effectively hinder Ti segregation in the primary particle boundaries. Sn addition produced significant grain refinement and mechanical strengthening effects in BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti brass. As a result, outstanding strengthening effects were observed for BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti sintered at 600 Degree-Sign C, which exhibited a yield strength of 315 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 598 MPa, and a Vickers micro-hardness of 216 Hv. These values represent increases of 27.5%, 20.1% and 45.6%, over those of extruded BS40-1.0Ti brass.

  19. The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on precipitation strengthened Cu40Zn brass using powder metallurgy and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shufeng; Imai, Hisashi; Atsumi, Haruhiko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi; Kojima, Akimichi; Kosaka, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Motoi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Alloying elements Ti and Sn are proposed as additives in 60/40 brass. ► Super-saturated Ti in powder creates high chemical potential for precipitation. ► Ti is readily segregated in primary particle boundaries in BS40–1.0Ti. ► Sn was proposed as an additive to inhibit segregation of Ti in BS40–1.0Ti. ► The introduction of Sn to BS40–1.0Ti brass effectively impedes Ti segregation. - Abstract: The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on the microstructural and mechanical properties of 60/40 brass were studied by powder metallurgy processing. The super-saturated solid solution of Ti creates a high precipitation reaction chemical potential in water-atomized BS40-1.0Ti brass powder. Consequently, BS40–1.0Ti brass was remarkably strengthened by the addition of Ti. However, Ti readily segregated in the primary particle boundaries at elevated temperatures, which detrimentally affected the mechanical properties of BS40–1.0Ti brass. Accordingly, Sn was proposed as an additive to BS40–0.6Sn1.0Ti to inhibit the segregation of Ti. Consequently, the Ti precipitate was retained in the form of CuSn 3 Ti 5 in the interior of grains and grain boundaries rather than in the primary particle boundaries. This result demonstrates that the addition of Sn can effectively hinder Ti segregation in the primary particle boundaries. Sn addition produced significant grain refinement and mechanical strengthening effects in BS40–0.6Sn1.0Ti brass. As a result, outstanding strengthening effects were observed for BS40–0.6Sn1.0Ti sintered at 600 °C, which exhibited a yield strength of 315 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 598 MPa, and a Vickers micro-hardness of 216 Hv. These values represent increases of 27.5%, 20.1% and 45.6%, over those of extruded BS40–1.0Ti brass.

  20. Investigation of irradiation strengthening of b.c.c. metals and their alloys. Progress report, January 1975--October 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Results of studies on radiation strengthening of V, Mo, and Nb are presented. Information is included on deformation characteristics of low-temperature neutron-irradiated Nb, the effects of He 3+ on the low-temperature deformation characteristics of Nb, electron-transmission microscopic studies of the nature of neutron damage effects of post-irradiation annealing, microplasticity, thermally activated dislocation motion, production of high-purity Nb and V, early stages of flow in Mo, microplasticity in V, and effects of impurity interstitials on the lattice resistance to dislocation motion. (JRD)

  1. An Atomistic Modeling Study of Alloying Element Impurity Element, and Transmutation Products on the cohesion of A Nickel E5 {001} Twist Grain Boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A. Jr.; Najafabadi, R.; Strohmayer, W.; Baldrey, D.G.; Hamm, B.; Harris, J.; Sticht, J.; Wimmer, E.

    2003-01-01

    Atomistic modeling methods were employed to investigate the effects of impurity elements on the metallurgy, irradiation embrittlement, and environmentally assisted cracking of nickel-base alloys exposed to nuclear environments. Calculations were performed via ab initio atomistic modeling methods to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the results. A Griffith-type fracture criterion was used to quantitatively assess the effect of elements or element pairs on the grain boundary cohesive strength. In order of most embrittling to most strengthening, the elements are ranked as: He, Li, S, H, C, Zr, P, Fe, Mn, Nb, Cr, and B. Helium is strongly embrittling (-2.04 eV/atom lowering of the Griffith energy), phosphorus has little effect on the grain boundary (0.1 eV/atom), and boron offers appreciable strengthening (1.03 eV/atom increase in the Griffith energy). Calculations for pairs of elements (H-Li, H-B, H-C, H-P, and H-S) show little interaction on the grain boundary cohesive energy, so that for the conditions studied, linear superposition of elemental effects is a good approximation. These calculations help explain metallurgical effects (e.g. why boron can strengthen grain boundaries), irradiation embrittlement (e.g. how boron transmutation results in grain boundary embrittlement), as well as how grain boundary impurity elements can affect environmentally assisted cracking (i.e. low temperature crack propagation and stress corrosion cracking) of nickel-base alloys

  2. Part of the hydrogen in the intergranular crack by stress corrosion in primary circuit for the 600 and 690 nickel base alloys; Role de l'hydrogene dans le mecanisme de fissuration intergranulaire par corrosion sous contrainte en milieu primaire des alliages base nickel 600 et 690

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Jambon, F.; Chene, J. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DPC/SCCME/LECA), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Odemer, G.; Coudurier, A.; Chene, J. [Evry Univ., UMR 8587 CNRS / CEA, LAMBE, 91 (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is, in a first part, to characterize the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity of the 600 and 690 based alloys in order to better understand the hydrogen role in the stress corrosion mechanism which appears in theses alloys in the primary circuit of the PWR type reactors. The authors studies how the hydrogen embrittlement is resulting from an interaction between the hydrogen and the plastic deformation. (A.L.B.)

  3. Impact of grain microstructure on the heterogeneity of precipitation strengthening in an Al–Li–Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorin, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.dorin@deakin.edu.au [Université Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Constellium Technology Center, CS 10027, 38341 Voreppe Cedex (France); Deschamps, Alexis; De Geuser, Frédéric [Université Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Robaut, Florence [Consortium des Moyens Technologiques Communs, Grenoble-INP, F-38502 St. Martin d’Hères (France)

    2015-03-11

    The effect of grain microstructure on the age-hardening behavior is investigated on recrystallized and un-recrystallized Al–Cu–Li alloys by combining electron-backscatter-diffraction and micro-hardness mapping. The spatial heterogeneity of micro-hardness is found to be strongly dependent on the grain microstructure. Controlled experiments are carried out to change the pre-strain before artificial ageing. These experiments lead to an evaluation of the range of local strain induced by pre-stretching as a function of the grain microstructure and results in heterogeneous formation of the hardening T{sub 1} precipitates.

  4. Microstructure evolution of a pre-compression nickel-base single crystal superalloy during tensile creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xingfu; Tian Sugui; Du Hongqiang; Yu Huichen; Wang Minggang; Shang Lijuan; Cui Shusen

    2009-01-01

    By pre-compressive creep treatment, the cubical γ' phase in the nickel-base single crystal superalloy is transformed into the P-type rafted structure along the direction parallel to the applied stress axis. And the microstructure evolution of the P-type γ' rafted alloy during tensile creep is investigated by means of the measurement of the creep curve and microstructure observation. Results show that the P-type γ' rafted phase in the alloy is transformed into the N-type structure along the direction perpendicular to the applied stress axis in the initial stage of the tensile creep. In the role of the tensile stress at high temperature, the change of the element's equilibrium concentration in the different regions of P-type γ' rafted phase occurs, which promotes the inhomogeneous coarsening of the P-type γ' phase. And then, the decomposition of the P-type γ' rafted phase in the alloy occurs to form the groove structure. As of result of the directional diffusion of the elements, the fact that the P-type γ' rafted phase is decomposed to transform into the cubical-like structure is attributed to the increment of the solute elements M(Ta, Al) chemical potential in the groove regions. Further, the lattice constriction in the horizontal interfaces of the cubical-like γ' phase may repel out the Al and Ta atoms with higher radius due to the role of the shearing stress, and the lattice expanding in the upright interfaces of the cubical-like γ' phase, due to the role of the tension stress, may trap the Ta and Al atoms, which promotes the directional growing of γ' phase into the N-type rafted structure. Therefore, the change of the strain energy density in different interfaces of the cubical-like γ' phase is thought to be the driving force of the elements diffusing and the directional coarsening of γ' phase

  5. Sintering and microstructure evolution of columnar nickel-based superalloy sheets prepared by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Qu, S.J.; Liang, J.; Han, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → EB-PVD technology is commonly used to deposit thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and columnar structure is commonly seen in EB-PVD condensates. The unique columnar structure can provide outstanding resistance against thermal shock and mechanical strains for TBCs. However, a number of researchers have found that the columnar structure can affect the mechanical properties of EB-PVD alloy thin sheet significantly. As yet, works on how to reduce this kind of effects are seldom done. In the present article, we tried to reveal the sintering effects on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of columnar Ni-based superalloy sheet. The results suggests that after sintering, the columnar structure degrades. Degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering. - Abstract: A ∼0.15 mm-thick columnar nickel-based superalloy sheet was obtained by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The as-deposited alloy sheet was sintered at different conditions. The microstructure of the specimens before and after sintering was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy. An X'Pert texture facility was used to determine the crystallographic orientation of the as-deposited alloy sheet. The phase transformation was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Tensile tests were conducted at room temperature on as-deposited and sintered specimens. The results show that the as-deposited sheet is composed of typical columnar structures. After sintering, however, the columnar structure degrades. The degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering.

  6. Interfacial structures and energetics of the strengthening precipitate phase in creep-resistant Mg-Nd-based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, D; Banerjee, R; Srinivasan, S G

    2017-01-17

    The extraordinary creep-resistance of Mg-Nd-based alloys can be correlated to the formation of nanoscale-platelets of β 1 -Mg 3 Nd precipitates, that grow along 〈110〉 Mg in bulk hcp-Mg and on dislocation lines. The growth kinetics of β 1 is sluggish even at high temperatures, and presumably occurs via vacancy migration. However, the rationale for the high-temperature stability of precipitate-matrix interfaces and observed growth direction is unknown, and may likely be related to the interfacial structure and excess energy. Therefore, we study two interfaces- {112} β1 /{100} Mg and {111} β1 /{110} Mg - that are commensurate with β 1 /hcp-Mg orientation relationship via first principles calculations. We find that β 1 acquires plate-like morphology to reduce small lattice strain via the formation of energetically favorable {112} β1 /{100} Mg interfaces, and predict that β 1 grows along 〈110〉 Mg on dislocation lines due to the migration of metastable {111} β1 /{110} Mg . Furthermore, electronic charge distribution of the two interfaces studied here indicated that interfacial-energy of coherent precipitates is sensitive to the population of distorted lattice sites, and their spatial extent in the vicinity of interfaces. Our results have implications for alloy design as they suggest that formation of β 1 -like precipitates in the hcp-Mg matrix will require well-bonded coherent interface along precipitate broad-faces, while simultaneously destabilizing other interfaces.

  7. Fiber laser welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Damian M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the application of single mode high power fiber laser (HPFL) for the welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625. Butt joints of Inconel 625 sheets 0,8 mm thick were laser welded without an additional material. The influence of laser welding parameters on weld quality and mechanical properties of test joints was studied. The quality and mechanical properties of the joints were determined by means of tensile and bending tests, and micro hardness tests, and also metallographic examinations. The results showed that a proper selection of laser welding parameters provides non-porous, fully-penetrated welds with the aspect ratio up to 2.0. The minimum heat input required to achieve full penetration butt welded joints with no defect was found to be 6 J/mm. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the joints are essentially equivalent to that for the base material.

  8. Sea water Corrosion of Nickel based Plasma Spray Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, M.; Nanda, S. P.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Different types of erosion resistant coatings are applied/deposited on aero components, depending on the operating/working temperatures. Nickel based coating are applied on the air craft (compressor) components, which can sustain up to working temperature of 650°C. In the present investigation, to improve the compatibility between substrate (i.e. the machine component) and the top coat, application of bond coat is there. The application of Nickel based coating by thermal plasma spray technique has proven to be a satisfactory means of producing acceptable sealing surface with excellent abradability. Before the corrosion study, coated sample is subjected to hardness, thickness and porosity testing. Hence the result is being evaluated. The corrosion behavior of coating was studied by sea water immersion with a time period of 16 weeks. It is observed that, up to 9 weeks increase in weight of coating occurs in a sharp trend and then takes a decreasing trend. The weight gain of the samples has varied from 37.23% (with one week immersion in sea water) to a maximum of about 64.36% for six weeks immersion. Coating morphology and composition analysis of the coatings are studied using SEM and EDS. This behavior shows adsorption/deposition of the foreign particles with polygonal shape on the coating surface by sea water interaction. Foreign particles with polygonal shape deposited on the coating and with increase in immersion/treatment time, washing out of the deposited materials starts, which reflects the decreasing trend of weight gain of the specimen.

  9. Effect of Microstructure and Alloy Chemistry on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Precipitation-Hardened Ni-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, G. C.; Zhang, Z.; Sampath, D.; Morana, Roberto; Akid, R.; Preuss, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) has been studied in respect of precipitation size distributions in two nickel-based superalloys: Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and Alloy 945X (UNS N09946). Quantitative microstructure analysis was carried out by the combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). While Alloy 718 is mainly strengthened by γ″, and therefore readily forms intergranular δ phase, Alloy 945X has been designed to avoid δ formation by reducing Nb levels providing high strength through a combination of γ' and γ″. Slow strain rate tensile tests were carried out for different microstructural conditions in air and after cathodic hydrogen (H) charging. HE sensitivity was determined based on loss of elongation due to the H uptake in comparison to elongation to failure in air. Results showed that both alloys exhibited an elevated sensitivity to HE. Fracture surfaces of the H precharged material showed quasi-cleavage and transgranular cracks in the H-affected region, while ductile failure was observed toward the center of the sample. The crack origins observed on the H precharged samples exhibited quasi-cleavage with slip traces at high magnification. The sensitivity is slightly reduced for Alloy 718, by coarsening γ″ and reducing the overall strength of the alloy. However, on further coarsening of γ″, which promotes continuous decoration of grain boundaries with δ phase, the embrittlement index rose again indicating a change of hydrogen embrittlement mechanism from hydrogen-enhanced local plasticity (HELP) to hydrogen-enhanced decohesion embrittlement (HEDE). In contrast, Alloy 945X displayed a strong correlation between strength, based on precipitation size and embrittlement index, due to the absence of any significant formation of δ phase for the investigated microstructures. For the given test parameters, Alloy 945X did not display any reduced sensitivity to HE compared with

  10. The influence of fabrication procedure on the void swelling of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy in a HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snykers, M.; Biermans, F.; Cornelis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of changes in the fabrication procedure of ferritic alloys with compositions Fe-13Cr-Ti-Mo-TiO 2 on the swelling behaviour are investigated. The fabrication procedures are: casting, powder metallurgy; milling in air and powder metallurgy; milling in argon. No difference is found for the results obtained for the materials fabricated by casting and by powder metallurgy; milling in air. Slightly different results are obtained for the material fabricated by powder metallurgy; milling in argon. This material contains argon in solution in the matrix, which causes a small shift of the peak swelling temperature and of the peak swelling helium concentration for tests carried out at 450 0 C. The overall swelling of this material is the lowest due to the small grain size and to the high density of inclusions. (orig.)

  11. Prehistory effects on the VHCF behaviour of engineering metallic materials with different strengthening mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, M; Stoecker, C; Mueller-Bollenhagen, C; Christ, H-J

    2010-01-01

    Engineering materials often undergo a plastic deformation during manufacturing, hence the effect of a predeformation on the subsequent fatigue behaviour has to be considered. The effect of a prestrain on the microstructure is strongly influenced by the strengthening mechanism. Different mechanisms are relevant in the materials applied in this study: a solid-solution hardened and a precipitation-hardened nickel-base alloy and a martensite-forming metastable austenitic steel. Prehistory effects become very important, when fatigue failure at very high number of cycles (N > 10 7 ) is considered, since damage mechanisms occur different to those observed in the range of conventional fatigue limit. With the global strain amplitude being well below the static elastic limit, only inhomogeneously distributed local plastic deformation takes place in the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) region. The dislocation motion during cyclic loading thus depends on the effective flow stress, which is defined by the global cyclic stress-strain relation and the local stress distribution as a consequence of the interaction between dislocations and precipitates, grain boundaries, martensite phases and micro-notches. As a consequence, no significant prehistory effect was observed for the VHCF behaviour of the solid-solution hardening alloy, while the precipitation-hardening alloy shows a perceptible prehistory dependence. In the case of the austenitic steel, strain-hardening and the volume fraction of the deformation-induced martensite dominate the fatigue behaviour.

  12. The structure and properties of a nickel-base superalloy produced by osprey atomization-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Rodger H.

    1986-04-01

    The production of a nickel-base superalloy, René* 80, by the Osprey atomization-deposition process has been investigated. Dense (>99 pct) material with a fine-grained equiaxed microstructure was deposited using either argon or nitrogen as the atomizing gas. Defects present in the material included a chill region at the collector plate interface, entrapped recirculated particles, porosity, and ceramic particles from the melting and dispensing system. In contrast to other rapid solidification techniques, low oxygen pick-ups are noted in the current technique. Tensile strengths above those displayed by castings are found in both nitrogen and argon atomized material, and in both the as-deposited and heat treated conditions. In addition, no profound mid-temperature ductility loss is displayed by this low oxygen material, in contrast to results on other rapidly solidified material with high oxygen contents. These results are explained in terms of oxygen embrittlement. In view of the excellent properties measured, the attractive economics of the process, and the fact that fine control of the gas/metal flow ratio is shown to be unnecessary, it is concluded that atomization-deposition presents an attractive potential production route for advanced alloys.

  13. An experimental study of aluminium electrowinning using a nickel-based hydrogen diffusion anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namboothiri, Sankar; Taylor, Mark P.; Chen, John J.J.; Hyland, Margaret M.; Cooksey, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Measurable depolarisation of the anode potential and formation of water vapour. → Metallic aluminium was found on the spent cathode. → HF emissions can be minimised by conducting the electrolysis at 750 o C. → The nickel based anode surface corroded during electrolysis. → Its application is constrained by the material limitation of the porous anode. - Abstract: Laboratory scale electrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the electrowinning of aluminium using hydrogen diffusion anodes. A potassium-based electrolyte (KF-AlF 3 -Al 2 O 3 ), porous nickel alloy anode and molybdenum disk cathode were used in experiments at 750 o C. Hydrogen gas was supplied to the anode/electrolyte interface through the porous anode. Experiments were conducted in potentiostatic, galvanostatic and galvanodynamic modes. There was a measurable depolarisation of the anode potential and also anode reaction of hydrogen and oxygen ions in the bath to form water vapour was confirmed by the water vapour condensate found at the electrolysis exit gas pipe. Metallic aluminium was found on the spent cathode. The experiments conducted in the galvanodynamic mode suggested that the rate limiter for hydrogen oxidation was the availability of surface hydrogen at the anode/electrolyte interface. The anode surface corroded during electrolysis and impurities were found both in the molten bath and on the cathode.

  14. Relationship of heat treatment-mechanical properties of nickel base superalloys.; Relacion tratamiento termico-propiedades mecanicas de una superaleacion base niquel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora R, L

    1997-12-01

    The nickel-base superalloys have high strength, excellent corrosion resistant, and good creep and fatigue resistance. These alloy improved properties at high temperature derive their mechanical and creep behavior on {gamma} precipitate morphology, and the evolution of such morphology during different heat treatment conditions. The main microstructural variable of Nickel-based superalloys, responsible for the mechanical properties are: (a) amount and morphology of precipitates; (b) size and shape of grains; and (c) carbide distribution. In this work, a Nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 80A, modified little with Zr prepared by melting and casting practices of materials electrolytic in vacuum-induction melting (VIM) type Balzers, to obtain five alloys different and ingots of 2 Kg and 1 Kg, with composition in weight % of Nimonic 80-A is: Ni = bal (76.66), C = 0.01, Cr = 19.83, Fe = 2.4, Mn = 0.17, Si 0.47, Al = 0.19, Zr = 0.4. The solidification process is made in a steel mold. After having realized four thermal treatments, the most representative microstructures there were obtained. The results from tensile tests performed on Instron Servohydraulic testing systems at uniaxial dynamic testing, at constant speeds to ,0.2 cm/min, were: the yield strength, the ultimate strength value, percentage elongation and area reduction. Creep tests were performed at in stress of 90 and 129 MPa, at a temperature of 600 and 680 Centigrades at different times and width of specimen of 1 mm. The alloys were analyzed by MEB(JEOL 35CF) at different magnifications. The nucleation and growth of intergranular cavities during creep of alloy Nimonic M3, were investigated. One sample was deformed in creep at 129 MPa and 680 Centigrades during 110 hs. Creep samples were annealing heat treated at 800 Centigrades, during 7 days. After a careful sample preparation procedure, 3100 of cavities were measured in the sample . The cavity size distributions in the sample were obtained. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. In situ oxide dispersion strengthened tungsten alloys with high compressive strength and high strain-to-failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lin; Jiang, Lin; Topping, Troy D.; Dai, Chen; Wang, Xin; Carpenter, Ryan; Haines, Christopher; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk tungsten materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS). The results show that the application of a high pressure of 1 GPa during SPS significantly accelerates the densification process. Concurrently, the second phase oxide nanoparticles with an average grain size of 108 nm, which are distributed within the interiors of the W grains, simultaneously provide strengthening and plasticity by inhibiting grain growth, and generating, blocking, and storing dislocations. - Graphical abstract: In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk W materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS).

  16. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory R.

    2000-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine engines is a pervasive problem affecting a wide range of components and materials. HCF is currently the primary cause of component failures in gas turbine aircraft engines. Turbine blades in high performance aircraft and rocket engines are increasingly being made of single crystal nickel superalloys. Single-crystal Nickel-base superalloys were developed to provide superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys previously used in the production of turbine blades and vanes. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. PWA1493, identical to PWA1480, but with tighter chemical constituent control, is used in the NASA SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) alternate turbopump, a liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. Objectives for this paper are motivated by the need for developing failure criteria and fatigue life evaluation procedures for high temperature single crystal components, using available fatigue data and finite element modeling of turbine blades. Using the FE (finite element) stress analysis results and the fatigue life relations developed, the effect of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientations on life is determined, at critical blade locations. The most advantageous crystal orientation for a given blade design is determined. Results presented demonstrates that control of secondary and primary crystallographic orientation has the potential to optimize blade design by increasing its resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  17. Near-surface residual stresses and microstructural changes after turning of a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlauer, Christian

    2003-07-01

    Nickel-based superalloys are precipitation hardened alloys with complex compositions. They are used in aircraft engines and land-based gas turbines in load bearing structural components that are exposed to high temperatures. Failure mechanisms in this environment are high and low cycle fatigue, creep, and corrosion. During manufacturing, residual stresses are often introduced into the material due to inhomogeneous plastic deformations, both intentionally and unintentionally. One such manufacturing process is metal cutting, which introduces residual stresses in the surface layer. The stress state in the near-surface zone of components is of special interest as the surface often experiences peak loads and cracks have their starting point there. In this thesis, near-surface residual stress distributions and microstructural changes are studied in the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 for two different turning operations, face grooving and facing. Process variables are in both cases cutting speed and feed that have been varied between (10 and 1200) m/min and (0.01 and 0.5) mm, respectively. The first turning technique face grooving, which gives cutting conditions similar to orthogonal cutting, showed a clear dependency of the residual stresses on the cutting speed. The tensile stress at the surface, the maximum compressive stress below the surface, and the thickness of the affected layer increase with increasing cutting speed. The tensile stresses are constrained to a thin surface layer and compressive residual stresses below the surface dominate the depth profile of the residual stresses. Only at low cutting speed, residual stresses were largely avoided. The second turning technique facing confirmed the dependency of the residual stresses on the cutting speed and revealed a similar dependency on the feed. Microstructural investigations of near-surface cross-sections by means of transmission electron microscopy showed a zone where the grains had undergone plastic

  18. Microscopy and microanalysis of complex nanosized strengthening precipitates in new generation commercial Al-Cu-Li alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinel, M J-F; Brodusch, N; Sha, G; Shandiz, M A; Demers, H; Trudeau, M; Ringer, S P; Gauvin, R

    2014-09-01

    Precipitates (ppts) in new generation aluminum-lithium alloys (AA2099 and AA2199) were characterised using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Results obtained on the following ppts are reported: Guinier-Preston zones, T1 (Al2 CuLi), β' (Al3 Zr) and δ' (Al3 Li). The focus was placed on their composition and the presence of minor elements. X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry in the electron microscopes and mass spectrometry in the atom probe microscope showed that T1 ppts were enriched in zinc (Zn) and magnesium up to about 1.9 and 3.5 at.%, respectively. A concentration of 2.5 at.% Zn in the δ' ppts was also measured. Unlike Li and copper, Zn in the T1 ppts could not be detected using electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope because of its too low concentration and the small sizes of these ppts. Indeed, Monte Carlo simulations of EEL spectra for the Zn L2,3 edge showed that the signal-to-noise ratio was not high enough and that the detection limit was at least 2.5 at.%, depending on the probe current. Also, the simulation of X-ray spectra confirmed that the detection limit was exceeded for the Zn Kα X-ray line because the signal-to-noise ratio was high enough in that case, which is in agreement with our observations. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. Influence of stress change on the fatigue behavior and fatigue life of aluminum oxide-dispersion-strengthening copper alloy at room temperature and 350degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoishi, Norio; Kondo, Eiji; Nisitani, Hironobu; Shimamoto, Atsunori; Tashiro, Rieko

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of stress change on the fatigue behavior and fatigue life of an aluminum oxide-dispersion-strengthening copper alloy at elevated temperature, rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out under two-step loading at room temperature and 350degC. Both of static strength and fatigue strength decreased at 350degC. However, at the same relative stress σ a /σ B , fatigue life was longer at 350degC than at room temperature. Although the cumulative ratios Σ(N/N f ) were nearly unity for both the low to high and the high to low block loadings at room temperature, Miner's rule did not hold at 350degC. These results were related to the stress dependence on the log l-N/N f relation. That is, the crack length initiated at the same N/N f was larger in higher stress level at 350degC, whereas there was no stress dependence in the relation at room temperature. The stress dependence on the relation at 350degC was caused by the suppression of crack initiation due to the surface oxidation. (author)

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Welded Joints of DZ125L and IN718 Nickel Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Taosha; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the laser welded joint of DZ125L and IN718 nickel base superalloys were investigated. The results show that the fusion zone (FZ) mainly consists of fine dendrite structure with fine γ', Laves phases and MC carbides inhomogeneously distributed. The high welding temperature induces the partial dissolution of γ' in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of DZ125L and liquation of grain boundaries in both of the HAZs. After post-weld heat treatment (PWHT), fine γ″ and γ' phases precipitate in the FZ, IN718 HAZ and IN718 base metal (BM), and fine γ' precipitate in the γ channel of the HAZ and BM of DZ125L. With tensile testing, the joints after PWHT show higher strengths than that of the weaker DZ125L alloy. Plastic deformation mainly concentrates in the weaker DZ125L and the joint finally fails in the DZ125L BM.

  1. Irradiation-induced microstructural changes in alloy X-750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenik, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Alloy X-750 is a nickel base alloy that is often used in nuclear power systems for it's excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. The present study examines the microstructure and composition profiles in a heat of Alloy X-750 before and after neutron irradiation

  2. Observations of cellular transformation products in nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, C.Y.; Ralph, B.

    1979-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to identify the products in cellularly transformed regions of alloys based on the Nimonic 80 A composition. The commercial alloy is shown to undergo a small degree of cellular transformation even after conventional heat treatments, while recrystallization is found to increase the incidence of this reaction type. Low carbon versions of this alloy demonstrate cellular precipitation over a wider range of heat treatments. It is shown that the cellular reaction may take place in these alloys under a variety of different conditions and with a range of driving forces. Reasons for this unexpected behaviour are offeredm as is a suggestion as to why the cellular reaction occurs on a local scale. (author)

  3. High-temperature brazing, present situation and development trends - brazing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.

    1980-01-01

    The range of application of high-temperature brazing is described. The process is defined. High-temperature nickel-base brazing alloys (alloying constituents, types of products. properties of the brazing alloys) and high-temperature brazing alloys for special metals and ceramics are dealt with. (orig.) [de

  4. An in situ USAXS-SAXS-WAXS study of precipitate size distribution evolution in a model Ni-based alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ross N; Serio, Joseph; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Intermetallic γ' precipitates typically strengthen nickel-based superalloys. The shape, size and spatial distribution of strengthening precipitates critically influence alloy strength, while their temporal evolution characteristics determine the high-temperature alloy stability. Combined ultra-small-, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS-SAXS-WAXS) analysis can be used to evaluate the temporal evolution of an alloy's precipitate size distribution (PSD) and phase structure during in situ heat treatment. Analysis of PSDs from USAXS-SAXS data employs either least-squares fitting of a preordained PSD model or a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach, the latter avoiding a priori definition of a functional form of the PSD. However, strong low- q scattering from grain boundaries and/or structure factor effects inhibit MaxEnt analysis of typical alloys. This work describes the extension of Bayesian-MaxEnt analysis methods to data exhibiting structure factor effects and low- q power law slopes and demonstrates their use in an in situ study of precipitate size evolution during heat treatment of a model Ni-Al-Si alloy.

  5. Analysis of shot-peening and residual stress relaxation in the nickel-based superalloy RR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, B.J.; Gray, S.; Hardy, M.C.; Stekovic, S.; McPhail, D.S.; Shollock, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work assesses the residual stress relaxation of the nickel-based alloy RR1000 due to thermal exposure and dwell-fatigue loading. A number of different characterization methods, including X-ray residual stress analysis, electron back-scattered diffraction, microhardness testing and focused ion beam secondary electron imaging, contributed to a detailed study of the shot-peened region. Thermal exposure at 700 °C resulted in a large reduction in the residual stresses and work-hardening effects in the alloy, but the subsurface remained in a beneficial compressive state. Oxidizing environments caused recrystallization in the near surface, but did not affect the residual stress-relaxation behaviour. Dwell-fatigue loading caused the residual stresses to return to approximately zero at nearly all depths. This work forms part of an ongoing investigation to determine the effects of shot-peening in this alloy with the motivation to improve the fatigue and oxidation resistance at 700 °C

  6. The influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the elevated temperature mechanical properties of single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Ebert, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of composition on the tensile and creep strength of 001-line oriented nickel-base superalloy single crystals at temperatures near 1000 C was investigated. Cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten concentrations were varied according to a matrix of compositions based on the single crystal version of MAR-M247. For alloys with the baseline refractory metal level of 3 wt pct Ta and 10 wt pct W, decreases in Co level from 10 to 0 wt pct resulted in increased tensile and creep strength. Substitution of 2 wt pct W for 3 wt pct Ta resulted in decreased creep life at high stresses, but improved life at low stresses. Substitution of Ni for Ta caused large reductions in tensile strength and creep resistance, and corresponding increases in ductility. For these alloys with low Ta-plus-W totals, strength was independent of Co level. The effects of composition on properties were related to the microstructural features of the alloys. In general, high creep strength was associated with high levels of gamma-prime volume fraction, gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch, and solid solution hardening.

  7. Recovery of creep properties of the nickel-base superalloy nimonic 105

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Girdwood, RB

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial constant stress creep tests were performed on the wrought nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 105. Entire creep curves were recorded and curve shapes analysed using the Theta Projection Concept. Rejuventive procedures were applied to pre...

  8. A Comparison of the Plastic Flow Response of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Base Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0225 A COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) S.L...COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...behavior at hot-working temperatures and strain rates of the powder- metallurgy superalloy LSHR was determined under nominally-isothermal and transient

  9. Effect of strengthening mechanisms on cold workability and instantaneous strain hardening behavior during grain refinement of AA 6061-10 wt.% TiO2 composite prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasankaran, S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Narayanasamy, R.; Iyer, Vijay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Various strengthening mechanisms such as solid solution, grain size, precipitate, dislocation and dispersion strengthening promoted yield strength of the composites → The 5 h sintered composite yielded a large plastic strain (23%) at ambient temperature. → The domination of interparticle friction effects, grain size and dislocation strengthening diminished the deformation capacity of the composites greater than 5 h of milling. → Ultra-fine grained composite (40 h) yielded a high strength (>1000 MPa). → The proposed instantaneous new Poisson's ratio and the instantaneous strain hardening index used to study the extent of plastic zone and strain levels of the composite. - Abstract: The mechanical alloying (MA) of AA 6061 alloy reinforced with 10 wt.% fine anatase-titania composites powder milled with different timings (1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 h) was cold consolidated and sintered. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of microstructure and the various strengthening mechanisms such as solid solution, grain size, precipitate, dislocation and dispersion strengthening during grain refinement of AA 6061-10 wt.% TiO 2 composite via MA on cold working and strain hardening behavior. The sintered composite preforms were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The strengthening mechanisms were estimated by using simplified models available in the literatures. The evaluation of cold deformation behavior under triaxial stress condition through room temperature cold-upsetting tests (incremental loads) was studied by correlating the strengthening mechanisms. Among the developed strengthening mechanisms the grain size and dislocation strengthening mechanisms diminished the deformation capacity of the composites. The strain hardening behavior was also examined by proposing instantaneous strain hardening index (n i ). The value of maximum instantaneous strain

  10. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  11. Mechanical Behavior of Three-Dimensional Braided Nickel-Based Superalloys Synthesized via Pack Cementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitz, Nicolas; Erdeniz, Dinc; Sharp, Keith W.; Dunand, David C.

    2018-03-01

    Braided tubes of Ni-based superalloys are fabricated via three-dimensional (3-D) braiding of ductile Ni-20Cr (wt pct) wires followed by post-textile gas-phase alloying with Al and Ti to create, after homogenization and aging, γ/ γ' strengthened lightweight, porous structures. Tensile tests reveal an increase in strength by 100 MPa compared to as-braided Ni-20Cr (wt pct). An interrupted tensile test, combined with X-ray tomographic scans between each step, sheds light on the failure behavior of the braided superalloy tubes.

  12. Fatigue crack growth behavior of a new single crystal nickel-based superalloy (CMSX-4) at 650 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.; Putatunda, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    CMSX-4 is a recently developed rhenium containing single crystal nickel-based superalloy. This alloy has potential applications in many critical high-temperature applications such as turbine blades, rotors, nuclear reactors, etc. The fatigue crack growth rate and the fatigue threshold data of this material is extremely important for accurate life prediction, as well as failure safe design, at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth behavior of CMSX-4 has been studied at 650 C. The investigation also examined the influence of γ' precipitates (size and distribution) on the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate and the fatigue threshold. The influence of load ratio on the fatigue crack growth rate and the fatigue threshold was also examined. Detailed fractographic studies were carried out to determine the crack growth mechanism in fatigue in the threshold region. Compact tension specimens were prepared from the single crystal nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4 with [001] orientation as the tensile loading axis direction. These specimens were given three different heat treatments to produce three different γ' precipitate sizes and distributions. Fatigue crack growth behavior of these specimens was studied at 650 C in air. The results of the present investigation indicate that the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate decreases and that the fatigue threshold increases with an increase in the γ' precipitate size at 650 C. The fatigue threshold decreased linearly with an increase in load ratio. Fractographs at 650 C show a stage 2 type of crack growth along {100} type of crystal planes in the threshold region, and along {111} type of crystal planes in the high ΔK region

  13. Effect of Notches on Creep-Fatigue Behavior of a P/M Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Jack; Gabb, Timothy P.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Gayda, John, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to determine and model the effect of high temperature dwells on notched low cycle fatigue (NLCF) and notch stress rupture behavior of a fine grain LSHR powder metallurgy (PM) nickel-based superalloy. It was shown that a 90 second dwell applied at the minimum stress (min dwell) was considerably more detrimental to the NLCF lives than similar dwell applied at the maximum stress (max dwell). The short min dwell NLCF lives were shown to be caused by growth of small oxide blisters which caused preferential cracking when coupled with high concentrated notch root stresses. The cyclic max dwell notch tests failed mostly by a creep accumulation, not by fatigue, with the crack origin shifting internally to a substantial distance away from the notch root. The classical von Mises plastic flow model was unable to match the experimental results while the hydrostatic stress profile generated using the Drucker-Prager plasticity flow model was consistent with the experimental findings. The max dwell NLCF and notch stress rupture tests exhibited substantial creep notch strengthening. The triaxial Bridgman effective stress parameter was able to account for the notch strengthening by collapsing the notched and uniform gage geometry test data into a singular grouping.

  14. Integrated computational microstructure engineering for single-crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Billie

    A methodology that integrates the phase field model with simpler models was developed to study the early stages of microstructural development in nickel base superalloys under non-isothermal conditions, allowing for faster, more comprehensive examination of the experimental system. Additionally, the parameters required for calibrating a phase field model were examined for uncertainty, and a comprehensive method for linking experimental data to a model was developed. The methodology developed was applied to analyze the formation of bimodal particle size distributions during linear continuous cooling. The dynamic competition for supersaturation by growth of existing precipitates and nucleation of new particles was modeled. The nucleation rate was calculated according to classical nucleation theory as function of local supersaturation and temperature. The depletion of matrix super-saturation by growth of existing particles was calculated from fully diffusion-controlled precipitate growth in an infinite matrix. Phase field simulations of gamma' precipitation in a binary Ni-Al alloy were performed under continuous cooling conditions. Then the average and maximum matrix supersaturations were calculated and plotted onto the contours of nucleation rate and growth rate in concentration and temperature space. These methods were used iteratively to identify the window for bimodal particle size distributions. Combining the models of different complexities produced a much more comprehensive understanding of the competing dynamics involved early in microstructure formation. A systemic method for calibrating a model to experimental alloy systems was developed. Calibrated to isothermal aging data along with literature, database and parametric values, a phase field model reproduced the precipitation kinetics. Quantitative phase field modeling techniques were developed to control the influence of uncertainty in the original data sources for model inputs. Using more data sources than

  15. Computer aided design of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a computer aided design process for Ni-base superalloys developed and employed at ASEA Brown Boveri. The technique involves a series of modules each of which predicts a particular property of a hypothetical new composition. In the first stage of the development of this design techniques modules were produced to predict phase stability, using PHACOMP, and high temperature creep strength and hot corrosion resistance, using multiple linear regression equations derived from the data in the literature. Alloys designed using these technique are also discussed and, in particular, shortcomings of the design process are highlighted. This information was then used to produce a revamped design methodology involving extra modules, including prediction of an alloy's gamma-prime content. (orig.)

  16. Coupling effects of tungsten and molybdenum on microstructure and stress-rupture properties of a nickel-base cast superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjin Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively understand the forming mechanism of abnormal phases solidified in a nickel-base cast superalloy with additives of tungsten and molybdenum, the coupling effects of W and Mo on the microstructure and stress-rupture properties were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the precipitation of primary α-(W, Mo phase depended tremendously on the amount of W and Mo addition. When the total amount of W and Mo was greater than 5.79 at%, α-(W, Mo phase became easily precipitated in the alloy. With increasing of Mo/W ratio, the dendrite-like α-(W, Mo phases were apt to convert into small bars or blocky-like phases at the vicinities of γ′/γ eutectic. The morphological changes of α-(W, Mo phase can be interpreted as the non-equilibrium solidification of W and Mo in the alloy. Since the large sized α-(W, Mo phase has detrimental effects on stress-rupture properties in as-cast conditions, secondary cracks may mainly initiate at and then propagate along the interfaces of brittle phases and soft matrix. During exposing at 1100 ℃ for 1000 h, the α-(W, Mo phases transformed gradually into bigger and harder M6C carbide, which results in decreasing of stress-rupture properties of the alloy. Finally, the alloy with an addition of 14W-1Mo(wt% maintained the longest stress lives at high temperatures and therefore it revealed the best microstructure stability after 1100 ℃/1000 h thermal exposure. Keywords: Superalloy, Tungsten and molybdenum, Cast, Microstructure, Stress-rupture properties

  17. The effect of strain distribution on microstructural developments during forging in a newly developed nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, R.C. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Argyrakis, C.; Hardy, M.C. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Birosca, S., E-mail: 522042@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-27

    In the current study, the effect of strain distribution in a simple forging geometry on the propensity for recrystallization, and its impact on mechanical properties has been investigated in a newly developed experimental nickel-based superalloy. The new alloy was produced via a Powder Metallurgy (PM) route and was subsequently Hot Isostatic Processed (HIP), isothermally forged, and heat treated to produce a coarse grain microstructure with average grain size of 23–32 μm. The alloy was examined by means of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) to characterise the microstructural features such as grain orientation and morphology, grain boundary characteristics and the identification of potential Prior Particle Boundaries (PPBs) throughout each stage of the processing route. Results at the central region of the cross-section plane parallel to the loading direction showed significant microstructural differences across the forging depth. This microstructural variation was found to be highly dependent on the value of local strain imparted during forging such that areas of low effective strain showed partial recrystallisation and a necklace grain structure was observed following heat treatment. Meanwhile, a fully recrystallised microstructure with no PPBs was observed in the areas of high strain values, in the central region of the forging.

  18. Effect of carbon content on the microstructure and creep properties of a 3rd generation single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.W.; Liu, T. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, L., E-mail: wangli@imr.ac.cn [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Liu, X.G.; Lou, L.H. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, J. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Effect of carbon content on the microstructure and creep properties of a 3rd generation single crystal nickel-base superalloy has been investigated by the scanning electron microscope, X-ray computed tomography and electron probe microanalyzer. With the increase of the carbon content, MC carbides evolve from octahedral to well-developed dendrite, which promotes the formation of microporosity. Moreover, the volume fraction of porosity increases in the experimental alloys after solution heat treatment. As a result, the increase in the size of MC carbides and the porosity has a detrimental effect on the low temperature and high stress creep behavior of the alloys. The specimen crept at 850 °C and 586 MPa with the carbon content of 430 ppm shows the shortest rupture life due to the largest primary creep strain. However, the creep behavior of the alloy at 1120 °C and 140 MPa gets better as the carbon content increases from 88 to 430 ppm. TCP phase is observed near the fracture surfaces of the alloys, which explores as a potential cause for the creep rupture. However, the formation of TCP phase is effectively suppressed for decreasing segregation of the alloying elements, which results in the improvement of the creep life in the alloy with 430 ppm carbon at 1120 °C and 140 MPa.

  19. Focused Ion Beam Nanotomography of ruthenium-bearing nickel-base superalloys with focus on cast-microstructure and phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenanovic, Samir

    2012-01-01

    The influence of rhenium and ruthenium on the multi component system nickel-base superalloy is manifold and complex. An experimental nickel-base superalloy containing rhenium and ruthenium within defined contents, named Astra, was used to investigate the influences of these two elements on the alloy system. The last stage solidification of nickel-base superalloys after Bridgman casting and the high temperature phase stability of these alloys, could be explored with the aid of focused ion beam nanotomography. FIB-nt therefore was introduced and realized at the chair of General Materials Properties of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Cast Astra alloys are like other nickel-base superalloys morphologically very inhomogeneous and affected by segregation. In the interdendritic region different structures with huge γ' precipitates are formed. These inhomogeneities and remaining eutectics degrade the mechanical properties, witch makes an understanding of the subsiding processes at solidification of residual melt important for the casting process and the heat treatment. This is why the last stage solidification in the interdendritic region was analyzed. With the help of focused ion beam nanotomography, three different structures identified from 2-D sections could be assigned to one original 3-D structure. It was pointed out, that only the orientation of the plane of the 2-D cut influences the appearance in the 2-D section. The tomography information was used to explain the development during solidification and to create a model of last stage solidification. The interdendritic region is solidifying under the development of eutectic islands. The structure nucleates eutectically epitaxially at primary dendrite arms, with formation of fine γ/γ' precipitates. During solidification the γ' precipitates coarsen in a rod-like structure, and end up in large γ' precipitates. Simulations and other investigations could approve this model. First three

  20. The effect of heat treatment on the micro-structure and the mechanical properties of high-temperature nickel-base-superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, R.; Horn, E.

    1974-01-01

    General review of heat treatment applied to high-temperature nickel-base-superalloys as a function of the volume percent of the γ'-phase. Heat treatment schedule. γ'-morphology and γ'-distribution as well as their effect on mechanical properties. Values obtained from tensile tests up to 1,000 0 C. Results obtained from creep tests. Limitation for the heat treatment of alloys having an unstable γ'-phase. Alloys X 5 NiCrTi 26 15, ATS 270 (approximately INCO 718), NiCr 20 TiAl, NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti, ATS 342 (approximately Waspaloy), ATS 354 (approximately Udimet 520), NiCo 20 Cr 15 MoAlTi, ATS 382 (approximately Udimet 710), ATS 381-G (approximately Mar M 246), FIS 145 and ATS 391-G (aproximately IN 100). (orig.) [de

  1. Corrosion resistant alloy uses in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, J.L.; Hall, F.A.; Asphahani, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Nickel-base alloys have been used as cost-effective measures in a variety of severely corrosive situations in pollution control units for coal-fired power plants. Cost effectiveness and practical answers to corrosion problems are illustrated (specifically the wallpaper concept/metallic lining technique). Numerous cases of successful use of HASTELLOY alloys in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems and hazardous waste treatment incineration scrubber systems are listed. In this paper developments in nickel-base alloys and their use in FGD and other segments of the power industry are discussed. In the Ni-Cr-Mo-W alloy family, the C-22 alloy has the best resistance to localized corrosion in halide environments (chloride/fluoride-containing solutions). This alloy is also used effectively as a universal filler metal to weld less-resistant alloys were weld corrosion may be a problem. Field performance of this alloy in the power industry is described

  2. Effect of Alloying Element and Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Corrosion Property of Ni-Cr-Co-Mo Alloy at 950 .deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Jung, Su Jin; Moon, Byung Hak; Kim, Sung Woo; Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Helium is used as a coolant in a VHTR owing to its high thermal conductivity, inertness, and low neutron absorption. However, helium inevitably includes impurities that create an imbalance in the surface reactivity at the interface of the coolant and the exposed materials. The carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen, and water that are formed by the reaction with the graphite in the core induce various surface reactions that lead to material property changes over time. According to previous reports it was predicted that the outer oxide layer thickness, internal oxide depth, and carbidedepleted zone depth increase to 116 μm, 600 μm, and 1000 μm, respectively, when Alloy 617 is exposed to a plausible impure helium environment at 950 .deg. C for 20 years, based on the reaction rate constant determined from the short time experiment. These values are large enough to pay attention to the material degradation at high temperature, i. e., the life of the IHX. Therefore, finding the range of impurity concentration at which the material is stable, based on the thermodynamics and kinetics determined by a long-term experiment, is very important to the optimum chemistry control for a life extension. Another countermeasure is to improve the material performance through alloy development. Commercial nickel-based wrought alloy is strengthened by a solid solution and precipitation hardening mechanism in a wide temperature range of 500 to 900 .deg. C. The γ' significantly contributes to the strengthening by forming an anti-phase boundary and preventing a dislocation motion at an intermediate temperature range of 700 to 800 .deg. C, but is no longer stable above this temperature range. However, the material for an IHX needs to fulfill the mechanical property requirements in a narrow, very high temperature range of 850 to 950 .deg. C rather than in a wide temperature range. Therefore, it is worth making the effort to find an optimum combination of alloying elements and processing

  3. Effect of Alloying Element and Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Corrosion Property of Ni-Cr-Co-Mo Alloy at 950 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Jung, Su Jin; Moon, Byung Hak; Kim, Sung Woo; Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Helium is used as a coolant in a VHTR owing to its high thermal conductivity, inertness, and low neutron absorption. However, helium inevitably includes impurities that create an imbalance in the surface reactivity at the interface of the coolant and the exposed materials. The carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen, and water that are formed by the reaction with the graphite in the core induce various surface reactions that lead to material property changes over time. According to previous reports it was predicted that the outer oxide layer thickness, internal oxide depth, and carbidedepleted zone depth increase to 116 μm, 600 μm, and 1000 μm, respectively, when Alloy 617 is exposed to a plausible impure helium environment at 950 .deg. C for 20 years, based on the reaction rate constant determined from the short time experiment. These values are large enough to pay attention to the material degradation at high temperature, i. e., the life of the IHX. Therefore, finding the range of impurity concentration at which the material is stable, based on the thermodynamics and kinetics determined by a long-term experiment, is very important to the optimum chemistry control for a life extension. Another countermeasure is to improve the material performance through alloy development. Commercial nickel-based wrought alloy is strengthened by a solid solution and precipitation hardening mechanism in a wide temperature range of 500 to 900 .deg. C. The γ' significantly contributes to the strengthening by forming an anti-phase boundary and preventing a dislocation motion at an intermediate temperature range of 700 to 800 .deg. C, but is no longer stable above this temperature range. However, the material for an IHX needs to fulfill the mechanical property requirements in a narrow, very high temperature range of 850 to 950 .deg. C rather than in a wide temperature range. Therefore, it is worth making the effort to find an optimum combination of alloying elements and processing

  4. A comprehensive investigation of the strengthening effects of dislocations, texture and low and high angle grain boundaries in ultrafine grained AA6063 aluminum alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafi, S.; Eivani, A. R.; Samaee, M.; Jafarian, H. R.; Zhou, J.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6063 aluminum alloy was investigated. For this purpose, samples of AA6063 aluminum alloy were deformed up to 10 passes using ECAP and the evolution of microstructure, texture and dislocation

  5. Corrosion evaluation of alloys for nuclear waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Morrison, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Corrosion scouting tests were performed on stainless steel and nickel-based alloys in simulated process solutions to be used in a facility to immobilize high-level radioactive waste by incorporating it into borosilicate glass. Alloys with combined chromium plus molybdenum contents >30% and also >9% molybdenum, were the most resistant to general and local attack. Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference process equipment material, with Alloy 690 and ALLCORR selected for specific applications

  6. Macroscopic and microscopic determinations of residual stresses in thin oxide dispersion strengthened steel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechade, J.L.; Toualbi, L.; Bosonnet, S.; Carlan, Y. de; Castelnau, O.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of components operating at high temperatures, many efforts are deployed to develop new materials. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) materials could be used for heat exchangers or cladding tubes for the new GENIV nuclear reactors. This type of materials are composed with a metallic matrix (usually iron base alloy for nuclear applications or nickel base alloy for heat exchangers) reinforced by a distribution of nano-oxides. They are obtained by powder metallurgy and mechanical alloying. The creep resistance of these materials is excellent, and they usually exhibit a high tensile strength at room temperature. Depending on the cold working and/or the heat treatments, several types of microstructure can be obtained: recrystallised, stress relieved. One of the key challenges is to transform ODS materials into thin tubes (up to 500 microns thick) within a robust fabrication route while keeping the excellent mechanical properties. To prevent cracking during the process or to obtain a final product with low residual stresses, it is important to quantify the effect of the heat treatments on the release of internal stresses. The aim of this study is to show how residual stresses can be determined on different thin tubes using two complementary approaches: (i) macroscopic stresses determination in the tube using beam theory (small cuts along the longitudinal and circumferential directions and measurements of the deflection), (ii) stress determination from x-ray diffraction analyses (surface analyses, using 'sin"2ψ' method with different hypothesis). Depending on the material and the heat treatment, residual stresses vary dramatically and can reach 800 MPa which is not far from the yield stress; comparisons between both methods are performed and suggestions are given in order to optimize the thermo-mechanical treatment of thin ODS tubes. (authors)

  7. Rafting in single crystal nickel-base superalloys – An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Page 1 ... aircraft engines as well as land-based power generation applications. Microstruc- ture and high temperature mechanical properties are the major factors controlling the performance of SX ... Single crystal (SX) superalloys are a group of nickel-base superalloys. They exhibit superior high temperatur mechanical ...

  8. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel-based

  9. Application of immersion phased array UT technique in nickel based alloy weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Taiji; Nagai, Satoshi; Murakami, Koji; Yuguchi, Yasuhiro; Ootsubo, Tooru; Naruse, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    The improvement of defect detection and sizing capabilities for nondestructive inspection technique has been required in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plant. Immersion phased array UT technique which is not affected the surface geometry of welds has been developed for inspection of BWR internals such as shroud, shroud support, and so on. Phased array UT technique was applied for shroud support mockup specimen with fatigue crack and partially SCC. From the experimental results, the superior performance of phased array UT for the RPV outside and inside inspection was shown. (author)

  10. Recent Advances in Creep Modelling of the Nickel Base Superalloy, Alloy 720Li.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William; Whittaker, Mark; Williams, Steve

    2013-03-20

    Recent work in the creep field has indicated that the traditional methodologies involving power law equations are not sufficient to describe wide ranging creep behaviour. More recent approaches such as the Wilshire equations however, have shown promise in a wide range of materials, particularly in extrapolation of short term results to long term predictions. In the aerospace industry however, long term creep behaviour is not critical and more focus is required on the prediction of times to specific creep strains. The current paper illustrates the capability of the Wilshire equations to recreate full creep curves in a modern nickel superalloy. Furthermore, a finite-element model based on this method has been shown to accurately predict stress relaxation behaviour allowing more accurate component lifing.

  11. Application of a multi-component mean field model to the coarsening behaviour of a nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Rowe, A.; Wells, J.; Basoalto, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-component mean field model has been applied to predict the particle evolution of the γ′ particles in the nickel based superalloy IN738LC, capturing the transition from an initial multimodal particle distribution towards a unimodal distribution. Experiments have been performed to measure the coarsening behaviour during isothermal heat treatments using quantitative analysis of micrographs. The three dimensional size of the γ′ particles has been approximated for use in simulation. A coupled thermodynamic/mean field modelling framework is presented and applied to describe the particle size evolution. A robust numerical implementation of the model is detailed that makes use of surrogate models to capture the thermodynamics. Different descriptions of the particle growth rate of non-dilute particle systems have been explored. A numerical investigation of the influence of scatter in chemical composition upon the particle size distribution evolution has been carried out. It is shown how the tolerance in chemical composition of a given alloy can impact particle coarsening behaviour. Such predictive capability is of interest in understanding variation in component performance and the refinement of chemical composition tolerances. It has been found that the inclusion of misfit strain within the current model formulation does not have a significant affect upon predicted long term particle coarsening behaviour. Model predictions show good agreement with experimental data. In particular, the model predicts a reduced growth rate of the mean particle size during the transition from bimodal to unimodal distributions.

  12. Microstructure of selective laser melted CM247LC nickel-based superalloy and its evolution through heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, V.D., E-mail: dv272@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Messé, O.M.D.M.; Barnard, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Baker, S.; Illston, T. [Materials Solutions, Unit 8, Great Western Business Park, McKenzie Way, Worcester WR4 9GN (United Kingdom); Stone, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    The selective laser melting of high temperature alloys is of great interest to the aerospace industry as it offers the prospect of producing more complex geometries than can be achieved with other manufacturing methods. In this study, the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, has been characterised following selective laser melting and after a post deposition heat treatment below the γ′ solvus temperature. In the as-deposited state, scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction revealed a fine, cellular microstructure with preferential alignment of 〈001〉 along the build direction. A high dislocation density was seen at the periphery of the cells, indicating substantial localised deformation of the material. Fine primary MC carbides were also observed in the inter-cellular regions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy identified the occurrence of very fine γ′ precipitates, approximately 5 nm in diameter, dispersed within the gamma phase. After heat treatment, the elongated cell colonies were observed to partially coalesce, accompanied by a decrease in dislocation density, producing columnar grains along the build direction. Cuboidal γ′ precipitates approximately 500 nm in diameter were observed to form in the recrystallised grains, accompanied by larger γ′ precipitates on the grain boundaries.

  13. Strain Amount Dependent Grain Size and Orientation Developments during Hot Compression of a Polycrystalline Nickel Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoai He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlling grain size in polycrystalline nickel base superalloy is vital for obtaining required mechanical properties. Typically, a uniform and fine grain size is required throughout forging process to realize the superplastic deformation. Strain amount occupied a dominant position in manipulating the dynamic recrystallization (DRX process and regulating the grain size of the alloy during hot forging. In this article, the high-throughput double cone specimen was introduced to yield wide-range strain in a single sample. Continuous variations of effective strain ranging from 0.23 to 1.65 across the whole sample were achieved after reaching a height reduction of 70%. Grain size is measured to be decreased from the edge to the center of specimen with increase of effective strain. Small misorientation tended to generate near the grain boundaries, which was manifested as piled-up dislocation in micromechanics. After the dislocation density reached a critical value, DRX progress would be initiated at higher deformation region, leading to the refinement of grain size. During this process, the transformations from low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs to high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs and from subgrains to DRX grains are found to occur. After the accomplishment of DRX progress, the neonatal grains are presented as having similar orientation inside the grain boundary.

  14. Microstructure of selective laser melted CM247LC