Summary on Sensorless permanent magnet Brushless DC Motor Control Strategies
Li Hai Xia; Cao Yang
2016-01-01
This paper aims at discussing the development process and application of permanent magnet brushless DC motor. By referring to the related literatures, this thesis gives an overview of several common non-position sensor detection technologies, analyzing their strengths and weaknesses as well as a number of new and improved methods in practical applications. Besides, The application situation of the electric door with sensorless permanent magnet brushless DC motor was illustrated.
Summary on Sensorless permanent magnet Brushless DC Motor Control Strategies
Li Hai Xia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the development process and application of permanent magnet brushless DC motor. By referring to the related literatures, this thesis gives an overview of several common non-position sensor detection technologies, analyzing their strengths and weaknesses as well as a number of new and improved methods in practical applications. Besides, The application situation of the electric door with sensorless permanent magnet brushless DC motor was illustrated.
Teaching about operation of brushless DC motors
Čufar, Aleksandra
2013-01-01
Brush DC motor is being replaced by brushless DC motors on every area of application. My diploma thesis is a presentation of brushless DC motor, how it works and its application. Within first part we describe various electric motors and their application. There are several types of electric motors division. Last to be added is a brushless motor. Within second part of thesis we look into a brushless DC motor, how it works, its application and control. In the third part of thesis we construct a...
Reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators
А.М.Galynovskiy
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Behavior of models of three-phase-to-single-phase rotary reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators in a circuit simulation system is analyzed. It is shown that combined control mode of opposite-connected thyristors may result in the exciter armature winding short circuits both at the thyristor feed-forward and lagging current delay angles. It must be taken into consideration when developing brushless compensator excitation systems.
Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor
Howard, David E. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.
Mechatronical Design Studies on Small Brushless Motors
W. Amrhein
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Brushless DC- and AC-permanent-magnet motors controlled by powerful micro-controller electronics have opened up a significant share of the small motor market in the last years. Based on the mechanical low cost construction of single-phase motor the paper presents electronic drive concepts to improve the performance and for special applications also the lifetime of brushless motors. The tangential and radial forces acting on the rotor are controlled by special phase current curves to reduce the torque ripple and to avoid expendable machinery parts like ball or sliding bearings.
Brushless DC Motors, Velocity and Position Control of the Brushless DC Motor.
1986-06-01
DC motor was designed using the Hall effect sensors. In addition, the position control of the brushless DC motor was developed using an optical encoder to sense angular position changes and a microprocessor to provide the desired position control. A Pittman 5111 wdg 1 brushless DC motor was used for this study. The design of the digital tachometer and pulse width modulator for velocity control and the design of the Z-80 based microprocessor controller and software design are described in
Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor
2013-01-01
Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor by Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang ARL-TR-6308 January 2013...TR-6308 January 2013 Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang Sensors...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Simulation and Performance of Brushless DC Motor Actuators.
1985-12-01
AD-RI63 725 SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF IRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA A GERDA DEC 85 NPS69-85-628 M...California Progress Report SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS IN SUPPORT OF THE PROGRAM "ADVANCED MISSILE CONTROL DEVICES"I of...34.’ SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS SUMMARY The simulation model for a Brushless D.C. Motor and the associated * commutation power
Generalized model of brushless dc generator
Vadher, V. V.; Kettleborough, J. Gordon; Smith, I. R.; Gerges, Wahid R.
1989-07-01
A generalized model is described for a brushless dc machine consisting of a multiphase synchronous machine with a full-wave bridge rectifier connected to its output terminals. The state-variable equations for the machine are suitable for numerical integration on a digital computer, and are assembled in a form which permits investigations to be made on the effects of different numbers of armature phase windings and different winding connections. The model has been used in both steady-state and transient studies on a number of generating units, with the detailed information which is provided being beneficial to design engineers. Comparisons presented between predicted and measured results illustrate the validity of the model and the mathematical techniques adopted, and confirm that accurate information on the performance of a brushless generator may be obtained prior to manufacture.
Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines
Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J
2008-01-01
Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators
Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor
Le, Dong Tuan
1994-01-01
Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.
Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver
Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.
1995-01-01
Tachometer circuit operates in conjunction with brushless shaft-angle resolver. By performing sequence of straightforward mathematical operations on resolver signals and utilizing simple trigonometric identity, generates voltage proportional to rate of rotation of shaft. One advantage is use of brushless shaft-angle resolver as main source of rate signal: no brushes to wear out, no brush noise, and brushless resolvers have proven robustness. No switching of signals to generate noise. Another advantage, shaft-angle resolver used as shaft-angle sensor, tachometer input obtained without adding another sensor. Present circuit reduces overall size, weight, and cost of tachometer.
Simplified Model of Brushless Synchronous Generator for Real Time Simulation
Lopez, M D; Rebollo, E; Blanquez, F R
2015-01-01
This paper presents a simplified model of brushless synchronous machine for saving hardware resources in a real time simulation system. Firstly, a brushless excitation system model is described. Thereafter, the simplified transfer function of an AC exciter and rotating diodes of the brushless excitation system is estimated. Finally, the complete system is simulated, comparing the main generator's voltage with both detailed and simplified excitation systems in several scenarios. These results show the accuracy of the simplified model against the detailed simulation model, resulting on an important hardware resources savings.
Brushless dc motor uses electron beam switching tube as commutator
Studer, P.
1965-01-01
Electron beam switching tube eliminates physical contact between rotor and stator in brushless dc motor. The tube and associated circuitry control the output of a dc source to sequentially energize the motor stator windings.
Mathematical modeling of electromechanical processes in a brushless DC motor
V.I. Tkachuk
2014-03-01
Full Text Available On the basis of initial assumptions, a mathematical model that describes electromechanical processes in a brushless DC electric motor with a salient-pole stator and permanent-magnet excitation is created.
Rotor position sensor switches currents in brushless dc motors
1965-01-01
Reluctance switch incorporated in an induction motor is used for sensing rotor position and switching armature circuits in a brushless dc motor. This device drives the solar array system of an unmanned space satellite.
Universal Brushless-DC Motor Controller for Space Applications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR is to adapt an initial prototype ultra-miniature high-performance brushless-DC-motor controller, code named 'Puck', for use by NASA across a...
Brushless direct-current motor with stationary armature and field
Studer, P. A.
1970-01-01
Electronically commutated dc motor has an active fixed field winding, and active fixed armature winding, and passive rotor. By use of brushless dc motor switching technique, motor provides continuous controllable and reversible torque without use of sliding contacts.
Simulation of Brushless DC Motor using Direct Torque Control
Kusuma, G.; S. Rukhsana Begum
2014-01-01
This paper deals with modelling of three phases brushless dc motor with MATLAB/SIMULINK software BLDC motor have advantages according to brushless dc motor and induction motor’s. They have improve speed torque charactistics, high efficiency high transient response and small size. It approaches for reducing the torque ripples of BLDC motor using DTC, by using control technique’s ,but present work mainly concentrate on advanced method. The whole drive system is simulated based o...
Brushless DC motor Drive during Speed regulation with Current Controller
Bhikshalu Manchala; T.Amar Kiran
2015-01-01
Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) is one of the best electrical drives that have increasing popularity, due to their high efficiency, reliability, good dynamic response and very low maintenance. Due to the increasing demand for compact & reliable motors and the evolution of low cost power semiconductor switches and permanent magnet (PM) materials, brushless DC motors become popular in every application from home appliances to aerospace industry. The conventional techniques for controlling...
System For Characterizing Three-Phase Brushless dc Motors
Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.
1996-01-01
System of electronic hardware and software developed to automate measurements and calculations needed to characterize electromechanical performances of three-phase brushless dc motors, associated shaft-angle sensors needed for commutation, and associated brushless tachometers. System quickly takes measurements on all three phases of motor, tachometer, and shaft-angle sensor simultaneously and processes measurements into performance data. Also useful in development and testing of motors with not only three phases but also two, four, or more phases.
Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data
Anton Kalapish
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.
Simulation Model of Brushless Excitation System
Ahmed N.A. Alla
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Excitation system is key element in the dynamic performance of electric power systems, accurate excitation models are of great importance in simulating and investigating the power system transient phenomena. Parameter identification of the Brushless excitation system was presented. First a block diagram for the EXS parameter was proposed based on the documents and maps in the power station. To identify the parameters of this model, a test procedure to obtain step response, was presented. Using the Genetic Algorithm with the Matlab-software it was possible to identify all the necessary parameters of the model. Using the same measured input signals the response from the standard model showed nearly the same behavior as the excitation system.
Tachometers Derived From a Brushless DC Motor
Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.
2007-01-01
The upper part of the figure illustrates the major functional blocks of a direction-sensitive analog tachometer circuit based on the use of an unexcited two-phase brushless dc motor as a rotation transducer. The primary advantages of this circuit over many older tachometer circuits include the following: Its output inherently varies linearly with the rate of rotation of the shaft. Unlike some tachometer circuits that rely on differentiation of voltages with respect to time, this circuit relies on integration, which results in signals that are less noisy. There is no need for an additional shaft-angle sensor, nor is there any need to supply electrical excitation to a shaft-angle sensor. There is no need for mechanical brushes (which tend to act as sources of electrical noise). The underlying concept and electrical design are relatively simple. This circuit processes the back-electromagnetic force (back-emf) outputs of the two motor phases into a voltage directly proportional to the instantaneous rate (sign magnitude) of rotation of the shaft. The processing in this circuit effects a straightforward combination of mathematical operations leading to a final operation based on the well-known trigonometric identity (sin x)2 + (cos x)2 = 1 for any value of x. The principle of operation of this circuit is closely related to that of the tachometer circuit described in Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver (MFS-28845), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 3 (March 1995), page 39. However, the present circuit is simpler in some respects because there is no need for sinusoidal excitation of shaftangle- resolver windings.
Brushless DC Motor Drive during Speed Regulation with Artificial Neural Network Controller
Sakshi Solanki
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Brushless DC motor, at this moment is extensively used being many industrial functions due to the different features like high efficiency and dynamic response and high speed range. This paper is proposing a technology named as Artificial Neural Network controller to control the speed of the brushless DC motor. Here the paper contributes an analysis of performance Artificial Neural Network controller. Because it is difficult to handle by the use of conventional PID controller as BLDC drive is a nonlinear. Through PID controller, the speed regulation of BLDC is not efficient and reliable as PID controller cannot operate the large data, results it gives different variation in BLDC motor control. The ANN easily trains the data of large amount by NN toolbox. As ANN controller has the strength to indulge characteristics of control and it is accessible to operate the huge amount of data as like human can store in a mind. The empirical results prove that an ANN controller can better control the act than the PID controller. The modelling, control and the simulation of the BLDCM get done by applying MATLAB/SIMULINK software kit.
Motor control for a brushless DC motor
Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.
Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines
Hieda, L. S. (Inventor)
1981-01-01
A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.
Simulation of Brushless DC Motor using Direct Torque Control
Mrs.G. Kusuma
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with modelling of three phases brushless dc motor with MATLAB/SIMULINK software BLDC motor have advantages according to brushless dc motor and induction motor’s. They have improve speed torque charactistics, high efficiency high transient response and small size. It approaches for reducing the torque ripples of BLDC motor using DTC, by using control technique’s ,but present work mainly concentrate on advanced method. The whole drive system is simulated based on the system devices, BLDC motor source inverter, space vector modulation.
Steering Control of Wheeled Armored Vehicle with Brushless DC Motor
无
2005-01-01
Considering the steering characters of one type of wheeled armored vehicle, a brushless direct current (DC) motor is adapted as the actuator for steering control. After investigating the known algorithms, one kind of algorithm, which combines the fuzzy logic control with the self-adapting PID control and the startup and pre-brake control, is put forward. Then a test-bed is constructed, and an experiment is conducted. The result of experiment confirms the validity of this algorithm in steering control of wheeled armored vehicle with brushless DC motor.
Hybrid Adaptive Observer for a Brushless DC Motor
Niemczyk, Piotr; Porchez, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
2008-01-01
A novel hybrid adaptive observer for Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM) is presented. It uses two current measurements of BLDCM phases to estimate the angle and the speed of the rotor. The observer is designed on the basis of a hybrid model, which is also presented in this paper. The parameters...
Brushless DC electric motor application in environment CH4 sensor
Drozd, Jakub; Duk, Mariusz; Borecki, Michał
2016-09-01
The work includes using a brushless direct current motor ventilator as a machine which fills a container where methane sensor is researched. The main issue is to choose the best controlling method and implement it to self-made driver of the motor.
A brushless dc spin motor for momentum exchange altitude control
Stern, D.; Rosenlieb, J. W.
1972-01-01
Brushless dc spin motor is designed to use Hall effect probes as means of revolving rotor position and controlling motor winding currents. This results in 3 to 1 reduction in watt-hours required for wheel acceleration, a 2 to 1 reduction in power to run wheel, and a 10 to 1 reduction in the electronics size and weight.
Brushless dc motors. [applications in non-space technology
1975-01-01
Brushless dc motors were intensively developed and tested over several years before qualification as the prime movers for Apollo Spacecraft life support blowers, and for circulating oxygen in the lunar portable life support system. Knowledge gained through prototype development and critical testing has significantly influenced the technology employed, broadened markets and applications, and reduced the cost of present day motors.
Measuring Speed Of Rotation With Two Brushless Resolvers
Howard, David E.
1995-01-01
Speed of rotation of shaft measured by use of two brushless shaft-angle resolvers aligned so electrically and mechanically in phase with each other. Resolvers and associated circuits generate voltage proportional to speed of rotation (omega) in both magnitude and sign. Measurement principle exploits simple trigonometric identity.
Control strategies for brushless doubly fed reluctance machines
Jovanovic, Milutin; Betz, Robert
2001-01-01
Paper presents the development and results of comprehensive comparative analysis of different vector control strategies for performance optimisation of the BDFRM being considered as a viable cost-effective brushless alternative to traditional brush and less reliable solutions in applications with limited variable speed ranges (such as wind turbines). Australian Research Council and EPSRC projects.
A Hybrid Model of a Brushless DC Motor
Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Hansen, Hans Brink; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose
2007-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach to modeling of a Brush-Less Direct Current Motor (BLDCM) driven by an inverter using hybrid systems theory. Hybrid systems combine continuous and discrete (event-based) dynamics, which is exactly the case in an inverter-driven BLDCM. The model presented in thi...
Brushless DC Motor Control System Design Based on DSP2812
Wei Min
2016-01-01
Full Text Available By comparison various control methods currently for permanent magnet brushless DC motor, on the basis of motor principle analysis, a current smallest and most real-time all-digital rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor control system is designed. The high-speed digital signal processor DSP2812 is applied as the main control unit. The fuzzy PID control algorithm is used to control rectifier regulator and speed, which the speed and current is double closed loop in the system. The principle of control system, control strategy and software is analyzed in this paper. The system has some features such as less overshoot, rapid response speed, good performance of anti-jamming, simple structure, high control precision, flexible in changing control policies and so on. Validity of the design is verified by prototype test.
Digital Signal Controller Based Digital Control of Brushless DC Motor
Anjana Elizabeth Thomas
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the digital control of a brushless dc (BLDC motor using TMS320F2812 DSP controller and an EPROM. The real-time control of electrical motors is an application area that is not usually the domain of Digital Signal Processors. The TMS320F2812 has got dedicated modules for digital motor control. Control algorithms used for the control has been in TMS320F2812 DSP controller. The output of the driver is 6 independent PWM pulses that have to be given to the corresponding gates of the six MOSFETs power switches used in the three-phase bridge driving circuit whose output is given to the stator of the Brushless DC Motor. The commutation technique used in this work is the trapezoidal commutation owing to its excellent speed and current control and it has been implemented using an EPROM
Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor using Fuzzy Controller
Jafar Mostafapour; Murtaza Farsadi; Ali Badri; Ebrahim Ogabi
2016-01-01
A brushless DC (BLDC) Motors have advantages over brushed, direct current (DC) motors and Induction motor (IM). They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive a...
Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller
Jafar Mostafapour; Jafar Reshadat; Murtaza Farsadi
2015-01-01
A brushless DC (BLDC) Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC) Motors and , Induction motor (IM). They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive...
Permanent magnet brushless motor control based on ADRC
Li Xiaokun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet brushless motor is a nonlinear system with multiple variables, the mathematical model of Permanent magnet brushless motor is difficult to establish, and since that the classic PID control is hard to precisely control the motor. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC technique is a new nonlinear controller which does not depend on the system model. It is starting from the classic PID control, and establishing the loop control system by error negative feedback, the ESO(extended state observer observing system which comes from the observer theory of modern control theory to observe internal and external perturbations. ADRC inherits the advantages of PID with little overshoot, high convergence speed, high accuracy, strong anti-interference ability and other characteristics, and it has a strong disturbance adaptability and robustness as for the uncertainty perturbation and their internal disturbance of control objects. Therefore, This paper attempts to use Active disturbance rejection control(ADRC, in order to improve the control of permanent magnet brushless motor. In this design of control system, the simulation of the system is realized based on MATLAB, and then the discrete control algorithm is transplanted to the embedded system to control the permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM. The control system is implemented on the DSP-F28335 digital signal processor, and the DSP also provides the functions like voltage and current AD sampling, PWM driver generation, speed and rotor position calculation, etc. The simulation and experiment results indicate that, the system has good dynamic performance and anti-disturbance performance.
Sensorless Control of PM Synchronous Motors and Brushless DC Motors
Montesinos, D.; Galceran, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede
2005-01-01
This paper provides a review of the literature addressing sensorless operation methods of PM brushless machines. The methods explained are state-of-the-art of open and closed loop control strategies. The closed loop review includes those methods based on voltage and current measurements, those...... methods based on back emf measurements, and those methods based on novel techniques not included in the previous categories. The paper concludes with a comparison table including all main features for all control strategies....
Design for Manufacture of a Brushless Synchronous Servomotor
2014-01-01
This thesis presents research into the design of brushless permanent magnet (BPM) interior rotor synchronous servomotor for both performance and manufacturability. The investigation has been supported by experimental evidence gathered with the aid of two prototype servomotors, having the same frame sizes and stator stack lengths, designed by the author and manufactured by the sponsoring company, Control Techniques Dynamics (CTD) Ltd. One servomotor, upon which the research is focussed, has th...
Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor
Salomon, Phil M.
1991-01-01
High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.
Control aspects of the brushless doubly-fed machine
Lauw, H. K.; Krishnan, S.
1990-09-01
This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented.
Brushless DC motor Drive during Speed regulation with Current Controller
Bhikshalu Manchala
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Brushless DC Motor (BLDC is one of the best electrical drives that have increasing popularity, due to their high efficiency, reliability, good dynamic response and very low maintenance. Due to the increasing demand for compact & reliable motors and the evolution of low cost power semiconductor switches and permanent magnet (PM materials, brushless DC motors become popular in every application from home appliances to aerospace industry. The conventional techniques for controlling the stator phase current in a brushless DC drive are practically effective in low speed and cannot reduce the commutation torque ripple in high speed range. This paper presents the PI controller for speed control of BLDC motor. The output of the PI controllers is summed and is given as the input to the current controller. The BLDC motor is fed from the inverter where the rotor position and current controller is the input. The complete model of the proposed drive system is developed and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software. The operation principle of using component is analysed and the simulation results are presented in this to verify the theoretical analysis.
Influence of PWM Modes on Commutation Torque Ripples in Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Control System
ZHANGXiang－jun; CHENBo－shi; 等
2001-01-01
This paper introduces four PWM modes used in the sensorless brushless DC motor control system,analyzes their different influences on the commutation torque ripple in detail,and selects the best PWM mode in four given types to reduce commutation torque ripple of Brushless OC( BLDC) motors,Simulation and experimental results show that the selection is correct and practical.
Pulse Width Modulator Controller Design for a Brushless DC Motor Position Servo.
1987-06-01
performance. This thesis involves computer aided design of a functionally robust brushless dc motor position controller using pulse width modulation...Recent interest in positioning cruise missile flight control surfaces using electromechanical actuation has prompted a detailed study of brushless dc ... motor performance in such an application. While the superior response characteristics of these electronically commutated motors are particularly well
The analysis and design of brushless D.C. motors
Benarous, Maamar
In modern computer systems electrical drives are used to rotate hard discs. These motors require special torque- speed characteristics. The speed of the hard disc must be constant in order for the unit to function correctly. One type of drive, which is used for hard discs is the brushless-DC-motor. This machine has permanent magnet excitation and a polyphase armature winding. It therefore takes the form of a synchronous machine, and in order to be brushless the armature winding is stationary and the excitation rotates. To run at adjustable speed a variable frequency supply is required. In the brushless D.C form the inverter output is phase locked to the rotor position, it is therefore electro-magnetically similar to the D.C machine where fixed brushes determine the frequency and phase of the current in the armature winding. In order to perform the phase lock action signals measuring the rotor position are needed. In one form of machine Hall effect probes detect the position of the rotor poles, in a second given that the rotor is in motion the induced back emf is used. Experimentally it is convenient to replace these magnet systems with a photo- transistor and rotating shutter system and this was the approach used in this thesis. The objective of this research is to investigate different aspects of this motor. The generation, measurement, and placement of signals is described and illustrated, and the design and construction of an inverter supply circuit is described. Both 2D and 3D finite element analysis is used in order to find the machine parameters as well as cogging torque analysis, using the concept of permanent magnet magnetisation characteristics. It is shown that the cogging can be reduced for certain types of magnetisation. The finite element analysis is taken further by connecting the drive circuit needed to run the machine into the finite element mesh, the machine parameters are defined using this method. The close agreement between the simulation and
Ping Zheng
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM, composed of a stator, a modulating ring rotor, and a PM rotor, is a kind of power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In this paper, a new MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring named Sinusoidal-Permeance-Modulating-Ring Brushless Double-Rotor Machine (SPMR-BDRM is proposed to solve the problem of poor mechanical strength and large iron loss. The structure and the operating principle of the MFM-BDRM are introduced. The design principle of the sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring is analyzed and derived. The main idea of that is to minimize the harmonic permeance of air gap, thereby the harmonic magnetic fields can be restrained. There are comparisons between a MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring and a same size MFM-BDRM with traditional modulating ring, including magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic performances. Most importantly, the iron losses are compared under six different conditions. The result indicates that the harmonic magnetic fields in the air gap are restrained; the electromagnetic torque and power factor are almost the same with same armature current; the torque ripples of the modulating ring rotor and the PM rotor are reduced; the stator loss is reduced by 13% at least and the PM loss is reduced by 20% at least compared with the same size traditional MFM-BDRM under the same operating conditions.
Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines
Barnes, G.J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom). E-mail: gary.barnes at eng.ox.ac.uk; McCulloch, M.D.; Dew-Hughes, D. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)
2000-06-01
The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation. (author)
Accurate torque-speed performance prediction for brushless dc motors
Gipper, Patrick D.
Desirable characteristics of the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) have resulted in their application for electrohydrostatic (EH) and electromechanical (EM) actuation systems. But to effectively apply the BLDCM requires accurate prediction of performance. The minimum necessary performance characteristics are motor torque versus speed, peak and average supply current and efficiency. BLDCM nonlinear simulation software specifically adapted for torque-speed prediction is presented. The capability of the software to quickly and accurately predict performance has been verified on fractional to integral HP motor sizes, and is presented. Additionally, the capability of torque-speed prediction with commutation angle advance is demonstrated.
Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor using Fuzzy Controller
Jafar Mostafapour
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, direct current (DC motors and Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and better result can be achieve.
Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller
Jafar Mostafapour
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC Motors and , Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and beter result can be achieve.
Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines
Barnes, G. J.; McCulloch, M. D.; Dew-Hughes, D.
2000-06-01
The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation.
Brushless exciters using a high temperature superconducting field winding
Garces, Luis Jose; Delmerico, Robert William; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Parslow, John Harold; Sanderson, Harold Copeland; Sinha, Gautam
2008-03-18
A brushless exciter for a synchronous generator or motor generally includes a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator. The rotor has a field winding and a voltage rectifying bridge circuit connected in parallel to the field winding. A plurality of firing circuits are connected the voltage rectifying bridge circuit. The firing circuit is configured to fire a signal at an angle of less than 90.degree. or at an angle greater than 90.degree.. The voltage rectifying bridge circuit rectifies the AC voltage to excite or de-excite the field winding.
Power balance considerations for brushless doubly-fed machines
Gorti, B.V.; Alexander, G.C.; Spee, R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvalis, OR (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
1996-12-01
This paper discusses the power balances in a Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine (BDFM). Equations of power in the two stator windings and the rotor circuit, showing the distribution of electrical and mechanical powers in the air-gap, are obtained in two different speed ranges of BDFM synchronous mode operation. Comparisons vis-a-vis power distribution are made between the Wound-Rotor Induction machine (WRIM) and the BDFM. A brief analysis of the power balances, along with experimental data points obtained using a laboratory prototype machine, are given.
Optimal brushless DC motor design using genetic algorithms
Rahideh, A. [Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Korakianitis, T., E-mail: korakianitis@alum.mit.ed [Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Ruiz, P. [Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Keeble, T.; Rothman, M.T. [Cardiac Research and Development, Barts and the London NHS Trust, The London Chest Hospital, London E2 9JX (United Kingdom)
2010-11-15
This paper presents a method for the optimal design of a slotless permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor with surface mounted magnets using a genetic algorithm. Characteristics of the motor are expressed as functions of motor geometries. The objective function is a combination of losses, volume and cost to be minimized simultaneously. Electrical and mechanical requirements (i.e. voltage, torque and speed) and other limitations (e.g. upper and lower limits of the motor geometries) are cast into constraints of the optimization problem. One sample case is used to illustrate the design and optimization technique.
Optimal brushless DC motor design using genetic algorithms
Rahideh, A.; Korakianitis, T.; Ruiz, P.; Keeble, T.; Rothman, M. T.
2010-11-01
This paper presents a method for the optimal design of a slotless permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor with surface mounted magnets using a genetic algorithm. Characteristics of the motor are expressed as functions of motor geometries. The objective function is a combination of losses, volume and cost to be minimized simultaneously. Electrical and mechanical requirements (i.e. voltage, torque and speed) and other limitations (e.g. upper and lower limits of the motor geometries) are cast into constraints of the optimization problem. One sample case is used to illustrate the design and optimization technique.
Controller for a High-Power, Brushless dc Motor
Fleming, David J.; Makdad, Terence A.
1987-01-01
Driving and braking torques controllable. Control circuit operates 7-kW, 45-lb-ft (61-N-m), three-phase, brushless dc motor in both motor and generator modes. In motor modes, energy from power source is pulse-width modulated to motor through modified "H-bridge" circuit, in generator mode, energy from motor is pulse-width modulated into bank of load resistors to provide variable braking torques. Circuit provides high-resolution torque control in both directions over wide range of speeds and torques. Tested successfully at bus voltages up to 200 Vdc and currents up to 45 A.
Control and Diagnostic Model of Brushless Dc Motor
Abramov, Ivan V.; Nikitin, Yury R.; Abramov, Andrei I.; Sosnovich, Ella V.; Božek, Pavol
2014-09-01
A simulation model of brushless DC motor (BLDC) control and diagnostics is considered. The model has been developed using a freeware complex "Modeling in technical devices". Faults and diagnostic parameters of BLDC are analyzed. A logicallinguistic diagnostic model of BLDC has been developed on basis of fuzzy logic. The calculated rules determine dependence of technical condition on diagnostic parameters, their trends and utilized lifetime of BLDC. Experimental results of BLDC technical condition diagnostics are discussed. It is shown that in the course of BLDC degradation the motor condition change depends on diagnostic parameter values
Brushless DC Motor Speed Control Based on Emotional Intelligent Controller
Gholamreza ArabMarkadeh
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an emotional controller for brushless DC motor (BLDC drive. The proposed controller is called brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC. The utilization of the new controller is based on the emotion processing mechanism in brain. This intelligent control is inspired by the limbic system of mammalian brain, especially amygdala. The controller is successfully implemented in simulation using MATLAB software, brushless dc drive with trapezoidal back-emf. In this work, a novel and simple implementation of BLDC motor drive system is achieved by using the intelligent controller, which controls the motor speed accurately. This emotional intelligent controller has simple structure with high auto learning feature. Simulation results show that both accurate steady state and fast transient speed responses can be achieved in wide range of speed from 20 to 300 [rpm]. Moreover, to evaluate this emotional controller, the performance of the proposed control scheme is compared with both Fuzzy Logic (FL and PID controllers, in different conditions. This indicates proper operating in comparison to the FLC and PID controllers. And also shows excellent promise for industrial scale utilization.
C, Subba Rami Reddy; M, Surya Kalavathi
2011-01-01
This paper introduces an Integrated fuzzy logic controller (IFLC) for brushless dc (BLDC) motor drives using advanced simulation model and presents a comparative study of performances of PID controller and IFLC...
Optimization of PID Controller for Brushless DC Motor by using Bio-inspired Algorithms
Sanjay Kr. Singh; Nitish Katal; S.G. Modani
2014-01-01
This study presents the use and comparison of various bio-inspired algorithms for optimizing the response of a PID controller for a Brushless DC Motor in contrast to the conventional methods of tuning...
Demerdash, N. A. O.
1976-01-01
The modes of operation of the brushless d.c. machine and its corresponding characteristics (current flow, torque-position, etc.) are presented. The foundations and basic principles on which the preliminary numerical model is based, are discussed.
Malik, Naveed ur Rehman
2015-01-01
This thesis deals with the modeling, analysis and control of a novel brushlessgenerator for wind power application. The generator is named as rotatingpower electronic brushless doubly-fed induction machine/generator (RPEBDFIM/G). A great advantage of the RPE-BDFIG is that the slip power recoveryis realized in a brushless manner. This is achieved by introducing an additionalmachine termed as exciter together with the rotating power electronicconverters, which are mounted on the shaft of a DFIG...
Brushless DC Motor Drive during Speed Regulation with Artificial Neural Network Controller
Sakshi Solanki
2016-01-01
Brushless DC motor, at this moment is extensively used being many industrial functions due to the different features like high efficiency and dynamic response and high speed range. This paper is proposing a technology named as Artificial Neural Network controller to control the speed of the brushless DC motor. Here the paper contributes an analysis of performance Artificial Neural Network controller. Because it is difficult to handle by the use of conventional PID controller as BL...
Tuning of PID Controller for A Linear Brushless DC Motor using Swarm Intelligence Technique
Pooja Sharma,
2014-05-01
Full Text Available An Optimal Design of PID Controller is proposed in this paper. The Methodology of PSO Algorithm is utilized to search the optimal parameters of Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Controller for BLDC Motor. PSO is an Evolutionary Optimization Technique. A Linear Brushless DC Motors are known for higher efficiency and lower maintenance. The Brushless DC Motor is modeled in Simulink & tuning of PID controller using PSO is implemented in MATLAB. This Method was more efficient for Step Response Characteristics.
Realization of Fuzzy Logic Controlled Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Matlab/Simulink
Çunkas, Mehmet; Aydoğdu, Omer
2010-01-01
In this paper, an efficient simulation model for fuzzy logic controlled brushless direct current motor drives using Matlab/Simulink is presented. The brushless direct current (BLDC) motor is efficiently controlled by Fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The control algorithms, fuzzy logic and PID are compared. Also, the dynamic characteristics of the BLDC motor (i.e. speed and torque) and as well as currents and voltages of the inverter components are easily observed and analyzed by using the develo...
Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car
Gandzha S.A.; Kiessh I.E.
2015-01-01
This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...
Štumberger, Bojan; Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Hamler, Anton; Trlep, Mladen; Goričan, Viktor; Jesenik, Marko
2006-09-01
The paper presents a comparison between the performances of exterior-rotor permanent magnet brushless motors with distributed windings and the performances of exterior-rotor permanent magnet brushless motors with concentrated windings. Finite element method analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor. It is shown that motors with concentrated windings and similar slot and pole numbers exhibit similar or better performances than motors with distributed windings for brushless AC (BLAC) operation mode and brushless DC (BLDC) operation mode as well.
Stumberger, Bojan [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)]. E-mail: bojan.stumberger@uni-mb.si; Stumberger, Gorazd [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Hadziselimovic, Miralem [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Hamler, Anton [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Trlep, Mladen [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Gorican, Viktor [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jesenik, Marko [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)
2006-09-15
The paper presents a comparison between the performances of exterior-rotor permanent magnet brushless motors with distributed windings and the performances of exterior-rotor permanent magnet brushless motors with concentrated windings. Finite element method analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor. It is shown that motors with concentrated windings and similar slot and pole numbers exhibit similar or better performances than motors with distributed windings for brushless AC (BLAC) operation mode and brushless DC (BLDC) operation mode as well.
Modeling of brushless dc generating systems using diakoptics
Vadher, Vinod; Gregory, Keith; Kettleborough, J. G.; Smith, Ivor R.
1993-01-01
The mathematical modeling of a brushless dc generator is described, as an illustration of the application of diakoptic techniques to the analysis of small-scale electrical power supply systems. Modeling of the generator and its output rectifier is accomplished using an established matrix technique that accounts for the continuously changing conduction pattern of the diode bridge network. The advantages of using diakoptics are introduced when consideration is given to the main generator linked to its exciter and to the automatic voltage regulator and permanent magnet generator which are often included in a complete unit. A solution algorithm is presented for this overall arrangement and a comparison is made between theoretical and practical results for a typical 3-stage 4000 rev/min 10.3 kW 28 V unit.
Design and use of brushless dc motor without detent torque
Wavre, N.
1990-03-01
Two applications of motors which cannot accept a residual detent torque due to the rotor magnets are presented. The first application concerns the joint mechanism of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/HERA project. The brushless torque motor drives a reversible harmonic drive with a high gear ratio of 500. The motor is designed to produce a stall torque of 3.0 Nm with a total imput power of 30 W for a total weight of 1.5 kg, with a no load speed of 500 rpm. The second application concerns the driving mechanism of an infrared sensor. The need to take all geometrical and magnetic parameters into consideration in designing space mechanisms is stressed.
Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor
Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)
1975-01-01
A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.
An improved iron loss estimation for permanent magnet brushless machines
Fang, D
1999-01-01
This paper presents an improved approach for predicting iron losses in permanent magnet brushless machines. The new approach is based on the fundamental concept that eddy current losses are proportional to the square of the time rate of change of flux density. Expressions are derived for predicting hysteresis and eddy current losses in the stator teeth and yoke. The so-called anomalous or excess losses, caused by the induced eddy current concentration around moving magnetic domain walls and neglected in the conventional core loss calculation, are also included in the proposed approach. In addition, the model is also capable of accounting for the stator skewing, if present. The core losses obtained from the proposed approach are compared with those measured on an existing PM motor at several operating speeds, showing very good agreement. (14 refs).
Initial Rotor Position Estimation of Half-Wave Rectified Brushless Synchronous Motor
Abe, Takashi; Oyama, Jun; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi
This paper presents an initial rotor position estimation of Half-Wave Rectified Brushless Synchronous Motor. In the previous paper, we proposed this motor as AC servo motor, which is based on the half-wave rectified brushless excitation principle. The basic principle of this estimation technique utilizes the dependence of inductance on the rotor position. The bias frequency component of half-Wave rectified brushless excitation is used to estimate the rotor position error. The magnetic pole is discriminated by the switching condition of the diode inserted into the rotor field winding. This estimation technique is confirmed by simulation include inverter circuit, control program and motor model. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation technique has been verified by experiments.
Research of subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motors in optical fiber positioning
Kan, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhu, Ye; Zhai, Chao
2016-07-01
In fiber spectroscopic telescopes, optical fiber positioning units are used to position thousands of fibers on the focal plane quickly and precisely. Stepper motors are used in existing units, however, it has some inherent deficiencies, such as serious heating and low efficiency. In this work, the universally adopted subdivision driving technology for stepper motors is transplanted to brushless DC motors. It keeps the advantages of stepper motors such as high positioning accuracy and resolution, while overcomes the disadvantages mentioned above. Thus, this research mainly focuses on develop a novel subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motor. By the proving of experiments of online debug and subdivision speed and position, the proposed brushless DC motor subdivision technology can achieve the expected functions.
Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motors for aerospace actuation
Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.
1980-11-01
A discrete time model for simulation of the dynamics of samarium cobalt-type permanent magnet brushless dc machines is presented. The simulation model includes modeling of the interaction between these machines and their attached power conditioners. These are transistorized conditioner units. This model is part of an overall discrete-time analysis of the dynamic performance of electromechanical actuators, which was conducted as part of prototype development of such actuators studied and built for NASA-Johnson Space Center as a prospective alternative to hydraulic actuators presently used in shuttle orbiter applications. The resulting numerical simulations of the various machine and power conditioner current and voltage waveforms gave excellent correlation to the actual waveforms collected from actual hardware experimental testing. These results, numerical and experimental, are presented here for machine motoring, regeneration and dynamic braking modes. Application of the resulting model to the determination of machine current and torque profiles during closed-loop actuator operation were also analyzed and the results are given here. These results are given in light of an overall view of the actuator system components. The applicability of this method of analysis to design optimization and trouble-shooting in such prototype development is also discussed in light of the results at hand.
Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motors for aerospace actuation
Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.
1980-01-01
A discrete time model for simulation of the dynamics of samarium cobalt-type permanent magnet brushless dc machines is presented. The simulation model includes modeling of the interaction between these machines and their attached power conditioners. These are transistorized conditioner units. This model is part of an overall discrete-time analysis of the dynamic performance of electromechanical actuators, which was conducted as part of prototype development of such actuators studied and built for NASA-Johnson Space Center as a prospective alternative to hydraulic actuators presently used in shuttle orbiter applications. The resulting numerical simulations of the various machine and power conditioner current and voltage waveforms gave excellent correlation to the actual waveforms collected from actual hardware experimental testing. These results, numerical and experimental, are presented here for machine motoring, regeneration and dynamic braking modes. Application of the resulting model to the determination of machine current and torque profiles during closed-loop actuator operation were also analyzed and the results are given here. These results are given in light of an overall view of the actuator system components. The applicability of this method of analysis to design optimization and trouble-shooting in such prototype development is also discussed in light of the results at hand.
Prospects for Brushless ac Motors with HTS Rotors
McCulloch, M. D.; Jim, K.; Kawai, Y.; Dew-Hughes, D.; Morgan, C.; Goringe, M. J.; Grovenor, C. R. M.
1997-03-01
There is a superconducting equivalent for every type of brushless ac motor; permanent magnet, reluctance, hysteresis and induction (squirrel cage) motor. The particular advantage of superconducting versions of these machines is that they are expected to provide much higher power densities than their conventional equivalents. The behaviour of superconducting rotors fabricated in the form of (a) squirrell cages from silver coated with melt-processed Bi-2212, (b) tubes cast centifugally from Bi-2212, and (c) small cylinders of melt-processed and seeded YBCO has been studied in rotating magnetic fields provided by conventional motor coils. Measurements of static torque, and values of dynamic torque deduced from angular velocity and acceleration have been used to characterise the potential performance of these embryonic machines. Two broad types of behaviour have been observed. In the Bi-2212 rotors the torque decreases with increasing rotor speed; this behaviour is believed due to flux creep. By contrast the strong-pinning YBCO rotors maintain a constant torque up to synchronous speed. Mathematical modelling of flux penetration and distribution within the rotors is able to reproduce both types of the observed behaviour. Power densities some 5 to 10 times that of conventional machines are predicted to be achievable in optimised prototype machines.
Sensorless optimal sinusoidal brushless direct current for hard disk drives
Soh, C. S.; Bi, C.
2009-04-01
Initiated by the availability of digital signal processors and emergence of new applications, market demands for permanent magnet synchronous motors have been surging. As its back-emf is sinusoidal, the drive current should also be sinusoidal for reducing the torque ripple. However, in applications like hard disk drives, brushless direct current (BLDC) drive is adopted instead of sinusoidal drive for simplification. The adoption, however, comes at the expense of increased harmonics, losses, torque pulsations, and acoustics. In this paper, we propose a sensorless optimal sinusoidal BLDC drive. First and foremost, the derivation for an optimal sinusoidal drive is presented, and a power angle control scheme is proposed to achieve an optimal sinusoidal BLDC. The scheme maintains linear relationship between the motor speed and drive voltage. In an attempt to execute the sensorless drive, an innovative power angle measurement scheme is devised, which takes advantage of the freewheeling diodes and measures the power angle through the detection of diode voltage drops. The objectives as laid out will be presented and discussed in this paper, supported by derivations, simulations, and experimental results. The proposed scheme is straightforward, brings about the benefits of sensorless sinusoidal drive, negates the need for current sensors by utilizing the freewheeling diodes, and does not incur additional cost.
James Webb Space Telescope Deployment Brushless DC Motor Characteristics Analysis
Tran, Ahn N.
2016-01-01
A DC motor's performance is usually characterized by a series of tests, which are conducted by pass/fail criteria. In most cases, these tests are adequate to address the performance characteristics under environmental and loading effects with some uncertainties and decent power/torque margins. However, if the motor performance requirement is very stringent, a better understanding of the motor characteristics is required. The purpose of this paper is to establish a standard way to extract the torque components of the brushless motor and gear box characteristics of a high gear ratio geared motor from the composite geared motor testing and motor parameter measurement. These torque components include motor magnetic detent torque, Coulomb torque, viscous torque, windage torque, and gear tooth sliding torque. The Aerospace Corp bearing torque model and MPB torque models are used to predict the Coulomb torque of the motor rotor bearings and to model the viscous components. Gear tooth sliding friction torque is derived from the dynamo geared motor test data. With these torque data, the geared motor mechanical efficiency can be estimated and provide the overall performance of the geared motor versus several motor operating parameters such as speed, temperature, applied current, and transmitted power.
A new surface-inset, permanent-magnet, brushless dc motor drive for electric vehicles
Chau, KT; J. Gan; Chan, CC; Jiang, JZ
2000-01-01
A new five-phase, surface-inset, permanent-magnet (PM), brushless dc motor drive is proposed in this paper. The motor drive has advantages of both the PM brushless dc motor drive and the dc series motor drive. The originlity is that the air-gap flux of the motor is generated by both the PM excitation and the specially controlled stator currents (two particular phases) under the same PM pole. The motor configuration and principle of operation are so unusual that the magnetic field distribution...
A novel method for simulation of brushless DC motor servo-control system based on MATLAB
Tao, Keyan; Yan, Yingmin
2006-11-01
This paper provides a research about the simulation of brush-less DC motor (BLDCM) servo control system. Based on the mathematical model of Brush-less DC motor (BLDCM), built the system simulation model with the MATLAB software. When the system model is made, the isolated functional blocks, such as BLDCM block, the rotor's position detection block, change-phase logic block etc. have been modeled. By the organic combination of these blocks, the model of BLDCM can be established easily. The reasonability and validity have been testified by the simulation results and this novel method offers a new thought way for designing and debugging actual motors.
Permanent-magnet brushless machines with unequal tooth widths and similar slot and pole numbers \\ud
Ishak, D.; Zhu, Z.Q.; Howe, D.
2005-01-01
This paper presents a comparative study of three-phase permanent-magnet brushless machines in which the slot and pole numbers are similar, with reference to conventional brushless dc machines in which the ratio of the slot number to pole number is usually 3 : 2. Three different motor designs are considered. Two have equal tooth widths, with one having a coil wound on every tooth and the other only having a coil wound on alternate teeth, while the third machine also has coils wound on alternat...
Sensorless Operation of Brushless DC Motor Drive using Back EMF Technique
R. Saranya, S. Saravana kumar,R. Baskaran, A. Vinidha Roc, K. Sathiyasekar
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The Brushless Direct Current (BLDC motors are one of the motor types that is gaining rapid popularity. Its major appliances include refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, freezers, etc. As the name implies, BLDC motors do not use brushes for commutation; instead, they are electronically commutated. This paper proposes a new optimized technique for the Sensorless operation of permanent magnet brushless direct current (BLDC motor, which is based on back Electro Motive Force (back EMF, Zero Crossing Detection (ZCD. This proposed commutation technique of BLDC motor significantly reduces sensing circuits and cost of motor drive.
Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car
Gandzha S.A.
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.
Analysis of brushless DC generator incorporating an axial field coil
Moradi, Hassan, E-mail: H_moradi@sbu.ac.i [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afjei, E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-07-15
Highlights: {yields} Magnetic analysis and experiment of a three-phase field assisted BLDC generator. {yields} Confirm the accuracy of the predicted flux-linkage by 2-D FE analysis. {yields} Confirm the accuracy of the FE analysis results by coupling the FE and BE method. {yields} Control the output voltage to a desired level by control the amplitude of the I{sub f}. {yields} Compatible with any application that requires variable speed operation. -- Abstract: This paper describes the magnetic analysis and experiment of a three-phase field assisted brushless DC (BLDC) generator. Unlike conventional BLDC generators, the permanent magnet is replaced with an assisted field winding. The stator and rotor are constructed with two dependent magnetically sets, in which each stator set includes nine salient poles with coil windings, and the rotor comprises of six salient poles. Other pole combinations also are possible. This construction is similar to a homopolar inductor alternator. The DC current in the assisted field winding produces axial flux which makes the rotor magnetically polarized at its ends. The magnetic field flows axially through the rotor shaft and closes through the stator teeth and the machine housing. To evaluate the generator performance, two types of analysis, namely the numerical technique and the experimental study have been utilized. In the numerical analysis, 2-D finite element (FE) analysis has been carried out using a MagNet CAD package (Infolytica Corporation Ltd.), to confirm the accuracy of the predicted flux-linkage characteristics, whereas in the experimental study, a prototype BLDC generator was constructed for verifying the actual performance. Furthermore, the evaluation method based on a hybrid numerical method coupling the finite element (FE) analysis and boundary element (BE) method, has been carried out to confirm the accuracy of the 2-D FE analysis simulation results. It provides not only confirmations of the investigation in results
Morioka, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)
1998-11-10
Discussions were given on effects of the total adaptive generation controller (STAGEC) for a brushless exciter. The STAGEC unifies exciting and speed governing systems, and uses the optimal regulator theory as a multi-input and multi-output system. Therefore, it requires a numerical model for objects to be controlled, and considered the control lagging. In addition, as an evaluation function to express a parameter for its optimizing performance, such a function was used as the one minimizing deviation from the targeted value of active power and terminal voltage similarly to conventional AVR and governors, in consideration of practical application of the system. The advanced performance system analyzer (APSA) was used to verify the system controllability by simulating the Kiso and Kansai trunk line. Generators other than those in the regular power transmission systems were paralleled as required. Installing the brushless TAGEC increased the critical transmission power by 40 to 45 MW (10 to 12%), and installing it on both generators increased the power by 50 MW (13%). These results reveal that the transmission capacity can be improved greater than with conventional brushless AVRs with PSS, and the capacity can be further increased by synergetic effect provided by the system if it is installed on a multiple number of generators. (NEDO)
Influence of Voltage Dips on the Operation of Brushless Exciter System of Synchronous Machines
Fedotov, A.; Leonov, A.; Vagapov, G.; Mutule, A.
2016-06-01
This paper presents a mathematical model with continuous variables for brushless exciter system of synchronous machines, containing the thyristor elements. Discrete Laplace transform is used for transition from a mathematical model of a system with variable structure in continuous variables to equation finite difference with permanent structure. Then inverse transition is made to a mathematical model in continuous variables with permanent structure.
Improved Analytical Model of a Permanent-Magnet Brushless DC Motor
Kumar, P.; Bauer, P.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we develop a comprehensive model of a permanent-magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor. An analytical model for determining instantaneous air-gap field density is developed. This instantaneous field distribution can be further used to determine the cogging torque, induced back electromotive
Method and apparatus for sensorless operation of brushless permanent magnet motors
Sriram, Tillasthanam V.
1998-01-01
A sensorless method and apparatus for providing commutation timing signals for a brushless permanent magnet motor extracts the third harmonic back-emf of a three-phase stator winding and independently cyclically integrates the positive and negative half-cycles thereof and compares the results to a reference level associated with a desired commutation angle.
The elements of synthesis of brushless d.c. motor with permanent magnets
Ткачук, Василь Іванович; Біляковський, Ігор Євгенович
2010-01-01
The elements of synthesis of Brushless d.c. Motor with permanent magnets on a rotor and pseudo by U-similar stator is offered. The mathematical model of project calculation of main geometrical dimensions of such Motor is based on these elements.
Rotor position sensing in brushless ac motors with self-shielding magnets using linear Hall sensors
Zhu, Z. Q.; Shi, Y. F.; Howe, D.
2006-04-01
This paper investigates the use of low cost linear Hall sensors for rotor position sensing in brushless ac motors equipped with self-shielding magnets, addresses practical issues, such as the influence of magnetic and mechanical tolerances, temperature variations, and the armature reaction field, and describes the performance which is achieved.
Kiyoumarsi, Arash
2010-01-01
Torque pulsations have prominent effects on the performance of brushless permanent- magnet (PM) machines. There are different sources of torque ripples in PM motors. These torque pulsations depend on the shape of the flux density distribution in the airgap region. For predicting the open-circuit airgap field distribution in brushless PM motors, a two dimensional (2-D) analytical method, in which the direction of magnetization, either radial or parallel and the effect of the stator slot-openings are taken into account, is used. The method uses an improved 2-D permeance model. In order to evaluate the accuracy of this method, a 2-D time-stepping FEM coupled with the two motion equations is used. A 3-phase, 36-slot, 4-pole, 5 HP, brushless PM motor is modeled by two methods. In this analysis both, the radial and parallel magnetization of the brushless motor are considered. The results obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained by FE analysis that shows the valuable accuracy of the analytical method for performance calculations in design and optimization processes.
A.V. Matyuschenko
2015-03-01
Full Text Available By means of JMAG-Designer 12 the author performed a comparative analysis of the calculation of the EMF, cogging torque and electromagnetic torque of brushless motor with permanent magnets in two-dimensional and three-dimensional formulation of the problem.
Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.
Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng
2006-09-15
Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term.
Improved Analytical Model of a Permanent-Magnet Brushless DC Motor
Kumar, P.; Bauer, P.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we develop a comprehensive model of a permanent-magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor. An analytical model for determining instantaneous air-gap field density is developed. This instantaneous field distribution can be further used to determine the cogging torque, induced back electromotive
Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water
Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.
2015-06-01
The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.
Analysis of torque-current characteristic of brushless DC motor driven by three-phase H-bridge
无
2000-01-01
Presents the simulation and analysis of the steady state characteristic of a brushless DC motor studies the torque-current characteristic of the motor as well and discusses the design of a current-measure circuit for torque controlling.
Rizqi Andry Ardiansyah
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Many industrial applications use servo motor because of its accuracy and user-friendly, but by using it in an application, a higher cost is required. To make an actuator with good precision and universal purpose but with lower cost, a position control system for brushless dc motor was built. To achieve a better precision in the position control for brushless DC motor, the system is utilized with a microcontroller ATmega 2560, an absolute encoder as a position sensor, and also Proportional-Derivative closed-loop control algorithm. In the final test, we obtained that the system worked well on average angular speed about 3.88º/ms and angle tolerance about 1º.
Comparing the Brushless DFIM to other Generator Systems for Wind Turbine Drive-Trains
Strous, Tim D.; Shipurkar, Udai; Polinder, Henk; Ferreira, Jan A.
2016-09-01
In this paper, the brushless DFIM based wind turbine drive-train topology is compared to the DFIG based and PM generator based drive-train topologies, that are most commonly applied in modern wind turbines. The comparison will be based on a 3.2 MW case study wind turbine. By using FE based multi-objective optimization, optimized generator designs for the different topologies are generated. Then the capital expenditures of the resulting drive-train topologies are calculated and compared. Additionally, wind turbine drive-train configurations with 1, 2 and 3 stage gearboxes as well as a direct-drive configuration are taken into account. The resulting comparison shows that the brushless DFIM based drive-train with a 2 stage gearbox configuration provides a feasible alternative in commercial wind turbine drive-train applications.
On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks
Rubaai, Ahmed
1996-01-01
A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.
REALIZATION OF FUZZY-FILTER CONTROL ON A BRUSHLESS AC GENERATOR
无
2000-01-01
The transistor voltage regulators have been widely adopted in the brushless AC generators in aircraft. This paper researches the digital voltage regulator. The paper presents the hardware platform of the digital voltage regulator, which is based on a DSP chip - TMS320C32. A novel fuzzy-filter control structure is developed from normal fuzzy control strategy. And the fuzzy-filter control algorithm is adopted in the hardware platform successfully. The computer simulation has been conducted. Some control parameters have been obtained through the simulation. The same parameters have been applied in the digital regulation experiments on a brushless AC generator. In the experiment, the digital voltage regulator results in good responses. From the experiment results, it can be seen that the new control algorithm is efficient for the digital voltage regulator.
The design and analysis of a novel brushless dc linear motor
Basak, A.; Filho, A. F. Flores
1994-05-01
A novel brushless dc linear motor was designed, with two armature cores and seven high energy product magnets. It was then built and tested. Both the design and the analysis were carried out assuming a linear magnetic circuit. The design procedure and the test results are presented and discussed in this paper. The new motor can also be used as a slotless linear stepping motor.
Theoretical analysis of control properties for the brushless doubly fed reluctance machine
Betz, Robert; Jovanovic, Milutin
2002-01-01
Presents the fundamental theory, modelling aspects and operating/control principles of the BDFRM. This emerging machine technology is being regarded by academic and industrial communities as a prospective brushless candidate for wind turbine generators (especially off-shore installations) and large pump drives where it can offer reliable, maintenance-free, operation and competitive performance at low cost due to the use of a smaller inverter. The results in the paper are the outcomes of a joi...
Analysis of Commutation Torque Ripple Minimization for Brushless DC Motor Based on SEPIC Converter
R.Jogarao; Mouliswararao.Reddy; G. Ashok
2016-01-01
Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM) are widely used in automated industrial applications like Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machinery, aerospace applications and in the field of robotics.But it still suffers from commutation torque which mainly depends on speed and transient line commutation interval. BLDC MOTOR torque ripple causes increased acoustic noise and undesirable speed fluctuation. This paper presents a new circuit topology and dc link voltage current in the control strategy to keep inco...
Optimal PID control of a brushless DC motor using PSO and BF techniques
H.E.A. Ibrahim
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique and bacterial foraging (BF technique for determining the optimal parameters of (PID controller for speed control of a brushless DC motor (BLDC where the (BLDC motor is modeled in simulink in Matlab. The proposed technique was more efficient in improving the step response characteristics as well as reducing the steady-state error, rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot.
Analysis of a Permanent-Magnet Brushless DC Motor with Fixed Dimensions
Brakanskis, Uldis; Dirba, Janis; Kukjane, Ludmila; Drava, Viesturs
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe the analysis of a permanent-magnet brushless DC motor with fixed outer diameter and active zone length. The influence of air gap, material of permanent magnets and their size on the magnetic flux density of the machine and magnetic flux is analyzed. The work presents the calculations of two programs, the comparison of the results and the most suitable combination of factors that has been found.
Uma Devi Kumaravelu; Sanavullah Mohamed Yakub
2012-01-01
A method of simulation and modeling outer rotor permanent magnet brushless DC (ORPMBLDC) motor under dynamic conditions using finite element method by FEMM 4.2 software package is presented. In the proposed simulation, the torque developed at various positions of the rotor, under a complete cycle of excitation of the stator, is analysed. A novel method of sinusoidal excitation is proposed to enhance the overall torque development of ORPMBLDC motor.
Technology of Performance Improvement Brushless DC Motors and Inverter for Air conditioning
Baba, Kazuhiko; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Shinomoto, Yosuke; Arisawa, Koichi
High efficiency motors are demanded because of the viewpoint of environmental preservation. It is necessary to develop the technology of the energy conservation that can be achieved at low cost so that we may expand high efficiency motors onto the world. In this paper, the current status of the brushless DC motors and invertors to satisfy high efficiency, small size, high power and low cost is reviewed.
Influence of Voltage Dips on the Operation of Brushless Exciter System of Synchronous Machines
Fedotov A.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model with continuous variables for brushless exciter system of synchronous machines, containing the thyristor elements. Discrete Laplace transform is used for transition from a mathematical model of a system with variable structure in continuous variables to equation finite difference with permanent structure. Then inverse transition is made to a mathematical model in continuous variables with permanent structure.
Jian-ping Wen; Chuan-wei Zhang
2015-01-01
In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV) using brushless DC machine (BLDCM), the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO) to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, ...
Sensored and sensorless speed control methods for brushless doubly fed reluctance motors
Jovanovic, Milutin
2009-01-01
The study considers aspects of scalar V/f control, vector control and direct torque (and flux) control (DTC) of the brushless doubly fed reluctance machine (BDFRM) as a promising cost-effective alternative to the existing technological solutions for applications with restricted variable speed capability such as large pumps and wind turbine generators. Apart from providing a comprehensive literature review and analysis of these control methods, the development and results of experimental verif...
A New Approach on the Design and Optimization of Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Machines
Staudt, Tiago; Wurtz, Frédéric; Gerbaud, Laurent; Batistela, Nelson Jhoe; Kuo-Peng, Patrick
2014-01-01
International audience; The Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Machine (BDFRM) is being considered as a viable generator alternative to be used in wind turbines. A literature review shows that there is still a lack of researches to define a design procedure to make this machine widely used in such application. This paper aims to address this issue by considering a new BDFRM design method using a reluctance network approach and the concepts of sizing and optimization models. It also presents a ca...
Flux observer algorithms for direct torque control of brushless doubly-fed reluctance machines
Chaal, Hamza; Jovanovic, Milutin
2009-01-01
Direct Torque Control (DTC) has been extensively researched and applied to most AC machines during the last two decades. Its first application to the Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Machine (BDFRM), a promising cost-effective candidate for drive and generator systems with limited variable speed ranges (such as large pumps or wind turbines), has only been reported a few years ago. However, the original DTC scheme has experienced flux estimation problems and compromised performance under the ma...
A novel left ventricular assist device with impeller pump and brushless motor compacted in one unit
无
2001-01-01
The impeller pump we developed has assisted the circulation of calves for two months, but further improvements to solve the problems of bearing wear and thrombosis along the bearing are desirable. Thus we have designed a new left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with impeller pump and brushless motor compacted in one unit, for which a ceramic bearing and a purge system through the bearing have been devised. The first experiments indicate that this new device could prospectively work for more than one year.
Uma Devi Kumaravelu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A method of simulation and modeling outer rotor permanent magnet brushless DC (ORPMBLDC motor under dynamic conditions using finite element method by FEMM 4.2 software package is presented. In the proposed simulation, the torque developed at various positions of the rotor, under a complete cycle of excitation of the stator, is analysed. A novel method of sinusoidal excitation is proposed to enhance the overall torque development of ORPMBLDC motor.
System and Method for Determining Rate of Rotation Using Brushless DC Motor
Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
A system and method are provided for measuring rate of rotation. A brushless DC motor is rotated and produces a back electromagnetic force (emf) on each winding thereof. Each winding's back-emf is squared. The squared outputs associated with each winding are combined, with the square root being taken of such combination, to produce a DC output proportional only to the rate of rotation of the motor's shaft.
Biwersi, Stephan; Tavernier, Stephan; Equoy, Samuel [Moving Magnet Technologies (MMT), Besancon (France)
2012-12-01
Moving Magnet Technologies (MMT) from Besancon in France has developed a highly efficient brushless DC motor that is especially suitable for use in electrically supported compressors. It helps to further minimise so-called turbo lag in supercharged internal combustion engines. The following report presents technical details of the electric motor and practical results in combination with an electrically driven compressor. MMT was supported by Swissauto in designing the supercharging system.
Controlling a Four-Quadrant Brushless Three-Phase dc Motor
Nola, F. J.
1986-01-01
Control circuit commutates windings of brushless, three-phase, permanent-magnet motor operating from power supply. With single analog command voltage, controller makes motor accelerate, drive steadily, or brake regeneratively, in clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Controller well suited for use with energy-storage flywheels, actuators for aircraft-control surfaces, cranes, industrial robots, and other electromechanical systems requiring bidirectional control or sudden stopping and reversal.
Rate of rotation measurement using back-EMFS associated with windings of a brushless DC motor
Howard, David E. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
A system and method are provided for measuring rate of rotation. A brushless DC motor is rotated and produces a back electromagnetic force (emf) on each winding thereof. Each winding's back-emf is integrated and multiplied by the back-emf associated with an adjacent winding. The multiplied outputs associated with each winding are combined to produce a directionally sensitive DC output proportional only to the rate of rotation of the motor's shaft.
Adhika Prajna Nandiwardhana
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Penggunaan motor brushless DC telah banyak digunakan dalam berbagai bidang seperti peralatan rumah tangga maupun industri dikarenakan motor ini memiliki struktur yang sederhana, efisiensi dan torsi yang tinggi, serta menggunakan konsep komutasi elektris yang berbeda dari motor DC lainnya. Namun pengoperasian pada umumnya yang menggunakan sumber AC, penyearah serta inverter membuat tingginya nilai harmonisa arus (THD sebesar 73,33% dan power factor sebesar 0,803 dimana nilai ini kurang baik dalam pengaplikasiannya. Pada penelitian ini akan dikaji mengenai proses power factor correction yang mereduksi harmonisa arus (THD sumber AC dengan menggunakan zeta converter dalam pengaplikasian motor brushless DC, serta pengoperasian motor dengan mengamati respon motor terhadap kecepatan referensi yang berubah-ubah dan mengamati kestabilan motor terhadap pembebanan yang bervariasi. Dalam menerapkan metode yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini, pengoperasian motor brushless DC yang telah dirancang dapat bekerja dengan baik meliputi respon motor yang dapat mengikuti kecepatan referensi yang berubah-ubah, serta kestabilan motor dalam mempertahankan kecepatannya pada pembebanan yang bervariasi. Proses power factor correction dapat meningkatkan kualitas daya pada berbagai kecepatan dan mode penerapan yang berbeda-beda, dimana peningkatan tersebut membuktikan kinerja yang baik dalam sistem ini dan memiliki nilai kualitas daya yang baik.
Estimation parameters and black box model of a brushless DC motor
José A. Becerra-Vargas
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The modeling of a process or a plant is vital for the design of its control system, since it allows predicting its dynamic and behavior under different circumstances, inputs, disturbances and noise. The main objective of this work is to identify which model is best for a permanent magnet brushless DC specific motor. For this, the mathematical model of a DC motor brushless PW16D, manufactured by Golden Motor, is presented and compared with its black box model; both are derived from experimental data. These data, the average applied voltage and the angular velocity, are acquired by a data acquisition card and imported to the computer. The constants of the mathematical model are estimated by a curve fitting algorithm based on non-linear least squares and pattern search using computational tool. To estimate the mathematical model constants by non-linear least square and search pattern, a goodness of fit of 84.88% and 80.48% respectively was obtained. The goodness of fit obtained by the black box model was 87.72%. The mathematical model presented slightly lower goodness of fit, but allowed to analyze the behavior of variables of interest such as the power consumption and the torque applied to the motor. Because of this, it is concluded that the mathematical model obtained by experimental data of the brushless motor PW16D, is better than its black box model.
Crapo, Alan D.; Lloyd, Jerry D.
1991-03-01
Two motors have been designed and built for use with high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) materials. They are a homopolar dc motor that uses HTSC field windings and a brushless dc motor that uses bulk HTSC materials to trap flux in steel rotor poles. The HTSC field windings of the homopolar dc motor are designed to operate at 1000 A/sq cm in a 0.010-T field. In order to maximize torque in the homopolar dc motor, an iron magnetic circuit with small air gaps gives maximum flux for minimum Ampere turns in the field. A copper field winding version of the homopolar dc motor has been tested while waiting for 575 A turn HTSC coils. The trapped flux brushless dc motor has been built and is ready to test melt textured bulk HTSC rings that are currently being prepared. The stator of the trapped flux motor will impress a magnetic field in the steel rotor poles with warm HTSC bulk rings. The rings are then cooled to 77 K to trap the flux in the rotor. The motor can then operate as a brushless dc motor.
SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRENT CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON A COMMON DC SIGNAL
J.Karthikeyan
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The objective of this project is to build a simple current controlled modulation technique for brushless dc motors. In electric traction and most other applications, a wide range of speed and torque control of the electric motor is required. The dc machine fulfills these requirements, but the dc machine requires constant maintenance. But the brushless permanent magnet motors do not have brushes and so they require less maintenance only. Brushless dc motors are widely used in applications which require wide range of speed and torque control because of its low inertia, fast response, high reliability and maintenance free. This current controlled technique is based on the generation of quasi- square wave currents using only one controller for the three phases. The current control strategy uses a triangular carrier for the power transistors which is simpler and more accuratethan any other options. The advantages of this technique are: a The stator currents are completely characterized by their maximum amplitude , b The three phases are controlled with the same dc component , and then the phase currents are kept at exactly the same magnitude I max, c The dc link current measurement is not required .d phase currents are kept balanced and phase over currents are eliminated.
MODEL AND SIMULATION FOR A BRUSHLESS AC GENERATOR WITH A ROTARY RECTIFIER
田铭兴; 李群峰
2004-01-01
Objective For a brushless AC generator with a rotary rectifier, it is necessary and significant to model and simulate at normal and fault operation states. Methods Two new concepts, namely, Simulink signals and PSB(Power System Blockset) variables, are proposed, and the difference between the two concepts is clarified. Based on the new model for synchronous machines[1], a simulation model for a brushless AC generator with a rotary rectifier is constructed by Matlab/Simulink/PSB. This new model, which has a speed input terminal and an exciting voltage input one, can simulate the real electrical characters and direct mechanical connection between two synchronous machines perfectly. The rotary rectifier is a three-phase full-wave bridge rectifier which consists of six diodes. The model for the diodes is a macro-model which possesses much better accuracy than an ideal one of switches. Results Based on the present model, some simulation results such as exciting current waveform, phase current waveform and phase voltbge waveform are afftained at several operation conditions. Conclusion The simulation for a brushless AC generator with a rotary rectifier is demonstrated at normal and fault operation states, respectively. The results confirm the presented method.
Design and Optimization of Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines for Electric Vehicle Applications
Weiwei Gu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, by considering and establishing the relationship between the maximum operating speed and d-axis inductance, a new design and optimization method is proposed. Thus, a more extended constant power speed range, as well as reduced losses and increased efficiency, especially in the high-speed region, can be obtained, which is essential for electric vehicles (EVs. In the first step, the initial permanent magnet (PM brushless machine is designed based on the consideration of the maximum speed and performance specifications in the entire operation region. Then, on the basis of increasing d-axis inductance, and meanwhile maintaining constant permanent magnet flux linkage, the PM brushless machine is optimized. The corresponding performance of the initial and optimal PM brushless machines are analyzed and compared by the finite-element method (FEM. Several tests are carried out in an EV simulation model based on the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS for evaluation. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results verify the validity of the proposed design and optimization method.
无刷直流电动机的DSP控制%DSP Control of Brushless DC Motor
王越; 甄长飞
2012-01-01
According to the characteristics of the brushless dc motor, and the demand in practical application, design solved the rapid control problem of brushless dc motor. Using the TMS320LF2407A of the TI company as control core, and PWM and PI, we designed control circuit and control procedures for brushless dc motor in order to achieve the actual effect.%为解决无刷直流电动机的快速控制问题，提出了无刷直流电动机的DSP控制方法。采用TI公司的TMS320LF2407A芯片为控制核心，结合PWM和PI调节设计无刷直流电动机的控制电路以及控制程序，以达到节能和使电动机快速启动的效果。
POSITION CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
Çetin GENÇER
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Brushless DC Motors (BLDC have been used widely high performance control systems which are depended on to development of power electronic and control technology. In these motors to fed commutated supply, the control of position without oscilation has been required. In this study, position control of BLDC with digital signal processing has been implemented by a proportional-derivative (PD controller because of its simple structure. It has been seen that the controller which is proposed from simulation and experimental studies, has a quick dynamic responce with nonoscillation.
Comparison Of Selected Characteristics Of Brushless DC Motors For Optoelectronic Sensors Positioning
Zieleźnicki Jan
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Thanks to their advantageous properties such as higher durability, reliability and wide scope of speed achievable with a given load, brushless DC motors are often used in Line-of-Sight stabilization systems of the optoelectronic aircraft gimbals. Since there are many sub-types and configurations of such motors, choosing the optimal structure is not a trivial issue. This paper presents the selection process of a motor with properties that would make it ideal for use in an optoelectronic gimbal drive.
Shaft Voltage and Life of Bearing electric-erosion for the Brushless DC Motor
Maetani, Tatsuo; Isomura, Yoshinori; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shigeo
This paper describes the life of noise of bearing electro-erosion in the shaft voltage of brushless DC motors. We confirmed that shaft voltage is suppressed to equal to or less than the dielectric breakdown voltage of bearing lubricant in the insulated rotor proposed for suppression of shaft voltage. However, since bearing electro-erosion appears over time along with the deterioration of noise performance, the threshold of the shaft voltage to secure noise performance over long periods of time is necessary. Therefore, the threshold of the shaft voltage that influences the life of noise was obtained in acceleration tests.
Development of a highly efficient brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps
Kang, K. J.; Jang, G. H.; Sung, S. J.; Chang, J. H.
2012-04-01
This research proposes an effective structure for a brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps. The proposed motor generates torque in both the radial and axial air gaps, while the conventional motor generates torque only in the radial air gap. The proposed motor was optimized to minimize the electromagnetic loss of the motor to increase the effective air gap length and fill-factor of the coil while decreasing the saturation of the core at the same time. The electromagnetic loss was reduced by 35% in comparison with a conventional motor.
Novel Position and Speed Estimator for PM Single Phase Brushless D.C. Motor Drives
Lepure, Liviu I.; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel; Iles, Doris;
2010-01-01
A novel position and speed estimator for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PMBLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of ΨPM (θ) is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted in order to increase the robustness to noise and to reduce...... the sensitivity to accuracy of flux linkage estimation. A speed and current close loop control is employed based on the Hall signal and the motor is controlled at different speeds in order to validate the proposed estimation algorithm with satisfying results. The position correction effect is analyzed...
Fuzzy Auto-adjust PID Controller Design of Brushless DC Motor
Yuanxi, Wang; Yali, Yu; Guosheng, Zhang; Xiaoliang, Sheng
Using conventional PID control method, to guarantee the rapidity and small overshoot dynamic and static performance of the BLDCM (brushless DC motor) system is out of the question. The control method to combine fuzzy control with PID control was fit the multivariable strong coupling nonlinear characteristic of BLDCM system. Matlab/Simulink simulation model had been built. The result of computer simulation shows that, compared with the conventional PID controller, the dynamic and static performance of fuzzy auto-adjust PID controller are put forward to optimize. The research work of this paper has profound significance for high precision controller design.
Influence of the permanent magnet overhang on the performance of the brushless dc motor
Wang, J. P.; Lieu, D. K.; Lorimer, W. L.; Hartman, A.
1998-06-01
Axial overhang of the permanent magnets has been used to enhance the performance of radial flux brushless dc motors, but its precise contribution to performance is not well known. This article aims at the investigation of the overhang effects by finite element and lumped parameter modeling. An empirical formula which allows two-dimensional analysis to account for overhang effects is proposed. A three-dimensional equivalent magnetic circuit model is developed and its ability to accurately predict overhang effects is assessed. Results of finite element and lumped parameter models are compared and a design methodology is forwarded.
Novel Motion Sensorless Control of Single Phase Brushless D.C. PM Motor Drive, with experiments
Lepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe Daniel
2010-01-01
A motion sensorless control for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PM-BLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of the PM flux/position characteristic is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted, in order to increase the robustness to noise...... and to reduce the sensitivity to accuracy of flux linkage estimation. An I-f strategy is used for starting, by prescribing a ramped reference frequency and a constant current, and then the seamless transition to close loop sensorless control takes place. The proposed control system is detailed and validated...
Application of Full-Order and Simplified EKFs to Sensorless PM Brushless AC Machines
Xi Zhu; Zi-Qiang Zhu; David Howe
2005-01-01
This paper em ploys an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate the rotor position and speed of a vector controlled surface-mounted permanent magnet (PM) brushless AC (BLAC) motor from measured terminal voltages and currents only. Both full-order and simplified EKFs are employed and their simulated performance capabilities are compared.Excellent agreement is achieved between estimated and commanded results. The EKF is also employed to identify the stator flux-linkage due to the PMs, which is influenced by temperature variation and magnetic saturation.
Jian-ping Wen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV using brushless DC machine (BLDCM, the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, the autodisturbances rejection controller (ADRC for controlling the braking current is developed. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives better recovery efficiency and is robust to disturbances.
Boger, M.S.; Wallace, A.K.; Spee, R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
1996-01-01
Three alternative brushless double fed induction machine (BDFM) pump drive configurations are investigated as a replacement for a 60-hp wound rotor induction machine drive. The BDFM, utilizing a bidirectional converter to realize precise (synchronous) speed control, is shown to require a power electronic converter of substantially reduced rating which can result in significant system cost savings. In addition, the BDFM system offers controlled, unity power factor operation. A procedure for analyzing BDFM designs is presented (with examples) and steady state performance results are predicted for the BDFM pump drives. This paper explains the design decisions that are made in regards to converter rating and pole-pair selection.
Design considerations of electromagnetic force in a direct drive permanent magnet brushless motor
Chen, H. S.; Tsai, M. C.
2008-04-01
In this paper, a numerical study of electromagnetic force associated with the width of stator teeth, width of rotor back iron, and slot opening for a ten-pole nine-slot direct drive permanent magnet brushless motor is presented. The study calculates the amplitude of the electromagnetic force on the rotating rotor by using the finite-element method. The results show that the amplitude of electromagnetic force, which may cause the noise and vibration of motors, changes with the variation of these above mentioned three factors. The relationship between the considerations of output torque and the minimization of noise and vibration is also established in this paper.
Numerical analysis of the electromechanically coupled magnetic field in brushless DC motors
Jang, G. H.; Chang, J. H.
2001-05-01
This paper presents a numerical method to solve the electromechanically coupled equations in a brushless DC (BLDC) motor, i.e. Maxwell equation, voltage equation and Newton's equations by introducing the nonlinear finite element analysis and the time stepping method. It also investigates the coupling effect of the eccentric motion of a rotor on the characteristics of the magnetic force and the resulting motion of a BLDC motor by analyzing the free response and Fourier transform of the excitation force and the resulting displacement.
A microcontroller-based sensorless brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive for areomodelling
Cao, Long-han; Liu, Tao; Li, Rui; Wu, Fan
2007-12-01
A novel approach to back-EMF detection of sensorless brushless DC motor drive systems was proposed. Theoretical analysis of back-EMF sensing is presented, and indicates the back-EMF signal can be extracted for each floating phase whether the PWM is on or off time. As a result, the proposed method rejects the high frequency switching noise and no filtering. Moreover, it provides a highly accurate zero crossing point. This proposed sensing scheme is implemented into a microcontroller for a sensorless BLDC motor. The microcontroller has been successfully applied to the aeromodelling motor. The applied results verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate that the microcontroller provide a good motor performance.
Numerical analysis of the electromechanically coupled magnetic field in brushless DC motors
Jang, G.H. E-mail: ghjang@email.hanyang.ac.kr; Chang, J.H
2001-05-01
This paper presents a numerical method to solve the electromechanically coupled equations in a brushless DC (BLDC) motor, i.e. Maxwell equation, voltage equation and Newton's equations by introducing the nonlinear finite element analysis and the time stepping method. It also investigates the coupling effect of the eccentric motion of a rotor on the characteristics of the magnetic force and the resulting motion of a BLDC motor by analyzing the free response and Fourier transform of the excitation force and the resulting displacement.
Aspects Concerning the Torque Ripple Control of the Brushless DC Motor
BALUTA, G.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with two advanced numerical structures to control the electromagnetic torque ripple of Brushless Direct Current Motors (BLDCM, indirectly achieved by phase currents control and directly by the Direct Torque Control (DTC technique. In DTC there was implemented an observer to increase the rudimentary transducer resolution, containing three Hall Effect sensors. The experimental results describe the evolution of torque in both situations of control and are obtained by applying a control strategy for an electric drive system with BLDCM with trapezoidal Back-EMF in Two-Phase Mode.
High temperature brushless DC motor system and its operation mode control
邹继斌; 胡建辉; 徐永向
2001-01-01
The high temperature ( 175 ℃ ) operation of a motor spells out special requirements for control algorithms, materials and elements. The stability of motor characteristic is guaranteed by the digital control strategy. Constant velocity operation is achieved by phase-locked loop ( PLL), and constant power operation is achieved by a current-restricting circuit. A motor for constant speed and constant power operation has been built and the speed control system is tuned by MATLAB simulation. Experimental and simulation results for operation mode control of brushless DC motor are presented.
A.M. Galynovskiy
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Designing features for valve-engine transducers of brushless synchronous and asynchronized machines are described. Global analysis of research results on the transducer models in a MicroCap circuit simulation system is made, recommendations on the simulation system application in both scientific research and educational process given.
Han, Peng; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Zhe
2016-01-01
This paper presents a dual-electrical-port control scheme of cascaded brushless doubly-fed induction machine (CBDFIM) for EV/HEV applications aiming at achieving doubled constant torque and constant power regions compared to its singly-fed counterpart with the same equivalent pole pair number...
Muenchow, Frank [Federal-Mogul, Bad Camberg (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Vehicle Safety and Protection; Harvey, Richard; Richards, Michael [Federal-Mogul Corporation, Logansport, IN (United States). Business Unit Vehicle Safety and Protection
2012-03-15
Electrifying components in commercial vehicles can be a challenge. High vibration levels, for instance, amplify carbon brush and commutator erosion in a conventional electric motor. To offer a solution Federal-Mogul has developed the brushless fuel pump. This BLDC pump has successfully passed 10,000 h of operation in B100 fuel. (orig.)
Zhang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe
2015-01-01
This paper presents a rapid approach to compute the magnetic field distribution in a flux-modulated permanent-magnet brushless motor. Partial differential equations are used to describe the magnet field behavior in terms of magnetic vector potentials. The whole computational domain is divided int...... magnetic field with those calculated by finite element method....
无刷直流电动机双模式控制%Dual Mode Control for Brushless DC Motor
赵建勇; 许林荣; 徐交建
2012-01-01
在分析电机运行原理和应用要求的基础上,引用基于新型逆变器的无刷直流电动机双模式控制方法,设计出无刷直流电动机双模式控制器,基速以下采用双闭环控制方法,基速以上采用弱磁扩速控制方法.仿真和实验验证该方案可行,实现无刷直流电动机在宽速度范围内稳定工作.%Dual mode control method based on a new inverter for brushless DC motor was cited by analyzing the operation principle of brushless DC motor and application requirements. Dual mode controller for brushless DC motor was designed, which used dual closed loop control when motor was running below base speed and field-weakening control when motor was running above base speed. The simulation and experiment results show that brushless DC motor can operate in a wide speed range.
Multiple Replicas of Block Copolymer Thin Films from a Brushless Organosilicate Substrate
Suh, Hyo Seon; Yoon, Hyunsik; Char, Kookheon
2011-03-01
The chain end-grafted polymer brushes or cross-linked polymer mats have typically been utilized as the surface modification layers to induce the perpendicular orientation of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. Instead of such polymer-based approaches, we have recently introduced a new concept to control the BCP orientation using the brushless organosilicate (OS) substrates, whose surface energy can be finely tuned with thermal treatment. In this brushless case, the BCP chains do not penetrate into the underlying hard OS substrates during thermal annealing of BCP films, therefore, the BCP chains at the interface have no entangled structure with fairly weak adhesion of BCP films against the substrate. Owing to such weak adhesion of BCP films against the OS substrate, the perpendicularly oriented BCP film on a neutral OS substrate could be easily peeled off and transferred to a UV-curable resin applied onto the BCP film. The OS substrate after the peel-off process of a BCP film could regenerate the perpendicularly oriented BCP films since the surface energy of the OS substrate remains intact during the peel-off process. Furthermore, the direct-assembled BCP films on chemically patterned OS substrates could also be peeled off and transferred on to a UV-curable resin, allowing us to produce multiple replicas of direct-assembled BCP thin films from a single chemically patterned OS substrate.
Developing micro DC-brushless motor driver and position control for fiber positioners
Jenni, Laurent; Hörler, Philipp; Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Gillet, Denis; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed; Prada, Francisco; De Rivera, Guillermo; Sanchez, Justo
2014-07-01
In the large-scale, Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), thousands of fiber positioners will be used. Those are robotic positioners, with two axis, and having the size of a pen. They are tightly packed on the focal plane of the telescope. Dedicated micro-robots have been developed and they use 4mm brushless DC motors. To simplify the implementation and reduce the space occupancy, each actuator will integrate its own electronic control board. This board will be used to communicate with the central trajectory generator, manage low level control tasks and motor current feeding. In this context, we present a solution for a highly compact electronic. This electronic is composed of two layers. The first is the power stage that can drive simultaneously two brushless motors. The second one consists of a fast microcontroller and deals with different control tasks: communication, acquisition of the hall sensor signals, commutation of the motors phases, and performing position and current regulation. A set of diagnostic functions are also implemented to detect failure in the motors or the sensors, and to sense abnormal load change that may be the result of two robots colliding.
Optimization of PID Controller for Brushless DC Motor by using Bio-inspired Algorithms
Sanjay Kr. Singh
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This study presents the use and comparison of various bio-inspired algorithms for optimizing the response of a PID controller for a Brushless DC Motor in contrast to the conventional methods of tuning. For the optimization of the PID controllers Genetic Algorithm, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing have been used. PID controller tuning with soft-computing algorithms comprises of obtaining the best possible outcome for the three PID parameters for improving the steady state characteristics and performance indices like overshoot percentage, rise time and settling time. For the calculation and simulation of the results the Brushless DC Motor model, Maxon EC 45 flat ф 45 mm with Hall Sensors Motor has been used. The results obtained the optimization using Genetic Algorithms, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing is compared with the ones derived from the Ziegler-Nichols method and the MATLAB SISO Tool. And it is observed that comparatively better results are obtained by optimization using Simulated Annealing offering better steady state response.
Milutin G. Jovanović
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM allows the use of a partially rated inverter and represents an attractive cost-effective candidate for variable speed applications with limited speed ranges. In its induction machine form (BDFIM, the BDFM has significant rotor losses and poor efficiency due to the cage rotor design which makes the machine dynamic models heavily parameter dependent and the resulting controller configuration complicated and difficult to implement. A reluctance version of the BDFM, the brushless doubly-fed reluctance machine (BDFRM, ideally has no rotor losses, and therefore offers the prospect for higher efficiency and simpler control compared to the BDFIM. A detailed study of this interesting and emerging machine is very important to gain a thorough understanding of its unusual operation, control aspects and compromises between optimal performance and the size of the inverter and the machine. This paper will attempt to address these issues specifically concentrating on developing conditions for various control properties of the machine such as maximum power factor, maximum torque per inverter ampere and minimum copper losses, as well as analysing the associated trade-offs.
E. Kaliappan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a simplified modeling and experimental analysis of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC motors for Sensorless operation using MATLAB/SIMULINK. This model provides a mechanism for monitoring and controlling the voltage, current, speed and torque response. Approach: BLDC motor is modeled as sub-blocks. The inverter and switching function are implemented as S-function builder block. The Sensorless scheme employs direct back emf based zero crossing detection technique. Results: The proposed model with Sensorless control technique with back emf zero crossing detection is tested in the BLDC Motor and the performance was evaluated. The simulated and experimental results show that the proposed modeling works quite well during starting and running conditions. Conclusion/Recommendation: The developed model consists of several independent sub-blocks, that can be used in the modeling of Permanent Magnet Sinusoidal Motor and induction motor. Hence the developed simulation model is a design tool to study the dynamic behavior of Sensorless Controlled Brushless DC Motor.
Developing Micro DC-Brushless Motor Driver and Position Control for Fiber Positioners
Jenni, Laurent; Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Gillet, Denis; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed; Prada, Francisco; De Rivera, Guillermo; Sanchez, Justo
2014-01-01
In the large-scale, Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), thousands of fiber positioners will be used. Those are robotic positioners, with two axis, and having the size of a pen. They are tightly packed on the focal plane of the telescope. Dedicated micro-robots have been developed and they use 4mm brushless DC motors. To simplify the implementation and reduce the space occupancy, each actuator will integrate its own electronic control board. This board will be used to communicate with the central trajectory generator, manage low level control tasks and motor current feeding. In this context, we present a solution for a highly compact electronic. This electronic is composed of two layers. The first is the power stage that can drive simultaneously two brushless motors. The second one consists of a fast microcontroller and deals with different control tasks: communication, acquisition of the hall sensor signals, commutation of the motors phases, and performing position and current regulation. A set of di...
Cho, Chahee Peter
1995-01-01
Until recently, brush dc motors have been the dominant drive system because they provide easily controlled motor speed over a wide range, rapid acceleration and deceleration, convenient control of position, and lower product cost. Despite these capabilities, the brush dc motor configuration does not satisfy the design requirements for the U.S. Navy's underwater propulsion applications. Technical advances in rare-earth permanent magnet materials, in high-power semiconductor transistor technology, and in various rotor position-sensing devices have made using brushless permanent magnet motors a viable alternative. This research investigates brushless permanent magnet motor technology, studying the merits of dual-air gap, axial -field, brushless, permanent magnet motor configuration in terms of power density, efficiency, and noise/vibration levels. Because the design objectives for underwater motor applications include high-power density, high-performance, and low-noise/vibration, the traditional, simplified equivalent circuit analysis methods to assist in meeting these goals were inadequate. This study presents the development and verification of detailed finite element analysis (FEA) models and lumped parameter circuit models that can calculate back electromotive force waveforms, inductance, cogging torque, energized torque, and eddy current power losses. It is the first thorough quantification of dual air-gap, axial -field, brushless, permanent magnet motor parameters and performance characteristics. The new methodology introduced in this research not only facilitates the design process of an axial field, brushless, permanent magnet motor but reinforces the idea that the high-power density, high-efficiency, and low-noise/vibration motor is attainable.
诸自强
2008-01-01
The torque-speed characteristics of brushless motor having an interior permanent magnet rotor and a sinusoidalback-emf waveform are compared experimentally when it is operated in brushless AC (BLAC) mode and brushless DC(BLDC) modes with both 2-phase, 120° conduction (BLDC-120) and 3-phase,180° conduction (BLDC-180).Particularemphasis is on high-speed,six-step voltage controlled,flux-weakening operation.h is shown that for EV/HEV applications,even for interior PM brushless motors which have sinusoidal back-emf waveforms,in order to achieve maximum torque perampere capability over wide operation speed range,it is advantageous to employ a hybrid operation mode-BLAC operationin the constant torque region and six-step voltage control (BLDC-180 operation, together with current phase control) inthe flux-weakening region.
Saxena, Anand
The focus of this research was to demonstrate a four blade rotor trim in forward flight using integrated trailing edge flaps instead of using a swashplate controls. A compact brushless DC motor was evaluated as an on-blade actuator, with the possibility of achieving large trailing edge flap amplitudes. A control strategy to actuate the trailing edge flap at desired frequency and amplitude was developed and large trailing edge flap amplitudes from the motor (instead of rotational motion) were obtained. Once the actuator was tested on the bench-top, a lightweight mechanism was designed to incorporate the motor in the blade and actuate the trailing edge flaps. A six feet diameter, four bladed composite rotor with motor-flap system integrated into the NACA 0012 airfoil section was fabricated. Systematic testing was carried out for a range of load conditions, first in the vacuum chamber followed by hover tests. Large trailing edge flap deflections were observed during the hover testing, and a peak to peak trailing edge flap amplitude of 18 degree was achieved at 2000 rotor RPM with hover tip Mach number of 0.628. A closed loop controller was designed to demonstrate trailing edge flap mean position and the peak to peak amplitude control. Further, a soft pitch link was designed and fabricated, to replace the stiff pitch link and thereby reduce the torsional stiffness of the blade to 2/rev. This soft pitch link allowed for blade root pitch motion in response to the trailing edge flap inputs. Blade pitch response due to both steady as well as sinusoidal flap deflections were demonstrated. Finally, tests were performed in Glenn L. Martin wind tunnel using a model rotor rig to assess the performance of motor-flap system in forward flight. A swashplateless trim using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps was achieved for a rotor operating at 1200 RPM and an advance ratio of 0.28. Also, preliminary exploration was carried out to test the scalability of the motor
Position and Speed Control of Brushless DC Motors Using Sensorless Techniques and Application Trends
Gamazo-Real, José Carlos; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto; Gómez-Gil, Jaime
2010-01-01
This paper provides a technical review of position and speed sensorless methods for controlling Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motor drives, including the background analysis using sensors, limitations and advances. The performance and reliability of BLDC motor drivers have been improved because the conventional control and sensing techniques have been improved through sensorless technology. Then, in this paper sensorless advances are reviewed and recent developments in this area are introduced with their inherent advantages and drawbacks, including the analysis of practical implementation issues and applications. The study includes a deep overview of state-of-the-art back-EMF sensing methods, which includes Terminal Voltage Sensing, Third Harmonic Voltage Integration, Terminal Current Sensing, Back-EMF Integration and PWM strategies. Also, the most relevant techniques based on estimation and models are briefly analysed, such as Sliding-mode Observer, Extended Kalman Filter, Model Reference Adaptive System, Adaptive observers (Full-order and Pseudoreduced-order) and Artificial Neural Networks. PMID:22163582
The Modelling and Characteristic Analysis of Brushless Synchronous Motor with Sinusoidal back EMF
Kim, Il Nam [Dong Seoul College (Korea); Baek, Soo Hyun; Maeng, In Jae; Yoon, Shin Yong; Baek, Soo Hyun [Dongguk University (Korea); Kim, Cherl Jin [Hanlla University (Korea)
2000-06-01
This paper presents the mathematical analysis of Brushless Synchronous Motor(BLSM). The dynamic and the steady state characteristics of BLSM are simulated and analyzed : electromagnetic torque, speed, line voltage, and current. We used mathematical modelling to model of BLSM with sinusoidal back EMF, namely the shaft transformation referencing rotor frame from a, b, c three phase frame to d-q two phase frame. Therefore, the BLSM induced a sinusoidal back EMF requires sinusoidal current to produce constant torque like synchronous motor. The experiment result has already similar to compare with simulation result : torque error about 7%, speed error about 5%. The validity of proposed modelling and analysis was confirmed by the experimental result. (author). 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.
Speed Digital Control of Brushless DC Motor Using dsPIC Controller
Gheorghe Băluţă
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the digital control of the Brushless DC motor (BLDCM speed. The dsPICDEM MC1 development system (with the dsPIC30F6010A microcontroller and the dsPICDEM MC1L power module, manufactured by Microchip Company, were used. The control program was developed in C programming language. The graphical user interface was realized in LabVIEW 8.6 graphical programming language. For speed control, a digital controller PI type was implemented. Due to digital controller well chosen and well tuned, the system response at speed step variation is very good. Therewith, the experimental results obtained also show a good compensation of disturbance which does not happen in open-loop control.
C. Subba Rami Reddy
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces an Integrated fuzzy logic controller (IFLC for brushless dc (BLDC motor drives using advanced simulation model and presents a comparative study of performances of PID controller and IFLC. The dynamic characteristics of speed and torque are effectively monitored and analyzed using the proposed model. The aim of IFLC is to obtain improved performance in terms of disturbance rejection or parameter variation than obtained using PID controller. The IFLC is constructed by using Fuzzy logic controller (FLC and PID controller. A performance comparison of the controllers is also given based on the integral of the absolute value of the error (IAE, the integral of the squared error (ISE, the integral of the time-weighted absolute error (ITAE and the integral of the time-weighted squared error (ITSE. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Analysis of Commutation Torque Ripple Minimization for Brushless DC Motor Based on SEPIC Converter
R.Jogarao
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM are widely used in automated industrial applications like Computer Numerical Control (CNC machinery, aerospace applications and in the field of robotics.But it still suffers from commutation torque which mainly depends on speed and transient line commutation interval. BLDC MOTOR torque ripple causes increased acoustic noise and undesirable speed fluctuation. This paper presents a new circuit topology and dc link voltage current in the control strategy to keep incoming and outgoing phase currents changing at the same rate during commutation. In this paper dc-dc single ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC a switch selection circuit are employed in front of inverter. In order to obtain the desired commutation voltage resulting in reduced commutation torque ripple. Compared with simulation result conventional system and proposed method can obtain desired voltage much faster and minimize commutation torque ripple more efficiently.
A Design Study of Dual-Stator Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor
Yanliang Xu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Dual-stator permanent magnet brushless DC Motor (DSBLDC features high efficiency and torque-density. As DSBLDC could operate in various states according to different winding connection modes, it is fully qualified for electric vehicle (EV drive. Unfortunately, due to the particular dual-stator structure, this kind of motor is difficult to be designed by available design methods. However, this paper demonstrates that a DSBLDC with series magnetic circuit structure can be regarded as being consisted of two independent BLDCs, i.e. an inner-rotor BLDC and an outer-rotor BLDC. Thus, the DSBLDC can be divided into two single-stator BLDCs. Based on this demonstration, the design method is verified by finite element analysis (FEA, and the basic design steps are given. Furthermore, experimental results of the prototype motor have verified the correction of the method, which also indicates that the motor with superior performance is adapted to EV drive.
Diao Xiaoyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To solve the deficiencies of long optimization time and poor precision existing in conventional bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA in the process of parameter optimization, an improved bacterial foraging algorithm (IBFA is proposed and applied to speed and displacement control system of bearingless brushless DC (Bearingless BLDC motors. To begin with the fundamental principle of BFA, the proposed method is introduced and the individual intelligence is efficiently used in the process of parameter optimization, and then the working principle of bearingless BLDC motors is expounded. Finally, modeling and simulation of the speed and displacement control system of bearingless BLDC motors based on the IBFA are carried out by taking the software of MATLAB/Simulink as a platform. Simulation results show that, speed overshoot, torque ripple and rotor position oscillation are dramatically reduced, thus the proposed method has good application prospects in the field of bearingless motors.
Electromagnetic Flux Analysis of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Using Magnet Software
G.R.Puttalakshmi
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC motors is emerging as a suitable motor for a number of drive applications in industrial and consumer products. Cogging torque is one of the important drawbacks of PMBLDC motor which results in shaft vibrations and noise. The focus of this work is to minimize the electromagnetic flux and cogging torque in PMBLDC by introducing structural design modifications. The performance of the machine is analyzed by varying the magnet pole shape, magnet pole width and by using magnetic material with different remenance value. For analyzing the performance of the machine, machine is modeled using Finite Element Analysis (FEA based software package Magnet. Cogging torque and average torque are taken as performance measures to determineoptimum pole shape and pole width.
FU Huinan; CHEN Dongsheng; ZHAO Yong; LIN Binquan
2008-01-01
A minitype precise spindle system which can machine precisely and stably in the process of diamond lapping and polishing is designed. In such minitype spindle system, the brushless DC spindle motor is used to drive the lapping finish table, which is built with fluid dynamic bearings. Some measures have been taken to make the lapping system dynamic balance, and a servo controller which can adjust the speed of motor from 1 200 r/min to 5 400 r/min is designed. Experiments show that the spindle system is reliable and stable for diamond polishing, and the detection results by atomic force microscope(AFM) show that the surfaces of diamond edge's Ra is 6.725 nm and whole diamond average Ra is 3.25 nm.
A novel configuration for a brushless DC motor with an integrated planetary gear train
Yan, Hong-Sen; Wu, Yi-Chang
2006-06-01
This paper presents a novel configuration of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor with an integrated planetary gear train, which provides further functional and structural integrations to overcome inherent drawbacks of traditional designs. The effects of gear teeth on the magnetic field and performance of the BLDC motor are investigated. Two standard gear profile systems integrated on the stator with feasible numbers of gear teeth are introduced to reduce the cogging torque. An equivalent magnetic circuit model and an air-gap permeance model are applied to analytically analyze the magnetic field, while the validity is verified by 2-D finite-element method (FEM). Furthermore, the motor performance is discussed and compared with an existing design. The results show that the present design has the characteristics of lower cogging torque and torque ripple than the conventional design, which is of benefit to the widely applications on accurate motion and position control for BLDC motors.
Optimization and Verification of a Brushless DC-Motor for Cryogenic Mechanisms
Eggens, M.; van Loon, D.; Smit, H. P.; Jellema, W.; Dieleman, P.; Detrain, A.; Stokroos, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, A. C. T.
2013-09-01
In this paper we report on the results of the investigation on the feasibility of a cryogenic motor for a Filter Wheel Mechanism (FWM) for the instrument SpicA FAR-infrared Instrument (SAFARI). The maximum allowed dissipation of 1 mW is a key requirement, as a result of the limited cooling resources of the satellite. Therefore a quasi 3D electromagnetic (EM) model of a Brushless DC (BLDC) motor has been developed. To withstand the severe launch loads a mechanical concept has been designed to limit the friction torque in the bearings. The model was verified by room temperature and cryogenic measurements on an existing motor from the test setup. The model shows that the proposed BLDC motor design fulfills the requirements.
Effect of design variables on irreversible magnet demagnetization in brushless dc motor
Kim, Tae Heoung; Lee, Ju
2005-05-01
The large demagnetizing currents in brushless dc (BLdc) motor are generated by the short-circuited stator windings and the fault of a drive circuit. So, irreversible magnet demagnetization occurs due to the external demagnetizing field by these currents. In this paper, we deal with the effect of design variables on irreversible magnet demagnetization in BLdc motor through the modeling approach using a two-dimensional finite-element method (2D FEM). The nonlinear analysis of a permanent magnet is added to 2D FEM to consider irreversible demagnetization. As a result, it is shown that magnet thickness, teeth surface width, and rotor back yoke thickness are the most important geometrical dimensions of BLdc motor in terms of irreversible magnet demagnetization.
Adaptive H∞ nonlinear velocity tracking using RBFNN for linear DC brushless motor
Tsai, Ching-Chih; Chan, Cheng-Kain; Li, Yi Yu
2012-01-01
This article presents an adaptive H ∞ nonlinear velocity control for a linear DC brushless motor. A simplified model of this motor with friction is briefly recalled. The friction dynamics is described by the Lu Gre model and the online tuning radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to parameterise the nonlinear friction function and un-modelled errors. An adaptive nonlinear H ∞ control method is then proposed to achieve velocity tracking, by assuming that the upper bounds of the ripple force, the changeable load and the nonlinear friction can be learned by the RBFNN. The closed-loop system is proven to be uniformly bounded using the Lyapunov stability theory. The feasibility and the efficacy of the proposed control are exemplified by conducting two velocity tracking experiments.
Wang, Hao; Zhang, Fengge; Guan, Tao; Yu, Siyang
2017-09-01
A brushless electrically excited synchronous generator (BEESG) with a hybrid rotor is a novel electrically excited synchronous generator. The BEESG proposed in this paper is composed of a conventional stator with two different sets of windings with different pole numbers, and a hybrid rotor with powerful coupling capacity. The pole number of the rotor is different from those of the stator windings. Thus, an analysis method different from that applied to conventional generators should be applied to the BEESG. In view of this problem, the equivalent circuit and electromagnetic torque expression of the BEESG are derived on the basis of electromagnetic relation of the proposed generator. The generator is simulated and tested experimentally using the established equivalent circuit model. The experimental and simulation data are then analyzed and compared. Results show the validity of the equivalent circuit model.
Gamazo-Real, José Carlos; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto; Gómez-Gil, Jaime
2010-01-01
This paper provides a technical review of position and speed sensorless methods for controlling Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motor drives, including the background analysis using sensors, limitations and advances. The performance and reliability of BLDC motor drivers have been improved because the conventional control and sensing techniques have been improved through sensorless technology. Then, in this paper sensorless advances are reviewed and recent developments in this area are introduced with their inherent advantages and drawbacks, including the analysis of practical implementation issues and applications. The study includes a deep overview of state-of-the-art back-EMF sensing methods, which includes Terminal Voltage Sensing, Third Harmonic Voltage Integration, Terminal Current Sensing, Back-EMF Integration and PWM strategies. Also, the most relevant techniques based on estimation and models are briefly analysed, such as Sliding-mode Observer, Extended Kalman Filter, Model Reference Adaptive System, Adaptive observers (Full-order and Pseudoreduced-order) and Artificial Neural Networks.
Optimization of brushless direct current motor design using an intelligent technique.
Shabanian, Alireza; Tousiwas, Armin Amini Poustchi; Pourmandi, Massoud; Khormali, Aminollah; Ataei, Abdolhay
2015-07-01
This paper presents a method for the optimal design of a slotless permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor with surface mounted magnets using an improved bee algorithm (IBA). The characteristics of the motor are expressed as functions of motor geometries. The objective function is a combination of losses, volume and cost to be minimized simultaneously. This method is based on the capability of swarm-based algorithms in finding the optimal solution. One sample case is used to illustrate the performance of the design approach and optimization technique. The IBA has a better performance and speed of convergence compared with bee algorithm (BA). Simulation results show that the proposed method has a very high/efficient performance.
The Parameter Estimation and Stability Improvement of the Brushless DC Motor
Kim, Cherl Jin [Halla University (Korea, Republic of); Im, Tae Bin [Korea Electronics Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)
1999-03-01
Generally, the digital controller has many advantages such as high precision, robustness to electrical noise, capability of flexible programming and fast response to the load variation. In this study, we have established proper mathematical equivalent model of brushless DC (BLDC) motor and estimated the motor parameter by means of the back-emf measurement as being the step input to the controlled target BLDC motor. And the validity of proposed estimation method is confirmed by the test result of step response. As well, we have designed the reasonable digital controller as a consequence of the root locus method which is obtained from the open-loop transfer function of BLDC motor with hall sensor, and the determination of control gain for variable speed control. Here, revised Ziegler-Nichols tuning method is applied for the proper digital gain establishment, and the system stability is verified by the frequency domain analysis with Bode-plot and experimentation. (author). 8 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.
Pohlmann, André; Hameyer, Kay
2012-01-01
Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) are mechanical blood pumps that support the human heart in order to maintain a sufficient perfusion of the human body and its organs. During VAD operation blood damage caused by hemolysis, thrombogenecity and denaturation has to be avoided. One key parameter causing the blood's denaturation is its temperature which must not exceed 42 °C. As a temperature rise can be directly linked to the losses occuring in the drive system, this paper introduces an efficiency prediction chain for Brushless DC (BLDC) drives which are applied in various VAD systems. The presented chain is applied to various core materials and operation ranges, providing a general overview on the loss dependencies.
Dynamic Performance of a Single Machine Brushless DFIG during Wind Speed Variation
Mona N. Eskander
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic performance of the specially-designed Single Machine Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator "SM-BDFIG" coupled to variable speed wind turbine is investigated. The rotor voltage of the SM-BDFIG during super-synchronous operation is used to charge a number of batteries, connected to the rotor via a 3- phase bridge rectifier. The number of charged battery cells are changed, by parallel and series connections, according to the wind speed variation, and consequently, the rotor voltage variation. The response of the stator, rotor, and DC link voltages and currents due to wind speed variations is presented. The electromagnetic torque, the stator active power, and the rotor active power during wind speed variations are also presented.
Bat algorithm optimized fuzzy PD based speed controller for brushless direct current motor
K. Premkumar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, design of fuzzy proportional derivative controller and fuzzy proportional derivative integral controller for speed control of brushless direct current drive has been presented. Optimization of the above controllers design is carried out using nature inspired optimization algorithms such as particle swarm, cuckoo search, and bat algorithms. Time domain specifications such as overshoot, undershoot, settling time, recovery time, and steady state error and performance indices such as root mean squared error, integral of absolute error, integral of time multiplied absolute error and integral of squared error are measured and compared for the above controllers under different operating conditions such as varying set speed and load disturbance conditions. The precise investigation through simulation is performed using simulink toolbox. From the simulation test results, it is evident that bat optimized fuzzy proportional derivative controller has superior performance than the other controllers considered. Experimental test results have also been taken and analyzed for the optimal controller identified through simulation.
Position and Speed Control of Brushless DC Motors Using Sensorless Techniques and Application Trends
Jaime Gómez-Gil
2010-07-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a technical review of position and speed sensorless methods for controlling Brushless Direct Current (BLDC motor drives, including the background analysis using sensors, limitations and advances. The performance and reliability of BLDC motor drivers have been improved because the conventional control and sensing techniques have been improved through sensorless technology. Then, in this paper sensorless advances are reviewed and recent developments in this area are introduced with their inherent advantages and drawbacks, including the analysis of practical implementation issues and applications. The study includes a deep overview of state-of-the-art back-EMF sensing methods, which includes Terminal Voltage Sensing, Third Harmonic Voltage Integration, Terminal Current Sensing, Back-EMF Integration and PWM strategies. Also, the most relevant techniques based on estimation and models are briefly analysed, such as Sliding-mode Observer, Extended Kalman Filter, Model Reference Adaptive System, Adaptive observers (Full-order and Pseudoreduced-order and Artificial Neural Networks.
Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.
1979-01-01
A comprehensive digital model for the analysis of the dynamic-instantaneous performance of a power conditioner fed samarium-cobalt permanent magnet brushless DC motor is presented. The particular power conditioner-machine system at hand, for which this model was developed, is a component of an actual prototype electromechanical actuator built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators as part of feasibility studies for the shuttle orbiter applications. Excellent correlation between digital simulated and experimentally obtained performance data was achieved for this specific prototype. This is reported on in this paper. Details of one component of the model, its applications and the corresponding results are given in this paper.
Study of direct back EMF detection for sensorless brushless DC motor
ZOU Ji-bin; JIANG Shan-lin; LIANG Wei-yan
2010-01-01
In this paper,a new rotor position detecting method for the sensorless control of brushless DC motor(BLDCM)is introduced.It obtains the phase back EMF signal from the motor terminal voltage by properly choosing the PWM and sensing strategy directly and needn' t the motor neutral point voltage information.The paper analyzes both the steady-state of PWM on the high side modulator mode which doesnt consider the parasitic capacitance Coes in the switches and the transient-state of PWM on the high side modulator mode which considers the parasitic capacitance Coes in the switches in detail.The experimental results verify that the proposed method is not sensitive to switching noise,no filtering is required,and good motor performance is achieved within a wide speed range.
Four quadrant control circuit for a brushless three-phase dc motor
Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A control circuit is provided for a brushless three-phase dc motor which affords four quadrant control from a single command. The control circuit probes acceleration of the motor in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions and braking and generation in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. In addition to turning on individual transistors of the transistor pairs connected to the phase windings of the motor for 120 deg periods while the other transistor of that pair is off, the control circuit also provides, in a future mode of operation, turning the two transistors of each pair on and off alternately at a phase modulation frequency during such a 120 deg period. A feedback signal is derived which is proportional to the motor current and which has a polarity consistent with the command signal, such that negative feedback results.
FEM Analysis of Brushless DC Servomotor with Fractional Number of Slots per Pole
BALUTA, G.
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The authors present in this paper the analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM of the magnetic circuit for a Brushless DC servomotor with fractional number of slots/pole (9 slots and 10 poles. For this purpose, FEMM 4.2 software package was used for the analysis. To obtain the waveforms of Back-ElectroMotive Forces (BEMFs, electromagnetic and cogging torque for servomotor a program in LUA scripting language (integrated into interactive shell of FEMM4.2 has been created. A comparation with a structure with integer number of slots/pole (18 slots and 6 poles was also realized. The analysis results prove that the structure chosen is an optimal solution: sinusoidal waveforms of BEMFs, improved electromagnetic torque and reduced cogging torque. Therefore, the operating characteristics of the servomotor with 9/10 slots/poles manufactured by Sistem Euroteh Company and included in an integrated electrical drives system are presented in this paper.
Integrated solar pump design incorporating a brushless DC motor for use in a solar heating system
Swan, Lukas G.; Allen, Peter L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dalhousie University, 1360 Barrington Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1Z1 (Canada)
2010-09-15
Most solar thermal hot water heating systems utilize a pump for circulation of the working fluid. An elegant approach to powering the pump is via solar energy. A ''solar pump'' employs a photovoltaic module, electric motor, and pump to collect and convert solar energy to circulate the working fluid. This article presents an experimental investigation of a new integrated solar pump design that employs the stator of a brushless DC motor and a magnetically coupled pump that has no dynamic seal. This design significantly reduces total volume and mass, and eliminates redundant components. The integrated design meets a hydraulic load of 1.7 bar and 1.4 litres per minute, equal to 4.0 watts, at a rotational speed of 500 revolutions per minute. The brushless DC motor and positive displacement pump achieve efficiencies of 62% and 52%, respectively, resulting in an electric to hydraulic efficiency of 32%. Thus, a readily available photovoltaic module rated 15 watts output is suitable to power the system. A variety of design variations were tested to determine the impact of the armature winding, pump size, pulse width modulation frequency, seal can material, etcetera. The physical and magnetic design was found to dominate efficiency. The efficiency characteristics of a photovoltaic module are such that over-sizing is wasteful. The integrated design presents a robust, efficient package for use as a solar pump. Although focus has been placed on application to a solar thermal collector system, variations of the design are suitable for a wide variety of applications such as remote location water pumping. (author)
Effect of phase advance on the brushless dc motor torque speed respond
Mohd, M. S.; Karsiti, M. N.; Mohd, M. S.
2015-12-01
Brushless direct current (BLDC) motor is widely used in small and medium sized electric vehicles as it exhibit highest specific power and thermal efficiency as compared to the induction motor. Permanent magnets BLDC rotor create a constant magnetic flux, which limit the motor top speed. As the back electromotive force (EMF) voltage increases proportionally with motor rotational speed and it approaches the amplitude of the input voltage, the phase current amplitude will reach zero. By advancing the phase current, it is possible to extend the maximum speed of the BLDC motor beyond the rated top speed. This will allow smaller BLDC motor to be used in small electric vehicles (EV) and in larger applications will allow the use of BLDC motor without the use of multispeed transmission unit for high speed operation. However, increasing the speed of BLDC will affect the torque speed response. The torque output will decrease as speed increases. Adjusting the phase angle will affect the speed of the motor as each coil is energized earlier than the corresponding rise in the back emf of the coil. This paper discusses the phase advance strategy of Brushless DC motor by phase angle manipulation approaches using external hall sensors. Tests have been performed at different phase advance angles in advance and retard positions for different voltage levels applied. The objective is to create the external hall sensor system to commutate the BLDC motor, to establish the phase advance of the BLDC by varying the phase angle through external hall sensor manipulation, observe the respond of the motor while applying the phase advance by hall sensor adjustment.
Off-line tuning of a PI speed controller for a permanent magnet brushless DC motor using DSP
Demirtas, Metin, E-mail: mdtas@balikesir.edu.t [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Balikesir University, Balikesir (Turkey)
2011-01-15
In this paper, a new method of tuning Proportional Integral (PI) coefficients for a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor drives is proposed. Artificial neural network is used to identify the whole system using maximum overshoot and settling time obtained from the application circuit for different K{sub p}-K{sub i} pairs. Optimal values of PI controller coefficients are obtained using genetic algorithm. Motion Control Kit (MCK243) is used to carry out digital motion control applications. The MCK243 kit includes a power module and a three-phase brushless motor. TMS320F243 programs are used for PMBLDC motor speed control. Experimental results are given to show the validity of this method.
Roni Permana Saputra
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the design of control system for brushless DC motor using microcontroller ATMega 16 that will be applied to an independent 4-wheel drive Mobile Robot LIPI version 2 (REV-11. The control system consists of two parts which are brushless DC motor control module and supervisory control module that coordinates the desired command to the motor control module. To control the REV-11 platform, supervisory control transmit the reference data of speed and direction of motor to control the speed and direction of each actuator on the platform REV-11. From the test results it is concluded that the designed control system work properly to coordinate and control the speed and direction of motion of the actuator motor REV-11 platform.
Gair, S.; Eastham, J. F.; Canova, A.
1996-04-01
The article reports on a study of the effects of slot closure in axial-field permanent magnet brushless machines by a two-dimensional finite element method (2D FEM) of analysis. The closure of the slots is made by using soft magnetic powder wedge material. Parameter values and machine performance for the open and closed slot configuration are computed. In order to test the 2D FEM model, calculated results are compared with measurements and favorable agreement is shown.
Bo Long; Shin Teak Lim; Ji Hyoung Ryu; Kil To Chong
2013-01-01
Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs). This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC) motor, so that the braking energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with ...
Design and Performance Test of Axial Halbach Brushless DC Motor with Power Density 1.5 Kw/Kg
Kevin Dwi Prasetio
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Progress of technology on electric vehicle component sector is one reason the emergence of electric vehicles at the moment. Starting from battery which has a great current density up to the automatic control systems on electric vehicles. But there are still some shortcomings of this electric vehicle components, one of which is the low value of power density of existing electric motor in the market today.On vehicles such as electric cars when Race Car Contest, energy saving problems about power density of the driving motor is very vital. This is because the total weight of the vehicle has a huge influence on the vehicle efficiency is against it. The issue is one of the reasons of the research task. In this final task is done making the design, simulation, and architecture of the Axial Halbach Brushless DC Motor. Use of system configuration on the halbach magnet to avoid the use of iron as a material cantilever rotor. By changing the material of the cantilever rotor with lighter materials such as aluminum or even carbon fibre, the value of power density electric motors can be increased. Then using the litz wire on coil stator to reduce loss-power loss due to the barriers on the coil. Coreless stator on the system and to avoid the phenomenon of cogging at the time due to low rpm style attraction magnet with iron in the core material. While the creation process begins by determining the specifications of the Axial Halbach Brushless DC motors. Then go into the design phase of the mechanical and electrical design. Who then conducted simulations to help determine other parameters such as air gap, slot turn, and magnetic orientation. The process of making a component of stator and rotor after the simulation is completed. After all the components of the rotor and stator on assembly, mounting the hall sensor is carried out to the right to position obtained by reading the signals. After the motor can spin with good motor performance, testing can be done
On the Application of Brushless DC Motor in Power Tools%浅谈无刷直流电机在电动工具中的应用
孙超英
2014-01-01
Make a general introduction to brushless DC motor application of power tools manufacturers, compare the technical difference between brushless DC motor and brush DC motor in powers tools from the structures and principles, combining with the significant advantages and disadvantages of brushless DC motor brushless compared with brush DC motor, to give advice of selection of brushless DC motor or brush DC motor in power tools motor from the cost of manufacturing and quality control.%介绍电动工具制造企业应用无刷直流电机的大致情况，从结构和原理上对比电动工具用无刷直流电机与有刷直流电机的技术性差异，结合无刷直流电机相比有刷直流电机的显著优缺点，从企业制造成本、质量控制角度提出了电动工具用电机选用无刷直流或有刷直流的建议方向。
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无刷双馈电机智能控制策略综述%Overview on Intelligent Control Strategies of Brushless Doubly-Fed Machines
焦卫星; 程小华
2011-01-01
This paper briefly analyzed the structure and the mathematical model of brushless doubly-fed machines. On this basis, three kinds of intelligent control strategies of brushless doubly-fed machines were introduced: fuzzy-adaptive PID control, fuzzy neural network control and expert self-adaptive PID control. Finally expected the future trends of the strategies of brushless doubly-fed machines.%简要分析了无刷双馈电机结构与数学模型.在此基础上,介绍了无刷双馈电机的三种智能控制策略:模糊自适应PID控制、模糊神经网络控制、专家自适应PID控制.最后展望了无刷双馈电机控制策略的发展趋势.
structure and performance analysis of DC brushless motor%直流无刷电动机的结构与性能分析
唐小元
2013-01-01
新世纪以来精密伺服装置向朝着高端不断发展，作为动力的直流无刷电动机作为高性能、高功率密度和长寿面的特种电机越来越引起了人们的重视。通过研究总结无刷电机结构与性能的各种联系与区别，有助于无刷电机的设计和使用。%In the new century, the precision power device has great development,the brushless DC motor as a special-ty motors of high performance and high power density and longevity have attracted people's attention. By studying relations and differences of the structure and properties of brushless motor .It is helpful for brushless motor design and use.
Pritha Agrawal
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of speed control of brushless DC motor (BLDC drive fed with conventional two-level, three and five level diode clamped multilevel inverter (DC-MLI. The performance of the drive system is successfully evaluated using Fuzzy Logic (FL based speed controller. The control structure of the proposed drive system is described. The speed and torque characteristic of conventional two-level inverter is compared with the three and five-level multilevel inverter (MLI for various operating conditions. The three and five level diode clamped multilevel inverters are simulated using IGBT’s and the mathematical model of BLDC motor has been developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The simulation results show that the Fuzzy based speed controller eliminate torque ripples and provides fast speed response. The developed Fuzzy Logic model has the ability to learn instantaneously and adapt its own controller parameters based on disturbances with minimum steady state error, overshoot and rise time of the output voltage.
GHOLAMIAN, A. S.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a magnet shape optimization method for reduction of cogging torque and torque ripple in Permanent Magnet (PM brushless DC motors is presented by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. The primary objective of the method is to reduce the enormous number of design variables required to define the magnet shape. The reduced basis technique is a weighted combination of several basis shapes. The aim of the method is to find the best combination using the weights for each shape as the design variables. A multi-level design process is developed to find suitable basis shapes or trial shapes at each level that can be used in the reduced basis technique. Each level is treated as a separated optimization problem until the required objective is achieved. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the magnet shape optimization of a 6-poles/18-slots PM BLDC motor.
Perbaikan Faktor Daya Menggunakan Cuk Converter pada Pengaturan Kecepatan Motor Brushless DC
Hadyan Perdana Putra
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Brushless DC motor (BLDC adalah mesin listrik yang sangat serbaguna. Secara konstruksi, BLDC adalah motor sinkron dengan gulungan ketat dan magnet permanen dipasang pada rotor. Dengan tidak menggunakan sikat dan komutator, sikat kerusakan dan percikan api tidak ditemukan di motor ini dan membuat BLDC lebih efisien daripada jenis lain dari motor listrik. BLDC digunakan dalam berbagai aplikasi, seperti aplikasi rumah tangga, transportasi, aerospace, pemanasan, ventilasi, robotika, dan banyak lainnya. Dalam operasi BLDC menggunakan sumber AC, rectifier dan menghubungkan kapasitor umumnya digunakan. Dan juga, karena BLDC perlu gelombang saat persegi untuk bekerja, penggunaan inverter diperlukan. Inverter juga digunakan untuk tujuan kontrol kecepatan di kontrol kecepatan BLDC konvensional. Kontrol kecepatan konvensional yang hanya menggunakan DBR dan inverter menghasilkan harmonik yang besar yang berarti mengurangi faktor daya juga. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, dapat digunakan DC-DC konverter antara rectifier dan inverter. Pada penelitian ini akan diteliti pengaruh mode Cuk Converter sebagai penghubung antara DBR dan inverter terhadap faktor daya sumber.
Improved transistor-controlled and commutated brushless DC motors for electric vehicle propulsion
Demerdash, N. A.; Miller, R. H.; Nehl, T. W.; Nyamusa, T. A.
1983-01-01
The development, design, construction, and testing processes of two electronically (transistor) controlled and commutated permanent magnet brushless dc machine systems, for propulsion of electric vehicles are detailed. One machine system was designed and constructed using samarium cobalt for permanent magnets, which supply the rotor (field) excitation. Meanwhile, the other machine system was designed and constructed with strontium ferrite permanent magnets as the source of rotor (field) excitation. These machine systems were designed for continuous rated power output of 15 hp (11.2 kw), and a peak one minute rated power output of 35 hp (26.1 kw). Both power ratings are for a rated voltage of 115 volts dc, assuming a voltage drop in the source (battery) of about 5 volts. That is, an internal source voltage of 120 volts dc. Machine-power conditioner system computer-aided simulations were used extensively in the design process. These simulations relied heavily on the magnetic field analysis in these machines using the method of finite elements, as well as methods of modeling of the machine power conditioner system dynamic interaction. These simulation processes are detailed. Testing revealed that typical machine system efficiencies at 15 hp (11.2 kw) were about 88% and 84% for the samarium cobalt and strontium ferrite based machine systems, respectively. Both systems met the peak one minute rating of 35 hp.
Optimal Control for Single-Phase Brushless DC Motor with Hall Sensor
Dawei Meng
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This study deals with the optimization control of a single-phase brushless DC motor (BLDCM with Hall sensor. A simple modeling method with feasible parameter identification is adopted to meet characteristics of single-phase BLDCM. With the linear Hall sensor feedback, the advantages of current-mode control scheme and soft-commutation scheme are proposed to achieve maximum efficiency over the entire speed range. This thesis also develops a low-cost and high efficiency control for single-phase BLDCM. The hardware test platform has been constructed on a single-chip Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA of Cyclone II Family of Altera to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposed optimization control strategies. When using the control scheme with Hall sensor, experimental results show that there are at least a 10% improvement for average value of dc-link current, a 10% improvement for RMS value of phase current and a 40% improvement for peak value of phase current.
SPEED CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ON RESONANT POLE INVERTER USING FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER
S. Sivakotiah
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Brushless dc motor has been widely used in drive system and servo control because of its fast response ,high density ,high efficiency ,low inertia ,high reliability ,maintenance free. It is however driven by a hard switching frequency, high switching losses, high electromagnetic interference, high acoustic noise and low efficiency. The rectifier/inverter with a simple commutation circuit to provide zero voltage turn on for the switches and soft turn off for diodes. The converter is intended for high performance, medium power applications requiring bidirectional power flow .A new soft switching inverter has been developed to overcome over voltages and over current problems existing resonant link inverter .This inverter employs a single auxiliary switches. The introduces fuzzy logic based soft switching resonant pole inverter using transformer, which can generates dc link voltages notches during chopping which an minimized the drawback of soft switching, The operation principle and control scheme of the inverter are analyzed and performance of the fuzzy controller is compared with conventional PI controller .The simulation result show that the fuzzy controller is compared with the conventional PI controller.
SANJEEV SINGH
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM drives are being employed in many variable speed applications due to their high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high reliability, ease of control, and low maintenance requirements. These drives have power quality problems and poor power factor at input AC mains as they are mostly fed through diode bridge rectifier based voltage source inverters. To overcome such problems a single-phase single-switch power factor correction AC-DC converter topology based on a Cuk converter is proposed to feed voltage source inverters based PMBLDCM. It focuses on the analysis, design and performance evaluation of the proposed PFC converter topology for a 1.5 kW, 1500 rpm, 400 V PMBLDCM drive used for an air-conditioning system. The proposed PFC converter topology is modelled and its performance is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment and results show an improved power quality and good power factor in wide speed range of the drive.
Sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor
Liu, Li-Hsiang; Chern, Tzuen-Lih; Pan, Ping-Lung; Huang, Tsung-Mou; Tsay, Der-Min; Kuang, Jao-Hwa
2012-04-01
The precise rotor-position information is required for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor (BLACM) drive. In the conventional sinusoidal drive method, either an encoder or a resolver is usually employed. For position sensor-less vector control schemes, the rotor flux estimation and torque components are obtained by complicated coordinate transformations. These computational intensive methods are susceptible to current distortions and parameter variations. To simplify the method complexity, this work presents a sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive scheme with speed control for a three-phase BLACM. Based on the sinusoidal drive scheme, a floating period of each phase current is inserted for back electromotive force detection. The zero-crossing point is determined directly by the proposed scheme, and the rotor magnetic position and rotor speed can be estimated simultaneously. Several experiments for various active angle periods are undertaken. Furthermore, a current feedback control is included to minimize and compensate the torque fluctuation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a competitive performance compared with the conventional drive manners for BLACM. The proposed scheme is straightforward, bringing the benefits of sensor-less drive and negating the need for coordinate transformations in the operating process.
On Stability of Open-Loop Operation without Rotor Information for Brushless DC Motors
Zhong Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Open-loop operation mode is often used to control the Brushless DC Motors (BLDCMs without rotor position sensors when the back electromotive force (EMF is too weak due to the very low rotor velocity. The rotor position information is not necessary in this mode and the stator windings are supplied with voltages under a certain ratio of the amplitude to the frequency. However, the rotor synchronization will be destroyed once if the commutation instant is inappropriate. In order to improve the reliability of the open-loop operation mode, a dynamic equation is established to represent the synchronization error between the rotor and the stator. Thereafter, the stability of the open-loop control mode is analyzed by using Lyapunov indirect method. Theoretical analysis indicates that the open-loop control mode is asymptotically stable only when the commutation instant of the stator current lags behind the ideal one suitably. Finally, theoretical analysis is verified through the experimental results of a certain BLDCM.
Design and control of the phase current of a brushless dc motor to eliminate cogging torque
Jang, G. H.; Lee, C. J.
2006-04-01
This paper presents a design and control method of the phase current to reduce the torque ripple of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor by eliminating cogging torque. The cogging torque is the main source of torque ripple and consequently of speed error, and it is also the excitation source to generate the vibration and noise of a motor. This research proposes a modified current wave form, which is composed of main and auxiliary currents. The former is the conventional current to generate the commutating torque. The latter generates the torque with the same magnitude and opposite sign of the corresponding cogging torque at the given position in order to eliminate the cogging torque. Time-stepping finite element method simulation considering pulse-width-modulation switching method has been performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, and it shows that this proposed method reduces torque ripple by 36%. A digital-signal-processor-based controller is also developed to implement the proposed method, and it shows that this proposed method reduces the speed ripple significantly.
A novel position-sensorless control method for brushless DC motors
Zhang, X.Z., E-mail: Z_X_Z2000@163.co [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China) and School of Computer and Communication, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan (China); Wang, Y.N. [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)
2011-03-15
This paper presents the design and implementation of a high performance position-sensorless control scheme for the extensively used brushless DC (BLDC) motors. In the proposed method, with proper PWM strategy, instead of detecting the zero-crossing point (ZCP) of the nonexcited motor back electromagnetic force (EMF) or the average motor terminal to neutral voltage, the true zero-crossing points of back EMF are extracted directly from the difference of the specific average line-to-line voltages with simple RC circuits and comparators. In contrast to conventional methods, the neutral voltage is not needed and the diode freewheeling currents in the nonconducted phase are eliminated completely; therefore, the commutation signals are more accurate and insensitive to the common-mode noise. Moreover, 100% pulse-width-modulation (PWM) duty ratio control of BLDC motors is provided with the presented method. As a result, the proposed method makes it possible to achieve good motor performance over a wide speed range and to simplify the starting procedure. The detailed circuit model is analyzed and some experimental results obtained from a sensorless prototype are shown to verify the analysis and confirm the validity of the proposed method.
The Analysis of Vibration Due to Magnetic Exciting Force in the Brushless DC Motor
Han, Ki Jin [LG Innotek (Korea); Cho, Han Sam; Jung, Hyun Kyo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)
2001-01-01
In this paper, the general research on the analysis of the vibration due to magnetic exciting force in the small brushless DC(BLDC) motor, which is used in the Digital Versatile Disk(DVD) ROM driving system, is performed. The first part of the study is the analysis of the magnetic exciting force in the air gap region. As a verification of the exciting force by numerical analysis, the magnetic exciting force distribution in the airgap region is computed by using Reluctance Network Method(RNM). In addition, thr effect of the eccentricity on the magnetic exciting force is discussed. The other part of the research is the structural analysis if the rotor structure of thr BLDC motor. The natural mode analysis of thr rotor structure is performed, and the vibration response due to magnetic exciting force is found. As a result of the procedures, the basic estimation of the effect of the magnetic exciting force on the vibration of BLDC motor is suggested. (author). 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Control System of Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Based on TMS320F240
Li Zeng
2011-11-01
Full Text Available A brushless DC(BLDC motor with the characteristics of high speed and high power density has been more widely used in industrial area. The BLDC motor requires the position and speed sensors for control. However the position sensors are undesirable from standpoints of size, cost, maintenance and reliability. There are some different ways that can solve this problem, depending on the flux distribution. This paper describes a control system of sensorless BLDC motor. The back-EMF is adopted to detect the rotor position. The back-EMF is very small in the motor starting process, and it is difficult to obtain rotor position efficiently. A re-setting method of the rotor is proposed in the paper, and current closed loop is used for high-speed and safety in the motor starting process. A good speed and current double closed loops system is designed. The speed and current regulators are implemented by a digital signal processor(DSP. A simple algorithm is used to calculate motor speed indirectly by the software, which simplifies the system hardware structure. The hardware structure and software design of sensorless BLDC motor control system are described in details. The simulation and experimental results have shown the validity of the sensorless control system and the accuracy of the detective position signal obtained.
Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a PM Brushless Rotor Claw Pole Motor with FEM
Zhenyang Zhang
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A new type of permanent magnet (PM brushless claw pole motor (CPM with soft magnetic composite (SMC core is designed and analyzed in this paper. The PMs are mounted on the claw pole surface, and the three-phase stator windings are fed by variable-frequency three-phase AC currents. The advantages of the proposed CPM are that the slip rings on the rotor are cast off and it can achieve the efficiency improvement and higher power density. The effects of the claw-pole structure parameters, the air-gap length, and the PM thinner parameter of the proposed CPM on the output torque are investigated by using three-dimensional time-stepping finite element method (3D TS-FEM. The optimal rotor structure of the proposed CPM is obtained by using the response surface methodology (RSM and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the comparison of full-load performances of the proposed CPM with different material cores (SMC and silicon steel is analyzed.
Astik, Mitesh B.; Bhatt, Praghnesh; Bhalja, Bhavesh R.
2017-03-01
A sensorless control scheme based on an unknown input observer is presented in this paper in which back EMF of the Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) is continuously estimated from available line voltages and currents. During negative rotation of motor, actual and estimated speed fail to track the reference speed and if the corrective action is not taken by the observer, the motor goes into saturation. To overcome this problem, the speed estimation algorithm has been implemented in this paper to control the dynamic behavior of the motor during negative rotation. The Ackermans method was used to calculate the gains of an unknown input observer which is based on the appropriate choice of the eigenvalues in advance. The criteria to choose eigenvalue is to obtain a balance between faster convergence rate and the least noise level. Simulations have been carried out for different disturbances such as step changes in motor reference speed and load torque. The comparative simulation results clearly depict that the disturbance effects in actual and estimated responses minimizes as observer gain setting increases.
Матющенко, Александр Владимирович
2015-01-01
Проведен сравнительный анализ расчета ЭДС, зубцового и электромагнитного моментов вентильного двигателя с постоянными магнитами в двухмерной и трехмерной постановке задачи на платформе JMAG-Designer 12. By means of JMAG-Designer 12 the author performed a comparative analysis of the calculation of the EMF, cogging torque and electromagnetic torque of brushless motor with permanent magnets in two-dimensional and three-dimensional formulation of the problem....
Gwaltney, D. A.
2002-01-01
A FY 2001 Center Director's Discretionary Fund task to develop a test platform for the development, implementation. and evaluation of adaptive and other advanced control techniques for brushless DC (BLDC) motor-driven mechanisms is described. Important applications for BLDC motor-driven mechanisms are the translation of specimens in microgravity experiments and electromechanical actuation of nozzle and fuel valves in propulsion systems. Motor-driven aerocontrol surfaces are also being utilized in developmental X vehicles. The experimental test platform employs a linear translation stage that is mounted vertically and driven by a BLDC motor. Control approaches are implemented on a digital signal processor-based controller for real-time, closed-loop control of the stage carriage position. The goal of the effort is to explore the application of advanced control approaches that can enhance the performance of a motor-driven actuator over the performance obtained using linear control approaches with fixed gains. Adaptive controllers utilizing an exact model knowledge controller and a self-tuning controller are implemented and the control system performance is illustrated through the presentation of experimental results.
Speed Control Analysis of Brushless DC Motor Based on Maximum Amplitude DC Current Feedback
Hassan M.A.A.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to develop accurate and simple current controlled modulation technique for brushless DC (BLDC motor drive. The approach is applied to control phase current based on generation of quasi-square wave current by using only one current controller for the three phases. Unlike the vector control method which is complicated to be implemented, this simple current modulation technique presents advantages such as phase currents are kept in balance and the current is controlled through only one dc signal which represent maximum amplitude value of trapezoidal current (Imax. This technique is performed with Proportional Integral (PI control algorithm and triangular carrier comparison method to generate Pulse Width Modulation (PWM signal. In addition, the PI speed controller is incorporated with the current controller to perform desirable speed operation of non-overshoot response. The performance and functionality of the BLDC motor driver are verified via simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results show the developed control system performs desirable speed operation of non-overshoot and good current waveforms.
Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like
Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.
简介永磁无刷直流电机的原理及特点%Brief in Principle and Feature of Permanent Magnetic Brushless DC Motor
刘志刚
2014-01-01
介绍无刷直流电机在电动工具中的运用概况，对无刷电机相比有刷电机的特点、结构和控制原理进行分析，展望对电动工具应用新型电机的未来趋势。%Introduce the brushless DC motor used in power tools, analyze the characteristics, structures and control principles of brushless motor compared with brush motor, looking forward to the future trend of the new motor for power tools applications.
Luo, Shaohua, E-mail: hua66com@163.com [The Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai’an 223003 (China); School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hou, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhong [The Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai’an 223003 (China)
2015-12-15
In this paper, chaos control is proposed for the output- constrained system with uncertain control gain and time delay and is applied to the brushless DC motor. Using the dynamic surface technology, the controller overcomes the repetitive differentiation of backstepping and boundedness hypothesis of pre-determined control gain by incorporating radial basis function neural network and adaptive technology. The tangent barrier Lyapunov function is employed for time-delay chaotic system to prevent constraint violation. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee asymptotically stable in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness without constraint violation. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated on the brushless DC motor example.
Luo, Shaohua; Hou, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhong
2015-12-01
In this paper, chaos control is proposed for the output- constrained system with uncertain control gain and time delay and is applied to the brushless DC motor. Using the dynamic surface technology, the controller overcomes the repetitive differentiation of backstepping and boundedness hypothesis of pre-determined control gain by incorporating radial basis function neural network and adaptive technology. The tangent barrier Lyapunov function is employed for time-delay chaotic system to prevent constraint violation. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee asymptotically stable in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness without constraint violation. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated on the brushless DC motor example.
System Simulation of Brushless DC Motor%无刷直流电动机的系统仿真
孙艳霞; 刘宗
2000-01-01
建立了一个场路结合的无刷直流电动机系统数学模型，对其稳态动特性进行了仿真，并分析了不同电机参数对电机性能的影响．%The steady-state dynamic performances of brushless DC motor are simulated. Themathematics model of field-circuit coupled is established, and the key parameters effectingperformance are analyzed.
无
2007-01-01
This paper develops a unified methodology for a real-time speed control of brushless direct-current motor drive systems in the presence of measurement noise and load torque disturbance. First, the mathematical model and hardware structure of system is established. Next, an optimal state feed back controller using the Kalman filter state estimation technique is derived.This is followed by an adaptive control algorithm to compensate for the effects of noise and disturbance. Those two algorithms working together can provide a very-high-speed regulation and dynamic response over a wide range of operating conditions.Simulated responses are presented to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Development of a Practical Low-Cost µC based Brushless DC Motor Controller using Proteus
Y. L. Karnavas; Ch. L. Liagkos
2012-01-01
Simulation, design and prototype construction of a low cost three phase permanent magnet (PM) brushless DC (BLDC) motor controller for low power applications is studied in this paper. The drive circuitry is based on the PIC16F877A microcontroller (µC), which –among others- performs pulse width modulation (PWM) control for a 6-step, 120-degree trapezoidal PM BLDC motor drive. The specific processor is a widely used one and its characteristics are judged excellent in conjunction with its low c...
ZHU Z.Q.; SHI Y.F.; HOWE D.
2005-01-01
The flux-weakening performance of a permanent magnet brushless AC drive was investigated using both floating-point and fixed-point DSP controllers. A significant current oscillation was observed when the drive was operated at high-speed in the flux-weakening mode with the fixed-point DSP. The investigation showed that this was due to the on-line compensation of the winding resistance voltage drop and quantisation errors associated with the fixed-point architecture of the DSP. A simple look-up table scheme is proposed to eliminate the oscillation and to achieve extended flux-weakening capability.
冰箱的直流无刷电机控制%Brushless DC Motor Control for Refrigerators
Padmaraja Yedamale
2009-01-01
无刷直流（Brushless DC，BLDC）电机相对于感应电机具有很多优点。BLDC电机支持无级变速，这可以提高能效并降低噪声。BLDC电机的速度一扭矩特性曲线是平直的，这使电机可以在较低的速度下运行，无需消耗更高电流即可产生相同扭矩。
Lee, C. J.; Jang, G. H.
2008-04-01
This paper investigates the distortion of magnetic field of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor due to deformed rubber magnet. Global or local deformation of rubber magnet in the BLDC motor is mathematically modeled by using the Fourier series. Distorted magnetic field is calculated by using the finite element method, and unbalanced magnetic force is calculated by using the Maxwell stress tensor. When the rubber magnet is globally or locally deformed, the unbalanced magnetic force has the frequencies with the first harmonic and the harmonics of slot number ±1. However, the harmonic deformation with multiple of common divisor of pole and slot does not generate unbalanced magnetic force due to the rotational symmetry.
Modeling and control of a novel dual-stator brushless doubly-fed wind power generation system
Cheng, Ming; Wei, Xinchi; Han, Peng
2014-01-01
A novel dual-stator brushless doubly-fed induction generator-based wind power generation system (DSBDFIG-WPGS), with the merits of reduced converter scale, compact structure and high reliability, is proposed in this paper. System topology, operational principle and power flow of the DSBDFIG......-WPGS are analyzed. Based on the modelling of the system, a vector control scheme is proposed to realize decoupled control of the reactive power and the speed. Furthermore, a speed based maximum power point tracking method is adopted in the system. The simulation results demonstrate stable operation of the DSBDFIG...
2011-01-01
The Brushless Direct Current （BLDC） motor is widely used in aerospace area, CNC machines and servo systems that require the high control accuracy Once the faults occur in the motor, it will cause great damage to the whole system. Mechanical faults are common in electric machines, and account for up to 50%-60% of the faults. Approximately, 80% of the mechanical faults lead to the eccentricity. So it is necessary to monitor the health condition of the motor to ensure the faults can be detected earlier and measures will be taken to imorove the reliability.
Ishak, D.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Howe, D.
2005-05-01
The electromagnetic performance of fault-tolerant three-phase permanent magnet brushless dc motors, in which the wound teeth are wider than the unwound teeth and their tooth tips span approximately one pole pitch and which have similar numbers of slots and poles, is investigated. It is shown that they have a more trapezoidal phase back-emf wave form, a higher torque capability, and a lower torque ripple than similar fault-tolerant machines with equal tooth widths. However, these benefits gradually diminish as the pole number is increased, due to the effect of interpole leakage flux.
Zhu, Z.Q.; Chen, Y. S.; Howe, D.
2002-01-01
The airgap flux density distribution, flux density loci in the stator core, and the associated iron loss in two topologies of brushless AC motor, having a surface-mounted magnet rotor and an interior-mounted magnet rotor, respectively, are investigated when operated under maximum torque per ampere control in the constant torque mode and maximum power control in the flux-weakening mode. It is shown that whilst the interior magnet topology is known to be eminently suitable for flux-weakening op...
Metamodels for New Designs of Outer-Rotor Brushless Synchronous Electric Motors
Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.
2014-04-01
The authors consider the possibilities to synthesise metamodels for the analysis and optimisation of brushless synchronous motors. The metamodels are presented for new designs of the outer-rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor and the outer-rotor reluctance motor. The metamodels are synthesised based on the results obtained by the numerical calculations of magnetic field taking into account magnetic saturation. Analysis of the results for the motor magnetic field and tests of the metamodels at the selected and intermediate points shows that these can be synthesised with acceptable accuracy using numerical calculations instead of expensive real experiments. Rakstā ir apskatītas metamodeļu iegūšanas iespējas to izmantošanai bezkontaktu sinhrono dzinēju analīzē un optimizācijā. Ir iegūti metamodeļi sinhronam dzinējam ar pastāvīgajiem magnētiem un reaktīvam dzinējam ar ārējo rotoru. Sintezēto metamodeļu iegūšanai izmantoti elektrisko dzinēju magnētiskā lauka skaitlisko aprēķinu rezultāti, ievērojot magnētiskās ķēdes piesātinājumu. Metamodeļu pārbaude aprēķinu un starppunktos parādīja, ka to iegūšanai dārgo reālo eksperimentu vietā var izmantot magnētiskā lauka aprēķinu rezultātus.
Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.
1979-01-01
A mathematical model was developed and computerized simulations were obtained for a brushless dc motor. Experimentally obtained oscillograms of the machine phase currents are presented and the corresponding current and voltage waveforms for various modes of operation of the motor are presented and discussed.
Summary of Detecting Rotor Position Technique for Brushless DC Motor%无刷直流电机转子位置检测技术综述
吴红星; 叶宇骄; 倪天; 郭庆波
2011-01-01
无刷直流电机是一种先进的机电一体化装置,无刷直流电动机及控制技术由于其本身特点,使其成为驱动控制领域的研究焦点.该文根据无刷直流电机无位置传感器控制特点,分析了无刷直流电机工作原理,结合国内外基于无刷直流电机转子位置检查控制的相关文献,综述了无刷直流电机转子位置检测控制方法发展概况,并针对每种控制方法阐述了其优缺点.%The brushless DC Motor Drives is an advanced mechanical electronic devices. The technology of sensorless brushless DC motor control is becoming researching focus because of its special structure and low cost. The article presented analysis of characteristics and working principle of the brushless DC motor. It also discussed the development of detecting rotor position means for brushless DC motor based on the relevant literature home and abroad. At the same time it described the advantages and disadvantages of various methods according to each new detecting rotor position technique.
Study of Fuzzy Adaptive PID Control of Brushless DC Motor%无刷直流电机模糊自适应PID控制的研究
潘晓磊; 赵川; 吕海立
2016-01-01
为了提高无刷直流电机控制系统的动、静态性能，将模糊控制结合PID控制算法应用到无刷直流电机速度控制系统中。在分析了无刷直流电机速度控制系统的基础上，利用PSIM与MATLAB／Simulink共同建立了无刷直流电动机模糊自适应PID控制的仿真模型，充分发挥了PSIM和MATLAB／Simulink各自在仿真方面的优势，简化了建立仿真模型的过程。仿真结果表明，采用模糊PID集成控制算法能够使无刷直流电机速度控制系统具有更快的响应速度和更强的抗干扰能力，对无刷直流电机控制系统的设计具有一定的指导意义。%In order to improve the static and dynamic performance of brushless DC motor control system, fuzzy control combined with PID control algorithm is applied to the brushless DC motor speed control system, the integration of fuzzy PID control algorithm. On the analysis of the brushless dc motor speed control system, using the MATLAB/Simulink to establish brushless DC motor speed control system simulation model. Among them, the control system of brushless DC motor drive model and control algorithm were established in PSIM and MATLAB/Simulink environment, give full play to their advantages, the PSIM and MATLAB simplifies the process of establishing simulation model. The simulation results show that the integration of fuzzy PID control algorithm can make the brushless DC motor speed control system has better dynamic and static performance and strong anti-jamming capability, the design of brushless DC motor control system has a certain guiding significance.
An enhanced Z-source inverter topology-based permanent magnet brushless DC motor drive speed control
Geno Peter, P.; Rajaram, M.
2015-08-01
In this paper, an enhanced Z-source inverter (ZSI) is introduced for controlling the speed of permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) drive. It is the extension of the conventional ZSI and the elements used in the circuit are the same as those of the conventional ZSI, except that the position of Inverter Bridge and diode would be exchanged from the classical circuit diagram. This exchanged circuit avoids the startup path of the inrush current and hence reduces the inrush current and improves the motor efficiency. Different modes of enhanced ZSI are studied with PMBLDCM. The voltage polarity of Z-source capacitors in the proposed circuit is the same as that of the input voltage polarity. Furthermore, to get the same voltage boost, the capacitor voltage stress is reduced to a significant extent. The speed control capability of the proposed brushless DC motor drive is compared with that of the conventional ZSI. The proposed ZSI is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink working platform and the output performance is evaluated. Also, the performance of voltage ratio is analysed both by simulation and mathematical models. All these analyses are known to express the innovative features of the proposed system.
Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A
2017-01-03
Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.
无轴承无刷直流电机的直接转矩控制%Direct torque control of bearingless brushless DC motor
许洁; 刘贤兴; 李兵伟
2012-01-01
无轴承无刷直流电机结合了无轴承电机和无刷直流电机的优点、具有良好的行特性和广泛的运用前景.研究了无轴承无刷直流电机的控制方法,并将直接转矩控制技术应用于无轴承无刷直流电机的转矩绕组.通过Matlab/Simulink仿真和实验结果表明,转矩绕组的直接转矩控制(DTC)能提高系统的响应速度,减少转矩脉动,提高系统的静动态性能且控制方法简单有效.%Bearingless brushless DC motor, combining advantages of brushless DC motor and bearingless motor, has favorable operating characteristics and wide range of applications. In this paper, the control method of bear ingless brushless DC motor is researched, and the bearingless brushless DC motor's torque winding is controlled by using the method of direct torque control ( DTC ). By Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiment of the con trol system, the results show that the application of DTC to torque winding control of bearingless brushless DC motor is correct and feasible. DTC improves the system's response speed, reduces torque ripple, and optimizes the control effect. The control method is relatively simple.
Lukaniszyn, M.; Jagiela, M.; Wrobel, R.
2003-04-16
A brushless, permanent magnet, three-phase disc-type salient-pole DC motor with co-axial flux in the stator is considered. Electromechanical properties of a basic eight-pole motor are compared with those for a 16-pole one of the same volume, in order to contrast the two potential candidates for variable-speed, low-cost drives. As a basis of the comparative analysis, 3D FEM magnetic field modelling and circuit analysis considering an electronic commutator are employed. Increasing the number of poles results in unfavourable raising in the switching frequency. The eight-pole motor construction has been shown in simulations to have higher efficiency and lower power losses than its 16-pole counterpart. (Author)
Maryam Moazen
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a predictive direct power control (PDPC method for the brushless doubly fed reluctance generator (BDFRG is proposed. Firstly, the BDFRG active and reactive power equations are derived and then the active and reactive power variations have been predicted within a fixed sampling period. The predicted power variations are used to calculate the required voltage of the secondary winding so that the power errors at the end of the following sampling period are eliminated. Switching pulses are produced using space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM approach which causes to a fixed switching frequency. The BDFRG model and the proposed control method are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink software. Simulation results indicate the good performance of the control system in tracking of the active and reactive power references in both power step and speed variation conditions. In addition, fast dynamic response and lower output power ripple are other advantages of this control method.
Mohd Tariq
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Most of the Brushless DC (BLDC motors drive adopts proportional, integral and derivative (PID controller and pulse width modulation (PWM scheme for speed control. Hence, BLDC motor drive has strong saturation characteristics. The saturation results in a typical windup phenomenon. The paper presents an Antiwindup drive for BLDC motor. An Antiwindup controller (AWC has been used in the paper. AWC has been modeled in MATLAB/Simulink and comparison has been done between conventional PI controller and AWC at different starting loads. Dynamic characteristics of the BLDC motor drive have been examined and results are presented and discussed in detail in this paper. Details of DSP based experimental validation of the simulated results are also presented here.
A. Santhi Mary Antony
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Current fed Quasi Z-Source Inverters (qZSI have the advantages of voltage buck-boost capability, improved reliability, reduced passive component ratings, continuous input current, a common dc rail between source and inverter and unique regeneration capability. This current-fed qZSIs are bidirectional with an additional diode, unlike the voltage-fed ZSI that needs a switch to achieve bidirectional power flow. Since current fed quasi Z Source Inverter has many advantages it can be employed for motor drive applications such as Brushless DC motor (BLDC drive. Therefore this study proposes the use of qZSI for BLDC motor. The simulation results for the same are presented in this study.
V. M. Varatharaju
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The tuning methodology for the parameters of adaptive speed controller causes a transient deviation of the response from the set reference following variation in load torque in a permanent-magnet brushless DC (BLDC motor drive system. Approach: This study develops a mathematical model of the BLDC drive system, firstly. Secondly, discusses a design of the closed loop drive system employing the Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Interference System (ANFIS. The nonlinear simulation model of the BLDC motors drive system with ANFIS control based is simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. Results: The necessitated data for training the ANFIS control is generated by simulation of the system with conventional PI controller. Conclusion: The simulated electromagnetic torque and rotor speed signify the superiority of the proposed technique over the classical method.
Lee, Kab-Jae; Kim, Sol; Lee, Ju; Oh, Jae-Eung
2003-05-01
A brushless dc (BLDC) motor, which has a permanent magnet (PM) component, is a potential candidate for hybrid or electric vehicle applications. Minimizing the BLDC motor size is an important requirement for application. This requirement is usually satisfied by adopting a high performance permanent magnet or improved winding methods. The PM configuration is also a critical point in design. This article presents the effect of the PM configuration on motor performance, especially the maximum torque. Four representative BLDC motor types are analytically investigated under the condition that the volume of the PM and magnetic material is constant. An embedded interior permanent magnet motor has the best torque performance the maximum torque of which is more than 1.5 times larger than that of the surface mounted permanent magnet motor. The performance of back electromotive force, instantaneous torques is also investigated.
Zu-sheng HO; Chii-maw UANG; Ping-chieh WANG
2014-01-01
Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) sensorless driving technology is becoming increasingly established. However, op-timal phase correction still relies on complex calculations or algorithms. In finding the correct commutation point, the problem of phase lag is introduced. In this paper, we extract DC bus current information for auto-calibrating the phase shift to obtain the correct commutation point and optimize the control of BLDC sensorless driving. As we capture only DC bus current information, the original shunt resistor is used in the BLDCM driver and there is no need to add further current sensor components. Software processing using only simple arithmetic operations successfully accomplishes the phase correction. Experimental results show that the proposed method can operate accurately and stably at low or high speed, with light or heavy load, and is suitable for practical applications. This approach will not increase cost but will achieve the best performance/cost ratio and meet market expectations.
Low-cost sensorless control of four-switch, brushless DC motor drive with direct back-EMF detection
Abolfazl HALVAEI NIASAR; Abolfazl VAHEDI; Hassan MOGHBELLI
2009-01-01
We propose a position sensorless control scheme for a four-switch, three-phase brushless DC motor drive, based on the zero crossing point detection of phase back-EMF voltages using newly defined error functions (EFs). The commutation instants are 30° after detected zero crossing points of the EFs. Developed EFs have greater magnitude rather than phase or line voltages so that the sensorless control can work at a lower speed range. Moreover, EFs have smooth transitions around zero voltage level that reduces the commutation errors. EFs are derived from the filtered terminal voltages Vao and vbo of two low-pass filters, which are used to eliminate high frequency noises for calculation of the average terminal voltages. The feasibility of the proposed sensorless control is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.
HUANG Ping-lin; HU Qian-sheng; YU Li; HUANG Yun-kai
2006-01-01
Based on the configuration of deep slot concentrated coils,an analytical model is developed for predicting the armature reaction field produced by the 3-phase stator windings of permanent magnet brushless DC motors with concentrated coils by using the image method and the analytical functions of the armature reaction and winding inductances are proposed accounting for the influence of statot slotting.This approach is different from the method of equivalent distributed current sheet and more suitable for electric machines,which have concentrated coils and deeper slots.Under different control mode,the different analytical functions are presented.This will be helpful when further analyzing the performance of the motor.The results agree with the experiment very well.
基于 LPC2148的无刷直流电机控制器的设计%Brushless DC Motor Controller Based on LPC2148
郎宝华; 李本斌
2015-01-01
设计了一款以 ARM7为核心的无刷直流电机控制器，给出了软硬件的具体实现方法，实现了霍尔传感器控制和反电势法控制。实验结果表明，该控制器可以可靠地驱动无刷直流电机，并可以进行速度控制。%A brushless DC motor controller whose core is ARM T is designed .And the concrete method of realization a‐bout the software and hardware is given .Both position sensor and back electromotive force control can be realized .The ex‐perimental results show that the controller can drive brushless DC motor reliably ,and owns the ability about speed control .
Weiran Wang
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of bearingless brushless DC motor, a closed-loop suspended force controller combining the discrete space voltage vector modulation is applied and the direct torque control is presented in this paper. Firstly, we increase the number of the control vector to reduce the torque ripple. Then, the suspending equation is constructed which is spired by the direct torque control algorithm. As a result, the closed-loop suspended force controller is built. The simulated and experimental results evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The more advantage is that the proposed algorithm can achieve the fast torque response, reduce the torque ripple, and follow ideal stator flux track. Furthermore, the motor which implants the closed-loop suspended force controller cannot onlyobtain the dynamic response rapidly and displacement control accurately, but also has the characteristics of bearingless brushless DC motor (such as simple structure, high energy efficiency, small volume and low failure rate.
Shaohua Luo
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, chaos control is proposed for the output- constrained system with uncertain control gain and time delay and is applied to the brushless DC motor. Using the dynamic surface technology, the controller overcomes the repetitive differentiation of backstepping and boundedness hypothesis of pre-determined control gain by incorporating radial basis function neural network and adaptive technology. The tangent barrier Lyapunov function is employed for time-delay chaotic system to prevent constraint violation. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee asymptotically stable in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness without constraint violation. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated on the brushless DC motor example.
Li, Y.; Zhu, Z.Q.; Howe, D.; Bingham, Chris
2007-01-01
An improved brushless AC motor model is proposed for use in signal-injection-based sensorless control schemes by accounting for cross-coupling magnetic saturation between the - and -axes. The incremental self- and mutual-inductance characteristics are obtained by both finite-element analysis and measurements, and have been successfully used to significantly reduce the error in the rotor position estimation of sensorless control.
The Research of Brushless DC Motor Intelligent Control System%直流无刷电机智能控制系统研究
张文升; 胡勤耕; 王文丰; 张欣; 施怿文; 陈浩
2012-01-01
阐述直流无刷电机工作原理,分析直流无刷电机的数学模型；介绍模糊控制理论与神经网络控制理论,提出模糊自适应PID控制策略；在MATLAB环境下,分别使用反电动势建模法建立直流无刷电机控制系统的模型,并对各个模型进行仿真分析.然后利用BP神经网络控制策略,模糊自适应PID控制策略改进速度控制器中的常规PID算法,进行仿真,并将所得结果进行对比.从对比结果可以得出模糊自适应PID控制策略更适合直流无刷电机的控制.%This paper expounds the work principle of Brushless DC motor, analyzes the mathematical model of brushless DC motor; introduces the fuzzy control theory and neural network control theory, fuzzy adaptive PID control strategy; used the back EMF modeling established by the method of direct current brushless motor control system model in the MATLAB environment, and analyzes the each model simulation. Then used the BP neural network control strategy, fuzzy adaptive PID control strategy to improve the speed controller of the conventional PID algorithm, simulation, and compared the results. From the comparison of the results, the fuzzy adaptive PID control strategy for brushless DC motor control.
Circuit design of DC brushless thruster speed measurement%直流无刷推进器转速测量电路设计
陈伟; 严卫生; 赵江
2012-01-01
Digital pulse noise,which comes from DC brushless thruster outputting,affects the DC brushless thruster speed measurement. This paper puts forward a DC brushless thruster speed measurement circuit design method. The circuit u-ses a voltage follower,photoelectric isolation technology,which can eliminate the digital pulse noise influence on measurement accuracy. And we calculate the propeller speed by using frequency to voltage converter and analog to digital converter. The test results indicate that the method can effectively eliminate the digital pulse noise. The method has a good stability and high speed measurement accuracy. It can well meet the requirements of DC brushless thruster speed measurement.%直流无刷推进器输出的数字脉冲信号存在毛刺干扰,影响对推进器转速的测量.提出一种直流无刷推进器去毛刺转速测量电路的设计方法.该电路采用电压跟随、光电隔离技术,消除数字脉冲毛刺干扰对测量精度的影响；通过F/V变换、A/D转换,由测得电压计算推进器转速.试验结果表明,该电路设计可以有效的去除毛刺干扰.该方法稳定性好、测速精度高,能很好的满足对直流无刷推进器转速测量的要求.
Brushless DC Motor Self-Adaption Fuzzy PID Control System%无刷直流电机自适应模糊PID控制系统
王国玲; 李振宇; 范自道
2013-01-01
针对无刷直流电机传统PID控制存在精度低、抗干扰能力差及模糊控制稳态精度不高等问题，研究了一种自适应模糊PID控制方法。论文分析了直流无刷电机的工作原理，建立了直流无刷电机自适应模糊PID控制系统的计算机仿真数学模型，设计了系统速度环的模糊PID控制器，仿真结果表明，与传统PID控制相比，自适应模糊PID控制的BLDCM系统具有更高的稳定性和控制精度、更快的动态响应速度。%For the lower precision,bad anti-interference capability of traditional PID control and lower stable precision of fuzzy control for brushless DC motor,an adaptive fuzzy-PID control was deeply investigated in this paper. Working theory of brushless DC motor was analyzed,the simulated mathematical model of adaptive fuzzy-PID control for brushless DC motor was established,and the fuzzy-PID controller of speed regulator was designed. The results of simulation verified the better stability,the faster dynamic speed of adaptive fuzzy-PID control for brushless DC motor compared to traditional PID control.
基于PR控制的无刷双馈电机%Research on Brushless Double-fed Generator′s Flux Observation based on PR controller
李波; 韦忠朝; 高信迈; 陈前臣
2014-01-01
With the advantages of variable speed and constant frequency,brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM)has broad application prospects in Marine shaft power,hydropower and wind power system. However,there is no mature control method with high performance at present.For the practical applica-tion of BDFM(brushless doubly-fed motor)on VSCF generator model ,this paper put forward a kind of flux observation method based on PR controller .It′s the foundation for realizing brushless doubly-fed gen-erator vector control algorithm.Contrasting with pure integration method and using the simulation,this paper verified the correctness and practicability for this method on flux observation.%针对无刷双馈电机的变速恒频发电这一实际应用，提出一种基于 PR 控制器的磁链观测方法，为无刷双馈电机发电的矢量控制算法的实现打好基础。在对比纯积分方法和仿真的基础上，验证了这种磁链观测方法的正确性和实用性。
侯春
2015-01-01
建立了无刷双馈电机的模型 ,对其开环特性进行了分析 ,并对无刷双馈电机异步、同步通用的机械特性进行了仿真验证 ;通过开环系统仿真验证了模型的正确性 ,为下一步闭环系统的仿真与设计做好铺垫.%The model of a brushless doubly-fed machine is set up ,the open-loop characteristics of the brushless doubly-fed are ana-lyzed ,and the universal mechanical characteristics of the brushless doubly-fed machine are simulated .The system can work in both single fed mode and double fed mode ,the model is verified to be correct by open loop system simulation ,to lay the fundation for the next step of the closed-loop system simulation .
Achmad Abdul Ghoni
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Seiring berjalannya waktu dibutuhkan pengembangan teknologi pada motor penggerak pada kendaraan yang beredar dipasaran. Karena sumber energi fosil merupakan energi yang tidak dapat diperbarui, maka pengembangan kendaraan dengan listrik sebagai sumber energi adalah solusi untuk penghematan energi dimasa depan. Salah satu jenis motor yang tepat untuk digunakan sebagai penggerak kendaraan akan dibahas pada tugas akhir ini, yaitu motor axial flux brushless DC. Pada tugas akhir ini dilakukan pembuatan desain dan analisis simulasi variabel air gap pada motor axial flux brushless DC dengan rating daya output 12 kW, tegangan DC input 400 V, frekuensi 200 Hz, dan kecepatan 2388 rpm. Varasi variabel air gap dilakukan dengan cara membuat jarak air gap pada jari-jari dalam lebih lebar dibandingkan jari-jari luar. Variasi variabel air gap yang diberikan menghasilkan perubahan nilai pada beberapa parameter kelistrikan motor. Dari simulasi yang didapatkan variasi variabel air gap terbaik pada 1,5 mm dengan kompensasi penambahan ketebalan magnet permanen sebesar 5 mm. Hasil dari variabel air gap pada motor axial flux brushless DC adalah rating daya output yang meningkat menjadi 14,5 kW dengan efisiensi 78,8 persen dan core loss sebesar 356,2 W.
无刷直流电机无位置传感器直接转矩控制%Direct Torque Control of Sensorless Brushless DC Motor
雷雄
2012-01-01
A direct torque control for sensorless brushless DC motor is presented in this paper. The control method presented requires observation of the DC bus voltage and the three-phase stator currents of brushless DC motor, and estimate the flux, torque, and rotor position angles of motor In order to control brushless DC motor, the appropriate voltage space vector is selected according to the torque, current component on d-q axes and rotor position. The simulation and experimental results show that the control method is valid and feasible.%本文提出了一种将直接转矩控制应用于无刷直流电机的无位置传感器控制方法。需观测无刷直流电机的直流母线电压及定子侧的三相电流，从而估算出电机的磁链、转矩以及位置角，再根据转矩、d-q坐标系上的电流分量以及转子位置信息来选择相应的电压空间矢量，以实现对无刷直流电机的控制。仿真和实验结果表明本文提出的控制方法有效可行。
无刷直流电机的模糊控制系统仿真%Simulation of Fuzzy Control for Brushless DC Motor
焦利利; 杨风
2014-01-01
This paper introduces the brushless DC motor of basic principle and mathematical model. Through the Simulink toolbox of the MATLAB model to build the fuzzy controller, the fuzzy control method of Brushless DC motor speed control., which achieves realization of Brushless DC motor fuzzy control system computer simulation. The results show that, the fuzzy controller has the advantages of simple structure, easy to implement, which can basically meet the system performance requirements.%本文介绍了无刷直流电机基本原理和数学模型。利用Matlab软件中Simulink工具箱搭建模糊控制器，采用模糊控制法对无刷直流电机进行调速。实现了无刷直流电机的模糊控制系统的计算机仿真。结果表明，该模糊控制器结构简单、易于实现，能够基本满足系统的性能要求。
张相军; 陈伯时
2001-01-01
This paper introduces four PWM modes used in the sensorless brushless DC motor control system, analyzes their different influences on the commutation torque ripple in detail, and selects the best PWM mode in four given types to reduce commutation torque ripple of Brushless OC(BLDC) motors. Simulation and experimental results show that the selection is correct and practical.
李节宝; 章跃进
2011-01-01
Torque ripple suppression was the research focus of permanent magnet brushless motor, domestic and foreign experts and scholars had proposed lots of solutions for the problem. First analysis the compositions of permanent magnet brushless motor torque ripple and various reasons which casue the torque ripple, then the commonly use methods of reducing permanent magnet brushless motor pulsating ripple was summarized and introduced.%抑制转矩脉动是永磁无刷电机研究重点,国内外专家学者提出了诸多解决方法.在分析永磁无刷电机脉动转矩的组成及产生原因的基础上,综合介绍了削弱永磁无刷电动机转矩脉动常用的一些方法.
Bo Long
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs. This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC motor, so that the braking energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with the presented methods, this technology can achieve several goals: energy recovery, electric braking, ultra-quiet braking and extending the driving range. Merits and drawbacks of different braking control strategy are further elaborated. State-space model of the EVs under energy-regenerative braking operation is established, considering that parameter variations are unavoidable due to temperature change, measured error, un-modeled dynamics, external disturbance and time-varying system parameters, a sliding mode robust controller (SMRC is designed and implemented. Phase current and DC-link voltage are selected as the state variables, respectively. The corresponding control law is also provided. The proposed control scheme is compared with a conventional proportional-integral (PI controller. A laboratory EV for experiment is setup to verify the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that the drive range of EVs can be improved about 17% using the proposed controller with energy-regeneration control.
Chaoying Xia
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Compared to the doubly fed machine, the brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM has high reliability and low maintenance requirements. First, by taking the negative conjugation of the control motor variables in rotor reference frame, a state-space model of BDFM is derived. It is then transformed into synchronous reference frame, called synchronous reference frame state-space model (SSSM. In this way, all the variables of the SSSM are DC under the static state. Second, on the basis of the analysis of static equations, the possible output torque limits are obtained. Third, the causes of losing control are analyzed by the flux and the torque derivatives. A new control strategy called synthetic vector direct torque control (SVDTC is proposed to solve the losing control problems of the conventional direct torque control (DTC. Finally, the correctness of the results of this paper is verified by calculation examples and simulation results, the losing control problems can be solved, and the theoretical output capacity limits can be reached using SVDTC.
Quanwu Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available High reliability is required for the permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PM-BLDCM in an electrical pump of hypersonic vehicle. The PM-BLDCM is a short-time duty motor with high-power-density. Since thermal equilibrium is not reached for the PM-BLDCM, the temperature distribution is not uniform and there is a risk of local overheating. The winding is a main heat source and its insulation is thermally sensitive, so reducing the winding temperature rise is the key to the improvement of the reliability. In order to reduce the winding temperature rise, an electromagnetic-thermal integrated design optimization method is proposed. The method is based on electromagnetic analysis and thermal transient analysis. The requirements and constraints of electromagnetic and thermal design are considered in this method. The split ratio and the maximum flux density in stator lamination, which are highly relevant to the windings temperature rise, are optimized analytically. The analytical results are verified by finite element analysis (FEA and experiments. The maximum error between the analytical and the FEA results is 4%. The errors between the analytical and measured windings temperature rise are less than 8%. It can be proved that the method can obtain the optimal design accurately to reduce the winding temperature rise.
Development of a Practical Low-Cost µC based Brushless DC Motor Controller using Proteus
Y. L. Karnavas
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Simulation, design and prototype construction of a low cost three phase permanent magnet (PM brushless DC (BLDC motor controller for low power applications is studied in this paper. The drive circuitry is based on the PIC16F877A microcontroller (µC, which –among others- performs pulse width modulation (PWM control for a 6-step, 120-degree trapezoidal PM BLDC motor drive. The specific processor is a widely used one and its characteristics are judged excellent in conjunction with its low cost. The prototype controller developed can perform rotation direction control, commutation sequence, speed control and reading Hall sensor signals. The controlling technique chosen is a “sensored type” one. The main reason for that, except control simplicity is the need for both low-speed and high-speed applications. The application of Proteus Virtual System Modelling (VSM software is also introduced in the paper. This software is used as a real-time simulation tool, in order to verify the performance of the BLDC motor drive, prior to its hardware implementation. Through virtual simulation of all the components used, the relevant results can be analyzed and monitored. Verification of the experimental results and validation of the simulated circuit has been done through the comparison of the results.
Sukri M.F.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present study presents an experimental investigation on the effect of condenser air inlet temperature and dimensionless parameter of X on the performance of automobile air-conditioning (AAC system using integrated brushless direct current motor-rotary compressor and electronic expansion valve. The other components of AAC system are from original component of AAC system used for medium size passenger car. The experimental results showed that the increment of the condenser air inlet temperature and X caused an increase in condensing temperature, cooling capacity and compressor work, while decreasing the coefficient of performance (COP. Meanwhile, the evaporating temperature increase with the increment of condenser air inlet temperature, but decrease with decrement of X. In general, AAC system have to work at higher value of X in order to produce more cooling capacity, thereby increment in compressor work also occurs due to energy balance. However, at higher value of X, the COP of the system dropped due to dominant increase in compressor power, as opposed to a rise in cooling capacity. Due to this reason, the best operation of this compressor occurs at X = 4.96 for constant T5 (35ºC, or at T5 = 30ºC for constant X (4.96.
Lee, C. I.; Jang, G. H.
2009-04-01
Uneven magnetization of permanent magnets (PMs) is one of the major sources of unbalanced magnetic force and torque ripple, which excite a brushless dc (BLDC) motor. This paper investigates the frequency contents of the back electromotive force (BEMF) due to the unevenly magnetized PMs in a BLDC motor. The magnetic field of a BLDC motor is solved by using the finite element method, and the BEMF is calculated by differentiating the flux linkage with respect to time. The characteristics of BEMF are investigated by using the spectral analysis. Magnetic flux density of the ideally magnetized PMs has the harmonics of the pole-pair number, but unevenly magnetized PMs generate the additional harmonics. This research shows numerically and experimentally that the frequency components of the BEMF are determined by the least common multiple between the frequency contents of magnetic flux density from the PMs and the slot number per phase. It also shows that the magnetized status of the PMs of a BLDC can be noninvasively identified by monitoring the frequencies and the amplitudes of BEMF.
Nitin Subramonium A K
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Environmental protection and energy conservations are the main concern of 21st century Asia Pacific developing countries. This concern has compelled to design and develop zero pollution road transportation Electric Vehicles (EVs. The EV system consist of energy storage devices such as battery, fuel cell, ultra-capacitors along with electric propulsion, body of the vehicle and energy management system with the diversified technology of electrical, electronics, mechanical, automotive and chemical engineering. The objective of electric vehicle is to produce commercial viable range, efficient performance, and comfort with safety and reliable operations at cheaper price than its counterpart the Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (ICEV. The PMBLDC motors are the present choice of automobile industries and researchers because of its high power density, compact size, reliability, with noise free and minimum maintenance requirements. The present state of art Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC Motor drive for the electric vehicle application is studied / reviewed in this paper.. In addition the study also reveals the advancement of the Power Processing Unit (PPU which consists of Microelectronics and Controls (Me and C to produce the super-premium efficiency PMBLDC drive system for EV applications.
Jingang Bai
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new type of brushless double rotor machine (BDRM is proposed in this paper. The BDRM is an important component in compound-structure permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-PMSM systems, which are promising for power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV applications. The BDRM can realize the speed adjustment between claw-pole rotor and permanent-magnet rotor without brushes and slip rings. The structural characteristics of the BDRM are described and its magnetic circuit model is built. Reactance parameters of the BDRM are deduced by an analytical method. It is found that the size characteristics of the BDRM are different from those of conventional machines. The new sizing and torque equations are analyzed and the theoretical results are used in the optimization process. Studies of the analytical magnetic circuit and finite element method (FEM model show that the BDRM tends to have high leakage flux and low power factor, and then the method to obtain high power factor is discussed. Furthermore, a practical methodology of the BDRM design is developed, which includes an analytical tool, 2D field calculation and performance evaluation by 3D field calculation. Finally, different topologies of the BDRM are compared and an optimum prototype is designed.
Research Status and Development Trends of Bearingless Brushless DC Motor%无轴承无刷直流电机研究现状及发展趋势
刘奕辰; 朱熀秋
2014-01-01
A bearingless brushless DC motor is a new type of high performance motor , which integrates the function of magnetic bearings into a brushless DC motor .It has the characteristic of no friction , no wear , high speed , long service life of the magnetic bearings , and also has the advantages of high efficiency , small volume, simple structure of the brushless DC motor , and it has a potential vast development and application prospects .In this paper , the motor structure of the bearingless brushless DC and the principle of suspension force generation were introduced .A comprehensive overview of the bearingless brushless DC motors was presented , with particular emphasis on the motor structure and the control strategy analysis .On the basis of the superiority and the existence problems of the bearingless brushless DC , the research development trend of the bearingless brushless DC motor was analyzed in this paper .The results provided the reference for the fur-ther study on the bearingless brushless DC motor.%无轴承无刷直流电机是一种高性能的新型电机，它将无刷直流电机和磁悬浮轴承功能集成一体，使其不仅具备磁轴承无摩擦、无磨损、高速度、寿命长等特点，还具有无刷直流电机的效率高、体积小、结构简单的优势，潜在发展和应用前景非常广阔。本文介绍无轴承无刷直流电机的结构特点、悬浮力产生的原理，从电机结构、控制策略方面分析了无轴承无刷直流电机的国内外发展现状，并根据无轴承无刷直流电机的优势及存在的问题，分析了未来无轴承无刷直流电机的研究发展趋势，为今后进一步开展无轴承无刷直流电机的研究提供参考。
FATIGUE STRENGTH OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL,
coldhardened by deforming to 83%. It was found that it has low static notch sensitivity (lower than that of heat-treated steels), that static strength ...is raised appreciably by increased cold plastic deformation, and that its fatigue strength is raised substantially by mechanical polishing. (Author)
无刷同步电机的起动性能仿真%Simulation of Brushless Synchronous Machine's Starting Performance
李岩; 张超; 刘陵顺
2012-01-01
For the situation that the brushless synchronous machine used to run less in starting status, this paper designs a brushless synchronous motor's simulation model in start running state. The motor starting system as the study object of the model, the use of modular thinking, were established exciter, main generator, rotating rectifier and control units and other modules, the use of these modules and build a complete start-run model, and that the model simulation studies for the early start. Simulation results show that the model has some feasibility and validity, for further study the starting performance of brushless synchronous motor lay foundation.%针对目前国内无刷同步电机较少应用于电动运行的现状,设计一种无刷同步电机起动运行状态的仿真模型.该模型以电机起动系统为研究对象,利用模块化思路,分别建立励磁机、主发电机、旋转整流器以及控制单元等模块,运用这些模块搭建一个完整的起动运行模型,并对所建立的模型进行起动初期的仿真研究.仿真结果表明:该模型有一定的可行性和有效性,能为进一步研究无刷同步电机的起动性能奠定基础.
Optimizing of Commutation Torque Ripple Strategy in Brushless DC Motor%BLDCM换相转矩脉动的优化策略
王晓锋; 林伟
2014-01-01
First of all, this article creates the mathematical model of blushless DC Motor.Secondly, analyze the reduction theory of commutation torque ripple. Finally, put forward a strategy to reduce the commutation torque ripple from the low-speed level and high-speed level.This method guarantee equal between current decline rate of shutdown phase and current rising rate of opening phase during commutation, thus keep the current of un-commutation stable.Build a real brushless DC motor control platform for experimental verification,the proposed strategy of brushless DC motor commutation torque ripple is suppressed effectively.%首先建立了无刷直流电机(Brushless direct current motor, BLDCM)的数学模型，然后分析了换相转矩脉动的抑制原理，最后提出了低速阶段和高速阶段抑制换相转矩脉动的策略。此方法保证在换相期间，关断相的电流下降率和开通相的电流上升率绝对值相等，继而保证在换相期间非换相相电流保持恒定。搭建了实际直流无刷电机控制平台并进行实验验证，所提出的策略有效地抑制了直流无刷电机换相转矩脉动。
无刷直流电机系统的CMAC逆模型控制∗%CMAC Inverse Model Control of Brushless DC Motor System
李学哲; 张军; 潘玉民
2014-01-01
Based on the idea of inverse system control, an inverse model intelligent control approach was proposed for brushless DC motor( BLDCM) system of nonlinear, strong coupling and uncertain factors. The approach uses the cerebellar model articulation controller ( CMAC ) to realize the inverse dynamic model of brushless DC motor, and a linear system constructed with the original system model, to obtain more ideal than traditional PID control in dynamic and static performance. It can effectively overcome the influence of various complex factors. This method has the characteristics of rapid response, no overshoot and immunity ability and strong robustness. The proposed control method can significantly improve the real-time tracking ability and control accuracy. The simulation and experimental results showed that the effectiveness of the method, then provides a new way for brushless DC motor control.%基于逆系统控制的思想，针对无刷直流电机系统的非线性、强耦合以及不确定因素等提出了一种逆模型智能控制方法。该方法利用小脑模型关节控制器实现无刷直流电机的逆动态模型，与原系统模型构成线性系统，获得较传统PID控制更理想的动静态性能，有效克服各种复杂因素的影响。该方法响应快速、无超调、抗扰能力和鲁棒性强，可显著提高实时跟踪能力和控制精度。仿真证明了该方法的有效性，为无刷直流电机控制提供了一种新途径。
Simulation of Brushless DC Motor Control System%无刷直流电动机控制系统的仿真
罗杨瑞; 辛小南; 贺莉
2011-01-01
Through the analysis of the mathematical model of brushless DC motor,the brushless DC motor control system was modeled and emulated with Simulink.The method of look-up table was used to implement the modeling of counter -electromotive force and current control module, which made the system more intuitive, more streamlined and easy to change models.The current and the torque waveform that get from the simulation are nearly the same as that get by the time stepper finite element method.It shows that the establishment of the mathematical model and the simulation method is correct and lay the foundation of further study on permanent magnet brushless DC motor.%通过分析无刷直流电动机数学模型,利用Simulink对无刷直流电动机及其控制系统进行了建模和仿真.分别用查表法来实现反电动势和电流控制模块的建模,使系统更直观、简化,便于模型修改,为无刷直流电动机控制系统的设计和调试提供了新的方法.对模型进行速度控制系统仿真,仿真得到的三相相电流波形和反电动势波形与通过理论分析得到的波形一致,验证了该建模思想和方法的正确性.
多功能无刷直流电机驱动控制器的研制%Research on Multiple Functions of Brushless DC Motor Drive
纪梁洲; 杨向宇; 龚晟
2011-01-01
A simple and easy to extend other functions brushless DC motor drive was designed, it can be used for a high-voltage and high-speed conditions. The MC33035 was combined with the microcontroller PIC18F1220 to solve the power supply problem on the bridge arm in the brushless DC motor driver which is caused by motor launch, because of the bootstrap capacitor technology was taken advantage of in the power supply. The other multiple functions, such as soft start, brake, reversion and so on, were also achieved in the brushless DC motor driver. Good performance of the system of stable and extensible was verified by the systematic experimental results. The system has some practical value in applications.%该文设计了一个电路简单且易于扩展,可用于高压高速场合的无刷直流电机驱动控制器.该驱动器通过无刷直流电机专用芯片MC33035结合单片机PIC18F1220解决了采用自举电容技术得到的驱动器上桥臂电源所造成的电机启动问题并且实现了诸如软启动,制动,正反转等多种功能.实验表明,该系统运行稳定,可扩展性强,具有一定的应用价值.
Study on Dual-redundancy Brushless DC Motor Control System%双余度无刷直流电机控制系统研究
李东
2012-01-01
在复杂工况条件下，由于维修不便，对无刷直流电机的可靠性要求较高。双余度无刷直流电机则能较好的解决此问题。本文设计了基于DSP的双余度无刷直流电动机驱动控制系统，详细介绍了系统DSP控制器的硬件电路设计，实现对电动机的位置、速度和电流的检测，给出了系统软件设计方案及控制策略，从而实现对整个系统的控制。结果表明，该控制系统，硬件电路结构简单，系统实时性好，响应快，具有良好的控制性能及动态特性。% Under harsh operating condition, maintenance inconvenience, so the high reliability of brushless DC motor is required. Dual-redundancy brushless DC motor is a good solution to this problem. A control system of dual-redundancy brushless DC motor (BLDCM) based on digital signal processor is studied in this paper. The hardware design solutions of the DSP control er is detailed, then the position, speed and the current of the motor are detected, the software design solutions and the control method for the whole control system are presented. Experimental results show that the dual-redundancy motor system based on one piece of DSP has simple circuit, real-time and rapid response, and the system has good control performance and dynamic characteristic.
Brushless DC motor control system based on expert PID%基于专家PID的直流无刷电机控制系统＊
张浩; 吴新开
2015-01-01
The brushless DC motor has the characteristics of time varing, nonliner, uncertainty and hardly modeling, so it is difficult to obtain ideal control effect by using conventional PID control. It is hoped to find a high-performance speed control scheme through the theory and practical research of expert PID. Based on the experiment platform of commonly used brushless motor speed control for multi rotor aircraft, the encoder is applied to measure the rotational speed and realize its closed-loop control. The introduction of brushless motor speed PID controller has opened up new ideas for motor control and attitude control of multi rotor aircraft.%由于直流无刷电机存在时变性、非线性、不确定性、难以建模等特点，采用常规的PID很难达到理想的控制效果。通过专家PID控制理论并结合实践研究，提出一种高性能的速度控制方案。基于多旋翼飞行器常用的无刷电机转速控制这一实验平台，采用编码器测速实现无刷电机的闭环控制。无刷电机速度PID控制器的引入，开辟了多旋翼飞行器电机控制和姿态控制的新思路。
Ma, Xiaohe; Shen, Songhua
2006-11-01
This paper mainly introduces theoretical analysis and experimental results of instantaneous characteristics on a certain three level brushless three-phase AC synchronous generators. The analysis, modeling and simulations with Simplorer software of Ansoft Company are carried out. It establishes three level generator models, gives theoretical relation matrix equation, and simulates some instantaneous characteristics. Design of the system requires reliable simulation tools with comprehensive component libraries capable of dealing with complex system behavior. The simulation results verify that the proposed system model can efficiently simulate the instantaneous characteristics of the real AC generator system. It gives better design experiences and digital methods for aeronautic constant speed and frequency AC power system.
一种无刷直流电机参数的测量方法%The Parameter Measurement of Brushless DC Motor
易慧斌; 邓惠文; 邓元实; 李昊
2012-01-01
介绍无刷直流电机( Brushless DC Motor,简称BLDCM)参数的一种简单的测量方法.利用并励直流电机参数测量的简易性和可操作性,分别计算出并励直流电机拖动BLDCM时和并励直流电机单独运转时,系统的转动惯量和摩擦转矩系数,即可计算出BLDCM的转动惯量和摩擦转矩系数.
Takashima, Hiroshi; Tomita, Mutuwo; Chen, Zhiqian; Satoh, Mitsuhiko; Doki, Shinji; Okuma, Shigeru
This paper proposes to paste non-magnetic materials on the rotor surface of a cylindrical brushless DC motor and to use the model including the extended e.m.f. for sensorless control. In the proposed method, the inductance changes depending on the rotor position because of eddy currents, which flow on the non-magnetic material at high frequency. The rotor position can be estimated at standstill and at low speeds. The simulation results show that the proposed method is very useful.
García Haro, Juan Miguel
2011-01-01
Este proyecto que el CAR inició hace pocos años tiene como objetivo principal el estudio y desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías en el campo de actuación y control automático, que servirá de base para otras futuras investigaciones dentro del centro. La tecnología a la que se hace mención se refiere al control de actuadores basados en motores DC brushless (BLDC Motors) empleando el sistema de hardware embebido CompactRIO y programación LabVIEW de National Instruments. Tradicionalmente se emplea en ...
Adjustment of Phase Change Opportunity in Brushless DC Motor%直流无刷电机换相时机的调整
刘佳峰; 谢杨华
2006-01-01
直流无刷电机BLDCM(Brushless DC Motor)采用电子换相代替机械换相,兼有交流电机和直流电机的优点.提出了在磁场畸变的情况下,应将直流无刷电机换相时机从几何中性线处调整到物理中型线处.仿真结果表明:此调整方案可使电机的电磁转矩提高约10%.
无位置传感器无刷直流电机的DSP控制%DSP Control of Brushless DC Motor Without Position Sensor
王宏伟; 梁晖
2005-01-01
设计了一种无位置传感器无刷直流电机(Brushless DC Motor,简称BLDCM)的变频调速系统.该系统基于PS21255智能功率模块(IPM)和TMS320LF2407A数字信号处理器(DSP),采用反电势法实现了WPS的BLDCM控制.整个系统集成度高,控制灵活,稳定性好.实验结果表明,该系统运行性能良好.
无刷直流电机的智能控制研究%Research on the Intelligent Control of the Brushless DC Motor
文卫
2011-01-01
无刷直流电机具有交流电机结构简单,运行可靠,维护方便等优点,又具有直流电机那样良好的调速性能而无机械换向器等优势,得到广泛应用.针对大多数无刷直流电机位置伺服系统采用的是PID控制方式,此控制方式存在系统参数发生变化或带有非线性负载时,其稳态输出特性变差,难以获得满意的控制效果的情况,本文在分析无刷直流电机的模型后,提出一种能根据跟踪误差大小,利用模式切换开关自动切换到PID控制或滑模变结构控制的智能控制方法,从而实现无刷直流电机转子转速的快响应、低超调和高精度控制.%The brushless DC motor has some AC motor advantages in the simple structure, reliable operation and convenient maintenance, and also has the DC motor advantages that good performance of speed and no mechanical commutation, so it is widely used. For most of the brushless DC motor position servo system uses a PID control mode. With this control mode the steady - state output characteristics would become poor when system parameter changes or with nonlinear load, and it is difficult to obtain satisfactory control effect. After analyzed the model of brushless DC motor, this article presented an intelligent control method that can utilize mode switch automatically switch to PID control or sliding mode variable structure control according to the tracking error size, so as to realize the brushless DC motor rotor speed quick response, low overshoot and high precision control.
Strength and Balance Exercises
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If ... Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs ...
Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda
2001-01-01
Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…
Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda
2001-01-01
Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…
路小琪; 王峰; 刘毅; 王斌
2011-01-01
Basic principle of brushless doubly-fed machine were introduced, and its d-q mathematical model was studied. The dynamic simulation of brushless doubly-fed machine under open-loop was realized on Matlab/Simulink platform by use of constant V/F control strategy, while open-loop speed regulation experiment of brushless doubly-fed machine was completed on the experimental platform based on two-three-level inverter. Simulation and experimental results verified operation mechanism and good dynamic characteristics of brushless doubly-fed machine.%介绍了无刷双馈电动机的基本原理,研究了其转子速d-q参考轴下的数学模型；在Matlab/Simulink环境下,采用恒压频比控制策略完成了无刷双馈电动机开环状态下的动态特性仿真,并基于双三电平变频器建立了实验平台,完成了无刷双馈电动机的开环调速实验.仿真与实验结果验证了无刷双馈电动机的运行机理及其良好的动态特性.
Badler, N. I.; Lee, P.; Wong, S.
1985-01-01
Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force versus joint torque; (4) instantaneous versus steady force; (5) active force versus reactive force; (6) presence or absence of gravity; (7) body somatotype and composition; (8) body (segment) masses; (9) muscle group envolvement; (10) muscle size; (11) fatigue; and (12) practice (training) or familiarity. In surveying the available literature on strength measurement and modeling an attempt was made to examine as many of these parameters as possible. The conclusions reached at this point toward the feasibility of implementing computationally reasonable human strength models. The assessment of accuracy of any model against a specific individual, however, will probably not be possible on any realistic scale. Taken statistically, strength modeling may be an effective tool for general questions of task feasibility and strength requirements.
Ledertoug, Mette Marie
Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... foundation in research in VIA-strengths by Seligman & Peterson (2004) and in research on strengths by Linley (2008). Based on this research the VIA-test was created for adults and later for children and youths from the age of 10. For children younger than 10 years of age Peterson & Park (2011) have made...... interviews with the parents. For younger children there has been no possibility to test for strengths. In a Danish PhD project a tool to map children’s strengths was needed for children aged 6-16 and with permission from the VIA-institute ‘The Strength Compass’ was made in cooperation with The Danish...
无刷双馈风力发电机的H∞控制%H∞ Control for Brushless Doubly-Fed Wind Generator
蔡超豪
2011-01-01
研究了无刷双馈风力发电机的H∞控制,利用基于等效旋转控制绕组的矢量控制模型,应用直接反馈线性化,建立了无刷双馈风力发电机的鲁棒控制模型,采用H∞控制理论得出控制律,算法简明实用.仿真表明,H∞控制可以保证在风速变化、系统参数不确定的情况下,无刷双馈风力发电机仍能安全可靠地获取最大风能,向电网输送恒频恒压的电能.%The H∞ control for the brushless doubly-fed wind generator was studied. On the basis of direct feedback linearization, a robust control model for brushless doubly-fed wind generator was established by using the vector controlled model based on equivalent rotating control windings. The controlled method was obtained by H∞ control theory. The control algorithm was simple and practicable. Simulations showed that under variable wind-speed and uncertain parameters,the proposed controller guarantees the wind power system to achieve the maximal absorption of wind power in the secure and stable operation and to output the electric power with constant frequency and constant voltage.
Data Modeling Method of DC Brushless Fan Based on PSpice%基于PSpice的直流无刷风扇数据建模方法
熊川; 覃远年
2012-01-01
由于直流无刷风扇采用的电机不同，其电气特性也存在差异，PSpice仿真软件中很难找到合适的PSpice模型，设计者将经常进行创建或修改模型的操作，而传统建模的方法过程烦琐，工作量大且不易掌握。提出一种根据直流无刷风扇的实际工作参数，快速创建PSpice模型的新方法，通过此方法能快捷建立较高精度的仿真模型，有效解决PSpice仿真模型库缺失的问题。%Due to the electrical characteristics of the are various, it is difficult to find the appropriate PSpiee software. The designers should be establish or revise model paper proposes a new method for establishing the which according established easily model storehouse. DC brushless fans with different motors models for them in PSpice simulation s, which is a complicated process. This PSpice model of DC brushless fan quickly, to the real work parameters. The simulation model with high precision could be by this method, and it provides a way to solve the problem of shortage in PSpice
基于DSP的无刷直流电机控制系统的设计%Design of Brushless DC Motor System Based on DSP
王艳; 王毓顺; 王惠; 魏萍; 陈孝富; 周瑞君
2015-01-01
通过分析无刷直流电机的数学模型,建立了基于DSP的无刷直流电机控制系统仿真模型.采用数字PID算法来设计控制器,通过Matlab仿真,验证了该方法的优越性,系统可以可靠地运行.仿真结果表明,采用此控制方法,系统响应快、抗扰能力强.%On the basis of brushless DC motor mathematical model analysis,the establishment of a brushless DC motor control system simulation model based on DSP.In this paper,PID control strategy is used to design the control er,through the Matlab simulation,verified the superiority of this method,the system can run reliably.The simulation results show that,by using this control method,the system response speed,strong anti disturbance ability.
无刷双馈电动机最优压频控制策略%The Optimal Voltage Frequency Control Strategy of Brushless Double-fed Motor
邓先明; 王冬冬; 马志勋; 张贞飞
2009-01-01
无刷双馈电动机与其它电动机相比具有独特的优越性能,特别适合风机、水泵类负载的开环控制.文章以笼型无刷双馈电动机为研究对象,建立了无刷双馈电动机的数学模型,借助Matlab/Simulink仿真软件详细分析了电动机在调速过程中的最优压频控制策略.该策略可使电动机以最大功率因数和最小变频器容量稳定地运行在相应的转速上.%Compared with other motors, the brushless double-fed motor (BDFM) has its own unique advantages, especially suits for the open-loop control of loads of fans, pumps load and so on. Taking the cage brushless double-fed motor as research object, the paper established a mathematical model of the BDFM. Using Matlab/Simulink software, it analyzed the optimal voltage frequency control strategy in course of speed-regulation control in details. The strategy can make the motor run stablly in corresponding speed at the maximum power factor and the minimum converter capacity.
Study of Brushless DC Motors DTC Based on Simulink%基于Simulink无刷直流电机直接转矩控制研究
梅亮; 刘景林; 董亮辉; 马银龙
2013-01-01
Because of direct torque control technology in the application of brushless DC motor,torque ripple and over shoot were reduced,therefore operating performance of brushless DC motor was improved.To reduce torque ripple,to control torque by closed-loop control,adopted double hysteresis control to realize the stator flux 3 points control,then the electric torque was controlled,and a DTC system model was constructed with Matlab/Simulink,simulation results were presented,it's shown the model was effective.%将直接转矩控制(DTC)技术应用于无刷直流电机(BLDC),抑制了转矩波动,而且转速无超调,提高了无刷直流电机运行性能.本文为抑制转矩波动,对转矩进行闭环控制,采用双滞环比较器实现定子磁链3点控制,从而实现了对电磁转矩的控制,并搭建了直接转矩控制系统Matlab/Simulink模型,仿真结果表明该控制方法有效.
电动自行车用无刷直流电机控制系统设计%Brushless DC Motor of Electric Bicycle Control System Design
钟晓伟; 宋蛰存; 许刚
2011-01-01
根据以无刷直流电机为驱动电机的电动自行车工作原理,设计了一种以ATmega16单片机为控制核心的电动自行车用无刷直流电机控制系统,给出了系统详细的硬件电路和软件设计方法.在MATLAB/Simulink环境下仿真得出适当的速度环与电流环调节器参数值.与传统的专用模拟控制器相比,具有更大的灵活性、可靠性,容易实现附加功能和全数字化控制.%According to brushless DC motor-driven electric motor bike working principle, a brushless DC motor of electric bicycle control system based on ATmega16 microcontroller was designed, a detail of hardware circuit and software design methods were given. In MATLAB/Simulink simulation environment to draw the appropriate speed loop and current loop regulator parameters. Compared to the traditional specific analog controller, it had greater flexibility,reliability, also was easy to implement additional features and fully digital control.
The Study of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor%对永磁无刷直流电机的研究
杨杰城
2016-01-01
随着我国科技不断发展，永磁无刷直流电机已成为电力电子一体化高科技产品，凭借其结构简单、运行可靠、效率高，在航天、医学、家用民用产品制作中得到广泛应用。文章对永磁无刷直流电机设计、控制以及建模方法进行分析，展现其对生产起到的重要作用。%With the continuous development of science and technology in our country,permanent magnet brushless dc motor has become power and electricity integration high-tech products.With its simple structure,reliable operation,high efficiency,it has been widely used in the aerospace,medical,household production.In this paper,the design,control,and modeling methods of permanent magnet brushless dc motor are analyzed.
樊贝; 薛冰
2012-01-01
为适应大功率风机和泵类负载的调速性能,提出无刷双馈电动机的技术方案,并利用Matlab/Simulink建立无刷双馈电动机的一般模型进行动态仿真。仿真结果显示,无刷双馈电动机在单馈异步运行状态下,具有良好的异步电动机的启动运行特性。在双馈同步运行状态下,具有普通同步电动机转速特性,为进一步深入研究无刷双馈电动机的控制策略提供了参考。重点介绍无刷双馈电动机的结构特点和工作原理。%In order to adapt the speed regulation performance of big power blower and pump loading,the brushless doubly-fed motor＇s technology proposals are given out.And the dynamic simulation of brushless doubly-fed motor model is setted up based on Matlab/Simulink.The simulation results show that the brushless doubly-fed motor has good features of asynchronous motor starts and operates features under the states of single-fed asynchronous operation.It also has common synchronous motor speed features under doubly-fed synchronous operation state.These results provide reference for futher study on brushless doubly-fed motor＇s control strategy.And the structure features and working principle of brushless doubly-fed motor are introduced.
evaluating the strength of structural elements is examined. The book is intended for design engineers, factory laboratory personnel, scientific research workers, and the design institutes. (Author-PL)
Strength Training and Your Child
... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength Training ... prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using free ...
Strengths of Remarried Families.
Knaub, Patricia Kain; And Others
1984-01-01
Focuses on remarried families' (N=80) perceptions of family strengths, marital satisfaction, and adjustment to the remarried situation. Results indicated that although most would like to make some changes, scores on the measurements used were high. A supportive environment was the most important predictor of family strength and success. (JAC)
Hill, Robert
1978-01-01
Comments on the feeling that the American family is disintegrating, and that many criticisms traditionally made about Black families are now made about White families. Suggests that people need to stress family strengths. As an example, five major strengths of Black families are described: flexibility, work and achievement ethics, religiosity, and…
Development of patent technology for brushless doubly fed motor%无刷双馈电机专利技术发展
张颖超
2015-01-01
近年来，作为可再生能源的风力发电受到了全球范围的广泛关注，人们越来越重视适用于风力发电的新型电机，无刷双馈电机以其简单的结构，高可靠性，具有异步和同步电机两种电机的综合特点，通过控制激磁绕组的电压和频率易于实现变速恒压恒频发电，是一种适合风力发电运行环境的新型电机。本文主要以DWPI、SIPOABS专利数据库以及CNTXT数据库中的检索结果为分析样本，从专利文献的视角对无刷双馈电机的发展进行了全面的统计分析，总结了与无刷双馈电机相关的国内和国外专利的申请趋势、主要申请人分布以及其转子结构的发展路线做了一定的分析，并从中得到一定的规律。%In recent years,wind power as the renewable energy by widespread concern in the global scope, people pay more and more attention to applicable to wind power as a new kind of motor, brushless doubly fed machine with its simple structure,high reliability,with the comprehensive characteristic of asynchronous and synchronous motor,two kinds of motor,by controlling the voltage and frequency of the excitation winding is easy to realize the variable speed constant frequency and constant voltage power,is a suitable for wind power generation operating environment as a new kind of motor.This paper mainly to DWPI,SIPOABS patent database and CNTXT database retrieval results for the analysis of the sample,from the patent literature from the perspective of the development of brushless doubly fed machine were comprehensive statistical analysis,summarized and brushless doubly fed machine related domestic and foreign patent application trend, mainly distributed in the applicant and the rotor structure of the development route do some analysis, and the obtained certain rules.
Design for Wind Synchronous Generator Brushless Excitation System%同步风力发电机无刷励磁系统设计
李凤婷; 郑恩让
2011-01-01
分析了基于可旋转变换器的无刷励磁原理，提出了基于可旋转变换器的同步风力发电机无刷励磁系统的设计方案。旋转变换器的输入为直流电，经过全桥逆变电路和旋转变压器以后，将电能传递到旋转部分，再经过整流以后给同步风力发电机励磁绕组提供直流电。根据风速变化，控制励磁机的励磁从而可以控制同步发电机的励磁，使得输出电压恒定；在额定风速以下，获得最大风能利用系数；额定风速以上，保证输出功率恒定。通过Matlab/simulink对所提出的系统进行了建模仿真，仿真结果表明所提出的无刷励磁系统是正确可行的。%This paper introduces the principle of brushless excitation based on rotating converter, and presents design scheme of wind synchronous generator brushless excitation system based on rotating converter. The input signal for rotating converter is dc. Through the whole bridge inverter circuits and rotating transformer, electric power transferred to the rotating parts. AC from the exciter after a wind turbine rotating rectifier supply excitation. Simply follow the changes of wind speed to control the main exciter in order to control the excitation of synchronous generator, the constant output voltage can be obtained. In the following wind speed rating, the largest wind energy utilization factor can be obtained. It should be over the wind speed rating to make sure the output power is constant. Matlab/simulink has been used to develop the simulation models. The simulation results show that the brushless excitation system proposed in this paper is correct and feasible.
Torque simulation of wind turbine based on brushless DC motor%基于无刷直流电机的风力机转矩模拟
郭天勇; 赵庚申; 赵耀; 程如岐; 赵二刚; 祁超
2011-01-01
In order to solve the problem that the study of wind power generation was restricted by nature conditions, this paper proposed a novel simulation scheme by using brushless DC motor instead of wind turbine, the torque imitation was implemented by controlling the DC side current, and the current loop adopted the control method of radial basis function neural network combined with PI control. A system simulation model was built by Matlab/Simulink, and a hardware platform based on brushless DC motor and permanent magnet generator was also established, which was controlled by DSP. Simulation and experimental results were consistent with theoretical torque, and the torque ripple of brushless DC motor was effectively reduced. This control method is simple with high control precision, and can provide a new idea for the design of the simulation system.%针对风力发电技术的研究受到自然条件制约的问题,该文提出了一种新的利用无刷直流电机来代替风力机的模拟方案,通过控制无刷电机直流侧电流的方式实现转矩控制,电流环采用径向基函数神经网络与PI调节相结合的控制策略.利用Matlab/Simulink建立系统仿真模型,并搭建了基于DSP控制的无刷直流电机+永磁发电机的硬件平台,仿真和试验结果都与理论转矩相吻合,并有效降低了无刷电机的转矩脉动.该方法控制简单、精度高,为实际模拟系统的设计提供了一种新的思路.
Adaptive GA-ADRC in Torque Ripple Reduction of Brushless DC Motor%自适应GA-ADRC在无刷直流电机转矩脉动抑制中的研究
刘慧博; 王静
2012-01-01
提出一种新型的无刷直流电机电磁转矩脉动抑制方法,该方法通过控制无刷直流电机导通相线电流跟踪给定电流来抑制电机的电磁转矩脉动.首先分析无刷直流电机数学模型,建立基于自适应遗传算法的无刷直流电机控制系统模型,由于自适应GA-ADRC控制器不需要无刷直流电机模型参数就可以实现干扰补偿,因此可以独立设计自适应GA-ADRC控制器.对文中所提出自适应GA-ADRC控制算法与经典PID控制算法的控制效果对比分析,控制效果明显优于传统PID控制效果.%The traditional PID control algorithm cannot satisfy the performance index of the brushless DC motor system because of the disadvantages of electromagnetic torque ripple, high complexity of detection method and control algorithm, and higher cost of current brushless DC motor. A novel electromagnet torque ripple suppression method of brushless DC motor was proposed in this paper. By virtue of controlling the conduction phase current of the brushless DC motor to track the given current, the motor electromagnet torque ripple was suppressed. The mathematical model of the motor was analyzed and a control system model of the brushless DC motor based on adaptive genetic algorithm was established. Since the adaptive GA-ADRC controller can realize disturbance compensation without model parameters of brushless DC motor, the GA-ADRC controller was independently designed. The comparative analysis shows that the proposed GA-ADRC control algorithm is obviously superior to that of the classical PID control algorithm.
无刷直流电动机不导通相电流分析%Analysis of Floating Phase Current in Brushless DC Motor
王璞; 解恩; 翟猛
2012-01-01
分析了无刷直流电动机在三相六状态及不同的PWM方式下,绕组续流期间不导通相电流,并且指出各有不同.对常用的各种PWM方式通过原理分析及数学推导,得出不导通相电流存在的时段和幅值趋势.并通过实验测试,验证了分析结果.%The floating phase current during the free-wheeling and the difference of the brushless DC motor operating in three-phase-six-states and different PWM modes were analysed. The conclusion of existing time and amplitude trend were achieved by theory analysis and mathematical deduction of common PWM modes. The result was verified through the experiment test.
双转式永磁无刷电动机的控制%Control of Dual-Rotor Permanent Magnet Brushless Motors
何苗
2009-01-01
Mathematical model and closed-loop speed control strategies of dual-rotor permanent magnet brushless motors were analyzed. A set of software and hardware control system was designed based on the chip of TMS320F2407, which was tested finally. The final testing data indicates that the control system can achieve preferable performance and high control precision.%在普通永磁无刷电动机基础上,分析了双转式永磁无刷电动机的数学模型及速度闭环控制策略,并在该基础上建立以TMS320F2407为核心的闭环控制软硬件系统,并进行了试验.试验结果表明该种控制系统控制性能较好,控制精度较高.
Simulation of Brushless DC Motor Control System Based on Matlab%无刷直流电机控制系统的Matlab仿真
吴松华; 叶汉民
2011-01-01
通过对无刷直流电机控制系统的研究,提出了反电势控制方法.即通过线性分段法获得反电动势,构建无刷直流电机(Brushless DC Motor,BLDCM)的本体模块,采用双闭环控制方案(转速环由PID调节器构成,电流环由电流滞环调节器构成)建立仿真控制系统.利用仿真对所提出的方法进行了验证.
Jang, G. H.; Chang, J. H.; Lee, Y. B.
2002-05-01
This article investigates the electromechanical performance of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor due to the magnetization patterns of a permanent magnet, i.e., rectangular, trapezoidal, and sinusoidal magnetization. A driving circuit equation considering the switching action of the pulse width modulation inverter is coupled with Maxwell's equation to obtain the nonlinear time-stepping finite element equation for the magnetic field analysis. Newton-Euler's equations are used to determine the mechanical motion of a rotor due to electromechanical excitation. The results show that rectangular magnetization results in the low phase current for a specified torque. However, sinusoidal magnetization produces the smallest magnetic force and may result in the sound mechanical operation of a BLDC motor.
Fernando de Almeida Martins
2014-01-01
Este trabalho apresenta o projeto e o desenvolvimento de uma eletrônica para controle de motores de corrente contínua sem escovas (\\emph{Brushless DC Motor }- BLDC). A aplicação visada é o emprego deste controlador em rodas de reação para sistemas de controle de atitude de satélites. O principal objetivo e o foco da aplicação foi o desenvolvimento e construção de vários métodos para acionar o motor e medir os parâmetros de desempenho. A placa projetada criou uma plataforma adequada para o est...
Tianxun Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a computationally efficient loss prediction procedure and thermal analysis of surface-mounted brushless AC permanent magnet (PM machine considering the UDDS driving duty cycle by using a lumped parameters’ thermal model. The accurate prediction of loss and its variation with load are essential for thermal analysis. Employing finite element analysis (FEA to determine loss at every load point would be computationally intensive. Here, the finite element analysis and/or experiment based computationally efficient winding copper and iron loss and permanent magnet (PM power loss models are employed to calculate the electromagnetic loss at every operation point, respectively. Then, the lumped parameter thermal method is used to analyse the thermal behaviour of the driving PM machine. Experiments have been carried out to measure the temperature distribution in a motor prototype. The calculation and experiment results are compared and discussed.
基于PIC单片机的直流无刷电机驱动控制器%Brushless DC Motor Controller Based on PIC MCU
吕仲军; 刘泽潮
2014-01-01
介绍了一种基于PIC18Fxx单片机的直流无刷电机的控制器；实现了电机的过流保护、欠压保护、PWM调速和速度闭环控制；设计了主要的硬件电路；并给出了部分软件流程图。通过实验与仿真验证了系统的可靠性与稳定性。%This paper introduces a brushless DC motor controller based on the PIC 18Fxx MCU.The Motor Hall signal acquisition , overcurrent protection , undervoltage protection , PWM speed control and speed closed-loop control are realized .The main hardware circuit and the flowchart of software are designed .The reliability and stability of the system is verified by experiment and simulation .
Jang, G. H.; Yeom, J. H.; Kim, M. G.
2007-03-01
This paper presents a method to determine the torque constant and the torque-speed-current characteristics of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor by utilizing back-EMF variation of nonenergized phase. It also develops a BLDC motor controller with a digital signal processor (DSP) to monitor its current, voltage and speed in real time. Torque-speed-current characteristics of a BLDC motor are determined by using the proposed method and the developed controller. They are compared with the torque-speed-current characteristics measured by dynamometer experimentally. This research shows that the proposed method is an effective method to determine the torque constant and the torque-speed-current characteristics of the BLDC motor without using dynamometer.
Jang, G.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdangdong, Seongdonggu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ghjang@hanyang.ac.kr; Yeom, J.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdangdong, Seongdonggu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdangdong, Seongdonggu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)
2007-03-15
This paper presents a method to determine the torque constant and the torque-speed-current characteristics of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor by utilizing back-EMF variation of nonenergized phase. It also develops a BLDC motor controller with a digital signal processor (DSP) to monitor its current, voltage and speed in real time. Torque-speed-current characteristics of a BLDC motor are determined by using the proposed method and the developed controller. They are compared with the torque-speed-current characteristics measured by dynamometer experimentally. This research shows that the proposed method is an effective method to determine the torque constant and the torque-speed-current characteristics of the BLDC motor without using dynamometer.
Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.
1980-01-01
A comprehensive digital model for the analysis and possible optimization of the closed loop dynamic (instantaneous) performance of a power conditioner fed, brushless dc motor powered, electromechanical actuator system (EMA) is presented. This model was developed for the simulation of the dynamic performance of an actual prototype EMA built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators for consideration in Space Shuttle Orbiter applications. Excellent correlation was achieved between numerical model simulation and experimental test results obtained from the actual hardware. These results include: various current and voltage waveforms in the machine-power conditioner (MPC) unit, flap position as well as other control loop variables in response to step commands of change of flap position. These results with consequent conclusions are detailed in the paper.
The matlab simulation of brushless DC motor control system%无刷直流电机控制系统的matlab仿真
吴松华; 叶汉民
2011-01-01
通过对无刷直流电机控制系统的研究,提出了反电势控制方法.即通过线性分段法获得反电动势,构建无刷直流电机(brushless dc motor BLDCM)的本体模块,采用双闭环控制方案(转速环由PID调节器构成,电流环由电流滞环调节器构成)建立仿真控制系统.利用仿真对所提出的方法进行了验证.
Bangcheng Han
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We firstly report on an investigation into the unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP effect on the static stiffness models of radial active magnetic bearing (RAMB in brushless DC motor (BDCM in no-loaded and loaded conditions using the finite element method (FEM. The influences of the UMP on the force-control current, force-position, current stiffness, and position stiffness of RAMB are clarified in BDCM with 100 kW rated power. We found the position stiffness to be more susceptible to UMP. The primary source of UMP is the permanent magnets of BDCM. In addition, the performance of RAMB is affected by the UMP ripples during motor commutation and also periodically affected by the angular position of rotor. The characteristic curves of RAMB force versus control current (or rotor position and angular position of rotor affected by the UMP are given. The method is useful in design and optimization of RAMB in magnetically suspended BDCMs.
Luo, Shaohua [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing Aerospace Polytechnic, Chongqing, 400021 (China); Wu, Songli [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing Aerospace Polytechnic, Chongqing, 400021 (China); Gao, Ruizhen [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2015-07-15
This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.
Luo, Shaohua; Wu, Songli; Gao, Ruizhen
2015-07-01
This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.
A Scalar Control Method to the Brushless Doubly-fed Generator%无刷双馈发电机的一种标量控制方法
刘愉; 韦忠朝; 高信迈; 陈前臣
2014-01-01
随着无刷双馈电机(BDFM)理论的日趋成熟，该类电机在风力发电等工业应用场合越来越体现出广泛的前景。分析了无刷双馈电机工作原理以及无刷双馈变速恒频发电系统的实现。依据BDFM在 d-q坐标系的动态数学模型，提出变速恒频运行条件下独立发电的标量控制策略。最后搭建 Matlab/Simulink 模型进行仿真验证了该策略的可行性，并提出了一些提高系统动态响应的方法。%With the maturing of the brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM)theory,this kind of motor is showing its great expectations in wind power and other industrial applications.This paper analyzes the working principle of the brushless doubly-fed motor and the realization of Variable speed constant frequen-cy (VSCF)double fed wind power generation.The paper puts forward the scalar control strategy of VSCF on the basis of dynamic mathematical model of the BDFM in d-q coordinate system.And finally the author builds the Matlab/Simulink model to simulate and verify the feasibility of this strategy,and puts forward some methods to improve the system dynamic response.
Transient Analysis of Brushless Doubly-fed Machine%无刷双馈电机瞬态性能分析
曾斌; 曾进辉
2015-01-01
Build brushless doubly-fed motor rotor in the d - q rotating coordinate system under transient mathematical model; Matlab system simulation model was constructed, an example of brushless doubly-fed motor run in a single feed asynchronous, synchronous operation, doubly-fed synchronous operation and doubly-fed synchronous running the transient performance of the four kinds of operating mode simulation analysis, the simulation results are in conformity with theoretical analysis.%无刷双馈电机已在风电等行业得到广泛应用,分析其瞬态性能十分必要.为了分析笼型转子无刷双馈电机在单馈异步运行、双馈同步运行、 双馈亚同步运行和双馈超同步运行四种运行模式下的瞬态特性, 建立无刷双馈电机在转子d-q旋转坐标系下的瞬态数学模型;用Matlab构建系统仿真模型,通过实例对无刷双馈电机在单馈异步运行、同步运行、双馈亚同步运行和双馈超同步运行四种运行模式的瞬态性能进行仿真分析. 通过实例对无刷双馈电机单馈运行和双馈运行进行了仿真,仿真结果与理论分析一致.
Partial replacement of titanium carbide by tantalum carbide in three-phase WC-TiC-Co alloys tends to have a favorable effect on mechanical properties such as fatigue strength under bending and impact durability.
Design and Study of Dual-Redundancy Brushless DC Motor for Actuator Servo System%舵机用双余度无刷直流电动机设计研究
高金行; 戴志勇; 全兴源; 艾于琛
2011-01-01
以舵机用双余度无刷直流电动机为研究对象,通过数学建模,对无刷直流电动机进行性能仿真,重点介绍样机被测波形及性能数据列表,分析余度换向性能的关键技术,以实现性能调试最优.%A study of dual redundant brushless DC motor for actuator servo system was given. With the mathematical model of brushless DC motor, the simulation performance was shown. The waveforms of BLDC motor were introduced. The performance data of motor was listed. The key technology of commutation was analyzed. The performance was made perfectly.
基于单片机的无刷直流电动机控制系统设计%Design of Brushless DC Motor Control System Based on MCU
闵次凡
2012-01-01
介绍了无刷直流电动机(BLDCM)的基本结构和工作原理.重点阐述了利用8751单片机控制无刷直流电动机的换相、调速、限制启动电流、正反转的原理和实现方法以及程序设计.%This paper introduces the basic structure and working principle of brushless DC motor (BLDCM). This paper expounds the principle and method to control the phase transformation, speed regulation, starting current limit, reverse rotation of brushless DC motor by single chip microcomputer 8751 , and the program design.
肖金凤; 肖杞铭; 曾铁军
2016-01-01
The available torque ripple suppression method of brushless DC motor has unsatisfactory suppression effect,or good ripple suppression effect while owning complicated learning algorithm,and is bad for promotion. To solve these problems, the field⁃oriented control system of the brushless DC motor was designed,which combines the RBF neural network and field⁃oriented control,and uses Luminary 615 microcontroller and brushless motor dedicated chip MC33035. The Visualbasic⁃based upper computer monitoring system matching with the motor was developed,which can realize the graphical display of parameters such as rotate speed and setting of motor parameters with low cost. The experimental results show that the designed RBF field⁃oriented control system of brushless DC motor has small torque ripple and high control accuracy.%针对现有无刷直流电机转矩脉动抑制方法存在抑制效果不理想，或脉动抑制效果好但学习算法复杂，不利于推广的问题，将RBF神经网络与磁场定向控制相结合，选用Luminary 615微控制器和无刷电机专用芯片MC33035，设计了无刷直流电机磁场定向控制系统。并开发基于Visual Basic的配套电机上位机监控系统，能在低成本下实现转速等参数的图形化显示及电机参数等的设置。实验结果表明，所设计的无刷直流电机RBF磁场定向控制系统转矩脉动小、控制精度高。
Simulation Analysis on Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine of Cage Rotor with Deep Slots%深槽式笼型转子无刷双馈电机的仿真分析
胡堃; 何凤有; 薛冰
2011-01-01
针对笼型转子无刷双馈电机转子磁场调制能力差、电机效率低特点,利用Ansofi软件对一种新型深槽式笼型转子无刷双馈电机进行建模仿真,得出电机磁力线分布图,气隙磁通密度波形,再利用MATLAB软件计算出气隙磁通谐波含量,与具有较好磁场调制能力的凸极加导条转子无刷双馈电机的仿真结果进行分析对比,得出深槽式笼型转子结构简单可靠,具有更高的磁场极数转换效率.%For the brushless doubly-fed machine with cage rotor has poor rotor magnetic modulation ability and low efficiency ,a brushless doubly-fed machine which had a kind of new cage rotor with deep slots was modeled and simulated by Ansoft that gets the results of distribution of magnetic force line and density wave of air-gap magnetic fields. The harmonic content of air-gap magnetic fields was calculated with MATLAB and the simulation results of the new cage rotor and the brushless doubly-fed machine with the salient poles rotor with bars which had a good ability of magnetic modulation were compared. The results show that the brushless doubly-fed machine which has a kind of new cage rotor with deep slots has a simple and reliable structure and a better efficiency of rotor magnetic field pole-number conversion.
史忠震; 杨立; 李青青; 许贞俊
2013-01-01
利用Ansys有限元分析软件对永磁无刷直流电动机进行了温度场分布研究,应用传热学理论建市了电动机三维暂态温度场计算模型,根据永磁直流无刷电机内热交换理论给出了边界条件,并在求解域内给出了一定的假设,对其进行分析计算,得到了永磁直流无刷电机各部分温度场分布,并与实测结果基本一致,说明该分析方法对于永磁直流无刷电机的设计和优化具有一定的参考意义.%The distribution of the temperature field of the permanent magnet brushless DC motor was analysed by ansys finite element analysis software.A motor three-dimensional transient temperature field calculation model was establised based on heat transfer theory.Boundary conditions were given by the permanent magnet brushless DC motor heat exchange theory,and the certain assumptions in the solution domain were given.The temperature distribution of the various parts of permanent magnet brushless DC motor was achieved by its analysis and calculation,which was consistent with the measured results.The analysis method for permanent magnet brushless DC motor design and optimization has certain reference value.
吴高峰; 冉振云; 陈奇志
2014-01-01
为解决汽车电动助力转向系统大功率无刷电机控制器发热过大所致的功率MOSFET管损坏问题，结合固体结构热传导原理对控制器结构进行设计。运用有限体积法的控制器三维温度场模型，对该汽车电动助力转向系统（EPS）无刷控制器结构散热性能进行数值模拟，对控制器大电流、高温运行的情况下电路板温升进行试验测定，对比试验数据与数值计算结果，新型控制器结构设计合理，散热性能最好。数值模拟对新型EPS无刷控制器的批量生产具有重要实际意义。%Based on heat conduction principle,the EPS(electric power steering)brushless motor ECU(electronic control units) structure was designed to eliminate the power Mosfet damage caused by overheating of EPS system’s brushless motor ECU. By using ECU 3D temperature field model of the finite volume method,the heat dissipation performance of the brushless motor ECU structure was simulated and analyzed. PCB temperature rise was measured under the condition of large current and high temperature. The comparison between test values and numerical simulation results show that the design of the new type ECU structure is reasonable and its heat dissipation performance is best. The numerical simulation has the important practical significance for mass production of new EPS brushless ECU.
Study on the Reliability of the Brushless PM Motor Based on Bayes Theory%基于Bayes理论的永磁无刷电机的可靠性研究
何银光; 胡小东; 常荣胜
2012-01-01
为了能够提高永磁无刷电机的可靠性评估水平,利用Bayes理论对其进行了可靠性评估.文中首先给出了Bayes理论的基本概念,然后建立了Weibull分布下永磁无刷电机的Bayes理论模型；最后,基于上述模型设计了永磁无刷电机的可靠性试验,根据截尾试验获得的可靠性数据对永磁无刷电机可靠性参数进行了估计.分析结果表明利用Bayes理论采用较少的样本就能获得充分的可靠度的参数估计值,具有较好的前瞻性.%In order to improve the reliability evaluation level of the brushless PM motor, and the Bayes theory is applied to have reliability evaluation of it. First, the basic conceptions of the Bayes theory is analyzed, and then the Bayes theory model of the brushless PM motor of WeibuII distribution is studied, and finally the reliability test of the brushless PM motor is designed, and the reliable pnrnmrtcr of the brushless PM notor is evaluated according to the reliable data obtained from the censored lifetime data test, and results show that this method can get the adequate parameter evaluation value of reliability, this method has better estimation character.
基于DSP的无刷直流电动机控制系统设计%A Design of Control System Based on DSP for Brushless DC Motor
王敏荣; 楼顺天
2006-01-01
无刷直流(Brushless DC)电动机以其结构简单、性能优越的特点得到广泛应用.论文应用Microchip公司一款DSP(dsPIC30F2010)设计了无刷直流电动机控制系统;详细介绍了该电动机控制系统的硬件结构及软件流程.
王法龙; 郑明辉
2015-01-01
针对常规PI在无刷电机调速中控制精度低及动态性能差，无法满足裁断机对动力辊电机速度控制要求，本文提出了一种自适应模糊PI控制方法。该方法应用于无刷直流电机双闭环控制的速度外环控制，提高了无刷直流电机的控制精度和动态响应性能。通过Matlab进行仿真，仿真结果表明，采用自适应模糊PI控制相对常规PI控制，无刷直流电机的调速系统具有很好的动态和静态性能，快速响应，超调量小，抗干扰能力强，鲁棒性好。%In the conventional PI control of brushless motor speed low precision and dynamic performance is poor, unable to meet the power roller cutting machine for motor speed control requirements, we propose an adaptive fuzzy PI control method. The method is applied to double-loop control of brushless DC motor speed outer control, improved control accuracy and dynamic response performance brushless DC motor. Through Matlab simulation results show that the adaptive fuzzy PI speed control system to control relative to conventional PI control, brushless DC motor has a good dynamic and static performance, fast response, small overshoot, and strong anti-jamming capability, robustness.
Control System of Two-Phase Brushless DC Gyro Motor Based on DSP%基于DSP的两相无刷直流陀螺电机稳速系统
吴梅锡; 付鲁华; 林玉池
2013-01-01
The research of the influence of gyro motor speed stability on the north-finding result is studied in order to improve the gyro north-finding precision. The paper introduces a two-phase brushless DC gyro motor control system based on TMS320LF2407A. First,it expounds the two-phase brushless DC motor's working principle. Then through the design of the hardware and software system, the close-loop control of two-phase brushless DC gyro motor is realized. The experimental results show that,the system can drive the brushless DC gyro motor well starting,braking and smooth running. The precision of the steady speed is less than 10~6 and the characteristics of the system satisfy the gyroscope demand.%为了进一步提高陀螺仪的寻北精度,分析研究了陀螺电机转速大小和转速精度对寻北结果的影响.在此基础上设计了一种基于TMS320LF2407A的两相无刷直流陀螺电机控制系统,阐述了两相无刷直流电机的工作原理,给出了电机的简化结构及数学模型,并通过对硬件系统和软件算法的设计实现了两相无刷直流陀螺电机的闭环控制.实验结果表明:系统可以很好地完成电机的启动、制动和平稳运行,转速精度优于10-6,满足陀螺仪的工作要求.
高速永磁无刷电机设计与控制系统研究%High-speed permanent magnet motor design and control system of brushless
郑睿鹏
2015-01-01
永磁无刷电机具有结构简单、无励磁损耗、效率高等特点，适合高速场合。目前，高速永磁无刷电机已经在一些电动汽车中得到实际应用，并且在分布式发电供电系统中显示了其价值和重要性。通过对高速永磁无刷电机设计的关键性问题的探讨、对高速永磁无刷电机控制系统的研究得出，高速电机的转速非常高，而且其功率的密度非常大，其几何尺寸小于其输出功率相同的低速电机，这些特征使得它在工业领域受到了广泛的关注和应用。%Permanent magnet brushless motor has a simple structure , no excitation loss, high efficiency, suitable for high speed applications. Currently, high-speed permanent magnet brushless motor has been applied in a number of electric vehicles, and has demonstrated its value and importance in distributed power generation and distribution systems. By discussing the key issues of high-speed permanent magnet brushless motor design, the study of high-speed permanent magnet brushless motor control system derived, high-speed motor speed is very high, and its power density is very large, and its geometry is less than its the same output power low-speed motor, these features make it in the industrial sector has been widespread concern and applications.
基于DSP控制的纯电动汽车无刷直流电动机%Brushless Direct Current Motor Based on DSP Control on Pure Electric Vehicle
吴敏
2011-01-01
无刷直流电动机是一种高性能的电动机，它具有结构简单、运行可靠、维护方便、运行效率高、无励磁损耗、运行成本低和调速性能好等优点，因此，它在电动汽车上的应用与日俱增．对无刷直流电动机控制的优化是人们一直期待解决的问题。文章设计了利用TMS320LF2407DSP控制器构成的无刷直流电动机的无位置传感器控制的系统硬件和系统软件，实现了对无位置传感器无刷直流电动机的优化控制，试验证明了该方法的正确性和有效性。%Brushless direct current motor is a type of motor with high performance and many advantages, including simple structure, reliable operation, convenient maintenance, high efficiency, non-excitation loss, low cost and good performance of speed governing. Therefore, its application on electric vehicles has increased. People have been looking forward to the solution to the optimization of the control of brushless direct current motor. This paper designs the eontrolling system＇s hardware and software for no-position sensor on the brushless current motor with the structure of TMS320LF2407 DSP controller, which optimized the brushless current motor with no-position sensor. The test also proves the correctness and effectiveness of this method.
两相无槽无刷直流电机的无位置传感器控制%Sensorless control of two-phase slotless brushless DC motor
钟德刚; 方浩
2011-01-01
In order to eliminate the shortcomings of brushless DC motor control based on hall sensors and realize the sensorless control of two-phase slotless brushless DC motor,the structure of stator and rotor ,the winding connections of two-phase slotless brushless DC motor and the zero-crossing of back EMF detection method were analyzed. The hardware system and software system designs of two-phase slotless brushless DC motor were presented. The test results indicate the feasibility and stability of control system. A simple control circuit, low cost,less torque ripples and high stability are the advantages of the design presented.%为消除无刷直流电机基于霍尔位置传感器控制存在的缺点,实现两相无槽无刷直流电机的无位置传感器控制,首先在分析了两相无槽无刷直流电机的定、转子结构、绕组连接方式以及反电势过零点检测法的工作原理基础上,论述了两相无槽无刷直流电机无位置传感器控制的硬件系统和软件系统的设计方案,并对两相无刷直流电机进行了试验.试验结果证明了系统的可行性、稳定性.结果表明,该控制方案具有线路简单、成本低、转矩脉动小、系统运行稳定等优点.
直流无刷高速电机驱动电路设计及改进%Design and Improvement of the High - speed Brushless DC Motor Drive Circuit
石屾; 董春
2011-01-01
采用无传感器无刷直流低速电机专用调速控制芯片ML4425,设计制作了航模用直流无刷高速电机的控制器.针对目前航模用直流无刷电机速度高的特点,对用于直流无刷低速电机的传统ML4425控制系统中的相关环节进行了改进,尤其是电机的启动、驱动和保护部分.简化了航模用直流无刷高速电机的控制系统,减少了成本.%In this paper,a dedicated control chip is used to design a drive circuit of a low speed sensorless DC brushless motor.This paper has done some change of the traditional control system of ML4425,in order to adapt to the high speed of the DC brushless motor used in aircraft model, especially in parts of start, drive and protect.Simplified the control system of the DC brushless motor,so it can reduce the cost.
一种抑制无刷直流电机转矩脉动的新方法%A Method to Suppress Torque Ripple of Brushless DC Motor
谢少华; 瞿遂春
2015-01-01
对无刷直流电机转矩脉动产生的原因进行全面分析，提出增加前级直流变换器抑制转矩脉动的新方法，使用buck直流变换器，通过调整逆变器的母线电压来抑制转矩脉动，在MATLAB/Simulink环境下基于该方法搭建无刷直流电机仿真模型，并对系统进行仿真分析。仿真结果表明，该方法能够有效抑制无刷直流电机转矩脉动。%Analyzes comprehensively the torque ripple causes of brushless DC motor, and proposes a new method of adding the first stage DC converter to control torque ripple. By using buck DC converter and adjusting bus voltage of the inverter to suppress the torque ripple, on the basis establishes brushless DC motor model in MATLAB/Simulink and simulates the system. The result indicates that the method suppresses the torque ripple of brushless DC motor effectively.
吕永健; 李飞; 解亮
2011-01-01
This paper analysed the sine/square wave compound driven for brushless PM motors in aircraft EMA, deduced the dynamical equation of the speed during the switch process and researched the major factors which affect the speed fluctuation. The simulation model of compound driven for brushless PM motor and the platform of the motion control system for universal motors were established. The results of the analysis, simulations and experiments prove that the speed fluctuation can be controlled within acceptable limits and the compound driven for brushless PM motor is feasibility.%研究了航空EMA用永磁无刷电机正弦波/方波复合驱动策略,推导了永磁无刷电机在驱动方式切换时的转速动态方程,分析了影响切换过程中转速波动的主要因素.建立了永磁无刷电机复合驱动的仿真模型和实验平台,仿真和实验结果表明,正弦波/方波复合驱动时的转速波动可以控制在允许的范围内,验证了复合驱动控制策略的有效性.
Design of Portable Garden Mowers Based on a Brushless Motor Control System%基于无刷电机控制系统的便携式园林割草机设计
段亚东
2012-01-01
Based on a thorough study of China＇s mower technologies,a simple and practical portable garden mower is designed.The mower uses a brushless motor and its technical performance parameters have improved substantially,compared with traditional brush motors.The mower uses the drive chip IR2130 dedicated for brushless DC motors as its control chip and uses power device MOSFET as its switch to realize the control of brushless DC motors.%在深入研究我国割草机技术的基础上,设计了简单实用的园林便携式割草机。该割草机采用无刷电动机,与传统有刷电动机相比,其主要技术性能大幅提升。以无刷直流电动机专用驱动芯片IR2130为控制芯片,以功率器件MOSFET为开关器件,可实现对无刷直流电动机的控制。
杨闯; 王国辉
2014-01-01
结合永磁无刷直流电机设计和应用，以Φ300 mm、DC36 V打草机为例，从电池包空载放电时间、切割效率、单电池包工作时间、抗过载性及结构优化设计等五个方面分析永磁无刷直流电机与永磁有刷直流电机的区别，得出永磁无刷直流电机性能占优的结论。%Take the Φ300 mm DC36V grass trimmer for example, combined with the design and application of permanent magnet brushless DC motor, the author analyzes the difference between permanent magnet brushless DC motor and permanent magnet brush DC motor from five aspects such as battery pack discharge time, cutting efficiency, single battery pack working time, anti-overload resistance and structural optimization design, and comes to the conclusion that permanent magnet brushless DC motor superiors.
The Research on Simulation Model of DTC with Brushless DC motor%无刷直流电机直接转矩控制系统仿真研究
宫殿强
2012-01-01
In this paper, the basic structure of the brushless DC motor starting, contacting the Direct Torque Control, it deduced improved brushless DC motor direct torque control system. The improved brushless DC motor direct torque control system's software model based full analysis of direct torque control principles and components, was presented by means of Matlab / Simulink software. The simulation results showed that the improved direct torque control had favourable dynamics and statics.%从无刷直流电机的基本结构出发,联系直接转矩控制理论,提出了改进型无刷直流电机直接转矩控制系统,在对系统的基本原理和组成部分进行充分分析的基础上,利用Matlab/Simulink建立了无刷直流电机直接转矩控制系统的软件模型.仿真结果表明改进型直接转矩控制系统具有良好的动静态性能.
Study of Dual-redundancy Brushless DC Motor in Electric Aircraft Braking System%飞机刹车用双余度无刷直流电动机的研究
高金行; 全兴源; 戴志勇; 曹杨
2012-01-01
A study of dual redundant brushless DC motor in electric aircraft braking system was given. Based on Ansoft, the motor magnetic circuit was analyzed. The structure parameters were optimized. With the mathematical model of brushless DC motor, the simulation performance was shown. The key technologies of Commutation were analyzed. As shown of experiment, the design is reasonable and correct. Key words; dual redundant brushless DC motor; finite element analysis; performance simulation ; key developing technologies%以全电飞机刹车用双余度无刷直流电动机为研究对象,借助Ansoft软件对电机磁路进行分析计算,优化结构参数,并对其进行性能仿真.重点论述了确保无刷余度电机性能最优的调试关键技术.经过样机性能测试与设计相符,满足使用要求.
基于DSP的无刷直流电动机控制系统的研究与设计%Research and Design of Brushless DC Motor Control System Based on DSP
王宪磊; 王淑红
2012-01-01
介绍了无刷直流电动机的基本结构、工作原理和运行特性，简述了基于DSP的无刷直流电动机的控制策略，对无刷直流电动机双闭环控制系统的硬、软件设计作了详细论述。文章所述无刷直流电动机控制系统的设计方案，可以获得良好的速度控制性能。% The basic structure, working principle and operation characteristics of brushless DC motor were introduced. The control strategy of brushless DC motor based on DSP was expounded, and the hardware and software design of the double closed loop control system was expounded in detail. The brushless DC motor control system described in this paper show good performance in speed control.
张力; 季小尹; 张克涵
2012-01-01
根据无人水下航行器的任务特点,研制出无位置传感器的双转子对转无刷直流电机推进动力装置.介绍了无刷直流电机利用专门设计的转换电路,直接检测电机绕组线电压获得功率管驱动信号的方法,研究了无位置传感器无刷直流电机的起动方法,通过样机实验验证了系统设计的合理性.%As to the specific assignment autonomous underwater vehicle, its pushing momentum device which use sensorless double inverse rotors brushless DC motor is developed. The method which use a designed specially conversion circuit measuring the line voltage of motor's winding directly to achieve the power tubes' driving signal is introduced in this paper, the method of sensorless brushless DC motor's startup is also studied. It is showed that the design is rational by prototype trial of a brushless DC motor.
Strength of Fibrous Composites
Huang, Zheng-Ming
2012-01-01
"Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.
Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian
2002-01-01
in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...
Spin Resonance Strength Calculations
Courant, E. D.
2009-08-01
In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.
Spin resonance strength calculations
Courant,E.D.
2008-10-06
In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.
Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub
2012-06-05
High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.
Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX
2010-08-31
High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.
薛冰; 胡堃; 樊贝
2012-01-01
Working principle of brushless doubly-fed machine and characteristics of different kinds of rotor structures were introduced, and brushless doubly-fed machines with four kinds of rotor structures were modeled and simulated by Ansoft software including reluctance rotor, cage rotor, salient poles rotor and salient poles rotor with bars. The results of distribution of magnetic force lines and frequency spectrum of air-gap magnetic field harmonic of the brushless doubly-fed machines were gotten through 2D transient electromagnetic field finite element, which indicate effects of rotor structures on magnetic field modulation of brushless doubly-fed machines. The final conclusion was the reluctance rotor has the best effect on magnetic field modulation and the cage rotor has the worst effect, which provides foundation for optimal design of rotor structure of brushless doubly-fed machine.%阐述了无刷双馈电动机的工作原理和不同转子结构特点,采用Ansoft软件对磁障、笼型、凸极、凸极加导条4种不同转子结构的无刷双馈电动机进行了建模仿真,通过二维瞬态电磁场有限元计算出了不同转子结构无刷双馈电动机的磁力线分布及气隙磁场谐波的频谱图,揭示了不同转子结构对无刷双馈电动机磁场调制效果的影响,得出磁障转子无刷双馈电动机对磁场的调制效果最好、笼型转子无刷双馈电动机对磁场的调制效果最差的结论,为深入研究无刷双馈电动机转子结构的优化设计奠定了基础.
Whitney, J. M.
1983-01-01
The notch strength of composites is discussed. The point stress and average stress criteria relate the notched strength of a laminate to the average strength of a relatively long tensile coupon. Tests of notched specimens in which microstrain gages have been placed at or near the edges of the holes have measured strains much larger that those measured in an unnotched tensile coupon. Orthotropic stress concentration analyses of failed notched laminates have also indicated that failure occurred at strains much larger than those experienced on tensile coupons with normal gage lengths. This suggests that the high strains at the edge of a hole can be related to the very short length of fiber subjected to these strains. Lockheed has attempted to correlate a series of tests of several laminates with holes ranging from 0.19 to 0.50 in. Although the average stress criterion correlated well with test results for hole sizes equal to or greater than 0.50 in., it over-estimated the laminate strength in the range of hole sizes from 0.19 to 0.38 in. It thus appears that a theory is needed that is based on the mechanics of failure and is more generally applicable to the range of hole sizes and the varieties of laminates found in aircraft construction.
The Strength of Varying Tie Strength
Bruggeman, Jeroen
2012-01-01
"The Strength of Weak Ties" argument (Granovetter 1973) says that the most valuable information is best collected through bridging ties with other social circles than one's own, and that those ties tend to be weak. Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) added that to access complex information, actors need strong ties ("high bandwidth") instead. These insights I generalize by pointing at actors' interest to avoid spending large resources on low value information. Weak ties are well-suited for relatively simple information at low transmission and tie maintenance costs, whereas for complex information, the best outcomes are expected for those actors who vary their bandwidths along with the value of information accessed. To support my claim I use all patents in the USA (two million) over the period 1975-1999. I also show that in rationalized fields, such as technology, bandwidth correlates highly with the value of information, which provides support for using this proxy if value can't be measured directly. Finally, I show ...
张文汇
2015-01-01
The optimal control of operating performance of doubly fed motor design improvement of brushless doubly fed ma-chine high-order terminal sliding mode speed identification. According to the traditional rotor coupling ability of brushless doubly fed machine is poor, the problem of low efficiency, presents a BDFM high-order terminal sliding mode speed identi-fication analysis and design methods of tracking differentiator based on finite element method. The brushless doubly fed ma-chine system structure and basic control principle, the use of variable voltage variable frequency speed regulation system by designing way, using high order sliding mode control, the design of tracking differentiator compensation control error, fi-nite element method analysis, get the synovial interference of brushless doubly fed machine structure model control law. Left inverse nonlinear function approximation in the measurement system is used in neural network. Using the magnetic field of the rotor coordinate system of high frequency suppression performance, speed identification model of the brushless doubly fed machine system design improvement. Simulation results show that the model to control the speed observer for brushless double fed motor speed system timely and accurate identification error maximum value appeared in load surges, only 3 R/min, show high anti-interference performance model. In order to improve the robustness of the brushless doubly fed motor closed-loop control system control precision and system provides a guarantee.%对无刷双馈电机高阶终端滑模转速辨识的优化控制设计提高双馈电机的运行特性.针对传统的无刷双馈电机的转子耦合能力差、效率低的问题,提出一种基于跟踪微分器有限元法分析的无刷双馈电机高阶终端滑模转速辨识设计方法.分析无刷双馈电机系统结构和基本控制原理,通过使用变频变压调速系统设计的方式,采用高阶滑模控制,设计跟踪微分器
基于Matlab无刷直流电机控制系统仿真%The simulation of brushless DC motor control system based on Matlab
王亚茹; 宋晓梅; 何程; 巩学芳
2015-01-01
In order to reduce the design cost and save design time of brushless DC motor ,in Matlab/Simulink environment ,the control principle and the mathematical model of BLDCM are analyzed to conduct research related to control system .In the modular notion of control system ,by the combina‐tion of the isolated blocks and S‐function ,the model of BLDCM can be established .This system is con‐trolled by the speed and current double loop .Through a classical PID joined to the speed loop ,the ad‐justment of speed achieves smoothness .And a current controller is completed in the current loop on the principle of hysteresis current track PWM inverter .The simulation results prove that the system has good static and dynamic charactertics ,and verify the rationality and validity of this method .By studying the simulation model of BLDCM based on Matlab ,a new approach for designing and debug‐ging motors is provided .%为了降低无刷直流电机（brushless DC motor ，BLDCM ）的设计成本，节省设计时间，在Matlab／Simulink环境下，通过分析BLDCM 的控制原理及数学模型，进行BLDCM 控制系统的仿真研究。利用控制系统的模块化思想，分别建立独立的功能模块，再结合S函数，以此构建出BLDCM 控制系统的仿真模型。系统采用速度、电流的双闭环控制，在速度外环加入经典的PID控制以实现转速的平稳调节，电流内环控制采用滞环电流跟踪型PWM 实现。仿真结果表明，控制系统具有良好的静态、动态特性，同时验证了该方法的合理性和有效性。
PWM调制下无刷直流电机的转矩脉动抑制%Torque Ripple Reduction of Brushless DC Motors by PWM Modes
孟光伟; 李槐树; 熊浩
2011-01-01
分析无刷直流电机在PWM调制下稳态时的换相过程,通过在换相期间的PWM调制来实现高、低速条件下的换相转矩脉动补偿控制,确定了保持换相期间非换相相电流幅值不变的换相时间.分析PWM调制方式对三相六状态二二导通无刷直流电机控制系统的影响,提出了在PWM-ON-PWM调制方式下的换相转矩脉动补偿控制,不但能够完全消除非换相期间由于关断相出现电流而引起的电磁转矩脉动,而且能够完全补偿由于换相而引起的转矩脉动,实现电机在低速和高速时的无转矩脉动控制.%The steady commutation process of brushless DC motor by PWM modes was analyzed, and realized phase conversion torque ripple compensation control under both low speed and high speed operation by PWM control in commutation period,and confirmed commutation time to hold amplitude of current in commutation period. The effect by PWM modes on a three-phase six-state 120°conduction brushless DC motor was analyzed,and proposed torque ripple compensation control in PWM_ON_PWM mode, which can not only entirely eliminate torque ripple resulted from the current emerging in the turn-off phase during non-commutation period but also compensate torque ripple caused by the commutation current during commutation period. The torque ripple can be effectively reduced under both low speed and high speed operation using torque ripple compensation control in PWM ON PWM mode.
Simulation of Brushless DC Motor with Kalman Filter%基于卡尔曼滤波器的无刷直流电动机仿真
吕志宽; 李声晋; 卢刚; 周勇
2011-01-01
对已有的无刷直流电动机数学模型进行详细的分析,并提出了一种基于卡尔曼滤波器的无刷直流电动机调速系统建模仿真方法.在Matlab/Simulink环境下,采用独立功能模块与S函数相结合的方法,依据现有电机控制系统构造了一种无刷直流电动机的调速系统仿真模型.仿真系统进行PI转速调节,电机反馈转速经卡尔曼滤波器滤波.仿真和试验结果与理论分析一致,证明所建立的无刷直流电动机状态方程正确,卡尔曼滤波器校正矩阵递推公式合理,为现实中的电机控制系统设计和调试提供了新方法.%Mathematical model of the Brushless DC motor was fristly analyzed. Furthermore, a new modeling and simulation method of the speed control system of BLDCM based on Kalman Filter was proposed. In Matlab/Simulink, the method of independent function models combining S-functions was adopted and simulation model of the speed control system was built on the basis of the electric machine control system. PI speed control was conducted with the simulation model and the electric machine speed feedback was filtered by Kalman Filter. The conformity simulation and experiment results and between theoretical analysis proves that the brushless DC motor state space formula is correct,that Kalman Filter correction matrix recursion formula is reasonable,and that the method provides new method for the electric machine control system design and adjustment.
Sri Handayani
2008-01-01
Amalgam didefinisikan sebagai campuran dari dua atau beberapa logam (alloy) yang salah satunya adalali merkuri. Dental amalgam sendiri merupakan campuran dari merkuri (Hg), perak (Ag), timah (Sn), tembaga (Cu) dan bahan-bahan lain yang memiliki fungsinya masing-masing, dimana sebagian diantaranya akan saling mengatasi kekurangan yang ditimbulkan logam lain, jika logam tersebut dikombinasikan dengan perbandingan yang tepat. Amalgam mempunyai strength (kekuatan) yang cukup besar sehingga dap...
Character strengths and virtues
2015-01-01
The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that l...
Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay
Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust
resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...... of Aalborg Clay by use of triaxial tests from four different locations. Both the drained strength (c and ϕ) and the undrained strength (cu) are assessed through two different methods: one where the strength is assumed to vary with the effective stress and another where the strength is found to be constant....
Modeling Method of Brushless DC Motor Based on MATLAB%基于MATL AB的无刷直流电机建模方法
郭丹蕊; 林晓焕; 单星; 汪通
2015-01-01
根据分析得到的理想状态下的无刷直流电机各个方程，结合Matlab/simulink里相应图形化模块来搭建电机模型，并在文中列举了几个重要模块的作用。结合所给参数仿真得出曲线图，说明搭建的模型有较好的实用价值，验证了模型的正确性。%According to the brushless DC motor of each equation in the ideal state of the analysis,combined with Matlab/simulink in the corresponding graphical module to build the motor model, and cited the role of several important modules in the text. Combined with the given parameters of the simulation results graph illustrating the build model has good practical value to verify the correctness of the model.
Bravin, E; Sosa, A
2014-01-01
This report summarizes the results of a series of tests performed on the prototype HIE-ISOLDE diagnostic box (HIE-DB) regarding the vibrations and drifts in the transverse position of the scanning blade while moving in and out of beam path in the HIE-ISOLDE short box prototype. To monitor the transverse position of the blade, a series of 0.1 mm diameter holes were drilled on it and their positions were tracked with an optical system. The linear motion actuator was acquired from UHV design (model LSM38-150-SS), and it was adapted to be driven by a brushless EC motor from MAXON. The speed of the scanning blade during the tests was 10 mm/s. The transverse movement of the slit in the direction perpendicular to the movement was lower than 40 m, and is dominated by the displacement of the contact point of the applied force on the lead-screw. An offset on the slit position was observed while changing the direction of movement of the blade, its amplitude being of the order of 30 m. The amplitudes of the displacements...
Modeling and Control for Double Stator Permanent Magnetic Brushless Machine%双定子永磁无刷电机建模及其控制
王玉彬; 程明; 马炳荣
2011-01-01
推导了双定子永磁无刷( DS - PMBL)电机三相定子坐标系下的数学模型,在此基础上,基于Matlab/Simulink建立了DS - PMBL电机本体的仿真模型以及其控制系统模型,并采用id=0矢量控制策略研究了DS- PMBL电机的动态性能.试验结果验证了所搭建仿真模型的正确性.%The mathematic model of double stator permanent magnetic brushless (DS-PMBL) machine has been derived based on three-phase stator coordinate system. Accordingly, the simulation models, namely, the machine body and id = 0 vector control system, have been established using Matlab/Simulink. The dynamic performance of the proposed vector control system has been investigated. Experimental results of the prototype are given to verify the simulation model and the control strategy.
Simulation Analysis of Brushless DC Motors for Aircraft%飞机用无刷直流电动机系统仿真分析
马银龙; 尹航; 柯栋梁
2011-01-01
A novel method for modeling and simulation of the brushless DC motor system for Aircraft was presented. With this model,all the simulation of motor performance,fault protection,soft start can be realized. The mathematic model of the BLDCM was established. Under Simulink in Matlab 2010a,the simulation model of the BLDCM system can be modeled by the S-functions programming and modular design. Over-current,under-voltage and open phase protection were discussed to improve reliability. The reasonability was testified by the coincidence of the simulation results and theory analysis.%提出了一种新的飞机用无刷直流电动机的系统建模方法,该模型可以实现电机性能、故障保护、软起动的综合仿真.根据无刷直流电动机的数学模型,在Matlab 2010a的Simulink环境下,采用S函数和模块化建模方法,建立了相应的系统仿真模型.为提高可靠性,较详细地讨论了过流、欠压和缺相故障的保护.仿真实验结果与理论分析一致,验证了模型的合理有效性.
无刷双馈电机电动状态下的能量分析%Power flow in brushless doubly-fed machine under motor operation
章玮
2000-01-01
无刷双馈电机作为一种新颖电机，无论是电机结构还是运行特性都有其特殊性。从电机稳态模型出发，分析了无刷双馈电机作为调速电动机在各种不同转速范围内定、转子间的能量传递关系，为无刷双馈电机的绕组容量设计以及变频器容量的选择方面提供依据。%As a new type motor,Brushless Double-Fed Machine(BDFM) has shown specialties in its structure and operational characteristic.Based on theN steady-state model of the BDFM,this paper discusses the power flow in the two stator windings and the rotor circuit under different speed ranges.The results obtained offer the theoretical basis for machine's de-sign and selecting the capacity of converter.
Yanzhao He
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The start-up current control of the high-speed brushless DC (HS-BLDC motor is a challenging research topic. To effectively control the start-up current of the sensorless HS-BLDC motor, an adaptive control method is proposed based on the adaptive neural network (ANN inverse system and the two degrees of freedom (2-DOF internal model controller (IMC. The HS-BLDC motor is identified by the online least squares support vector machine (OLS-SVM algorithm to regulate the ANN inverse controller parameters in real time. A pseudo linear system is developed by introducing the constructed real-time inverse system into the original HS-BLDC motor system. Based on the characteristics of the pseudo linear system, an extra closed-loop feedback control strategy based on the 2-DOF IMC is proposed to improve the transient response performance and enhance the stability of the control system. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed control method is effective and perfect start-up current tracking performance is achieved.
无刷直流电机的定频积分控制%Constant Frequency Integration Control for Brushless DC Motor
贺虎成
2013-01-01
A constant frequency integration control method was proposed for brushless DC motor.Making use of the mathematical model and the dynamic equation of the star-type three-phase six-state BLDCM,the relationship between the motor speed,the load torque,the motor parameters and inverter duty cycle was analyzed.Appling constant frequency integration control theory,the motor speed control can be achieved by adjusting the duty cycle.Finally,the presented BLDCM constant frequency integration control method was simulated,and the simulation results confirmed the validity and feasibility of the theoretical analysis.%为改善无刷直流电机(BLDCM)调速系统的性能,提出了BLDCM的定频积分控制方法.利用星型三相六状态BLDCM的数学模型和动态方程,分析了BLDCM速度、负载转矩、电机自身参数和逆变器占空比之间的关系,提出了运用定频积分控制原理,通过调节占空比实现对电机速度的控制.对提出的BLDCM定频积分控制方法进行了仿真研究,仿真结果验证了理论分析的正确性与可行性.
Neural Network Inverse Model Control and Simulation of Brushless Motor%无刷直流电机的神经网络逆控制与仿真
段希义; 潘玉民
2015-01-01
A neural network inverse control method of brushless DC motor is proposed. This method can overcome the motor param⁃eters change and nonlinear. The inverse model realized using BP neural network, and the inverse model and the original series mo⁃tor system constitute a pseudo linear system, and then to speed closed-loop control of PID.The simulation results show that the neu⁃ral network inverse control method has stronger inhibition to the load disturbance, can reduce the speed overshoot and improve the accuracy and dynamic and static performance.%提出了一种无刷直流电机的神经网络的逆控制方法，该方法可以克服电机参数变化和非线性。其中逆模型采用BP神经网络实现，并将该逆模型与原电机系统串联构成伪线性系统，再进行转速PID闭环控制。仿真实验结果表明神经网络逆控制方法对负载扰动有较强抑制作用，可以减小转速超调、提高精度和动静态性能。
Ozgenel, Mehmet Cihat; Bal, Gungor; Uygun, Durmus
2017-03-01
This study presents a precise speed control method for Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) Motors using an electronic tachogenerator (ETg) instead of an electro-mechanical tachogenerator. Most commonly used three-phase BLDC motors have three position sensors for rotor position data to provide commutation among stator windings. Aforementioned position sensors are usually Hall-effect sensors delivering binary-high and binary-low data as long as the motor rotates. These binary sets from three Hall-effect sensors can be used as an analogue rotor speed signal for closed loop applications. Each position sensor signal is apart from 120 electrical degrees. By using an electronic circuitry, a combination of position sensor signals is converted to the analogue signal providing an input to a PI speed controller. To implement this, a frequency to voltage converter has been used in this study. Then, the analogue speed signal has been evaluated as rotor speed data in comparison with the reference speed. So, an ETg system has been successfully achieved in place of an electro-mechanical tachogenerator for BLDC motor speed control. The proposed ETg has been tested under various speed conditions on an experimental setup. Employed tests and obtained results show that the proposed low-cost speed feedback sub-system can be effectively used in BLDC motor drive systems. Through the proved method and designed sub-system, a new motor controller chip with a speed feedback capability has been aimed.
无刷直流电机控制系统的设计研究%Design Study on the Brushless DC Motor Control System
王硕; 安霆
2014-01-01
为深入研究无刷直流电机的控制问题，基于PIC16 F877单片机构建了电机控制系统；采用绕组Y联结三相全控桥式电路设计了两两导通式换相控制模块，并给出了控制字表；研究了基于PWM法的变压调速技术，并给出了正、反转控制方法；另外，还对软件设计中的各程序模块进行了阐述。%In order to study the control problem of brushless DC motor deeply, this paper designs a control system based on the PIC16F877 single chip computer.It designs the commutation control module of two-two con-duction type based on three phase full-controlled bridge circuit of Y coupling, and presents the control digital ta-ble.It also studies the technology of adjusting speed by changing voltage based on PWM method, and shows the control method of forward and reverse rotation.The paper also elaborates the software design in the end.
Optimal Rotor Structure Design of Brushless Doubly-fed Machine%无刷双馈电机的转子结构优化设计
纪梁洲; 杨向宇
2011-01-01
The operating principle of Brushless Doubly-fed Machine (BDFM) was analyzed and the design methods of stator and rotor structure were introduced. This paper took the salient rotor of BDFM which has six and two poles for example, focused on the structure optimal design process using the Taguchi method, obtained some basic conclusions in the rotor structure design of BDFM by the analysis of signal to noise ratio. The analysis of FEM shows that the Taguchi method is effective and accuracy.%分析了无刷双馈电机的运行原理,介绍了电机的定、转子结构的设计方法.以一台(6+2)极的普通凸极转子无刷双馈电机为例,采用田口法对电机转子结构进行优化设计,通过信噪比分析得到了电机转子结构设计中的一些基本结论.有限元电磁场仿真分析结果证明了田口法的有效性和正确性.
新型转子无刷双馈电机电磁设计%Electromagnetic Design of Brushless Doubly Fed Motor with Novel Rotor
王秀平; 张凤阁
2012-01-01
Aiming at lower efficiency of brushless doubly fed machine ( BDFM) and weaker magnetic field modulation capability of rotor, a novel type of rotor structure was presented, namely reluctance rotor with cage conductor and magnetic barrier. Several different rotor BDFMs were analyzed for their magnetic field modulation capability, it proved that the novel rotor has better magnetic field modulation capability. Conclusions will lay the foundation for BDFM application.%针对目前转子磁场调制能力弱导致无刷双馈电机效率低的问题,提出了一种新型转子结构,即笼条和磁障混合转子,利用有限元法对比分析了所提出转子与常见几种不同结构转子无刷双馈电机的磁场调制能力,证明了该转子具有优良的磁场调制能力.
Chengde Tong
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel sensorless control strategy based on the estimation of line back electro-motive force (BEMF is proposed. According to the phase relationship between the ideal commutation points of the brushless direct current motor (BLDCM and the zero-crossing points (ZCPs of the line BEMF, the calculation formula of line BEMF is simplified properly and the commutation rule for different positions of the rotor is presented. The estimation error of line BEMF caused by the freewheeling current of silent phase is analyzed, and the solution is given. With the phase shift of the low-pass filter considered, a compensation method using “60°-α” and “120°-α” is studied in this paper to eliminate the error. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that the rotor-position-detection error is reduced effectively and the motor driven by the accurate commutation signal can work well at low and high speed.
无刷直流电机转子位置检测方法综述%Summary on Rotor Position Detection Method for Brushless DC Motors
赵一衡; 顾伟康; 陈亚彬; 曹翔
2014-01-01
由于受到传统开关器件的限制，大电流开关电源存在功率小、效率低等问题，因此在对PWM软开关技术进行分析后，利用AT89 C52单片机的中断方式输出频率和占空比可调的PWM脉冲，控制大功率开关管GT40 T101的通断，从而实现以模拟继电器的方式控制电路的通断。通过搭建电路验证了PWM软开关在控制大功率电源方面的优越性，对于实际的电气工程应用具有一定的参考价值。%The brushless DC motor (BLDCM) is an advanced mechanical electronic device.Rotor position detection method is an important part of the BLDCM.Traditional method with position sensor is not suitable the need for the current applications because of its own shortcomings, so the position detection method has been the research hotspot recently.The basic principle and research situation of sensorless detection methods are introduced , and their advantages and disadvantages are compared .It provides a certain theoretical basis for researching on sensorless and has certain value.
Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, due to excellent advantages of permanent magnet brushless (PMBL motors such as high efficiency and high torque/power density, they are used in many industrial and variable-speed electrical drives applications. If the fabricated PMBL motor has neither ideal sinusoidal nor ideal trapezoidal back-EMF voltages, it is named nonideal (or nonsinusoidal PMBL motor. Employing conventional control strategies of PMSMs and BLDCMs lowers the efficiency and leads to unwanted torque ripple, vibration, and acoustic noises. Moreover, in many applications to reduce the cost and enhance the reliability of drive, sensorless control techniques are used. This paper proposes a novel sensorless control for a nonsinusoidal PMBL motor with minimum torque ripple. To develop smooth torque, the selected torque harmonic elimination strategy is employed. Furthermore, to estimate the rotor position and speed, a novel full-order sliding mode observer is designed. Proposed observer estimates the position and speed of motor from standstill to final speed. The proposed observer is robust to uncertainty of harmonic contents in phase back-EMF voltage and able to run the motor from standstill with closed-loop control scheme. The capabilities of torque ripple minimization and sensorless strategies are demonstrated with some simulations.
Alexander, Gerald C.; Spee, Rene; Wallace, Alan K.
1993-12-31
Since the inception of the BDFM development program in 1989, the value of BDFM technology has become apparent. The BDFM provides for adjustable speed, synchronous operation while keeping costs associated with the required power conversion equipment lower than in competing technologies. This provides for an advantage in initial as well as maintenance expenses over conventional drive system. Thus, the BDFM enables energy efficient, adjustable speed process control for applications where established drive technology has not been able to deliver satisfactory returns on investment. At the same time, the BDFM challenges conventional drive technologies in established markets by providing for improved performance at lower cost. BDFM converter rating is kept at a minimum, which significantly improves power quality at the utility interface over competing power conversion equipment. In summary, BDFM technology can be expected to provide significant benefits to utilities as well as their customers. This report discusses technical research and development activities related to Phase 3 of the Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine System Development Program, including work made possible by supplemental funds for laboratory improvement and prototype construction. Market research for the BDFM was provided by the College of Business at Oregon State University; market study results will be discussed in a separate report.
FIELD STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS, PHASE I.
The program included the testing and evaluation of commercial and military field- strength meters. It also included a study of the interpretation of...field- strength measurement data taken under multipath conditions. As part of the field- strength meter evaluation, five instruments, the AN/TRM-7, NF...interpretation of the measured data is the variability of field- strength values obtained over an area. Such variability is caused by the presence of multipath
Strength Development for Young Adolescents
McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura
2009-01-01
Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…
Strength Training and Children's Health.
Faigenbaum, Avery D.
2001-01-01
Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…
Strength Training and Children's Health.
Faigenbaum, Avery D.
2001-01-01
Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…
Strength of Rewelded Inconel 718
Bayless, E.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcllwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.
1982-01-01
Inconel 718, nickel-based alloy used extensively for high-temperature structural service, welded repeatedly without detriment to its strength. According to NASA report, tests show 12 repairs on same weld joint do not adversely affect ultimate tensile strenth, yield strength, fatigue strength, metallurgical grain structures, or ability of weld joint to respond to post weld heat treatments.
The Sensorless Control of Brushless DC Fan Motors Based on Current Feedback%基于电流反馈的直流无刷风扇电机无传感器控制
苏译; 徐晓昂
2012-01-01
针对无传感器直流无刷风扇电机开环控制的不稳定性和转速闭环控制的相位偏差,首先从直流无刷风扇电机的数学模型及反电势过零点检测方法出发,阐述了由外部PWM驱动的开环控制和转速闭环控制方法的不足,提出了一种新型的基于电流反馈的无传感器直流无刷风扇电机控制系统.最后借助MATLAB/Simulink软件进行了建模与仿真,验证了新型控制系统的可行性.仿真结果表明,提出的控制系统具有良好的稳定性并有效消除了相位偏差.%For instability of open-loop control and phase deviation of speed closed-loop control in sensorless brushless DC fan motors, this paper begins with the mathematical model and the detection method of zero crossing point of brushless DC fan motors, the defects existing in the open-loop control driven by external PWM signals and closed-loop speed control method are expounded, a novel control system of sensorless brushless DC fan motors based on the current feedback is proposed. Finally, the software of MATLAB is used for the modeling and simulation for the whole system, the feasibility of the proposed control system is verified. The simulation results show that the proposed control system has a good stability and eliminates the phase offset effectively.
魏巍
2014-01-01
本文针对无刷直流电机设计了一种可在线学习的单神经元自适应PID智能控制器，通过有监督的Hebb学习规则来调整权值，每一次采样都直接根据反馈误差对神经元权值进行调整，实现PID三个参数的自适应，采用分段线性化方法建立无刷直流电机反电动势梯形波，采用滞环电流控制器实现电流调节，并在Matlab/Simulink仿真平台上搭建仿真模型，结果表明智能PID控制效果和鲁棒性都优于常规PID，大大提高了系统的跟随性，能满足无刷电机系统对实时性的要求。%According to brushless DC motor, this paper designed a kind of single neuron self-adaptive PID intelligent controller which can be learned online, the weights can be adjusted by supervised Hebb learning rule, the neuron weights are adjusted according feedback error in every sampling, so as to realize the self-adaptation of three PID parameters. Brushless DC motor back EMF wave was built by using piecewise linearization method, the current regulation was realized by using hysteresis current controller and simulation model was structured based on Matlab / Simulink simulation platform. The results show that the intelligent PID control effect and robustness are better than the conventional PID, so it greatly improved the following characteristic of the system, and it can satisfy the real-time requirements of the brushless motor system.
袁川; 乐贵高
2014-01-01
针对无刷直流电机的转矩脉动，采用电流滞环控制来抑制脉动；在Matlab/Simulink环境下，基于直流无刷电机的数学模型、转速和电流双闭环控制策略来建立无刷直流电机电流滞环控制系统的各个独立模块如BLDC本体模块、速度控制模块、电流滞环模块、逆变电路模块、脉冲信号模块等，再进行各功能模块的连接，搭建无刷直流电机的控制系统仿真模型，并在给定参数下进行仿真分析。%The current hysteresis loop tracking control is used to prevent the brushless DC motor from torque rippling. In the Matlab/Simulink environment, the independent modules of the brushless DC motor system the with current hysteresis loop tracking control are built based on its mathematical model and the speed and current double closed loop control strategy, such as BLDC ontology, speed control, current hysteresis, inverter circuit and pulse signal modules, which are connected to each function module to build a brushless dc motor control system simulation model and set up the paramters to do the simulation analysis.
无刷直流电机无位置传感器控制系统仿真研究%The Simulation and Research of Sensorless Control System for Brushless DC motor
朱勇; 冯开平
2013-01-01
通过分析无刷直流电动机数学模型，利用Matlab/Simulink对无刷直流电机无位置传感器控制系统进行了建模和仿真。分别用Simulink库中自带的电机模型，反电动势过零点检测法、速度PI控制和电流滞环PWM控制方式对系统仿真，使系统更直观、简化，更加贴近实际控制系统，为无刷直流电机无位置传感控制系统的设计与调试提供了新的方法。仿真结果得到的三相行电流波形和反电动势波形与理论分析得到的波形一致，验证了该无位置传感器控制系统的正确性。%Through the analysis of the mathematical model of brushless dc motor, using Matlab/Simulink for brushless dc motor without position sensor control system modeling and simulation. Using Simulink library respectively with motor model,counter electromotive force zero method, speed PI control and current hysteresis PWM control mode of system simulation, and makes the system more intuitive, simplified, more close to the actual control system for brushless dc motor without position sensor control system design and debugging provides a new method. Simulation results obtained three phase line current waveform and back emf waveform and theoretical analysis of the wave get consistent,verify the sensorless control system accuracy.
基于TB6556 FG的降低无刷直流电机噪声的设计%Design for Reducing Noise of Brushless DC Motor Based on TB6556 FG
陈治宇; 黄开胜; 陈风凯; 田燕飞; 何建源
2014-01-01
A minitype brushless DC motor of optimal magnet chamfering for 180o sinusoidal driving was designed to reduce vibration and noise of the motor. Firstly sinusoidal drive system was designed with TB6556FG and TP4124AK for suppressing mutation of commutation current;Finite element analysis software of ANSYS was employed to analyze brushless DC motor, and to calculate the optimal magnet chamfering for suppressing torque ripple. The motor was manufactured, and the vibration and noise of brushless DC motor were reduced effectively. This method could improve the characteristics of motors, and it was significant value to reduce vibration and noise of motors.%为降低小型无刷直流电机的振动和噪声，设计了一种180º正弦波驱动的具有最佳磁极削角的无刷直流电机。采用TB6556FG控制器和IPM模块TP4124AK构建正弦波驱动系统，来抑制换向电流的突变。结合ANSYS有限元分析软件对无刷直流电机进行分析，计算出最佳的磁极削角尺寸，来抑制转矩脉动，并进行了样机试验，电机的振动和噪声抑制效果明显。该方法可有效改善电机性能，对降低电机的振动和噪声具有一定的工程应用价值。
基于 LS052A Cb 的无刷直流电机的控制系统设计%Control System of Brushless DC Motor Based on LS052A Cb
韦宏利; 李金荣
2016-01-01
基于设计一款高效节能的无刷直流电机的控制系统方案的目的,LS052A Cb 是一款国产通用型单片机,能够实现多核多任务并行处理。在研究了 SVPWM 基本原理的基础上,采用空间矢量脉宽调制技术的方法,通过运用反电动势检测实现无位置传感器方式的位置检测,并检测速度和电流采集运用双闭环 PID 的控制策略实现了对无刷直流电机的速度控制的试验,得出一种新型无刷直流电机控制系统的方案可行,具有应用价值。%This paper seeks to design a control system for an efficient and energy saving brushless DC motor.LS052A Cb is a general purpose microcontroller in made in China that supports parallel multi core multi tasking processing.After studying the basic principles of SVPWM,with space vector pulse width modulation technology,and via counter EMF position detection is achieved under the sensor less mode.And speed detection and current collection using dual loop PID control strategy,speed control ex-periment of the brushless DC motor is carried out.The conclusion of feasibility of a new type of brushless DC motor control system of the program is obtained and proven of great value in application.
付光杰; 杨帛润; 高俊莹
2013-01-01
To consider the complex and coupled nonlinear characteristics of a brushless DC motor,and to overcome the low speed accuracy and slow response shortcoming of the traditional control algorithm,a new strategy for the coefficient of PID controller tuning of brushless DC motor control system simulation modeling based on improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed in this paper.Building a simulation model of BLDC control system in Matlab/Simulink,and to achieve the dual closed-loop control:The velocity loop adopts the PID control based on particle swarm optimization,the current loop uses hysteresis current control.Simulation results verify the control method of brushless DC motor speed control system has more rapidity,stability and robustness.%文章针对无刷直流电机(BLDC)复杂的、耦合的非线性的特点,克服传统的控制算法控制速度精度不高、响应速度慢等缺点,提出了一种基于改进的粒子群算法(PSO)对PID控制器系数自整定的无刷直流电机控制新策略.在Matlab/Simulink中搭建BLDC控制系统的仿真模型,并实现双闭环的控制:速度环采用改进粒子群算法优化PID控制,电流环采用滞环电流控制.仿真结果验证了该控制方法对无刷直流电机调速系统具有良好的快速性、稳定性和鲁棒性.
戴文俊; 蒋慧
2015-01-01
To deal with the problem that the traditional PID control is difficult to achieve good control effect in the brushless DC motor control system, a kind of adaptive PID controller for fuzzy neural network is designed. It is based on the mathematical model of brushless DC motor, is the combination of using nonlinear control function of fuzzy control and learning ability and adaptive capacity of BP neural network in order to make on-line setting of the parameter of PID. The brushless DC motor double closed loop control system based on the fuzzy neural network adaptive PID controller is simulated. Simulation results show that the algorithm decreases the overshoot, has strong robustness in the load and the change of motor parameters.%针对传统PID控制在无刷直流电机控制系统中达不到良好的控制效果的问题，在无刷直流电机的数学模型基础之上，设计一种模糊神经网络自适应PID控制器，该控制器利用模糊控制非线性控制作用和BP神经网络的学习能力及适应能力相结合对PID参数进行在线实时调整。对基于模糊神经网络自适应PID控制器的无刷直流电机的双闭环控制系统进行仿真实验，实验结果表明，可以提高控制系统的响应速度，减小超调量，对负载及电机参数的变化都有较强的鲁棒性。
基于模糊预测控制的无刷直流电机控制研究%Study on Brushless DC Motor Control Based on Fuzzy Predictive Control
王玉娟; 张艳
2015-01-01
针对传统控制方法在对永磁无刷直流电机(Brushless DC Motor,BLDCM)进行控制时鲁棒性差、精度低、实时性不理想等缺点,提出了一种模糊与预测相结合的控制算法。将该算法应用于永磁无刷直流电机双闭环调速系统的转速闭环中,并利用 MATLAB 软件搭建无刷直流电机的控制系统进行仿真。实验结果表明该算法利用模糊控制与预测控制各自的优点,提高了无刷直流电机的性能,是可行和有效的。%When the Brushless DC Motor(BLDCM)is controlled by traditional methods,it is weak in robustness,accuracy and real-time .A fuzzy predictive control method is proposed in this paper.The control algorithm is applied in the double loop of speed servo system of BLDCM.The control system of Brushless DC motor is built and simulated by the MATLAB software.Ex-periments results show that the control algorithm combines the advantages of the fuzzy control and the predictive control and im-proves the performance of the BLDCM.This control method is proved to be feasible and effective.
马余洋
2015-01-01
A kind of high-efficiency DC brushless pumping motor together with its simple manufacturing pro-cess was introduced. The contents were included with the performance of 2-pole PM rotor, detailed stator construction and the manufacturing for the winding as well as relative control method.%介绍了一种效率高且制造工艺简单的无刷直流水泵电机。内容包括两极永磁体转子的性能、定子结构和绕组的制造及其控制方法。
肖金凤; 张垒; 盛义发
2013-01-01
针对目前存在的无刷直流电机转矩脉动这一突出问题,介绍了无刷直流电机转矩脉动及抑制机理,提出采用磁场定向控制策略,以降低无刷直流电机的转矩脉动.给出了控制策略及实现方法,并建立系统仿真模型,将基于磁场定向控制与传统方波线电压控制的控制系统进行对比仿真研究,仿真表明基于磁场定向控制的无刷直流电机控制系统性能更好,转矩脉动更小.以STM32F103B为核心设计了磁场定向控制无刷直流电机控制系统,实测的电机相电流为近似正弦波,转速波动小,电机运行平稳.%According to the torque ripple of brushless DC motor is the most outstanding problem, this paper introduces the torque ripple and reduction mechanism. The application of field orientation control ( FOC) strategy to reduce the torque ripple of brushless DC motor is put forward, the control strategy and implementation method are given, and the system simulation models are established. The system based on FOC is compared with system based on traditional square wave line voltage modulation method, the simulation results show the control performance of brushless DC motor based on FOC introduced is better, torque ripple is smaller. STM32F103B is used as the control core to design the Brushless DC motor control system test platform based on FOC. The phase current curve is approximate sine wave, speed ripple is small, operation is stable.
双闭环无刷直流电机驱动电路的设计与实现%Design of drive circuit for double closed-loop brushless DC motors
宋超; 王刚; 栾宁
2013-01-01
The structure and working principle of brushless DC motor are introduced in this paper based on summarization of development and application of brushless DC motor control system. The mathematical model is given. The PID control algo-rithm which is easy to use and robust in brushless DC motor control technology is analyzed emphatically. The hardware and soft-ware design of brushless DC motor control system is described in detail. The circuit was designed on the basis of the special drive chip DSPIC30F4011 used in motor drive circuit manufactured by Microchip. The principal circuit architecture includes power supply circuit, three-phase inverter bridge circuit, rotate speed closed-loop, current closed-loop, line voltage closed-loop, protetion circuit, etc. The software design of the system includes the initial program, and control programs.%在对无刷直流电动机控制系统的发展及应用综述的基础上,介绍了无刷直流电动机的结构和工作原理,给出了其数学模型,并重点分析了无刷直流电机控制技术中简单易用且鲁棒性较好的PID控制算法.对无刷直流电动机控制系统的硬件和软件设计做了详细论述.该电路是基于微芯公司的电机驱动电路专用驱动芯片DSPic30f4011而设计开发的,其中主体电路架构包括电源电路,三相逆变桥电路、转速闭环、电流闭环、线电压闭环和保护电路等.系统的软件设计中,主要包括微控制器的初始化程序、开环起动、换向控制、电流、速度采样时刻控制等.
Nehl, T. W.
1980-12-01
A discrete state space model of a power conditioner fed permanent magnet brushless dc motor for aerospace and electric vehicle applications is developed. The parameters which describe that machine portion of this model are derived from a two dimensional nonlinear magnetic field analysis using the finite element method. The model predicts the instantaneous mechanical and electrical behavior of a prototype electromechanical actuator for possible use on board the shuttle orbiter. The model is also used to simulate the instantaneous performance of an advanced electric vehicle propulsion unit. The results of the computer simulations are compared with experimental test data and excellent agreement between the two is found in all cases.
The Research of a novel Method for Brushless Motor Controller based on DSP%基于DSP的新颖无刷直流电机控制器设计
赵长青; 范蟠果
2008-01-01
利用DSP2812设计了一个无位置传感器电机控制系统,该系统利用三相四开关电路对无刷直流电机(Brushless DC Motor,简称BLDCM)进行驱动,采用了新颖的无位置传感器控制方法和脉宽调制(PWM)方法.最后通过分析和试验证明了该系统的可行性.
杜颖
2015-01-01
采用无刷变阻起动器取代传统、繁琐、多触点元件组成的起动装置，节省了安装空间和二次回路电缆，减少起动装置的功率消耗，节省了电能。%Using brushless rheostat Starter to replace the traditional complicated starter consisted of multi-contact elements saves both installation space and secondary loop cable, re-duces the power consumption of starter and saves electric power.
永磁直线直流电机控制系统设计与实验研究%Design and Experiment for Linear Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor
尹曾锋
2012-01-01
本文详细介绍了基于DSP TMS320LF2407的永磁直线直流无刷电动机硬件设计和PWM控制方法,给出了电机的控制程序流程,试验结果表明该方法简单可行。%This paper introduces a DSP-based PWM timing method for linear permanent magnet brushless DC motor in detail. The test results show that the method of control program is simple and feasible in practice.
On strength of porous material
Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang
1999-01-01
The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...... to the theoretical research on non-destructive testing of such materials relating strength to stiffness and pore geometry.It is demonstrated that solutions for stiffness, tensile strength, and pore strength (damaging pore pressure, frost, fire) for some ideal porous materials can be determined theoretically only...... from knowing about pore geometry, solid phase stiffness, and zero-porosity strength. Pore geometry is the very important common denominator which controls both both stiffness and strength.The accurate results obtained are finally used to suggest generalizations with respect to strength in general...
无刷双馈电机数学模型的研究和分析%Research and Analysis on Brushless Doubly Fed Machine Mathematical Models
赵荣理; 王昕; 张爱玲
2013-01-01
For the two math models of brushless doubly fed machine in ues,rotor reference frame d-q model and unified reference frame d-q model,the developing process and using were studied and analysed.The aim of two models is to simplify multiple reference frame to two-axes reference frame.There are two differences which leading to difference results,one is method of handle rotot,the other is defination of coordinate transform frame.Relative to the multiple reference model,rotor reference frame d-q model order number greatly reduced and it is more adptive control strategies,but this model's d axes component and q axes component don't combined a vector,which brings difficulty in theoretical analysis.Unified reference frame d-q mode is vector equation,it's description concision and convenient to use.In this model voltage,current,flux of power wind,control wind and rotor wind together can transform to arbitrary frame roting at any rate,the frame is either refered to power wind or refered to control wind.The model is more convenient for brusheless doubly fed machine control purpose.Studying and analysing two math models offer a reference for brushless doubly fed machine control strategies.%针对目前使用较多的无刷双馈电机的两种数学模型,即转子速d-q模型和统一坐标系模型,在推导过程和应用方面做了研究和分析.两个模型的推导目的都是将多回路模型简化为两轴模型,但是由于对转子的不同处理方法和坐标变换时对坐标轴的不同定义导致得到的数学模型不同.相对于多回路模型,转子速d-q模型阶数大大减少,更适合控制策略的研究,但d轴和q轴分量却合不成矢量方程,导致其在理论分析中带来不便.统一坐标系模型是矢量方程,形式简洁,使用方便.其功率、控制绕组和转子电压、电流和磁链可以折算到功率或控制绕组的以任意速度旋转的坐标系上.该模型更适合用于无刷双馈电机的各种控制策略.对
Design of and Research on Brushless DC Motor for Compressors%压缩机用无刷直流电机的设计与研究
彭峰; 谷爱昱; 梁德志; 罗志伟
2015-01-01
针对电机的性能要求指标，根据电机电磁设计方法来确定电机的主要尺寸。无刷直流电机的转矩波动会引起电机的振动、产生电机噪声，从而影响电机的性能。齿槽转矩是引起电机转矩波动的重要因素，基于 Maxwell 建立该电机的二维模型，对其进行有限元分析，并利用不等厚永磁体的方法来降低该电机的齿槽转矩。最后通过 Ma x-well仿真对比，验证降低齿槽转矩方法的可行性。%To meet the motor performance re-quirements ,the main dimensions of the motor are determined according to the electromagnetic design method of the motor.The torque ripple of brush-less DC motor can cause the vibration of the motor and generate motor noise,thereby affecting motor performance.Cogging torque is one of the impor-tant factors causing motor torque fluctuation. Based on Maxwell,two dimensional model of the motor is established to carry out finite element a-nalysis.And methods like permanent magnet of unequal thickness are used to reduce the cogging torque in the motor. Finally, through Maxwell simulation, results verify the feasibility of the method for reducing cogging torque.
Modeling and Implementation of Limited Angle Brushless DC Motor%有限转角直流无刷电机的建模与实现
苏宇; 张涛; 王相阳; 王金波
2013-01-01
有限转角直流无刷电机是靠改变输入的PWM的占空比驱动的,由于系统存在多变量和非线性,传统的方法难以建立准确的模型,导致控制精度低.提出一种采用对输入PWM进行采样计数的方法建立PWM与电机电枢两端电压的关系,再辅助ISE开发FPGA对电机进行模型实现的新方法,建立了一套测试系统中有限转角直流无刷电机仿真系统模型.通过模型校准和仿真结果分析,证明了方案的有效性.将模型进行FPGA实现,代替实际电机应用于测试系统中,验证了模型具有高精度与可靠性.%Limited angle brushless DC motor is driven by PWM which varies with the changing duty cycle, resulting in low precision of the traditional control system, so a new method was proposed to establish the relationship between the PWM and voltage across the motor armatures and to realize the model on FPGA with the help of ISE, Then a simulation model was built up. The method was proofed to be effective after calibrating and analyzing the simulation model. As the result of the real experiment implementing on FPGA and used in the test system instead of the actual motor, the model based on the method has high accuracy and reliability.
永磁无刷直流电机及其控制%Permanent-Magnet Brushless DC Motor and Its Control
夏长亮; 方红伟
2012-01-01
The permanent-magnet brushless DC motor（BLDC motor） has achieved a brilliant application in aerospace,military,automotive,office automation and household equipment industries,since it has the advantages of high efficiency,long lifetime,low noise and good torque-speed characteristics.The basic structure and operation of the BLDC motor is introduced,and various typical topologies of its driving circuits are also compared.Moreover,the torque ripple reduction,sensorless control,and flux-weakening speed control are investigated.Finally,the applications of BLDC motor are drawn and its development trend is discussed.%无刷直流电机因其高效率、长寿命、低噪声及良好的机械特性等优点,在航空、军事、汽车、办公自动化、家用电器等行业内得到了广泛的应用。本文系统阐述了无刷直流电机的基本结构和工作特点,比较分析了无刷直流电机几种典型的驱动电路拓扑结构。同时,对无刷直流电机的转矩波动抑制、无位置传感器控制、弱磁调速等技术进行了分析。最后,对其应用及未来发展趋势进行了探讨。
Design and Simulation of New Cascade Brushless Doubly-fed Machine%新型级联式无刷双馈电机设计与仿真
徐优; 王自强
2015-01-01
The new cascade Brushless Doubly-fed Machine ( BDFM) is mainly used for wind power , when the speed of prime mover changes , without changing the input frequency of the excitation current , this generator can guarantee the frequency of the output current is constant , which realize the variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) power.The working principle of the new cascade BDFM was derived , and two motors were established in Ansoft software , then imported into Simplorer software , cascaded and simulated . Simulation results show that if the new cascade BDFM make sure two coaxial rotorsare connected with the same phase sequence and two motor pole pairs are equal , it can achieve VSCF power without inv erter.%新型级联式无刷双馈发电机可以看作是普通级联式双馈电机的一种特例，主要用于风力发电，当电机转速变化时，不需要改变输入励磁电压的频率就可以保证电机输出的电压频率恒定，方便的实现了变速恒频发电。对新型级联式双馈电机的工作原理进行了简要论述，在Ansoft软件里面建立了电机的模型，并导入到Simplorer软件，把两个电机级联起来进行了仿真。仿真结果表明新型级联式双馈电机只需确保两电机转子同轴同相序连接，且两电机极对数相等，即可实现无需变频器的变速恒频发电。
无刷直流电动机的正弦波电流驱动方法%Sine-wave Current Drive Method for Brushless DC Motors
朱信舜; 林明耀; 刘文勇
2011-01-01
分析了无刷直流电动机方波驱动方式和传统正弦波驱动方式的优缺点,利用三相Hall信号,得到正弦波电流的周期和幅值,通过软件算法生成六路SVPWM信号来驱动无刷直流电动机.采用数字信号控制器(DSC)dsPIC30F4011作为主控芯片,设计了无刷直流电动机的控制系统,详细分析了SVPWM波的生成方法,并给出了软件流程.实验结果验证了提出方法的正确性和可行性.%The performances of square-wave drive and sine-wave drive of brushless DC motor( BLDCM) were analyzed in this paper, a method to drive the BLDCM which makes use of three-phase Hall position signals to get the cycle and magnitude of the sine-wave and a proper software program to generate six-way SVPWM waves was presented. Adopting the DSC dsPIC30F4011, the control system of BLDCM was designed. The method to get SVPWM wave was analyzed in detail in the paper, and the software flow chart was also given. Experimental results verified the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.
Alhamadi, Mohd A. Wahed
1992-01-01
A three dimensional finite element (3D-FE) method for the computation of global distributions of 30 magnetic fields in electric machines containing permanent magnets is presented. The formulation of this 3D-FE method is based on a coupled magnetic vector potential - magnetic scalar potential (CMVP-MSP) approach. In this CMVP-MSP method, the modeling and formulations of permanent magnet volumes, suited to first and second order MVP 3D-FE environments as well as first order MSP 3D-FE environment, are developed in this dissertation. The development of the necessary 3D-FE grids and algorithms for the application of the CMVP -MSP method to an example brushless dc motor, whose field is three dimensional due to the skewed permanent magnet mounts on its rotor, is also given here. It should be mentioned that the entire volume of the case-study machine from one end to another is considered in the global magnetic field computations. A complete set of results of application of the CMVP-MSP method to the computation of the global 3D field distributions and associated motor parameters under no-load and load conditions are presented in this dissertation. In addition, a complete simulation of the dynamic performance of the motor drive system using the parameters obtained from the 3D-FE field solutions are presented for no-load and various other load conditions. All the above mentioned results are experimentally verified by corresponding oscillograms obtained in the laboratory. These results are also compared with results obtained from motor parameters based on various 2D-FE approaches, showing that for certain types of skewed permanent magnet mounts, 3D-FE based parameters can make significant qualitative and quantitative improvements in motor-drive simulation results.
A Study of Direct Identification Method of Brushless DC Motor Parameters%无刷直流电动机参数直接辨识法研究
袁国珍; 齐蓉; 白文伟
2013-01-01
Against the brushless DC motor already in mass production, a new and practical parameter identification method called direct identification method was proposed. Based on the basic characteristics of the motor's equivalent circuit , the motor's parameter identification strategy was studied, which provided control parameters for precise control of motor. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, a parameter identification simulation of a finished motor was used. The result indicates that this identification method is simple to implement, has a low computation, has recognition accuracy that can meet the engineering requirements, and is easier to be implemented than traditional identification methods.%针对已经量产、产品化的无刷直流电动机,研究了一种新的实用的无刷直流电动机参数辨识方法——直接辨识法.基于电机等效电路的基本特性,研究电机参数辨识策略,为精确控制电机提供控制参数.为验证该辨识方法的有效性,对一个成品电机进行参数辨识仿真,结果表明该辨识方法的优点是实现简单、运算量小、辨识精度可以满足工程要求,并且较传统辨识方法更易实现.
无刷励磁机磁极形状的优化设计%Optimization Design of Pole Shape in Brushless Exciter
罗宏浩; 魏巍; 王福兴
2011-01-01
The dynamic characteristic of brushless exciter in the generator of certain tank is analyzed by using theory computation and Finite Element Method （ FEM）. The shortcoming is pointed out that the transient back electromotive force of exciting winding is much higher than the input voltage at high speed. The method of angle-cut is adopted to optimize the pole shape and reduce the flux linkage fluctuation. The result of dynamic FEM shows that although the flux linkage is descended slightly, the transient back electromotive force of exciting winding can be effectively eliminated by new pole shape.%通过解析计算和有限元仿真的方法分析了某型坦克发电机中无刷励磁机的动态励磁特性，指出其激磁绕组在高速工作过程中存在瞬态反电势过高的缺点。在此基础上，提出采用磁极端部削角的方法对磁极进行优化设计，以减小励磁磁链波动。有限元动态仿真结果表明：该优化设计方案虽然导致激磁绕组的磁链略有下降，但可以显著降低激磁绕组磁链波动，改善其反电势特性。
电动汽车用无刷直流电机控制器设计%Controller Design for DC Brushless Motor of Electric Vehicle
舒雄; 杜荣华; 柴健; 舒刚华; 李亚中
2015-01-01
针对四轮独立驱动电动汽车所用电机须调速性好、可靠性高的特点，从工程应用出发，设计一种以dsPIC及MC33035为核心的无刷直流电机控制器。阐述了控制方案及工作原理，给出了硬件电路组成和调速方法。把该控制器运用到自行研制的四轮独立驱动电动汽车上进行测试，其结果表明，该控制器不仅具有响应速度快、调速性能好和稳定性高的特点，且开发成本低，具有广泛的应用价值。%Based on dsPIC and MC33035, a kind of controller is designed for brushless dc motor with good speed regulating and high reliability, which is used in electric car with four-wheel independent drive. The control plan and operating principle are outlined, and the corresponding hardware circuit structure and speed regulation method are introduced. The controller was applied to test self-de-veloped electric car with four-wheel independent drive. The results indicate that the controller have characteristics of fast response, good speed control performance and high stability with low cost and extensive application.
Character strengths and virtues
Mariana Gancedo
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-.
Commitee III.1 Ultimate Strength
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
1997-01-01
This report addresses the subject of ductile collapse of ships and offshore structures and their components due to buckling and excessive yielding under overload conditions. Consideration is given to load-deflection predictions for components with fabrication imperfections and in-service damage a...... and to the ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of structural systems in order to identify the reserve strength. The effect of uncertainties in the modelling on the strength predictions is highlighted in two design examples....
FIELD STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS, PHASE II.
The measurement of the strength of radio frequency fields at high frequency and above has followed practices which are standard for the measurement...of field strength at medium and low frequencies. Variability of measurements made in practical situations and a lack of reproducibility of...measurements made under apparently identical conditions has prompted an investigation of equipment and methods used in the determinations. The field strength
Commitee III.1 Ultimate Strength
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
1997-01-01
This report addresses the subject of ductile collapse of ships and offshore structures and their components due to buckling and excessive yielding under overload conditions. Consideration is given to load-deflection predictions for components with fabrication imperfections and in-service damage a...... and to the ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of structural systems in order to identify the reserve strength. The effect of uncertainties in the modelling on the strength predictions is highlighted in two design examples....
许晓春; 刘国海; 赵文祥
2014-01-01
本文针对一种具有144°平顶梯形波的五相容错永磁无刷直流（BLDC）电机提出了基于转矩等效的容错控制策略。在保证输出转矩相等的基础上，推导了故障条件下的BLDC电机容错式BLAC控制策略。仿真和试验结果表明，该容错控制策略可以保证五相DLDC电机在故障条件下保持正常运行时的转矩性能。%In this paper , a new fault-tolerant control strategy was proposed for remedial operation of a five-phase permanent-magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor, which had 144°trapsoidal back-EMF.In order to maintain the average torque under normal condition , a remedial brushless AC ( BLAC) mode was proposed for this faulty BLDC motor.Both simulation and experimental results were given , verifying that the new con-trol strategy can enhance the torque performance of faulty operation.
基于DSP2812的无刷直流电动机控制及其MATLAB仿真%Brushless DC Motor Control based on DSP2812 and MATLAB Simulation
周立媛; 韩文波; 薛书飞
2013-01-01
采用DSP2812为控制器对无刷直流电动机的控制系统进行了硬件电路和软件程序设计.文中采用了PI转速和PI电流调节器的双闭环控制方法,实现了转速的精确控制,并建立了无刷直流电动机控制系统的数学模型.最后运用MAT-LAB/SIMULINK进行了仿真,仿真结果验证了系统的可行性.%In this paper,it adopt DSP2812 as controller for brushless direct current (DC) motor and carry through the hardware and software programming for control system.It use the dual closed-loop control of PI revolving speed and PI current regulator to achieve a precise control of revolving speed,and establish the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor control system.Finally,the results of the MATLAB / SIMULINK simulation verify the feasibility of the system.
无刷直流电动机系统的一种摩擦补偿方法研究%Compensation of friction in brushless DC motor system
李书训; 姚郁
2001-01-01
Presents a simple method of compensating friction against the character of the nonlinear model of a brushless DC motor system which transfers the original system model to a simple linear model using the method of input-output linearization, and estimates the coulomb friction in the system in real-time using a nonlinear friction estimator, and then compensate the friction in the system using a friction feedforward, and concludes from simulation results that this method can effectively eliminate the influence of friction in brushless DC motor systems.%针对无刷直流电动机系统的非线性数学模型特点，提出了一种简单的摩擦补偿方法.该方法首先利用输入输出线性化方法将原系统模型转化为一种简单的线性模型，然后给出一种非线性摩擦估计器实时估计系统中的库仑摩擦值，最后利用摩擦前馈补偿方法对其进行补偿.仿真结果表明该方法可以有效地抑制无刷直流电动机系统中的摩擦影响.
汪楚锟; 谢利理
2013-01-01
Due to high efficiency, long life, low noise and good speed-torque characteristics of brushless DC motor, BLDCM is more extensive in auto application. A design, and simulation control strategy, system simulation analysis of the system for Brushless DC motor used in electric vehicle control system characteristics mainly are made for pre-estimation of the overall adjustment program to analyze the feasibility of control strategy. Simulation results show that the realization of functions is possible, and reaches the desired effect.%由于无刷直流电机其具有高效率、长寿命、低噪声以及较好的转速-转矩特性,在汽车中的应用比较广泛.针对电动汽车用无刷直流电机控制系统特性进行了方案设计,然后仿真验证控制策略,系统仿真分析主要是对系统的整体调节方案的预估计,分析控制策略的可行性.Matlab仿真结果显示所实现功能可行,基本达到了预期效果.
2013-01-01
This article provides a brushless DC motor controller based on TMS320F2812 chip sensor design speed, current dual closed-loop digital control platform sensorless brushless DC motor running smoothly. Introduces the system's hardware and software structure. It has becu proved reliable operation of the controller. The system has broad application prospects.% 提供了一种基于TMS320F2812芯片的无传感器无刷直流电机控制器，设计了转速、电流双闭环数字化控制平台，实现了无传感器的无刷直流电机的平稳运行。同时详细地介绍了该系统的硬件、软件构成。试验证明，该控制器运行稳定可靠。该系统具有广泛的应用前景。
永磁无刷直流电动机在微型空压机中的应用%Application of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor in Miniature Air Compressor
凌永骧; 张华宗; 余仁田
2013-01-01
Compared with the traditional DC motor and induction motor,permanent magnet brushless DC(BLDC) motor has more superior performance,widely used in many fields,and has a tendency to gradually replace other motors.In this paper,the development and application of permanent magnet brushless DC motor in the miniature air compressor are analyzed.%永磁无刷直流电动机(简称BLDC)与传统的直流电机及感应电动机相比,永磁无刷直流电动机具有更多优越的性能,在许多领域得到了广泛应用,有逐步取代其它电动机的趋势.本文对永磁无刷直流电动机在微型空压机中的应用和发展情况进行分析.
吴强; 韩震宇; 李程
2013-01-01
In order to improve the control precision of brushless DC motor,using TI TMS320LF2407A as the control chip, a digital incremental PID algorithm and PWM control technology. This paper describes the principle of PID algorithm, PWM speed control principle and system hardware block diagram, software flow chart and draw the conclusion that PID algorithm has great superiority in the brushless DC motor speed control .% 为了提高无刷直流电机转速控制精度，系统选用了 TI 公司 TMS320LF2407A 为控制芯片，采用数字式增量 PID 算法和PWM控制技术。叙述了PID算法原理、PWM调速控制原理以及系统硬件原理框图、软件流程框图，并得出实验结论，证明PID算法在无刷直流电机调速过程中的优越性。
Design of Three-phase Brushless DC Motor Driver Circuit Based on DSP%三相无刷直流电机调速系统的驱动设计
2013-01-01
By using IR2136 (International Rectifier) to design a three-phase brushless DC motor driver circuit based on TMS320F28335 floating-point processor and implementing positive-negative rotating and speed con⁃trolling, this paper designs a driving circuit of the three-phase brushless DC motor, including power module, sig⁃nal isolation module, IR2136 logic circuit, driving circuit of the three-phase full bridge and over current protec⁃tion circuit, etc.% 以TMS320F28335浮点型处理器为控制器，采用International Rectifier公司的IR2136作为驱动芯片，设计了三相无刷直流电机的驱动电路，实现三相无刷直流电机调速及正反转控制，其中包括电源模块、信号隔离模块、IR2136逻辑电路、三相全桥驱动电路及过流保护电路等。
基于DSP的小功率无刷直流电动机驱动器设计%Design of Low-power Brushless DC Motor Driver Based on DSP
侯玉宝; 欧阳宁; 王景芳
2012-01-01
There was an increasing demand for low power brushless DC motor in the appliance industry nowadays , in order to meet the requirements of higher performance about the motor control system, a low power brushless DC motor drive was designed out in this paper using TFs dedicated motor control chip TMS320F2812 digital signal processor. The hardware and software structure and control strategy of the drive were introduced in detail, and the experimental results show that the system has the characteristics of shorter response time, better steady performance and anti-interference ability.%现在家电行业对小功率无刷直流电动机的需求日见增多,为了满足用户对电机控制系统产品性能的更高要求.采用TI公司的数字信号处理器TMS320F2812专用电机控制芯片,设计了一种小功率无刷直流电动机的驱动器.详细介绍了该驱动器的硬件电路组成和软件结构及控制策略,通过实验结果表明该系统响应时间短,稳态性能好,抗干扰能力强等特点.
Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.
Wilmore, Jack H.
Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…
Overview to Strength Development and Strength Trainings in Children
Mesut Hekim
2015-08-01
Full Text Available There are some important phases within psychomotor development process in children. Periods of movements related to sport appear in this phases. In this phase which contains 7-12 age period in children, a significant increment occurs in the physical and motoric development levels of children. Physical and motoric developments are supported by directing children in this age group to sport. In a plenty of studies, it was stated that participating to sports in children supports motoric features and physical development. Strength is one of the most important motoric features which develop via participating to sports. Children strength development is effected at positive direction by adaptation exercise made to support strength development. Psychomotor development basis are considered to obtain the best efficiency from workouts aimed strength development in children and to remove risks to be generate any injury/disability. In this research, strength development, contributions of participating in sports to strength development, strength training in children and children responses to strength training were all emphasized.
Airborne field strength monitoring
J. Bredemeyer
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.
Ultimate Strength, Committee III.1
Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Estefan, S.; Fasano, E.;
2003-01-01
Concern for the ductile of ships and offshore structures and their structural components under ultimate conditions. Attention shall be given to the influence of fabrication imperfections and inservice damage and degradation on reserve strength. Uncertainties in strength models for design shall...
Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength
Sørensen, Herman
1995-01-01
Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....
Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength
Sørensen, Herman
1995-01-01
Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....
Remolded Undrained Strength of Soils
HONG Zhen-shun(洪振舜); LIU Han-long(刘汉龙); NEGAMI Takehito
2003-01-01
Extensive data of undrained shear strength for various remolded soils are compiled to normalize the remolded undrained strength. Remolded soils have a wide spectrum of liquid limits ranging from 25% to 412%. It is found that the remolded undrained strength is a function of water content and liquid limit. Furthermore, a simple index designated as normalized water content w* is introduced for normalizing remolded undrained strength for various soils. The normalized water content w* is the ratio of water content to liquid limit. The relationship between the remolded undrained strength and the normalized water content can be expressed by a simple equation. The new simple equation is not only valuable theoretically for helping in assessing the in-situ mechanical behavior, but also useful to ocean engineering practice.
STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES
NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.
Thermal analysis of high speed permanent magnet brushless DC motor%高速永磁无刷直流电机的热分析
杜国华; 房建成; 刘西全; 周银锋
2012-01-01
为了解决高速永磁无刷直流电机温升过高带来的磁性能降低及绕组绝缘破坏等问题,对高速电机的温度分布及改进措施进行了一系列研究.采用集中参数法建立了电机热网络数学模型,推导出电机损耗、热导和温度之间的解析方程;建立了基于ANSYS/Work-bench的电机三维有限元模型,对其进行稳态热分析,从而得到电机整体的温度分布,验证了电机热网络模型的正确性;提出了改变转子护套材料及电机轴打孔两种措施.分析结果表明：改进后的电机转子部分温度有了明显降低,其中护套温度降低了约34℃,永磁体约54℃,解决了电机的局部温度过高问题.%In order to solve the problems of reduction in magnetic performance and winding insulation damage caused by high temperature in high speed permanent magnet brushless DC motor, a series of research on temperature distribution and improvement was carried out. The thermal network mathematic model was established by lumped parameters method. And an analytic equation accounting for the relationship among motor loss, thermal conductance and temperature was derived. Besides, the motor 3D finite element model was built based on the ANSYS/Workbench, and steady-state analysis was conducted. The temperature distribution of the whole motor was achieved, which verified the results of thermal network model. And two methods inclu- ding changing the retaining sleeve material and drilling holes on shaft were proposed to solve the temperature problem. According to the analysis results the rotor temperature has dropped obviously, especially the retaining sleeve and permanent magnet with a temperature decrease of about 54℃and 54℃ respectively.
Mozaffari Niapour, S.A.KH., E-mail: s.a.kh.mozaffari.niapour@gmail.com [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, 51664 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Danyali, S.; Sharifian, M.B.B.; Feyzi, M.R. [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, 51664 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-08-15
Highlights: {yields} Employing the BLDC motor in water pumping systems. {yields} Utilizing the ZSI as a single-stage power converter in the PV water pumping systems based on BLDC motor. {yields} Improvement of the conventional IC MPPT method with the fuzzy logic control scheme to save more energy from the PV array. {yields} Taking the advantages of the DTC drive of the BLDC motor. {yields} Optimizing the water pumping system speed response characteristic by PSO. - Abstract: This paper discusses operation performance of a water pumping system consist of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor coupled a centrifugal pump and accompanying a Z-source inverter (ZSI) fed by a photovoltaic (PV) array, to be improved. Despite conventional double-stage power converters, this paper proposes utilizing a single-stage ZSI to extract the maximum power of the PV array and supply the BLDC motor simultaneously. Utilizing the ZSI provides some inherent advantages such as high efficiency and low cost, which is very promising for PV systems due to its novel voltage buck/boost capability. In addition, in order to precisely perform the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV array the fuzzy logic-incremental conductance (FL-IC) MPPT scheme is proposed. The proposed FL-IC MPPT scheme provides enough modification to the conventional IC method to enjoy an appropriate variable step size MPPT control signal for the ZSI. Moreover, direct torque control (DTC) is found more effective in comparison with hysteresis current control with current shaping to drive the BLDC motor, because it benefits from faster torque response, reduced torque ripple, less sensitivity to parameters variations, and simple implementation. In the mean time, due to the frequently variations of the PV power generation; delivered mechanical power to the centrifugal pump is variable. Thus, the BLDC motor should be driven with variable reference speed. In order to improve the speed transient response of the BLDC motor and enhance
Brushless Doubly-Fed Machines with Magnetic Barrier Rotor%磁障转子无刷双馈电机
张岳; 王凤翔; 邢军强; Milutin Jovanovic; David Atkinson
2012-01-01
为了研究在转子铁心中引入磁障对磁阻转子无刷双馈电机性能的影响,基于场路耦合有限元分析,对比研究了转子极弧系数与磁障数量及结构参数对无刷双馈磁阻电机性能的影响,并在此基础上,提出了一种结构简单、性能较好的无刷双馈磁障转子设计方案。通过样机实验,验证了该磁障转子无刷双馈电机的设计方法及其双馈运行特性。理论分析和实验研究结果表明：在电机结构尺寸相同情况下,通过在转子铁心中适当引入磁障,可以有效地改善磁阻转子无刷双馈电机的性能,并使其保留普通磁阻转子结构简单和成本低廉的优点。%In order to investigate the influence of magnetic barriers in rotor core on the performance of brushless doubly-fed machine （BDFM）, the comparative studies of the influences of pole-arc coefficient, numbers and structure parameters of magnetic barriers on the performance of BDFM based on the field-circuit coupled finite element analysis are carried out in this paper. On the basis of the comparative studies, a magnetic barrier rotor structure of BDFM with simple structure and good performance is proposed. The experimental results of the prototype machine validated the design method and predicted doubly-fed operation performance of the BDFM with magnetic barrier rotor. The theoretical analysis and experimental study show that under the same condition of structure dimension, the performance of BDFM with reluctance rotor can be effectively improved by adding magnetic barriers properly in the rotor core, and the machine can keep the same advantages of simple structure and low cost as that of the normal reluctance rotor.
郝亮亮; 王善铭; 邱阿瑞; 刘为群; 吴龙; 牟伟
2012-01-01
多相无刷励磁系统中旋转整流器的损坏时有发生,故障恶化将严重影响主发电机的正常安全运行。为识别旋转整流器的故障,建立了包括旋转整流器在内的整个多相无刷励磁系统的多回路数学模型,对旋转整流器的正常运行和常见故障状态进行了仿真,仿真结果同励磁机额定运行值以及实验结果吻合。分析了旋转整流器各种状态时励磁机稳态定子励磁电流的频谱,并对特征机理进行了理论分析,在此基础上提出以励磁机定子励磁电流的4次谐波分量同22次谐波分量的比值作为故障识别对象,为多相无刷励磁系统旋转整流器故障诊断提供了理论依据。%Damage of rotary rectifier in multi-phase brushless excitation system occurs frequently,which would seriously affect the normal safe operation of the main generator in deteriorating condition.In order to study fault recognition of the rotary rectifier,the multi-loop model of multi-phase brushless excitation system including the rectifier is established.The normal state and the common fault states of the rectifier are simulated,and the comparison between the calculated results and the experiments verify the validity of the model and simulation.The components with different frequencies of stator currents under different states of rotary rectifier as well as their mechanism are analyzed theoretically,based on which the ratio of the 4th to the 22nd harmonic component of the stator current is suggested to be the fault recognition object,which provides a theoretical basis for fault diagnosis of rotary rectifier in multi-phase brushless excitation system.
无刷双馈发电机及其控制策略的仿真研究%Simulation Research of Brushless Doubly-fed Generator and Its Control Strategy
马诗洋
2011-01-01
A dqO model based on rotor mechanical velocity reference and a MT model based on stator synchronous velocity reference of brushless doubly-fed generator were gave and a grid control strategy without load of brushless doubly-fed generator was proposed. The basic idea of the control strategy is using the given value of active and reactive power of the generator under stator synchronous velocity reference to calculate given voltage of stator windings at the control side, then inputting the calculated result after 2r/3s transformation into SVPWM modulation model to generate PWM signal for controlling turn-on and turn-off of switching tube of converter at generator side so as to generate required voltage and current of stator control windings. Models of brushless doubly-fed generator and its control system were established in Matlab/Simulink software, and dynamic performances of the generator were simulated in cases of no load and grid. The simulation results verified correctness and effectiveness of the models and the control strategy.%给出了无刷双馈发电机的转子机械速dq0数学模型和定子同步速MT数学模型；提出了一种无刷双馈发电机空载并网控制策略,该策略根据定子同步坐标系下无刷双馈发电机有功功率、无功功率给定值,最终得出控制侧定子绕组的电压给定值,将该值进行2r/3s变换后输入SVPWM调制模块,得到的PWM信号用于控制机侧变流器开关管的通断,从而产生定子控制绕组所需的电压、电流；在Matlab/Simulink环境下搭建了无刷双馈发电机及其控制仿真模型,并对无刷双馈发电机在空载、并网状态下的动态性能进行了仿真研究.仿真结果验证了所搭建模型及空载并网控制策略的正确性、有效性.
陈雷刚; 朱熀秋
2012-01-01
建立精确的径向悬浮力数学模型,对降低无轴承无刷直流电机系统复杂性、提高控制精度很有帮助.从无轴承无刷直流电机结构出发,详细阐述了其工作原理并建立了等效磁路.将永磁体磁动势等效为悬浮力绕组上的虚拟电流,进而推导了单自由度径向悬浮力的数学模型.最后对有限元分析得到的仿真结果和理论值进行了比较.为了得到更准确的结果,为位移刚度系数引入了修正系数,并再次对其进行了有限元验证.结果表明,所提出的无轴承无刷直流电机的径向悬浮力数学模型具有可行性和较高的精确性.%An accurate mathematical model of radial suspension force in a bearingless brushless DC motor is of great significance to reduce the complexity of system and to improve the control accuracy. This paper began with the structure of the bearingless brushless DC motor, then elaborated on the working principle and established the equivalent circuit. The magnetomotive force of permanent magnets was equivalent to virtual currents in suspension windings, and then a mathematical model with single degree of freedoms for radial suspension force was derived. Finally, results by finite element analysis and theoretical values were compared. In order to get more convincing results, the correction factor was introduced for the displacement stiffness coefficient, and then the finite element analysis was carried out again. The ultimate results show that the proposed mathematical model of radial suspension force of the bearingless brushless DC motor has feasibility and high accuracy.
基于 Matlab 的无刷直流电机控制系统仿真研究%Simulation Study on Control System of Brushless DC Motor based on Matlab
谢少华; 瞿遂春
2015-01-01
This paper analyzes the operation principle of Brushless DC motor, this paper proposes a new method based on Matlab modeling, namely through the synchronous motor model of the original Matlab, change the inverse electromotive forceparameters, then the external set position detection and commutation circuit, which can be convenient for brushless DC motor control system the simulation model. This paper introduce the sub-modules of the controlling system in detail., at the same time, the simulation results are compared with the experimental results. Results show that, the simulation results are consistent with the experimental results, a new method of modeling in Matlab can correctly reflect the performance of Brushless DC motor control system and provides an important basis for the design and debugging of the actucal control system.%本文在分析无刷直流电机运行原理的基础上，提出了一种基于 Matlab 建模的新方法，即通过Matlab 中原有的同步电机模型，改变其反相电动势参数，然后在外部搭建位置检测与换相电路，可以方便快捷的构成无刷直流电机控制系统仿真模型。并对控制系统仿真模型各个部分的建模进行介绍，同时，将仿真结果与实验结果进行对比。对比结果表明，仿真结果与实验结果基本一致，在 Matlab 中建模的新方法能够正确反映无刷直流电机控制系统性能，对实际控制系统设计与调试提供重要依据。
Design of Speed Measurement and Display System on Brushless DC Motor%无刷直流电机速度测量与显示系统设计
赵诣; 李杰; 刘喆; 刘俊; 陈伟
2012-01-01
针对在传统测量无刷电机转速过程中,磁传感器易受电机绕组和转子的磁场干扰和编码器与很多型号电机安装不匹配导致测速没有通用性等问题,提出了一种集精确测量电机转速、上位机实时显示转速及数据存储的综合设计方案.该方案采用角速率传感器测量转速,将数字信号处理器作为微控制器控制模数转换并将传感器的输出值存储并处理,提高了整个系统的处理速度.经过试验验证,该系统能实时地显示电机的转速,有很好的稳定性和可操作性,对无刷直流电机中的速度环控制与调试有很重要的实际意义.%Against the fact that when measuring the brushless DC motor rotary speed in the traditional process, the magnetic sensor was susceptible to interference by the magnetic field of motor windings and rotor, at the same time the encoder could not be installed with many models, so that it could not be universally used. This paper presented a set of integrated design for measuring motor rotary speed. It integrated accurate measurement of motor rotary speed, the PC real-time display and data storage. The design used angular rate sensor to measure speed. Conducting as micro-controller unit, the digital signal processor controlled analog to digital converter, the storing and processing of the sensor output value, as a result of that it could improve the processing speed of the whole system. After experimental verification, the system can display real-time speed of brushless DC motor with good stability and operability. It will play an important and practical role in the control and debug of brushless DC motor.
卢东斌; 欧阳明高; 谷靖; 李建秋
2012-01-01
四轮驱动轮毂电机电动汽车采用4个永磁无刷轮毂电机驱动，根据轮毂电机的反电势接近正弦波的特点，采用磁场定向控制方法可以实现最大转矩电流控制。该文在永磁同步电机磁场定向控制效率模型的基础上，提出了相同转速转矩下的多永磁同步电机系统效率模型，根据此模型证明了多永磁同步电机系统相同转速下转矩平均分配可使电机系统效率达到最优。将此结论应用到四轮驱动电动汽车轮毂电机转矩分配研究中，通过仿真和实车测试进行验证。仿真和试验结果证明，平均分配永磁无刷轮毂电机转矩可使整车效率最优。%Four in-wheel motors drive electric vehicles are driven by four brushless DC hub motors. Since the back electromotive force （emf） waveform of a permanent brushless DC hub motor is usually nearly sinusoidal, the maximum torque per ampere control can be found using field oriented control （FOC）. An efficiency model for a permanent magnet synchronous motor （PMSM） was used in an efficiency model of multi-PMSMs with the same speed and torque. The optimal efficiency can be achieved based on the average torque distribution assuming all the same speed PMSMs. This conclusion can be applied to the torque distribution of brushless DC hub motors for four-wheel drive electric vehicles. Simulation and experimental results show that the average torque allocation to the four hub motors of the electric vehicle gives the best efficiency.
胡堃; 樊贝; 薛冰
2012-01-01
The structural characteristics and working principle of brushless doubly-fed machine were introduced firstly in this paper. Then Ansoft/Maxwell was used to establish the models of doubly-fed brushless machine, which contain the cage rotor and the reluctance rotor with blocked-magnetic layers. The 2-D transient electromagnetic fields of brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) were calculated by finite element method. The magnetic force line and air-gap magnetic fields were got. The air-gap magnetic fields were analysed by the harmonic spectrum. As a result, the blocked-magnetic reluctance rotor contains a better magnetic field modulation effects. The dynamic characteristics of the different BDFMs were researched under the states of single-fed asynchronous operation to natural synchronous, under-synchronous and over-synchronous operations. And the torque and speed had a change with variation in load. The results show that the blocked-magnetic reluctance rotor has a better dynamic characteristics in pulling in three states, and a better stability under load change. And it provide the foundation for the rotor structure design optimization and operating stability intensive research of BDFM.%简要介绍了无刷双馈电机( BDFM)的结构特点和工作原理,利用Ansoft/Maxwell建立笼型转子和磁障式磁阻转子的BDFM模型,进行了二维瞬态电磁场有限元计算,得出电机磁力线分布、气隙磁通密度波形,通过对气隙磁通密度波形的谐波频谱分析,得到了磁障式磁阻转子结构具有较好磁场调制效果.研究了由单馈异步牵入自然同步、亚同步和超同步运行状态的动态响应能力和机械负载突变时的转速转矩变化情况.结果表明磁障式磁阻转子BDFM在由单馈异步牵入自然同步、亚同步和超同步运行状态下,具有较好的动态响应能力,同时在加载时稳定性也较好,为进一步深入研究BDFM转子的优化设计和运行稳定性提供了参考.
转子绕组星-环形拓扑结构无刷双馈电机%A Brushless Doubly-fed Machine With Star-circle Rotor Winding
阚超豪; 王雪帆; 熊飞
2011-01-01
The reluctance and nested loop rotors are two dominant rotor structure of brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM), but they can't fit for the industrial application at present because their conductor availability ratios are low and harmonic content are high. In this paper, a new wound-rotor brushless doubly-fed machine with structure in the form of star-circle is proposed. The structure of the new machine rotor can improve the conductor utilization of wound rotor windings.The machine is intended for used as a variable speed generator,or drive. The Kirchhoff laws are employed to illuminate the principle and some combinations of different slots and poles are presented as the examples. Harmonic analysis is also employed to analyze the magnetic motive force (MMF)waveform of rotor winding with the structure of star-circle.Finally, the correctness of results is verified through the experiment of laboratory star-circle brushless doubly-fed machine.%磁阻式和特殊笼型是目前无刷双馈电机常用的两种转子结构,但采用这两种转子结构的电机导体利用率低、谐波含量大,导致电机性能达不到工业应用要求.提出一种转子绕组采用星-环形接法的绕线式无刷双馈电机,星-环形结构可以提高绕组的导体利用率,这种电机可以作为发电机或电动机.引入基尔霍夫(Kirchhoff)定律川以说明星-环形结构的工作原理,并通过列举绕组实例说明了方法的有效性,同时对所选方案的磁势谐波进行分析.样机实验结果表明,基于星-环形原理设计的绕线式无刷电机具有优良的性能.
Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia
Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik
2017-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...
彭纪昌; 刘卫国; 马鹏; 毛帅
2015-01-01
随着多电飞机、全电飞机的高速发展,三级式航空无刷同步电机因兼顾高功率密度及功率因数可调等优势得到广泛应用.由于三级式电机中主发电机的凸极特性,转子磁场位置的变化会影响定子铁芯的饱和程度,从而造成定子电感值的变化.该文分析了三级电机饱和状态下电感值的变化规律,并在此基础上利用主发电机的凸极特性,采用脉冲式电压注入法进行转子位置的检测.在实际应用中,三级式电机在起动时采用单相交流励磁方式产生励磁电流,导致主发电机励磁电流产生较大脉动,该脉动信号的干扰使传统的定位方法难以准确估计出转子初始位置.该文通过对励磁机输出特性的分析,建立集励磁机和主发电机的一体化数学模型,提出采用傅里叶算法对响应电流数据进行分析,以获取转子初始位置的方法.实验结果表明,该文方法能够有效消除励磁机脉动干扰,实现转子位置的精确定位,同时该文算法计算量较低,易于在嵌入式系统中实现.%Along with the fast development of more electric aircrafts (MEA) and all electric aircrafts (AEA), the three-stage aviation brushless synchronous machines are widely used, which adopt the brushless structure and combine the merits of high power density and adjustable magnetic fields at the same time. According to saliency of the main generator of three-stage brushless synchronous machines, the information of rotor position is implied in performances of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. This paper studied the variation of inductances then estimated the initial rotor position of main generators by injecting modulated pulse voltage vectors. The three-stage aviation brushless synchronous machines are excited by single-phase AC during the starting period. The excitation current of the main generator contains severe pulsating components, thus the traditional methods can not
张超; 李岩; 王冬梅
2011-01-01
This paper introduces a modeling method of Brushless Synchronous Machines' model. A starter/generator system is Based on the model. By analysing the Typical transition process (from no load to load and the load to the three -2phase output short circuit) ,we can prove the correctness and effectiveness of Matlab simulation model.%运用Matlab中的PSB模块库和Simu link模块库,建立了无刷同步电机模型以及该模型的起动发电系统；通过对该系统发电状态下,由空载到负载和由空载到三相输出短路等典型过渡过程仿真分析,证明了所建Matlab仿真模型的正确性和有效性.
叶伟慧
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic coupler of permanent magnet brushless DC motor is an important device to achieve inductive power transmission.By optimizing the control design of electromagnetic coupler the stability and output gain of the electromagnetic coupler may be improved. This article sets forth a method to optimize the control of electromagnetic coupler based on particle swarm optimization.In the first it requires to design the equivalent circuit for electromagnetic coupler of the permanent magnet brushless DC motor in order to build parameter model to constrain the control of the electromagnetic coupler which takes the output voltage gain,power consumption and efficiency as the constrain parameter to build function for the control target and achieve improved control algorithm,so that the optimal design of electromagnetic coupler of permanent magnet brushless DC motor could be realized.Simulation results show that the design method for control of the electromagnetic coupler can effectively improve the output stability of the electromagnetic coupler of the permanent magnet brushless DC motor while the current gain,voltage gain and output efficiency of the motor is higher than that of traditional methods.It should demonstrates a sound value for applications.%永磁无刷直流电机的电磁耦合器是实现感应电能传输的重要器件，通过对电磁耦合器的优化控制设计，提高电磁耦合器的稳定性和输出增益。提出一种基于优化粒子群算法的电磁耦合器优化控制方法，首先进行了永磁无刷直流电机的电磁耦合器的等效电路设计，构建电磁耦合器控制的约束参量模型，以输出电压增益、功率损耗与效率为约束参量构建控制目标函数，实现控制算法的改进，进行了永磁无刷直流电机的电磁耦合器的优化设计。仿真实验结果表明，能有效提高永磁无刷直流电机的电磁耦合的输出稳定性，电机输出的电流增益、电压增
永磁无刷直流电机4状态工作统一模型%Uniform model of permanent magnet brushless DC motor in four states
刘晨; 余卓平; 张元才; 姜炜
2008-01-01
针对现有文献中普遍存在的永磁无刷直流电机(Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor,PMBLDCM)仿真模型工作状态单一的缺点,通过分析PMBLDCM在4状态工作过程中转子位置与开关触发逻辑之间的关系,定义开关因数S和调制因数T,建立PMBLDCM的4状态工作统一数学模型,并利用Matlab/Simulink构建仿真模型.结果表明,该仿真模型运行稳定可靠,为PMBLDCM的建模仿真研究提供有益的参考.
Analysis of End Force for Linear Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor%直线永磁无刷直流电动机端部力的分析
黄文美; 薛雅洁; 宋桂英
2011-01-01
For the thrust ripple caused by end effect of the linear permanent magnet brushless DC motor ( LPMBDCM), the inlucencing factor of end force was analyzed, the structure of the rotor was optimized, and the model of simulation was built. The accuracy of optimized structure was tested and verified.%直线永磁无刷直流电动机由于动子开断产生的端部效应引起推力波动问题.文章从理论上分析了其端部力的影响因素,对动子结构进行了优化,建立了仿真模型,并对优化结构进行了验证.
曲剑波
2011-01-01
永磁无刷直流电机定子振动特性的研究对降低电机噪声和抑制电机的振动有重要意义.以某电动车用永磁直流无刷电机为研究对象,利用Ansys软件建立定子结构的参数化模型,并对影响振动特性的因素进行灵敏度分析.以此为依据对定子进行优化设计,为该类电机的振动特性优化提供依据.%It is important to study the vibration characteristics of the stator for permanent magnet brushless DC motor,aiming to reduce motor noise and vibration suppression.The parameters of the model stator structure were established with ANSYS software on basis
Hardware Design of Brushless DC Motor Based on IPM and DSP Control%基于IPM与DSP控制无刷直流电机的硬件设计
邱兴阳
2013-01-01
智能功率模块IPM集驱动电路、欠压、短路、过热等保护电路于一体，结构简单、损耗小、重量轻、体积小、使用可靠等优点。随着大功率IPM集成器件、高性能单片机及数字信号处理器DSP技术的飞速发展，使得大功率驱动控制和高速复杂的控制算法得到了满足，从而也使得大功率无刷直流电机在电机界的电动推进系统中得到了越来越广泛的重视。无刷直流电机具有高速性能好，体积小、效率高、寿命长、运行可靠、维护简便等优点，能广泛应用于医疗、化工、煤炭、石油、纺织、仪器仪表、家用电器、电动汽车和自行车、铁路运输、航空航天、工业自动化等领域。使用IPM和DSP控制无刷直流电机，不仅能实现对电机的实时性控制，还能使控制电路得到简化。因此研究IPM与DSP控制无刷直流电机的硬件设计具有非常重要的意义。%IPM integrates the protection circuits of driving circuit, undervoltage, short circuit, overheating and so on, which has the advantages of simple structure, small loss, light weight, small size, reliable use, etc. With the rapid development of high-power IPM integrated devices, high-performance single-chip and digital signal processor technology, high-power driving control and high-speed complex control algorithms have been met, making high-power brushless DC motor get widely attention in the electric motor propulsion system. The brushless DC motor has advantages of good high-speed performance, small size, high efficiency, long life, reliable opera-tion and easy maintenance, etc. , which can be widely used in the fields of medical, chemical, coal, petroleum, textile, instruments, household appliances, electric vehicles and bicycles, railway transportation, aerospace, industrial automation and so on. The brushless DC motor controlled by IPM and DSP not only achieves the real-time control of motors, but also simplifies
The Level of Technology of Permanent Brushless DC Motor and It's Useness Prospect%永磁无刷电动机技术发展水平及应用前景
李烨; 严欣平
2001-01-01
永磁无刷电动机作为一种新型电动机，源于其自身的技术优势和卓越性能，必将伴随着新世纪的脚步，在相关支撑技术快速发展的推动下，获得更为广阔的应用和发展空间。%As a new style motor, due to it's technology superiority and brilliant function, at the same time, with relative sustain technologies quickly developing. Permanent magnet brushless DC motor is bound to gain wider space of usenenss and development in coming new centry.
一个新的适用于无刷直流电机驱动的单电流传感器技术%A Novel Current Sensor Technique for Brushless DC Motor Drives
谭徽; 江建中; 汪信尧; 王勇
2000-01-01
The torque output in a permanent magnet brushless DC motor (BLDCM) is usually controlled by regulating the motor phase currents. In this paper, three kinds of PWM strategies together with some critical review on traditional current measurements in a BLDCM drive system are discussed. A novel method for assessing the PWM information and measuring the motor phase currents by a dc link current sensor is proposed. An attractive feature of the proposed method is the simplicity with the current sample processing because there is no need to incorporate the conduction information of the power switches or diodes. Only the single sided PWM or the double sided complementary PWM is needed with the proposed technique.
Electric Tools Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Hall Sensor Selection%电动工具用永磁无刷直流电机的霍尔传感器选型
古炯钧; 徐威群
2014-01-01
基于不同工艺霍尔传感器的磁特性与电特性，就电动工具用无刷电机的应用特点，介绍所需霍尔传感器的必要参数，提出合理选型建议，以期达到提高电机整体性能与可靠性的目的，为工程师设计电机时选择霍尔传感器提供参考。%Based on the magnetic properties and electrical characteristics of different processes Hall sensor, and on the application characteristics of electric tools brushless motor, introduce the necessary parameters of Hall sensor, put forward reasonable selection suggestions, in order to improve the overall performance and reliability, and to provide a reference for the engineers choosing Hall sensor when designing the motors.
吴春华; 陈国呈; 孙承波
2007-01-01
In order to deal with torque pulsation problem caused by traditional control method for brushless DC(BLDC)motor and to achieve high precision and good stability,a novel control strategy is proposed.Compared with the traditional control scheme,by using phase voltage as a control objective and making waveform of phase current approximately quasi-sinusoidal,torque ripple of BLDC motor is reduced from the original 14% to 3.4%,while toque is increased by 3.8%.Furthermore,by detecting zero-crossings of back electromotive force(BEMF)with non-conducting phases,sensorless control is realized.The new control strategy is simple.It carl minimize torque ripple,increase torque,and realize sensorless control for BLDC motor.Simulation and experiments show good performance of BLDC motor by using the new control method.
程明; 张淦; 花为
2014-01-01
定子永磁型无刷电机是一类永磁体和电枢绕组均位于定子的新型永磁无刷电机，可方便地对永磁体和电枢绕直接冷却以控制其温度，并易于通过“永磁+电励磁”实现对电机气隙磁场的直接控制，从而获得无刷电机的宽范围调速；凸极转子既无永磁体也无绕组，结构简单可靠，适合高速运行；该电机兼具功率密度高、效率高、容错性能好、控制灵活等特点。该文介绍了定子永磁型无刷电机的基本结构与工作原理，总结了它们的共性规律和个性差别，对其分析设计方法、控制策略等关键技术进行综述，讨论了多种磁通调节方案和容错控制策略，分析了该电机系统在电动汽车、飞轮储能、轨道交通等领域应用的可行性和潜力，最后对该电机系统的主要研究方向进行了展望。%As a topology of novel brushless permanent magnet (PM) machines, stator-PM brushless machines having magnets and armature windings in stator (the so-called stator-PM machines), exhibit the merit of convenient heat dissipations. The compact and robust rotor structure also makes stator-PM machines potential candidates for high speed applications. Meantime, the air-gap flux regulations can be realized by hybrid excitations of PMs and field windings, which consequently expands the speed adjustment regions. Overall, the stator-PM machine features the definite advantages of robust structure, high power density and efficiency, high fault-tolerant capability and being applicable of various control strategies. In this paper, a comprehensive and systematical overview on the stator-PM brushless machine systems and their key technologies is conducted, with particular emphasis on machine topologies, operation principles, design and analysis features, and control strategies. Furthermore, the flux-regulation strategies and fault-tolerant control strategies are presented. Some potentials of feasible
赵南南; 刘卫国; 诸自强
2012-01-01
表贴式无刷直流电动机的永磁体和紧圈如果采用电导率较高的材料,在时间和空间谐波的影响下可能会产生明显的涡流损耗.利用有限元法计算了紧圈分别采用不锈钢和碳纤维两种电导率不同材料表贴式无刷直流电动机的转子涡流损耗,基于计算得到的涡流损耗利用解析集总参数热网络法对两台电机进行了热场分析,并通过实验验证了仿真结果.通过研究发现,采用碳纤维紧圈的电机转子涡流损耗明显减小,转子发热有效改善.%Due to relatively high electrical conductivity of permanent magnets and retaining sleeve of surface-ounted brushless DC machines, significant eddy current loss may be induced by both time and space magneto-motive force harmonics. In this paper, rotor eddy current losses of surface-mounted brushless DC machines with different sleeve materials, which were stainless steel and carbon fiber respectively, were calculated using finite element analysis. Thermal fields of the two machines were analyzed using analytical lumped-circuit method based on the obtained eddy current losses and the predicted temperature rises of machines were verified by experiment results. The research reveals that the rotor eddy current losses of the motor with carbon fiber sleeve were significantly reduced the rotor temperature rise is improved effectively.
张旭
2016-01-01
In order to improve the brushless DC motor voltage regulation system voltage conversion efficiency and reduce power consumption, based on BUCK transformer chopper voltage regulation technology was put forward. In this paper elaborat-ed the circuit structure and mathematical model of brushless DC motor with BUCK mode, analyzed technology of DC converter and BUCK dc transform. Take advantage of MATLAB software SIMULINK module modeling BUCK DC converter, simula-tion for BUCK DC transform under the 20kHz working frequency, got the switch tube gate trigger pulse, inductive voltage and inductance current, output voltage, switching tube and diode current simulation curve. The simulation results and theoretical analysis of waveform basically the same, the rationality was proved of BUCK DC converter model.%为了提高无刷直流电动机调压系统电压转换效率、降低功率消耗，提出基于BUCK变换的斩波调压技术。在阐述BUCK模式下无刷直流电动机电路结构、数学模型基础上，对直流变换器和BUCK直流变换技术进行分析。利用MATLAB软件SIMULINK模块对BUCK直流变换器进行建模，对20kHz工作频率下BUCK直流变换进行仿真，得到开关管门极触发脉冲、电感电压、电感电流、输出电压、开关管电流和二极管电流仿真曲线。仿真结果与理论分析波形基本一致，表明BUCK直流变换器模型的合理性。
永磁直流无刷力矩电机温度场分析%Analysis of the 3 D temperature field of permanent magnet brushless DC torque motor
史忠震
2015-01-01
In this paper the temperature field of permanent magnet brushless DC torque motor is calculated using finite ele-ment analysis software.According to the theory of heat transfer,the torque motor temperature field calculation model under the condition of continuous rotation blockage is built.The boundary conditions are obtained according to the internal heat ex-change of the torque motor,and then finite element simulating calculation is carried out of the model to examine the model simplification and heating of each part of the motor.The simulation results and the laws of the motor temperature are in sat-isfactory agreement.The analysis method has certain reference significance for the design optimization of brushless DC torque motor and analysis of its temperature field.%运用Ansys有限元分析软件对永磁直流无刷力矩电机进行了温度场分布研究，根据传热学理论建立了力矩电机连续堵转运行条件下的温度场计算模型，通过力矩电机内热交换给出了边界条件，对该模型进行有限元仿真计算，研究力矩电机模型简化以及电机各部件的发热情况，得出的仿真结果与电机实测数据基本相符，说明该分析方法对于直流无刷力矩电机的设计优化以及电机的温度场分析具有一定的参考意义。
段晓妮; 孙纯祥
2012-01-01
A high-accuracy constant-speed system of great angular momentum permanent magnet brushless DC gyro motor was introduced. Based on the analysis of the operational principle of the brushless DC gyro motor, a speed closed -loop control strategy was designed, and the model of the BLDCM and controller was proposed in Simulink. DSP and CPLD were used as the main components of the controller. Piecewise PI was used as the control algorithm on steady speed. The motor was controlled by the combination of hardware and software to achieve soft start, protection of over current and steady speed controlling. Through prototype testing, the result shows that such control strategy has short starting time, high starting reliability and high-accuracy steady speed.%介绍了一种大角动量永磁无刷直流陀螺电动机的高精度稳速控制系统.在研究无刷直流陀螺电动机运行原理的基础上,应用了一种简单实用的速度闭环控制策略,并在Simulink中建立电机本体及控制模型.陀螺电动机的主控制器由硬件电路和软件程序组成.DSP和CPLD作为控制器主体,以分段PI算法为稳速控制方法,两者配合实现了软起动、过流保护和稳速控制等功能.样机试验结果表明,该控制系统起动迅速、起动可靠性高及稳速精度高.
张明慧; 刘卫国; 陆地; 孙伟
2011-01-01
建立了基于Bertotti铁耗分离理论,全面考虑交变磁化条件和旋转磁化条件下的永磁无刷直流电动机的铁耗计算模型.通过结合时步有限元方法,精确计算出了一台30 kW、4极3相表贴式永磁无刷直流电动机在额定转速为8 000 r/min时的定子铁心损耗.相较于传统的铁耗计算经验公式,本模型提高了永磁无刷直流电动机铁耗计算的精度和准确度,对电机的优化设计具有指导意义,有较好的工程应用价值.%The model of iron losses calculation in PM brushless DC motor was built based on Bertotti's iron-loss model and considering both alternating and rotating behavior of the magnetic field. The stator core losses are calculated by time-step FEM method for a 30 kW,4-pole, 3-phase, surface mounted PM brushless DC motor when its rotating speed is 8 000 r/min. Compared with the conventional experience equation, the model is more accurature and precise. And it is valuable for the motor optimization design and engineering application.
邓志良; 易兴邦
2011-01-01
Based on analyzing the mathematical model of square-wave brushless DC motor,aiming at the typical operating mode of the 2-phase turn-on 3-phase 6-state with wye-connected,the paper proposes a fuzzy PID control strategy.A fuzzy PID control strategy simulation model is established on Matlab/Simulink platform and then fuzzy PID of brushless DC motor model is also simulated by changing parameters.The control results are compared with that of fuzzy PID and conventional PID control.The results of simulation indicate that the system has the advantages of strong robustness,fast response time and high steady-state accuracy.%在分析方波型永磁无刷直流电动机（BLDCM）数学模型的基础上,针对典型的两相导通星型三相六状态工作方式的无刷直流电动机,提出了一种模糊PID控制方法,在Matlab/Simulink平台上建立了无刷直流电机模糊PID控制策略的仿真模型,改变参数后,对其也进行了仿真,并且将模糊PID控制和传统PID控制的控制效果进行了比较。仿真结果表明：建立的该系统具有鲁棒性强、响应速度快、无超调,且稳态精度高等优点。
Self-Learning Fuzzy PI Control of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor%永磁无刷直流电动机的自学习模糊PI控制
雷金莉; 窦满峰
2013-01-01
The system parameters of permanent magnet brushless DC motor for aerospace are nonlinear,uncertainty,so a general PI controller is hard to achieve the satisfactory effect. A self-learning fuzzy PI controller was designed. Based on the deviation of the actual speed and the reference speed, control variables were regulated, and its control rules was modified. The PI control parameters were adjusted online. The simulation results show that the self-learning fuzzy PI controller has a strong disturbance restraining capability,fast dynamic response,no over-shoot,no steady-state error and good robustness in the motor load and electrical parameters changes in large scale. The nonlinear, uncertainty control problems of permanent magnet brushless DC motor is solved.%针对航空航天用永磁无刷直流电动机具有非线性、不确定性等特点,常规PI控制器难以取得理想的控制效果,提出了自学习模糊PI控制算法.根据实际转速与参考转速的偏差进行控制量校正,修改控制规则,从而在线调整PI控制参数.仿真验证实验表明:自学习模糊控制器对电机负载及内部参数大范围扰动具有较强的抑制能力,系统动态响应快、无超调、稳态无误差、鲁棒性强.解决了永磁无刷直流电动机非线性、不确定性的控制问题.
祝加雄; 常峰
2013-01-01
Through analyzing present situation the utilization of solar energy and efficiency of pumping systems both are low.This paper designed a brushless DC motor pumps control system based on the AVR microcontroller.This control system is mainly composed of photoelectric tracking module,brushless DC motor controller,circuit protection module.It adopted the energy tracking and controlling,protection the motor by multi-point detection.Then automatic balance between the flow and energy was carried out in different heads.After experimental verification,the system had greatly improved the utilization of solar energy and efficiency of pumping systems.So the system had a certain value in use.%为了解决太阳能利用率低和水泵系统效率低等问题,设计了一种基于AVR单片机的直流无刷电机水泵控制系统,主要由光电跟踪模块、无刷直流电机控制器、电路保护模块等组成.系统采用能量跟踪控制,多点检测保护电机,实现在不同扬程下,流量与能量之间自动平衡.结果表明:该系统改善了太阳能利用率和水泵系统效率,且运行稳定,具有一定的使用价值.
Inductance calculation of reluctance rotor brushless doubly-fed machine%凸极转子无刷双馈电机的电感参数计算及转子设计
龚晟; 杨向宇; 纪梁洲
2013-01-01
针对凸极无刷双馈电机两套定子绕组难于进行参数计算的问题,在传统的绕组函数法的基础上,应用分段函数来描述绕组函数以及反气隙函数,以此来计算有着两套绕组的无刷双馈电机定子功率和控制两套绕组的各自自感及互感,然后以此方法应用于转子形状的优化设计中,针对一系列极宽度不同的转子计算其自感和互感,并利用计算结果得到了最优的转子极宽度.通过与有限元数值计算方法所得到的计算结果进行对比,证明了提出方法的准确性,在计算转子极宽度最优值的应用中,体现了此方法的工程价值.%Given the difficulty of calculating parameters of two sets of stator winding of brushless doubly fed machine, this paper described the winding function and anti-gap function by using segment function in order to calculate the control and power winding of brushless doubly-fed machine based on traditional winding function method, and then got more accurate result. In comparison with the results from FEM method, the method in this paper proves to be accurate and its application value for engineering is dem onstrated in the calculation of the optimal width of rotor pole.
Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.
Lee, Tzu-Hsien
2016-01-01
This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.
Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik
2017-02-01
To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion isokinetic dynamometry. A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles were reviewed. Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Slightly higher ICC values were found for the nonparetic extremity. Standard error of the mean (SEM) values showed that a change of 7% to 20% was required for a real group change to take place for most muscle groups, with the knee extensors showing the smallest SEM% values. The muscle strength of paretic muscles showed deficits when compared with both healthy and nonparetic muscles, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Nonparetic muscles only showed minor strength impairments when compared with healthy muscles. Criterion isokinetic dynamometry is a reliable test in persons with stroke, generally showing marked reductions in muscle strength of paretic and, to a lesser degree, nonparetic muscles when compared with healthy controls, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Copyright
Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis
Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by fatigue and fluctuating muscle weakness as a result of impaired neuromuscular transmission (NMT). Although MG is a prototypic fatiguing disorder, little is known about how the condition affects fixed weakness, and if present, whether weakness...... is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pmuscle...
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
Bull, J. W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.;
2016-01-01
environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...... facilitate interdisciplinary research, ensuring decision-making that supports sustainable development........ Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...
Strength of Materials and Structures
无
2000-01-01
@@ All engineering structures designed according to modern principles have to be strong and sufficiently rigid. Scientists and engineers have long recognized the importance of the strength of materials and structures, and dedicated much their efforts to both fundamental and industrial research into the theory for vast engineering materials and various structures. A lot of engineers need to be familiar with the fundamental principles of strength in materials and structures in order to design structures to resist failures. This book is a very good one to provide them with these principles.
Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions
Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J. G. G. S.; Rodrigues, E. I. B.
2017-02-01
This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.
Strength Training and Your Child
... the bone. And the benefits may go beyond physical health. Young athletes may feel better about themselves as they get stronger. Who Can Do Strength Training? Kids and teens who are ready to participate in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics ...
Fast electromagnetic field strength probes
Leferink, Frank; Serra, Ramiro
2013-01-01
Diode detectors and thermocouple detectors are conventionally used to measure electromagnetic field strength. Both detectors have some disadvantages for applications where a fast response and a high dynamic range is required. The diode detector is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is impor
Strength training for the warfighter.
Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K
2012-07-01
Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.
Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength
Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-02-03
Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.
2016-01-01
The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an
Ironless-armature brushless motor
Fisher, R. L.
1977-01-01
Device uses 12-pole samarium cobalt permanent-magnet rotor and three Hall-effect sensors for commutation. In prototype motor, torque constant (3-phase delta) is 65 oz-in/amp; electrical time constant (L/R) is 0.2 x 0.001 sec, and armature resistance is 20 ohms.
Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu
Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.
2013-01-01
A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....
Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu
Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.
2013-01-01
A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....
Comparison of Remolded Shear Strength with Intrinsic Strength Line for Dredged Deposits
DENG Dong-sheng
2007-01-01
Chandler proposed the intrinsic strength line to correlate the undrained shear strength of samples one-dimensionally consolidated from slurry with the void index proposed by Burland. The undrained shear strength on the intrinsic strength line is different from the remolded undrained shear strength that is an important parameter for design and construction of land reclamation. The void index is used in this study for normalizing the remolded strength behavior of dredged deposits. A quantitative relationship between remolded undrained shear strength and void index is established based on extensive data of dredged deposits available from sources of literature. Furthermore, the normalized remolded undrained shear strength is compared with intrinsic strength line. The comparison result indicates that the ratio of undrained shear strength on the intrinsic strength line over remolded undrained shear strength increases with an increase in applied consolidated stress.
基于遗传算法的双余度无刷直流电机优化设计%Genetic algorithm based optimal design for dual-redundancy brushless DC motor
武志勇; 郭宏; 吕振华; 钱浩
2011-01-01
A genetic algorithm（GA） based global optimization for a dual-redundancy brushless DC motor（DR-BLDCM） used in aviation actuators was presented.The aim of the optimal design is to reduce the weight of the motor.First,the objective function was established based on the electromagnetic and thermal models.The electromagnetic models include the flux density and the back-electromotive force coefficient expressed by the analytical method.The thermal models were established by the thermal circuit method,in which an accurate estimation for the iron loss was considered.Then the structural parameters of the dual-redundancy brushless DC motor were optimized by using the GA and taking account of the electromagnetic and thermal characteristic constrains.The result of the optimization shows that the weight of the motor had been reduced by 13.3%.This method can be used as a reference for other motor optimal design.%针对航空电作动系统用双余度无刷直流电机的方案寻优问题,提出了一种基于遗传算法的优化设计方法.通过分析航空作动系统的特点和性能要求得出电机优化设计的目标函数和约束条件.建立电机的电磁和热路模型,得到目标函数和约束条件的解析方程.其中,在电磁模型的建立过程中,采用解析方法得到气隙磁密和反电势系数表达式;在热路模型的建立过程中,采用Bertotti分立铁耗法计算铁心损耗,并利用热路法求解电机各部分的温升.通过遗传算法对电机重量全局寻优.计算结果表明：在满足性能要求的前提下,优化设计方案合理,电机重量减小了13.3%,验证了该优化设计和建模方法的有效性.
Study on Cascade Aviation Brushless Doubly-Fed AC Power System Simulation%串级式航空无刷双馈交流发电系统仿真研究
梁波; 李玉忍; 王鹏; 薛梦娇
2013-01-01
随着多电/全电飞机概念的提出以及机上用电设备的增加,对飞机供电系统电能容量与质量提出了更高的要求.传统三级式同步发电机采用恒速传动装置,不但增加了机载重量,而且发电机容量不能做到很大.为解决优化问题,提出一种串级式航空无刷双馈变速恒频交流发电机,在减少飞机重量的同时可满足对发电机大容量的要求；在对串级式无刷双馈发电机组成和工作原理研究分析的基础上,结合矢量控制算法在Matlab/simulink环境下建立其仿真模型并进行了仿真研究.结果表明:系统运行具有良好的动态特性；所建立的模型是正确的,所采用的方法是可行的.%As more-electric/all-electric aircraft concept proposed and electrical equipment increasing,the quality and capacity of the power supply systems of the aircraft is taken higher demands.Traditional three synchronous generator uses constant speed drive unit,but it not only increases the load capacity,but also limits the generator capacity.The paper presented a cascade aviation brushless doubly-fed variable speed constant frequency alternator,at the same time,reduced the weight of the aircraft to meet the requirements of large-capacity generator.On the basis of analysis of the composition and working principle of the cascade brushless doubly-fed generator,the model has been established and simulated in Matlab/simulink environment combined with vector control algorithm.The results show that:the system has good dynamic characteristics,and the established model is correct and feasible.
船舶无刷发电机励磁控制系统的数字仿真%Digital Simulation of Excitation Control System of Marine Brushless Generator
周左晗; 施伟锋
2013-01-01
It is found that excitation control system of brushless generator can improve voltage stability of marine power system during performance optimization control research of marine generator.The stability of power grid is affected because of load disturbance on electric transmission line.In order to improve power grid's performance,the paper modeled each module by computer based on its mathematical model,then adopted phase-compounding with PID control strategy that is common in ship to simulate close loop excitation control system with the controller as a core.Digital simulation set parameters according to real system,and disturbing and faulty work circumstances can be simulated.Simulation results show the dynamic performance and fault characteristics of excitation control system of marine brushless generator,which testifies the validity of simulation models and technique,so that the digital simulation can be used to design,debug and evaluate marine excitation control system.%在船舶发电机性能优化控制问题的研究中,无刷发电机励磁控制系统能改善船舶电力系统的电压稳定性.由于输电线路受负载扰动,影响电网的稳定性.为了提高电网性能,在各单元数学模型的基础上进行分块数字建模,采用船舶常用的相复励与PID结合的控制策略,用控制器为核心的闭环励磁控制模型建立仿真系统.根据实际系统设置参数,仿真扰动和故障工况.仿真结果反映了船舶无刷发电机励磁控制系统的动态性能和故障特征,证明了仿真模型和方法的正确性,可用于船舶励磁控制系统的设计调试和性能评估.
张凤阁; 金石; 张武
2011-01-01
A maximal power tracking method through controlling torque and power factor of brushless doubly-fed wind power generator to regulate active power is proposed based on direct torque control （DTC）, according to the power output characteristics of wind turbine. Considering the complicated relation of internal magnetic fields of brushless doubly-fed generator（BDFG）, a novel speed observer is designed by estimating the rotor flux synchronous rotating speed and slip speed to improve the reliability of wind power generation system in harsh wind field environment. Furthermore, the model reference adaptive identification technology is adopted to design control winding flux observer in order to enhance the accuracy of estimated flux within wide speed range and further to improve the operation performance of the DTC system at the low frequency of the control winding. Simulation results prove the validity and feasibility of the proposed novel speed estimation method and DTC scheme.%根据风力机的功率输出特性，针对无刷双馈风力发电机，提出了一种基于直接转矩控制方法控制发电机转矩和功率因数来调节有功功率的最大功率跟踪方法。为了提高风电系统的可靠性，使系统更能适用于恶劣的风场环境，本文针对无刷双馈发电机复杂的内部磁场关系，设计了一种新型速度观测器，通过估算转子磁链同步旋转速度和转差速度来获得发电机转速。此外，还采用模型参考自适应辨识技术来设计控制绕组磁链观测器，以提高无刷双馈发电机在全速范围内磁链估计的准确性，进而改善直接转矩控制系统在控制绕组侧低频时的运行性能。仿真结果验证了所提出的新型转速估算方法的正确性和直接转矩控制方案的可行性。
Operation Range of Brushless Doubly-fed Machine Based on Slot-harmonics%齿谐波法设计的无刷双馈发电机运行范围
阚超豪; 王雪帆
2011-01-01
Wound rotor brushless doubly-fed machine （WRBDFM） based on slot-harmonics have wide application in variable speed constant frequency power generation, and the reliability of the machine is the key factor for the applications of WRBDFM. In order to achieve safely operate for the machine, the working area was defined as the zone in which brushless doubly-fest machine could safely be operated without exceeding its material and stability limits. It meant that there were some restrictions needed, such as electric loadings, magnetic loadings and capacity of converter. Based on the field of marine shaft actual working conditions and the full circuit model of slot-harmonics WRBDFM, It had been analyzed that the electric loadings composition and temperature rising of the machine, the select of magnetic loadings and the selection of converter-inverter capacity. The stability operation range was obtained. Finally, the correctness of results and theoretical analysis gained from researching was verified through the experiment of laboratory WRBDFM.%转子绕组采用齿谐波法设计的无刷双馈电机在变速恒频发电领域有着广泛的应用前景，而影响其应用的关键在于电机运行的可靠性。要实现电机可靠运行，则必须考虑电机能可靠运行的约束条件。约束条件主要包含运行时电机的电负荷、磁负荷和变频器容量等。根据齿谐波法绕线转子无刷双馈发电机在船用轴带领域的实际工况，依据绕线转子无刷双馈电机全电路模型，对轴带发电机电负荷的组成及其对电机温升的影响、磁负荷选择的依据和变频器容量的选择等进行了分析，推导了绕线转子无刷双馈发电机可靠运行的范围。计算和样机实验对比验证了结论的正确性。
Filed Oriented Direct Feedback Control of Cascaded Brushless Doubly-fed Machine%级联无刷双馈电机的磁场定向直接反馈控制
王乐英; 夏超英
2011-01-01
By deducing the mathematical model of cascade brushless doubly-fed machine（CBDFM） in rotor coordinate,the model in control machine synchronous coordinate was derived.Based on analysis to this model,it could be concluded that the machine＇s torque and control machine＇s flux could be controlled effectively by the cross and direct axis component of the control machine＇s stator current.According to this conclusion,the CBDFM control method was then designed.With outer-loop as flux and torque loop,inner-loop as current loop,the control of total torque and control machine＇s flux amplitude was then realized.In the meantime,this control algorithm was simple and avoided solving complex nonlinear equation.At last,simulation results proved the effect of this method.%根据级联无刷双馈电机（cascade brushless doubly-fedmachine,CBDFM）转子坐标系下的数学模型,推导得到了它在控制电机同步坐标系下的数学模型,通过对该模型的分析,得出控制电机定子电流的交、直轴分量分别可以实现对电机转矩和控制电机磁链进行有效控制的结论。根据该结论,设计了CBDFM的控制方法,其外环为磁链和转矩环,内环为电流环,实现对控制电机磁链幅值和电机转矩的控制,回避了求解复杂非线性方程的困难,控制算法简单。仿真实验结果证明了该方法的有效性。
韩力; 罗杰; 王华; 潘红广
2013-01-01
为了深入研究笼型转子无刷双馈电机(brushless doubly-fed machine,BDFM)的稳态特性,从耦合电路出发,给出了BDFM的基本方程式,进而分析并得到了BDFM电流、有功功率、无功功率、电磁转矩和功率因数的数学模型.在此基础上,通过Matlab对1台样机进行了仿真,获得了BDFM的矩角特性、矩频特性、功角特性、无功特性、功率因数特性和V形曲线,并利用数学模型分析了BDFM的能量转换.结果表明:BDFM的各种稳态特性均可表示为控制绕组电压、频率和功角这3个变量的函数,所提出的模型简化了BDFM稳态特性的分析方法,为进一步研究BDFM的稳定性和控制策略奠定了理论基础.%To further study the steady-state characteristics of brushless doubly-fed machine(BDFM) with squirrel-rotor,the basic equations are given according to the coupling circuits of BDFM.And then,the mathematical models of BDFM current,active power,reactive power,electromagnetic torque and power factor are analyzed and derived respectively.Furthermore,the characteristics of torque-angle,torquefrequency,power-angle,reactive power,power factor and V-shaped curve of BDFM are obtained respectively by MATLAB simulation of a prototype.The energy conversion of BDFM is analyzed by the proposed mathematical models at the same time.The results show that all the steady-state characteristics of BDFM can be expressed as the functions of the control windings voltage,frequency and the power angle.The proposed model simplifies the analysis of the steady-state characteristics of BDFM and provides a theoretical foundation for the further study on operating stability and control strategy of BDFM.
基于FPGA的无刷直流电机数字控制方法研究%Research on Digital FPGA-Based Control Method of Brushless DC Motor
敬光红
2016-01-01
In order to achieve a simple and efficient brushless DC(BLDC)motor drive system of the brushless DC motor,a simple model of FPGA is presented based on the digital pulse width modulation(PWM)controller,model and control algorithm. The controller will take BLDC motor flux distribution of the ladder as a digital system,low power and the alternate use of high-powered speed adjustment,it is easy to realize the design and implement. In ad⁃dition,a current sensor design is proposed only by using the DC link to reduce the cost and the complexity of hard⁃ware. And through the simulation experiment of the proposed control method was verified,the results show that the maximum error of the proposed method is decreased below 5%. Therefore,the control technology is very suitable for applications that don't require high accuracy.%为了实现简单且高效的无刷直流电机（BLDC）驱动系统，提出了一种简单新型的基于FPGA的数字脉冲宽度调制（PWM）控制器的模型和匹配的控制算法，该控制器将梯形磁通分布的BLDC电机看作是一个数字系统，通过低功率和高功率的交替使用进行速度调节，非常便于设计实现。此外，提出的设计只使用直流环节的一个电流传感器，减少了成本和硬件的复杂性。并通过模拟实验对提出的控制方法进行了证实，结果显示提出方法的最大误差保持低于5%。因此，这种控制技术非常适合不需要高精度的应用。
郭长欢; 黄建
2015-01-01
为了适应机载电气系统结构的日益复杂变化，保证电气系统性能的良好性，降低飞行试验的风险，提出了一种机载电气系统半实物仿真方法。以无刷直流电机（brushless DC motor ，BLCDM ）伺服系统为研究对象，按照RT‐LAB建模规则，搭建了系统仿真模型；设计了以DSP（TMS320F28335）为核心的电动机控制电路和信号调理电路；在CCS3．3开发环境下，完成了电机控制软件的设计。在此平台上，对该伺服系统进行了突加负载和突加给定转速的动态性能仿真，并与全数字仿真的结果进行了对比分析，验证了半实物仿真方法的有效性和准确性。%In order to adapt to the increasingly complex changes of the airborne electrical system structure ,ensure that the electrical performance of the system is w ell ,reduce the risk of flight test ,this paper puts forw ard a kind of airborne electrical system hardware‐in‐the‐loop simulation method .This paper uses the semi‐physical simulation platform RT‐LAB to study brushless DC motor (BLDCM ) servo system .According to the RT‐LAB modeling rules ,the model of the motor was put up .The controller of the motor ,which takes DSP TMS320F28335 as the core ,and signal conditioning circuit were implemented .The control program was accomplished in CCS3 .3 Hardware‐in‐the‐loop simulation experi‐ments were carried out to simulate the serve system’s dynamic performances .The dynamic response of the motor could be simulated by changing the load torque and the speed settings .Compared with digital simulation and real‐time simula‐tion ,the validity and accuracy of hardware‐in‐the‐loop simulation were confirmed .
张岳; 王凤翔
2014-01-01
In order to investigate the magnetic coupled performance of brushless doubly-fed machines(BD-FM), a magnetic barrier rotor structure of BDFM with simple structure and good performance is pro-posed. A 6/2 poles numbers and rated power 5 kW brushless-fed reluctance machine with magnetic barri-er rotor was designed by ansoft software. The characteristic of operation for BDFM with magnetic barrier rotor was analyzed. On these bases, the open-loop experiment of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) for BDFG with magnetic barrier rotor was realized. The theoretical analysis and experimental study show that the performance of BDFM with reluctance rotor can be effectively improved by adding magnetic barrier properly in the rotor core, and the machine can keep the same advantages of simple structure and low cost as that of the normal reluctance rotor.%针对普通凸极磁阻转子无刷双馈电机的转子耦合能力差、效率低的问题，提出一种结构简单、性能良好的磁障转子结构，设计了额定功率为5kW、6/2极的转子带磁障的无刷双馈磁阻电机，运用有限元法分析了转子带磁障无刷双馈磁阻电机的电动和发电运行特性，在此基础上，对转子带磁障的无刷双馈电机进行了变速恒频发电的开环实验。理论分析和实验研究结果表明：适当在转子铁心中加入磁障，可以有效改善转子带磁障的无刷双馈磁阻电机的性能，同时又保留普通凸极磁阻转子结构简单和成本低廉的优点，为今后设计大功率磁障转子无刷双馈磁阻电机提供有价值的参考依据。
郭鸿浩; 周波; 左广杰; 唐国芬; 许恩利
2011-01-01
采用转矩环取代传统的电流环，可减小非理想反电势无刷直流电机（brushlessDCmotor，BLDCM）的转矩脉动，提高其控制性能，而转矩环中反馈转矩计算的关键在于绕组反电势的准确获取。建立考虑参数偏差的滑模观测器（sliding—modeobserver，SMO）对反电势进行实时观测，定量分析了定子电阻偏差对观测结果的影响，分析表明反电势观测的稳态误差等于电阻偏差量与电流的乘积。为消除这一影响，利用李雅普诺夫（Lyapunov）稳定性理论，设计了定子电阻参数辨识的自适应率，在线辨识得到的电阻参数用于调%The torque ripple of brushless DC motor （BLDCM） with un-ideal back electromotive force （EMF） waveforms could be attenuated by replacing the conventional current loop with torque loop, thus a better performance could be obtained. Further, the key issue of feedback torque calculation in torque loop was the estimation of back EMF. So a sliding-mode observer （SMO） was employed to estimate the back EMF in real time where the parameter deviation was considered. Then the influences of stator resistance deviation on observation results were quantitatively analyzed and the analysis results show the steady state error of observed back EMF was equal to the product of current and resistance deviation value. To eliminate this effect, an adaptive law of parameter identification for stator resistance was designed based on Lyapunov stability theory and the online identification result was used to regulate the coefficient matrix of SMO. Combining with the resistance estimator, a novel adaptive sliding-mode observer was constructed. Experimental results, using RT-LAB real time controller implementation, verify the validity of the analysis results and prove that the back EMF of BLDC can be correctly observed by the proposed method.
High strength, tough alloy steel
Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.
1979-01-01
A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.
Lijiang: From Brand to Strength
Gao Wentian; Bai Yifeng
2009-01-01
@@ The tourism industry is facing unprecedented challenges after the financial crisis.During this "financial winter",how much influence has Lijiang's tourism,the one that has been the pillar industry of Lijiang and important economic growth point received? And how does the government of Lijiang deal with this? How to transform it from "Brand Lijiang" to "Strength Lijiang"? Member of National People's Congress,Lijiang's deputy secretary of municipal party committee,and Mayor Wang Junzheng accepted an exclusive interview with our reporter.
Prediction of underwater target strength
WANG TongQing; Mohammad Amjad
2001-01-01
A model as well as its numerical method to calculate target strength of rigid body using Lighthill's acoustic analogy approach which developed from the propeller aircraft sound field study have been presented. The cases of ellipsoid target has been used to demonstrate the approach. The comparison of the numerical results with that of analytical formulation provides a satisfactory check for the validity of the approach. Some reasonable results have been discussed. The advantage of the present model is that it is suitable for any arbitrarily shaped rigid body moving with small Mach number.
Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics
1989-11-01
material. Thus, in these two cases. thes)rnbols at left represent strength values for specimns that effo-. of heat treament on the R curve isbroke from...Vol. 22, p. 135, 1988. 9. "Effect of Heat Treatment on Crack-Resistance Curves in a Liquid-Phase- Sintered Alumina" S.J. Bennison, 11.M. Chan and B.R...Subvinucat "rack Growth and Other Time. and Environment.Dependwn Behavior In Crustat Rocks," J. Geophys. Res.. 39, 4137-52 (1984). 9. "Effect of Heat
Cesário, Denise Ferreira; Mendes, Geovânia Barbosa da Silva; Uchôa, Érica Patrícia Borba Lira; Veiga, Paulo Henrique Altran
2014-01-01
...: To perform comparative analyze of results of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and strength training to gain muscle strength of biceps and quadriceps and grip in the elderly...
Three Important Advances in Engineering Strength Theories
YuMaohong; FanWen; MitustoshiYoshimine
2003-01-01
There are there great advances in the research on engineering strength theories in the latter half of the 20th Century. The first advance was the devel-opment of strength theory from the single-shear strength theory including the Tresca yield criterion and Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion to theoctahe-dral-shear strength theory; the second one was that from the octahedral-shear strength theory to the twin-shear strength theory; and the third wasthe theories from the single criteria to the unifiedstrength theory. These three advances are summa-rized in this paper. It is interesting and useful for re-searchers to choose an appropriate failure criterion in studying the strength of materials and struc-tures, for engineers to correctly use it and for stu-dents to understand strength theory.
Residual strength of damaged marine structures
Ghose, Dhruba J.; Nappi, Natale S.; Wiernicki, Christopher J.
1994-09-01
Traditionally assessment of ship's longitudinal strength has been made by comparing the elastic stresses at the deck or bottom shell to fractions of the material yield strength. This results in high reserve capacity due to inherent redundancies in ship structures. Residual strength, which is defined as the strength of the structure after damage, has rarely been considered either during design or at the time of repair. In this report, key elements required to undertake an engineering analysis to evaluate the residual strength have been identified. Emphasis has been placed on assessing the residual strength of marine structures damaged due to normal operating loads. Methods available to industry for evaluation of damage such as, fracture and ultimate strength have been summarized. An example problem, illustrating the application of an integrated approach to residual strength assessment on a particular ship type, is presented.
Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel
Soto, Koji
2002-08-15
The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.
Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain
van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.
2003-01-01
Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength. 31.27 Section 31.27 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.27 Strength. (a) The structure must be able...