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Sample records for strengthened activities relating

  1. Relations of meeting national public health recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with strength, body composition, and obesity: the Women's Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Jackson, Allen W; Morrow, James R

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relations of meeting or not meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with percentage of body fat, body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters, squared), muscular strength, and obesity classification in women. We analyzed data on 918 women aged 20 to 83 years in the Women's Injury Study from 2007 to 2009. A baseline orthopedic examination included measurement of height, body weight, skinfolds, and muscle strength. Women who met muscle strengthening activity recommendations had significantly lower BMI and percentage of body fat and higher muscle strength. Women not meeting those recommendations were more likely to be obese (BMI ≥ 30) compared with women who met the recommendations after we adjusted for age, race, and aerobic physical activity (odds ratio = 2.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.61, 3.23). There was a small but significant positive association between meeting muscle strengthening activity recommendations and muscular strength, a moderate inverse association with body fat percentage, and a strong inverse association with obesity classification, providing preliminary support for the muscle strengthening activity recommendation for women.

  2. A study on strengthening measures of non-proliferation regime through the export control system of sensitive materials, equipment and technology related to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Mitsuru; Komizo, Yasuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    The strengthened safeguards caused from safeguards experiences to Iraq and DPRK leads to the expansion of the IAEA's activities for verification of all nuclear activities as well as verification of nuclear material in the States. The purpose of the activities, of course, includes detection of undeclared exports and imports of specified equipment and non-nuclear material. The Additional Protocol to the agreements between States and the IAEA for the application of safeguards requires to the States to declare the exports and imports information regarding specified equipment and non-nuclear material corresponding to the export control list that is established by the nuclear suppliers group. The Additional Protocol also insists the IAEA's right to access to the location identified by the State to resolve a question related to the declarations. Recently, the IAEA detected the black market group of the sensitive materials, equipment and technologies relevant to the nuclear proliferation through the safeguards activities to Iran and Libya. International community stated deeply concerns to the indecent facts. This paper would discuss and propose the supplemental strengthening measures of non-proliferation regime by effective combination of the safeguards activities under additional protocol and the export control regime. (author)

  3. Strengthening CERN’s international relations

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Council’s decision in June to open membership of CERN to the world in a clear and well-defined way means that it’s time to strengthen our international relations. Non-Member State interest, and participation, in CERN has been rising for many years, and with the LHC running smoothly that trend is continuing.   Furthermore, the long-term future of particle physics may well see Europe contributing to facilities in other regions of the world, with European participation coordinated through CERN. It was with these developments in mind that I established the External Relations Office under Felicitas Pauss at the start of my mandate last year. Council’s decision underlines the need for that office, and clarifies its liaison role of with Member and non-Member States. Clarity of function demands clarity of name, so from now on, the Office will be known as the Office for International Relations. It will continue to be headed by Felicitas Pauss. The Office’s main r...

  4. Acute dosing of vortioxetine strengthens event-related brain activity associated with engagement of attention and cognitive functioning in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Bundgaard, Cecilie H; Graversen, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the antidepressant vortioxetine have demonstrated beneficial effects on cognitive dysfunction associated with depression. To elucidate how vortioxetine modulates neuronal activity during cognitive processing we investigated the effects of vortioxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) in rats performin...... synchronization during attentive and cognitive processing.......Studies of the antidepressant vortioxetine have demonstrated beneficial effects on cognitive dysfunction associated with depression. To elucidate how vortioxetine modulates neuronal activity during cognitive processing we investigated the effects of vortioxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) in rats performing...... increased EEG power in all regions. Additionally, neuronal synchronization was increased in vehicle-treated rats during both early and late ERP responses to target tones. This indicates a significant consistency of local phases across trials during high attentional load. During early sensory processing...

  5. STRENGTHENING COMPANY IMAGE IN SERVICE SECTOR BY IMPROVING RELATIONAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Jaganjac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to the theoretical model of managing intellectual capital with an emphasis on the relational capital. Relational capital is especially relevant in the service sector, where differentiation is mostly based on non-price competition. Development of relational capital which strengthens the image through satisfaction of internal and external users encourages innovation and allows each process to be enriched with new knowledge. To illustrate this concept, the paper presents an empirical study of the participants of international students’ conference, coming from nine faculties from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Croatia. Paper intends to define the steps to follow in developing a model of relational capital management at universities, taking in consideration the interaction between students' needs, defined through five levels and relationships with higher education institutions. The aim of research is also to encourage innovative processes in Bosnia and Herzegovina and region, which are not always needed to be directly connected to curricular activities, but are derived from them. The results indicate the motives and motivation of both students and professors at fifth level of interaction. It also presents possible ways to expand cooperation in the fifth stage of interaction between students and higher education institutions. As the image of the company and its employees and clients is interconnected, this research points to elements that can be improved in further interaction, in order to achieve effects on each side.

  6. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  7. Strengthening health-related rehabilitation services at national levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John; Lains, Jorge; Nugraha, Boya

    2018-04-18

    One of the aims of the World Health Organization's Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up) rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory) missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.

  8. Strengthening health-related rehabilitation services at national levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Gutenbrunner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the aims of the World Health Organization’s Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. Recommendations: It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. Conclusion: This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.

  9. Epidemiological investigation of muscle-strengthening activities and cognitive function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities and executive cognitive function among older adults, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were employed (N = 2157; 60-85 years). Muscle-strengthening activities were assessed via self-report, with cognitive function assessed using the digit symbol substitution test. After adjusting for age, age-squared, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, C-reactive protein, smoking, comorbid illness and physical activity, muscle-strengthening activities were significantly associated with cognitive function (βadjusted = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-5.1; P cognitive function score. In conclusion, muscle-strengthening activities are associated with executive cognitive function among older U.S. adults, underscoring the importance of promoting both aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening activities to older adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Anaerobic muscle strengthening physical activity and depression severity among USA adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangin, Causenge; Harris, Randall; Binkley, Philip; Schwartzbaum, Judith; Focht, Brian

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the association between depression and anaerobic physical activity (while controlling aerobic physical activity), using a nationally representative sample of USA adults ( n  = 7354) who participated in the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2006). We defined depression using the validated "Patient Health Questionnaire" (PHQ 9 ) scale of 0-27 as PHQ 9   ≥  10. Severity of depression was classified by clinically established PHQ 9 levels: mild (5-9), dysthymic (10-14), moderate (15-19), and major depression ( ≥ 20). We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios of depression associated with distinct types of activity (only aerobic, only anaerobic, combined regime). We used multinomial logistic regression to examine associations of anaerobic activity with various severity levels of depression (mild, dysthymic, moderate, and major depression) with adjustment for aerobic activity. Women had higher prevalence of depression than men (8.4% versus 5.7%), whereas anaerobic muscle strengthening activity was more common in men than women (35% versus 24%). Adjusting for aerobic activity , anaerobic activity was inversely associated with depression (PHQ 9   ≥  10) in women under 50 (OR = 0.57; 95%CI = 0.41-0.81), all women (OR = 0.59; 0.43-0.80), men under 50 (OR = 0.85; 0.58-1.2), and all men (OR = 0.72; 0.51-1.01). Anaerobic activity was inversely associated with severity level of depressive symptoms in women and men. The combined regimen of anaerobic muscle strengthening activity and meeting the Physical Activity Guideline for America (PAGA) was related to the lowest odds ratio of depression in women (OR = 0.50; 95%CI = 0.33-0.75) and men (OR = 0.39; 95%CI = 0.23-0.62). Independent of aerobic physical activity, anaerobic muscle strengthening activity is significantly and inversely associated with depression among USA adults.

  11. Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Pan, An; Mekary, Rania A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that aerobic physical activity can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether muscle-strengthening activities are beneficial for the prevention of T2D is unclear. This study examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities with the risk of T2D...... at baseline. Participants reported weekly time spent on resistance exercise, lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (yoga, stretching, toning), and aerobic moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and in 2004/2005. Cox regression with adjustment for major determinants for T2D...... include that muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity and other types of physical activity were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire and that the study population consisted of registered nurses with mostly European ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that engagement in muscle...

  12. Initiating and Strengthening College and University Instructional Physical Activity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education supports the offering of strong college and university instructional physical activity programs (C/UIPAPs). With a rapid decline in physical activity levels, high stress levels, and unhealthy weight-loss practices among college-age students, it is apparent that C/UIPAPs embedded in the…

  13. Perceived loading and muscle activity during hip strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). METHODS: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women......, using elastic resistance and isotonic exercise machines. These recordings were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). The exercises were performed at four levels of perceived loading reported using the Borg CR10: light (Borg ≤2), moderate (Borg >2-... (r =0.62±0.54). The abduction exercise performed with elastic resistance displayed significantly higher gluteus medius nEMG recruitment than the in machine exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the Borg CR10 scale can be a useful tool for estimating intensity levels during...

  14. Rationalization of activation energies for creep of dispersion strengthened aluminium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno, F.; Ruano, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    The high apparent activation energies for creep of various aluminum dispersion strengthened materials have been analyzed. A direct relationship between the activation energies and stress exponents for every material has been observed. The values of the Q a p/n a p ratios group around some constant values, Q m , which depend solely on the deformation mechanism. Therefore, Q m establishes an easy, fast and reliable criterion to determine the underlying creep deformation mechanism of any reinforced materials. (Author) 18 refs

  15. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health.

  16. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important to optimize performance and prevent injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence based recommendations are important...... for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...... and expressed as a percentage of the maximal EMG. Seventeen women (aged 24-55 years) without serious disorders participated. Several of the investigated exercises - press-up, prone flexion, one-arm row and prone abduction at Borg 3 and press-up, push-up plus and one-arm row at Borg 8 - predominantly activated...

  17. A project for the strengthening of cooperative relations between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Nho, I. Y.

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Vietnam and strengthening of cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, the current status and prospect of electricity, use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between MOST/MOSTE, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with Vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  18. How can we strengthen students’ social relations in order to reduce school dropout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    on ethnographic methods, including 22 qualitative interviews with students 17-19 years old and fieldwork with participant observations at four vocational schools over 40 days, including informal interviews and discussion meetings with managers, teachers, counselors and students. As part of the fieldwork, four......BACKGROUND: This article describes the rationale and contents of an intervention program aimed at strengthening students' social relations in order to reduce dropout from vocational schools in Denmark. Taking its theoretical cue from the concept of 'social participation', a qualitative study...... was performed to investigate the specific relationships between the social environment within the schools and the institutional structures in order to analyse reasons for school dropout and their relation to well-being, cigarette smoking and substance use. METHODS: The development study was based...

  19. Strengthening the effective implementation of research and development in la union, Philippines: it's relation to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumlao, F.S.; Baga, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study presents a general framework of strengthening the effective implementation of R and D system's integration as a way of supporting food security and sustainable environmental management. The descriptive method was used through the aid of a questionnaire floated to 40 respondents conducting 103 studies from four R and D institutions in La Union, Philippines in 1992-2002. On the status of the 103 R and D studies implemented, the respondents made use of the single and combined technology development process within the R and D continuum, 33% are classified as upstream, 15.54% are midstream and 29.13% are downstream and only 6.79% are utilized and commercialized. The R and D studies were conducted in a piece-meal method and not all the technologies generated were further tested for adoption and verification. This status contributed to a very low adoption rate of research outputs. All the respondents were involved in research for 14 years, 20% in the development activities for 13 years. The lack of involvement of the 80% respondents on development activities signify that research activities were not disseminated to the clientele. This shows the lack of R and D System integration on the link between research and extension. Hence, a multi-sectoral interface between and among research, extension and client system was developed in relation to sustainable development. (author)

  20. Urban-Rural Differences in Aerobic Physical Activity, Muscle Strengthening Exercise, and Screen-Time Sedentary Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael C; Song, Jaejoon; Taylor, Wendell C; Durand, Casey P; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2018-02-16

    Compared to their urban counterparts, US residents in rural settings face an increased risk of premature mortality and health problems that have been linked to insufficient physical activity (PA) levels. There is limited literature regarding urban-rural differences in adherence to national guidelines for all 3 PA-related behaviors. We investigated urban-rural differences in aerobic PA, leisure-time muscle strengthening PA, and leisure screen-time sedentary behavior in a combined data set of the 2011-2014 waves (N = 14,188) of the nationally representative National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey. We found no evidence of a difference between large urban and rural residents' aerobic PA levels. The typical number of weekly bouts of leisure-time muscle strengthening PA was 25% lower for rural residents (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.751, P rural residents to engage in 6.6% less daily leisure screen-time sedentary behavior than their large urban counterparts (IRR = 0.934, P = .031). Taken together with previous literature, these results suggest that rural residents may engage in comparable levels of total PA, but less leisure-time PA, than their urban counterparts. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D.; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use. PMID:25909220

  2. New strategies to strengthen the soil science knowledge of student during field activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Marta; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá; Masaguer, Alberto; Diéguez, Carmen; Almorox, Javier; Pérez, Juana; Santano, Jesús; Mariscal, Ignacio; Gutiérrez, Jesús; Moliner, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Soil Science can be considered a discipline that serves as a fundamental base for other disciplines such as ecology, agronomy, plant production, etc. In order to demonstrate the relevance and connection to real world it is important to develop field and practical activities. Field activities help student to comprehend soil as part of the landscape and the natural ecosystems. These activities also help them to realize the importance of historical soil use on the quality of todaýs soil and landscapes. It is well known that fieldwork practices are essential to strengthen the soil science knowledge of students and their learning process. These fieldwork practices involve doing a physical activity rather than passively attending lectures or watching demonstrations. The simple visual and tactile observations in the field could be used to predict soil behavior and these direct observations are best made in the field. Students who learned in the field using an active work are more motivated, have more positive attitudes, and place more value in their work than those that learn passively. Therefore, when scheduling the coursework an important time is assigned to field work, which sometimes is not sufficiently profited from the standpoint of student learning taking into consideration the economic effort involved. We are aware that part of the students are simple spectators in the field so we encourage their participation by making them responsible for obtaining part of the information about the place and the types of soils that will be visited. On the other hand, we will invite the students to do some game based exercises, which are fun and force them to work in groups and to pay attention to explanations. Our objective is to present the information in a more attractive way, making the learning of soil profile description and easier task. The exercises that we propose are both field and problem-based learning to make sure that the knowledge is more memorable (non

  3. Pumping Iron in Australia: Prevalence, Trends and Sociodemographic Correlates of Muscle Strengthening Activity Participation from a National Sample of 195,926 Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Bennie

    Full Text Available The current Australian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular muscle-strengthening activity (e.g. strength or resistance training. However, public health surveillance studies describing the patterns and trends of population-level muscle-strengthening activity participation are sparse. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle-strengthening activity participation in a national-representative sample of Australians aged 15 years and over.Between 2001 and 2010, quarterly cross-sectional national telephone surveys were conducted as part of the Australian Sports Commission's 'Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey'. Pooled population-weighted proportions were calculated for reporting: [i] no muscle-strengthening activity; [ii] insufficient muscle-strengthening activity, and [iii] sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. Associations with sociodemographic variables were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses.Out of 195,926 participants, aged 15-98 years, only 10.4% (95% CI: 10.1-10.7 and 9.3% (95% CI: 9.1-9.5 met the muscle-strengthening activity recommendations in the past two weeks and in the past year, respectively. Older adults (50+ years, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional/remote areas and with lower education were less likely to report sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (p<0.001. Over the 10-year monitoring period, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (6.4% to 12.0%, p-value for linear trend <0.001.A vast majority of Australian adults did not engage in sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. There is a need for public health strategies to support participation in muscle-strengthening activity in this population. Such strategies should target older and lower educated adults, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional

  4. Plasticity-Related Gene 1 Affects Mouse Barrel Cortex Function via Strengthening of Glutamatergic Thalamocortical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unichenko, Petr; Kirischuk, Sergei; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Baumgart, Jan; Roskoden, Thomas; Schneider, Patrick; Sommer, Angela; Horta, Guilherme; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Nitsch, Robert; Vogt, Johannes; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-07-01

    Plasticity-related gene-1 (PRG-1) is a brain-specific protein that modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Here we investigated the functional role of PRG-1 in adolescent and adult mouse barrel cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with wild-type (WT) animals, PRG-1-deficient (KO) mice showed specific behavioral deficits in tests assessing sensorimotor integration and whisker-based sensory discrimination as shown in the beam balance/walking test and sandpaper tactile discrimination test, respectively. At P25-31, spontaneous network activity in the barrel cortex in vivo was higher in KO mice compared with WT littermates, but not at P16-19. At P16-19, sensory evoked cortical responses in vivo elicited by single whisker stimulation were comparable in KO and WT mice. In contrast, at P25-31 evoked responses were smaller in amplitude and longer in duration in WT animals, whereas KO mice revealed no such developmental changes. In thalamocortical slices from KO mice, spontaneous activity was increased already at P16-19, and glutamatergic thalamocortical inputs to Layer 4 spiny stellate neurons were potentiated. We conclude that genetic ablation of PRG-1 modulates already at P16-19 spontaneous and evoked excitability of the barrel cortex, including enhancement of thalamocortical glutamatergic inputs to Layer 4, which distorts sensory processing in adulthood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. MHI's activities to maintain, strengthen and hand down the nuclear technology base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigemitsu; Kanda, Makoto; Oketani, Koichiro; Hamasaki, Manabu; Uchida, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The recent worldwide 'Nuclear Renaissance' is encouraging the globalization of our nuclear business and making us aware of the increasing importance of the human education and trainings for it. The basic concept of MHI's human resource development and its improvement is 'The improvement in the skills and motivation of each employee leads to the strengthening of the company-wide technology base'. Under this concept we are improving our job efficiency continuously by means of information technology, institutionalizing the means to improve the individual skills and motivation and investing for the effective succession of the skills. In order to take real advantage of those efforts for maintaining, strengthening and effectively handing down the nuclear technology base, it is imperative to keep the volume of actual jobs. So, we have to keep in mind that having actual business continuously is extremely important to keep the sound and solid technology base. (author)

  6. Activities to maintain, strengthen and hand down the nuclear technology base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Makoto; Oketani, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    The recent worldwide 'Nuclear Renaissance' is encouraging the globalization of our nuclear business and making us aware of the increasing importance of the human education and trainings for it. The basic concept of MHI's human resource development and its improvement is 'The improvement in the skills and motivation of each employee leads to the strengthening of the company-wide technology base'. Under this concept we are improving our job efficiency continuously by means of information technology, institutionalizing the means to improve the individual skills and motivation and investing for the effective succession of the skills. In order to take real advantage of those efforts for maintaining, strengthening and effectively handing down the nuclear technology base, it is imperative to keep the volume of actual jobs. So, we have to keep in mind that having actual business continuously is extremely important to keep the sound and solid technology base. (author)

  7. Early interglacial carbonate-dilution events in the South China Sea: Implications for strengthened typhoon activities over subtropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Enqing; Tian, Jun; Qiao, Peijun; Wan, Sui; Xie, Xin; Yang, Wenguang

    2015-10-01

    A compilation of many late Quaternary marine sediment records from the northern South China Sea (SCS) continental slope confirms 15-50% reductions in sedimentary calcium carbonate concentrations between 11.0 and 8.5 ka BP in the early Holocene. This low carbonate% event occurred at a time when the regional sea level rose from -50 m to -10 m, which drowned large areas of continental shelves especially those near and within the Taiwan Strait. This event is associated with a significant increase in bulk sedimentation rates on the upper continental slope and the relative abundance of fine-grained detritus. Sediment provenance analyses suggest a dominant terrigenous input from Taiwan and a minor contribution from Luzon during the low carbonate% event, similar to the background terrigenous deposition in other periods of the Holocene. Two comparable low carbonate% events, respectively from the beginning of marine isotope stages 5.5 and 7.3, have also been recognized, pointing to similar causal factors. While carbonate dissolution and carbonate accumulation rate should not have been responsible, increased terrigenous input and dilution is considered as the main cause for the recurrent low carbonate% events in early interglacials. We further hypothesize that, during early interglacials, fluvial sediment discharge from Taiwan and Luzon intensified due to stronger typhoon activities, and massive fine-grained sediments from these two end members may have been transported to the northern SCS continental slope via surface and deep ocean currents. The conjecture of strengthened typhoon activities over East Asia during the early Holocene is supported by high ocean heat contents in the West Pacific Warm Pool area with the prevailing La Niña-like conditions.

  8. How can we strengthen students' social relations in order to reduce school dropout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    and educational activities and to enhance the capacity of teachers and counselors to deal with drug use problems among students. CONCLUSION: The development of new intervention programs might benefit from adopting a theoretical and methodological perspective that enables a closer exploration of the everyday...

  9. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Harshitha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined effectiveness & effects of kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening in subjects with patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of patellofemoral osteoarthritis fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 in each group. Taping along with quadriceps strengthening program is compared to the quadriceps strengthening program alone. Pain were measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, knee ROM were measured by Goniometer, Functional status were measured by Western Ontario McMaster Universities index (WOMAC, score. Measurements were taken pre & post intervention. Results: The results indicated that kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening exercises showed there was statistically significant improvement in pain (<0.05, knee ROM (<0.05 and functional activities (<0.05 after 6 weeks compared to quadriceps strengthening alone. Conclusion: Subjects with kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening showed significant improvement in reducing pain, in improving ROM & functional activities at the end of 6th week treatment when compared to subjects with patellofemoral osteoarthritis underwent quadriceps strengthening exercises alone.

  10. Plasticity-Related Gene 1 Affects Mouse Barrel Cortex Function via Strengthening of Glutamatergic Thalamocortical Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Unichenko, Petr; Kirischuk, Sergei; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Baumgart, Jan; Roskoden, Thomas; Schneider, Patrick; Sommer, Angela; Horta, Guilherme; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Nitsch, Robert; Vogt, Johannes; Luhmann, Heiko J.

    2016-01-01

    Plasticity-related gene-1 (PRG-1) is a brain-specific protein that modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Here we investigated the functional role of PRG-1 in adolescent and adult mouse barrel cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with wild-type (WT) animals, PRG-1-deficient (KO) mice showed specific behavioral deficits in tests assessing sensorimotor integration and whisker-based sensory discrimination as shown in the beam balance/walking test and sandpaper tactile discriminatio...

  11. Uncovering young children's emerging identities related to their literacy experiences: Suggestions to strengthen language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen, Melanie Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explored how young children’s identities emerged from their drawings and accounts of their favourite stories as we argue the importance of understanding children in the context of school and language education. Sixty-six (n=66 children of two urban schools in Pretoria, South Africa were asked to write about and draw their favourite story. The participants were between the ages of six and seven years. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory and Chen’s theory of the construction of identity in a social context were used as conceptual framework. This conceptual framework could be linked to the findings which suggested that the children related their drawings and versions of their favourite stories to their interpretations of their life worlds. The prominent themes from the data could be associated with the self, the family, familiar objects and known animals. Their literacy experiences and the socio-cultural influences on the children’s construction of their identities were apparent in their work. We argue that teachers need to better understand how children understand themselves in relation to the world around them when making decisions about effective language education.

  12. Activities for the strengthening of Defense Preparedness in formation of radiochemists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau-González, MSc. Maritza; Hernández-Garcés, MSc. Anel; Corona-Hernández, MSc. José Á.; Ruiz-Machado, Lic. José R.; Zamora-Lugo, Dr.C Luis O.

    2015-01-01

    The discipline Defense Preparedness in Bachelor of Radiochemistry, is complemented by the other subjects of Basic and Specialized Chemistry training through a series of contents that equip the professional greater awareness of their social responsibility in relation to peaceful use of nuclear energy, the prevention of radiological accidents and environmental protection. In this paper examples of learning activities aimed at the independent work of students are introduced, allowing, systemically, a coherent link between the disciplines of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Defense Preparedness, through the study of toxic substances of different nature and risks that can arise for human health during handling and employment, economic resources and the environment; aspects to consider within the dimensions of National Security. (author)

  13. Opportunism of University Lecturers As a Way to Adaptate the External Control Activities Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita V. Kurbatova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present the Russian government is undertaking a higher education system reform actively introducing management tools of new public management. Implementation of these instruments is accompanied by the transformation of universities in the customer-oriented organizations and lecturers into the employees. There is a substitution of incentives based on the existing informal norms of academic standards and reputation mechanisms of control to the incentives based on the quasi-market conditions artificially generated by the state and corresponding to the mechanisms of external assessment and monitoring. Practices changing used by lecturers to follow their interests is the inevitable result and more widespread form is opportunism. The purpose of the paper is to characterize the forms of manifestation of opportunistic behavior of university lecturers emerging as a result of changes in the nature of lecturers’ contract in the conditions of university governance managerisation. The main forms of lecturers’ opportunism and assesses of its degree based on data analysis of the two waves of the expert survey on the problems of assessing the impact of implementation mechanisms of external evaluation of their activities and the questionnaire survey of lecturers more than 40 Russian universities of different status are described as well as lecturers’ strategy of behavior, which are presented as a combination of different severity practices used by opportunistic behavior is highlighted. It shows the relation between the non-observance of academic freedom and the choice of lecturers’ strategies conduct. It is proved that the lecturers of Russian universities depending on the accumulated stocks of human and social capital as well as the resource capacity of separate universities are choosing different strategies to follow their own interests, which differ in the level of shirking in different areas of activity. All this is accompanied by

  14. Reward memory relieves anxiety-related behavior through synaptic strengthening and protein kinase C in dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhuofan; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are presumably associated with negative memory. Psychological therapies are widely used to treat this mental deficit in human beings based on the view that positive memory competes with negative memory and relieves anxiety status. Cellular and molecular processes underlying psychological therapies remain elusive. Therefore, we have investigated its mechanisms based on a mouse model in which food reward at one open-arm of the elevated plus-maze was used for training mice to form reward memory and challenge the open arms. Mice with the reward training showed increased entries and stay time in reward open-arm versus neutral open-arm as well as in open-arms versus closed-arms. Accompanying with reward memory formation and anxiety relief, glutamatergic synaptic transmission in dentate gyrus in vivo and dendritic spines in granule cells became upregulated. This synaptic up-regulation was accompanied by the expression of more protein kinase C (PKC) in the dendritic spines. The inhibition of PKC by chelerythrine impaired the formation of reward memory, the relief of anxiety-related behavior and the up-regulation of glutamate synapses. Our results suggest that reward-induced positive memory relieves mouse anxiety-related behavior by strengthening synaptic efficacy and PKC in the hippocampus, which imply the underlying cellular and molecular processes involved in the beneficial effects of psychological therapies treating anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Leisure-time aerobic physical activity, muscle-strengthening activity and mortality risks among US adults: the NHANES linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S; Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Okoro, Catherine A; Wen, Xiao Jun; Balluz, Lina S

    2014-02-01

    Regular physical activity elicits multiple health benefits in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the mortality risks associated with levels of leisure-time aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans among US adults. We analysed data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with linked mortality data obtained through 2006. Cox proportional HRs with 95% CIs were estimated to assess risks for all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality associated with aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity. Of 10 535 participants, 665 died (233 deaths from CVD) during an average of 4.8-year follow-up. Compared with participants who were physically inactive, the adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 0.64 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.79) among those who were physically active (engaging in ≥150 min/week of the equivalent moderate-intensity physical activity) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.97) among those who were insufficiently active (engaging in >0 to benefits among insufficiently active adults.

  16. COMPARISON OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING HIGH-SPEED RUNNING AND VARIOUS HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Jens Asmund Brevik; Bencke, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Background Several studies have examined the effect of hamstring strength exercises upon hamstring strains in team sports that involve many sprints. However, there has been no cross comparison among muscle activation of these hamstring training exercises with actual sprinting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine different hamstring exercises and compare the muscle activity in the hamstring muscle group during various exercises with the muscular activity produced during maximal sprints. Methods Twelve male sports students (age 25 ± 6.2 years, 1.80 ± 7.1 m, body mass 81.1 ± 15.6 kg) participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris to measure muscle activity during seven hamstrings exercises and sprinting together with 3D motion capture to establish at what hip and knee angles maximal muscle activation (EMG) occurs. Maximal EMG activity during sprints for each muscle was used in order to express each exercise as a percentage of max activation during sprinting. Results The main findings were that maximal EMG activity of the different hamstring exercises were on average between 40-65% (Semitendinosus), 18-40% (biceps femoris) and 40-75% (Semimembranosus) compared with the max EMG activity in sprints, which were considered as 100%. The laying kick together with the Nordic hamstring exercises and its variations had the highest muscle activations, while the cranes showed the lowest muscle activation (in all muscles) together with the standing kick for the semimembranosus. In addition, angles at which the peak EMG activity of the hamstring muscle occurs were similar for the Nordic hamstring exercises and different for the two crane exercises (hip angle), standing kick (hip angle) and the laying kick (knee angle) compared with the sprint. Conclusions Nordic hamstring exercises with its variation together with the laying kick activates the hamstrings at high levels and

  17. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  18. Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-21

    Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.

  19. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. METHODS: 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric......BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps...... tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions...

  20. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions......BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps...... muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. METHODS: 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric...

  1. Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    ) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG...

  2. Research and development strategy and maintenance engineering to strengthen the basis of ageing management. International activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Naoto

    2009-01-01

    Systematic development of information basis for database and knowledge-base has been performed in addition to the development of codes and standards by academic societies, regulatory bodies and industries through the intensive domestic safety research collaborations and international collaboration, through the continuous revision of Strategy Maps for Ageing Management and Safe Long Term Operation. Important international activities in IAEA and OECD/NEA especially for knowledge-base and extraction of commendable practices in ageing management are discussed. (author)

  3. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  4. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-12-01

    While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (ptubing (5.7±0.6) compared with knee extensions performed in training machine (5.9±0.5). Knee extensions performed with elastic tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG-angle patterns during the range of motion. 5.

  5. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  6. P2-28: An Amplification of Feedback from Facial Muscles Strengthened Sympathetic Activations to Emotional Facial Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younbyoung Chae

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that feedback from cutaneous and muscular afferents influences our emotions during the control of facial expressions. Enhanced facial expressiveness is correlated with an increase in autonomic arousal, and self-reported emotional experience, while limited facial expression attenuates these responses. The present study was aimed at investigating the difference in emotional response in imitated versus observed facial expressions. For this, we measured the facial electromyogram of the corrugator muscle as well as the skin conductance response (SCR while participants were either imitating or simply observing emotional facial expressions. We found that participants produced significantly greater facial electromyogram activation during imitations compared to observations of angry faces. Similarly, they exhibited significantly greater SCR during imitations to angry faces compared to observations. An amplification of feedback from face muscles during imitation strengthened sympathetic activation to negative emotional cues. These findings suggest that manipulations of muscular feedback could modulate the bodily expression of emotion and perhaps also the emotional response itself.

  7. How can we strengthen students' social relations in order to reduce school dropout? An intervention development study within four Danish vocational schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan; Zinckernagel, Line; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Stock, Christiane; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2015-05-22

    This article describes the rationale and contents of an intervention program aimed at strengthening students' social relations in order to reduce dropout from vocational schools in Denmark. Taking its theoretical cue from the concept of 'social participation', a qualitative study was performed to investigate the specific relationships between the social environment within the schools and the institutional structures in order to analyse reasons for school dropout and their relation to well-being, cigarette smoking and substance use. The development study was based on ethnographic methods, including 22 qualitative interviews with students 17-19 years old and fieldwork with participant observations at four vocational schools over 40 days, including informal interviews and discussion meetings with managers, teachers, counselors and students. As part of the fieldwork, four additional qualitative interviews and four group interviews were conducted with students 16-25 years old. The qualitative data collection resulted in seven major themes to be addressed in the intervention: social relations, sole focus on professional skills, institutionalized individualization, importance of the introduction period, physical surroundings and schedules, tobacco and cannabis use and communication about drug use. The program addressing these themes incorporates suggestions that are meant to improve how teachers welcome new students, to enable greater integration of social and educational activities and to enhance the capacity of teachers and counselors to deal with drug use problems among students. The development of new intervention programs might benefit from adopting a theoretical and methodological perspective that enables a closer exploration of the everyday social practices in which interventions are embedded. Thus, we aimed to create a comprehensive intervention that worked through organizational changes in everyday school practices. Intervention programs must be planned in

  8. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  9. Effect of Strengthening Mechanism on Strain-Rate Related Tensile Properties of Low-Carbon Sheet Steels for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindya; Biswas, Pinaki; Tarafder, S.; Chakrabarti, D.; Sivaprasad, S.

    2018-05-01

    In order to ensure crash resistance of the steels used in automotive components, the ensile deformation behavior needs to be studied and predicted not only under quasi-static condition, but also under dynamic loading rates. In the present study, tensile tests have been performed on four different automobile grade sheet steels, namely interstitial free steel, dual-phase 600 and 800, and a carbon manganese steel over the strain rate regime of 0.001-800/s. Apart from the variation in strength (which always increased with strain rate), the effect of strengthening mechanism on strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening behavior has been evaluated. Strain rate sensitivity was found to increase at high-strain rate regime for all the steels. Contribution of solid solution hardening on strain rate sensitivity at lower plastic strains was found to be higher compared to dislocation strengthening and second-phase hardening. However, precipitation hardening coupled with solid solution hardening produced the highest strain rate sensitivity, in C-Mn-440 steel at high strain rates. Different strain-rate-sensitive models which take into account the change in yield stress and strain hardening behavior with strain rate for ductile materials were used to predict the flow behavior of these sheet steels at strain rates up to 800/s.

  10. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  11. Effects of nano-particles strengthening activating flux on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TIG welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xiong; Shen, Jun; Cheng, Liang; Li, Yang; Pu, Yayun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increased nano-particles strengthening activating flux degraded TIGed seams. • The reaction between SiC particles and Mg alloy produced Al 4 C 3 and Mg 2 Si phases. • Al 4 C 3 and SiC particles promoted the nucleation and suppressed the growth of α-Mg. • Refined α-Mg grains, precipitated phase and SiC particles enhanced TIGed joints. - Abstract: In this paper, AZ31 magnesium alloy joints were processed by nano-particles strengthening activating flux tungsten inert gas (NSA-TIG) welding, which was achieved by the mixed TiO 2 and nano-SiC particles coated on the samples before welding tests. The macro/micro structural observation and mechanical properties evaluation of the welding joints were conducted by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and tension and microhardness tests. The results showed that nano-particles strengthening activating flux effective improved the microstructure, microhardness in fusion zone, ultimate tensile strength of the TIG welding joints. In addition, the chemical reaction between part of SiC particles and AZ31 magnesium alloy produced Al 4 C 3 and Mg 2 Si in the joints. The Al 4 C 3 performed as nucleating agents for α-Mg and the dispersed Mg 2 Si and SiC particles enhanced the mechanical properties of the NSA-TIG welding joints. However, large heat input induced by the increase of the surface coating density of the nano-particles strengthening activating flux, increased the α-Mg grain sizes and weakened the mechanical properties of the welded joints. Therefore, the grain size of α-Mg, distribution of β-Mg 17 Al 12 , Mg 2 Si and SiC particles together influenced the evolution of the mechanical properties of the NSA-TIG welded AZ31 magnesium alloy joints

  12. Simultaneous odour-face presentation strengthens hedonic evaluations and event-related potential responses influenced by unpleasant odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie; Kokmotou, Katerina; Soto, Vicente; Wright, Hazel; Fallon, Nicholas; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2018-04-13

    Odours alter evaluations of concurrently presented visual stimuli, such as faces. Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) is known to affect evaluative priming in various sensory modalities. However, effects of SOA on odour priming of visual stimuli are not known. The present study aimed to analyse whether subjective and cortical activation changes during odour priming would vary as a function of SOA between odours and faces. Twenty-eight participants rated faces under pleasant, unpleasant, and no-odour conditions using visual analogue scales. In half of trials, faces appeared one-second after odour offset (SOA 1). In the other half of trials, faces appeared during the odour pulse (SOA 2). EEG was recorded continuously using a 128-channel system, and event-related potentials (ERPs) to face stimuli were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Faces presented during unpleasant-odour stimulation were rated significantly less pleasant than the same faces presented one-second after offset of the unpleasant odour. Scalp-time clusters in the late-positive-potential (LPP) time-range showed an interaction between odour and SOA effects, whereby activation was stronger for faces presented simultaneously with the unpleasant odour, compared to the same faces presented after odour offset. Our results highlight stronger unpleasant odour priming with simultaneous, compared to delayed, odour-face presentation. Such effects were represented in both behavioural and neural data. A greater cortical and subjective response during simultaneous presentation of faces and unpleasant odour may have an adaptive role, allowing for a prompt and focused behavioural reaction to a concurrent stimulus if an aversive odour would signal danger, or unwanted social interaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Do India's activities in Africa liberate and strengthen Africa's position in the Euro-African relation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijen, T.; Pennink, Barteld

    2017-01-01

    This research will analyze the economic relationship between India and Africa by analyzing trade, investments, aid and trade agreements. Moreover, this study will investigate whether there is substitution effect for the economic relationship between Europe and Africa and compare the results to

  14. Strengthening the employer brand image : Experimentation of proactive recruitment related activities

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Nicole Stroop

    2014-01-01

    The labor market in Norway is characterized as having low unemployment and the competition for hiring is tough. This can especially be seen in engineering businesses where the businesses are all competing for the same people, in the same recruitment market, to the same potential employees. The potential employees can practically choose which company they want to work with. The competing companies mainly appear on the same media and marketing channels, as well as at the same job fairs. Recruit...

  15. Developing capacity-building activities for mental health system strengthening in low- and middle-income countries for service users and caregivers, service planners, and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, M; Alem, A; Abdulmalik, J; Docrat, S; Evans-Lacko, S; Gureje, O; Kigozi, F; Lempp, H; Lund, C; Petersen, I; Shidhaye, R; Thornicroft, G; Hanlon, C

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing international recognition of the need to build capacity to strengthen mental health systems. This is a fundamental goal of the 'Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries' (Emerald) programme, which is being implemented in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda). This paper discusses Emerald's capacity-building approaches and outputs for three target groups in mental health system strengthening: (1) mental health service users and caregivers, (2) service planners and policy-makers, and (3) mental health researchers. When planning the capacity-building activities, the approach taken included a capabilities/skills matrix, needs assessments, a situational analysis, systematic reviews, qualitative interviews and stakeholder meetings, as well as the application of previous theory, evidence and experience. Each of the Emerald LMIC partners was found to have strengths in aspects of mental health system strengthening, which were complementary across the consortium. Furthermore, despite similarities across the countries, capacity-building interventions needed to be tailored to suit the specific needs of individual countries. The capacity-building outputs include three publicly and freely available short courses/workshops in mental health system strengthening for each of the target groups, 27 Masters-level modules (also open access), nine Emerald-linked PhD students, two MSc studentships, mentoring of post-doctoral/mid-level researchers, and ongoing collaboration and dialogue with the three groups. The approach taken by Emerald can provide a potential model for the development of capacity-building activities across the three target groups in LMICs.

  16. Ca2+ Channel Re-localization to Plasma-Membrane Microdomains Strengthens Activation of Ca2+-Dependent Nuclear Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Samanta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In polarized cells or cells with complex geometry, clustering of plasma-membrane (PM ion channels is an effective mechanism for eliciting spatially restricted signals. However, channel clustering is also seen in cells with relatively simple topology, suggesting it fulfills a more fundamental role in cell biology than simply orchestrating compartmentalized responses. Here, we have compared the ability of store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels confined to PM microdomains with a similar number of dispersed CRAC channels to activate transcription factors, which subsequently increase nuclear gene expression. For similar levels of channel activity, we find that channel confinement is considerably more effective in stimulating gene expression. Our results identify a long-range signaling advantage to the tight evolutionary conservation of channel clustering and reveal that CRAC channel aggregation increases the strength, fidelity, and reliability of the general process of excitation-transcription coupling.

  17. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Safety I and C Related Verification and Validation Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, G.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness of safety I and C related verification and validation activities within nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. (Author)

  18. Climate change and related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change

  19. Strengthening technological capabilities: A challenge for the nineties. A review of ILO activities on technology. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report was inspired by the 11th Session (1991) of the Intergovernmental Committee on Science and Technology for Development (IGC) where ILO activities figured prominently in the documentation and discussions that took place on the trends in the programmes and activities of the UN system in science and technology for development. The report deals with ILO activities in the areas of endogenous capacity building, technology policy assessment, anticipation of employment effects of new technologies, assessment of the effects of new technologies on working conditions and working environment, training needs for the effective utilisation of new technologies, technological change and industrial relations and the dissemination of technological information. It also reports on the new ILO work launched on environment and employment, including the role of environmentally sound technologies. The concluding chapter of the report deals with interagency collaboration to which the ILO has always attached importance. ILO work evolving policies for occupational safety and health is described in the following distinct areas of new technologies: (i) man-made mineral fibres; (ii) biotechnology, (iii) robotisation; (iv) chemicals; and (v) dismantling of nuclear power plants

  20. EDA activities related to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.; Raeder, J.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the accomplishments in ITER safety analysis during the course of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA). The key aspects of ITER safety analysis are: effluents and emissions from normal operation, including planned maintenance activities; occupational safety for workers at the facility; radioactive materials and wastes generated during operation and from decommissioning ; potential incidents and accidents and the resulting transients. As a result of the work during the EDA it is concluded that ITER is safe

  1. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot

    2010-07-05

    The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens), drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens), research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy development and scaling up interventions, and identify ways

  2. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Dermot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. Discussion HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens, drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens, research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy

  3. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...... of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened concrete tension member...

  4. FROM THE SCHOOL LIBRARY ACTIVITIES TO STRENGTHEN CITIZENS LIVING STANDARDS IN THE TEACHERS / ACTIVIDADES DESDE LA BIBLIOTECA ESCOLAR PARA FORTALECER LAS NORMAS DE CONVIVENCIA CIUDADANA EN LOS PROFESORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Manso Armas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available School libraries offer services that facilitate access to information. Are conducted, and various activities that contribute to the formation of the love of reading and books, as well as the training of students and teachers in the use of information. This paper proposes a set of activities that complement the systematic work that takes place in the classroom, contribute to the cultural development of pupils and teachers, as well as provide a means of recreation. The practical significance lays in the introduction, in school practice, educational activities to promote reading aimed at strengthening coexistence standards in the teacher and their newness in the relationship between civic education process and rules of coexistence, defining the latter as the content of this process and in this sense substantiate the potential of the library.

  5. Evaluation of a multi-site program designed to strengthen relational bonds for siblings separated by foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Jeffrey; Wojciak, Armeda Stevenson

    2017-10-01

    Sibling relationships in foster care settings have received increased attention in recent years. Despite growing evidence regarding the protective potential of sibling relationships for youth in care, some sibling groups continue to experience foster care related separation, and few programs exist to address the needs of these youth. This study describes and evaluates Camp To Belong, a multi-site program designed to provide short-term reunification to separated sibling groups through a week-long summer camp experience. Using a pre-test post-test survey design, this paper examines changes in youth ratings of sibling conflict and sibling support across camps located in six geographically distinct regions of the United States. The effects of youth age, number of prior camp exposures, and camp location were tested using multilevel modeling procedures. Findings suggest that participation in Camp To Belong may reduce sibling conflict, and improvements in sibling support are noted for youth who have had prior exposure to the camp's programming. Camp-level variance in the sibling support outcome highlight the complex nature of relationships for siblings separated by foster care, and suggest the need for additional research. Lessons learned from this multi-site evaluation and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Federalism and intergovernmental relations in strengthening of the collegiate agencies in the city of Riachuelo/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cunha Terto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to evaluate if the interrelationship between the municipality of Riachuelo / RN and the Union through the Articulated Actions Plan provided advances in local democratic management. To do so, the following indicators will be analyzed: School councils (CE and the Municipal Council of Education (CME in the PAR of the municipality from the periods of 2007 to 2011 and 2011 and 2014. The procedures adopted were: literature review, documentary and semi-structured interviews with members of the local technical team to elaborate the Riachuelo PAIR. The results show that Brazilian federalism and the intergovernmental relations established in it show asymmetries, thus compromising the implementation of the federative pact in Brazil. The interrelationship between the Union and the municipality in the development of educational public policies provided for in the Articulated Action Plan of Riachuelo, both in 2007 and in 2011, were not enough to consolidate democratic management in the municipal education system. This management model, however, is something to be constructed procedurally. The challenge of democratizing school and educational management is a task that is not exhausted in the execution of educational policies, especially on time. Democratizing management implies, therefore, to rethink the structures of power not only in the school, but in the whole society.

  7. Public relations activities in BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is a major industrial company employing 15,000 people and supporting another 50,000 jobs in British industry through it`s isnvestment program. BNFL is frequently in the news, mainly because of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The company`s public relation policy is described in this report.

  8. Public Relations as Promotional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira CURRI-MEMETI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  9. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  10. Public relations activities at JAPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyabu, Kumi

    2011-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) is the only electric power company in Japan solely engaged in nuclear energy. In order to fulfill our role as a pioneer in nuclear power generation, various projects have been undertaken, including the construction of the first commercial nuclear power plant in Japan and the construction, operation and decommissioning of power plants in Tokaimura in Ibaraki prefecture and in Tsuruga city in Fukui prefecture. JAPC is an electric nuclear power generation company which sells electricity directly to the electric companies. Since JAPC doesn't have retail customers, it has limited opportunities to come in contact with local residents. It is essential to gain the confidence and understanding of nuclear power by local residents in order to promote our projects and to manage our nuclear power plants. Under these circumstances, JAPC has steadily developed public relations in local areas and surrounding neighborhoods through an action policy of two-way communication. In this presentation, the two-way communication public relations policy will be explained. I would like to describe the achievements of the two-way communication policy by referring to the results of public opinion surveys conducted in Ibaraki and Fukui prefectures. (author)

  11. Understanding pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women's intentions to perform muscle-strengthening activities using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Julie; Giles, Melanie; Gallagher, Alison M; Simpson, Ellen Elizabeth Anne

    2018-03-01

    Although physical activity guidelines recommend muscle-strengthening activities (MSA), public health initiatives tend to focus on increasing aerobic activity and fail to mention MSA. This study sought to identify the issues influencing pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women's intentions to perform MSA with a view to informing future interventions for these populations. Mixed methods guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) were used to explore factors that influence women's intentions to perform MSA. In stage one, 34 women participated in either a focus group or interview. Discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed based on menopausal status using a deductive approach. In stage two, 186 women (M = 47 years, SD = 9) completed a questionnaire to assess participant demographics, levels of MSA, affective and instrumental attitudes, injunctive and descriptive norms, self-efficacy and perceived behavioural control. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, regression analyses and analysis of variances. Behavioural beliefs were: improved muscular health; psychological benefits; improved body shape. Normative beliefs were: health professionals; family members; work colleagues. Control beliefs were: equipment; motivation; time constraints; knowledge; physical capability; fear of judgement. However, these beliefs were not well established. Self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions (spc 2  = 0.11) followed by affective attitudes (spc 2  = 0.09), with no significant differences on TPB variables between groups. If rising rates of musculoskeletal conditions in women are to be prevented, there is an urgent need to increase women's knowledge of recommended levels of muscle strengthening, with a view to promoting positive attitudes and enhancing women's sense of self-efficacy across all menopausal phases. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscle activation levels of the gluteus maximus and medius during standing hip-joint strengthening exercises using elastic-tubing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Nelson, Meghan M; Hollman, John H

    2014-02-01

    No published studies have compared muscle activation levels simultaneously for the gluteus maximus and medius muscles of stance and moving limbs during standing hip-joint strengthening while using elastic-tubing resistance. To quantify activation levels bilaterally of the gluteus maximus and medius during resisted lower-extremity standing exercises using elastic tubing for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercise conditions. Repeated measures. Laboratory. 26 active and healthy people, 13 men (25 ± 3 y) and 13 women (24 ± 1 y). Subjects completed 3 consecutive repetitions of lower-extremity exercises in random order. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. Magnitudes of EMG recruitment were analyzed with a 2 × 4 repeated-measures ANOVA for each muscle (α = .05). For the gluteus maximus an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F3,75 = 21.5; P tubing.

  13. Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance: effects of ballistic vs controlled contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-02-01

    The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG. Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. The following results were obtained. Loading intensity affected EMG amplitude in the order: lowBallistic contractions always produced greater EMG activity than slow controlled contractions, and for most muscles ballistic contractions with medium load showed similar EMG amplitude as controlled contractions with high load. At flexed knee joint positions with elastic resistance, quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude during medium-load ballistic contractions exceeded that recorded during high-load controlled contractions. Quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude increased at flexed knee positions. In contrast, hamstrings EMG amplitude remained constant throughout ROM during dumbbell lunge, but increased at more extended knee joint positions during lunges using elastic resistance. Based on these results, it can be concluded that lunges performed using medium-load ballistic muscle contractions may induce similar or even higher leg muscle activity than lunges using high-load slow-speed contractions. Consequently, lunges using elastic resistance appear to be equally effective in inducing high leg muscle activity as traditional lunges using isoinertial resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Corticosterone facilitates extinction of fear memory in BALB/c mice but strengthens cue related fear in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, V; de Kloet, E R; Oitzl, M S

    2009-04-01

    Corticosterone, the naturally occurring glucocorticoid of rodents is secreted in response to stressors and is known for its facilitating and detrimental effects on emotional learning and memory. The large variability in the action of corticosterone on processing of emotional memories is postulated to depend on genetic background and the spatio-temporal domain in which the hormone operates. To address this hypothesis, mice of two strains with distinct corticosterone secretory patterns and behavioural phenotype (BALB/c and C57BL/6J) were treated with corticosterone (250 microg/kg, i.p.), either 5 min before or directly after acquisition in a fear conditioning task. As the paradigm allowed assessing in one experimental procedure both context- and cue-related fear behaviour, we were able to detect generalization and specificity of fear. BALB/c showed generalized strong fear memory, while C57BL/6J mice discriminated between freezing during context- and cue episodes. Corticosterone had opposite effects on fear memory depending on the strain and time of injection. Corticosterone after acquisition did not affect C57BL/6J mice, but destabilized consolidation and facilitated extinction in BALB/c. Corticosterone 5 min before acquisition strengthened stress-associated signals: BALB/c no longer showed lower fear memory, while C57BL/6J mice displayed increased fear memory and impaired extinction in cue episodes. We propose that corticosterone-induced facilitation of fear memory in C57BL/6J mice can be used to study the development of fear memories, corticosterone administration in BALB/c mice presents a model to examine treatment. We conclude that genetic background and time of corticosterone action are modifiers of fear memory with interesting translational implications for anxiety-related diseases.

  15. Activities of the nuclear emergency assistance and training center. Strengthening co-operation with parties in normal circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Fumitaka; Matsui, Tomoaki; Nomura, Tamotsu

    2005-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) established the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) in March 2002. The center aims to provide various support nuclear safety regulatory bodies, local governments and nuclear facility licenses as specialists about nuclear and radiological issues according to the role shown in the Basic Disaster Management Plan. Upon a nuclear and/or radiological disaster occurring in Japan, NEAT will send specialists to the disaster scene, and offer the use of special equipments. NEAT maintains frequent contact with related organizations in normal circumstance. NEAT also participates in nuclear emergency exercises instructed by the parties concerned, which has contributed to the brewing of mutual trust with related organizations. In October 2005, JNC and JAERI merged into a new organization named the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). NEAT, as a section of the organization, continuously deals with nuclear emergencies. (author)

  16. Strengthening safeguards information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, J.; Hudson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengthening of safeguards should not be limited to the verification of explicit declarations made by the States. Additional information should guide the IAEA to set priorities for further investigations. Not only all aspects of the State's nuclear programme, including the application of safe, secure and transparent nuclear management, but also the level of compliance with other verifiable treaties, political motivation, economic capabilities, international relations and ties, co-operative attitude to safeguards, and general openness and transparency should be included. The evaluation of the diverse forms of information from different sources requires new reliable processes that will result in a high credibility and detection probability. The IAEA uses the physical model for the evaluation of the technical information, and proposed also Fuzzy Logic, or Calculation with Words, to handle the information. But for the evaluation it is questioned whether fuzziness could lead to a crisp judgement. In this paper an objective method of information evaluation is proposed, which allows to integrate different kinds of information and to include calibration and tests in the establishment of the evaluation process. This method, Delta, uses elicitation of a syndicate of experienced inspectors to integrate obvious indicators together with apparently innocent indicators, into a database that forms the core of the evaluation process. Nominal or ordinal scales could be applied to come to an objective and quantifiable result. Experience with this method can in the course of time result in predictive conclusions. 9 refs

  17. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.

    1999-01-01

    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  18. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  19. Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty...... association between burnout level and working memory performance was found, however, our findings indicate that frontostriatal neural responses related to working memory were modulated by burnout severity. We suggest that patients with high levels of burnout need to recruit additional cognitive resources...... to uphold task performance. Following cognitive training, increased neural activation was observed during 3-back in working memory-related regions, including the striatum, however, low sample size limits any firm conclusions....

  20. Law nr 2015-588 of June 2, 2015 related to the strengthening of the protection of civil nuclear installations housing nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollande, Francois; Valls, Manuel; Taubira, Christiane; Le Drian, Jean-Yves; Cazeneuve, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This publication contains the official text of a law adopted by the French Parliament for the strengthening of civil nuclear installations housing nuclear materials. The first article of this law is made of modifications introduced in the Defence Code. The second article states that a report is to be submitted by the Government to the Parliament on the risk and threat assessment of illegal UAVs flyovers, and on technical solutions to improve the detection and neutralisation of these aircraft, as well as on necessary legal adaptations to punish such infringements

  1. Combined Increases in Muscle-Strengthening Activity Frequency and Protein Intake Reveal Graded Relationship with Fat-Free Mass Percentage in U.S. Adults, NHANES (1999-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, J M; Vezina, J; Brown, D D; Schumacher, J; Cullen, R W; Laurson, K R

    2015-01-01

    Age-related loss of muscle mass and related ailments are of concern due to associations with disabilities and morbidity as well as constituting a substantial healthcare burden. Muscle-strengthening activities and adequate protein ingestion are recommended for all-age adults in an effort to stave off age-related muscle atrophy. Muscle building abilities decline with age but most research focuses on muscle wasting in the elderly. To examine the independent and combined associations of protein intake (g∙kg-1∙day-1) and muscle-strengthening frequency (times∙week-1, MSF) on fat-free mass percentage (FFM%). This cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample with data from the non-institutionalized persons in the United States participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cycles 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004) consisted of male (n=2,499) and female (n=2,373) participants 20-49 years of age for analyses. MSF was determined by self-report and protein intake was calculated from a 24-hour recall. Differences in FFM% from bioelectrical impedance analysis was estimated using multiple linear regression models controlling for education, race-ethnicity, standing height, and total Caloric intake. One unit increase in MSF or protein intake (β-coefficient, ±E) was associated with significantly more FFM% in males (0.6±0.1%; 3.5±0.4%) and females (0.4±0.1%; 5.9±0.4%). Independent of protein intake, males and females with MSF=0 had mean ±SE FFM% of 74.4±0.4 and 60.7±0.3, respectively, while mean ±SE FFM% of males and females who met the recommendation of ≥2 times per week were 77.9±0.5 and 63.0±0.4. Independent of MSF, males and females with protein intakes below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g∙kg-1∙day-1 had mean ±SE FFM% of 74.0±0.6 and 58.2±0.6, respectively, while mean ±SE FFM% of those whose intakes exceeded the recommendation were 75.6±0.4 and 62.0±0.4. The subgroup with the highest mean ±SE FFM% (80

  2. Active Metric Learning from Relative Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Sicheng; Rosales, Rómer; Pei, Yuanli; Fern, Xiaoli Z.

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on active learning of distance metrics from relative comparison information. A relative comparison specifies, for a data point triplet $(x_i,x_j,x_k)$, that instance $x_i$ is more similar to $x_j$ than to $x_k$. Such constraints, when available, have been shown to be useful toward defining appropriate distance metrics. In real-world applications, acquiring constraints often require considerable human effort. This motivates us to study how to select and query the most useful ...

  3. Multiple active forms of thrombin. IV. Relative activities of meizothrombins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, M.F.; Mann, K.G. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))

    1990-06-25

    The prothrombin activation intermediates meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) (meizothrombin that has been autoproteolyzed to remove fragment 1) have been obtained in a relatively pure, active form with minimal autolysis, making them suitable for enzymatic characterization. When compared at equimolar concentrations, alpha-thrombin, fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin, meizothrombin(desF1), and meizothrombin have approximately 100, 100, 10, and 1% activity, respectively, toward the macromolecular substrates factor V, fibrinogen, and platelets. The difference in activity of these four enzymes cannot be attributed to alterations in the catalytic triad, as all four enzymes have nearly identical catalytic efficiency toward the chromogenic substrate S2238. Further, the ability of meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) to activate protein C was 75% of the activity exhibited by alpha-thrombin or fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin. All four enzymes bind to thrombomodulin, as judged by the enhanced rate of protein C activation upon preincubation of the enzymes with thrombomodulin. The extent of rate enhancement varied, with meizothrombin/thrombomodulin exhibiting only 50% of the alpha-thrombin/thrombomodulin rate. This difference in rate is not due to a decreased affinity of the meizothrombin for thrombomodulin since the apparent dissociation constants for the alpha-thrombin-thrombomodulin complex and the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex are virtually identical. The difference in the observed rate is due in part to the higher Km for protein C exhibited by the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex. Incubation of the thrombomodulin-enzyme complex with phospholipid vesicles caused an increase in the protein C activation rates. The kinetic constants for protein C activation in the presence of phospholipid are virtually identical for these enzyme-thrombomodulin complexes.

  4. Multiple active forms of thrombin. IV. Relative activities of meizothrombins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, M.F.; Mann, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    The prothrombin activation intermediates meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) (meizothrombin that has been autoproteolyzed to remove fragment 1) have been obtained in a relatively pure, active form with minimal autolysis, making them suitable for enzymatic characterization. When compared at equimolar concentrations, alpha-thrombin, fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin, meizothrombin(desF1), and meizothrombin have approximately 100, 100, 10, and 1% activity, respectively, toward the macromolecular substrates factor V, fibrinogen, and platelets. The difference in activity of these four enzymes cannot be attributed to alterations in the catalytic triad, as all four enzymes have nearly identical catalytic efficiency toward the chromogenic substrate S2238. Further, the ability of meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) to activate protein C was 75% of the activity exhibited by alpha-thrombin or fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin. All four enzymes bind to thrombomodulin, as judged by the enhanced rate of protein C activation upon preincubation of the enzymes with thrombomodulin. The extent of rate enhancement varied, with meizothrombin/thrombomodulin exhibiting only 50% of the alpha-thrombin/thrombomodulin rate. This difference in rate is not due to a decreased affinity of the meizothrombin for thrombomodulin since the apparent dissociation constants for the alpha-thrombin-thrombomodulin complex and the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex are virtually identical. The difference in the observed rate is due in part to the higher Km for protein C exhibited by the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex. Incubation of the thrombomodulin-enzyme complex with phospholipid vesicles caused an increase in the protein C activation rates. The kinetic constants for protein C activation in the presence of phospholipid are virtually identical for these enzyme-thrombomodulin complexes

  5. Retrieval activates related words more than presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Hannah; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2018-03-23

    Retrieving information enhances learning more than restudying. One explanation of this effect is based on the role of mediators (e.g., sand-castle can be mediated by beach). Retrieval is hypothesised to activate mediators more than restudying, but existing tests of this hypothesis have had mixed results [Carpenter, S. K. (2011). Semantic information activated during retrieval contributes to later retention: Support for the mediator effectiveness hypothesis of the testing effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(6), 1547-1552. doi: 10.1037/a0024140 ; Lehman, M., & Karpicke, J. D. (2016). Elaborative retrieval: Do semantic mediators improve memory? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(10), 1573-1591. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000267 ]. The present experiments explored an explanation of the conflicting results, testing whether mediator activation during a retrieval attempt depends on the accessibility of the target information. A target was considered less versus more accessible when fewer versus more cues were given during retrieval practice (Experiments 1 and 2), when the target had been studied once versus three times initially (Experiment 3), or when the target could not be recalled versus could be recalled during retrieval practice (Experiments 1-3). A mini meta-analysis of all three experiments revealed a small effect such that retrieval activated mediators more than presentation, but mediator activation was not reliably related to target accessibility. Thus, retrieval may enhance learning by activating mediators, in part, but these results suggest the role of other processes, too.

  6. Summary of activities on CSS related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loriaux, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are two nuclear power plants. One 60Mw BWR for research purposes in Dodewaard, and one PWR 450 Mw IN Borssele. Both of these NPPs are undergoing an extensive upgrading. These plants use several CSS-like systems. These systems are primarily aimed to support and monitor safe and correct operation of the process or to detect specific (e.g. mechanical) problems in an early stage. The NPP in Dodewaard is upgrading its training simulator and process presentation system (''Datalogger''). The activities related to the CRP are mainly within the framework of the Dodewaard plant. This final national report will give an overview of these activities with particular emphasis on the replacement of the Datalogger system. Some additional information is given on trends in CSSs as used in fossil power plants. (author). 2 figs

  7. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Harshitha; K. Senthil kumar; K. Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined ...

  8. The basis for the strengthening of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime, by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. This paper will summarize the evolution of the safeguards system, describe strengthened safeguards, report on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outline plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  9. Strengthening the Paediatricians Project 2: The effectiveness of a workshop to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders of adolescence in low-health related human resource countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Paul SS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paediatricians can be empowered to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders at primary care level. To evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative workshop in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge among paediatricians. Methods A 3-day, 27-hours workshop was held for paediatricians from different regions of India under the auspices of the National Adolescent Paediatric Task Force of the Indian Academy of Paediatrics. A 5-item pretest-posttest questionnaire was developed and administered at the beginning and end of the workshop to evaluate the participants' knowledge acquisition in adolescent psychiatry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed on an intention-to-participate basis. Results Forty-eight paediatricians completed the questionnaire. There was significant enhancement of the knowledge in understanding the phenomenology, identifying the psychopathology, diagnosing common mental disorder and selecting the psychotropic medication in the bivariate analysis. When the possible confounders of level of training in paediatrics and number of years spent as paediatrician were controlled, in addition to the above areas of adolescent psychiatry, the diagnostic ability involving multiple psychological concepts also gained significance. However, both in the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the ability to refer to appropriate psychotherapy remained unchanged after the workshop. Conclusions This workshop was effective in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge of paediatricians. Such workshops could strengthen paediatricians in addressing the priority mental health disorders at the primary-care level in countries with low-human resource for health as advocated by the World Health Organization. However, it remains to be seen if this acquisition of adolescent psychiatry knowledge results in enhancing their adolescent psychiatry practice.

  10. Strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The international situation after the end of the Cold-War has been quite unstable, due to the occurrence of frequent regional conflicts and domestic wars based on ethnic, religious or racial reasons. Further, threats to the would peace and security by non-state actors, like international terrorist groups, have been recognized after 9.11 terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center buildings and to the Pentagon. Utilization of nuclear energy, which encompasses both peaceful uses and military ones, required an establishment of regulatory system, by which risks associated with the development of nuclear energy can be controlled. Accordingly, nuclear safety control system, and then non-proliferation control system has been developed, both in the international level and notional level. In recognition of the present unstable international situations, it is required to establish, maintain and strengthen a system which control nuclear security aspect, in addition to the present systems. (author)

  11. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  12. A facilitator of leisure activities for stress-related growth experience among middle-aged Korean women with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Leisure may serve as a coping resource following negative life events that facilitate positive changes. Previous studies on leisure have mainly focused on stress-related growth among individuals living in Western cultures. This study aimed to capture the role of leisure involvement as a facilitator of stress-related growth among middle-aged Korean women with depression. Three main themes were identified as an outcome of participation in leisure activities: (a) strengthening meaningful relationships, (b) improving positive emotions, and (c) facilitating personal strength. By participating in leisure activities, individuals with depression may develop the ability to cope with stress and experience positive changes.

  13. ICIT activities related to tritium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfirache, Marius; Bornea, Anisia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ana, George; Stefan, Liviu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present the main directions of ICIT research in the field of hydrogen isotopes. • Tritium Removal Facility became a nuclear installation. • ICIT had begun the transfer of detritiation technology. - Abstract: National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies (ICIT) was established in 1970 as a research focused Industrial Pilot Plant. This new Institute was created with the purpose to develop the heavy water production technology. This technology has been successfully transferred to the heavy water production plant in 1988 (with a capacity of 360 t/year). Currently, research within ICIT is focused on the following main objectives: support for the National Nuclear Program, hydrogen and fuel cells, cryogenics, environment. Within ICIT it has been built an Experimental Pilot Plant having as the main objective the development of a technology for heavy water detritiation. The purpose of this Pilot Plant is to obtain technological data and functional characteristics of specific equipment in order to design a Detritiation Facility used for Nuclear Power Plants with CANDU reactors. This work is focused on the presentation of ICIT research activities, perspectives and its capability related to water detritiation technologies and also to on issues in the field of nuclear fusion.

  14. Database and Related Activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Kato, Masatoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Takako; Ding, Xiaobin; Morita, Shigeru; Kitajima, Masashi; Koike, Fumihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Akira; Skobelev, Igor; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Ulantsev, Artemiy; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Norimasa

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed and made available atomic and molecular (AM) numerical databases on collision processes such as electron-impact excitation and ionization, recombination and charge transfer of atoms and molecules relevant for plasma physics, fusion research, astrophysics, applied-science plasma, and other related areas. The retrievable data is freely accessible via the internet. We also work on atomic data evaluation and constructing collisional-radiative models for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. Recently we have worked on Fe ions and W ions theoretically and experimentally. The atomic data and collisional-radiative models for these ions are examined and applied to laboratory plasmas. A visible M1 transition of W 26+ ion is identified at 389.41 nm by EBIT experiments and theoretical calculations. We have small non-retrievable databases in addition to our main database. Recently we evaluated photo-absorption cross sections for 9 atoms and 23 molecules and we present them as a new database. We established a new association ''Forum of Atomic and Molecular Data and Their Applications'' to exchange information among AM data producers, data providers and data users in Japan and we hope this will help to encourage AM data activities in Japan.

  15. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  16. Creative communication in public relations activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Jakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses several approaches to new waves of public relations. Emphasis is given to the creative impulse since many public relations professionals are less familiar with it than other forms of communication. Five criteria are suggested for structuring creative communications: 1. learning how to be a good storyteller; 2. visual communication is the content that could increasingly build strong relationships with audiences; 3. the PR practitioner’s challenge is to evaluate what people are discussing and identify the recurring issues in their marketplace; 4. recognizing that local is new global; and 5. predicate that PR is constantly changing. People who work in public relations possess the skill of offering arguments that will convince the people themselves of something. However, these skills can be offered in traditional or creative forms of expression. If we define public relations as the management of an organization’s communication with its public, then we are referring to the traditional dimension of public relations, the basis and ultimate goal of which are to cultivate relationships with the participants of the process in order to obtain support and to build trust and reputation.

  17. Strengthening health systems capacity to monitor and evaluate programmes targeted at reducing abortion-related maternal mortality in Jessore district, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Ford, Evelyn Rebecca; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2015-09-28

    Abortion related deaths as a proportion of maternal mortality appears to have fallen dramatically in Bangladesh from 5 % in 2001 to 1 % in 2010. Yet complications from menstrual regulation (MR) and unsafe abortion continue to cause deleterious health, economic and social consequences for women in the country. This quasi experimental design study with a baseline (January to December 2008) and an endline survey (August to October 2009) was conducted in 69 public, private, and NGO sector health facilities in Jessore district of Bangladesh with the objective of adapting and implementing a set of process indicators, specifically to supplement the indicators for monitoring emergency obstetric care interventions. At the baseline, we collected retrospective data from all 69 health facilities that provided MR, legal abortion or post-abortion care (PAC), by reviewing their last one year's records. Three months after introducing the safe menstrual regulation and abortion care (SMRAC) model, endline data was collected. Signal function (critical services that facilities must perform in order to prevent and treat abortion complications) analysis was used to characterize facilities as providing basic care, comprehensive care, or neither. Facility mapping, and records on services provided and complications treated were used to further characterize service availability and to describe service use and quality. No facilities fulfilled criteria for 'comprehensive' care at either the baseline or end line while only one met the 'basic' criteria during the endline of the project. Recommended uterine evacuation technology, manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) was used for 100.0 % of MR clients but only for 8.0 % or fewer PAC patients. MR clients were 37.5 times more likely than PAC patients to leave facilities with a contraceptive method (75.0 % vs. 2.0 %). Persistent use of older uterine evacuation technologies was observed when recommended techniques were widely available in the facilities

  18. Environmental properties related to active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Lianne H.

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of activity in galactic nuclei. It is well understood that the non-thermal energy produced by an AGN is due to accretion onto a supermassive black hole. It has not yet been determined, however, what leads particular galaxies to become active. An accurate exploration into what triggers an AGN demands an analysis of a large sample of galaxies across a diverse set of environments. In this work, we investigate possible environmental influences by carrying out a statistical investigation of galaxy groups. Using the catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), in which groups of galaxies containing between 2 and 20 members with redshifts between 0.01 -- 0.20 were taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within these groups and compare it to the sample of isolated galaxies also obtained from Yang et al. (2007). After correcting our spectroscopic data for extinction and underlying stellar absorption, we classify the galaxy sample using relevant emission-line ratios. We propose an alternate method for classifying emission-line galaxies, including AGN, which builds upon standard diagnostic utilities used for optical classification and includes uncertainties. Such classification probabilities offer a more robust and consistent method of investigating the effect of group environments with galaxy type. We find our sample to be a fair representation of the local universe by comparing the luminosity function of our entire data set to that of Blanton et al. (2001), Blanton et al. (2003b), and Montero-Dorta & Prada (2009). The evidence also suggests that the luminosity function of galaxies differs between isolated galaxies and galaxies in groups. We find a significant increase in the fraction of AGNs identified in grouped environments. On the other hand, we find a higher fraction of starforming galaxies within isolated systems. We

  19. Public Relations Strategies for Scholastic Publication Staffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance to scholastic publications staffs of four public relations strategies: meticulous research, systematic planning, strengthening communication efforts, and evaluation. Notes internal and external factors crucial to good public relations. Lists activities to consider. (SR)

  20. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm in...

  1. Segmental stabilization and muscular strengthening in chronic low back pain: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Renovato França

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To contrast the efficacy of two exercise programs, segmental stabilization and strengthening of abdominal and trunk muscles, on pain, functional disability, and activation of the transversus abdominis muscle (TrA, in individuals with chronic low back pain. DESIGN: Our sample consisted of 30 individuals, randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: segmental stabilization, where exercises focused on the TrA and lumbar multifidus muscles, and superficial strengthening, where exercises focused on the rectus abdominis, abdominus obliquus internus, abdominus obliquus externus, and erector spinae. Groups were examined to discovere whether the exercises created contrasts regarding pain (visual analogical scale and McGill pain questionnaire, functional disability (Oswestry disability questionnaire, and TrA muscle activation capacity (Pressure Biofeedback Unit = PBU. The program lasted 6 weeks, and 30-minute sessions occurred twice a week. Analysis of variance was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. The significance level was established at 5%. RESULTS: As compared to baseline, both treatments were effective in relieving pain and improving disability (p<0.001. Those in the segmental stabilization group had significant gains for all variables when compared to the ST group (p<0.001, including TrA activation, where relative gains were 48.3% and -5.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both techniques lessened pain and reduced disability. Segmental stabilization is superior to superficial strengthening for all variables. Superficial strengthening does not improve TrA activation capacity.

  2. Chart of nuclides relating to neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru

    1981-09-01

    This chart is for frequent use in the prediction of the product species of neutron activation. The first edition of the chart has been made in 1976 after the repeated trial preparation. It has the following good points. (1) Any letter in chart is as large as one can read easily. [This condition has been obtained by the selection of items to be shown in chart. They are the name (the symbol of element, mass number, and half-life) of nuclide or of isomer, and the type of decay.]. (2) Decay product has been shown indirectly for branchings with two-step decay via short-lived daughter in an excited state. [This matter has been realized by use of the new mode of indication.] (3) Nuclides shown in chart are (a) naturally occurring nuclides and (b) nuclides formed from naturally occurring nuclides through one of the following reactions: (n, γ), (n, n'), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), (n, pn), (n, 3n), (n, αn), (n, t), (n, 3 He), (n, 2p), and (n, γ)(n, γ). In the revision of the first edition, some modes of indication have become a little simpler, and the isomers of shorter half-lives (0.1 - 1 μs) have been added. (author)

  3. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  4. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained from several agencies, this study also uses primary data obtained by in-depth interviews and observations. This research results a priority of aspects of the institutional strengthening of farmer groups as well as priority issues and priorities of the solution of each aspect. In addition, the priority of alternative strategies resulted based on the problems and solutions that have been analyzed in order to solve the problems in the institutional strengthening of farmer groups in Demak.

  5. Strengthening of the Cooperative Framework for ANENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) was established in February 2004 to promote nuclear education and training in Asia. Initially ANENT member countries cooperated with 5 group activities encompassing broad areas. As of 2006, the cooperative framework was strengthened in a way to focus on web-based nuclear education and training for a period of several years to come. In this context, the Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI has contributed, in particular, to the development of the ANENT web-portal including a cyber platform, and making available relevant courses and materials on the web-portal. This paper discusses details of the strengthened cooperative framework in terms of NTC's effort for realizing web-based education and training through regional networking

  6. Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kosar, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    Controversies recently have arisen over certain executive branch agencies' expenditures of appropriated funds on public relations activities, some of which have been characterized as propagandistic...

  7. Fukushima Ministerial Conference Urges Continued Work to Strengthen Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Strengthening nuclear safety is a continuous process that leaves no room for complacency, the Co-Presidents of the Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety said in a statement today. Koichiro Gemba, Japan's Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Fadillah bin Haji Yusof, Malaysia's Deputy Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation, released the Co-Presidents' Statement at the conclusion of the Conference's Ministerial Plenary, on day one of the three-day event. ''It was stressed that nuclear safety is a prerequisite for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, that strengthening nuclear safety is a continuous process and that there should be no complacency in safety matters,'' the statement said. The statement recognized progress reported by Japan in the response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, including the achievement of the present stable status of the nuclear power station and the significant decrease in radioactive releases at the accident site. It stressed the importance of continued transparency in sharing objective information on the progress of decommissioning the plant, remediation and waste management, and encouraged Japan to lead an international effort to obtain data from the damaged reactors. ''The lessons learned from these activities, through their dissemination and related cooperation with the international community, are expected to contribute to enhancing the safety and effectiveness of future decommissioning and remediation activities worldwide,'' it said. The statement emphasized the importance of strengthening the IAEA's central role in international efforts to enhance global nuclear safety, underlining the Agency's Safety Standards and the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. It urged IAEA Member States to strengthen efforts to implement the Action Plan fully, including the use of international peer reviews and putting the recommendations of such reviews into practice. It stressed the ''utmost importance of establishing and

  8. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  9. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  10. Study of Relation between Physical Activity and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Preterm birth is the main cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and the importance of knowing its causes is clear. Since the effect of physical activity on preterm birth is unknown and its prevention is the priority in health care, we decided to do this study with the aim of determining the relation between physical activity and preterm birth. Methods: In this case-control study, 300 pregnant women delivering in Izadi Hospital in Qom, Iran in the second half of 2008, selected through simple sampling. The data were collected using standard pregnancy physical activity questionnaire that categorizes the physical activity into 4 groups: work activities, home activities, transport activities and fun/exercise activities. The physical activity severity was calculated as MET (Metabolic Equivalence Test. Finally, the data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic (x2 and t test statistics. A p<0.05 was considered as significant.Results: The findings didn't show any significant relation between physical activity and preterm birth. In addition, in view of activity type, fun/exercise and work activities (respectively and in view of activity severity, sedentary and moderate activities (respectively were associated with higher, but insignificant rate of preterm birth. Among demographic factors, only gravidity of women was significantly associated with preterm birth.Conclusion: Although, in this study the significant relation between physical activity and preterm delivery wasn't observed, the same research with further sample is recommended.

  11. Sarcopenia Is Negatively Related to High Gravitational Impacts Achieved From Day-to-day Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, April; Gregson, Celia L; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Clark, Emma M; Tobias, Jon H

    2018-04-17

    Sarcopenia has been associated with reduced physical activity (PA). We aimed to determine if sarcopenia, and specific components of muscle size, function, and physical performance, are associated with high impacts achieved during habitual PA, as these are related to bone strength in community-dwelling older women. Participants were older women from the Cohort of Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon. We defined sarcopenia using the EWGSOP criteria. Lower limb peak muscle power and force were assessed using Jumping Mechanography (JM). High vertical impacts were assessed by tri-axial accelerometry (at least 1.5g above gravity). Cross-sectional associations were analyzed by linear regression, adjusting for age, height and weight (or fat mass for models including appendicular lean mass index), comorbidities, smoking, alcohol, and Index of Multiple Deprivation. Our analyses included 380 participants, with mean age 76.7 (SD 3.0) years; 242 (64%) also completed JM. In age-adjusted analysis, a negative relationship was observed between severity of sarcopenia and high, but not medium or low, impacts (p = .03 for trend). Regarding components of sarcopenia underlying this relationship, multivariable analyses revealed that gait speed (β 1.47 [95% CI 1.14, 1.89], [β-1] reflects the proportionate increase in high impacts per SD increase in exposure) and peak force (1.40 [1.07, 1.84]) were independently associated with high impacts. Older women with sarcopenia experienced fewer bone-strengthening high impacts than those with presarcopenia or without sarcopenia. To increase bone strengthening activity in older women, interventions need to improve both lower limb muscle force and walking speed.

  12. Practical approaches to implementing facility wide equipment strengthening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, R.H.; Smietana, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Equipment strengthening programs typically focus on components required to ensure operability of safety related equipment or to prevent the release of toxic substances. Survival of non-safety related equipment may also be crucial to ensure rapid recovery and minimize business interruption losses. Implementing a strengthening program for non-safety related equipment can be difficult due to the large amounts of equipment involved and limited budget availability. EQE has successfully implemented comprehensive equipment strengthening programs for a number of California corporations. Many of the lessons learned from these projects are applicable to DOE facilities. These include techniques for prioritizing equipment and three general methodologies for anchoring equipment. Pros and cons of each anchorage approach are presented along with typical equipment strengthening costs

  13. 29 CFR 779.207 - Related activities in retail operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise... store are “related activities,” even if the store sells a great variety of different types of goods and... of goods or services, of any type, are related activities and they will be considered one enterprise...

  14. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June 15...

  15. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  16. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, P.

    2013-01-01

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  17. Direct dorsal hippocampal-prelimbic cortex connections strengthen fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Kapeller-Libermann, Dana; Travaglia, Alessio; Inda, M Carmen; Alberini, Cristina M

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction. Furthermore, while sustained PL brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is required for memory consolidation, retrieval engages PL BDNF to regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic proteins neuroligin 1 and neuroligin 2, which promote memory strengthening while inhibiting extinction. Thus, context retrieval-mediated fear-memory enhancement results from a concerted action of mechanisms that strengthen memory through reconsolidation while suppressing extinction.

  18. Recovery of active pathogenesis-related enzymes from the apoplast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall protease activity intensity was higher in the symplast. Maximum symplast contamination of the apoplast was 2% as estimated by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, a biochemical marker for symplast. Accumulation of pathogenesis-related enzymatic activities in the apoplast of M. acuminata leaf tissue was ...

  19. TRANSPARENCY OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE STATE TREASURY, AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF PUBLIC FINANCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNE MARIE BARTALIS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The State Treasury focuses all the financial resources of the public sector. Given this quality of the State Treasury we examined how transparently its activity is reflected. The methods of scientific research applied have helped us to examine specific issues from the taxpayer's position, and their need of conclusive information about the services of the public sector, which should be consistent with the efforts of citizens regarding the payment of taxes and fees.

  20. Social power and approach-related neural activity

    OpenAIRE

    Boksem, Maarten; Smolders, Ruud; Cremer, David

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and attention to rewards. In contrast, reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related motivation. Moreover, approach motiva...

  1. Strengthening the sports data infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available

  2. Initiatives to strengthen physical protection in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, H.; Yagi, T.; Endo, M.; Murajiri, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) was established under the approval of the Japanese Government in 1972 to function as an important organization to implement national safeguards system together with the Government. It has been also working on R and D of physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, and enhancing the awareness of the importance of the physical protection among physical protection related people. Japan has now 52 nuclear power reactors, accounting for about one-third of the nations electricity generation. Also nuclear fuel cycle facilities as enrichment plants, radioactive waste disposal facilities and reprocessing plant are either in operation or under construction at Rokkasho-Mura, Aomori prefecture. NMCC is doing several initiatives to strengthen and increase the understanding of the physical protection in Japan by disseminating necessary information to people which are described in the following: 1. Physical protection seminar for the physical protection specialists and management people - It is very important for the physical protection specialists as well as management people who are working at nuclear facilities to be able to get access to the related sophisticated information on the information on the global physical protection issues, physical protection regulations, physical protection systems and equipment etc. This kind of seminar was started in 19xx and is held once a year for two days in Tokyo. The curriculum includes global physical protection issues, physical protection related activities such as terrorism, current R and D, and application of equipment, experiences gained at nuclear facilities. About 70 people participate in the seminar every year. 2. Physical protection seminar for the physical protection related local people - It is more and more important for the nuclear industry to disseminate information to the local people about the nuclear facility operation. Such local people as local government

  3. Seal Related Development Activities at EG/G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Harold F.

    1991-01-01

    Seal related development activities including modeling, analysis, and performance testing are described for several current seal related projects. Among the current seal related projects are the following: high pressure gas sealing systems for turbomachinery; brush seals for gas path sealing in gas turbines; and tribological material evaluation for wear surfaces in sealing systems.

  4. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Flores-Peña

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BFP]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status.METHOD: participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test.RESULTS: the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72 and the lowest for control (50.07. Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001 and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05.CONCLUSIONS: the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits.

  5. Strengthening health promotion in Australian workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K J; Deeds, S; Siebel, R; Allen, J

    1997-01-01

    The Australian workplace has emerged as an important venue for influencing the health of employees through regulations and behaviour change programs. Recent surveys have highlighted a growth in this activity but the effectiveness of these programs in changing unhealthy work practices and policies is questionable. The need for strengthening programs by stronger designs and evaluation, and addressing organisational factors and employee participation in planning and implementation processes is documented. Efforts in that direction in Queensland are cited, Building on these existing foundations, redirecting existing resources, and building intersectoral cooperation in public-private partnerships hold a creative, exemplary vision of the future for Australian workplace programming.

  6. Disentangling longitudinal relations between physical activity, work-related fatigue, and task demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Claessens, B.J.C.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Kompier, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined ‘normal’, ‘reversed’, and ‘reciprocal’ relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of

  7. Strategies Applied by Teachers as Classroom Managers to Strengthen Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Javier Jáuregui Contreras

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research was executed within the quantitative paradigm, under the feasible project modality, with the objective of designing strategies aimed at teachers to strengthen learning in the students of the Arnoldo Gabaldon educational unit, located in Delicias, Rafael Urdaneta municipality State Táchira. The methodology used responds to the characteristics of field descriptive research, not experimental. The study population consisted of 72 teachers. To obtain the information, a 20-item contentive instrument was applied, which measured the factors that influence the application of managerial strategies to strengthen student learning. This instrument was validated and a reliability index of 0.81 was obtained. In the analysis of results, the single and absolute frequencies of each reagent were determined. This resulted in a series of constantly occurring situations that led to the following conclusions: managerial strategies are employed by teachers on average, as well as in organization and planning, there is no commitment in relation to it, although there It was possible to detect that teachers comply with the planned activities on a regular basis. In addition, in the case of management and control, it is denoted how forcefully both processes are fulfilled, even in the majority, and both are assumed as managerial strategies. Therefore, the implementation of strategies is recommended.

  8. Some aspects of public relation activities at Russian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, Sergei

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Since 1992 Rosenergoatom has managed most of the Russian NPPs. Here in this report we present its main public relations activities. 1. The leading role of the management of Rosenergoatom (Direction of Public Relations) is in relations with the public. 2. The main public relations activities are: - contact with the selected and administrative authorities of different levels, - interaction with mass media, - information of employees, - information of, and interaction with, the people of the areas close to the NPPs and especially of the nearby towns, - organising and carrying out opinion polls, - celebration campaigns at NPPs. 3. The use of NPPs' information centers and groups for PR activities: - construction and equipping of NPPs' public information centers; organising excursions, lectures, debates at NPPs; - publishing of news papers at NPPs and at NPPs' towns. 4. Public information in the regions close to the NPPs construction sites (Far East, Kostroma, Rostov, Veronezh regions). 5. Conclusions on the activities and plans for the future. (author)

  9. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; operation and management of a trust department; international banking; foreign exchange transactions... specialized lending provisions; marketing operations, including research, market development and advertising... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank management...

  10. Strengthening method of concrete structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Wewin; Audrey; Nugroho, Sofie; Njo, Helen

    2018-03-01

    Building extension in Indonesia is not favored, and not many people know the advantages of the method because architects and engineers tend to lack the knowledge and experience. The aim of this paper is to explain a method on how to strengthen a concrete building structure that people can use/learn as a better way to cut potential cost and save time. The strengthening method explained in this paper is steel jacketing, providing a case study of this method in the extension of a restaurant located in Medan, Indonesia. In this study, engineers calculated that the tensile stress of the existing RC column and beam is not strong enough to reinforce the building extension applied load. Therefore, the steel jacketing method can be applied to improve the column and beam strength and ductility. The result of the case study proves that this is one of the best methods for building extension applied in Indonesia.

  11. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  12. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  14. Social power and approach-related neural activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.S. Boksem (Maarten); R. Smolders (Ruud); D. de Cremer (David)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and

  15. Water chemistry-related activities at the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Onufriev, V.

    2005-01-01

    Water chemistry activities and publications in the past are listed. IAEA Coordinated Research Programmes, WWER-1000 SG water chemistry database, materials issues TM in Vienna, TC workshops and attendance of international meetings, publications. There is a list of IAEA publications related to water chemistry and corrosion. Finally water chemistry activities planned for 2006-2008 are detailed. (N.T.)

  16. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Negroni, Lirio K; Hesselbrock, Michie N

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9-12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families.

  17. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male cou...

  18. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing

  19. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  20. Visual short term memory related brain activity predicts mathematical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Social power and approach-related neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boksem, Maarten A S; Smolders, Ruud; De Cremer, David

    2012-06-01

    It has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and attention to rewards. In contrast, reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related motivation. Moreover, approach motivation has been found to be associated with increased relative left-sided frontal brain activity, while withdrawal motivation has been associated with increased right sided activations. We measured EEG activity while subjects engaged in a task priming either high or low social power. Results show that high social power is indeed associated with greater left-frontal brain activity compared to low social power, providing the first neural evidence for the theory that high power is associated with approach-related motivation. We propose a framework accounting for differences in both approach motivation and goal-directed behaviour associated with different levels of power.

  2. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe April 2013 Print this issue Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories Send us ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  3. Kinesiophobia in relation to physical activity in chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbüken, İlkşan; Özgül, Bahar; Kuru Çolak, Tuğba; Aydoğdu, Onur; Sarı, Zübeyir; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Little research is available concerning physical activity and its determinants in people with chronic neck pain. To explore the relation between kinesiophobia and physical activity and gender effect on these relations in people with chronic neck pain. Ninety-nine subjects (34 men and 65 women) with chronic neck pain were participated in the study. Pain intensity was assessed with Visual Analog Scale and kinesiophobia degree was determined by using Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. Level of physical activity was assessed with short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. There was no statistically correlation between neck pain intensity and kinesiophobia degree (p= 0.246, r= 0.123) and physical activity level (p= 0.432, r= -0.083). It was also found that kinesiophobia degree was not correlated to physical activity level (p= 0.148, r= -0.153). There was a negative correlation between kinesiophobia degree and physical activity level only for women, not for men (p= 0.011, r= -0.318). Our results showed that although people with chronic neck pain reported higher pain intensity and fear of movement, pain intensity and kinesiophobia degree did not associate to their physical activity levels. It can be speculated that high kinesiophobia degrees cause low physical activity levels for women, but not for men.

  4. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  5. The alpha activity of soils in relation to landscape development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, R G; Quirk, J P [Western Australia Univ., Nedlands. Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

    1976-02-01

    The alpha activity of soils and the degree of the equilibrium of the thorium series has been related to the age of soils developed on a truncated laterite landscape in southwestern Australia. The uplift of the old lateritic plateau has formed a sequence of erosional and depositional surfaces which form the parent materials of the present-day soils. These surfaces because of their different relative ages have been subjected to different degrees of weathering and leaching. The alpha activity of the soils formed on these different landscape surfaces is influenced firstly by the amount of weathering that the surface has undergone, and secondly by the degree of leaching that the soil has undergone as evidenced by profile development. It has been found that the younger soils have higher alpha activities with the thorium series tending more towards equilibrium when compared with older soils, where the alpha activity is lower due to the leaching of the daughter nuclides from the profile.

  6. Impact Evaluation Study for Institution Strengthening of Social Food Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman Notoatmojo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The general objectives of this study were to evaluate whether the implementation of activities for strengthening LDPM could achieve the expected goals, to evaluate whether the LDPM strengthening activities had a positive impact. The study analysis used was descriptive, comparison, and financial analysis. The results of this study have shown that LDPM farmers’ income have increased significantly, and the Gapoktan as LPDM farmers’ institution has been significantly developing as a Bulog function in procuring grain paddy from farmers during peak harvest and distributing rice to stabilize the price of rice during the limited rice in the market.

  7. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sorokowska; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Katherina Schoen; Cornelia Hummel; Pengfei Han; Jonathan Warr; Thomas Hummel

    2017-01-01

    Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving careful...

  8. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  9. 2017 Military Services Gender Relations Focus Groups: Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Office of People Analytics Office of People Analytics (OPA) Defense Research, Surveys, and Statistics Center 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 06E22...Relations (2017 MSGR) Focus Groups among active duty members. This is the third6 administration of gender relations focus groups. This introductory ...Enlisted, Male “It is true statistically , a majority of sexual assaults there is alcohol or drugs. In the military, it’s into the alcohol more than

  10. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Skidmore Edwards

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed.

  12. Development of the strengthened safeguards system and the Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidaurre-Henry, Jaime

    2001-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the IAEA's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. The paper summarizes the evolution of the safeguards system, describes strengthened safeguards, reports on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outlines plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  13. Project Rio Blanco: detonation related activities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco is described in relation to detonation, its history, execution, and results. Topics discussed include generalized site activities, emplacement well, explosive services and operations, operational safety, environmental protection program, seismic effects and damage claims, and add-on programs. (U.S.)

  14. Legalization of prostitution and decriminalization of related activities in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Едуардович Радутний

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses pros and cons of the legalization of prostitution and decriminalization of related activities, proves the necessity of resolving the issue from the perspective of human rights and interests of society, proposes changes to the current legislation of Ukraine and specific methods of information support of this process.

  15. Legalization of prostitution and decriminalization of related activities in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Олександр Едуардович Радутний

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses pros and cons of the legalization of prostitution and decriminalization of related activities, proves the necessity of resolving the issue from the perspective of human rights and interests of society, proposes changes to the current legislation of Ukraine and specific methods of information support of this process.

  16. Electrically active sodium-related defect centres in silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen; Madsbøll, J.; Søiland, A.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Electrically active defect centres related to sodium in silicon have been examined with deep level transient spectroscopy, and their recombination potential analysed with the microwave photoconductive decay technique. In order to investigate the entire silicon band gap for defect centres, both p-...

  17. Directed Activities Related to Text: Text Analysis and Text Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Florence; Greene, Terry

    This paper describes Directed Activities Related to Text (DART), procedures that were developed and are used in the Reading for Learning Project at the University of Nottingham (England) to enhance learning from texts and that fall into two broad categories: (1) text analysis procedures, which require students to engage in some form of analysis of…

  18. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Understanding factors that impact overweight or obesity is an essential step towards formulating programs to prevent or control obesity in young adults. Thus, we aim to assess the prevalence of physical activity and smoking habits in relation to weight status among a sample of university students. Methods: A ...

  19. High Tide, Low Tide. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snively, Gloria

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  20. Options for Diversification in Tobacco Farming and Related Activities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 janv. 2012 ... This project aims to provide the national working group with data on the socioeconomic status of the population engaged in tobacco farming and related activities such as bidi rolling and tendu leaf plucking; identify feasible alternative livelihoods; and design an intervention to facilitate a gradual shift to other ...

  1. Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Vroome, E.M. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dose-response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods: Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one

  2. Life Cycle of the Salmon. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabochia, Kathy

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  3. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... competitive advantage over firms competing with other holding company affiliates. To reduce the possibility... Board's amendment of § 225.4(a), which adds courier services to the list of closely related activities... generally in the provision of transportation services. During the course of the Board's proceedings...

  4. Some activities at CEA related to behaviour of core internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen transparencies where presented, elaborating some activities at CEA related to behaviour of core internals. After some introduction, ten of the transparencies are essentially a copy of the table of contents of the AMES report no. 11 (report no: EUR 17694 EN). The remaining 6 foils concerned themselves with irradiation experiments in test reactors, namely the IDAHO, CASIMIR and ALEXANDRA experiments

  5. Training in Values to Strengthen Social and Civic Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajaira del Valle Cadenas Terán

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present significantly values training to strengthen social and citizen considering that the coexistence of human beings has not been entirely easy, but so far they have managed to relate many of their problems with how to relate and interact with the environment, especially with the social environment. This study was conducted with a literature review which is the basis for targeted strengthening coexistence and citizenship therefore falls from a descriptive research training documentary. In conclusion, the importance of the subject since doors for values, dialogues, reflections, quality of life, among others that reflect the actions of teachers based on principles axiological open.

  6. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  7. The relation between self-esteem, sexual activity, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R B; Frank, D I

    1994-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.

  8. Estimating relative demand for wildlife: Conservation activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Gary G.; Larson, Joseph S.

    1982-09-01

    An alternative method of estimating relative demand among nonconsumptive uses of wildlife and among wildlife species is proposed. A demand intensity score (DIS), derived from the relative extent of an individual's involvement in outdoor recreation and conservation activities, is used as a weighting device to adjust the importance of preference rankings for wildlife uses and wildlife species relative to other members of a survey population. These adjusted preference rankings were considered to reflect relative demand levels (RDLs) for wildlife uses and for species by the survey population. This technique may be useful where it is not possible or desirable to estimate demand using traditional economic means. In one of the findings from a survey of municipal conservation commission members in Massachusetts, presented as an illustration of this methodology, poisonous snakes were ranked third in preference among five groups of reptiles. The relative demand level for poisonous snakes, however, was last among the five groups.

  9. Safeguards implementation and strengthening in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakou, I.; Piotukh, O.

    2001-01-01

    transportation of nuclear materials is carried out by Promatomnadzor. Promatomnadzor also issues permits on movement of nuclear materials across the borders of Belarus. State Customs Committee is responsible for detection of unauthorised imports and exports of nuclear and other radioactive materials at the customs border of the Republic of Belarus. They report each case to other responsible authorities. Belarus is a transport corridor between the East and West, and the issues relating to regulation of export and import, exercising control over export, import of nuclear materials, prevention of smuggling of nuclear materials and maintaining of international co-operation are very important for us. Further development of the safeguards system - It should be noted that control over use of nuclear materials and facilities, which is still of crucial importance can not ensure the absence of undeclared nuclear activities as required. The IAEA has developed the strengthened safeguards system (INFIRC/590) the essence of which is to expand control over relevant technologies, dual use commodities and services. Of course, the implementation of the system provides for more effective and efficient safeguards. Co-operation with the IAEA and other international organisations is regarded as one of the conditions of further improvement of reliability and efficiency of the safeguards. In conclusion I would like to express my profound gratitude to the IAEA and donor countries, in particular Japan, USA and Sweden, for their assistance aimed at strengthening safeguards in Belarus. (author)

  10. Elements for harnessing participatory action research to strengthen health managers' capacity: a critical interpretative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2018-04-19

    Health managers play a key role in ensuring that health services are responsive to the needs of the population. Participatory action research (PAR) is one of the approaches that have been used to strengthen managers' capacity. However, collated knowledge on elements for harnessing PAR to strengthen managers' capacity is missing. This paper bridges this gap by reviewing existing literature on the subject matter. A critical interpretive synthesis method was used to interrogate eight selected articles. These articles reported the use of PAR to strengthen health managers' capacity. The critical interpretive synthesis method's approach to analysis guided the synthesis. Here, the authors interpretively made connections and linkages between different elements identified in the literature. Finally, the Atun et al. (Heal Pol Plann, 25:104-111, 2010) framework on integration was used to model the elements synthesised in the literature into five main domains. Five elements with intricate bi-directional interactions were identified in the literature reviewed. These included a shared purpose, skilled facilitation and psychological safety, activity integration into organisational procedures, organisational support, and external supportive monitoring. A shared purpose of the managers' capacity strengthening initiative created commitment and motivation to learn. This purpose was built upon a set of facilitation skills that included promoting participation, self-efficacy and reflection, thereby creating a safe psychological space within which the managers interacted and learnt from each other and their actions. Additionally, an integrated intervention strengthened local capacity and harnessed organisational support for learning. Finally, supportive monitoring from external partners, such as researchers, ensured quality, building of local capacity and professional safety networks essential for continued learning. The five elements identified in this synthesis provide a basis upon

  11. Global health initiative investments and health systems strengthening: a content analysis of global fund investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ashley E; Wyss, Kaspar; Shakarishvili, George; Atun, Rifat; de Savigny, Don

    2013-07-26

    Millions of dollars are invested annually under the umbrella of national health systems strengthening. Global health initiatives provide funding for low- and middle-income countries through disease-oriented programmes while maintaining that the interventions simultaneously strengthen systems. However, it is as yet unclear which, and to what extent, system-level interventions are being funded by these initiatives, nor is it clear how much funding they allocate to disease-specific activities - through conventional 'vertical-programming' approach. Such funding can be channelled to one or more of the health system building blocks while targeting disease(s) or explicitly to system-wide activities. We operationalized the World Health Organization health system framework of the six building blocks to conduct a detailed assessment of Global Fund health system investments. Our application of this framework framework provides a comprehensive quantification of system-level interventions. We applied this systematically to a random subset of 52 of the 139 grants funded in Round 8 of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (totalling approximately US$1 billion). According to the analysis, 37% (US$ 362 million) of the Global Fund Round 8 funding was allocated to health systems strengthening. Of that, 38% (US$ 139 million) was for generic system-level interventions, rather than disease-specific system support. Around 82% of health systems strengthening funding (US$ 296 million) was allocated to service delivery, human resources, and medicines & technology, and within each of these to two to three interventions. Governance, financing, and information building blocks received relatively low funding. This study shows that a substantial portion of Global Fund's Round 8 funds was devoted to health systems strengthening. Dramatic skewing among the health system building blocks suggests opportunities for more balanced investments with regard to governance, financing, and

  12. Enzyme Enzyme activities in relation to sugar accumulation in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.J.; Rahman, M.H.; Mamun, M.A.; Islam, K.

    2006-01-01

    Enzyme activities in tomato juice of five different varieties viz. Ratan, Marglove, BARI-1, BARI-5 and BARI-6, in relation to sugar accumulation were investigated at different maturity stages. The highest amount of invertase and beta-galactosidase was found in Marglove and the lowest in BARI- 6 at all maturity stages. Total soluble sugar and sucrose contents were highest in BARI-1 and lowest in BARI-6. The activity of amylase was maximum in Ratan and minimum in Marglove. Protease activity was highest in Ratan and lowest in BARI-6. BARI-1 contained the highest cellulase activity and the lowest in BARI-5. The amount of total soluble sugar and sucrose increased moderately from premature to ripe stage. The activities of amylase and cellulase increased up to the mature stage and then decreased drastically in the ripe stage. The activities of invertase and protease increased sharply from the premature to the ripe stage while the beta-galactosidase activity decreased remarkably. No detectable amount of reducing sugar was present in the premature stage in all cultivars of tomato but increased thereafter upto the ripe stage. The highest reducing sugar was present in BARI-5 in all of the maturity stages. (author)

  13. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  14. Strengthening Masonry Arches with Lime-Based Mortar Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Alecci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many strengthening interventions on masonry elements were performed by using fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs. These advanced materials proved to be effective to increase the load-carrying capacity of masonry elements and to improve their structural behavior, avoiding the most critical failure modes. Despite the advantages of this technique compared to more traditional methods, FRP systems have disadvantages related to their low resistance to high temperatures, impossibility of application on wet surfaces, low permeability, and poor compatibility with masonry supports. Therefore, composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in an inorganic matrix were recently proposed as alternatives to FRPs for strengthening historic masonry constructions. These composite materials are easier to install, have higher resistance to high temperatures, and permit higher vapor permeability than FRPs. The inorganic matrix is frequently a cement-based mortar, and the composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in a cement-based mortar are usually identified as FRCM (fabric reinforced cementitious matrix composites. More recently, the use of natural lime mortar as an inorganic matrix has been proposed as an alternative to cement-based mortars when historic compatibility with the substrate is strictly required, as in case of restoration of historic buildings. In this paper, the effectiveness of a fabric made of basalt fibers embedded in lime mortar matrix (Basalt-FRLM for the strengthening of masonry arches is investigated. An experimental investigation was performed on 1:2 scaled brick masonry arches strengthened at the extrados with a layer of Basalt-FRLM and tested under vertical load. The results obtained are compared with previous results obtained by the authors by testing masonry arches strengthened at their extrados with FRCM and FRP composites. This investigation highlights the effectiveness of Basalt-FRLM in increasing load

  15. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  16. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P N Scholl

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112 and controls (n = 67. Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH, factor B-C2 (BF-C2 and complement C3 (C3 genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (p<0.001, were significantly elevated in AMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  17. Strengthening linkages of the financial services and real sectors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening linkages of the financial services and real sectors of the ... policy, financial sector credit and capital market activities have impacted on the real sector growth. ... sector as a result such financial crimes like misappropriation of funds. ... better results; more investment instruments such as derivatives, convertibles, ...

  18. New deformation model of grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trefilov, V.I.; Moiseev, V.F.; Pechkovskij, Eh.P.

    1988-01-01

    A new model explaining grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals and alloys by strain hardening due to localization of plastic deformation in narrow bands near grain boundaries is suggested. Occurrence of localized deformation is caused by different flow stresses in grains of different orientation. A new model takes into account the active role of stress concentrator, independence of the strengthening coefficient on deformation, influence of segregations. Successful use of the model suggested for explanation of rhenium effect in molybdenum and tungsten is alloys pointed out

  19. Dispersion relations and sum rules for natural optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz, M.T.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1981-06-01

    Dispersion relations and sum rules are derived for the complex rotatory power of an arbitrary linear (nonmagnetic) isotropic medium showing natural optical activity. Both previously known dispersion relations and sum rules as well as new ones are obtained. It is shown that the Rosenfeld-Condon dispersion formula is inconsistent with the expected asymptotic behavior at high frequencies. A new dispersion formula based on quantum eletro-dynamics removes this inconsistency; however, it still requires modification in the low-frequency limit. (Author) [pt

  20. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving carefully preselected odors of edible and non-edible substances. We compared activations generated by three food and three non-food odorants matching in terms of intensity, pleasantness and trigeminal qualities. We observed that for our mixed sample of 30 hungry and satiated participants, food odors generated significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (right and left, insula (right, and putamen (right than non-food odors. Among hungry subjects, regardless of the odor type, we found significant activation in the ventral tegmental area in response to olfactory stimulation. As our stimuli were matched in terms of various perceptual qualities, this result suggests that edibility of an odor source indeed generates specific activation in dopaminergic brain areas.

  1. The relation between instrumental musical activity and cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; MacKay, Alicia

    2011-05-01

    Intensive repetitive musical practice can lead to bilateral cortical reorganization. However, whether musical sensorimotor and cognitive abilities transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities that are maintained throughout the life span is unclear. In an attempt to identify modifiable lifestyle factors that may potentially enhance successful aging, we evaluated the association between musical instrumental participation and cognitive aging. Seventy older healthy adults (ages 60-83) varying in musical activity completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The groups (nonmusicians, low and high activity musicians) were matched on age, education, history of physical exercise, while musicians were matched on age of instrumental acquisition and formal years of musical training. Musicians were classified in the low (1-9 years) or high (>10 years) activity group based on years of musical experience throughout their life span. The results of this preliminary study revealed that participants with at least 10 years of musical experience (high activity musicians) had better performance in nonverbal memory (η2 = .106), naming (η2 = .103), and executive processes (η2 = .131) in advanced age relative to nonmusicians. Several regression analyses evaluated how years of musical activity, age of acquisition, type of musical training, and other variables predicted cognitive performance. These correlational results suggest a strong predictive effect of high musical activity throughout the life span on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. A discussion of how musical participation may enhance cognitive aging is provided along with other alternative explanations.

  2. Legal regulators of strengthening altruism in ukrainian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the legal mechanisms of strengthening altruism in Ukrainian society are analysed. Altruism constantly develops, acquires new forms under act of public relations. In modern Ukrainian society altruism must take the special place in institutionalization of human dignity and rights and freedoms of man, become the norm of social activity. In the article there is a necessity of perfection of normatively­legal base on the basis of principle of altruism, harmonization of relations between the state and civil society in the field of the altruism directed practices. Sharp social contradictions, estrangement of man, can be overcame only through claim of initial social values on principles of idea of dignity and human rights. There must be valuable partnership of the state and eleemosynary organizations in democratic society, creating favourable terms for opening public potential and directing of altruism activity of population. The special attention must be spared to providing of rights for invalids and defencing of them from discrimination.

  3. Relation of Biospeckle Activity with Quality Attributes of Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Zdunek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biospeckle is nondestructive optical technique based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. Biospeckle activity reflects the state of the investigated object. In this study the relation of biospeckle activity (BA with firmness, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and starch content (SC during the shelf life of seven apple cultivars was studied. The results showed that the quality attributes change significantly during storage. Significant and pronounced positive correlation between BA and SC was found. This result shows that degradation of starch granules, which could be stimulated to vibration by intracellular cyclosis, causes a lesser number of laser light scattering centers and results in smaller apparent biospeckle activity.

  4. Relation of biospeckle activity with quality attributes of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek, Artur; Cybulska, Justyna

    2011-01-01

    Biospeckle is nondestructive optical technique based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. Biospeckle activity reflects the state of the investigated object. In this study the relation of biospeckle activity (BA) with firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and starch content (SC) during the shelf life of seven apple cultivars was studied. The results showed that the quality attributes change significantly during storage. Significant and pronounced positive correlation between BA and SC was found. This result shows that degradation of starch granules, which could be stimulated to vibration by intracellular cyclosis, causes a lesser number of laser light scattering centers and results in smaller apparent biospeckle activity.

  5. Transit-Related Walking to Work in Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    2015-04-01

    Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day. This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day. Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.

  6. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Workplace harassment, active coping, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Flaherty, J A; Freels, S

    2001-01-01

    While sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse (GWA) have been linked with alcohol use and abuse, active problem-focused coping has been shown to lessen vulnerability to deleterious mental health consequences of varied social stressors. At the same time, active coping is relatively more efficacious in response to stressors, which are amenable to change by personal actions. However, the moderating role that coping plays in relation to harassment and drinking is unknown. Using data from a two-wave survey of university employees (N=2038), we addressed the extent to which (1) active coping was utilized by harassed and abused employees, (2) whether coping impacted on the continuation or cessation of harassment and abuse, and (3) the extent to which nonsuccessful coping was predictive of alcohol use and abuse. Active coping had no significant impact on the ability to end harassing or abusive experiences. Moreover, the use of problem-focused coping that was unsuccessful predicted some drinking outcomes for both men and women, controlling for Wave I drinking and sociodemographic characteristics. The data suggest that increased institutional attention to the prevention of workplace harassment and abuse might impact on decreasing alcohol use and abuse.

  8. Strengthening health system to improve immunization for migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai; Yang, Li; Zhang, Huyang; Li, Chenyang; Wen, Liankui; Sun, Li; Hanson, Kara; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-07-01

    Immunization is the most cost-effective method to prevent and control vaccine-preventable diseases. Migrant population in China has been rising rapidly, and their immunization status is poor. China has tried various strategies to strengthen its health system, which has significantly improved immunization for migrants. This study applied a qualitative retrospective review method aiming to collect, analyze and synthesize health system strengthening experiences and practices about improving immunizations for migrants in China. A conceptual framework of Theory of Change was used to extract the searched literatures. 11 searched literatures and 4 national laws and policies related to immunizations for migrant children were carefully studied. China mainly employed 3 health system strengthening strategies to significantly improve immunization for migrant population: stop charging immunization fees or immunization insurance, manage immunization certificates well, and pay extra attentions on immunization for special children including migrant children. These health system strengthening strategies were very effective, and searched literatures show that up-to-date and age-appropriate immunization rates were significantly improved for migrant children. Economic development led to higher migrant population in China, but immunization for migrants, particularly migrant children, were poor. Fortunately various health system strengthening strategies were employed to improve immunization for migrants in China and they were rather successful. The experiences and lessons of immunization for migrant population in China might be helpful for other developing countries with a large number of migrant population.

  9. Strengthening quitter self-identity: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van Laar, Colette; van den Putte, Bas; Evers, Andrea W M

    2018-06-10

    Smoking-related self-identity processes are important for smoking cessation. We examined whether quitter self-identity (i.e. identification with quitting smoking) could be strengthened through a writing exercise, and whether expected social support for quitting, manipulated through vignettes, could facilitate identification with quitting. Participants (N = 339 daily smokers) were randomly assigned to a 2 (identity: strengthened quitter self-identity vs. control) × 3 (social support: present vs. absent vs. neutral control) between-participants design. The main outcome was post-test quitter self-identity. Post-test quitter self-identity was not strengthened successfully. Only a small and marginally significant intervention effect was found on quitter self-identity, which did not generalise to positively influence quit-intention or behaviour. The social support manipulation did not facilitate quitter self-identity. Secondary content analyses showed that quitter self-identity was strengthened among participants who linked quitting smoking to their lifestyle, wanted to become quitters for health reasons, and whose reasons for becoming quitters included approach of positive aspects of quitting, but not among participants who linked quitter self-identity to their self-perceptions. Results provide insight into the content of smokers' self-conceptualizations as quitters. Writing exercises should be improved and tested to eventually successfully strengthen quitter identities.

  10. Human Resources Capacity Building as a Strategy in Strengthening Nuclear Knowledge Sustainability in the Experimental Fuel Element Installation of BATAN-Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratih Langenati; Bambang, Herutomo; Arief Sasongko Adhi

    2014-01-01

    Strategy in Strengthening Nuclear Knowledge Sustainability: • In order to maintain human resources capacity related to nuclear fuel production technology, a nuclear knowledge preservation program is implemented in the EFEI. • The program includes coaching/training, mentoring and documenting important knowledge. • The program activities are monitored and evaluated quarterly for its improvement in the following year

  11. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    other hand, in the survey to determine what the greatest difficulties of the current mining activities, 54% of mining companies chose environmental regulations, 26% of mining companies chose conflicts between mine area residents and mining companies. Environmental regulations are may defined as the greatest difficulty of current mining activities. But most of environmental regulation's problems are caused by frictions with residents, because all of South Korean mines are very close to villages. So, the biggest difficulty of mining activities can be defined conflicts between residents and mining companies. Moreover, general people in South Korea including some mining engineers recognize the mining industry as a declined and pollution industry. Without clear understanding of mining activities, any mine developments and policies related to mining activities cannot be made by rational discussions. And, if their recognition is not formed in a rational way, it will be turned to extreme fear or blind hatred. Therefore, to understand mining activities correctly, the effective public relations strategy is necessary such as corporate advertisements or public advertisements.

  12. Consumer Health-Related Activities on Social Media: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-10-13

    Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online

  13. Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning for Relative Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinge; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-06-02

    The use of relative attributes for semantic understanding of images and videos is a promising way to improve communication between humans and machines. However, it is extremely labor- and time-consuming to define multiple attributes for each instance in large amount of data. One option is to incorporate active learning, so that the informative samples can be actively discovered and then labeled. However, most existing active-learning methods select samples one at a time (serial mode), and may therefore lose efficiency when learning multiple attributes. In this paper, we propose a batch-mode active-learning method, called Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning (DEGAL). This method integrates an informativeness analysis and a diversity analysis to form a diverse batch of queries. Specifically, the informativeness analysis employs the expected pairwise gradient length as a measure of informativeness, while the diversity analysis forces a constraint on the proposed diverse gradient angle. Since simultaneous optimization of these two parts is intractable, we utilize a two-step procedure to obtain the diverse batch of queries. A heuristic method is also introduced to suppress imbalanced multi-class distributions. Empirical evaluations of three different databases demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  14. Strengthening Research by Designing for Coherence and Connections to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerst, Timothy; Confrey, Jere; Heck, Daniel; Knuth, Eric; Lambdin, Diana V.; White, Dorothy; Baltzley, Patricia C.; Quander, Judith Reed

    2010-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) is committed to strengthening relations between research and practice and to the development of a coherent knowledge base that is usable in practice. The need to work toward connection and coherence is not unique to the field of mathematics education. Fields such as medicine, software…

  15. ONE OF THE POSSIBLE WAYS TO STRENGTHENING THE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman URBAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to point out at the relation between security and its key vehicle that is humans themselves. It presents an option to strengthen security through purposeful education of peiple and their comprehensive training in peaceful settlement of conflicts.

  16. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  17. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly active eighth-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Although girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Data from 1,866 eighth-grade girls from six field centers across the United States participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed-model analysis of variance examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. High-active girls were taller, had lower body mass indices and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Update on the SDTP Sponsored Fukushima Daiichi Related Assesment Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, Innovative Systems Software and several other members of an international software development and training group (SDTP) started an assessment of the possible core/vessel damage states of Units 1-3. This assessment, using a reference RELAP/SCDAPSIM Laguna Verde BWR model developed by CNSNS, the Mexican nuclear regulatory body, was presented initially to the IAEA emergency response team for Fukushima in March of 2011. Our assessment for the IAEA indicated that significant fuel melting, fuel slumping, and lower head failure was likely for Units 1 and 3. The results for Unit 2 were inconclusive because of the complex thermal hydraulic conditions at the time of likely fuel melting. Since that time the SDTP related assessment activities have continued on three main fronts: (a) continued analysis using our representative Laguna Verde model to determine the likely failure modes leading to an un-intentional depressurization of the vessel during a SBO in a BWR, (b) development of improved RELAP/SCDAPSIM models to treat the likely mode of lower core support structure melting and failure, and (c) design studies for proposed fuel melting and relocation experiments in Japan to support model development and cleanup related activities, The presentation gives a brief summary and discussion of these activities.

  19. Adolescents' and young adults' physical activity related to built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cocca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to analyse physical activity (PA levels of high school and university students; to estimate their perception of built environment with regard to physical PA; and to assess the relation between PA and built environment. Methods. A sociological cross-sectional study with non-experimental design was applied. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Built Environment Characteristics Questionnaire were filled in by a sample of 1.862 students from high schools and the university in Granada, Spain. Results. High school students were significantly more active than university students, the latter reaching insufficient levels of PA. Nevertheless, they consider Granada as a good context for carrying out outdoor exercise. No relations were found between PA levels and built environment. Conclusion. The discrepant outcomes for PA levels and perceived built environment suggest the need of interventions focused on making youth aware of the possibilities that an environment provides to them for exercising. Consequently, environment could have an impact on their health at the same time as youth learn to respect it.

  20. Stroke survivors' and relatives' negotiation of relational and activity changes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Cathrine; Hamran, Torunn

    2016-01-01

    This study explores stroke survivors' and relatives' negotiation of relational and activity change in their interrelated long-term meaning-making processes of everyday life and what it means for the experience of progress and well-being. Repeated retrospective in-depth interviews were conducted with both the stroke survivor and relatives. A Critical Psychological Perspective gives the frame of reference to study more closely what is going on in and across particular contexts in family members' ongoing social practices. An asymmetric problematic relationship can develop among the participants in the context of family life. However, the analysis identifies six beneficial relational and activity changes, which contribute to a reciprocal, balanced repositioning, and help the family move in a more positive direction. The repositioning processes facilitate a new transformation of family we-ness, which is important for the participants' experience of process and well-being. The comprehensive family work that has to be done is about managing the imbalance of everyday life, upholding separate activities outside the family sphere and dealing with the fact that peripheral others become more peripheral. The study addresses some arguments for taking a family-centred perspective in occupational therapy practice, as well as in a stroke rehabilitation service in general.

  1. Error-Related Activity and Correlates of Grammatical Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Doug J.; Indefrey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive control involves not only the ability to manage competing task demands, but also the ability to adapt task performance during learning. This study investigated how violation-, response-, and feedback-related electrophysiological (EEG) activity changes over time during language learning. Twenty-two Dutch learners of German classified short prepositional phrases presented serially as text. The phrases were initially presented without feedback during a pre-test phase, and then with feedback in a training phase on two separate days spaced 1 week apart. The stimuli included grammatically correct phrases, as well as grammatical violations of gender and declension. Without feedback, participants’ classification was near chance and did not improve over trials. During training with feedback, behavioral classification improved and violation responses appeared to both types of violation in the form of a P600. Feedback-related negative and positive components were also present from the first day of training. The results show changes in the electrophysiological responses in concert with improving behavioral discrimination, suggesting that the activity is related to grammar learning. PMID:21960979

  2. Cerebral Activations Related to Writing and Drawing with Each Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; van der Hoorn, Anouk; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Writing is a sequential motor action based on sensorimotor integration in visuospatial and linguistic functional domains. To test the hypothesis of lateralized circuitry concerning spatial and language components involved in such action, we employed an fMRI paradigm including writing and drawing with each hand. In this way, writing-related contributions of dorsal and ventral premotor regions in each hemisphere were assessed, together with effects in wider distributed circuitry. Given a right-hemisphere dominance for spatial action, right dorsal premotor cortex dominance was expected in left-hand writing while dominance of the left ventral premotor cortex was expected during right-hand writing. Methods Sixteen healthy right-handed subjects were scanned during audition-guided writing of short sentences and simple figure drawing without visual feedback. Tapping with a pencil served as a basic control task for the two higher-order motor conditions. Activation differences were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). Results Writing and drawing showed parietal-premotor and posterior inferior temporal activations in both hemispheres when compared to tapping. Drawing activations were rather symmetrical for each hand. Activations in left- and right-hand writing were left-hemisphere dominant, while right dorsal premotor activation only occurred in left-hand writing, supporting a spatial motor contribution of particularly the right hemisphere. Writing contrasted to drawing revealed left-sided activations in the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, Broca’s area, pre-Supplementary Motor Area and posterior middle and inferior temporal gyri, without parietal activation. Discussion The audition-driven postero-inferior temporal activations indicated retrieval of virtual visual form characteristics in writing and drawing, with additional activation concerning word form in the left hemisphere. Similar parietal processing in writing and drawing pointed at a

  3. Cerebral activations related to writing and drawing with each hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van der Hoorn, Anouk; de Jong, Bauke M

    2015-01-01

    Writing is a sequential motor action based on sensorimotor integration in visuospatial and linguistic functional domains. To test the hypothesis of lateralized circuitry concerning spatial and language components involved in such action, we employed an fMRI paradigm including writing and drawing with each hand. In this way, writing-related contributions of dorsal and ventral premotor regions in each hemisphere were assessed, together with effects in wider distributed circuitry. Given a right-hemisphere dominance for spatial action, right dorsal premotor cortex dominance was expected in left-hand writing while dominance of the left ventral premotor cortex was expected during right-hand writing. Sixteen healthy right-handed subjects were scanned during audition-guided writing of short sentences and simple figure drawing without visual feedback. Tapping with a pencil served as a basic control task for the two higher-order motor conditions. Activation differences were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). Writing and drawing showed parietal-premotor and posterior inferior temporal activations in both hemispheres when compared to tapping. Drawing activations were rather symmetrical for each hand. Activations in left- and right-hand writing were left-hemisphere dominant, while right dorsal premotor activation only occurred in left-hand writing, supporting a spatial motor contribution of particularly the right hemisphere. Writing contrasted to drawing revealed left-sided activations in the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, Broca's area, pre-Supplementary Motor Area and posterior middle and inferior temporal gyri, without parietal activation. The audition-driven postero-inferior temporal activations indicated retrieval of virtual visual form characteristics in writing and drawing, with additional activation concerning word form in the left hemisphere. Similar parietal processing in writing and drawing pointed at a common mechanism by which such visually

  4. Quality Control Activities Related to Mechanical Maintenance of Safety Related Components at Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djakovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    For successful, safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plant, maintenance processes have to be systematically controlled and procedures for quality control of maintenance activities shall be established. This is requested by the quality assurance program, which shall provide control over activities affecting the quality of structures, systems, and components, considering their importance to safety. As a part of Quality and Nuclear Oversight Division (QNOD; SKV), the Quality Control Department (QC) provides quality control activities, which are deeply involved in maintenance processes at Krsko NPP, both on safety related and non-safety related (non-nuclear safety) components. QC activities on safety related components have to fulfil all requirements, which will enable the components to perform their intended safety functions. This paper describes quality control activities related to mechanical maintenance of safety related components at Krsko NPP and significant role of the Krsko plant QC Department in three particular maintenance cases connected with safety related components. In these three specific cases, the QC has confirmed its importance in compliance with quality assurance program and presented its significant added value in providing safe and reliable operation of the plant. The first maintenance activity was installation of nozzle check valves in the scope of a modification for improving regulation of spent fuel pit pumps. The QC Department performed receipt inspection of the valves. Using non-destructive examination methods and X-ray spectrometry, it was found out that the valve diffuser was made of improper material, which could cause progressive corrosion of the valve diffuser in borated water and consequently a loss of safety function of the valves followed by long-term consequences. The second one was the receipt inspection of containment ventilation fan coolers. The coolers were claimed and sent back to the supplier because the QC Department

  5. [Relation between physical activity, weight balance and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maître, Carole

    2013-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies, with a good methodology, support the evidence of the positive role of regular physical activity on primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer on the risk of recurrence and mortality. This relation depends on the level of total energy expenditure by week, which helps balance weight on lifetime, an essential part of benefit. The beneficial effects of physical activity are linked to many interrelated additional mechanisms: in a short-term, contraction of skeletal muscles involves aerobic metabolism which utilizes glucose and amino acids like glutamine, improves insulin sensitivity and lowers plasma insulin; in a long-term, physical activity produces favorable changes in body composition, decreasing body fat and increasing lean mass. That is a key point to reduce the intake of energy substrates stimulating carcinogenesis, to improve insulin sensitivity, to change the ratio of leptin and adiponectin, to enhance cellular immunity and to block cellular pathways of cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Maintaining a healthy weight through regular physical activity well balanced with energy intake is it a goal for prevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Where are we now? The strengthened safeguards system: Origins, aims, features, issues and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriefer, D.

    1998-01-01

    The present status of the strengthened safeguards system includes the origins, aims, features, issues and future prospects. The areas of emphasis concerning the strengthened safeguards system are: access to information (environmental sampling and improved information analysis), access to sites, rational use of resources (cost analysis of present safeguards, increased cooperation with state systems, cost savings in traditional safeguards activities)

  7. JAEA's activities relating the Fukushima Nuclear Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    JAEA started the activities relating to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The Office of Fukushima Partnership Operations for Environmental Remediation was opened and the JAEA staff was stationed as the base of cooperation with other organizations. It is conducting environmental radiation monitoring, environmental radioactivity analyses, resident public consulting, and demonstration of decontamination technology. Experts of JAEA are providing technical advice and supports to the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Furthermore, the water radiolysis leading to hydrogen gas evolution by Cs 137 adsorbed zeolite and the technique for radioactive waste process and its disposal of fuel debris are being studied. JAEA's Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) is acting as a center of these supporting activities of JAEA. (S. Ohno)

  8. Status of research reactor utilization and other related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calix, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    The report covers two parts; the first is on the progress of the cooperative projects planned for 2002 under the FNCA and the other part on the activities related to the PRR1, Philippine Research Reactor. In the 2001 Workshop at Beijing, the Country agreed to participate in the three areas for collaboration. A brief reports on these three projects are included. The Country representatives during this 2002 Workshop will do a more detailed presentation on Radioisotope Production (TcG) and Neutron Activation Analysis projects. The second part of this report deals with the issues/concerns impeding the rehabilitation of PRR1. In January 2002, the Institute created the PRR1 Strategic Plan Committee to look deeply into these issues and concerns. The results of the Committee's work are discussed. (author)

  9. Towards age/rotation/magnetic activity relation with seismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Savita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of stellar ages directly impacts the characterization of a planetary system as it puts strong constraints on the moment when the system was born. Unfortunately, the determination of precise stellar ages is a very difficult task. Different methods can be used to do so (based on isochrones or chemical element abundances but they usually provide large uncertainties. During its evolution a star goes through processes leading to loss of angular momentum but also changes in its magnetic activity. Building rotation, magnetic, age relations would be an asset to infer stellar ages model independently. Several attempts to build empirical relations between rotation and age (namely gyrochronology were made with a focus on cluster stars where the age determination is easier and for young stars on the main sequence. For field stars, we can now take advantage of high-precision photometric observations where we can perform asteroseismic analyses to improve the accuracy of stellar ages. Furthermore, the variability in the light curves allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar rotation and magnetic activity. By combining these precise measurements, we are on the way of understanding and improving relations between magnetic activity, rotation, and age, in particular at different stages of stellar evolution. I will review the status on gyrochronology relationships based on observations of young cluster stars. Then I will focus on solar-like stars and describe the inferences on stellar ages, rotation, and magnetism that can be provided by high-quality photometric observations such as the ones of the Kepler mission, in particular through asteroseismic analyses.

  10. THE RADIO ACTIVITY-ROTATION RELATION OF ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, M.; Berger, E.; Reiners, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new radio survey of about 100 late-M and L dwarfs undertaken with the Very Large Array. The sample was chosen to explore the role of rotation in the radio activity of ultracool dwarfs. As part of the survey we discovered radio emission from three new objects, 2MASS J 0518113 – 310153 (M6.5), 2MASS J 0952219 – 192431 (M7), and 2MASS J 1314203 + 132001 (M7), and made an additional detection of LP 349-25 (M8). Combining the new sample with results from our previous studies and from the literature, we compile the largest sample to date of ultracool dwarfs with radio observations and measured rotation velocities (167 objects). In the spectral type range M0-M6 we find a radio activity-rotation relation, with saturation at L rad /L bol ≈ 10 –7.5 above vsin i ≈ 5 km s –1 , similar to the relation in Hα and X-rays. However, at spectral types ∼> M7 the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity increases significantly regardless of rotation velocity, and the scatter in radio luminosity increases. In particular, while the most rapid rotators (vsin i ∼> 20 km s –1 ) exhibit 'super-saturation' in X-rays and Hα, this effect is not seen in the radio. We also find that ultracool dwarfs with vsin i ∼> 20 km s –1 have a higher radio detection fraction by about a factor of three compared to objects with vsin i ∼ –1 . When measured in terms of the Rossby number (Ro), the radio activity-rotation relation follows a single trend and with no apparent saturation from G to L dwarfs and down to Ro ∼ 10 –3 ; in X-rays and Hα there is clear saturation at Ro ∼ rad /R 2 * ) as a function of Ro. The continued role of rotation in the overall level of radio activity and in the fraction of active sources, and the single trend of L rad /L bol and L rad /R 2 * as a function of Ro from G to L dwarfs, indicates that rotation effects are important in regulating the topology or strength of magnetic fields in at least some fully convective dwarfs. The fact that

  11. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China

    CERN Document Server

    Guan Xia Ling; Ding Da Zhao; Fang Jia Xun; Fang Shou Xian; Fu Shin Ian; Guo, Z Y; Jiang Wei; Li Jie Quan; Luo Zi Hua; Ouyang Hua Fu; Peng Chao Hua; Xu Tao Guang; Xu Wen Wu; Yu Qi; Zhang Zong Hua; Zhao Sheng Chu

    2001-01-01

    High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. In China, a multi-purpose verification system as a first phase of Chinese ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton linac) and a swimming pool light water sub-critical reactor. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described

  12. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xialing; Jiang Weisheng; Cui Baoqun; Peng Chaohua; Ding Dazhao; Fu Shinian; Yu Qingchang; Luo Zihua; Xu Wenwu; Ouyang Huafu; Xu Taoguang; Zhao Shengchu; Zhang Zonghua; Li Jian; Fang Shouxian

    2002-01-01

    High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. In China, a multi-purpose verification system as a first phase of Chinese ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton linac) and a swimming pool light water sub-critical reactor. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described

  13. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Activities Related to Fast Reactor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dujardin, Thierry; Gulliford, Jim

    2013-01-01

    • Despite impact of Fukushima, there remains a high level of interest in continued development of advanced nuclear systems and fuel cycles: – better use of natural resources; – minimisation of waste and reduction of constraints on deep geological repositories. • Ambitious R&D programmes on-going at national level in many countries, also through international projects: – expected to lead to development of advanced reactors and fuel cycle facilities. • OECD/NEA will continue to support member countries in field of fast reactor development and related advanced fuel cycles: – forum for exchange of information; – collaborative activities

  14. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  15. Gaming is related to enhanced working memory performance and task-related cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2017-01-15

    Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. HIV/AIDS prevention, faith, and spirituality among black/African American and Latino communities in the United States: strengthening scientific faith-based efforts to shift the course of the epidemic and reduce HIV-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Parks, Carolyn P

    2013-06-01

    Black/African American and Latino communities are disproportionately affected by the domestic HIV/AIDS epidemic. Blacks/African Americans and Latinos are also more likely to report a formal, religious, or faith affiliation when compared with non-Hispanic whites. As such, faith leaders and their institutions have been identified in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy as having a vital role to serve in reducing: (1) HIV-related health disparities and (2) the number of new HIV infections by promoting non-judgmental support for persons living with and at risk for HIV/AIDS and by serving as trusted information resources for their congregants and communities. We describe faith doctrines and faith-science partnerships that are increasing in support of faith-based HIV prevention and service delivery activities and discuss the vital role of these faith-based efforts in highly affected black/African American and Latino communities.

  17. Neighborhood built environment and socioeconomic status in relation to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Carlson, Jordan A; Frank, Lawrence D; Kerr, Jacqueline; Glanz, Karen; Chapman, James E; Saelens, Brian E

    2018-05-01

    The study examined the association of neighborhood walkability to multiple activity-related outcomes and BMI among adolescents and evaluated socioeconomic status as an effect modifier. Cross-sectional study, with adolescents recruited from neighborhoods that met criteria for a 2 × 2 matrix defined by high/low GIS-defined walkability and high/low median income. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n = 928) were recruited from selected neighborhoods in Maryland and King County, Washington regions in 2009-2011. There were 50.4% girls, and 66.3% were non-Hispanic white, with no medical restrictions on physical activity (PA) or diets. Total PA and sedentary time was assessed by 7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Adolescents self-reported active transport, time spent on 6 sedentary behaviors, and height and weight, used to compute BMI percentiles. Mixed model linear and logistic regressions examined outcomes for association with walkability and income, adjusting for demographic covariates and clustering within block groups. Walkability was positively and significantly related to objectively-measured PA (p < .001) and more frequent walking for transportation (p < .001). Total self-reported sedentary time (p = .048) and TV time (p < .007) were negatively related to walkability. Time in vehicles was negatively related to walkability only among higher-income adolescents. Neighborhood walkability was strongly and consistently associated with adolescents' objectively-assessed total physical activity and reported active transportation. A novel finding was that adolescents living in walkable neighborhoods reported less television time and less time in vehicles. Most results were similar across income categories. Results strengthen the rationale for recommendations to improve walkability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Marine benthic faunal successional stages and related sedimentary activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Rosenberg

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief review of successional stages and activity of benthic soft-bottom communities. Benthic communities was first described by Petersen in the 1910s and further developed by Molander, Thorson and Margalef. Successional stages of benthic communities chance in a predictable way in relation to environmental disturbance and food availability. Food supply to the bottom can occur as a vertical flux, but transport through lateral advection is more important in some areas. While at the bottom, the infauna processes the food in many different ways, and the feeding modes can be categorised into more than 20 functional groups, but fewer are present in brackish water. This categorisation is based on animal mobility and where and how they ingest the food. Animal activity in the sediment, bioturbation, has a significant effect on redox conditions and diagenetic processes. Structures in the sediment due to infaunal presence and activity can be observed in situ by sediment profile imaging, and the biogenic structures and redox conditions can be parameterised and have been shown to correlate to benthic community successional stages. The largest threat to benthic faunal biodiversity is the spread of near-bottom oxygen deficiency in many enclosed are stratified coastal areas.

  19. Relation of Age at Menarche to Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egreta Peja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether regular physical activity during early puberty is influential in preventing early menarche. This cross sectional study was carried out on 102 post-menarcheal girls aged 11–20 (14.79±0.33. 51 of them were already engaged in competitive sport activities prior to the onset of menstruation (group 1, while the others got engaged in such activities after the onset of menstruation (group 2. All participants provided the year and the month of their first menstrual period. First, we estimated the equality of dispersion between the two groups, by conducting Two Samples for Variances F-test. Second, because no homogeneity of variances between groups was found, they were compared by using Two Samples Assuming Unequal Variances t-test. The difference between groups is statistically significant, as the t statistics (=2.883 is greater than both critical t statistics (one-tail=1.664 two-tail=1.990 and the p value less than 0.05 in both cases (one-tail=0.002 two-tail=0.005. None of the girls in the first group starts to menstruate before 11 years of age and 90% of them are menstruating by age 14, with a median age of 12.95±0.35 years. Age of menarche is lower in the second group with a median age of 12.25±0.31 years, thus approximately 8 months lower than median age for the first group. 11.76% of the girls in the second group start to menstruate before 11 years of age and 90% of them are menstruating by age 13. It is rather, the decline in early matures among those engaged in regular physical activity prior to the onset of menses, that makes the statistically significant correlation between physical activity and age at menarche practically meaningful. Relatively early matures (<11 years have been found to be slightly shorter but up to 5.5 kg heavier in adulthood than are late matures. In addition, a relatively young age at menarche has been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer and spontaneous

  20. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries.

  1. Television watching, leisure time physical activity, and the genetic predisposition in relation to body mass index in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Chomistek, Andrea K; Kang, Jae H; Curhan, Gary C; Pasquale, Louis R; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Qi, Lu

    2012-10-09

    Previous studies on gene-lifestyle interaction and obesity have focused mostly on the FTO gene and physical activity, whereas little attention has been paid to sedentary behavior as indicated by television (TV) watching. We analyzed interactions between TV watching, leisure time physical activity, and genetic predisposition in relation to body mass index (BMI) in 7740 women and 4564 men from 2 prospective cohorts: The Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Data on physical activity and TV watching were collected 2 years before assessment of BMI. A weighted genetic risk score was calculated on the basis of 32 established BMI-associated variants. In both women and men, the genetic associations with BMI strengthened with increased hours of TV watching. An increment of 10 points in the weighted genetic risk score was associated with 0.8 (SE, 0.4), 0.8 (SE, 0.2), 1.4 (SE, 0.2), 1.5 (SE, 0.2), and 3.4 (SE, 1.0) kg/m(2) higher BMI across the 5 categories of TV watching (0-1, 2-5, 6-20, 21-40, and >40 h/wk; P for interaction=0.001). In contrast, the genetic association with BMI weakened with increased levels of physical activity. An increment of 10 points in the weighted genetic risk score was associated with 1.5 (SE, 0.2), 1.3 (SE, 0.2), 1.2 (SE, 0.2), 1.2 (SE, 0.2), and 0.8 (SE, 0.2) kg/m(2) higher BMI across the quintiles of physical activity. The interactions of TV watching and physical activity with genetic predisposition in relation to BMI were independent of each other. A sedentary lifestyle, indicated by prolonged TV watching, may accentuate the predisposition to elevated adiposity, whereas greater leisure time physical activity may attenuate the genetic association.

  2. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  3. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors could pose a safeguards challenge. To strengthen the effectiveness of safeguards at the State level, this paper advocates that the IAEA consider ways to focus additional attention and broaden its safeguards toolbox for research reactors. This increase in focus on the research reactors could begin with the recognition that the research reactor (of any size) could be a common path element on a large number of technically plausible pathways that must be considered when performing acquisition pathway analysis (APA) for developing a State Level Approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP). To

  4. Factors Related to Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines in Active College Students: A Social Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, G. L.; Zhang, T.; Martin, S. B.; Thomas, K. T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations of sex, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social support with meeting physical activity guidelines (PAGs). Participants: Three hundred ninety-six college students participated in this study in the summer 2013. Methods: Students completed online questionnaires that assessed physical activity…

  5. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  6. Activity Engagement and Activity-Related Experiences: The Role of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicky J; Pladevall-Guyer, Jana; Gonzalez, Richard; Smith, Jacqui

    2016-08-12

    The associations of personality with activity participation and well-being have been well studied. However, less is known concerning the relationship between personality and specific aspects of activity engagement in older adults. We conducted a fine-grained examination of the effects of extraversion and conscientiousness on reported activity engagement-which we define as participation, time allocated, and affective experience-during 8 everyday activities. Data were obtained using a day reconstruction measure from a subgroup of participants in the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 5,484; mean age = 67.98 years). We found mixed support for hypotheses suggesting that specific personality traits would be associated with activity participation, time allocated, and activity-affective experience. For example, extraverts were more likely to socialize and experienced higher socializing-related positive affect, but did not spend more time socializing. Results are discussed in light of the value of including personality in, and its contribution to, studies of activity engagement in later life. In addition, the need to acknowledge the complexity of the concept of activity engagement in future research is highlighted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. World uranium exploration, resources, production and related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanly, A.

    2014-01-01

    A Nuclear Energy Series publication entitled “World Uranium Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities” (WUERPRA) will soon be published by the IAEA. The objective of the publication is to provide a comprehensive compilation of historic uranium exploration, resources, production and related activities based primarily on information from the 1966 to 2009 editions of the publication “Uranium Resources, Production and Demand”, a joint publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development commonly known as the ‘Red Book’. This has been supplemented by historic information from other reliable sources. The publications also include, where enough information was available, descriptions of the relative potential for discovery of new uranium resources on a per country basis. To recover complete historic information it is frequently necessary to refer to earlier editions of the Red Book, many of which may not be readily available. This publication aims to provide one comprehensive source for much of this type of information which will reduce the effort required to prepare future editions of the Red Book, as well as make the historic Red Book information, together with select related information from other sources, more readily available to all users with an interest in uranium. WUERPRA comprises 6 volumes containing 164 country reports, each organized by region; Volume 1: Africa (53 countries); Volume 2: Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (25 countries); Volume 3: Southeastern Asia, Pacific, East Asia (18 countries); Volume 4: Western Europe (22 countries); Volume 5: Middle East, Central and Southern Asia (19 countries), and; Volume 6: North America, Central America and South America (27 countries). The report also contains information on countries that have not reported to the Red Book. The poster will summarize select major highlights from each volume

  8. Squeeze strengthening of magnetorheological fluids using mixed mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, A. C.; Sherman, S. G.; Hu, W.; Wereley, N. M.

    2015-05-01

    This research details a novel method of increasing the shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluids by combining shear and squeeze modes of operation to manipulate particle chain structures, so-called squeeze strengthening. Using a custom built Searle cell magnetorheometer, which is a model device emulating a rotary magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA), the contribution of squeeze strengthening to the total controllable yield force is experimentally investigated. Using an eccentric rotating inner cylinder, characterization data from large (1 mm) and small (0.25 mm) nominal gap geometries are compared to investigate the squeeze strengthening effect. Details of the experimental setup and method are presented, and a hybrid model is used to explain experimental trends. This study demonstrates that it is feasible, utilizing squeeze strengthening to increase yield stress, to either (1) design a rotary MREA of a given volume to achieve higher energy absorption density (energy absorbed normalized by active fluid volume), or (2) reduce the volume of a given rotary MREA to achieve the same energy absorption density.

  9. Strategy of Strengthening Institutional Fishermen Groups for Increasing Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Yusuf Agunggunanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The community development and empowerment are two inseparable sides in the efforts to overcome the phenomenon of the fishermen communities, especially in the efforts to increase the welfare through the increasing income in the fishermen communities. One of the media in implementing the community development and empowerment is through the fishermen groups. The role of fishermen groups has not run optimally yet in improving the fishermen’s welfare, so it requires a strategy of developing the fishermen groups through the strategy of strengthening the economy in order to increase the fishermen’s income. This research aims to determine the priority of aspects to determine the strategies and to analyze the priority of strategy of strengthening the economy through the development of the institutional fishermen groups in order to increase the fishermen income in Central Java. The method of analysis in this research uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The result of AHP analysis indicates the priority of aspects in the strategy of strengthening the economy those are: aspects of participation,aspects of capital, aspects of partnership, and aspects of technology. The priority of alternatives in the strategy of strengthening the fishermen’s economy shows three sequences of 12 alternatives of strategies those are:  the  socialization of the importance of groups, the increase in the active participation, and the increase in the number of meetings.

  10. Relation of physical activity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between self-esteem appraisal and physical activity testing a convenience sample of 211 individuals, ages 19 to 35 years and selected from the general population after a brief structured interview. They were grouped by sport habits into three distinct groups named Athletes, Nonathletes, and Sedentary people, and then were examined for significant differences in self-esteem scores measured via the Heatherton and Polivy State Self-esteem Scale which assesses three correlated factors, respectively, Performance, Social, and Appearance. As hypothesized, self-esteem scores between-groups differences emerged for the Appearance factor only, and the Sedentary group scored comparatively lower than the other two groups.

  11. WHO activities in teaching radioimmunoassay and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, N.P.; Sufi, S.B.; Donaldson, A.; Jeffcoate, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization has recognized from its beginning that training is a key component of its activities, including its immunoassay standardization programme. Since the start of the Special Programme more than 250 scientists have received training in RIA and related procedures and 27 training courses have been held in various countries. Many of the courses have been held in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and these co-operative activities have established a core of scientific expertise worldwide which has contributed to the increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques in many countries. The increasing number of medical and non-medical applications of immunoassays and the special expertise required for some immunoassay methods create a continuing demand for training in RIA techniques. Both WHO and the IAEA have responded by organizing courses to 'train the trainers' and by supporting national and regional courses based on centrally provided material, as well as by commissioning the production of additional teaching documents and audio-visual aids in English and Spanish. It is envisaged that such materials, complete with centrally provided materials for practicals and other teaching aids, will be made available to national reagent programmes and will be used in the future as a well characterized, standardized core around which local organizers can construct training programmes geared to local needs and drawing upon local experience. (author)

  12. Nucleus Ambiguus Cholinergic Neurons Activated by Acupuncture: Relation to Enkephalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Li, Min; Longhurst, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture regulates autonomic function. Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at the Jianshi–Neiguan acupoints (P5–P6, underlying the median nerve) inhibits central sympathetic outflow and attenuates excitatory cardiovascular reflexes, in part, through an opioid mechanism. It is unknown if EA at these acupoints influences the parasympathetic system. Thus, using c-Fos expression, we examined activation of nucleus ambiguus (NAmb) neurons by EA, their relation to cholinergic (preganglionic parasympathetic) neurons and those containing enkephalin. To enhance detection of cell bodies containing enkephalin, colchicine (90–100 μg/kg) was administered into the subarachnoid space of cats 30 hr prior to EA or sham-operated controls for EA. Following bilateral barodenervation and cervical vagotomy, either EA for 30 min at P5–P6 acupoints or control stimulation (needle placement at P5–P6 without stimulation) was applied. While perikarya containing enkephalin were observed in some medullary nuclei (e.g., râphe), only enkephalin-containing neuronal processes were found in the NAmb. Compared to controls (n=4), more c-Fos immunoreactivity, located principally in close proximity to fibers containing enkephalin was noted in the NAmb of EA-treated cats (n=5; P<0.01). Moreover, neurons double-labeled with c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase in the NAmb were identified in EA-treated, but not the control animals. These data demonstrate for the first time that EA activates preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the NAmb. Because of their close proximity, these EA-activated neurons likely interact with nerve fibers containing enkephalin. These results suggest that EA at the P5–P6 acupoints has the potential to influence parasympathetic outflow and cardiovascular function, likely through an enkephalinergic mechanism. PMID:22306033

  13. Antileishmanial activities of dihydrochalcones from piper elongatum and synthetic related compounds. Structural requirements for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Alicia; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Mamani, Zulma A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Piñero, José E; Ravelo, Angel G; Valladares, Basilio

    2003-09-01

    Two dihydrochalcones (1 and 2) were isolated from Piper elongatum Vahl by activity-guided fractionation against extracellular promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis in vitro. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Derivatives 3-7 and 20 synthetic related compounds (8-27) were also assayed to establish the structural requirements for antileishmanial activity. Compounds 1-11 that proved to be more active that ketoconazol, used as positive control, were further assayed against promastigotes of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. Compounds 7 and 11, with a C(6)-C(3)-C(6) system, proved to be the most promising compounds, with IC(50) values of 2.98 and 3.65 microg/mL, respectively, and exhibited no toxic effect on macrophages (around 90% viability). Correlation between the molecular structures and antileishmanial activity is discussed in detail.

  14. Competing indentation deformation mechanisms in glass using different strengthening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical strengthening via ion exchange, thermal tempering, and lamination are proven techniques for strengthening of oxide glasses. For each of these techniques, the strengthening mechanism is conventionally ascribed to the linear superposition of the compressive stress profile on the glass surface. However, in this work we use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the underlying indentation deformation mechanism beyond the simple linear superposition of compressive and indentation stresses. In particular, the plastic zone can be dramatically different from the commonly assumed hemispherical shape, which leads to a completely different stress field and resulting crack system. We show that the indentation-induced fracture is controlled by two competing mechanisms: the compressive stress itself and a potential reduction in free volume that can increase the driving force for crack formation. Chemical strengthening via ion exchange tends to escalate the competition between these two effects, while thermal tempering tends to reduce it. Lamination of glasses with differential thermal expansion falls in between. The crack system also depends on the indenter geometry and the loading stage, i.e., loading vs. after unloading. It is observed that combining thermal tempering or high free volume content with ion exchange or lamination can impart a relatively high compressive stress and reduce the driving force for crack formation. Therefore, such a combined approach might offer the best overall crack resistance for oxide glasses.

  15. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study. Hilary Adie, Thomas Igbang, Akaninyene Otu, Ekanem Braide, Okpok Okon, Edet Ikpi, Charles Joseph, Alexander Desousa, Johannes Sommerfeld ...

  16. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...

  17. Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do ... As a result, Pakistan's health system has suffered and health service delivery has worsened. ... This four-year project aims to strengthen health systems governance for reproductive health and rights in Pakistan.

  18. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  19. Cardiovascular fitness strengthening using portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Hamzah; Kai Cao; Tao Zhang; Haddad, Azzam; Su, Steven; Celler, Branko; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes a reliable and valid Portable Exercise Monitoring system developed using TI eZ430-Chronos watch, which can control the exercise intensity through audio stimulation in order to increase the Cardiovascular fitness strengthening.

  20. Strengthening entrepreneurship through coaching and developing competencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening entrepreneurship is an important strategy for stimulating the transition to sustainable agriculture. But how is that done? One example is the Interactive Strategic Management method, which supports entrepreneurs in the creation and execution of future-focused strategies.

  1. Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ... has had several consequences, culminating in the disputed general elections of December 2007. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  2. Seasonal variations in health-related human physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Peiser, Benny

    2006-01-01

    There are profound fluctuations in climate that occur within the annual cycle of seasonal changes. The severity of these changes depends on latitude of location and prevailing topography. Living creatures have evolved means of coping with seasonal extremes. Endogenous circannual cycles, at least in humans, appear to have been masked by mechanisms employed to cope with environmental changes. Physical activity levels tend to be lower in winter than in summer, mediating effects on health-related fitness. In athletes, seasonal changes are dictated by requirements of the annual programme of competitive engagements rather than an inherent circannual rhythm. Injury rates are influenced by seasonal environmental factors, notably in field sports. Season of birth has been related to susceptibility to selected morbidities, including mental ill-health. In age-restricted sports, there is a date-of-birth bias favouring those individuals born early in the competitive year. Trainers and selectors should acknowledge this trend if they are to avoid omitting gifted individuals, born later in the year, from talent development programmes.

  3. Tiger team findings related to DOE environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tiger Team Assessments were implemented in June 1989 as part of a strategy to ensure that DOE facilities fully comply with Federal, state, local and DOE environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) requirements. The Tiger Teams provide the Secretary of Energy with information on current ES ampersand H compliance status of each DOE facility and causes for noncompliance. To date, Tiger Team Assessments have been completed at 25 DOE facilities. With regard to assessments of environmental restoration activities, the performance of DOE facilities was evaluated against the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and DOE Order 5400.4, CERCLA Requirements, among others. Five major categories of environmental restoration-related findings were identified: (1) environmental restoration program planning and management (found at 60 percent of the sites assessed); (2) community relations/administrative record (60 percent); (3) characterization of extent of contamination (56 percent); (4) identification and evaluation of inactive waste sites (56 percent); and (5) DOE and NCP requirements for response action studies (44 percent). Primary causal factors for these findings were inadequate procedures, resources, supervision, and policy implementation

  4. Teaching Strategies for Strengthening Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilin del Carmen González Castillo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply teaching strategies for strengthening the environmental values in the teachers of School Children's House "Linda Barinas" located in the Carmen parish, municipality Barinas, Barinas state. The nature of the study was inserted into the qualitative paradigm, the kind of research in an action research based on a field study. Key informants were five (05 teachers working in the aforementioned institution. The technique for collecting information through an in-depth interview. The technique and data analysis was performed by means of categorization, triangulation and theorizing. The study led to the conclusion: teachers are unaware of employed teaching strategies, learning strategies in addressing environmental education. In addition, the institution lacks the promotion of educational activities that contribute to improving the environment. Similarly, the absence of a positive attitude towards the environment in which every member of the institution appropriates the existing environmental problems at school. In implementing the action plan training workshops conducted for teachers regarding teaching strategies, environmental values and environmental education, produced a motivation and interest of how to implement that knowledge, when planning, organizing and controlling.

  5. Achievements to date in strengthened safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, O.

    1999-01-01

    There is substantial progress in developing and implementing measures to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the Safeguards System. The measures comprise those to be implemented pursuant to the Agency's legal authority conferred by existing safeguards agreements as well as those to be implemented under the complementary legal authority conferred by Additional Protocols concluded on the basis of Document INFCIRC/540(Corrected). Activities on implementing measures under existing legal authority, particularly with respect to the evaluation of States' nuclear programmes, environmental sampling and the use of remote monitoring for safeguards purposes had been carried continuously ion the recent post. In 1998, additional protocols entered into force with four States (the Holy See, Jordan, New Zealand and Uzbekistan). Additional protocols with a further 27 States were approved by the Board and were awaiting ratification by the respective States. The additional protocol with Australia, which entered into force in December 1997, was being implemented following receipt of its Article 2 declaration. Agency consultations on concluding additional protocols take place with a number of States on a regular basis. As of 1 October 1999, Additional Protocols had been concluded and approved by the Board of Governors with a total of 45 States. Of these, Additional Protocols with 44 States had been signed and five had entered into force. (author)

  6. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbroeck, P. van.

    1976-10-01

    The publication gives the available data on the DTO2 dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy developed at C.E.N./S.C.K. Mol, Belgium. DTO2 is a Fe-Cr-Mo ferritic alloy, strengthened by addition of titanium oxide and of titanium leading to the formation of Chi phase. It was developed for use as canning material for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  7. Numerical Investigation of Masonry Strengthened with Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Ramaglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two main fiber strengthening systems typically applied in masonry structures have been investigated: composites made of basalt and hemp fibers, coupled with inorganic matrix. Starting from the experimental results on composites, the out-of-plane behavior of the strengthened masonry was assessed according to several numerical analyses. In a first step, the ultimate behavior was assessed in terms of P (axial load-M (bending moment domain (i.e., failure surface, changing several mechanical parameters. In order to assess the ductility capacity of the strengthened masonry elements, the P-M domain was estimated starting from the bending moment-curvature diagrams. Key information about the impact of several mechanical parameters on both the capacity and the ductility was considered. Furthermore, the numerical analyses allow the assessment of the efficiency of the strengthening system, changing the main mechanical properties. Basalt fibers had lower efficiency when applied to weak masonry. In this case, the elastic properties of the masonry did not influence the structural behavior under a no tension assumption for the masonry. Conversely, their impact became non-negligible, especially for higher values of the compressive strength of the masonry. The stress-strain curve used to model the composite impacted the flexural strength. Natural fibers provided similar outcomes, but a first difference regards the higher mechanical compatibility of the strengthening system with the substrate. In this case, the ultimate condition is due to the failure mode of the composite. The stress-strain curves used to model the strengthening system are crucial in the ductility estimation of the strengthened masonry. However, the behavior of the composite strongly influences the curvature ductility in the case of higher compressive strength for masonry. The numerical results discussed in this paper provide the base to develop normalized capacity models able to

  8. Role of Slovakia within the IAEA Decommissioning Related Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, V.; Stubna, M.

    2009-01-01

    Slovakia has a long-term experience with the IAEA decommissioning related activities as a recipient of Agency assistance and then as a country offering assistance to others. Background, short 'history' and current status of Slovakian national technical cooperation (TC) projects SLR/4/008 'Robotic Technologies for Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Bohunice A1 NPP' and SLR/3/002 'Management of Radioactive Waste from the A1 Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning' will be described in paper. The first TC project SLR/4/008 was solved by the main Slovakian counterpart, company VUJE, Inc., from 2001 to 2006. Second TC project SLR/3/002 is ongoing with extension to 2011. Thanks to the implementation of a long-term large-scale 'Project of the A1 NPP Decommissioning - Stage I' (1996-2007), financed by Slovak National Nuclear Account (decommissioning fund), as well as implementation of the IAEA TC national projects a comprehensive know-how in the field of D and D and RAW management was obtained. Moreover, technologies and facilities necessary for implementation of decommissioning and RAW management projects were developed. Thanks to this development Slovakia offers donor assistance to other countries in subjected fields through IAEA TC program. The type and scope of assistance for Armenia, Bulgaria, Egypt, Latvia, Lithuania and The Ukraine is described in the paper. The above-mentioned national projects are not only activities of Slovakia within the IAEA TC program. Regional TC project RER/3/005 'Support in Planning the Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors' has been ongoing from 2007 with accepted extension to 2011. About nine countries from Eastern and Central Europe participate in the project (for the NPPs part) and Slovakia plays the role of LCC (Leading Country Coordinator). On the basis of suggestion of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, VUJE is the coordinator of the regional project. Moreover, Slovakia would be the

  9. How the Nuclear Applications Laboratories Help in Strengthening Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Safety is one of the most important considerations when engaging in highly advanced scientific and technological activities. In this respect, utilizing the potential of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes also involves risks, and nuclear techniques themselves can be useful in strengthening emergency response measures related to the use of nuclear technology. In the case of a nuclear incident, the rapid measurement and subsequent monitoring of radiation levels are top priorities as they help to determine the degree of risk faced by emergency responders and the general public. Instruments for the remote measurement of radioactivity are particularly important when there are potential health risks associated with entering areas with elevated radiation levels. The Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL) — one of the eight laboratories of the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (NA) in Seibersdorf, Austria — focuses on developing a variety of specialized analytical and diagnostic instruments and methods, and transferring knowledge to IAEA Member States. These include instruments capable of carrying out remote measurements. This emergency response work carried out by the NA laboratories supports health and safety in Member States and supports the IAEA’s mandate to promote the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy

  10. Improving the use of health data for health system strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Nutley

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good quality and timely data from health information systems are the foundation of all health systems. However, too often data sit in reports, on shelves or in databases and are not sufficiently utilised in policy and program development, improvement, strategic planning and advocacy. Without specific interventions aimed at improving the use of data produced by information systems, health systems will never fully be able to meet the needs of the populations they serve. Objective: To employ a logic model to describe a pathway of how specific activities and interventions can strengthen the use of health data in decision making to ultimately strengthen the health system. Design: A logic model was developed to provide a practical strategy for developing, monitoring and evaluating interventions to strengthen the use of data in decision making. The model draws on the collective strengths and similarities of previous work and adds to those previous works by making specific recommendations about interventions and activities that are most proximate to affect the use of data in decision making. The model provides an organizing framework for how interventions and activities work to strengthen the systematic demand, synthesis, review, and use of data. Results: The logic model and guidance are presented to facilitate its widespread use and to enable improved data-informed decision making in program review and planning, advocacy, policy development. Real world examples from the literature support the feasible application of the activities outlined in the model. Conclusions: The logic model provides specific and comprehensive guidance to improve data demand and use. It can be used to design, monitor and evaluate interventions, and to improve demand for, and use of, data in decision making. As more interventions are implemented to improve use of health data, those efforts need to be evaluated.

  11. Engaging the private sector to strengthen NCD prevention and control

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Luke; Bloomfield, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    All around the world private enterprises influence health through the sale of both harmful and health-promoting commodities, as well as lobbying and marketing activities. As globalisation further strengthens the role of the private sector as a major driver of the non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, engaging with the private sector to prevent and control these conditions has become increasingly important. In recognition of this fact, the 2011 UN High-Level Political Declaration on NCDs2 c...

  12. Animal-assisted intervention and social skills strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Tjaša

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis describe animal-assisted interventions, more precisely, the significance of animal-assisted interventions for strengthening of social skills. Theoretical part includes a detailed presentation of the benefits of therapeutic dog in work with vulnerable populations. I focused on delimitation of the term animal-assisted interventions which includes animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activity and the differences and similarities between them. I continued with therapeuti...

  13. On the superposition of strengthening mechanisms in dispersion strengthened alloys and metal-matrix nanocomposites: Considerations of stress and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. B.; Schultz, Benjamin F.; Venugopalan, Dev; Lopez, Hugo F.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.; Cho, Kyu; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Yield strength improvement in dispersion strengthened alloys and nano particle-reinforced composites by well-known strengthening mechanisms such as solid solution, grain refinement, coherent and incoherent dispersed particles, and increased dislocation density resulting from work-hardening can all be described individually. However, there is no agreed upon description of how these mechanisms combine to determine the yield strength. In this work, we propose an analytical yield strength prediction model combining arithmetic and quadratic addition approaches based on the consideration of two types of yielding mechanisms; stress-activated and energy-activated. Using data available in the literature for materials of differing grain sizes, we consider the cases of solid solutions and coherent precipitates to show that they follow stress-activated behavior. Then, we applied our model with some empirical parameters to precipitationhardenable materials of various grain sizes in both coherent and incoherent precipitate conditions, which demonstrated that grain boundary and Orowan-strengthening can be treated as energy-activated mechanisms.

  14. Health-system strengthening and tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Weil, Diana E C; Eang, Mao Tan; Mwakyusa, David

    2010-06-19

    Weak health systems are hindering global efforts for tuberculosis care and control, but little evidence is available on effective interventions to address system bottlenecks. This report examines published evidence, programme reviews, and case studies to identify innovations in system design and tuberculosis control to resolve these bottlenecks. We outline system bottlenecks in relation to governance, financing, supply chain management, human resources, health-information systems, and service delivery; and adverse effects from rapid introduction of suboptimum system designs. This report also documents innovative solutions for disease control and system design. Solutions pursued in individual countries are specific to the nature of the tuberculosis epidemic, the underlying national health system, and the contributors engaged: no one size fits all. Findings from countries, including Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam, suggest that advances in disease control and system strengthening are complementary. Tuberculosis care and control are essential elements of health systems, and simultaneous efforts to innovate systems and disease response are mutually reinforcing. Highly varied and context-specific responses to tuberculosis show that solutions need to be documented and compared to develop evidence-based policies and practice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strengthening Self-efficacy through Supportive Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, R.

    2015-12-01

    The geosciences have had a chronic problem of underrepresentation of students from diverse ethnic, cultural, gender and socio-economic backgrounds. As a community we need to strengthen our support of young scientists from all backgrounds to sustain their enthusiasm and ensure their success in our field. Investing in mentoring programs that empower students and young professionals is one of the best ways to do so. The Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program, now entering its 20th year, has successfully developed and tested several mentoring models. The personalized, caring and consistent support is one of the key elements of the program's success; since its inception, 90% of SOARS participants have entered graduate school, research or science related careers after graduation. Many of our alumni who are now faculty apply the same mentoring strategies to build self-esteem and perseverance in their students. This presentation will cover the design and implementation of our four mentoring strategies, and provide insights on potential challenges, training aspects and impact assessment. The mentoring strategies include: 1) Multi-faceted, long-term mentoring of undergraduate and graduate students from diverse backgrounds. 2) Empowering advanced students to serve as peer mentors and role models. 3) Training faculty and professional scientists from all backgrounds to become mentors who are aware of diversity issues. 4) Providing mentor training for partner programs and laboratories. All four strategies have contributed to the creation of a mentoring culture in the geosciences.

  16. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: the role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Baayen, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members) are activated through

  17. Targeted Memory Reactivation during Sleep Adaptively Promotes the Strengthening or Weakening of Overlapping Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Javiera P; Morís, Joaquín; Luque, David; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2017-08-09

    System memory consolidation is conceptualized as an active process whereby newly encoded memory representations are strengthened through selective memory reactivation during sleep. However, our learning experience is highly overlapping in content (i.e., shares common elements), and memories of these events are organized in an intricate network of overlapping associated events. It remains to be explored whether and how selective memory reactivation during sleep has an impact on these overlapping memories acquired during awake time. Here, we test in a group of adult women and men the prediction that selective memory reactivation during sleep entails the reactivation of associated events and that this may lead the brain to adaptively regulate whether these associated memories are strengthened or pruned from memory networks on the basis of their relative associative strength with the shared element. Our findings demonstrate the existence of efficient regulatory neural mechanisms governing how complex memory networks are shaped during sleep as a function of their associative memory strength. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies have demonstrated that system memory consolidation is an active, selective, and sleep-dependent process in which only subsets of new memories become stabilized through their reactivation. However, the learning experience is highly overlapping in content and thus events are encoded in an intricate network of related memories. It remains to be explored whether and how memory reactivation has an impact on overlapping memories acquired during awake time. Here, we show that sleep memory reactivation promotes strengthening and weakening of overlapping memories based on their associative memory strength. These results suggest the existence of an efficient regulatory neural mechanism that avoids the formation of cluttered memory representation of multiple events and promotes stabilization of complex memory networks. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377748-11$15.00/0.

  18. Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress Strengthen the Association Between Myeloperoxidase and Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, L.P.; Scheffer, P.G.; Dekker, J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Heine, R.J.; Teerlink, T.

    2010-01-01

    Scavenging of the vasodilator nitric oxide by myeloperoxidase activity in the vasculature may contribute to hypertension. Because hydrogen peroxide is a cosubstrate of myeloperoxidase, hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may strengthen the relationship between myeloperoxidase and blood pressure.

  19. Analysis of supercooling activity of tannin-related polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Wang, Donghui; Endoh, Keita; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2013-08-01

    Based on the discovery of novel supercooling-promoting hydrolyzable gallotannins from deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in Katsura tree (see Wang et al. (2012) [38]), supercooling capability of a wide variety of tannin-related polyphenols (TRPs) was examined in order to find more effective supercooling-promoting substances for their applications. The TRPs examined were single compounds including six kinds of hydrolyzable tannins, 11 kinds of catechin derivatives, two kinds of structural analogs of catechin and six kinds of phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives, 11 kinds of polyphenol mixtures and five kinds of crude plant tannin extracts. The effects of these TRPs on freezing were examined by droplet freezing assays using various solutions containing different kinds of identified ice nucleators such as the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, the INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide and phloroglucinol as well as a solution containing only unintentionally included unidentified airborne ice nucleators. Among the 41 kinds of TRPs examined, all of the hydrolyzable tannins, catechin derivatives, polyphenol mixtures and crude plant tannin extracts as well as a few structural analogs of catechin and phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives exhibited supercooling-promoting activity (SCA) with significant differences (p>0.05) from at least one of the solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators. It should be noted that there were no TRPs exhibiting ice nucleation-enhancing activity (INA) in all solutions containing identified ice nucleators, whereas there were many TRPs exhibiting INA with significant differences in solutions containing unidentified ice nucleators alone. An emulsion freezing assay confirmed that these TRPs did not essentially affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. It is thought that not only SCA but also INA in the TRPs are produced by interactions with heterogeneous ice nucleators, not by direct interaction with water

  20. Time-dependent relative activities in the radioactive families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiernik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The relative activities of the members of the principal radioactive families, with respect to the initial activities of chosen parents were calculated for a wide range of time intervals. Tables ard graphs that are useful for radiochemistry, source standardization and chronology are presented.Three series of graphs and tables are included; series A corresponds to the family 4n, series B corresponds to the family 4n+ x, series C corresponds to the family 4n+2. A foustry, source standardization and chronology are presented. rth series 4n+1 ( 241 Pu/ 209 Bi) was not included, because it does not exist in nature and, thus, is of little interest. Each series begins with a table identified by a plain letter (A,B,C) where all the nuclides considered for the calculations and their half-lives are listed. Branching was neglected. All the series begin with isotopes of plutonium in order to show some examples of no-equilibrium, and five of the longest lived members of each family were chosen as the parents of the sub-families. The graphs show that, besides their obvious use in radiochemical separations and standardizations, each family beginning with a naturally occuring nuclide has a particular time span (before secular equilibrium occurs) that can be used for chronology. Thus, if the proper radionuclides are present, we can use the wide range families in geological and archeological research and the short range ones in other kinds of jobs, like checking the authenticity of art masterpieces and other forensic problems. (T.G.)

  1. Polio infrastructure strengthened disease outbreak preparedness and response in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Koffi; Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The continuous deployments of polio resources, infrastructures and systems for responding to other disease outbreaks in many African countries has led to a number of lessons considered as best practice that need to be documented for strengthening preparedness and response activities in future outbreaks. We reviewed and documented the influence of polio best practices in outbreak preparedness and response in Angola, Nigeria and Ethiopia. Data from relevant programmes of the WHO African Region were also analyzed to demonstrate clearly the relative contributions of PEI resources and infrastructure to effective disease outbreak preparedness and response. Polio resources including, human, financial, and logistic, tool and strategies have tremendously contributed to responding to diseases outbreaks across the African region. In Angola, Nigeria and Ethiopia, many disease epidemics including Marburg Hemorrhagic fever, Dengue fever, Ebola Virus Diseases (EVD), Measles, Anthrax and Shigella have been controlled using existing polio Eradication Initiatives resources. Polio staffs are usually deployed in occasions to supports outbreak response activities (coordination, surveillance, contact tracing, case investigation, finance, data management, etc.). Polio logistics such vehicles, laboratories were also used in the response activities to other infectious diseases. Many polio tools including micro planning, dashboard, guidelines, SOPs on preparedness and response have also benefited to other epidemic-prone diseases. The Countries' preparedness and response plan to WPV importation as well as the Polio Emergency Operation Center models were successfully used to develop, strengthen and respond to many other diseases outbreak with the implication of partners and the strong leadership and ownership of governments. This review has important implications for WHO/AFRO initiative to strengthening and improving disease outbreak preparedness and responses in the African Region in respect

  2. Strengthening health professions regulation in Cambodia: a rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and

  3. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund: Strengthening of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do ... Separate Project Approval Documents will authorize individual research projects and activities related to research ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and resilience in hot spot regions.

  4. Distribution network strengthens sales systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market pushes Slovak distribution companies to upgrade their sale technologies. The first one to invest into a complex electronic sales system will be Stredoslovenska energetika, a.s., Zilina. The system worth 200 million Sk (4,83 million Euro) will be supplied by Polish software company Winuel. The company should also supply a software that would allow forecasting and planning of sales. The system should be fully operational by 2006. TREND has not managed to obtain information regarding plans Zapadoslovenska energetika - the largest and most active distribution company - might have in this area. In eastern Slovakia distribution company Vychodoslovenska energetika, a.s., Kosice has also started addressing this issue. (Author)

  5. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  6. ERDA activities related to reprocessing and plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA has redirected its program in support of the LWR fuel cycle from one emphasizing the commercialization of existing fuel cycle technology to a broader based assessment of alternative fuel cycle concepts with the emphasis on safeguardability and avoidance of proliferation risks. As part of this program, ERDA will evaluate a number of possible technical and institutional options to reduce proliferation risks. ERDA will continue its current program of LWR fuel reprocessing R and D with added emphasis on improved safeguards capability as well as the applicability of conventional reprocessing technology to large multinational plants. These activities and supporting design studies will provide the basis for a decision regarding the design of an optimized system for the management of spent LWR fuel. Such a system would provide a model for the development of future domestic and foreign facilities and programs. A recently completed ERDA study of the benefits of LWR reprocessing and recycle would also be expected to be factored into such a decision. The study concluded that based on currently available data, recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWR's is attractive from the standpoint of economics and resource utilization relative to the discarding of spent fuel. The LWR reprocessing/recycle picture today is clouded by several unresolved policy issues. These include the need for adequate spent fuel storage capacity for both domestic and foreign reactors; the possibility of foreign reprocessing of U.S. produced fuel; the possibility of the disposal of foreign fuel in the U.S.; the possible need to dispose of wastes generated by multinational reprocessing plants; and finally, determination of the optimum balance between recycling recovered plutonium and saving it for the breeder

  7. IAEA activity related to safety of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, M.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear plants for desalination to be built in the future will have to meet the standards of safety required for the best nuclear power plants currently in operation or being designed. The current safety approach, based on the achievement of the fundamental safety functions and defence in depth strategy, has been shown to be a sound foundation for the safety and protection of public health, and gives the plant the capability of dealing with a large variety of sequences, even beyond the design basis. The Department of Nuclear Safety of the IAEA is involved in many activities, the most important of which are to establish safety standards, and to provide various safety services and technical knowledge in many Technical Co-operation assistance projects. The department is also involved in other safety areas, notably in the field of future reactors. The IAEA is carrying out a project on the safety of new generation reactors, including those used for desalination, with the objective of fostering an exchange of information on safety approaches, promoting harmonization among Member States and contributing towards the development and revision of safety standards and guidelines for nuclear power plant design. The safety, regulatory and environmental concerns in nuclear powered desalination are those related directly to nuclear power plants, with due consideration given to the coupling process. The protection of product water against radioactive contamination must be ensured. An effective infrastructure, including appropriate training, a legal framework and regulatory regime, is a prerequisite to considering use of nuclear power for desalination plants, also in those countries with limited industrial infrastructures and little experience in nuclear technology or safety. (author)

  8. How learning might strengthen existing visual object representations in human object-selective cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brants, Marijke; Bulthé, Jessica; Daniels, Nicky; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2016-02-15

    Visual object perception is an important function in primates which can be fine-tuned by experience, even in adults. Which factors determine the regions and the neurons that are modified by learning is still unclear. Recently, it was proposed that the exact cortical focus and distribution of learning effects might depend upon the pre-learning mapping of relevant functional properties and how this mapping determines the informativeness of neural units for the stimuli and the task to be learned. From this hypothesis we would expect that visual experience would strengthen the pre-learning distributed functional map of the relevant distinctive object properties. Here we present a first test of this prediction in twelve human subjects who were trained in object categorization and differentiation, preceded and followed by a functional magnetic resonance imaging session. Specifically, training increased the distributed multi-voxel pattern information for trained object distinctions in object-selective cortex, resulting in a generalization from pre-training multi-voxel activity patterns to after-training activity patterns. Simulations show that the increased selectivity combined with the inter-session generalization is consistent with a training-induced strengthening of a pre-existing selectivity map. No training-related neural changes were detected in other regions. In sum, training to categorize or individuate objects strengthened pre-existing representations in human object-selective cortex, providing a first indication that the neuroanatomical distribution of learning effects depends upon the pre-learning mapping of visual object properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavior Prediction Tools Strengthen Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Several years ago, NASA started making plans to send robots to explore the deep, dark craters on the Moon. As part of these plans, NASA needed modeling tools to help engineer unique electronics to withstand extremely cold temperatures. According to Jonathan Pellish, a flight systems test engineer at Goddard Space Flight Center, "An instrument sitting in a shadowed crater on one of the Moon s poles would hover around 43 K", that is, 43 kelvin, equivalent to -382 F. Such frigid temperatures are one of the main factors that make the extreme space environments encountered on the Moon and elsewhere so extreme. Radiation is another main concern. "Radiation is always present in the space environment," says Pellish. "Small to moderate solar energetic particle events happen regularly and extreme events happen less than a handful of times throughout the 7 active years of the 11-year solar cycle." Radiation can corrupt data, propagate to other systems, require component power cycling, and cause a host of other harmful effects. In order to explore places like the Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, and Mars, NASA must use electronic communication devices like transmitters and receivers and data collection devices like infrared cameras that can resist the effects of extreme temperature and radiation; otherwise, the electronics would not be reliable for the duration of the mission.

  10. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...... with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers....

  11. EMOTIONAL STRENGTHENING IN THE FAMILY: INTERVENTION FROM THE SCHOOL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Alejandra Vargas Rubilar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychological consequences from relational styles characterized by lack of affection and interactional mismanagement between family members can inhibit or block the attempt by members to achieve their full potential for healthy psy -chosocial development. In this context, emotional strengthening families would become a key condition for overcoming these dysfunctional patterns.The aim of this work is to show why psychoeducation and emotional stimula-tion can be particularly useful in the context of psychosocial risk due to poverty and present some strategies to approach such goal from the school environment. This approach is mainly focused on the strengthening of emotional resources in parents and primary caregivers to achieve a direct impact on the children’s emo-tional development.

  12. Cracking of Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded SRP Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywoń, Rafał

    2017-10-01

    Paper discusses strengthening efficiency of relatively new kind of SRP composite based on high strength steel wires. They are made of ultra-high strength steel primarily used in cords of car tires. Through advanced treatment, the mechanical properties of SRP steel are similar to other high carbon cold drawn steels used in construction industry. Strength significantly exceed 2000 MPa, there is no perfect plasticity at yield stress level. Almost linear stress-strain relationship makes SRP steel mechanical properties similar to carbon fibers. Also flexibility and weight ratio of the composite overlay is slightly worse than CFRP strip. Despite these advantages SRP is not as popular as other composites reinforced with fibers of high strength. This is due to the small number of studies of SRP behavior and applicability. Paper shows selected results of the laboratory test of beams strengthened with use of SRP and CFRP externally bonded overlays. Attention has been focused primarily on the phenomenon of cracking. Comparison include the cracking moment, crack width and spacing, coverage of crack zone. Despite the somewhat lower rigidity of SRP tapes, they have a much better adhesion to concrete, so that the crack width is comparable in almost the whole load range. The paper also includes an assessment of the common methods of checking the condition of cracking in relation to the tested SRP strengthening. The paper presents actual calculation procedures to determine the crack spacing and crack width. The discussed formulas are verified with results of provided laboratory tests.

  13. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Capacity building of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority is considered an essential element in pursuit of its vision to become a world class regulatory body. Since its inception in 2001, PNRA has continuously endeavoured to invest in its people, develop training infrastructure and impart sound knowledge and professional skills with the aim to improve its regulatory effectiveness. The use of nuclear and radioactive material in Pakistan has increased manifold in recent years, thus induction of more manpower was needed for regulatory oversight. PNRA adopted two pronged approach for meeting the manpower demand (a) employment of university graduates through fast track recruitment drive and (b) induction of graduates by offering fellowships for Master degree programs. Although, the newly employed staff was selected on the basis of their excellent academic qualifications in basic and applied sciences, but they required rigorous knowledge and skills in regulatory perspectives. In order to implement a structured training program, PNRA conducted Training Needs Assessment (TNA) and identified competency gaps of the regulatory staff in legal, technical, regulatory practice and behavioural domains. PNRA took several initiatives for capacity building which included establishment of a training centre for sustainability of trainings, initiation of a fellowship scheme for Master program, attachment of staff at local institutes for on-the-job training and placement at foreign regulatory bodies and organizations for technical development with the assistance of IAEA. The above strategies have been very beneficial in competence building of the PNRA staff to perform all regulatory activities indigenously for nuclear power plants, research reactors and radiation facilities. Provision of vibrant technical support to IAEA and Member States in various programs by PNRA is a landmark of these competence development efforts. This paper summarizes PNRA initiatives and the International Atomic

  14. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.

    2016-01-01

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  15. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  16. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  17. Strengthening border control and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzis, I.

    2008-01-01

    The world has experienced monumental changes in recent years. Globalization has brought many benefits. Business and commerce have increased and, as a result, brought us cheaper, more accessible goods from all regions of the world. We have access to relatively cheap and certainly much easier travel. We now live in a world of instant communications with mobile phones, laptops and 'BlackBerries'. However, there is a downside to globalization - transnationally organized crime and the reality of terrorism have grown. As more people cross borders, it is harder to detect criminals and terrorists. In the European Union, the internal borders of the now 27 member States have been dismantled. Effective international measures to counter organized crime and terrorist groups are of crucial importance. It is important to think globally and to act locally. The paper looks at some of the crime challenges and provides insight into the role and work of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in drugs and crime control. It focuses on border control initiatives conducted by the UNODC. (author)

  18. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Children Physical Activity Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity…

  19. Age-Related Changes in Spreading Activation during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rachel; Walker, Joanne; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene

    2014-01-01

    The concept of spreading activation describes how retrieval of one memory cues retrieval of other memories that are associated with it. This study explored spreading activation in 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants. Infants (n = 144) learned two tasks within the same experimental session; one task, deferred imitation (DI), is typically remembered…

  20. Disclosure Day on Relativity: A Science Activity beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragoneses, Andres; Salan, M. Nuria; Hernandez-Fernandez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    An important goal for students in engineering education is the ability to present and defend a project in front of a technical audience. We have designed an activity for helping students to work the independent learning and communication skills, while they are introduced in the dynamics of a conference. In this activity, students prepare and…

  1. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  2. Strategic process strengthens and orientates the regional RandD capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, Kirsi [JAMK Univ. of Applied Sciences, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)], e-mail: kirsi.knuuttila@jamk.fi; Krissakova, Ingrid [National Forest Centre-Forest Research Inst., Zvolen (Slovakia); Barbena, Goizeder [Centro Nacional de Energias Renovables/ Departamento de Biomasa, CENER, Pamplona (Spain); Hryniewicz, Marek [Inst. of Technology and Life Sciences, ITP, Raszyn (Poland); Ketikidis, Chrysovalantis [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, CERTH/ Inst. for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Thessaloniki (Greece); Wihersaari, Margareta [Jyvaeskylae Univ., Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The use of biomasses and competition for biomass resources are rapidly increasing in Europe due to the positive environmental advantages that this energy source entails, including climate change prevention. Central Finland, Navarra (Spain), Western Macedonia (Greece), Slovakia and Wielkopolska (Poland) have taken the joint initiative to strengthen the regional expertise, cooperation capacities and innovation environment in the field of sustainable use of biomass resources. The initiative to develop the regional research driven clusters is supported by BIOCLUS project (www.bioclus.eu) co-financed by FP7 Regions of Knowledge Programme. The biomass research orientated clusters have built up Regional Strategic RandD Agendas (SRA) and Joint Action Plans (JAP) based on the SRAs. The starting point for SRA is the comprehensive understanding of regional biomass resources. SRA and JAP process orientates and strengthens research activities and capacity building in the selected research fields related to sustainable use of biomass. The agenda supports expertise development and cooperation in the regional research-driven cluster. It identifies the focus of research activities in the future and supports the authorities in directing the use of human and financial resources.

  3. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  4. Strengthening and stress relaxation of Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Otto

    2010-01-01

    undisturbed far-field for the long lasting periods of geological times. Consequently, demands on concepts for backfilling and closure of a repository in a clay-stone formation as well as model calculations for safety analyses generally do not take into account convergence by viscous deformation, which would result from stress re-distribution at underground openings. Although there is some doubt, whether Opalinus Clay is creeping at all, some very long lasting laboratory tests were performed on this item in the author's laboratory. A nearly linear dependence of the long-term creep rate on the deviatoric stress was found. In recent work, the technique of stress-relaxation was used. For this, strengthening by strain rate controlled deformation was stopped, i.e. the strain was kept constant for a long time, and the relaxation of the stress was measured. In course of this technique, the deformability which may result from artefacts is ruled out as far as possible by compaction and strengthening. Then, the stress relaxation - if any - will be maintained by true long-term deformation processes which should be active and responsible for any convergence in an at least only partly backfilled mine. In this contribution, the results of the laboratory work and their discussion will be presented. (authors)

  5. Effects of Active Videogames on Physical Activity and Related Outcomes Among Healthy Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W C

    2014-06-01

    This review systematically evaluated the effects of active videogames (AVGs) on physical activity (PA) and related outcomes in healthy children. Electronic databases were searched to retrieve articles published from January 2000 through August 2013. Included were original studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals, that included at least one subgroup of healthy participants not older than 18 years, and that measured at least one PA-related cognitive, psychosocial, or behavioral outcome. All study designs were included, but only intervention studies with PA comparison between groups or across time were assessed for methodological quality. Evidence strength for intervention studies was stratified by settings (including the free-living home setting, the school, community, or primary care setting with structured AVG sessions [i.e., AVG play of participants was organized by teachers or researchers], and multiple settings). Fifty-four articles were identified, including 32 studies that examined the immediate PA effects (i.e., energy expenditure and PA levels during AVG play), one survey study, and 21 intervention studies aimed to promote PA. AVGs led to light- to moderate-intensity PA among studies of immediate PA outcomes. No effect was identified of AVGs on PA in the home setting. Moderate evidence was found that structured AVG play could improve PA. Inconclusive evidence was found for the effect of AVGs on PA in multiple settings. The present review does not support using AVGs alone in the home setting to promote PA. Structured AVG play has the potential to promote PA in children.

  6. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  7. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalik bin Haji Wood

    1999-01-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  8. Reusing Recycling Material as Teaching Strategy to Strengthen Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudit Zaida del Carmen Alarcón de Palma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was centered interest implement recycling reuse the material as a teaching strategy to strengthen environmental students “Adolfo Moreno” National Basic School Barinitas parish, municipality Bolivar, Barinas state values. School Year 2014 - 2015. The study was based on the paradigm of qualitative research and research in action type. From this point of view, the study focuses on participatory action this mode, it is limited in so-called field layouts. The study its characteristics was fulfilled in the following phases: diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation and systematization. Finally, it can be noted that the implementation of teaching strategies reuse recycle material for strengthening environmental students "Adolfo Moreno" National Basic School values; They will be incorporating parents and guardians as well as various educational actors to implement the activities involved in the proposal which seeks to change attitudes to improve through practical actions management standards and conservation practices to achieve an environmental change in institution through technical, theoretical and practical knowledge to strengthen the benefit of recyclables properly handle procedures.

  9. Strengthening IAEA safeguards using high-resolution commercial satellite imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors adopted the Additional Safeguards Protocol to improve its ability to detect the undeclared production of fissile material. This new strengthened safeguards system has opened the door for the IAEA to use of all types of information, including the potential use of commercial satellite imagery. We have therefore been investigating the feasibility of strengthening IAEA safeguards using commercial satellite imagery. Based on our analysis on a number of one-meter resolution IKONOS satellite images of military nuclear production facilities at nuclear states including Russia, China, India, Pakistan and Israel, we found that the new high-resolution commercial satellite imagery would play a new and valuable role in strengthening IAEA safeguards. Since 1999, images with a resolution of one meter have been available commercially from Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite. One-meter images from other companies are expected to enter the market soon. Although still an order of magnitude less capable than military imaging satellites, the capabilities of these new high-resolution commercial satellites are good enough to detect and identify the major visible characteristics of nuclear production facilities and sites. Unlike the classified spy satellite photos limited to few countries, the commercial satellite imagery is commercially available to anyone who wants to purchase it. Therefore, the new commercial satellite open a new chance that each state, international organizations, and non-governmental groups could use the commercial images to play a more proactive role in monitoring the nuclear activities in related countries and verifying the compliance of non-proliferation agreements. This could help galvanize support for intensified efforts to slow the pace of nuclear proliferation. To produce fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) for weapons, a country would operate dedicated plutonium-production reactors and the

  10. A climatological study of the relations among solar activity, galactic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    activity, galactic cosmic ray and precipitation on various regions .... mate variations to cosmic rays and the physical- chemical .... For the wavelet spectrum, significance level for each ..... monthly climate for Europe and the globe: The observed.

  11. Prevalence of knee instability in relation to sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten Ingemann

    2001-01-01

    to be positively associated with female gender and different features of occupational work. In conclusion, knee instability is a commonly reported phenomenon among active athletes. It was found to be independent of the type and the amount of sports activity but highly dependent on female gender, type and amount......The objective was to estimate the prevalence of knee instability among active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. Based on a questionnaire, 339 athletes provided information about different features of occupation, sports activity...... and knee instability. The 12-month period prevalence of knee instability and constant or recurrent knee instability, and absence from sport and absence from work due to knee instability, was 22%, 14%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Knee instability as such, and constant or recurrent knee instability were found...

  12. Incorporating quality control activities in scrum in relation to the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Aamir

    control activities in the scrum philosophy by introducing the concept of test backlog. ... Rapid application development; agile software development; extreme programming; scrum; ..... development team has a good problem solving approach.

  13. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Activities relating to PSA in the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.F.; Grint, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to the IAEA activities concerning the use of PSA in the regulatory process there are two other international initiatives in this area by the European Commission and the OECD's Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Authorities (CRNA). The paper gives a brief outline of these activities as well as introducing an update on the regulatory use of PSA in the UK. 3 refs, 3 tabs

  15. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R L; Fernandes, L; Sun, X [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Strengthened safeguards: Present and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The safeguards system is experiencing what has been seen as a revolution and, in doing so, it is confronting a series of challenges. These can be grouped into three areas. Drawing and maintaining safeguards conclusions - The process by which the safeguards conclusions are derived is based upon the analysis, evaluation and review of all the information available to the Agency. This process is on- going, but the State Evaluation Reports are compiled and reviewed periodically. For States with an additional protocol in force, the absence of indicators of the presence of undeclared nuclear material or activities provides the basis for the safeguards conclusion. Future challenges center on States' expectations of, and reactions to, the results of the evaluation and review process. Designing and implementing integrated safeguards - The conceptual framework of integrated safeguards is being actively pursued. Basic principles have been defined and integrated safeguards approaches have been developed for various types of facilities. Work is also progressing on the design of integrated safeguards approaches for specific States. Complementary access is being successfully implemented, and procedures for the use of unannounced inspections are being developed with the prospect of cost- effectiveness gains. Costs neutrality vs. quality and credibility - The Department faces serious staff and financial challenges. It has succeeded so far in 'doing more' and 'doing better' within a zero-real growth budget, but the scope for further significant efficiency gains is exhausted. There is no capacity to absorb new or unexpected tasks. Difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified and experienced staff exacerbate the problems and add to costs. The Director General of the IAEA has referred to the need for new initiatives to bridge the budgetary gap; a possible measure is proposed. The tasks of meeting the challenges and demands of strengthened safeguards have been added to

  18. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  19. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  20. Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There exists limited understanding of how e-Health solutions are perceived, designed, implemented and used. ... The Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health (SEARCH) program will cultivate local research capacity to examine e-health and ... Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

  1. Strengthening Information Society Research Capacity Alliance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-09-13

    The project is expected to strengthen the body of theoretically based, methodologically sound, interdisciplinary research on information society issues. Project ID. 106618. Project status. Closed. Start Date. September 13, 2011. End Date. August 12, 2014. Duration. 24 months. IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding.

  2. Strengthening Social and Emotional Intelligences through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burth, Jeanne Hager; McConnell, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Using writing to allow children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to express how they are feeling or to stimulate thinking about a social situation will allow the students the opportunity to strengthen social and emotional intelligences. By giving prompts about different social and emotional situations or ideas to children, the teacher allows…

  3. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  4. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  5. Strengthening partnerships among Africa's science granting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will support regional training courses and on-site coaching to strengthen the capacity of participating councils to design and manage collaborative agreements. It will also co-fund demand-led collaborative research projects in selected areas of interest to the private sector. Sharing of evidence, lessons learned ...

  6. Institutional strengthening in Egyptian development aid projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walbeek, M.M.; Vlotman, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years Dutch aid projects have focused more on institutional strengthening. The overall impact of this type of aid has been limited. This paper explores possible reasons for this. In Egypt, it appeared to be difficult to make significant changes in the institutional setting. Main

  7. Strengthening Community Land Rights and Responses to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Community Land Rights and Responses to Involuntary Displacement Caused by Development Projects in Zimbabwe ... The construction of hydro-electric dams and other large mining and agricultural projects, for example, have led to negative consequences due to weak land tenure rights and a more general ...

  8. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  9. Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Louise; Willis, Felicity; Paine, Crystal; Windsor, Corina

    2007-01-01

    The "Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways" Team has identified that there is a gap between the Early Childhood settings and schools within the Dubbo area. Through meetings with early childhood professionals within Dubbo the authors have identified that the current landscape of care and education within their community…

  10. Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on Climate Change Adaptation ... They will develop environmental economics methods to address specific climate change challenges caused by extreme weather stressors. ... Initiative Villes ciblées : gestion des déchets urbains à Cochabamba, en Bolivie.

  11. Strengthened International Nuclear Safeguards; burdens and Effects on Nuclear Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper deals with the recent direction of strengthening the international nuclear safeguards and the effects on the development of nuclear technology for peaceful applications. The new basic principles for strengthening the international nuclear control in the direction of undeclared nuclear activities are elaborated, and the national obligations are indicated. The burdens on the development of nuclear technology are discussed. Approaches are proposed in this work for coping with the present and future situations

  12. 29 CFR 779.205 - Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise must consist of ârelated activities.â 779.205... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.205 Enterprise must consist of “related activities.” The enterprise must...

  13. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S. politics...

  14. The relative health benefits of different sexual activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2010-04-01

    Although many studies examine purported risks associated with sexual activities, few examine potential physical and mental health benefits, and even fewer incorporate the scientifically essential differentiation of specific sexual behaviors. This review provides an overview of studies examining potential health benefits of various sexual activities, with a focus on the effects of different sexual activities. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Findings on the associations between distinct sexual activities and various indices of psychological and physical function. A wide range of better psychological and physiological health indices are associated specifically with penile-vaginal intercourse. Other sexual activities have weaker, no, or (in the cases of masturbation and anal intercourse) inverse associations with health indices. Condom use appears to impair some benefits of penile-vaginal intercourse. Only a few of the research designs allow for causal inferences. The health benefits associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse should inform a new evidence-based approach to sexual medicine, sex education, and a broad range of medical and psychological consultations.

  15. European Union: Review of fast reactor related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, G. van; Hugon, M.

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) continued its fast reactor research activities on the same lines as in the past, but with the main emphasis on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides. The work was carried out by research institutions in the Member States and by the EC Joint Research Centre (JRC) as cost shared actions. The JRC has also been performing its own programme through institutional and competitive research activities. The JRC institutes involved in these studies are the Institute of Systems, Informatics and Safety (ISIS) in Ispra (I), the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) in Karlsruhe (D) and the Institute for Advanced Materials in Petten. This paper summarizes the main activities performed in the field of (i) fast reactor safety and of (ii) partitioning and transmutation. (author)

  16. Physical activity in relation to development and progression of myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr Thykjær, Anne; Lundberg, Kristian; Grauslund, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to make a systematic review regarding the correlation between physical activity and myopia. A total of 263 papers were identified in a systematic database search of PubMed/Medline and Embase. Five steps of screening removed studies of a low evidence quality and animal studies......On a global scale, myopia is one of the most common causes of visual impairment. Given the increasing prevalence of myopia, it is vital to understand the pathogenesis and to identify potential interventions. Some studies have described physical activity as a potential correlation for myopia....... Studies included had refractive error and physical activity (as measured by questionnaires, accelerometers and cycle ergometers) as separate, well-defined outcomes. Nine studies (six cross-sectional, two cohorts and one case-control study) with a total of 17 634 subjects were included. Six studies...

  17. Effectiveness of Corporate Social Media Activities to Increase Relational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This study applies social media analytics to investigate the impact of different corporate social media activities on user word of mouth and attitudinal loyalty. We conduct a multilevel analysis of approximately 5 million tweets regarding the main Twitter accounts of 28 large global companies. We...... empirically identify different social media activities in terms of social media management strategies (using social media management tools or the web-frontend client), account types (broadcasting or receiving information), and communicative approaches (conversational or disseminative). We find positive...... effects of social media management tools, broadcasting accounts, and conversational communication on public perception....

  18. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourdes Sanchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Objective: This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH. The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods: Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ. In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results: The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions: The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its

  19. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Canales, Maritza; Enriquez, Lourdes; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zelaya, Ada Argentina; Espinoza, Vilma Esther; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo

    2013-08-07

    In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS) has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ). In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its potential contribution to the MDGs. Furthermore, increased research

  20. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Canales, Maritza; Enriquez, Lourdes; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zelaya, Ada Argentina; Espinoza, Vilma Esther; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS) has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Objective This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ). In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its potential contribution

  1. Relations between Playing Activities and Fine Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…

  2. Termite activity in relation to natural grassland soil attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Pires Santos, J.C.; Almeida, J.A.; Sinhorati, D.S.; Berton-Junior, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Soil-feeding termites transport soil for mound building, and this process can affect soil characteristics. To verify the influence of soil termite activity on soil characteristics, samples were collected from top, bottom and center of termite mounds, and of the adjacent area, to assess chemical and

  3. Brain activation related to the change between bimanual motor programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, BM; Willemsen, ATM; Paans, AMJ

    By using positron emission tomography, we aimed to identify cerebral foci of neuronal activation associated with the initiation of a specific motor program. To that end, a state of repeatedly alternating in- and antiphase of bimanual flexion and extension movements was compared with similar movement

  4. Relating Eye Activity Measures to Human Controller Remnant Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, A; Zaal, P.M.T.; Pool, D.M.; Mulder, M.; Sawaragi, T

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to partially explain the characteristics of the human perceptual remnant, following Levison’s representation of the remnant as an equivalent observation noise. Eye activity parameters are recorded using an eye tracker in two compensatory tracking tasks in which the visual

  5. Relations of Physical Activity and Stress Vulnerability in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Furong; Liu, Wenhao; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose; Schmidlein, Robert

    2018-01-01

    There are increased concerns about depression and anxiety among college students. Thus in need of actions to find proper intervention strategies to target this issue. The purpose of this study was to examine association between leisure-time physical activity and stress vulnerability among college students. A modified survey including physical…

  6. The Relative Efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non...

  7. Age-related increase in brain activity during task-related and -negative networks and numerical inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Qi, Zhigang; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that elderly adults exhibit increased and decreased activation on various cognitive tasks, yet little is known about age-related changes in inductive reasoning. To investigate the neural basis for the aging effect on inductive reasoning, 15 young and 15 elderly subjects performed numerical inductive reasoning while in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis revealed that numerical inductive reasoning, relative to rest, yielded multiple frontal, temporal, parietal, and some subcortical area activations for both age groups. In addition, the younger participants showed significant regions of task-induced deactivation, while no deactivation occurred in the elderly adults. Direct group comparisons showed that elderly adults exhibited greater activity in regions of task-related activation and areas showing task-induced deactivation (TID) in the younger group. Our findings suggest an age-related deficiency in neural function and resource allocation during inductive reasoning.

  8. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  9. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  10. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a......) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  11. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form.

  12. The relation between bone demineralization, physical activity and anthropometric standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barbosa Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to verify the correlation between bone mineral density and the level of physical activity, as well as the food intake and the anthropometric parameters. It intended to analyse the bone mineral density (BMD of menopausal women through the bone densitometry test (DO in the lumbar region (L1 to L4, femoral neck and total femur, and also use Bouchard’s self-recall of daily activities; employing the food record from Buker and Stuart to dose and quantify the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. The data were analysed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test, and default value of α = 0.05 was set to compare the BMD averages. It was observed that one hundred percent of the assessed individuals had a BMD level below the average fixed by WHO: 14.4% with osteopenia and 85.6% with osteoporosis; a lower BMD in the femoral area (0.721g and the biggest loss among the sedentary ones (0.698g. It was noticed that there was a correlation between the physical activities and the BMD only when associated with anthropometric standards and the daily ingestion of vitamin D.

  13. A climatological study of the relations among solar activity, galactic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Though correlation study between precipitation and other parameters do not hint any linear relation, still the Fourier and wavelet analyses give an idea of common periodicities. The 9–11 year periodicity of sunspot numbers calculated by Fourier transform is also confirmed by wavelet transform in annual scale. Similarly ...

  14. EPA activities related to emerging air sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide set was developed through contributions of NERL and NRMRL research groups and organized to explain the diversity of ongoing research related to emerging air sensor technology for an international audience. Gayle will be walking OAQPS through the slide set in advance o...

  15. Health-related fitness, body composition and physical activity status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity (PI) is found to be a major contributor to the high incidence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. As such, PI was significantly related to risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Studies especially in the 14-years in adolescents' learners are sparse. The purpose of this study was to ...

  16. Call 4 Concern: patient and relative activated critical care outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Mandy; Gerber, Karin; Gager, Melanie

    Patients can experience unexpected deterioration in their physiological condition that can lead to critical illness, cardiac arrest, admission to the intensive care unit and death. While ward staff can identify deterioration through monitoring physiological signs, these signs can be missed, interpreted incorrectly or mismanaged. Rapid response systems using early warning scores can fail if staff do not follow protocols or do not notice or manage deterioration adequately. Nurses often notice deterioration intuitively because of their knowledge of individual patients. Patients and their relatives have the greatest knowledge of patients, and can often pick up subtle signs physiological deterioration before this is identified by staff or monitoring systems. However, this ability has been largely overlooked. Call 4 Concern (C4C) is a scheme where patients and relatives can call critical care teams directly if they are concerned about a patient's condition- it is believed to be the first of its kind in the UK. A C4C feasibility project ran for six months, covering patients being transferred from the intensive care unit to general wards. C4C has the potential to prevent clinical deterioration and is valued by patients and relatives. Concerns of ward staff could be managed through project management. As it is relatively new, this field offers further opportunities for research.

  17. Strengthening Indonesia's health workforce through partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, A; Rosskam, E; Afzal, M M; Suryowinoto, T B; Mukti, A G

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia faces critical challenges pertaining to human resources for health (HRH). These relate to HRH policy, planning, mismatch between production and demand, quality, renumeration, and mal-distribution. This paper provides a state of the art review of the existing conditions in Indonesia, innovations to tackle the problems, results of the innovations to date, and a picture of the on-going challenges that have yet to be met. Reversing this crisis level shortage of HRH requires an inclusive approach to address the underlying challenges. In 2010 the government initiated multi-stakeholder coordination for HRH, using the Country Coordination and Facilitation approach. The process requires committed engagement and coordination of relevant stakeholders to address priority health needs. This manuscript is a formative evaluation of the program using documentary study and analysis. Consistent with Indonesia's decentralized health system, since 2011 local governments also started establishing provincial multi-stakeholder committees and working groups for HRH development. Through this multi-stakeholder approach with high level government support and leadership, Indonesia was able to carry out HRH planning by engaging 164 stakeholders. Multi-stakeholder coordination has produced positive results in Indonesia by bringing about a number of innovations in HRH development to achieve UHC, fostered partnerships, attracted international attention, and galvanized multi-stakeholder support in improving the HRH situation. This approach also has facilitated mobilizing technical and financial support from domestic and international partners for HRH development. Applying the multi-stakeholder engagement and coordination process in Indonesia has proved instrumental in advancing the country's work to achieve Universal Health Coverage and the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Indonesia continues to face an HRH crisis but the collaborative process provides an opportunity to achieve

  18. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  19. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  20. Pain-related Impairment of Daily Activities After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Wildgaard, Kim; Kreiner, Svend

    2013-01-01

    -specific questionnaire for assessment of functional impairment due to PTPS. METHODS:: Activities were obtained from the literature supplemented by interviews with patients and surgeons. The questionnaire was validated using the Rasch model in order to describe an underlying pain impairment scale. RESULTS:: Four of 17...... found. A generalized log-linear Rasch model including local dependence was constructed. Though local dependence influenced reliability, the test-retest reliability estimated under the log-linear Rasch model was high (0.88-0.96). Correlation with items from the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand...... (quick) questionnaire supported validity (γ=0.46, P...

  1. Strengthening international standards to prepare for and respond to an emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira de Oliveira, C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiological emergencies of various types continue to occur - often accidents with orphan sources. In addition, the possibility of a severe nuclear accident that could result in transboundary radioactive release requiring protective actions in several countries, although extremely unlikely, can never be ruled out. Many Member States are currently not adequately prepared to respond to such emergency situations. Moreover, without standard procedures or common approaches, protective actions can differ between countries, resulting in confusion and mistrust among the public, interfering with recovery operations and possibly leading to severe socioeconomic and political consequences. Many of the lessons from past accidents, including even the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents, have still not been completely incorporated into emergency plans of all States. Furthermore, there is a heightened awareness of the need to strengthen arrangements to respond to emergencies that could arise from criminal or terrorist activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. Many Member States have expressed a desire to strengthen their national nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness arrangements, to harmonize them with their neighbours and to learn from international experience in responding to these relatively rare events. The Agency has a statutory function to develop standards for the protection of health and the environment and to provide on request for their application, through encouraging research and development; fostering information exchange; promoting education and training; and rendering services. (author)

  2. STRENGTHENING STUDENTS’ LITERACY THROUGH REFLECTIVE ESSAY WRITING: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF WRITING TO READ PROGRAM IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Shofiya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is a condition where a person has capability to read for knowledge, write to share knowledge, and think critically. Students’ literacy is a never-end issue in the field of English Language Teaching. Studies have been carried out to investigate literacy practices in various level of education including higher education. Among the problems of students’ literacy in higher education are the amount of their reading and writing practices and their motivation to read and write. The current paper is intended to share an experience in strengthening students’ literacy at the English Department of State Islamic Institute (Institut Agama Islam Negeri/IAIN Tulungagung, East Java. The preliminary investigation of the present study revealed that many students have low motivation to read. In addition, their comprehension was relatively low as represented in their paper works. Under a Classroom Action Research Design, the present study was conducted to propose writing to read program to strengthen the students’ literacy. In such program, the students were required to write a reflective essay based on the selected topics that they had to read prior to classes. The findings showed that writing reflective essay helped students strengthen their literacy as well as improve their motivation to read and to write because the reading and writing activities were done in a more relax and supportive environment that was at home.

  3. KNK-II knowledge preservation and related activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.; Wehmann, U.; Stanculescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Many of the scenarios describing possible energy futures, e.g., the World Energy Council and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), foresee a role for nuclear power in meeting a growing world energy demand through 2050. While some scenarios explore the impact of a nuclear phase out, others envision a major growth in nuclear technology's share of the world energy mix. Given the forecasted growth in world population and in economic development, the environmental advantages of nuclear power, and concerns over climate change and the growth of greenhouse gas emissions, it is not unreasonable to expect an increased interest in nuclear power in the coming decades. Loss of nuclear knowledge is a serious concern, in particular with regard to areas where, for various reasons, nuclear technology development and innovation has been slowed down. Knowledge can be preserved by archival techniques and by passing it on to new generations. In the case of the Federal Republic of Germany, in spite of the lack of funding and political support, both avenues are followed. Data retrieval and preservation by archiving activities for the German experimental fast reactor KNK-II were undertaken within the framework of IAEA's initiative on Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation. The paper will shortly introduce the IAEA initiative (scope, objectives, status, and outlook). The general approach to nuclear knowledge preservation in Germany will be presented, and the concrete archiving activities undertaken for KNK-II will be summarized. (author)

  4. Relation of flare activity to the approach and separation of sunspots in an active region and to its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, E.

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the flare activity of active regions within the scope of a large complex and the magnetic gradients of these active regions and their daily variations is investigated in the interval of the exceptionally high flare activity occurring in June 1970. New indices, characterizing the active region, were defined, e.g., the instantaneous sunspot-area density and the instantaneous sunspot-number density. These indices were determined on the basis of measurements of the surface containing all sunspots of the complex of active regions enclosed by an envelope. An attempt was made to substitute the surface in the relation for the individual indices by distance. The daily variations of these indices were again compared with the flare activity and some mutual relations were derived. (author)

  5. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives for individuals. Twelve studies with unconditional incentives (eg, free membership sport facility) and conditional incentives (ie, rewards for reaching physical-activity goals) related to physical ...

  6. Strengthening health workforce capacity through work-based training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matovu Joseph KB

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much attention has been given to increasing the number of health workers, less focus has been directed at developing models of training that address real-life workplace needs. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC developed an eight-month modular, in-service work-based training program aimed at strengthening the capacity for monitoring and evaluation (M&E and continuous quality improvement (CQI in health service delivery. Methods This capacity building program, initiated in 2008, is offered to in-service health professionals working in Uganda. The purpose of the training is to strengthen the capacity to provide quality health services through hands-on training that allows for skills building with minimum work disruptions while encouraging greater involvement of other institutional staff to enhance continuity and sustainability. The hands-on training uses practical gaps and challenges at the workplace through a highly participatory process. Trainees work with other staff to design and implement ‘projects’ meant to address work-related priority problems, working closely with mentors. Trainees’ knowledge and skills are enhanced through short courses offered at specific intervals throughout the course. Results Overall, 143 trainees were admitted between 2008 and 2011. Of these, 120 (84% from 66 institutions completed the training successfully. Of the trainees, 37% were Social Scientists, 34% were Medical/Nursing/Clinical Officers, 5.8% were Statisticians, while 23% belonged to other professions. Majority of the trainees (80% were employed by Non-Government Organizations while 20% worked with the public health sector. Trainees implemented 66 projects which addressed issues such as improving access to health care services; reducing waiting time for patients; strengthening M&E systems; and improving data collection and

  7. Nanoscale strengthening mechanisms in metallic thin film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppner, Rachel Lynn

    Nano-scale strengthening mechanisms for thin films were investigated for systems governed by two different strengthening techniques: nano-laminate strengthening and oxide dispersion strengthening. Films were tested under elevated temperature conditions to investigate changes in deformation mechanisms at different operating temperatures, and the structural stability. Both systems exhibit remarkable stability after annealing and thus long-term reliability. Nano-scale metallic multilayers with smaller layer thicknesses show a greater relative resistance to decreasing strength at higher temperature testing conditions than those with larger layer thicknesses. This is seen in both Cu/Ni/Nb multilayers as well as a similar tri-component bi-layer system (Cu-Ni/Nb), which removed the coherent interface from the film. Both nanoindentation and micro-pillar compression tests investigated the strain-hardening ability of these two systems to determine what role the coherent interface plays in this mechanism. Tri-layer films showed a higher strain-hardening ability as the layer thickness decreased and a higher strain-hardening exponent than the bi-layer system: verifying the presence of a coherent interface increases the strain-hardening ability of these multilayer systems. Both systems exhibited hardening of the room temperature strength after annealing, suggesting a change in microstructure has occurred, unlike that seen in other multilayer systems. Oxide dispersion strengthened Au films showed a marked increase in hardness and wear resistance with the addition of ZnO particles. The threshold for stress-induced grain-refinement as opposed to grain growth is seen at concentrations of at least 0.5 vol%. These systems exhibited stable microstructures during thermal cycling in films containing at least 1.0%ZnO. Nanoindentation experiments show the drop in hardness following annealing is almost completely attributed to the resulting grain growth. Four-point probe resistivity

  8. Titanium oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, W.; Vandermeulen, W.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on the DT02 and DT3911 ferritic dispersion strengthened alloys, developed at SCK/CEN, Mol, Belgium, are presented. Both alloys consist of Fe - 13% Cr - 1.5% Mo to which 2% TiO 2 and about 3.5% Ti are added (wt.%). Their main use is for the fabrication of fast breeder reactor cladding tubes but their application as turbine blade material is also envisaged for cases where high damping is important. (auth.)

  9. Manufacturing Experience for Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doherty, Ann L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Mark T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This report documents the results of the development and the manufacturing experience gained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) while working with the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) materials MA 956, 14YWT, and 9YWT. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy has implemented a program to develop a Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel for light water reactors. ODS materials have the potential to provide improved performance for the U-Mo concept.

  10. Legal approaches to transboundary pollution - relating to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintsteiner, G.

    2000-05-01

    This work examines the legal approaches to pollution in a transboundary context. Particular consideration is given to transboundary pollution that is related to the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Since I have chosen to approach the very topic not so much in the hope of finding a single and unequivocal answer but rather by building a circumstantial case, the present work naturally relies to a great extent on decisions of international courts and tribunals, as well as on principles and rules stemming from international law in general. The international norm that basically guides the topic is the prohibition of transboundary pollution, or, expressed as a positive duty, i.e. the obligation to prevent transboundary harm, which has found expression in Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment. The very obligation is relevant from the perspective of prevention of environmental harm, as well as reparation when harm has actually occurred. One of the primary issues of this work accordingly relates to the obligation's preventive function, thus its extent, meaning and scope are examined, and in particular its approach to transboundary risk-creation. In the overall context of transboundary pollution the principle of the sovereign equality of states and other basic rules that directly emanate from it are of continuos importance. This work is further strongly impacted by notions of equity together with the establishment of a balancing of interests test which application merits special consideration in cases where a conflict between two states cannot be solved by mere reliance on their sovereign rights. Rules relating to the prevention of environmental harm, now increasingly guided by the Precautionary Principle, are also relevant under the law of state responsibility for wrongful acts and in the context of defining obligations erga omnes. (author)

  11. Functionally relevant diversity of closely related Nitrospira in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Pester, Michael; Kitzinger, Katharina; Savio, Domenico F; Loy, Alexander; Rattei, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Nitrospira are chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that catalyze the second step of nitrification in most oxic habitats and are important for excess nitrogen removal from sewage in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To date, little is known about their diversity and ecological niche partitioning within complex communities. In this study, the fine-scale community structure and function of Nitrospira was analyzed in two full-scale WWTPs as model ecosystems. In Nitrospira-specific 16S rRNA clone libraries retrieved from each plant, closely related phylogenetic clusters (16S rRNA identities between clusters ranged from 95.8% to 99.6%) within Nitrospira lineages I and II were found. Newly designed probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the specific detection of several of these clusters, whose coexistence in the WWTPs was shown for prolonged periods of several years. In situ ecophysiological analyses based on FISH, relative abundance and spatial arrangement quantification, as well as microautoradiography revealed functional differences of these Nitrospira clusters regarding the preferred nitrite concentration, the utilization of formate as substrate and the spatial coaggregation with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as symbiotic partners. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the nxrB gene, which encodes subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase of Nitrospira, revealed in one of the WWTPs as many as 121 species-level nxrB operational taxonomic units with highly uneven relative abundances in the amplicon library. These results show a previously unrecognized high diversity of Nitrospira in engineered systems, which is at least partially linked to niche differentiation and may have important implications for process stability.

  12. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Aretha

    2009-01-01

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  13. Strengthening capacity to apply health research evidence in policy making: experience from four countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Sarah; K Aulakh, Bhupinder; Jadeja, Nidhee; Jimenez, Michelle; Buse, Kent; Anwar, Iqbal; Barge, Sandhya; Odubanjo, M Oladoyin; Shukla, Abhay; Ghaffar, Abdul; Whitworth, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the use of evidence in policy making means strengthening capacity on both the supply and demand sides of evidence production. However, little experience of strengthening the capacity of policy makers in low- and middle- income countries has been published to date. We describe the experiences of five projects (in Bangladesh, Gambia, India and Nigeria), where collaborative teams of researchers and policy makers/policy influencers worked to strengthen policy maker capacity to increase the use of evidence in policy. Activities were focused on three (interlinked) levels of capacity building: individual, organizational and, occasionally, institutional. Interventions included increasing access to research/data, promoting frequent interactions between researchers and members of the policy communities, and increasing the receptivity towards research/data in policy making or policy-implementing organizations. Teams were successful in building the capacity of individuals to access, understand and use evidence/data. Strengthening organizational capacity generally involved support to infrastructure (e.g. through information technology resources) and was also deemed to be successful. There was less appetite to address the need to strengthen institutional capacity—although this was acknowledged to be fundamental to promoting sustainable use of evidence, it was also recognized as requiring resources, legitimacy and regulatory support from policy makers. Evaluation across the three spheres of capacity building was made more challenging by the lack of agreed upon evaluation frameworks. In this article, we propose a new framework for assessing the impact of capacity strengthening activities to promote the use of evidence/data in policy making. Our evaluation concluded that strengthening the capacity of individuals and organizations is an important but likely insufficient step in ensuring the use of evidence/data in policy-cycles. Sustainability of evidence

  14. UTSI/CFFF MHD program completion and related activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlhauser, J.W.; Chapman, J.N.

    1999-04-30

    Maintenance work on the DOE CFFF facility remained in suspension for the entire quarter in accordance with the stop work order issued the previous quarter. Work resumed on the environmental restoration activities during the quarter and work performed is summarized. Progress continued on the five (5) high temperature superconductivity projects under Task 6. On the sol-gel process, improvement is reported in application of buffer layers to single crystals. Problems are discussed in applying buffer layers to nickel substrates. The status of cost performance studies is summarized. The status of diagnostic measurements directed toward real time control of manufacturing processes is reported with emphasis on measurement of surface smoothness. The results of atomic absorption measurement of MOCVD precursors are reported.

  15. Out-of-School Activities Related to Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial and natural environments constitute an extensive educational resource in whose framework the basic experiences that contribute to the development process of human beings occur. These experiences are the source of previous knowledge that students bring to school and that are key for building scientific school learning. This article reports the results of a study that addresses out-of-school experiences related to science and technology, through the application of an inventory list to a sample of students who were in their last year of compulsory education. The results show a relatively low overall frequency of experiences, characterized by some qualitative and quantitative differences according to a few grouping variables such as gender, the choice of an elective science subject, and different scientific topics and disciplines. In spite of its importance for learning, the school curriculum often ignores students’ previous experiences. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these results for developing a more equitable science and technology curriculum, from a perspective of a universal, humanistic science education.

  16. Preloading Effect on Strengthening Efficiency of RC Beams Strengthened with Non- and Pretensioned NSM Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kotynia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The near surface mounted (NSM technique has been shown to be one of the most promising methods for upgrading reinforced concrete (RC structures. Many tests carried out on RC members strengthened in flexure with NSM fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP systems have demonstrated greater strengthening efficiency than the use of externally-bonded (EB FRP laminates. Strengthening with simultaneous pretensioning of the FRP results in improvements in the serviceability limit state (SLS conditions, including the increased cracking moment and decreased deflections. The objective of the reported experimental program, which consisted of two series of RC beams strengthened in flexure with NSM CFRP strips, was to investigate the influence of a number of parameters on the strengthening efficiency. The test program focused on an analysis of the effects of preloading on the strengthening efficiency which has been investigated very rarely despite being one of the most important parameters to be taken into account in strengthening design. Two preloading levels were considered: the beam self-weight only, which corresponded to stresses on the internal longitudinal reinforcement of 25% and 14% of the yield stress (depending on a steel reinforcement ratio, and the self-weight with the additional superimposed load, corresponding to 60% of the yield strength of the unstrengthened beam and a deflection equal to the allowable deflection at the SLS. The influence of the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio was also considered in this study. To reflect the variability seen in existing structures, test specimens were varied by using different steel bar diameters. Finally, the impact of the composite reinforcement ratio and the number of pretensioned FRP strips was considered. Specimens were divided into two series based on their strengthening configuration: series “A” were strengthened with one pretensioned and two non-pretensioned carbon FRP (CFRP strips, while series

  17. Ab initio identified design principles of solid-solution strengthening in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Duancheng; Friák, Martin; Pezold, Johann von; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Solid-solution strengthening in six Al–X binary systems is investigated using first-principle methods. The volumetric mismatch parameter and the solubility enthalpy per solute were calculated. We derive three rules for designing solid-solution strengthened alloys: (i) the solubility enthalpy per solute is related to the volumetric mismatch by a power law; (ii) for each annealing temperature, there exists an optimal solute–volume mismatch to achieve maximum strength; and (iii) the strengthening potential of high volumetric mismatch solutes is severely limited by their low solubility. Our results thus show that the thermodynamic properties of the system (here Al–X alloys) set clear upper bounds to the achievable strengthening effects owing to the reduced solubility with increasing volume mismatch. (paper)

  18. Flexural Behavior of RC Slabs Strengthened in Flexure with Basalt Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugyu Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both experimental and analytical research results for predicting the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with basalt fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM. A total of 13 specimens were fabricated to evaluate the flexural behavior of RC slabs strengthened with basalt FRCM composite and were tested under four-point loading. The fiber type, tensile reinforcement ratio, and the number of fabric layers were chosen as experimental variables. The maximum load of FRCM-strengthened specimens increased from 11.2% to 98.2% relative to the reference specimens. The energy ratio and ductility of the FRCM-strengthened specimens decreased with the higher amount of fabric and tensile reinforcement. The effective stress level of FRCM fabric can be accurately predicted by a bond strength of ACI 549 and Jung’s model.

  19. The Relation of Personality Traits Wth Depression Severity in Active and Non-Active Elderly Women in Tehran City

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Aslankhani; Ahmad Farokhi; Parvane Shamsipour Dehkordi; Amir Shams; Mohammad Reza Ghasemian Moghaddam

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of personality traits with depression in active and non – active elderly women in Tehran city. Methods & Materials: The present research is descriptive–correlation. For this purpose, 188 elderly women (94 active and 94 non - active elders) in the age range of 63-82 in Tehran city availably selected as statistical sample. Measurement instrument were demographic questionnaire, Beck depression questionnaire and...

  20. Transit use and physical activity: Findings from the Houston travel-related activity in neighborhoods (TRAIN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Gregory; Durand, Casey P; Shuval, Kerem; Kohl Iii, Harold W; Salvo, Deborah; Sener, Ipek; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee

    2018-03-01

    Transportation-related physical activity can significantly increase daily total physical activity through active transportation or walking/biking to transit stops. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between transit-use and self-reported and monitor-based physical activity levels in a predominantly minority population from the Houston Travel-Related Activity in Neighborhoods (TRAIN) Study. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 865 adults living in Houston, Texas between 2013 and 2015. The exposure variable was transit-use (non-users, occasional users, and primary users). Self-reported and accelerometer-determined physical activity were the outcomes of interest. Regression models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other covariates of interest were built to test the hypothesis that transit user status was directly associated with 1) minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity and 2) the prevalence of achieving the physical activity guidelines. The majority of participants were female, non-Hispanic black, and almost one-third had a high school education or less. After adjustment, primary transit-use was associated with 134.2 ( p  < 0.01) additional mean minutes per week of self-reported moderate-intensity transportation-related physical activity compared to non-users. Further, primary users had 7.3 (95% CI: 2.6-20.1) times the relative adjusted odds of meeting physical activity recommendations than non-users based on self-reported transportation-related physical activity. There were no statistically significant associations of transit-use with self-reported leisure-time or accelerometer-derived physical activity. Transit-use has the potential for a large public health impact due to its sustainability and scalability. Therefore, encouraging the use of transit as a means to promote physical activity should be examined in future studies.

  1. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydler, P.

    1993-01-01

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  2. Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

    2014-07-28

    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  3. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  4. School Social Worker's Perceptions of the Frequency of Actual and Preferred Engagement in Role Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the frequency in which school social workers in Virginia engage in and prefer to engage in social work related activities and (2) to determine if the frequency in which the social work related activities the school social workers engage in is related to select variables. After a comprehensive review…

  5. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; Wilson, Lauren E; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004-2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.92) or standing (PR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. U.S. activities related to fast reactors and ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, Phillip J.

    2001-01-01

    , lower cost, and improved safety and proliferation resistance; Innovative nuclear plant design, manufacturing, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning technologies; Advanced nuclear fuels; and Relevant areas of fundamental science. In 2000, the US Fast Reactor and ADS programs include the EBR-II Electrometallurgical Treatment program, FFTF activities in view of a decision whether to restart or deactivate the facility, several NERI awards, and the Advanced Accelerators Applications program. A 10 year R and D plan concentrated on defining the key technologies to be used for transmutation of nuclear waste (plutonium, minor actinides and long lived fission products). This activity includes fuels development and performance testing, development and testing of dedicated separation technologies, design of transmutation systems, and materials and physics research. It is expected that after 10 years, suitable technologies will have been demonstrated for practical waste transmutation demonstration. The Accelerator Driven Test Facility (ADTF) will be built over 10 years. It will consist of a large proton linear accelerator (600MeV, 13mA), coupled to two testing stations; the Target and Multiplier Test Station will consist of a large (8MW) spallation target surrounded by test loops for materials and small amounts of fuels; the Sub Critical Multiplier (SCM) will consist of a 100MW subcritical fast reactor driven by a 4MW spallation target and will be used to demonstrate the safe and efficient operations of accelerator driven systems, and will serve to irradiate experimental fuels. The ADTF will serve as the principal test station for a Proof of Performance series of tests, to demonstrate the safety and operations of Accelerator Driven Systems, and to demonstrate efficient transmutation and recycling of minor actinides and long lived fission products

  7. Physical performance in relation to menopause status and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Dmitriy; Laakkonen, Eija K; Finni, Taija; Kokko, Katja; Kujala, Urho M; Aukee, Pauliina; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in physical performance (muscle power, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and walking speed) across menopausal stages and potential of leisure physical activity (PA) to modify the impact of menopause on physical performance. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 47 to 55 were randomly selected from the Finnish National Registry and categorized as premenopausal (n = 233), perimenopausal (n = 381), or postmenopausal (n = 299) based on serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and bleeding diary. Physical performance was measured by knee extension force, handgrip force, vertical jumping height, maximal walking speed, and 6-minute walking distance. PA level was assessed by self-report and categorized as low, moderate, or high. Multivariate linear regression modeling was used for data analysis. After including fat mass, height, PA, and education in the model, the postmenopausal women showed 12.0 N weaker (P women. There was no significant interaction between menopausal stage and PA on physical performance. The peri- and postmenopausal women with a high PA, however, showed better performance in the maximal knee extension strength and 6-minute walking test, and showed greater lower body muscle power than those with a low PA. Menopause status is associated with muscle strength and power, whereas the association between menopause status and mobility/walking is clearly weaker. A high leisure PA level provides more capacity to counteract the potential negative influence of menopausal factors on muscle function.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  8. Joint of activities related to the territorial ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Vilca, Wilmer

    2005-01-01

    The process of territorial ordering in Peru has little experiences; one of them is the one that comes carrying out in the department from san martin, with the conduction of its respective regional government. This department is in the Amazonian natural region and comes being affected by a series from problems social (like the existence of an uncontrolled migration, deficiency of basic services), economic (unemployment, unmannerliness), legal (territorial invasions to the property, conflicts) and environmental (deforestation, gradual loss of the biodiversity, environmental contamination), in addition to the loss of leadership of the organizations responsible for the departmental development. As opposed to it, the local institutional organizations decided to give priority as of year 2004 to the project of territorial ordering as a measurement to obtain the use and suitable occupation of the territory. This project has between its characteristics the one to gather and to group the experiences in demarcation and territorial organization, economic ecological zonification, road management of the use of the territory, plans and conformation of regions. This set of activities arisen without a national technical-legal frame that unifies them is being articulated by means of the execution of a project of public investment denominated 'territorial ordering of the department of san cultural, institutional, economic and environmental martin whose indicators of management are being constructed with the purpose of evaluating their social impact. Like all developing process, it has his discharges and losses, whose lessons will be with the purpose of taking advantage of the obtained knowledge and that it has in the geomatic to one of his tools of technological support

  9. Joint of activities related to the territorial ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Vilca, Wilmer

    2006-01-01

    The process of territorial ordering in Peru has little experiences; one of them is the one that comes carrying out in the department from san martin, with the conduction of its respective regional government. This department is in the Amazonian natural region and comes being affected by a series from problems social (like the existent of an uncontrolled migration, deficiency of basic services), economic (unemployment, un mannerliness), legal (territorial invasions to the property, conflicts) and environmental (deforestation, gradual loss of the biodiversity, environmental contamination), in addition to the loss of leadership of the organizations responsible for the departmental development. As opposed to it, the local institutional organizations decided to give priority as of year 2004 to the project of territorial ordering as a measurement to obtain the use and suitable occupation of the territory. This project has between its characteristics the one to gather and to group the experiences in demarcation and territorial organization, economic ecological zincification, road management of the use of the territory, plans and conformation of regions. This set of activities arisen without a national technical-legal frame that unifies them is being articulated by means of the execution of a project of public investment denominated territorial ordering of the department of san cultural, institutional, economic and environmental martin, whose indicators of management are being constructed with the purpose of evaluating their social impact. Like all developing process, it has his discharges and losses, whose lessons will be with the purpose of taking advantage of the obtained knowledge and that it has in the geomatic to one of his tools of technological support

  10. Review and Perspective of FCI Related Activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, O.

    1976-01-01

    Because of its meager natural resources and high population, Japan needs a strong nuclear program. However, the high population density and the public concern about environmental pollution and safety tend to impose stringent safety criteria for nuclear plants. Safety of the LMFBR, the most promising among several nuclear options, must be established for future commercialization. One of the most crucial issues in LMFBR safety is the molten fuel coolant interaction (FCI), which comes into play in various phases of the hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA). The objectives of the present paper are: firstly to summarize the current FCI considerations applied in the design of the Japanese prototype FBR, MONJU; and secondly to review the supporting R and D activities. In conclusion: Although analytical model predictions for FCI work energy per plant electrical output has decreased considerably over the last few years, the current classical approach would yield an inexorable containment design for larger FBRs. The FCI issue should be resolved within the coming few years. Concentrated efforts should be directed toward: (1) Proof both with simulant materials and fuel-sodium systems of the existence of the threshold for vapor explosions. (2) Establishment with out-of-pile fuel-sodium systems of the fragmentation mechanism to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients. (3) A few carefully planned in-pile tests. (4) Development of computer codes at various levels of accident to realistically assess the initial condition, progression and consequence of an FCI event under reactor conditions. (5) Establishment of the world-wide consensus of the HCDA scenario for licensable, economical commercial FBRs. We believe that an extensive data and personnel exchange are readily available in the areas (1) and (2) above, and that the NEA/CSNI Committee should coordinate future experiments on a complementing basis. We believe that promotion of further international cooperation in the

  11. Strengthening CRTD-A's Organizational and Program Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening CRTD-A's Organizational and Program Capacity (Lebanon) ... Women's Rights and Citizenship framework; to strengthen and rationalize its institutional ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference.

  12. Dislocation Strengthening without Ductility Trade-off in Metastable Austenitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiabin; Jin, Yongbin; Fang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Chenxu; Feng, Qiong; Liu, Xiaowei; Chen, Yuzeng; Suo, Tao; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Tianlin; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xi; Fang, Youtong; Wei, Yujie; Meng, Liang; Lu, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Strength and ductility are mutually exclusive if they are manifested as consequence of the coupling between strengthening and toughening mechanisms. One notable example is dislocation strengthening in metals, which invariably leads to reduced ductility. However, this trend is averted in metastable austenitic steels. A one-step thermal mechanical treatment (TMT), i.e. hot rolling, can effectively enhance the yielding strength of the metastable austenitic steel from 322 ± 18 MPa to 675 ± 15 MPa, while retaining both the formability and hardenability. It is noted that no boundaries are introduced in the optimized TMT process and all strengthening effect originates from dislocations with inherited thermal stability. The success of this method relies on the decoupled strengthening and toughening mechanisms in metastable austenitic steels, in which yield strength is controlled by initial dislocation density while ductility is retained by the capability to nucleate new dislocations to carry plastic deformation. Especially, the simplicity in processing enables scaling and industrial applications to meet the challenging requirements of emissions reduction. On the other hand, the complexity in the underlying mechanism of dislocation strengthening in this case may shed light on a different route of material strengthening by stimulating dislocation activities, rather than impeding motion of dislocations.

  13. The determinants of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xhoxhi, Orjon; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities in Adana, Turkey. In doing so, a holistic model of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities is proposed. The objective of this model is to contribute to a better understa......This paper investigates the determinants of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities in Adana, Turkey. In doing so, a holistic model of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities is proposed. The objective of this model is to contribute to a better...

  14. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  15. Strengthening Culture of Recycling and Reusing from Environmental Axiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Del Valle Nadales Díaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to strengthen the culture of recycling and reuse from the environmental axiology in the students and teachers of the José Francisco Jiménez School, in the parish of Bolivia City of Pedraza state Barinas, under the action research method competitor. Consequently, it was developed in five phases described as: diagnosis, planning, execution, evaluation and systematization. The informants were two (2 classroom teachers, one (1 parents and representatives and two (02 students, belonging to the 6th grade of the aforementioned institution. The technique used for the collection of information was observation and interview, the instrument will be the observation guide for students and an interview guide for parents, representatives and teachers, the validity and reliability of the same was determined through of triangulation. Subsequently, the obtained results allowed to know the weaknesses in relation to the current situation of the garbage in the institution and the community in general. Based on the derivations that were generated, a set of actions aimed at students was developed in order to strengthen the entire content of environmental care in accordance with the new educational policies. In developing and evaluating the study, it was concluded that the actions carried out will be an alternative for students to process information related to the interactions of environmental systems, taking individual and collective actions in the protection and defense of the environment for sustainable development.

  16. Antenatal care strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health...

  17. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  18. Catalysis-enhanced strengthening of porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, L.N.; Shchukin, E.D.; Burenkova, L.N.; Romanovskij, B.V.

    2000-01-01

    Change in the strength of compressed tablets of the catalyst on the basis of ZrO 2 (84 mass %) and Y 2 O 3 (16 mass %) after conducting the endothermal reaction of the methanol and ethanol dehydration at 700-800 deg C is studied. It is shown, that the key factor, determining the strengthening effect by 65-88% is not at all the reaction exothermal nature, which could lead to local heating of the catalyst surface. In reality significant increase in concentration of surface defects, as compared to the equilibrium at the given temperature is achieved on the account of conjugation of processes of catalysis and surface defects formation [ru

  19. Gold's monetary roll will be strengthened - Plumbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Delivering his Presidential address at the Chamber's annual general meeting, Mr Plumbridge said the gold market would enter a new phase and listed seven reasons why gold's monetary role would be strengthened. There was a dramatic increase in the demand for gold jewellery. He also forecasted that South African uranium production would again attain its former peak annual production of about 6000t. There is an essential need for a sustained growth in nuclear power and the prospects for uranium mining industry remain encouraging

  20. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakine, C.; Prioul, C.; Alamo, A.; Francois, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two 13%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys, DT and DY, exhibiting different oxide particle size distribution and a χ phase precipitation were studied. Their tensile properties have been tested from 20 to 700 C. Experimental observations during room temperature tensile tests performed in a scanning electronic microscope have shown that the main damage mechanism consists in microcracking of the χ phase precipitates on grain boundaries. These alloys are high tensile and creep resistant between 500 and 700 C. Their strongly stress-sensitive creep behaviour can be described by usual creep laws and incorporating a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. (orig.)

  1. FE Modelling of the Seismic Behavior of Wide Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with CFRP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Santarsiero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A large share of reinforced concrete (RC framed buildings is provided with wide beams being a type of beam allowing greater freedom in the architectural arrangement of interiors, beyond further advantage due to fewer formworks needed during the construction. Nevertheless, little attention has been devoted to the seismic vulnerability of this kind of framed RC buildings as well as to the study of strengthening systems purposely developed for wide beams and wide beam-column connections. Under these premises, this paper proposes simple strengthening solutions made by Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP systems able to effectively improve seismic capacity through feasible arrangement suitable in case a wide beam is present. On the basis of wide beam-column joints previously tested without strengthening system, detailed nonlinear finite element models were calibrated. Then, an FRP strengthening intervention based on a brand new arrangement was modeled in order to perform additional simulations under seismic actions. This way, the effectiveness of the strengthening intervention was assessed finding out that significant strength and ductility increments were achieved with a relatively simple and cheap strengthening arrangement. Additional research would be desirable in the form of experimental tests on the simulated wide beam-column joints.

  2. Mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grain precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kaka; Wen, Haiming; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the relationships between precipitation phenomena, grain size and mechanical behavior in a complex precipitation-strengthened alloy system, Al 7075 alloy, a commonly used aluminum alloy, was selected as a model system in the present study. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk materials were fabricated through cryomilling, degassing, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials were analyzed and compared directly to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography was utilized to investigate the intermetallic precipitates and oxide dispersoids formed in the as-extruded UFG material. UFG 7075 exhibits higher strength than the CG 7075 alloy for each equivalent condition. After a T6 temper, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of UFG 7075 achieved 734 and 774 MPa, respectively, which are ∼120 MPa higher than those of the CG equivalent. The strength of as-extruded UFG 7075 (YS: 583 MPa, UTS: 631 MPa) is even higher than that of commercial 7075-T6. More importantly, the strengthening mechanisms in each material were established quantitatively for the first time for this complex precipitation-strengthened system, accounting for grain-boundary, dislocation, solid-solution, precipitation and oxide dispersoid strengthening contributions. Grain-boundary strengthening was the predominant mechanism in as-extruded UFG 7075, contributing a strength increment estimated to be 242 MPa, whereas Orowan precipitation strengthening was predominant in the as-extruded CG 7075 (∼102 MPa) and in the T6-tempered materials, and was estimated to contribute 472 and 414 MPa for CG-T6 and UFG-T6, respectively

  3. Activities, self-referent memory beliefs, and cognitive performance: evidence for direct and mediated relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the role of activities and self-referent memory beliefs for cognitive performance in a life-span sample. A factor analysis identified 8 activity factors, including Developmental Activities, Experiential Activities, Social Activities, Physical Activities, Technology Use, Watching Television, Games, and Crafts. A second-order general activity factor was significantly related to a general factor of cognitive function as defined by ability tests. Structural regression models suggested that prediction of cognition by activity level was partially mediated by memory beliefs, controlling for age, education, health, and depressive affect. Models adding paths from general and specific activities to aspects of crystallized intelligence suggested additional unique predictive effects for some activities. In alternative models, nonsignificant effects of beliefs on activities were detected when cognition predicted both variables, consistent with the hypothesis that beliefs derive from monitoring cognition and have no influence on activity patterns. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives

  5. Development of Measurement Techniques For Strengthening Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2007-01-01

    The strategy of nuclear safeguards is based on the accounting and control of nuclear materials, nuclear technologies and activities in a State in order to attain its ''Legal'' goals of the application of atomic energy. The present paper investigates the development in the measurement techniques used in the verification and control of NMs for the purpose of strengthening safeguards. Its focus is to review the recent nuclear measurement techniques used for the identification and verification of nuclear materials.The different levels of verification and the accuracy of these techniques are discussed. The implementation of stregthened safeguards; and nuclear materials verification and control in the world are mentioned. Also, the recently proposed measures to enhance the ability to detect undeclared nuclear materials, nuclear activities and facilities that would need advanced measurement techniques are indicated.

  6. Transit use and physical activity: Findings from the Houston travel-related activity in neighborhoods (TRAIN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Knell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation-related physical activity can significantly increase daily total physical activity through active transportation or walking/biking to transit stops. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between transit-use and self-reported and monitor-based physical activity levels in a predominantly minority population from the Houston Travel-Related Activity in Neighborhoods (TRAIN Study. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 865 adults living in Houston, Texas between 2013 and 2015. The exposure variable was transit-use (non-users, occasional users, and primary users. Self-reported and accelerometer-determined physical activity were the outcomes of interest. Regression models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other covariates of interest were built to test the hypothesis that transit user status was directly associated with 1 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity and 2 the prevalence of achieving the physical activity guidelines. The majority of participants were female, non-Hispanic black, and almost one-third had a high school education or less. After adjustment, primary transit-use was associated with 134.2 (p<0.01 additional mean minutes per week of self-reported moderate-intensity transportation-related physical activity compared to non-users. Further, primary users had 7.3 (95% CI: 2.6–20.1 times the relative adjusted odds of meeting physical activity recommendations than non-users based on self-reported transportation-related physical activity. There were no statistically significant associations of transit-use with self-reported leisure-time or accelerometer-derived physical activity. Transit-use has the potential for a large public health impact due to its sustainability and scalability. Therefore, encouraging the use of transit as a means to promote physical activity should be examined in future studies. Keywords: Physical activity, Transportation, Commuting, Motor activity, Urban health

  7. The strengthening effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.R.; Ison, K.T.; Gishen, P

    2000-06-01

    AIM: To examine whether single-needle vertebroplasty is effective in strengthening vertebrae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four adjacent intact lumbar vertebrae were removed from each of nine adult post-mortem subjects. One or two vertebra of each set was injected with low viscosity acrylic bone cement using a single-track posterolateral approach. Vertebral strength was measured during constant rate axial compression. RESULTS: Single-needle injection delivered different quantities of cement (1-8 ml) in an asymmetric distribution. Injected vertebrae were stronger than controls in 10 out of 12 cases (P < 0.01), suggesting that cement injection increases the load needed to cause initial vertebral fracture. Compression was continued past the point of initial failure, to simulate progressive vertebral collapse. Injected specimens were more resistant to deformation than control specimens (P < 0.05), most of which initially deformed with little increase in load. CONCLUSION: Single-track injection of bone cement appeared to strengthen vertebrae against both initial failure and subsequent collapse. The magnitude of strength increase from vertebroplasty was variable, and did not correlate with the volume of cement injected. Further investigation is needed to optimize the technique. Gishen, P. (2000)

  8. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  9. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant to...

  10. 29 CFR 779.208 - Auxiliary activities which are “related activities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... eating and drinking facilities (note that employees primarily engaged in certain food service activities... Act if the specific conditions are met; see § 779.388); (j) The operation of employee benefit and...

  11. Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma Lj; Bryant, Elizabeth; Seghers, Jan; Galbraith, Niall; Nevill, Alan M

    2017-04-01

    Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation ( b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation ( b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.

  12. A Breakthrough for Strengthening Tusi Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liangpin; Peng Furong

    2016-01-01

    Following the inscription of China’s Tusi ( native officials ) relics onto the list of world cultural heritage in 2015 , Tusi studies has already become a current topic. However, if we ignored the numerous and complicated historical events, the tremendous amount of historical materials and cases with different characteristics, it is difficult to realize a theoretical breakthrough and academic in-novation. Hence, if the academic world intends to find a new breakthrough in Tusi studies, enough attention should be given to the analysis of past e-vents, digging out historical materials, and case studies—only by which can Tusi studies be strengthened. 1 . Analysis of past events Scholarly research of the Tusi in the past has paid more attention to the system, culture ,and ap-plication of Tusi relics for inscription onto the list of world cultural heritage, but has ignored analysis of significant events. Due to the influence of the political right, economic benefit, and cultural in-filtration, there had always been competition be-tween the central government and the Tusi regime during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. When some conflicts could not be resolved through nego-tiation, large-scale events or battles were the re-sult. Judging from current studies on every small or large battle between the central government and a Tusi regime, we can see that scholars always focus their studies on the background, process, result, historical influence and related evaluations. Up to now, no scholars have written a monograph of these big events closely related to the Tusi, which is doubtlessly a pity when it comes to Tusi studies. We think that three issues should be noticed while analyzing big events related to the Tusi:1 ) taking the overall situation into consideration; 2 ) having theoretical sight; and 3 ) having a theoretical awareness. 2 . Uncovering historical materials The historical materials are especially impor-tant for the study of the Tusi system or Tusi issues

  13. Applying GPS to enhance understanding of transport-related physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah M; Mummery, W Kerry

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review the utility of the global positioning system (GPS) in the study of health-related physical activity. The paper draws from existing literature to outline the current work performed using GPS to examine transport-related physical activity, with a focus on the relative utility of the approach when combined with geographic information system (GIS) and other data sources including accelerometers. The paper argues that GPS, especially when used in combination with GIS and accelerometery, offers great promise in objectively measuring and studying the relationship of numerous environmental attributes to human behaviour in terms of physical activity and transport-related activity. Limitations to the use of GPS for the purpose of monitoring health-related physical activity are presented, and recommendations for future avenues of research are discussed.

  14. National viewpoints: Views on strengthened safeguards from Australia, Cuba and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, I.; Saburido, E.F.; Mxakato-Diseko, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents views of Australia, Cuba and South Africa concerned with strengthened safeguards regime. Australia has been involved with the IAEA safeguards system since the first plenary meeting of the Conference on the IAEA Statute in 1956, joined the NPT in 1973 and began concluding bilateral safeguards agreements in 1977. Australia has the greatest respect for the IAEA coordinated efforts started in 1998 to strengthen and integrate the safeguards system. Cuba has always attached special importance to nuclear safeguards activities, recognizing their high priority as well as the important role they have in respect to international disarmament and security. South Africa supports the efforts in strengthening the safeguards activities and remains hopeful that the international community will address the challenges posed by the Trilateral Initiative between Russian federation, USA and IAEA in a mature and cooperative way

  15. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  16. Intensity, but not duration, of physical activities is related to cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Vanhees, Luc; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Aufdernkarnpe, Geert; Aleman, Andrie; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  17. Intensity, but not duration of physical activities is related to cognitive function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Aleman; Geert Aufdemkampe; H.J. Verhaar; W. Wendel-Vos; Drs. Maaike Angevaren; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees; W.M. Verschuren

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  18. Costs in Relation to Disability, Disease Activity, and Health-related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallman, Johan K; Eriksson, Jonas K; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    between-patient associations) and by generalized estimating equations (GEE), using all observations to also account for within-patient associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to costs. RESULTS: Regardless of the methodology (linear or GEE regression), HAQ was most closely related to both cost types, while work......OBJECTIVE: To compare how costs relate to disability, disease activity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-treated patients with RA in southern Sweden (n = 2341) were monitored 2005-2010. Health Assessment...... Questionnaire (HAQ), 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), and EQ-5D scores were linked to register-derived costs of antirheumatic drugs (excluding anti-TNF agents), patient care, and work loss from 30 days before to 30 days after each visit (n = 13,289). Associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to healthcare...

  19. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    小濵, 京子; 丸, 光惠; 前田, 留美; 久保田, 俊郎

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. Methods: A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. Results: The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had...

  20. Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.

  1. Proteasome activity related with the daily physical activity of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kang-Yun Lee,1,2,* Tzu-Tao Chen,1,* Ling-Ling Chiang,1,3 Hsiao-Chi Chuang,1,3 Po-Hao Feng,1,2 Wen-Te Liu,1–3 Kuan-Yuan Chen,1 Shu-Chuan Ho1,3 1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 3School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD is a debilitating disease that affects patients’ daily lives. One’s daily physical activity (DPA decreases due to multifactorial causes, and this decrease is correlated with a poor prognosis in COPD patients. Muscle wasting may at least be partly due to increased activity of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and apoptosis.Methods: This study investigated the relationships among DPA, circulating proteasome activity, and protein carbonyl in COPD patients and healthy subjects (HSs. This study included 57 participants (42 patients and 15 healthy subjects. Ambulatory DPA was measured using actigraphy, and oxygen saturation was measured with a pulse oximeter.Results: COPD patients had lower DPA, lower 6 min walking distance (6MWD, lower delta saturation pulse oxygenation (SpO2 during the 6MWT, and lower delta SpO2 during DPA than HSs. COPD patients had higher proteasome activity and protein carbonyl than HSs. Circulating proteasome activity was significantly negatively correlated with DPA (r=−0.568, P<0.05 in COPD patients, whereas delta SpO2 during the 6MWT was significantly positively correlated with proteasome activity (r=0.685, P<0.05 in HSs. Protein carbonyl was significantly negatively correlated with the body mass index (r=−0.318, P<0.05, mid-arm circumference (r=0.350, P<0.05, calf circumference (r=0.322, P<0.05, forced expiratory volume in the first second (r=−0.441, P<0

  2. Strengthening the security of radiation sources in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emi-Reynolds, G.; Banini, G.K.; Flecther, J.J.; Ennison, I.; Schandorf, C.

    1998-01-01

    Legislative instrument LI 1559 of 1993 established the Radiation Protection Board (RPB) as the National Competent Authority (NCA) on radiation matters in Ghana. The Board advises Government through the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission on matters relating to radiation safety, security of sources, sales, import and export, contamination in food and environment, among others. It has wide ranging regulatory power and works in association with country authorities. The regulations in place for controlling the movement and use of radioactive materials in Ghana are discussed. Accountability for radioactive materials especially for those which were brought in before the establishment of the RPB have been the focus of our discussion. The need to for intensify educational programs for the public on matters relating to effect of radiation on man and environment is recommended. Strengthening of regulatory control of sources and intensifying efforts against smuggling, unauthorised use and systems for notification on radioactive transport accidents are noted. (author)

  3. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlien Pieters

    Full Text Available Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g, platelet-containing (352 g and platelet-rich plasma (200 g were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly

  4. The Relation of Personality Traits Wth Depression Severity in Active and Non-Active Elderly Women in Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Aslankhani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of personality traits with depression in active and non – active elderly women in Tehran city. Methods & Materials: The present research is descriptive–correlation. For this purpose, 188 elderly women (94 active and 94 non - active elders in the age range of 63-82 in Tehran city availably selected as statistical sample. Measurement instrument were demographic questionnaire, Beck depression questionnaire and NEO personality traits questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic (mean and standard deviation and inferential statistic (independent t test, Pearson correlation and Enter multi variant Regression. Results: Results showed that there was significant difference in personality traits and depression between active women with non-active women elders (P<0.05. Also, the result showed that significant correlation between depression score on neuroticism, extroversion, openness and conscientiousness in active women elders and conscientiousness and openness in non-active women elders (P<0.05. The results of multi variant regression also indicated that openness and extroversion variants in active elders and conscientiousness variant in non-active elders have linear relationship with criteria variant (depression and can predict its changes. Conclusion: Based on results of present research, sport and physical activity can be afforded the increase of positive personality traits (for example extroversion and openness and decrease of depression in women elders.

  5. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: The role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley eMulder

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages, non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively, and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English. Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: The response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1 family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2 depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading

  6. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: the role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Kimberley; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, R. Harald

    2015-01-01

    We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members) are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages), non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively), and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English). Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: the response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1) family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2) depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading activation framework

  7. ANTIMYCOTIC ACTIVITY OF ACTIVATED ZINC PYRITHIONE IN RELATION TO MALASSEZIA IN PATIENTS WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Golysheva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article illustrates the results of a study whose purpose was to determine the antimycotic action of activated zinc pyrithione (AZP against Malassezia in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. 30 patients diagnosed with AD and aged 3 to 18 years were studied. A mycological study that aimed to identify Malassezia was done by the scraping method and skin surface collection using a cotton ball on a 1 cm2 area, with further yeast maintenance procedure in a selective environment. The activated zinc pyrithione in the form of cream was applied on children’s skin of the left shoulder and forearm twice a day. Nothing but a moisturizing cream was applied to the skin on the right shoulder and forearm. The samples for mycobiota were taken on both sides three times: before AZP treatment, 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. As a result of treatment, a two-fold reduction in skin colonization with Malassezia just in a week’s time (up to 102–105 КОЕ/cm2. The significant dynamics was observed in the modification of species diversity which got more sparse in skin areas where activated zinc pyrithione cream was applied. The follow-up results confirm that AZP has a moderate antimycotic effect. Key words: atopic dermatitis, treatment, activated zinc pyrithione, antimycotic action, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:58-62

  8. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We

  9. 29 CFR 779.209 - Vertical activities which are “related activities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structure such as the manufacturing, warehousing, and retailing of a particular product or products.” Where... business activities, such as a wholesaling and retailing or manufacturing and retailing, are interrelated... to carry out a business purpose of the manufacturing plant, retailing and manufacturing will be...

  10. Strengthening Hadfield steel welds by nitrogen alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, C.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening Hadfield steel weld repairs by introducing nitrogen into the weld region was proven to be feasible via two welding techniques. The first technique required a pure Hadfield steel filler material to be diffusion treated in a high pressure nitrogen gas environment, and subsequently used during tungsten inert gas welding with a pure argon shielding gas. The second technique used a Hadfield steel filler material, and a 10% nitrogen containing argon shielding gas during tungsten inert gas welding. Both techniques increased the yield strength, the hardening rate, and the ultimate strength of the weld region. Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy, we determined that the increased strength of the weld region resulted from a combination of nitrogen alloying and microstructural refinement

  11. Strengthening family coping resources: the feasibility of a multifamily group intervention for families exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Laurel J; Donohue, April; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Medoff, Deborah; Black, Maureen M

    2010-12-01

    Families exposed to urban poverty face a disproportionate risk of exposure to repeated trauma. Repeated exposures can lead to severe and chronic reactions in multiple family members with effects that ripple throughout the family system. Interventions for distressed families residing in traumatic contexts, such as low-income, urban settings are desperately needed. This report presents preliminary data in support of Strengthening Family Coping Resources, a trauma-focused, multifamily, skill-building intervention. Strengthening Family Coping Resources is designed for families living in traumatic contexts with the goal of reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in children and caregivers. Results from open trials suggest Strengthening Family Coping Resources is a feasible intervention with positive effects on children's symptoms of trauma-related distress.

  12. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al 2 O 3 , is very similar to the GlidCop trademark alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to ∼3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90 degrees C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of ±0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as ∼2 x 10 -9 s -1 . These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys

  13. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  14. Brownfield regeneration: Towards strengthening social cohesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Marta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In broader terms, the paper refers to the topic of brownfield regeneration, as one of the most complex mechanisms for sustainable spatial development. In addition to the fact that brownfield regeneration demands a variety of instruments, such as: tax subsidies, the change of land use ownership, soil remediation, planning regulative amendments, etc., the complexity of brownfield regeneration is primarily seen in a number of stakeholders participating in such a process. Thus, the paper focuses on the social aspect of brownfield regeneration - precisely, on researching the community role and reviewing the possibilities for achieving the 'local' interests in complex developmental processes. The main research hypothesis is that brownfield regeneration positively affects the creation of and strengthening the social cohesion in the areas close to the brownfield site. More precisley, the paper presents the ways towards strenghtening social cohesion in the initial phase of the brownfield regeneration process, as well as the effects of such a process in its operationalisation phase on social cohesion. The thesis is examined by two main parameters: 1 participation of local community, and 2 social costs and benefits of brownfield regeneration versus greenfield investment. The research results are presented in the form of argumentative essay. In fact, the critical overview of arguments for and against the main research hypothesis is provided based on the review of interdisciplinary literature in the domain of brownfield regeneration. Such research organisation ensures the identification and description of the measures needed for strengthening social cohesion, as an utmost goal of this research. The final research contribution is about offering the guidelines for similar methodological approach in urban research.

  15. [Strengthening of social participation of Turkish seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Jennifer; Stupp, Barbara

    2018-05-04

    Traditional municipal services are not successful at reaching Turkish seniors. Compared to native Germans Turkish seniors have a lower social participation. Do native language groups hosted by a German organization promote the social participation of Turkish seniors? How does social participation take place in the ZWAR networks (between work and retirement; a project to strengthen social participation of seniors) and which factors promote or reduce social participation? Qualitative structuring content analysis of two group discussions, which were based on guided interviews. The social participation of Turkish-speaking seniors was strengthened on three levels: (1) through regular meetings of the Turkish ethnic group social relationships were promoted and German language skills and other skills were improved. Through mutual sharing and understanding of the stressors specific to migration, emotional support was provided. The sharing of mutual cultural and linguistic backgrounds created a sense of community and meetings were perceived as an antidote to migrants' exhausting lives in German society. (2) At the organizational level, participation was promoted through extensive group events. Regardless of their cultural background all participants identified as equal ZWAR members. The ZWAR project functioned as an umbrella organization for participation in the intercultural context. (3) Participation in community events created contacts with community stakeholders and fostered volunteer work. Hence, participants were able to use their skills, and therefore broaden their horizons. Turkish ZWAR networks promoted the social participation of members because integration with their ethnic group reduced access barriers, broadened members' scopes of action, and created new opportunities for participation.

  16. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  17. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  18. Relationship between cancer-related fatigue and physical activity in inpatient cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Franziska; Catuogno, Silvio; Perseus, Josef M; Bloch, Wilhelm; Baumann, Freerk T

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is a serious problem for the majority of patients with cancer. In this context, several studies have shown benefits of physical activity during and following treatment. However, uncertainties remain regarding the optimal type and duration of physical activity. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between cancer-related fatigue and physical activity in the course of inpatient rehabilitation. Fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and physical activity (Freiburg Questionnaire of Physical Activity) were assessed in a consecutive series of 35 patients with cancer attending oncological inpatient rehabilitation during a six-month study period. The three-week rehabilitation program included daily exercise therapy consisting of aerobic endurance training, moderate resistance training, coordination exercises, relaxation training and individual physiotherapy. At discharge, a significant improvement in each dimension of cancer-related fatigue (p=0.001-0.003) and a significant increase of physical activity levels (p=0.001) were observed. A small, but significant negative correlation was found between cancer-related fatigue and the level of physical activity (R=-0.438, p=0.004). The largest effects were associated with a weekly energy expenditure of 3000 kcal through physical activity. The results support a non-linear dose-response relationship between cancer-related fatigue and physical activity. Since this is the first study providing specific exercise recommendations for an effective treatment of cancer-related fatigue in the context of inpatient rehabilitation, further research is required to validate the observed trends.

  19. Non-Relative Value Unit-Generating Activities Represent One-Fifth of Academic Neuroradiologist Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, M; Zeineh, M; Zaharchuk, G; Srivastava, A; Fischbein, N

    2016-07-01

    A neuroradiologist's activity includes many tasks beyond interpreting relative value unit-generating imaging studies. Our aim was to test a simple method to record and quantify the non-relative value unit-generating clinical activity represented by consults and clinical conferences, including tumor boards. Four full-time neuroradiologists, working an average of 50% clinical and 50% academic activity, systematically recorded all the non-relative value unit-generating consults and conferences in which they were involved during 3 months by using a simple, Web-based, computer-based application accessible from smartphones, tablets, or computers. The number and type of imaging studies they interpreted during the same period and the associated relative value units were extracted from our billing system. During 3 months, the 4 neuroradiologists working an average of 50% clinical activity interpreted 4241 relative value unit-generating imaging studies, representing 8152 work relative value units. During the same period, they recorded 792 non-relative value unit-generating study reviews as part of consults and conferences (not including reading room consults), representing 19% of the interpreted relative value unit-generating imaging studies. We propose a simple Web-based smartphone app to record and quantify non-relative value unit-generating activities including consults, clinical conferences, and tumor boards. The quantification of non-relative value unit-generating activities is paramount in this time of a paradigm shift from volume to value. It also represents an important tool for determining staffing levels, which cannot be performed on the basis of relative value unit only, considering the importance of time spent by radiologists on non-relative value unit-generating activities. It may also influence payment models from medical centers to radiology departments or practices. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. Inclusion of 5-[4-(1-dodecanoylpyridinium)]-10,15,20-triphenylporphine in supramolecular aggregates of cationic amphiphilic cyclodextrins: physicochemical characterization of the complexes and strengthening of the antimicrobial photosensitizing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Stefania; Jori, Giulio; Sortino, Salvatore; Stancanelli, Rosanna; Nikolov, Peter; Tognon, Giuseppe; Ricchelli, Fernanda; Mazzaglia, Antonino

    2009-09-14

    Recent findings suggest that visible light-promoted photooxidative processes mediated by sensitizers of appropriate chemical structure could represent a useful tool for properly addressing the problem of the increasing occurrence of infectious diseases caused by multiantibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens. The monocationic meso-substituted porphyrin 5-[4-(1-dodecanoylpyridinium)]-10,15,20-triphenyl-porphine (TDPyP) complexed into supramolecular aggregates of cationic amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrin (SC(6)NH(2)) (mean diameter = 20 nm) appeared to be endowed with favorable properties to act as a photosensitizing agent, including a very high quantum yield (Phi(Delta) = 0.90) for the generation of the highly reactive oxygen species, singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Although the yield of (1)O(2) generation was comparable to that obtained after TDPyP incorporation into cationic unilamellar liposomes of N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP) SC(6)NH(2)-bound TDPyP was more active than DOTAP-bound TDPyP in photosensitizing the inactivation of the Gram-positive methicillin-resistant bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). At variance with DOTAP-bound TDPyP, photoactivated SC(6)NH(2)-bound TDPyP was efficient also in photokilling Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli . These observations are in agreement with the well-known photobactericidal effect of positively charged porphyrin derivatives, which can be markedly enhanced after incorporation into carriers with multiple positive charges. In addition, transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that potentiation of the TDPyP-mediated photobactericidal effect by incorporation into SC(6)NH(2) is a consequence of the carrier's ability to promote an efficient crossing of the very tightly organized three-dimensional architecture of the bacterial outer wall by the embedded porphyrin so that a prompt interaction between the short-lived photogenerated (1)O(2) and the nearby

  1. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Yang, Heidi Y; Deshpande, Bhushan R; Katz, Jeffrey N; Collins, Jamie E

    2017-01-01

    Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work. We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0-74 min/week), medium (75-149 min/week) and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week). We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism. The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11), 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74) of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38) due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.5) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-7.2) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism. Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism.

  2. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    Full Text Available Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work.We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0-74 min/week, medium (75-149 min/week and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week. We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism.The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11, 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74 of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38 due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.5 fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-7.2 fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism.Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism.

  3. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heidi Y.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Collins, Jamie E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work. Methods We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0–74 min/week), medium (75–149 min/week) and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week). We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism. Results The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11), 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74) of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38) due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.5) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7–7.2) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism. Discussion Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism. PMID:28472084

  4. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.

  5. Tube manufacturing and characterization of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu; Mizuta, Shunji; Yoshitake, Tunemitsu; Okuda, Takanari; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Hagi, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Toshimi

    2000-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have an advantage in radiation resistance and superior creep rupture strength at elevated temperature due to finely distributed Y 2 O 3 particles in the ferritic matrix. Using a basic composition of low activation ferritic steel (Fe-12Cr-2W-0.05C), cladding tube manufacturing by means of pilger mill rolling and subsequent recrystallization heat-treatment was conducted while varying titanium and yttria contents. The recrystallization heat-treatment, to soften the tubes hardened due to cold-rolling and to subsequently improve the degraded mechanical properties, was demonstrated to be effective in the course of tube manufacturing. For a titanium content of 0.3 wt% and yttria of 0.25 wt%, improvement of the creep rupture strength can be attained for the manufactured cladding tubes. The ductility is also adequately maintained

  6. Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman-MacLaren Michelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress

  7. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the “Monitoring the Future” (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-d...

  8. The Investigation of Social Support and Physical Activity Related to Workplace among Female Teachers in Jolfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Sahranavard-Gargari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although active life style is one of the main determining factors of health, the amount of regular physical activities in women is less than in men and even this amount, decreases with aging. Family, friends, colleagues and society’s support, especially at workplace, have a positive effect on the amount of engagement in physical activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of social support and physical activity related to workplace among female teachers in Jolfa. Material and Methods: In this study, 230 female teachers working at different schools in Jolfa were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Required data were collected using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and social support questionnaire by Sallis et al. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The average of physical activity related to teachers’ work was about 20 minutes per week which is very low. Ten percent of them had light physical activity, 61.7% had moderate physical activity and 28.3% had heavy activity. The results of this study proved a significant relationship between social support and physical activity. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that a large percentage of the teachers do not have enough physical activity, having more physical activity and creating a social network through encouraging friends and colleagues to promote physical activity is emphasized.

  9. Frontal eye field sends delay activity related to movement, memory, and vision to the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M A; Wurtz, R H

    2001-04-01

    Many neurons within prefrontal cortex exhibit a tonic discharge between visual stimulation and motor response. This delay activity may contribute to movement, memory, and vision. We studied delay activity sent from the frontal eye field (FEF) in prefrontal cortex to the superior colliculus (SC). We evaluated whether this efferent delay activity was related to movement, memory, or vision, to establish its possible functions. Using antidromic stimulation, we identified 66 FEF neurons projecting to the SC and we recorded from them while monkeys performed a Go/Nogo task. Early in every trial, a monkey was instructed as to whether it would have to make a saccade (Go) or not (Nogo) to a target location, which permitted identification of delay activity related to movement. In half of the trials (memory trials), the target disappeared, which permitted identification of delay activity related to memory. In the remaining trials (visual trials), the target remained visible, which permitted identification of delay activity related to vision. We found that 77% (51/66) of the FEF output neurons had delay activity. In 53% (27/51) of these neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions. The modulation preceded saccades made into only part of the visual field, indicating that the modulation was movement-related. In some neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent where to move in general. In other neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions only in memory trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of working memory, or only in visual trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of visual attention. In 47% (24/51) of FEF output neurons, delay activity was unaffected by Go/Nogo instructions, which indicated that the activity was related to the visual stimulus. In some of these neurons, delay activity occurred in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent a

  10. Interest of active posturography to detect age-related and early Parkinson's disease-related impairments in mediolateral postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

    2014-11-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease display impairments of postural control most particularly in active, challenging conditions. The objective of the present study was to analyze early signs of disease-related and also age-related impairments in mediolateral body extension and postural control. Fifty-five participants (18 Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition, 18 healthy elderly control subjects, and 19 young adults) were included in the study. The participants performed a quiet stance task and two active tasks that analyzed the performance in mediolateral body motion: a limit of stability and a rhythmic weight shift task. As expected, the patients displayed significantly lower and slower body displacement (head, neck, lower back, center of pressure) than elderly control subjects when performing the two body excursion tasks. However, the behavioral variability in both tasks was similar between the groups. Under these active conditions, the patients showed significantly lower contribution of the hip postural control mechanisms compared with the elderly control subjects. Overall, the patients seemed to lower their performance in order to prevent a mediolateral postural instability. However, these patients, at an early stage of their disease, were not unstable in quiet stance. Complementarily, elderly control subjects displayed slower body performance than young adults, which therefore showed an additional age-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Overall, the study illustrated markers of age-related and Parkinson's disease impairments in mediolateral postural control that may constrain everyday activities in elderly adults and even more in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Using the IRRS to Strengthen Regulatory Competence in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, Ireland underwent an IRRS (Integrated Regulatory Review Service) review mission. The purpose of the mission was to review Ireland’s radiation and nuclear safety regulatory framework and activities against the relevant IAEA safety standards, to report on the regulatory effectiveness and to exchange information and experience in the areas covered by the IRRS. The review mission was well-timed as there had been recent changes in the regulatory infrastructure with the merger of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2014, as well as the upcoming implementation of the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive. The key objectives of the mission were to enhance the national legal, governmental and regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety, and national arrangements for emergency preparedness and response. The agreed scope of the review covered all relevant facilities and activities regulated in Ireland and also included medical exposures and public exposure to radon. In advance of the mission, Ireland completed a process of self-assessment and review. This process identified strengths and weaknesses in the national regulatory framework compared with the international standards. In addition to the value of having Ireland’s radiation protection framework peer reviewed by senior international experts, the mission helped to further strengthen links between all the national bodies (government, licensees, regulatory) with a role in the regulation of radiation safety. The findings from the IRRS review team’s objective evaluation of Ireland’s regulatory infrastructure are being used to prioritise actions for strengthening the regulatory framework, to provide input into the transposition of the Euratom BSS, and to support the revision of the national emergency plan for nuclear accidents. It is planned to have addressed the findings of the IRRS mission in advance of a follow up

  12. Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun M. Hiwotu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories. Objectives: This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges. Methods: The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hoursfor cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star ratinglevels. Results: Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01; and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01,respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% ofthe first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified. Conclusion: Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities.

  13. The Southwest Oregon Research Project: Strengthening Coquille Sovereignty with Archival Research and Gift Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younker, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A personal and tribal history outlining the steps that the Coquille took to strengthen the claim to tribal sovereignty through investment in tribal education, active participation in academic research, and the reestablishment of relationships through gift giving is presented. Coquille scholars initiated the tribe's most successful endeavors, the…

  14. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 4...

  15. Gender differences in physical activity, sedentary behavior, and their relation to body composition in active Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Julia Aparecida Devide; Macedo da Costa, Teresa Helena

    2009-01-01

    Body weight and composition are determined by genotype, environment, and energy balance. Physical activity or sedentary behavior have different associations with body weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass, a relationship that is not clear in adolescents. The aim of this study was to test the associations between gender, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body composition in physically active adolescents. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured in 326 physically active boys and girls age 11 to 15 years. All subjects answered a questionnaire assessing their usual daily activities for the last month. Time spent on each activity was used to estimate the physical activity level (PAL). PAL was associated with body composition after adjustment for age and maturation, with differences between genders. For boys, PAL was positively and significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat-free mass index (beta=0.14 and 0.15, respectively). For girls, PAL was negatively and significantly associated with BMI and fat mass index (beta=-0.11 and -0.75, respectively). Sedentary behavior, expressed by hours of TV, videogame, and computer use, was not associated with any body-composition outcome for either gender. The accumulated amount of physical activity, but not of sedentary behavior, was related to body composition in active adolescents.

  16. The Role Of Sharia Banking In Strengthening The Micro Small And Medium Enterprises In North Maluku Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Abas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to analyze the role of Sharia banking in strengthening the micro small and medium enterprises UMKM in North Maluku Indonesia. This research is a qualitative research that is analytical descriptive. This qualitative research is actually a study of economic institutions acceleration mainly Islamic banking finance institutions in North Maluku Province in financial intermediation activities such as financing partnerships with UMKM in terms of financing to support the strengthening of regional and national economies. The data sources of study were obtained from competent informants and directly involved with the activities of their respective institutions among others officials in the Sharia Banking officials in the ranks of the Cooperatives and UMKM service the elements of business entities of the UMKM group and related stakeholders in North Maluku province. The results show that the role of financial intermediary of Sharia banking in North Maluku Province can accelerate the sector of UMKM as a pillar of the societys economy. Therefore the business capital of Sharia banking is a very basic requirement for UMKM sector to exist in its economic business in North Maluku.

  17. Modeling of crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks is a problem that has not yet been addressed properly. To investigate it, a cracked half-infinite disk of concrete is strengthened with a linear elastic material bonded to the surface, and analyzed using two different finite element modeling...... instead of 3D calculations to predict the response of a structure and that it opens up for simpler evaluation of strengthened concrete structures using the finite element method....

  18. Strengthening Institutions and Enterprises of Cooperative and Their Impact on Members’ Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widiyati Soemodipoero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Revitalization of Cooperative interpreted as a series of activities undertaken to reorganize the institutional and strengthen cooperative efforts in accordance with the values and principles of cooperatives. Cooperative serves as a tool to equalize the concentration of control of economic assets so that the weak economy may have opportunities to enhance economic independence. The purpose of this study is to explore the link between the level of member participation and human resource competencies to the strengthening of the institutional and cooperative efforts as well as its impact on member assets. This research used logistic regression analysis and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The results showed that the level of participation of members and managers of Human Resources competencies significantly affect institutional strengthening and cooperative efforts. Different test shows that there is a difference between financial capital and human capital before and after become a member of the cooperative.

  19. Strengthening rehabilitation services in Indonesia: A brief situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Boya; Setyono, Garry Rahardian; Defi, Irma Ruslina; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2018-04-18

    People with disability (PWD) in Indonesia are often neglected by society. Improving their life situation towards full participation in society is crucial. As a health strategy, rehabilitation can improve func-tioning, quality of life and participation in society. However, rehabilitation services in Indonesia need improvement. Making a situation analysis of rehabilitation services and their provision in the country is a pre-requisite to taking any action towards improvement. This paper compiles available data related to disability and rehabilitation services in Indonesia, using the Rehabilitation Services Assessment Tool (RSAT) as a framework. Gaps in provision were analysed, resulting in the compilation of a list of generic recommendations to improve rehabilitation services in the country. Indonesia faces many challenges in rehabilitation services, including the health workforce and the provision of services. This situation analysis and list of generic recommendations may be used in further discussions with relevant stakeholders in the country to develop a national strategy to strengthen rehabilitation services.

  20. Dispersion strengthening of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1970-01-01

    The true stress-true strain curves at room temperature and at 400°C were determined for various types of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products containing from 0.2 to 4.7 weight per cent of aluminium oxide. The effect of particles on the initial flow stress and the flow stress for 0.2% offset at room...... temperature and at 400°C is in agreement with Orowan's theory. The increase in flow stress at room temperature for strain values below 3 per cent was related to the plastic strain by the equation σ-σoy=k1ε 1/2, where σoy is the initial flow stress and where k1 increases for increasing volume fraction...... and decreasing particle size of the dispersed particles. A general expression for k1 was derived for the relationship between the dislocation density and the strain in dispersion-strengthened products...

  1. A specific metabolic pattern related to the hallucinatory activity in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huret, J.D.; Martinot, J.L.; Lesur, A.; Mazoyer, B.; Pappata, S.; Syrota, A.; Baron, J.C.; Lemperiere, T.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and PEI study using 18 F - fluorodesoxyglucose for measuring local cerebral glucose metabolism with the aim of showing a specific pattern related to the hallucinatory activity, is presented in schizophrenic patients all experiencing hallucinations or pseudo-halluccinations

  2. ict and quality of teaching–learning related activities in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irene

    (ICT) enhance teaching learning related activities in primary schools in Ogoja education zone of Cross. River State ... A sample of six hundred and twenty ... Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that ... video conferencing).

  3. Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: pathophysiologic aspects and their relation with disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: pathophysiologic aspects and their relation with disease activity Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). IBD patients frequently complain of fatigue, and a substantial proportion of the patients have

  4. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  5. CFD Activity at Aerojet Related to Seals and Fluid Film Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, George E.

    1991-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) activities related to seals and fluid film bearings are presented. Among the topics addressed are the following: Aerovisc Numeric and its capabilities; Recent Seal Applications; and Future Code Developments.

  6. Can action research strengthen district health management and improve health workforce performance? A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, C; Huss, R; Mirzoev, T; Elsey, H; Baine, S O; Aikins, M; Kamuzora, P; Bosch-Capblanch, X; Raven, J; Wyss, K; Green, A; Martineau, T

    2013-08-30

    The single biggest barrier for countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to scale up the necessary health services for addressing the three health-related Millennium Development Goals and achieving Universal Health Coverage is the lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce. This deficit needs to be addressed both by training more new health personnel and by improving the performance of the existing and future health workforce. However, efforts have mostly been focused on training new staff and less on improving the performance of the existing health workforce. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the protocol for the PERFORM project and reflect on the key challenges encountered during the development of this methodology and how they are being overcome. The overall aim of the PERFORM project is to identify ways of strengthening district management in order to address health workforce inadequacies by improving health workforce performance in SSA. The study will take place in three districts each in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda using an action research approach. With the support of the country research teams, the district health management teams (DHMTs) will lead on planning, implementation, observation, reflection and redefinition of the activities in the study. Taking into account the national and local human resource (HR) and health systems (HS) policies and practices already in place, 'bundles' of HR/HS strategies that are feasible within the context and affordable within the districts' budget will be developed by the DHMTs to strengthen priority areas of health workforce performance. A comparative analysis of the findings from the three districts in each country will add new knowledge on the effects of these HR/HS bundles on DHMT management and workforce performance and the impact of an action research approach on improving the effectiveness of the DHMTs in implementing these interventions. Different challenges were faced during the development of

  7. Monolithic Approach to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nassau Stern Company is investigating an approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) aluminum in bulk rather than powder form. The approach...

  8. Evaluating the performance of skewed prestressed concrete bridge after strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Ali Fadhil; Zonglin, Wang

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this paper are to explain the application of repairing and strengthening methods on the damaged members of the bridge structure, to analyze the static and dynamic structural response under static and dynamic loads after strengthening, and to evaluate the structural performance after application of strengthening method. The repairing and strengthening methods which are used in this study include treatment of the cracks, thickening the web of box girder along the bridge length and adding internal pre-stressing tendons in the thickening web, and construct reinforced concrete cross beams (diaphragms) between two box girders. The results of theoretical analysis of static and dynamic structural responses after strengthening show that the tensile stresses are decreased and become less than the allowable limit values in the codes. The values of vertical deflection are decreased after strengthening. The values of natural frequencies after strengthening are increased, indicating that the strengthening method is effective to reduce the vibration of the bridge structure. Therefore, the strengthening methods are effective to improve the bearing capacity and elastic working state of the bridge structure and to increase the service life of the bridge structure.

  9. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob

    2005-01-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel

  10. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Ellen; Warden, Stuart J; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y K James

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening, and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (P control period (P > 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (P = 0.04), but not after the control period. A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  11. A Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Function-Related Risk Factors for Falls among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. Ellen; Warden, Stuart J.; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y.K. James

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. Design This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1-T2 and T2-T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. Results All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (p 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (p = 0.04), but not after the control period. Conclusions A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26829081

  12. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    outstanding research that has had a clear impact on improving policy decisions practice or discourse, either in the public or private sectors .” 6. What...2017 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members 433 | OPA Frequently Asked Questions 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations...OPA), has been conducting surveys of gender issues for the active duty military since 1988. RSSC uses scientific state of the art statistical

  13. Strengthening The Students' Value of Diversity in Learning in Global Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnadi Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Religious education as the basis of formation of students is basically a form of internalization of the value of faith and devotion (Imtaq through the vehicle of school education. The importance of the Imtaq coaching, because religious education paying attention to all aspects of student potential (Supriyadi, 2004: 123, which includes manners (inner strength, character, mind (intellect, and body (Dewantara, 1977; Cognitive, affective, and psychomor (Blomm et al., 1981; Thinking, acting, and feeling (Gable, 1986; Smart and good (Lickona, 1992; Intelligence quotiont, emotional quotion, and spiritual quotiont (Agustian, 2001, to be a faithful and devout human being to God Almighty, to be noble, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent and to be a democratic and responsible citizen (UUSPN Number 20 Year 2003, Article 3. The implementation of religious education in schools as an effort to develop the values and attitudes of religious students, will be effective when using an integrative approach. Such approaches include: (1 creation of a school culture which is conducive to the growth of Imtaq, (2 Imtaq material integration into other non-religious education subjects, (3 extracurricular activities that contain Imtaq, and (4 Cultivate school cooperation with parents and community in the guidance of Imtaq students. Strengthening students' religious values in schools can occur from: (1 creation of school culture, which includes school discipline, learning facilities, and teacher competence; (2 learning process of religious education; (3 learning result competence; And (4 the religiosity of students in the community related to belief, religious practices, and religious behavior (the consequences. This article is the main idea of strengthening the values of religious students as an effort to establish noble character and enrichment of information for observers of religious education in schools.

  14. The role of body-related self-conscious emotions in motivating women's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Kowalski, Kent C; Wilson, Philip M; Mack, Diane E; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.

  15. African American Youths with Internalizing Difficulties: Relation to Social Support and Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Social support and positive activity involvement are considered protective factors that can help offset the risks for youths living in impoverished areas. This study investigated whether insufficient social support and activity involvement are related to internalizing difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.…

  16. rCBF activation studies and neuronal circuitry related to vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, BM

    Three principles of neuronal interaction within cortically distributed networks are discussed PET-rCBF activation methods provide an opportunity to acquire insight in the distribution of functionally related areas of the human brain in vivo. The distinction of visual areas, activated by either

  17. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  18. Evolution of public relations in the activity of organizations of ukrainian socio-cultural sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євгенія Олегівна Кияниця

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the evolution of public relations in various fields of life including socio-cultural and found creative and social potential of this activity. Analysis of historical experience of using the PR-technologies in the field of sociocultural institutions promotes understanding of importance of this activity for the efficient work of organizations of this sphere

  19. Estrus Traits Derived from Activity Measurements are Heritable and Closely Related to Conventional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed Ismael Sayed; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders

    This study was aimed at assessing the genetic parameters for fertility-related traits, comparing the interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) to physical activity traits, especially days from calving to first high activity, DFHA. Data from commercial Holstein herds included insemination ...

  20. Leadership Behaviour of College Students in Relation to Their Leisure Time Activities in College Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the Leadership behaviour of college students in relation to their Leisure time activities in college life. In this study, the researcher wants to see the contribution of leisure time activities in developing the qualities of leadership of college students. The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship…

  1. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  2. Why do children think they get discomfort related to daily activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jemma; Straker, Leon; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Children commonly report musculoskeletal discomfort related to different activities such as computer use, playing electronic games, watching TV, reading, and performing physical and hand intensive activities. Discomfort can result in disability and is a strong predictor of future discomfort in adulthood. Adult beliefs regarding discomfort can affect the level of disability and are modifiable. Children's beliefs regarding discomfort could potentially be modified to minimise disability related to musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to describe children's beliefs about why they experience musculoskeletal discomfort, both in general and related to specific activities. Eighty eight school children completed questionnaires on frequency and usual duration of nine activities, whether they had felt discomfort and what they believed was the cause of any discomfort in relation to those activities. The most common activity was TV watching, and most activities were performed for 1 hour or shorter. Bad posture and doing too much of a certain activity were the most common beliefs regarding reasons for discomfort. This study shows that children are developing beliefs that tend to reflect scientific knowledge about risk factors. These beliefs could be incorporated into preventative health interventions.

  3. Hungarian national report on activities related to operator support systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorjan, F.; Lux, I.; Vegh, J.; Vegh, E.

    1996-01-01

    Computerized operator support systems and related activities in Hungary are summarized. Systems developed in the past, presently developed and used as well as being in a planning phase are briefly described. Activity of the Hungarian participants in the framework of the co-ordinated project on operator support systems for nuclear power plant is summarized. (author). 55 refs

  4. Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

  5. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...

  6. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components in employees of a financial institution

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Madelein; Wilders, Cilas J.; Moss, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was determined by using the Health Risk Assessment (HRA) and Monitored Health Risk (MHM). Assessment included a physical activity, diabetes risk and cardiovascular risk question...

  7. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Yoshio; Oka Koichiro; Shibata Ai; Muraoka Isao

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-age...

  8. Combating Corruption Relates Money Laundering Activities in Indonesia: a Hope and Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Handoyo, Sigit

    2008-01-01

    Corruption in Indonesia has become a culture and systemic so that it could not be eradicated in the short period of time. As corruption is closely related to money laundering activities, it is not impossible that combating corruption also means combating money laun-dering activities. PPATK (Pusat Pengkajian dan Analisis Transaksi Keuangan) as the Indone-sia's FIU (Financial Intelligence Unit) has hard works to reveal those money laundering and corruptions activities. Beside its obstacles, PPA...

  9. Combating Corruption Relates Money Laundering Activities in Indonesia: A Hope and Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Handoyo, Sigit

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in Indonesia has become a culture and systemic so that it could not be eradicated in the short period of time. As corruption is closely related to money laundering activities, it is not impossible that combating corruption also means combating money laun-dering activities. PPATK (Pusat Pengkajian dan Analisis Transaksi Keuangan) as the Indone-sia’s FIU (Financial Intelligence Unit) has hard works to reveal those money laundering and corruptions activities. Beside its obstacles, PPA...

  10. Physical activity is related to quality of life in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Polly S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL in clinical populations, but less is known whether this relationship exists in older men and women who are healthy. Thus, this study determined if physical activity was related to HRQL in apparently healthy, older subjects. Methods Measures were obtained from 112 male and female volunteers (70 ± 8 years, mean ± SD recruited from media advertisements and flyers around the Norman, Oklahoma area. Data was collected using a medical history questionnaire, HRQL from the Medical Outcomes Survey short form-36 questionnaire, and physical activity level from the Johnson Space Center physical activity scale. Subjects were separated into either a higher physically active group (n = 62 or a lower physically active group (n = 50 according to the physical activity scale. Results The HRQL scores in all eight domains were significantly higher (p 0.05 between the two groups. Conclusion Healthy older adults who regularly participated in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for more than one hour per week had higher HRQL measures in both physical and mental domains than those who were less physically active. Therefore, incorporating more physical activity into the lifestyles of sedentary or slightly active older individuals may improve their HRQL.

  11. Physical activity is related to quality of life in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, Luke S; Longfors, Jessica; Fjeldstad, Anette S; Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Schank, Bob; Nickel, Kevin J; Montgomery, Polly S; Gardner, Andrew W

    2006-06-30

    Physical activity is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) in clinical populations, but less is known whether this relationship exists in older men and women who are healthy. Thus, this study determined if physical activity was related to HRQL in apparently healthy, older subjects. Measures were obtained from 112 male and female volunteers (70 +/- 8 years, mean +/- SD) recruited from media advertisements and flyers around the Norman, Oklahoma area. Data was collected using a medical history questionnaire, HRQL from the Medical Outcomes Survey short form-36 questionnaire, and physical activity level from the Johnson Space Center physical activity scale. Subjects were separated into either a higher physically active group (n = 62) or a lower physically active group (n = 50) according to the physical activity scale. The HRQL scores in all eight domains were significantly higher (p social functioning (92 +/- 18 vs. 83 +/- 19, p = 0.040). General health, role-emotional, and mental health were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the two groups. Healthy older adults who regularly participated in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for more than one hour per week had higher HRQL measures in both physical and mental domains than those who were less physically active. Therefore, incorporating more physical activity into the lifestyles of sedentary or slightly active older individuals may improve their HRQL.

  12. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Kyoko; Maru, Mitsue; Maeda, Rumi; Kubota, Toshiro

    2015-09-30

    To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had severe fatigue. The participants had higher physical activity levels compared with the findings in previous studies, and reported an average of 40 min/day of moderate to vigorous activity. Moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity were derived from essential social activities rather than leisure time exercise. There were no significant differences in physical activity levels between the lower and higher CRF groups. Our study results suggested that the higher level of physical activity in daily living itself had no relationship with decreasing CRF among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. It would be better to focus on cognitive and psychological factors before introducing physical activity programs and be careful of the characteristics of the participants' physical activity among this population in daily basis.

  13. Relations among physical activity patterns, lifestyle activities, and fundamental movement skills for Finnish students in grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jutila, Ari; Virtanen, Petri; Watt, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure.

  14. Strengthening the Feeling of Identity and Self-esteem Through Group Music and Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    than 4 in the years 2008-2010. I will present two case studies concerning two of the participants taking part in these group experiences. Focus will be on developments in the self-reported problem area of `strengthening the feeling of identity and self-esteem", which both clients shose among different...... understanding). I will present selected excerpts of the client´s processes such as the music they listen to, mandalas, narratives and their closing self reported outcome of the treatment. I will relate this to the theory model and show how strengthening of the feeling of identity and self-esteem through Group...

  15. Dislocation-based plasticity and strengthening mechanisms in sub-20 nm lamellar structures in pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The tensile properties and the deformation microstructure of pearlitic steel (0.8 wt % C) have been quantified in wires drawn to strains in the range from 3.7 to 5.4, having a flow stress in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 GPa. With increasing strain the interlamellar spacing (ILS) decreases from about...... mechanism in the wire and three strengthening mechanisms are applied: boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening with their relative contributions to the total flow stress which change as the strain is increased. Based on linear additivity good correspondence between...

  16. Study on Anti-seismic Strengthening of the Ancient Stone Archway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese ancient stone archways are in flat structure. And joints of their members are of half tenons and mortises. Under the influence of the earthquake, the resisting ability of archway’s uneven sides is relatively poor and the relevant members have little reliable joints. This paper is to analyze seismic strengthening feasibility of Tiantai mountain stone archway which is damaged from the earthquake and to research on the aspects of the loading mode, structure layout and soundness. On the premise of guaranteeing the authenticity and beauty, we use earthquake damaging mechanism of stone archways and the modern anti-seismic structure designing theory and modern building materials. We also follow the way of the modern construction technology and ancient construction and strengthen the anti-seismic way of the resisting ability of Tiantai mountain stone archway’s uneven sides and joints of tenons and mortises. The best anti-seismic strengthening schemes are put forward as well.

  17. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-08

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. "Good child" motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA.

  18. The MicroActive project: automatic detection of disease-related molecular cell activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuberg, Liv; Mielnik, Michal; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Voitel, Jörg; Gulliksen, Anja; Solli, Lars; Karlsen, Frank; Bayer, Tobias; Schönfeld, Friedhelm; Drese, Klaus; Keegan, Helen; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John; Riegger, Lutz; Koltay, Peter

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the MicroActive project is to develop an instrument for molecular diagnostics. The instrument will first be tested for patient screening for a group of viruses causing cervical cancer. Two disposable polymer chips with reagents stored on-chip will be inserted into the instrument for each patient sample. The first chip performs sample preparation of the epithelial cervical cells while mRNA amplification and fluorescent detection takes place in the second chip. More than 10 different virus markers will be analysed in one chip. We report results on sub-functions of the amplification chip. The sample is split into smaller droplets, and the droplets move in parallel channels containing different dried reagents for the different analyses. We report experimental results on parallel droplet movement control using one external pump only, combined with hydrophobic valves. Valve burst pressures are controlled by geometry. We show droplet control using valves with burst pressures between 800 and 4500 Pa. We also monitored the re-hydration times for two necessary dried reagents. After sample insertion, uniform concentration of the reagents in the droplet was reached after respectively 60 s and 10 min. These times are acceptable for successful amplification. Finally we have shown positive amplification of HPV type 16 using dried enzymes stored in micro chambers.

  19. The effects of isolated ankle strengthening and functional balance training on strength, running mechanics, postural control and injury prevention in novice runners: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Emery, Carolyn A; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-12-04

    Risk factors have been proposed for running injuries including (a) reduced muscular strength, (b) excessive joint movements and (c) excessive joint moments in the frontal and transverse planes. To date, many running injury prevention programs have focused on a "top down" approach to strengthen the hip musculature in the attempt to reduce movements and moments at the hip, knee, and/or ankle joints. However, running mechanics did not change when hip muscle strength increased. It could be speculated that emphasis should be placed on increasing the strength of the ankle joint for a "ground up" approach. Strengthening of the large and small muscles crossing the ankle joint is assumed to change the force distribution for these muscles and to increase the use of smaller muscles. This would be associated with a reduction of joint and insertion forces, which could have a beneficial effect on injury prevention. However, training of the ankle joint as an injury prevention strategy has not been studied. Ankle strengthening techniques include isolated strengthening or movement-related strengthening such as functional balance training. There is little knowledge about the efficacy of such training programs on strength alteration, gait or injury reduction. Novice runners will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: an isolated ankle strengthening group (strength, n = 40), a functional balance training group (balance, n = 40) or an activity-matched control group (control, n = 40). Isokinetic strength will be measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Running kinematics and kinetics will be assessed using 3D motion analysis and a force platform. Postural control will be assessed by quantifying the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure trace during single leg stance on a force platform. The change pre- and post-training in isokinetic strength, running mechanics, and postural control variables will be compared following the interventions

  20. How to Strengthen the Connection between Research and Teaching in Undergraduate University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Mariken (G.MF.); Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Van Der Rijst, Roeland M.; Van Driel, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how to strengthen the research-teaching nexus in university education, in particular, how to improve the relation between policy and practice. The focus is on courses and curricula for undergraduate students. From a review of policy documents and research literature, it appeared that the research-teaching nexus can be shaped…

  1. 76 FR 16443 - Proposed Information Collection: Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Collection: Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of... Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of the United States.'' The draft report reviews key issues related to freshwater resource data and climate change and identifies next...

  2. Strengthening links between waterfowl research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anthony J.; Eadie, John M.; Howerter, David; Johnson, Fred A.; Nichols, James; Runge, Michael C.; Vrtiska, Mark; Williams, Byron K.

    2018-01-01

    Waterfowl monitoring, research, regulation, and adaptive planning are leading the way in supporting science-informed wildlife management. However, increasing societal demands on natural resources have created a greater need for adaptable and successful linkages between waterfowl science and management. We presented a special session at the 2016 North American Duck Symposium, Annapolis, Maryland, USA on the successes and challenges of linking research and management in waterfowl conservation, and we summarize those thoughts in this commentary. North American waterfowl management includes a diversity of actions including management of harvest and habitat. Decisions for waterfowl management are structured using decision analysis by incorporating stakeholder values into formal objectives, identifying research relevant to objectives, integrating scientific knowledge, and choosing an optimal strategy with respect to objectives. Recently, the consideration of the value of information has been proposed as a means to evaluate the utility of research designed to meet objectives. Despite these advances, the ability to conduct waterfowl research with direct management application may be increasingly difficult in research institutions for several reasons including reduced funding for applied research and the lower perceived value of applied versus theoretical research by some university academics. In addition, coordination between researchers and managers may be logistically constrained, and communication may be ineffective between the 2 groups. Strengthening these links would help develop stronger and more coordinated approaches for the conservation of waterfowl and the wetlands upon which they depend.

  3. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  4. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, David G.; Allen, Douglas; Lee, Richard H.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced photon source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail than has ben possible to date. The beam is produced by using third- generation insertion devices in a 7-GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1,104 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high-power devices is very high, and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm$_2). Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop, a dispersion-strengthened copper, is the desired design material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Strengthening Crypto-1 Cipher Against Algebraic Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Afianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several studies addressed the problem of data security in Mifare Classic. One of its weaknesses is the low random number quality. This causes SAT solver attacks to have lower complexity. In order to strengthen Crypto-1 against SAT solver attacks, a modification of the feedback function with better cryptographic properties is proposed. It applies a primitive polynomial companion matrix. SAT solvers cannot directly attack the feedback shift register that uses the modified Boolean feedback function, the register has to be split into smaller groups. Experimental testing showed that the amount of memory and CPU time needed were highest when attacking the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the original filter function. In addition, another modified Crypto-1, using the modified feedback function and a modified filter function, had the lowest percentage of revealed variables. It can be concluded that the security strength and performance of the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the modified filter function are better than those of the original Crypto-1.

  6. Austenite strengthening and softening during hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushinskij, L.I.; Vlasov, V.S.; Kazimirova, I.E.; Tokarev, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    Processes of formation of austenite structure of 20 and 12Kh18N10T steels during hot deformation and postdeformation isothermal holdings have been investigated by the methods of analysis of curves of hot deformation, high-temperature metallography and light microscopy. Deformation has been exercised by extention in vacuum with average 4x10 -2 s -1 rate. Deformation temperatures of steel 20 are 930 and 1000 deg C, of steel 12Kh18N10T - 1100 deg C. It is stated that dynamic recrystallization takes place in both investigated steels during hot deformation. In the carbonic steel it is developed by shifting sections of high-angular boundaries, flow stress in this case remains constant. Recrystallization is developed by subgrain coalescence in austenite steel, that brings about preservation of increased defect density in recrystallized volumes. As a result strengthening of steel is continued up to fracture during the increase of the deformation degree. Postdeformation weakening of 12Kh18N10T steel is slowed down as compared with weakening of carbonic steel [ru

  7. Strengthening foundation phase teacher education through mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerryn Dixon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a multidimensional mentorship model implemented between lecturers from the foundation phase at the Wits School of Education and four master’s students from the University of Limpopo, as part of the Departments of Education’s research initiative to strengthen foundation phase teacher education. Using three critical incidents, we interrogate mentors’ experiences of their mentoring practices. Two sets of literature, mentoring and social capital are used as a lens for analysing these incidents. Initial findings suggest the relationship has moved from the initiation to cultivation stage (Kram, 1985; Ragins & Kram, 2007. But, cultural preconceptions, implicit assumptions and institutional practices can impede or enhance information flows and trust. It is argued that weak ties characterised by mentors’ heterogeneity is a strength that has resulted in growing professional development. Through a process of reflection-on-practice, we have begun to think of ourselves as a fledging community of practice. This opens up possibilities for the larger research project.

  8. Feeling full and being full : how gastric content relates to appetite, food properties and neural activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This thesis aimed to further determine how gastric content relates to subjective experiences regarding appetite, how this relation is affected by food properties and whether this is visible in neural activation changes.

    Method: This was studied using

  9. IAEA Activities in the Area of Fast Reactors and Related Fuels and Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, S.; Basak, U.; Dyck, G.; Inozemtsev, V.; Toti, A.; Zeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: • The IAEA role to support fast reactors and associated fuel cycle development programmes; • Main IAEA activities on fast reactors and related fuel and fuel cycle technology; • Main IAEA deliverables on fast reactors and related fuel and fuel cycle technology

  10. 77 FR 65702 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Form Number I-730...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ...-0037] Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Form Number I-730... request. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if... households. Form I- 730 will be used by an asylee or refugee to file on behalf of his or her spouse and/or...

  11. 77 FR 38307 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative...: Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee...

  12. DINFOS: Bibliography of Theses and Reports Related to Military Information Activities; Volume V, May 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN. Defense Information School.

    This bibliography lists theses and research reports related to military information activities. The listings are grouped according to the following subject categories: journalism, public and internal information, mass communications, political science, international communications, sociology, history, education, public relations, leadership,…

  13. Brain activity and cognitive transition during childhood: A longitudinal event-related brain potential study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauder, J.E.A.; Molenaar, P.C.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relation between brain activation and cognitive development using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and a longitudinal design. 5 yr old females performed a visual recognition ('oddball') task and an experimental analogue of the Piagetian conservation of liquid quantity task At three

  14. Mothers' Reading-Related Activities at Home and Learning to Read during Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Parrila, Rauno; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates how the reading-related activities of mothers at home relate to the development of reading skills among their kindergarten children. A total of 1,529 children (5-to-6-year-olds) were tested on word reading twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of a kindergarten year. The mothers of the children (n =…

  15. Stereotype activation is unintentional: Behavioural and event-related potenials evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Ya-Ping; Tan, Chen-Hao; Zhao, Xiang-Xia; Liu, Yong-He; Lin, Chong-De

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a priming Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether stereotype activation is unintentional. Priming conditions (priming/no-priming) and the relationship between priming and target (consistent/inconsistent/no-relation) were the independent variables; accuracy, reaction time and N400 amplitude were used as dependent variables. The reaction time revealed that stereotype activation is, to some extent, unintentional. Furthermore, the event-related potenial (ERP) results showed that N400 amplitude was larger for inconsistent conditions than for consistent conditions. This result supported the notion that stereotype activation is an unintentional and automatic process. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  17. Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien M Toxopeus

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12 and healthy subjects (N = 18. In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account

  18. Experimental study on tunnel lining joints temporarily strengthened by SMA bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bo; Ou, Yunlong

    2014-01-01

    Shield tunnels have been widely used in city metros all over the world. During the long-term period of the metro operation, the joints of shield tunnel’s neighboring segments may degrade due to some environmental factors, leading to the increasing of the joint opening and some resulting adverse consequences. In this paper, a temporary strengthening method by using shape memory alloy (SMA) bolts is proposed and experimentally studied for the joints of neighboring segments, and a revised electric heating method which suits with the strengthening method is presented and experimentally validated for the SMA bolts. The purpose of the proposed temporary strengthening method is to create favorable conditions for the following permanent strengthening. Test results show that: (a) for the joints of shield tunnel’s neighboring segments, the strengthening method can effectively reduce the joint opening, joint deflection, concrete strain in joint’s compression zone, and strain of joint’s steel bolts; (b) the revised electric heating method can be used to heat the SMA rod to a temperature higher than the SMA’s austenite finish temperature quickly, and the average heating rate related to Type 2 inner resistance element is larger than that related to Type 1 inner resistance element; and (c) the reduction percentages of the joint opening increment, joint deflection, concrete strain in joint’s compression zone, and strain of joint’s steel bolts for Specimen I are all larger than those for Specimen II, implying that the less the joint opening is, the more significant the strengthening effect is. (paper)

  19. Objectively measured active travel and uses of activity-friendly neighborhood resources: Does change in use relate to change in physical activity and BMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara B. Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies examine how objectively measured use of local physical activity resources contributes to objectively-measured healthy physical activity and weight changes over time. We utilized objective measures to test whether changes in active travel and uses of three physical activity (PA resources–parks, recreation centers, and transit– related to changes in PA and BMI. Adults (n=536 in Salt Lake City, UT, wore accelerometer and GPS units in 2012 and 2013, before and after neighborhood rail completion. Regression outcomes included accelerometer counts per minute (cpm, MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous activity minutes/10h accelerometer wear and measured BMI; key predictors were changes in active travel and PA resource uses (former and new uses. Significant results (all p<0.05 showed that increased active travel related to increased total PA (59.86cpm and 8.50 MVPA; decreased active travel related to decreased MVPA (−3.01 MVPA. Poorer outcomes were seen after discontinuing use of parks (−36.29cpm, −5.73 MVPA, and +0.44 BMI points, recreation centers (−6.18 MVPA, and transit (−48.14cpm, −5.43 MVPA, and +0.66 BMI. Healthier outcomes were seen after commencing use of parks (29.83cpm, 5.25 MVPA, recreation centers (44.63cpm and transit (38.44cpm, 4.17 MVPA, and −0.56 BMI. Transit and park/recreational center uses were unrelated, although park users were more likely to be recreation center users. Active travel and use of three neighborhood PA resources relate to healthy activity and could be fostered by policy and design. Keywords: Recreation center, Accelerometry, Active transport, Built environment, Parks, Global positioning system

  20. Physical activity and its related motivational attributes in adolescents with different BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J; Kim, Y H

    2013-03-01

    A number of obesity studies have been focused on identifying the relationships between socioeconomic status and physical activity involvement. In behavioral medicine, the limited data are available on obese people's physical activity and its related psychological predictors based on psychological theories. To identify the differences in physical activity and its related motivational attributes among normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and to find the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) constructs in predicting physical activity. One thousand seventy-one students ranging from seventh to ninth grades were randomly selected from three junior high schools in Seoul (359 normal weight students, 468 overweight students, and 244 obese students). A Korean version of Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire were applied to measure the participants' motivational attributes and physical activity. Overweight and obese adolescents showed higher scores on amotivation and externally motivated regulations for physical activity than their normal weight counterparts. Internal regulation was more significant for physical activity in normal weight adolescent. However, there was no difference in physical activity among the three groups. Additionally, the findings identified that BMI and the SDT constructs were significant to explain physical activity. This study offers fundamental knowledge in gaining a clearer understanding of the types of motivation most likely to contribute to the initiation and promotion of physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents.