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Sample records for strength training session

  1. Adaptations to short, frequent sessions of endurance and strength training are similar to longer, less frequent exercise sessions when the total volume is the same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels

    2015-01-01

    ]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular...

  2. Locomotor Training and Strength and Balance Exercises for Walking Recovery After Stroke: Response to Number of Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dorian K; Nadeau, Stephen E; Wu, Samuel S; Tilson, Julie K; Dobkin, Bruce H; Pei, Qinglin; Duncan, Pamela W

    2017-11-01

    Evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform rehabilitation practice, including the effect of number of exercise training sessions on recovery of walking ability after stroke. The objective of this study was to determine the response to increasing number of training sessions of 2 interventions-locomotor training and strength and balance exercises-on poststroke walking recovery. This is a secondary analysis of the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) randomized controlled trial. Six rehabilitation sites in California and Florida and participants' homes were used. Participants were adults who dwelled in the community (N=347), had had a stroke, were able to walk at least 3 m (10 ft) with assistance, and had completed the required number of intervention sessions. Participants received 36 sessions (3 times per week for 12 weeks), 90 minutes in duration, of locomotor training (gait training on a treadmill with body-weight support and overground training) or strength and balance training. Talking speed, as measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test, and 6-minute walking distance were assessed before training and following 12, 24, and 36 intervention sessions. Participants at 2 and 6 months after stroke gained in gait speed and walking endurance after up to 36 sessions of treatment, but the rate of gain diminished steadily and, on average, was very low during the 25- to 36-session epoch, regardless of treatment type or severity of impairment. Results may not generalize to people who are unable to initiate a step at 2 months after stroke or people with severe cardiac disease. In general, people who dwelled in the community showed improvements in gait speed and walking distance with up to 36 sessions of locomotor training or strength and balance exercises at both 2 and 6 months after stroke. However, gains beyond 24 sessions tended to be very modest. The tracking of individual response trajectories is imperative in planning treatment. Published by Oxford University

  3. Adaptations to Short, Frequent Sessions of Endurance and Strength Training Are Similar to Longer, Less Frequent Exercise Sessions When the Total Volume Is the Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels; Kruse, Nanna L; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular training or muscle endurance training. Both groups increased shuttle run performance (MI: 1,373 ± 133 m vs. 1,498 ± 126 m, p ≤ 0.05; CL: 1,074 ± 213 m vs. 1,451 ± 202 m, p training intervention. In conclusion, similar training adaptations can be obtained with short, frequent exercise sessions or longer, less frequent sessions where the total volume of weekly training performed is the same.

  4. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  5. The repeated bout effect of typical lower body strength training sessions on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Sinclair, Wade H; Leicht, Anthony S; Deakin, Glen B; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two typical strength training sessions performed 1 week apart (i.e. repeated bout effect) on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal. Fourteen resistance-untrained men (age 24.0 ± 3.9 years; height 1.83 ± 0.11 m; body mass 77.4 ± 14.0 kg; VOpeak 48.1 ± 6.1 M kg(-1) min(-1)) undertook two bouts of high-intensity strength training sessions (i.e. six-repetition maximum). Creatine kinase (CK), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), counter-movement jump (CMJ) as well as concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C) were examined prior to and immediately post, 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h post each strength training bout. Sub-maximal running performance was also conducted at T24 and T48 of each bout. When measures were compared between bouts at T48, the degree of elevation in CK (-58.4 ± 55.6 %) and DOMS (-31.43 ± 42.9 %) and acute reduction in CMJ measures (4.1 ± 5.4 %) were attenuated (p 0.05). Sub-maximal running performance was impaired until T24, although changes were not attenuated following the second bout. The initial bout appeared to provide protection against a number of muscle damage indicators suggesting a greater need for recovery following the initial session of typical lower body resistance exercises in resistance-untrained men although sub-maximal running should be avoided following the first two sessions.

  6. Effects of Strength Training Sessions Performed with Different Exercise Orders and Intervals on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Sandro; Figueiredo, Tiago; Marques, Silvio; Leite, Thalita; Cardozo, Diogo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effect of a strength training session performed at different exercise orders and rest intervals on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen trained men performed different upper body exercise sequences [large to small muscle mass (SEQA) and small to large muscle mass (SEQB)] in randomized order with rest intervals between sets and exercises of 40 or 90 seconds. Fifteen repetition maximum loads were tested to control the training intensity and the total volume load. The results showed, significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (SBP) for all sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes; SEQA40 and SEQB40 at 20 minutes and SEQB90 at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), significant reductions were found for three sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 and SEQA40 at 50 and 60 minutes; SEQB40 at 10, 30 and 60 minutes. For HRV, there were significant differences in frequency domain for all sequences compared to baseline. In conclusion, when performing upper body strength training sessions, it is suggested that 90 second rest intervals between sets and exercises promotes a post-exercise hypotensive response in SBP. The 40 second rest interval between sets and exercises was associated with greater cardiac stress, and might be contraindicated when working with individuals that exhibit symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Effects of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training session on strength and athletic performance in team-handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Navarro, Angel; Tous-Fajardo, Julio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training (EOT) session in several athletic performance's tests, 18 team-handball players were assigned either to an EOT (n = 11) or a Control (n = 7) group. Both groups continued to perform the same habitual strength training, but the EOT group added one session/week during a 7-week training programme consisting of four sets of eight repetitions for the bilateral half-squat and unilateral lunge exercises. The test battery included handball throwing velocity, maximum dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, triple hop for distance, and eccentric/concentric power in both the half-squat and lunge exercises. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Both groups improved their 1RM in the half squat, 20 m sprint time, and CMJ performance to a similar extent, but the EOT group showed a beneficial effect for both right [(42/58/0), possibly positive] and left [(99/1/0), very likely positive] triple hop for distance performance. In addition, the EOT group showed greater power output improvements in both eccentric and concentric phases of the half-squat (difference in percent of change ranging from 6.5% to 22.0%) and lunge exercises (difference in per cent of change ranging from 13.1% to 24.9%). Nevertheless, no group showed changes in handball throwing velocity. Selected variables related to team-handball performance (i.e. functional jumping performance, power output) can be improved by adding a single EOT session per week, highlighting the usefulness of this low-volume/high-intensity training when aiming at optimizing dynamic athletic performance.

  8. Vitamin C and E supplementation alters protein signalling after a strength training session, but not muscle growth during 10 weeks of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G; Hamarsland, H; Cumming, K T; Johansen, R E; Hulmi, J J; Børsheim, E; Wiig, H; Garthe, I; Raastad, T

    2014-12-15

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on acute responses and adaptations to strength training. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men and women were randomly allocated to receive a vitamin C and E supplement (1000 mg day(-1) and 235 mg day(-1), respectively), or a placebo, for 10 weeks. During this period the participants' training involved heavy-load resistance exercise four times per week. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were collected, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal isometric voluntary contraction force, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and muscle cross-sectional area (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the cellular responses to a single exercise session were assessed midway in the training period by measurements of muscle protein fractional synthetic rate and phosphorylation of several hypertrophic signalling proteins. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis twice before, and 100 and 150 min after, the exercise session (4 × 8RM, leg press and knee-extension). The supplementation did not affect the increase in muscle mass or the acute change in protein synthesis, but it hampered certain strength increases (biceps curl). Moreover, increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and p70S6 kinase after the exercise session was blunted by vitamin C and E supplementation. The total ubiquitination levels after the exercise session, however, were lower with vitamin C and E than placebo. We concluded that vitamin C and E supplementation interfered with the acute cellular response to heavy-load resistance exercise and demonstrated tentative long-term negative effects on adaptation to strength training. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  9. Influence of number of sets on blood pressure and heart rate variability after a strength training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Tiago; Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark; Miranda, Humberto; Bentes, Claudio M; dos Reis, Victor Machado de Ribeiro; Simão, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of 1, 3, and 5 sets of strength training (ST), on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure. Eleven male volunteers (age: 26.1 ± 3.6 years; body mass: 74.1 ± 8.1 kg; height: 172 ± 4 cm) with at least 6 months previous experience in ST participated in the study. After determining the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load for the bench press (BP), lat pull down (LPD), shoulder press (SP), biceps curl (BC), triceps extension (TE), leg press (LP), leg extension (LE), and leg curl (LC), the participants performed 3 different exercise sequences in a random order and 72 hours apart. During the first sequence, subjects performed a single set of 8-10 repetitions, at 70% 1RM, and with 2-minute rest interval between exercises. Exercises were performed in the following order: BP, LPD, SP, BC, TE, LP, LE, and LC. During the second sequence, subjects performed the same exercise sequence, with the same intensity, 2-minute rest interval between sets and exercises, but with 3 consecutive sets of each exercise. During the third sequence, the same protocol was followed but with 5 sets of each exercise. Before and after the training sessions, blood pressure and HRV were measured. The statistical analysis demonstrated a greater duration of postexercise hypotension after the 5-set program vs. the 1 set or 3 sets (p ≤ 0.05). However, the 5-set program promoted a substantial cardiac stress, as demonstrated by HRV (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicate that 5 sets of 8-10 repetitions at 70% 1RM load may provide the ideal stimulus for a postexercise hypotensive response. Therefore, ST composed of upper- and lower-body exercises and performed with high volumes are capable of producing significant and extended postexercise hypotensive response. In conclusion, strength and conditioning professionals can prescribe 5 sets per exercises if the goal is to reduce blood pressure after training. In addition, these findings may have

  10. Attendance at NHS mandatory training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Darren

    2015-02-17

    To identify factors that affect NHS healthcare professionals' attendance at mandatory training sessions. A quantitative approach was used, with a questionnaire sent to 400 randomly selected participants. A total of 122 responses were received, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data were analysed using statistical methods. Open-ended responses were reviewed using thematic analysis. Clinical staff value mandatory training sessions highly. They are aware of the requirement to keep practice up-to-date and ensure patient safety remains a priority. However, changes to the delivery format of mandatory training sessions are required to enable staff to participate more easily, as staff are often unable to attend. The delivery of mandatory training should move from classroom-based sessions into the clinical area to maximise participation. Delivery should be assisted by local 'experts' who are able to customise course content to meet local requirements and the requirements of different staff groups. Improved arrangements to provide staff cover, for those attending training, would enable more staff to attend training sessions.

  11. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  12. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in April

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in April. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Biocell Training 26-APR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 26-APR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French Conduite de plates-formes élévatrices mobiles de personnel (PEMP) 28-APR-11 to 29-APR-11 (08.00 – 17.30) in French* Sécurité chimique – Introduction 29-APR-11 (09.00 – 11.30) in French (*) session in French with the possibility of receiving the documentation in English   By Isabelle Cusato (H...

  13. Strength Training. A Key to Athletic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Patricia W.

    Characteristics of an effective strength training program are analyzed and descriptions are offered of different kinds of weight training activities. Comparisons are made between concentric, isometric, eccentric, and isokinetic training methods. The fundamentals and techniques of an exemplary training program are outlined and the organization and…

  14. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in March

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in March. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Biocell Training 08-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 08-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 15-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 15-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 17-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 17-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in English 22-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 22-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 24-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 24-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 29-MAR...

  15. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in May

    CERN Multimedia

    Isabelle Cusato (HSE Unit)

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in March. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year.   Biocell Training 10-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 10-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 12-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 12-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in English 19-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 19-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 24-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 24-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in English   Champs Magnétiques 13-MAY-11 (09.30 – 11.30) in French...

  16. A 4-Week Intervention Involving Mobile-Based Daily 6-Minute Micro-Sessions of Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Strength and Quality of Life, but Not Cardio-Respiratory Fitness of Young Untrained Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Sperlich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the psycho-physiological responses of physically untrained individuals to mobile-based multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiple-joint conditioning (CircuitHIIT performed either once (1xCircuitHIIT or twice (2xCircuitHIIT daily for 4 weeks. In this single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled study, 24 men and women (age: 25 ± 5 years first received no training instructions for 4 weeks and then performed 4 weeks of either 1xCircuitHIIT or 2xCircuitHIIT (5 men and 7 women in each group daily. The 1xCircuitHIIT and 2xCircuitHIIT participants carried out 90.7 and 85.7% of all planned training sessions, respectively, with average heart rates during the 6-min sessions of 74.3 and 70.8% of maximal heart rate. Body, fat and fat-free mass, and metabolic rate at rest did not differ between the groups or between time-points of measurement. Heart rate while running at 6 km⋅h-1 declined after the intervention in both groups. Submaximal and peak oxygen uptake, the respiratory exchange ratio and heart rate recovery were not altered by either intervention. The maximal numbers of push-ups, leg-levers, burpees, 45°-one-legged squats and 30-s skipping, as well as perception of general health improved in both groups. Our 1xCircuitHIIT or 2xCircuitHIIT interventions improved certain parameters of functional strength and certain dimensions of quality of life in young untrained individuals. However, they were not sufficient to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness, in particular peak oxygen uptake.

  17. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  18. Metabolic Demand and Internal Training Load in Technical-Tactical Training Sessions of Professional Futsal Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Carolina F; Ramos, Guilherme P; Pacheco, Diogo A S; Santos, Weslley H M; Diniz, Mateus S L; Gonçalves, Gabriela G P; Marins, João C B; Wanner, Samuel P; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2016-08-01

    Wilke, CF, Ramos, GP, Pacheco, DAS, Santos, WHM, Diniz, MSL, Gonçalves, GGP, Marins, JCB, Wanner, SP, and Silami-Garcia, E. Metabolic demand and internal training load in technical-tactical training sessions of professional futsal players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2330-2340, 2016-The aim of the study was to characterize aspects of technical-tactical training sessions of a professional futsal team. We addressed 4 specific aims: characterize the metabolic demands and intensity of these training sessions, compare the training intensity among players of different positions, compare the intensity of different futsal-specific activities (4 × 4, 6 × 4, and match simulation), and investigate the association between an objective (training impulse; TRIMP) and a subjective method (session rating of perceived exertion; sRPE) of measuring a player's internal training load. Twelve top-level futsal players performed an incremental exercise to determine their maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate (HRmax), ventilatory threshold (VT), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Each player's HR and RPE were measured and used to calculate energy expenditure, TRIMP, and sRPE during 37 training sessions over 8 weeks. The average intensity was 74 ± 4% of HRmax, which corresponded to 9.3 kcal·min. The players trained at intensities above the RCP, between the RCP and VT and below the VT for 20 ± 8%, 28 ± 6%, and 51 ± 10% of the session duration, respectively. Wingers, defenders, and pivots exercised at a similar average intensity but with different intensity distributions. No difference in intensity was found between the 3 typical activities. A strong correlation between the average daily TRIMP and sRPE was observed; however, this relationship was significant for only 4 of 12 players, indicating that sRPE is a useful tool for monitoring training loads but that it should be interpreted for each player individually rather than collectively.

  19. The Neuromuscular, Biochemical, and Endocrine Responses to a Single-Session Vs. Double-Session Training Day in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael J; Cook, Christian J; Drake, David; Costley, Lisa; Johnston, Julie P; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-11-01

    Johnston, MJ, Cook, CJ, Drake, D, Costley, L, Johnston, JP, and Kilduff, LP. The neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine responses to a single-session vs. double-session training day in elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3098-3106, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the acute neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine responses of a training day consisting of a speed session only with performing a speed-and-weights training session on the same day. Fifteen men who were academy-level rugby players completed 2 protocols in a randomized order. The speed-only protocol involved performing 6 maximal effort repetitions of 50-m running sprints with 5 minutes of recovery between each sprint, whereas the speed-and-weights protocol involved the same sprinting session but was followed 2 hours later by a lower-body weights session consisting of 4 sets of 5 backsquats and Romanian deadlift at 85% one repetition maximum. Testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and perceived muscle soreness were determined immediately before, immediately after, 2 hours after, and 24 hours after both the protocols. Peak power, relative peak power, jump height, and average rate of force development were determined from a countermovement jump (CMJ) at the same time points. After 24-hours, muscle soreness was significantly higher after the speed-and-weights protocol compared with the speed-only protocol (effect size η = 0.253, F = 4.750, p ≤ 0.05). There was no significant difference between any of the CMJ variables at any of the posttraining time points. Likewise, creatine kinase, testosterone, and cortisol were unaffected by the addition of a weight-training session. These data indicate that the addition of a weight-training session 2 hours after a speed session, whereas increasing the perception of fatigue the next day does not result in a difference in endocrine response or in neuromuscular capability.

  20. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C; Tessitore, A; Gasperi, L; Gomez, Mar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate youth basketball training, verifying the reliability of the session-RPE method in relation to session duration (session) categories. Six male youth basketball players (age, 16.5±0.5 years; height, 195.5±6.75 cm; body mass, 93.9±10.9 kg; and body mass index, 23.6±2.8 kg.m -2 ) were monitored (HR, type and duration of workouts) during 15 (66 individual) training sessions (80±26 minutes). Edwards' HR method was used as a reference measure of internal training load (ITL); the CR-10 RPE scale was administered 30 minutes after the end of each session. The results obtained showed that all comparisons between different session durations and workout portions revealed effects in term of Edwards' ITLs except for warm-up portions. Moderate to strong relationships between Edwards' and session- RPE methods emerged for all sessions (r = .85, P sessions (r range = .79 - .95, P session durations (session-RPE to monitor the ITL, regardless of session durations and workout portions.

  1. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate youth basketball training, verifying the reliability of the session-RPE method in relation to session duration (< and ≥ 80 minutes and workout typology (reduced and high warm-up, conditioning, technical, tactical, game portions within a single session categories. Six male youth basketball players (age, 16.5±0.5 years; height, 195.5±6.75 cm; body mass, 93.9±10.9 kg; and body mass index, 23.6±2.8 kg.m-2 were monitored (HR, type and duration of workouts during 15 (66 individual training sessions (80±26 minutes. Edwards’ HR method was used as a reference measure of internal training load (ITL; the CR-10 RPE scale was administered 30 minutes after the end of each session. The results obtained showed that all comparisons between different session durations and workout portions revealed effects in term of Edwards’ ITLs except for warm-up portions. Moderate to strong relationships between Edwards’ and session- RPE methods emerged for all sessions (r = .85, P < .001, player’s sessions (r range = .79 - .95, P < .001, session durations (< 80 minutes: r = .67, P < .001; ≥ 80 minutes: r = .75, P < .001, and workout portions (r range = .78 - .89, P range = .002 - < .001. The findings indicated that coaches of youth basketball players can successfully use session-RPE to monitor the ITL, regardless of session durations and workout portions.

  2. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age ( χ̄ = 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age ( χ̄ = 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  3. Astronauts and cosmonauts during emergency bailout training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Using small life rafts, several cosmonauts and astronauts participating in joint Russia - United States space missions take part in an emergency bailout training session in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) 25-feet-deep pool. In the

  4. Astronauts Parise and Jernigan check helmets prior to training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in training versions of the Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suits, payload specialist Dr. Ronald A Parise (left) and astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, payload commander, check over their helmets prior to a training session. Holding the helmets is suit expert Alan M. Rochford, of NASA. The two were about to join their crew mates in a session of emergency bailout training at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  5. Session-RPE for quantifying load of different youth taekwondo training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Capranica, Laura; Cortis, Cristina; Guidotti, Flavia; Bianco, Antonino; Tessitore, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) proved to be a valuable method to quantify the internal training load (ITL) in taekwondo. However, no study validated this method in youth taekwondo athletes performing different training sessions. Thus this study aimed at evaluating the reliability of the session-RPE to monitor the ITL of prepubescent taekwondo athletes during pre-competitive (PC) and competitive (C) training sessions. Five female (age: 12.0±0.7 y; height: 1.54±0.08 m; body mass: 48.8±7.3 kg) and four male (age: 12.0±0.8 yrs; height: 1.55±0.07 m; body mass: 47.3±5.3 kg) taekwondo athletes were monitored during 100 individual sessions (PC: N.=33; C: N.=67). The Edwards' HR method was used as reference measure of ITL; the CR-10 RPE scale was administered at 1- and 30-minutes from the end of each session. No difference for gender emerged. The ITLs of C (Edwards: 228±40 arbitrary units, AU) resulted higher than that of PC (192±26 AU; P=0.04). Although all training typologies and data collections achieved significant correlations between Edwards' and session-RPE methods, a large relationship (r =0.71, Psessions evaluated at 30 minutes of the recovery phases. Findings support coaches of prepubescent taekwondo athletes to successfully use session-RPE to monitor the ITL of different training typologies. However, PC training evaluated at 30 minutes of the recovery phase represents the best condition for a highly reliable ITL perception.

  6. Strength testing and training of rowers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    In the quest to maximize average propulsive stroke impulses over 2000-m racing, testing and training of various strength parameters have been incorporated into the physical conditioning plans of rowers. Thus, the purpose of this review was 2-fold: to identify strength tests that were reliable and valid correlates (predictors) of rowing performance; and, to establish the benefits gained when strength training was integrated into the physical preparation plans of rowers. The reliability of maximal strength and power tests involving leg extension (e.g. leg pressing) and arm pulling (e.g. prone bench pull) was high (intra-class correlations 0.82-0.99), revealing that elite rowers were significantly stronger than their less competitive peers. The greater strength of elite rowers was in part attributed to the correlation between strength and greater lean body mass (r = 0.57-0.63). Dynamic lower body strength tests that determined the maximal external load for a one-repetition maximum (1RM) leg press (kg), isokinetic leg extension peak force (N) or leg press peak power (W) proved to be moderately to strongly associated with 2000-m ergometer times (r = -0.54 to -0.68; p training experience and muscle morphology, in that those individuals with greater training experience and/or proportions of slow twitch fibres performed more repetitions. Muscle balance ratios derived from strength data (e.g. hamstring-quadriceps ratio training may be counterproductive to strength development over the shorter term (i.e. training within the sequence of training units should be considered, particularly over the non-competition phase (e.g. 2-6 sets × 4-12 repetitions, three sessions a week). Maximal strength was sustained when infrequent (e.g. one or two sessions a week) but intense (e.g. 73-79% of maximum) strength training units were scheduled; however, it was unclear whether training adaptations should emphasize maximal strength, endurance or power in order to enhance

  7. Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Stacy M; Hatten, Kristin; Grant-Beuttler, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate difficulty with feedforward motor control and use varied compensatory strategies. To examine gross motor function changes following strength training in a child with motor control difficulties. A girl aged 6 years 11 months, with apraxia and hypotonia, and demonstrating motor delays consistent with DCD. Twenty-four strength training sessions were completed using a universal exercise unit. Postintervention scores significantly improved on the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition, and the Canadian occupational performance measure scores and raised the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire, revised 2007, scores above the range where DCD is suspected. Nonsignificant changes in strength were observed. Improved function and significant gains in manual coordination were observed following blocked practice of isolated, simple joint movements during strength training. Improved motor skills may be because of effective use of feedforward control and improved stabilization. Strength training does not rehearse skills using momentum, explaining nonsignificant changes in locomotor or locomotion areas.

  8. Combined strength and endurance training in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 9) from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers. Key pointsTwo weekly sessions of dry land strength training improves the

  9. Astronaut Tamara Jernigan in the CCT during a training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, STS-67 payload commander, is shown here in the Shuttle Training Facility at JSC participating in a training session. Jernigan is training with the RMS controls in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  10. STS-32 Commander Brandenstein adjusts IMAX camera during training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein adjusts IMAX camera setting during briefing and training session as technician looks on. The session was conducted in the JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. The IMAX camera will be used onboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, during the STS-32 mission.

  11. Efeito do uso profilático do anti-inflamatório não-esteroide ibuprofeno sobre o desempenho em uma sessão de treino de força Effects of prophylactic anti-inflammatory non-steroidal ibuprofen on performance in a session of strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Medicamentos anti-inflamatórios não esteroides, como o ibuprofeno, têm sido utilizados por atletas de várias modalidades com o intuito de aumentar desempenho esportivo. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do uso profilático de ibuprofeno sobre desempenho em uma sessão de treino de força. MÉTODOS: Um ensaio clínico, cruzado, randomizado, duplo-cego e placebo-controlado foi desenvolvido com 12 praticantes regulares de treino de força do sexo masculino, os quais realizaram uma sessão de treino após a ingestão de ibuprofeno (1,2 g e uma outra após a ingestão de placebo. Seis séries dos exercícios supino e agachamento foram realizadas em cada sessão de treino com uma carga constante correspondente a 65% da 1RM de cada exercício. O desempenho no treinamento foi mensurado através do número de repetições que os voluntários conseguiram realizar em cada série de exercício a cada sessão de treino de força. RESULTADOS: Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas de desempenho no treino de força com a administração prévia de placebo ou ibuprofeno (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A ingestão de ibuprofeno nos parâmetros de administração adotados pelo presente estudo não promove qualquer tipo de alteração na tolerância ao exercício em uma sessão isolada de treino de força, o que contraria a indicação dessa substância para fins ergogênicos no treino de força.INTRODUCTION: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, have been used by athletes of several sports modalities in order to increase athletic performance. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of the prophylactic use of ibuprofen on performance in a strength training session. METHODS: A crossover, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical assay was developed with twelve male regular practitioners of strength training who performed one strength training session after ibuprofen (1.2 g ingestion and another session after placebo

  12. Astronaut Robert L. Crippen prepares for underwater training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Crippen, STS-7 crew commander, adjusts his extravehicular mobility unit's (EMU) gloves prior to donning his helmet for a training session in the weightless environment test facility (WETF).

  13. The evaluation process of short training sessions in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overschie, M.G.F.; Lukosch, H.K.; De Vries, P.

    This paper presents a critical reflection of the evaluation of learning processes in organizations. Based on learning and evaluation theories and concepts we discuss qualitative and quantitative evaluation processes, and its relationship to short training sessions to foster sustainable development.

  14. COMBINED STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Aspenes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11 or a control group (n = 9 from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers

  15. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  16. Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Jerome; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2018-03-01

    Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617-623, 2018-Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4-7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

  17. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  18. Upcoming training sessions (up to end October) - Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Please find below a list of training sessions scheduled to take place up to the end of October with places available.   Safety and Language courses are not included here, you will find an up-to-date list in the Training Catalogue. If you need a course which is not featured  in the catalogue, please contact one of the following: your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or the relevant learning specialist. Leadership Training           Training Course Title Next Session Language Duration Available places Needed to maintain the session Driving for Impact and Influence 13-Sep-2016 to 14-Sep-2016 French 2 days 4 0 Essentials of People Management for CERN Supervisors (Adapted from CDP for CERN Supervisors) 22-Sep-2016 to 23-Sep-2016, 18-Nov-2016, 17-Jan-2017 to 18-Jan-2017 English 5 days 5 0 Eléments essentiels de la gestion du personnel pour les superviseurs (adapt&a...

  19. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength, makes strength training a more effective training modality for relatively weak individuals.

  20. Brief Classroom Training Sessions for Workplace Readiness: Are They Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesy, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Classroom training sessions for new home care workers (HCWs) are often brief and ad hoc, varying in format and content. Yet the application of this training may be central to worker and client safety. A qualitative approach was adopted for this inquiry, comprising two separate but related practical studies. In the first, exploratory study,…

  1. Training Sessions Provide Working Knowledge of National Animal Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, J. Benton, Jr.; Ahola, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    One in-service and two train-the-trainer workshops were conducted by University of Idaho Extension faculty, Idaho State Department of Agriculture personnel, and allied industry representatives to increase Extension educators' knowledge and awareness of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) and related topics. Training sessions included…

  2. Upcoming training sessions (up to end October) - Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Please find below a list of training sessions scheduled to take place up to the end of October with places available.   Safety and Language courses are not included here, you will find an up-to-date list in the Training Catalogue. If you need a course which is not featured  in the catalogue, please contact one of the following: your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or the relevant learning specialist.  

  3. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  4. Availabilities in the June Safety Training sessions

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    A few places are still available on the safety courses mentioned below. Please consult the Safety training catalogue to obtain all the latest information and to register. Clearance for work with electrical equipment ("Habilitation électrique") for non-electricians (classroom-based course), 9 June, in French, 8 hours from 9.00 am to 5.30 pm (10 places available) Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 June, in English, 3 hours from, 9.00 am to 12 noon (5 places available) Lift-truck operation ("Conduite de chariots élévateurs"), 24-25 June, in French, 2 days from 8.00 am to 5.30 pm (3 places available).

  5. MODALITIES OF TRAINING PARAMETER ALTERNATION IN NOWADAYS STRENGTH TRAINING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANISAVLJEV IGOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Large number of variables could be alternated during the process of planning and programming in sports training. Superior training results in majority of sports are achieved by optimally manipulating training parameters in appropriate sequences and combinations. Additionally, in some sports they might be the result of appropriate periodization pattern. Today's tendency in strength training practice is training movements instead of training muscles. Exercise classification according to the dominant movement types, allows creating new modalities in training alternation. Additional variations in volume, intensity, rest brakes, repetition velocity andinter-repetition rest can be the important part of functional strength training program. Alternation and combination of different training parameters makes appropriate training stimulus for strength increase in the most of nowadays sports. Optimal alternation of basic training parameters should be the first part in the processof planning and programming. As a result, majority of athletes might not need advanced periodization patterns for optimal improvement in muscle strength and power

  6. The effect of session order on the physiological, neuromuscular, and endocrine responses to maximal speed and weight training sessions over a 24-h period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael; Johnston, Julia; Cook, Christian J; Costley, Lisa; Kilgallon, Mark; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-05-01

    Athletes are often required to undertake multiple training sessions on the same day with these sessions needing to be sequenced correctly to allow the athlete to maximize the responses of each session. We examined the acute effect of strength and speed training sequence on neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological responses over 24h. 15 academy rugby union players completed this randomized crossover study. Players performed a weight training session followed 2h later by a speed training session (weights speed) and on a separate day reversed the order (speed weights). Countermovement jumps, perceived muscle soreness, and blood samples were collected immediately prior, immediately post, and 24h post-sessions one and two respectively. Jumps were analyzed for power, jump height, rate of force development, and velocity. Blood was analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, lactate and creatine kinase. There were no differences between countermovement jump variables at any of the post-training time points (p>0.05). Likewise, creatine kinase, testosterone, cortisol, and muscle soreness were unaffected by session order (p>0.05). However, 10m sprint time was significantly faster (mean±standard deviation; speed weights 1.80±0.11s versus weights speed 1.76±0.08s; p>0.05) when speed was sequenced second. Lactate levels were significantly higher immediately post-speed sessions versus weight training sessions at both time points (ptraining does not affect the neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological recovery over 24h. However, speed may be enhanced when performed as the second session. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Up-regulation of reciprocal inhibition by explosive strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    of 26 ± 7 years strength trained the ankle dorsiflexor muscles 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Each training session consisted of 4 sets of 16 isometric dorsiflexions with the aim of increasing force as rapidly as possible, separated by 4min rest periods. Test sessions were conducted before, immediately...... in the ankle plantarflexors at the onset of dorsiflexion is larger the quicker the movement, we hypothesized that DRI may be up-regulated when subjects are trained to perform dorsiflexion movements as quickly as possible.   For this purpose, 15 healthy human subjects (7 male, 8 female) with an average age...... after and 2 weeks after the training period. The rate of dorsiflexion force development measured within 30, 50, 100 and 200ms after onset of voluntary explosive isometric dorsiflexion increased by 20-30% (p

  8. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth Klaus; Keiner Michael; Hartmann Hagen; Sander Andre; Mickel Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ? 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ? 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ? 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were...

  9. Astronaut Wendy Lawrence participates in training session in the CCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Seated in the pilot's seat of a JSC Shuttle trainer, astronaut Wendy B. Lawrence, STS-67 flight engineer, participates in a training session. The 1992 astronaut class graduate is in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  10. STS-9 payload specialists and backup in training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Two Spacelab 1 payload specialists and a backup for that flight prepare for a training session in the JSC mockup and integration laboratory. Fully decked out in the Shuttle constant wear garments (foreground) are Ulf Merbold, left, and Byron K. Licktenberg, prime crewmembers on the STS-9 team. In civilian clothes is payload specialist backup Michael L. Lampton.

  11. Strength training for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D

    2000-10-01

    The potential benefits of youth strength training extend beyond an increase in muscular strength and may include favorable changes in selected health- and fitness-related measures. If appropriate training guidelines are followed, regular participation in a youth strength-training program has the potential to increase bone mineral density, improve motor performance skills, enhance sports performance, and better prepare our young athletes for the demands of practice and competition. Despite earlier concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of youth strength training, current public health objectives now aim to increase the number of boys and girls age 6 and older who regularly participate in physical activities that enhance and maintain muscular fitness. Parents, teachers, coaches, and healthcare providers should realize that youth strength training is a specialized method of conditioning that can offer enormous benefit but at the same time can result in serious injury if established guidelines are not followed. With qualified instruction, competent supervision, and an appropriate progression of the volume and intensity of training, children and adolescents cannot only learn advanced strength training exercises but can feel good about their performances, and have fun. Additional clinical trails involving children and adolescents are needed to further explore the acute and chronic effects of strength training on a variety of anatomical, physiological, and psychological parameters.

  12. Strength and Conditioning Coaches’ Application of the Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Method of Monitoring Within Professional Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comyns Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE is a method of monitoring and managing training loads. The purpose of this study was to research how and for what purpose strength and conditioning (S&C coaches implement this monitoring method within professional rugby union. The study also aimed to assess if S&C coaches found this monitoring method to be valid and effective. An online survey containing 24 fixed response questions was used to assess how S&C coaches applied the session-RPE method. The survey was piloted with expert researchers and practitioners in the area of session-RPE prior to distribution and alterations were made to the survey based on the experts’ feedback. Twenty S&C coaches working with professional rugby union clubs in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales completed the survey. The coaches’ responses indicated that the majority found the session-RPE to be a valid and effective monitoring method. While some good implementation practices were identified, not all of the coaches adhered to these guidelines which may impact on the accuracy of the collected data. For example, 30% of coaches do not collect the RPE for every session that a player does per week limiting the use of the session-RPE variables cumulative training load, training monotony, training strain and acute:chronic load ratio. S&C coaches within rugby should consider using session-RPE as a method of monitoring and implement the method in a manner reflective of research findings to enhance the potential applications of this system in maximising adaptations and minimising the risk of injury.

  13. Analysis and comparison of intensity in specific soccer training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Antonacci Condessa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the exercise intensity of four specific soccer training sessions (friendly and training match, tactical and technical workouts. Ten professional soccer players (24.2 ± 3.7 years, 177.9 ± 7.3 cm, 63.2 ± 4.6 mLO2•kg-1•min-l were recruited. A treadmill progressive interval test was performed to determine the players' VO2max, maximal heart rate (HRmax, HR-VO2 curve, and the heart rate corresponding to blood lactate concentrations of 2 and 4 mmol/L. The heart rate during the training sessions was used to estimate the exercise intensity and to classify them into intensity zones (low-intensity: 4 mmol/L. Exercise intensities were different among training sessions (friendly match: 86.0 ± 5.1% HRmax; training match: 81.2 ± 4.1% HRmax; tactical workout: 70.4 ± 5.3% HRmax; technical workout: 62.1 ± 3.6% HRmax. The friendly match presented the highest percentage of time performed in the high-intensity zone.

  14. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics usually can safely to start strength ... as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  15. Comparing Performance During Morning vs. Afternoon Training Sessions in Intercollegiate Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, Aaron D; Curtis, Michael A; Saliba, Ethan N; Hornett, Robert J; Malin, Steven K; Weltman, Arthur L

    2017-06-01

    Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian and/or ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can affect training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs. afternoon strength training on an acute performance index of fatigue (countermovement jump height, CMJ), player readiness (Omegawave), and self-reported sleep quantity. We hypothesized that afternoon training sessions would be associated with increased levels of performance, readiness, and self-reported sleep. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the preseason on 10 elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 male basketball players. All basketball-related activities were performed in the afternoon with strength and conditioning activities performed either in the morning or in the afternoon. The average values for CMJ, power output (Power), self-reported sleep quantity (sleep), and player readiness were examined. When player load and duration were matched, CMJ (58.8 ± 1.3 vs. 61.9 ± 1.6 cm, p = 0.009), Power (6,378.0 ± 131.2 vs. 6,622.1 ± 172.0 W, p = 0.009), and self-reported sleep duration (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 7.4 ± 0.25 p = 0.016) were significantly higher with afternoon strength and conditioning training, with no differences observed in player readiness values. We conclude that performance is suppressed with morning training and is associated with a decrease in self-reported quantity of sleep.

  16. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  17. Progressive strength training (10 RM) commenced immediately after fast-track total knee arthroplasty: is it feasible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    . They received rehabilitation including progressive strength training of the operated leg (leg press and knee-extension), using relative loads of 10 repetition maximum with three training sessions per week for 2 weeks. Rehabilitation was commenced 1 or 2 days after TKA. At each training session, knee pain, knee...... joint effusion and training load were recorded. Isometric knee-extension strength and maximal walking speed were measured before the first and last session. Results: The training load increased progressively (p training exercises......, but knee pain at rest and knee joint effusion (p training sessions. Isometric knee-extension strength and maximal walking speed increased by 147 and 112%, respectively. Conclusion: Progressive strength training initiated immediately after TKA seems feasible...

  18. Upper extremity injuries associated with strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, H A

    2001-07-01

    Most injuries sustained during strength training are mild strains that resolve with appropriate rest. More severe injuries include traumatic shoulder dislocations, tendon ruptures of the pectoralis major, biceps, and triceps; stress fractures of the distal clavicle, humerus, radius, and ulna; traumatic fractures of the distal radius and ulna in adolescent weightlifters; and compressive and stretch neuropathies. These more severe injuries are usually the result of improperly performing a strength training exercise. Educating athletes regarding proper strength-training techniques serves to reverse established injury patterns and to prevent these injuries in the first place. Recognizing the association of anabolic steroid use to several of the injury patterns further reinforces the need for medical specialists to counsel athletes against their use. With the increasing use of supplements such as creatine, the incidence and nature of strength-training injuries may change further. Greater emphasis on the competitive performance of younger athletes undoubtedly will generate enthusiasm for strength training at earlier ages in both sexes. The importance of proper supervision of these young athletes by knowledgeable persons will increase. As the popularity of strength training grows, there will be ample opportunity to continue to catalog the injury patterns associated with this activity.

  19. STS 51-L crewmembers briefed during training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Five members of the STS 51-L crew and a backup crewmember are briefed during a training session in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. From left to right are Astronauts Ellison S. Onizuka, mission specialist; Ronald E. McNair, mission specialist; Gregory Jarvis, Hughes payload specialist; Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist; Sharon Christa McAuliffe, citizen observer/payload specialist representing the Teacher in Space project. Barbara R. Morgan, backup to McAuliffe, is in the right foreground.

  20. Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Requena, Bernardo; Newton, Robert U

    2010-09-01

    Majority of the research suggests plyometric training (PT) improves maximal strength performance as measured by 1RM, isometric MVC or slow velocity isokinetic testing. However, the effectiveness of PT depends upon various factors. A meta-analysis of 15 studies with a total of 31 effect sizes (ES) was carried out to analyse the role of various factors on the effects of PT on strength performance. The inclusion criteria for the analysis were: (a) studies using PT programs for lower limb muscles; (b) studies employing true experimental design and valid and reliable measurements; (c) studies including sufficient data to calculate ES. When subjects can adequately follow plyometric exercises, the training gains are independent of fitness level. Subjects in either good or poor physical condition, benefit equally from plyometric work, also men obtain similar strength results to women following PT. In relation to the variables of program design, training volume of less than 10 weeks and with more than 15 sessions, as well as the implementation of high-intensity programs, with more than 40 jumps per session, were the strategies that seem to maximize the probability to obtain significantly greater improvements in performance (p<0.05). In order to optimise strength enhancement, the combination of different types of plyometrics with weight-training would be recommended, rather than utilizing only one form (p<0.05). The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by the strength and conditioning professional with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends for PT to optimise strength gains.

  1. Repetition Performance And Blood Lactate Responses Adopting Different Recovery Periods Between Training Sessions In Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; de Souza, João A A A; Simão, Roberto; de Araújo Farias, Déborah; Willardson, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-08

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different recovery periods (24h, 48h, and 72h) between repeated resistance training (RT) sessions for the upper body muscles on repetition performance and blood lactate responses in trained men. Sixteen recreationally trained men (age: 26.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 179 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 82.6 ± 4.0 kg, 4.5 ± 2.2 years of RT experience) participated in this study. Eight-repetition maximum (8-RM) loads were determined for the bench press (BP), 30° incline bench press (BP30), and 45° incline bench press (BP45) exercises. To assess the effects of different recovery periods between repeated training sessions, three protocols were performed in randomized order, including: 24 hours (P24); 48 hours (P48); and 72 hours (P72). Each RT session consisted of performing four repetition maximum sets of BP, BP30, and BP45 with 8-RM loads and 2-minute rest intervals between sets. Blood lactate levels were measured pre-session (PRE), immediately post-session (POST), 3 minutes post-session (P3), and 5 minutes post-session (P5). For the P24 protocol, significant decreases in repetition performance were found between sessions for the BP, BP30, and BP45 exercises, respectively. When considering session 2 only, the total work (repetition x sets) was significantly higher in P48 and P72 versus P24 for the BP30 and BP45 exercises. Blood lactate levels (i.e. POST, P3, and P5) significantly increased for session 2 under the P24 compared to the P48 and P72 protocols, respectively. Therefore, coaches and practitioners who need to accomplish a higher training volume for the upper body muscles should adopt recovery periods longer than 24 hours between sessions that train the same or similar muscle groups.

  2. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Haff, G. Gregory; Tufano, James J.; Newton, Robert U.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s−1) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  3. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  4. IS ENHANCED-ECCENTRIC RESISTANCE TRAINING SUPERIOR TO TRADITIONAL TRAINING FOR INCREASING ELBOW FLEXOR STRENGTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Kaminski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for strengthening muscle are important for fitness, rehabilitation, and the prevention of myotendinous injuries. In trained individuals, the optimal method of increasing strength remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a traditional method of strengthening with a method that allowed for enhanced-eccentric training, on changes in elbow flexor strength in trained subjects. Thirty-nine (8 male, 31 female trained subjects with normal elbow function participated in this study. Subjects were rank-ordered according to isometric force production and randomly assigned to one of three training groups: control (CONT, traditional concentric/eccentric (TRAD, and concentric/enhanced-eccentric (NEG. The training groups completed 24 training sessions. An evaluator blinded to training group performed all testing. Mixed model ANOVA techniques were used to determine if differences existed in concentric one repetition maximum strength, and isometric force production among groups. Changes in peak and average isokinetic force production were also compared. Type 1 error was maintained at 5%. While both groups improved concentric one repetition maximum (NEG = 15.5%, TRAD = 13.8% neither training group statistically differed from changes demonstrated by the CONT group. Nor did either training group show significant improvements in isometric or isokinetic force production over the CONT group. These results do not support the superiority of enhanced-eccentric training for increasing force production in trained subjects.

  5. Improvement of Ice Hockey Players' On-Ice Sprint With Combined Plyometric and Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dæhlin, Torstein E; Haugen, Ole C; Haugerud, Simen; Hollan, Ivana; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2017-08-01

    Combined plyometric and strength training has previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training have not previously been compared with the effects of strength training only. To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players' skating sprint performance with those of strength training only. Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions/wk for 8 wk. One group included plyometric exercises at the start of 3 sessions/wk (PLY+ST), and the other group included core exercises in the same sessions (ST). Tests of 10- and 35-m skating sprints, horizontal jumping, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, skating multistage aerobic test (SMAT), maximal oxygen consumption, repeated cycle sprints, and body composition were performed before and after the intervention. The participants increased their 1RM squat, lean mass, and body mass (P plyometric and strength training for 8 wk was superior to strength training alone at improving 10-m on-ice sprint performance in high-level ice hockey players.

  6. The effects of electromyostimulation training and basketball practice on muscle strength and jumping ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, N A; Cometti, G; Amiridis, I G; Martin, A; Pousson, M; Chatard, J C

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a 4-week electromyostimulation training program on the strength of the knee extensors and the vertical jump performance of 10 basketball players. Electromyostimulation sessions were carried out 3 times weekly; each session consisted of 48 contractions. Testing was carried out before and after the electromyostimulation training program (week 4) and once more after 4 weeks of normal basketball training (week 8). At week 4, isokinetic strength increased significantly (p training increased also isometric strength at the two angles adjacent to the training angle (p jump increased significantly by 14% at week 4 (p jump showed no change. At week 8, gains in isokinetic, isometric strength and squat-jump performance were maintained and the counter movement jump performance increased significantly by 17% (ptraining program enhanced knee extensor strength and squat jump performance of basketball players.

  7. Safety of strength training in premenopausal women: musculoskeletal injuries from a two-year randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Meghan; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2009-01-01

    The health benefits of strength training must be weighed against risks, including injuries. A prior study observed 4.2 injuries that limited usual activities for a day per 1000 strength training sessions among men and women. The analysis herein explores the incidence rates of musculoskeletal injuries from strength training in women. Randomized controlled trial. SETTING; Free-living community. A total of 163 injury-free, overweight, sedentary, premenopausal women aged 25 to 44 years. Two years of strength training (n = 81) or standard care (n = 82). The intervention followed published guidelines (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) with hypothesized injury prevention strategies. An injury survey was administered at years 1 and 2. Injury was defined as physical activity or strength training associated injuries that limited daily activities for 1 week or more. Denominators for rate calculation were accelerometer-measured physical activity and strength training attendance (strength training only). The between-group probability of injuries was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Injury incidence rates were higher in strength training compared with standard care. In strength training, the injury rates were 3.6 per 1000 strength training sessions (95% confidence interval: 2.5-4.8 per 1000) for physical activity-related injuries, and 2.6 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.6 per 1000) for strength training-related injuries. Injury rates varied by definition and denominator. Strength training had lower injury rates than previously reported, providing preliminary support for the prevention strategies. The finding of strength training injuries underscores the need for balancing the benefits against the potential risks of this exercise modality.

  8. Five training sessions improves 3000 meter running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiser, A; Ripe, S; Aadland, E

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000-meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period. We assigned 36 military recruits to a training group (N.=28) and a control group. The training group was randomly allocated to one of three sub-groups: 1) a 3000 meter group (test race); 2) a 4x4-minutes high-intensity interval group; 3) a continuous training group. The training group exercised five times over a two-week period. The training group improved its 3000 meter running performance with 50 seconds (6%) compared to the control group (P=0.003). Moreover, all sub-groups improved their performance by 37 to 73 seconds (4-8%) compared to the control group (Ptraining group. We conclude that five endurance training sessions improved 3000 meter running performance and the slowest runners achieved the greatest improvement in running performance.

  9. DOES COMBINED DRY LAND STRENGTH AND AEROBIC TRAINING INHIBIT PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Garrido

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was twofold: (i to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls and a control group (six boys and five girls. Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day, the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values, and strength (bench press and leg extension and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump performances were tested in three moments: (i before the experimental period, (ii after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved

  10. Effects of Strength Training on Postpubertal Adolescent Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Richard C; Howe, Louis P; Cushion, Emily J; Spence, Adam; Howatson, Glyn; Pedlar, Charles R; Hayes, Philip R

    2018-06-01

    Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force-producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However, the effects on adolescent (training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. Participants (n = 25, 13 female, 17.2 ± 1.2 yr) were paired according to their sex and RE and randomly assigned to a 10-wk strength training group (STG) or a control group who continued their regular training. The STG performed twice weekly sessions of plyometric, sprint, and resistance training in addition to their normal running. Outcome measures included body mass, maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), speed at V˙O2max, RE (quantified as energy cost), speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations, 20-m sprint, and maximal voluntary contraction during an isometric quarter-squat. Eighteen participants (STG: n = 9, 16.1 ± 1.1 yr; control group: n = 9, 17.6 ± 1.2 yr) completed the study. The STG displayed small improvements (3.2%-3.7%; effect size (ES), 0.31-0.51) in RE that were inferred as "possibly beneficial" for an average of three submaximal speeds. Trivial or small changes were observed for body composition variables, V˙O2max and speed at V˙O2max; however, the training period provided likely benefits to speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations in both groups. Strength training elicited a very likely benefit and a possible benefit to sprint time (ES, 0.32) and maximal voluntary contraction (ES, 0.86), respectively. Ten weeks of strength training added to the program of a postpubertal distance runner was highly likely to improve maximal speed and enhances RE by a small extent, without deleterious effects on body composition or other aerobic parameters.

  11. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in September and October 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in September – October. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Alphabetical order (original course titles are maintained) Conduite de chariots élévateurs 17-OCT-11 to 18-OCT-11, 8.00 – 17.30, in French * Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace 15-SEP-11, 9.00 – 12.30, in French 15-SEP-11, 14.00 – 17.30, in English Habilitation électrique : Personnel électricien effectuant des opérations du domaine de tension BTA...

  12. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in September and October 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in September – October. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Alphabetical order (original course titles are maintained) Chemical Safety – Introduction 11-OCT-11, 9.00 – 11.30, in English Conduite de chariots élévateurs 17-OCT-11 to 18-OCT-11, 8.00 – 17.30, in French * Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace 15-SEP-11, 9.00 – 12.30, in French 15-SEP-11, 14.00 – 17.30, in English Habilitation électrique : Personne...

  13. Less is more: latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Katharine; Moore, David R; Sohoglu, Ediz; Amitay, Sygal

    2012-01-01

    The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session. We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min) had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr) showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total) relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr). However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased. Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.

  14. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral ?-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

    OpenAIRE

    Cravana, Cristina; Medica, P.; Ragonese, G.; Fazio, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating ?-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma ?-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and post-competition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive sho...

  15. 75 FR 61485 - Regulatory Training Session With Air Carriers, EPA Regional Partners and Other Interested Parties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9210-6] Regulatory Training Session With Air Carriers, EPA... Agency (EPA) will hold a two-day training session on the regulatory requirements of the Aircraft Drinking... session will be provided in early 2011. ADDRESSES: The training will be held at the Rosslyn Holiday Inn at...

  16. At-home resistance tubing strength training increases shoulder strength in the trained and untrained limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, C R A; Boychuk, K; Kim, S Y; Farthing, J P

    2014-06-01

    The purpose was to determine if an at-home resistance tubing strength training program on one shoulder (that is commonly used in rehabilitation settings) would produce increases in strength in the trained and untrained shoulders via cross-education. Twenty-three participants were randomized to TRAIN (strength-trained one shoulder; n = 13) or CONTROL (no intervention; n = 10). Strength training was completed at home using resistance tubing and consisted of maximal shoulder external rotation, internal rotation, scaption, retraction, and flexion 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Strength was measured via handheld dynamometry and muscle size measured via ultrasound. For external rotation strength, the trained (10.9 ± 10.9%) and untrained (12.7 ± 9.6%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (1.6 ± 13.2%; -2.7 ± 12.3%; pooled across arm; P tubing training program on one limb can produce increases in strength in both limbs, and has implications for rehabilitation after unilateral shoulder injuries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Strength Training Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Larson, Janet; Kujath, Amber; Peace, David; Rondelli, Damiano; Gaston, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) experience considerable reductions in physical activity and deterioration of their health status. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effects of strength training compared to usual activity on physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions, and quality of life following HSCT. Interventions/Methods Nineteen subjects were randomized to the exercise or control group. Moderate intensity strength training began following discharge from the hospital. Dependent variables included physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions and quality of life. Variables were measured prior to admission to the hospital for HSCT, day 8 following HSCT, and six weeks following discharge from the hospital. Results Significant time effects were noted for many variables with anticipated declines in physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, and health status perceptions immediately after HSCT with subsequent improvements six weeks following hospital discharge. One group effect was noted with subjects in the exercise group reporting less fatigue than subjects in the control group. Although no significant interactions were detected, the trends suggest that the exercise group may be more physically active following the intervention compared to the usual activity group. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential positive effects of strength training on physical activity, fatigue, and quality of life in people receiving high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT. Implications for Practice Preliminary evidence is provided for using strength training to enhance early recovery following HSCT. Elastic resistance bands are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. PMID:21116175

  18. Combined isometric and vibration training does not enhance strength beyond that of isometric training alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Van-Dongen, M; Sutherland, R

    2015-09-01

    Research considering combined vibration and strength training is extensive yet results are equivocal. However, to date there appears no research which has considered the combination of both direct vibration and whole-body vibration when used in an isometric deadlift position. The aim of this study was to compare groups performing isometric training with and without direct and whole-body vibration. Twenty four participants (19-24 years) were randomly divided into: isometric training with vibration (ST+VT: N.=8), isometric training without vibration (ST: N.=8), and control (CON: N.=8). Within the training groups participants trained twice per week, for 6 weeks, performing 6-sets of maximal isometric deadlift contractions, increasing in duration from 30 seconds to 40 seconds (weeks 1-6). Hip and knee angle was maintained at 60° and 110°, respectively for both testing and training. Training sessions for ST+VT were identical to ST with the addition of a direct vibratory stimulus through hand-held straps and whole-body vibration via standing on vibration a platform. The amplitude remained constant (2 mm) throughout the intervention whilst the frequency increased from 35Hz to 50Hz. Pre- and post-test isometric strength was measured using an isometric deadlift dynamometer. Results revealed significant increases in isometric strength for both ST+VT (Pstrength training.

  19. Training Sessions and Materials Present Ways to Improve System Efficiency: OIT Technical Assistance Fact Sheet: Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Interested in learning about innovative ways to improve the efficiency of your plant's steam, electric motor, and compressed air systems? This US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies fact sheet offers information regarding training sessions, teleconferences, and various training materials to teach you and your company ways to reduce energy use, save money, and reduce waste and pollution through system optimization

  20. Observations of youth football training: How do coaches structure training sessions for player development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Williams, A Mark

    2018-01-01

    We used systematic observation tools to explore the structure (i.e., activity and inactivity) and sequencing (i.e., the types of activities used) of football coaching sessions in Australia following the implementation of a new National Curriculum. Youth soccer coaches (n = 34), coaching within the Skill Acquisition (U11-U13 n = 19) and Game Training (U14-U17 n = 15) phases of the Football Federation Australia National Curriculum participated. Participants were filmed during a regular coaching session, with systematic observation of the session undertaken to provide a detailed analysis of the practice activities and coach behaviours. Findings indicated a session comprised of Playing Form activities (40.9%), Training Form activities (22.3%), inactivity (31%), and transitions between activities (5.8%). Coaches prescribed more Training Form activities (e.g., individual (5.4%) and drills (15.1%)) early in the session and progressed to Playing Form activities (i.e., small-sided games (15.3%) then larger games (24.8%)) later in the session. Most inactivity reflected the players listening to the coach - either in a team huddle (9.9%) or frozen on the spot during an activity (16.5%). In addition, coaches generally spent over 3 min communicating to players prior to explaining and introducing an activity regardless of when in the session the activity was scheduled.

  1. The effects of a single session of spinal manipulation on strength and cortical drive in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lykke; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation (SM) increases strength and cortical drive in the lower limb (soleus muscle) of elite Taekwondo athletes. METHODS: Soleus-evoked V-waves, H-reflex and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) ...

  2. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  3. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  4. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2017-03-01

    The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series) of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years) participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces) and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds) exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes) training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence.

  5. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Chaouachi, Urs Granacher, Issam Makhlouf, Raouf Hammami, David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence.

  6. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  7. Traditional versus functional strength training: Effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...

  8. Effects of strength training on mechanomyographic amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W; Stock, Matt S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if the patterns of mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude across force would change with strength training. Twenty-two healthy men completed an 8-week strength training program. During three separate testing visits (pre-test, week 4, and week 8), the MMG signal was detected from the vastus lateralis as the subjects performed isometric step muscle actions of the leg extensors from 10–100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During pre-testing, the MMG amplitude increased linearly with force to 66% MVC and then plateaued. Conversely, weeks 4 and 8 demonstrated an increase in MMG amplitude up to ∼85% of the subject's original MVC before plateauing. Furthermore, seven of the ten force levels (30–60% and 80–100%) showed a significant decrease in mean MMG amplitude values after training, which consequently led to a decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. The decreases in MMG amplitude at lower force levels are indicative of hypertrophy, since fewer motor units would be required to produce the same absolute force if the motor units increased in size. However, despite the clear changes in the mean values, analyses of individual subjects revealed that only 55% of the subjects demonstrated a significant decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. (paper)

  9. Importance of Performing Experience in Strength Training Periodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosád Adrián

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proper mastering of a training means seems to be an important determinant of the quality of strength training. Aim of the paper is to examine the differences in strength in relation to squat-performing experience and to offer a way of improving performance by means of increasing the quality of squat technique. Methods 1. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their previous experience with performing squat: a group of inexperienced (n = 9; age: 21.1 years ± 2.37; height: 179.2 cm ± 8.18; weight: 70.0 kg ± 7.38 and experienced (n = 9; age: 24.0 years ± 1.07; height: 182.1 cm ± 4.14; weight: 81.2 kg ± 4.29. We carried out a test of maximal isometric strength in deep squat (ISOmax50° and a modified diagnostic set (Fitro Force Plate which consisted of repetitions of heel raised deep squats with a gradually increasing external loading (FmaxBW+(0-100%. Posture and the body segments of the participants were not corrected during these tests. Mann-Whitney U test (α=0.05 was used to evaluate the data obtained. Results 1. After comparing the differences in the maximal value of force curve in dynamic muscular mode (FmaxBW+(0-100% and the maximal isometric force in deep squat (ISOmax50° between the groups we found significantly bigger differences in the group of experienced when the resistance represented +75 % (Δ 279.0 N and +100 % of body weight (Δ 332.2 N. Methods 2. Eleven inexperienced subjects (age: 22.1 years ± 1.52; weight: 78.2 kg ± 2.84 completed a short term experiment (with 4 training sessions in weeklong microcycle. The purpose was to practise deep squat without any content of targeted strength development.

  10. Feasibility of Progressive Strength Training Implemented in the Acute Ward after Hip Fracture Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Lise; Bandholm, Thomas; Palm, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . RESULTS: The strength training was commenced at a mean of 2.4 (0.7) days after surgery. The training loads (kilograms lifted) increased from 1.6 (0.8) to 4.3 (1.7) kg over 4.3 (2.2) training sessions (P....2) to 0.61 (0.3) Nm/kg (Psessions were not performed because of severe hip fracture-related pain. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Progressive knee-extension strength training......IMPORTANCE: Patients with a hip fracture lose more than 50% knee-extension strength in the fractured limb within one week of surgery. Hence, immediate progressive strength training following hip fracture surgery may be rational, but the feasibility unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility...

  11. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Marc-Andre; Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schroeder, Leif; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krix, Martin; Bachert, Peter; Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 ± 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P 2 after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 ± 44 vs. 174 ± 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 ± 53 vs. 174 ± 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 ± 75 vs. 326 ± 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.1 ± 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 ± 0.44 vs. 0.52 ± 0.74 mm s -1 ). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and β-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest (β-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 ± 0.06 vs. 0.28 ± 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric resistance training occurs without an increase in the in vivo microcirculation of the skeletal muscles at

  12. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: MarcAndre.Weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hildebrandt, Wulf [Immunochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Schroeder, Leif [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kinscherf, Ralf [Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, Martin [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Bachert, Peter [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 {+-} 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P < 0.001) increase in CSA (60 {+-} 16 before vs. 64 {+-} 15 cm{sup 2} after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 {+-} 44 vs. 174 {+-} 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 {+-} 53 vs. 174 {+-} 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 {+-} 75 vs. 326 {+-} 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 {+-} 1.2 vs. 1.1 {+-} 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 {+-} 0.44 vs. 0.52 {+-} 0.74 mm s{sup -1}). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and {beta}-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest ({beta}-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 {+-} 0.06 vs. 0.28 {+-} 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric

  13. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness ...

  14. 77 FR 75491 - Entry-Level Driver Training; Public Listening Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... identified are supported by research and data analyses, including cost/benefit considerations. The session...-27748] Entry-Level Driver Training; Public Listening Session AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public listening session. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that it will...

  15. The first 3 minutes: Optimising a short realistic paediatric team resuscitation training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKittrick, Joanne T; Kinney, Sharon; Lima, Sally; Allen, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate resuscitation leads to death or brain injury. Recent recommendations for resuscitation team training to complement knowledge and skills training highlighted the need for development of an effective team resuscitation training session. This study aimed to evaluate and revise an interprofessional team training session which addressed roles and performance during provision of paediatric resuscitation, through incorporation of real-time, real team simulated training episodes. This study was conducted applying the principles of action research. Two cycles of data collection, evaluation and refinement of a 30-40 minute resuscitation training session for doctors and nurses occurred. Doctors and nurses made up 4 groups of training session participants. Their responses to the training were evaluated through thematic analysis of rich qualitative data gathered in focus groups held immediately after each training session. Major themes included the importance of realism, teamwork, and reflective learning. Findings informed important training session changes. These included; committed in-situ training; team diversity; realistic resources; role flexibility, definition and leadership; increased debriefing time and the addition of a team goal. In conclusion, incorporation of interprofessional resuscitation training which addresses team roles and responsibilities into standard medical and nursing training will enhance preparedness for participation in paediatric resuscitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-11-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, Ptraining frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CERN Technical Training 2006: Office Software Curriculum Scheduled Course Sessions (October-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Office Software Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme currently offers comprehensive training in Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Access, Outlook), MS Project, Frontpage, Dreamweaver, Indesign, LaTeX, and CERN EDMS. There are some places available on the following Microsoft Office 2003 course sessions, currently scheduled until December 2007: EXCEL 2003 - niveau 2 : ECDL - 16-17 October (2 days, session in French) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge - 2 November (morning, bilingual session) WORD 2003 (Short Course IV) - HowTo... Work with master document - 2 November (afternoon, bilingual session) OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course III) - Meetings and Delegation - 3 November (morning, bilingual session) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course IV) - HowTo... Link cells, worksheets and workbooks - 3 November (afternoon, bilingual session) EXCEL 2003 - Level 1: ECDL - 13-14 November (2 days, session in English) ACCESS 2003 - Level 2: ECDL - 5-6 December (2 days, session in English) The abo...

  18. The effect of protein and carbohydrate supplementation on strength training outcome of rehabilitation in ACL patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, Birgitte; Mizuno, Masao

    2006-01-01

    supplementation groups: Protein+Carbohydrate (PC), Isocaloric-Carbohydrate (IC), or Placebo (PL), ingesting the supplementation immediately after each of 36 training sessions. Determined from images of thigh cross-sections (magnetic resonance imaging) the hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle differed....... The results from this study demonstrate that restoration of the distal vasti muscle mass and knee extension muscle strength with resistance training is promoted further by protein-containing nutrient supplementation immediately after single exercise sessions. Thus, exercise-related protein supplementation may...... was therefore to investigate if nutrient supplementation during 12 weeks of conservative rehabilitation strength training could enhance hypertrophy and strength of the quadriceps muscle in ACL-injured patients. Twenty-six ACL-injured men and women were included and randomly distributed into three...

  19. Views of STS-5 crew during a training session in the SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Views of STS-5 crew during a training session in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Astronaut Robert F. Overmyer, STS-5 pilot, participates in training session wearing a communications kit assembly (ASSY). He is dressed in regular flight suit and is studying flight documentation.

  20. Avoiding Surgical Skill Decay : A Systematic Review on the Spacing of Training Sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Cnossen, Fokie; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Tio, René A

    OBJECTIVE: Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing

  1. INFLUENCE OF STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM ON ISOMETRIC MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanovic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Strength training, or resistance training, is a form of physical conditioning used to increase the ability to resist force. Since muscular strength is required for success in many sports, it is logical to assume that stronger and more powerful young athletes will achieve better results. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of strength training on young athletes. An eight-week strength training program for developing muscle strength was performed in this study. Training protocol was designed specifically for young adolescent’s athletes. The program consisted of exercises for lower and upper body, abdominal and lower back muscles. The programs did not involve the maximal (1-3 repetitions maximum and other very hard intensity exercises that may had negative effect on young athletes. The results showed that strength training program had positive effects on maximal isometric muscle force (Fmax and motor skill. The increase presents the combined influence of strength training and growth.

  2. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance.

  3. The Effects of Isokinetic Strength Training on Strength at Different Angular Velocities: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kocahan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: It was shown that angular velocity is important in isokinetic training, and that training at high angular velocities provides strength increases at lower angular velocities, but would not increase strength at angular velocities above the training level. For this reason, it is thought that in the preparation of an isokinetic strength training protocol, angular velocities need to be taken into account. For any athlete, the force at the angular velocity required in her/his sports branch needs to be considered.

  4. An overview of strength training injuries: acute and chronic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Mark E; Balam, Tucker

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the history of strength training, explains the many different styles of strength training, and discusses common injuries specific to each style. Strength training is broken down into five disciplines: basic strength or resistance training, bodybuilding, power lifting, style-dependant strength sports (e.g., strongman competitions, Highland games, field events such as shot put, discus, hammer throw, and javelin), and Olympic-style weightlifting. Each style has its own principal injuries, both acute and chronic, related to the individual technique. Acute injuries should be further categorized as emergent or nonemergent. Specific age-related populations (i.e., the very young and the aging athlete) carry additional considerations.

  5. Efficacy of strength training on tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-01-01

    Background Strength training has shown effects in reducing neck pain. As neck pain is highly prevalent in tension-type headache (TTH), it is relevant to examine the effect of strength training of the shoulder muscles on TTH patients. Aim To examine the effect of strength training of the shoulder....../neck muscles on TTH frequency and duration. Methods Sixty patients with TTH were randomised into strength training or a control group. The strength training group trained ten weeks with elastic resistance bands. The control group performed ergonomic and posture correction. Efficacy was evaluated at follow......-up after 19-22 weeks. Results Twenty-three patients completed strength training and 21 completed ergonomic and posture correction (per-protocol). No between-group effect was detected, but within groups numerical reductions were noted in both groups from baseline to follow-up. Frequency of TTH...

  6. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

  8. Training and Support of Sessional Staff to Improve Quality of Teaching and Learning at Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Gillian; Crane, Linda; Heslop, Ian; Glass, Beverley D

    2015-06-25

    Sessional staff is increasingly involved in teaching at universities, playing a pivotal role in bridging the gap between theory and practice for students, especially in the health professions, including pharmacy. Although sessional staff numbers have increased substantially in recent years, limited attention has been paid to the quality of teaching and learning provided by this group. This review will discuss the training and support of sessional staff, with a focus on Australian universities, including the reasons for and potential benefits of training, and structure and content of training programs. Although sessional staff views these programs as valuable, there is a lack of in-depth evaluations of the outcomes of the programs for sessional staff, students and the university. Quality assurance of such programs is only guaranteed, however, if these evaluations extend to the impact of this training and support on student learning.

  9. Fluid and electrolyte balance during two different preseason training sessions in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Samuel D; Love, Thomas D; Brown, Rachel C; Baker, Dane F; Howe, Anna S; Black, Katherine E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare fluid balance between a resistance and an aerobic training sessions, in elite rugby players. It is hypothesized that resistance exercise will result in a higher prevalence of overdrinking, whereas during the aerobic session, underdrinking will be more prevalent. As with previous fluid balance studies, this was an observational study. Twenty-six players completed the resistance training session, and 20 players completed the aerobic training session. All players were members of an elite rugby union squad competing in the southern hemisphere's premier competition. For both sessions, players provided a preexercise urine sample to determine hydration status, pre- and postexercise measures of body mass, and blood sodium concentration were taken, and the weight of drink bottles were recorded to calculate sweat rates and fluid intake rates. Sweat patches were positioned on the shoulder of the players, and these remained in place throughout each training session and were later analyzed for sodium concentration. The percentage of sweat loss replaced was higher in the resistance (196 ± 130%) than the aerobic training session (56 ± 17%; p = 0.002). Despite this, no cases of hyponatremia were detected. The results also indicated that more than 80% of players started training in a hypohydrated state. Fluid intake seems to differ depending on the nature of the exercise session. In this group of athletes, players did not match their fluid intakes with their sweat loss, resulting in overdrinking during resistance training and underdrinking in aerobic training. Therefore, hydration strategies and education need to be tailored to the exercise session. Furthermore, given the large number of players arriving at training hypohydrated, improved hydration strategies away from the training venue are required.

  10. The Effect of Two Different Concurrent Training Programs on Strength and Power Gains in Highly-Trained Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Petré, Pontus Löfving, Niklas Psilander

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of concurrent strength and endurance training have been well studied in untrained and moderately-trained individuals. However, studies examining these effects in individuals with a long history of resistance training (RT are lacking. Additionally, few studies have examined how strength and power are affected when different types of endurance training are added to an RT protocol. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of concurrent training incorporating either low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 8-24 Tabata intervals at ~150% of VO2max or high-volume, medium-intensity continuous endurance training (CT, 40-80 min at 70% of VO2max, on the strength and power of highly-trained individuals. Sixteen highly-trained ice-hockey and rugby players were divided into two groups that underwent either CT (n = 8 or HIIT (n = 8 in parallel with RT (2-6 sets of heavy parallel squats, > 80% of 1RM during a 6-week period (3 sessions/wk. Parallel squat performance improved after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT (12 ± 8% and 14 ± 10% respectively, p < 0.01, with no difference between the groups. However, aerobic power (VO2max only improved after RT + HIIT (4 ± 3%, p < 0.01. We conclude that strength gains can be obtained after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT in athletes with a prior history of RT. This indicates that the volume and/or intensity of the endurance training does not influence the magnitude of strength improvements during short periods of concurrent training, at least for highly-trained individuals when the endurance training is performed after RT. However, since VO2max improved only after RT + HIIT and this is a time efficient protocol, we recommend this type of concurrent endurance training.

  11. Strength training and albuterol in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, EL; Vogels, OJM; van Asseldonk, RJGP; Lindeman, E; Hendriks, JCM; Wohlgemuth, M; van der Maarel, SM; Padberg, GW

    2004-01-01

    Background: In animals and healthy volunteers beta2-adrenergic agonists increase muscle strength and mass, in particular when combined with strength training. In patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) albuterol may exert anabolic effects. The authors evaluated the effect of

  12. Acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance of muscular strength and cardiovascular changes during resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Materko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effect of caffeine on the muscular strength performance in addition to the possible hemodynamic changes during a strength training session. Thirteen strength training experienced male subjects were submitted to a protocol of three sets of 10RM for bench press (BP, pull press (PP, leg extension (LE and leg curl (LC, according to three conditions: no supplementation (C; 250 mg of caffeine supplementation (S; placebo (P. All subjects were submitted to an anthropometric evaluation, followed by a 10RM familiarization test. Hemodynamic measurements – heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP – were carried out before, during and after each session. Holding 48 hours time intervals, participants were submitted to three randomly presented 10RM tests according to C, S and P conditions. For conditions S and C, significant differences were found in BP and LE. No significant differences in HR and BP were found. Results seem to suggest an ergogenic effect of caffeine on submaximal muscle strength during a session of strength training.

  13. Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M; Santos, Patricia; Figueiredo, Teresa; João, Paulo Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training program in the performance of upper and lower extremities among young female volleyball players of the high school. A total of 20 young female volleyball players playing at Scholar Sport in High School at the district level were divided in two groups: the experimental group (n=10; 14.0±0.0 years; 1.6±0.1 m; 52.0±7.0 kg and 20.7±2.4% body mass) and the control group (n=10; 13.8±0.4 years, 1.6±0.1 m; 53.5±4.7 kg and 20.3±1.7% body mass). The experimental group received additional plyometric and ball throwing exercises besides their normal volleyball practice. The control group underwent only their regular session of training. Strength performance in the experimental group significantly improved (medicine ball and volleyball ball throwing: P=0.00; and counter movement jump: P=0.05), with the improvement ranging from 5.3% to 20.1%. No significant changes in strength performance were observed in the control group (P>0.05). The 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training can significantly improve muscular performance in young female volleyball players. These findings may be useful for all physical education teachers and volleyball coaches. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Two Different Concurrent Training Programs on Strength and Power Gains in Highly-Trained Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petré, Henrik; Löfving, Pontus; Psilander, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    The effects of concurrent strength and endurance training have been well studied in untrained and moderately-trained individuals. However, studies examining these effects in individuals with a long history of resistance training (RT) are lacking. Additionally, few studies have examined how strength and power are affected when different types of endurance training are added to an RT protocol. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of concurrent training incorporating either low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 8-24 Tabata intervals at ~150% of VO2max) or high-volume, medium-intensity continuous endurance training (CT, 40-80 min at 70% of VO2max), on the strength and power of highly-trained individuals. Sixteen highly-trained ice-hockey and rugby players were divided into two groups that underwent either CT (n = 8) or HIIT (n = 8) in parallel with RT (2-6 sets of heavy parallel squats, > 80% of 1RM) during a 6-week period (3 sessions/wk). Parallel squat performance improved after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT (12 ± 8% and 14 ± 10% respectively, p HIIT (4 ± 3%, p HIIT in athletes with a prior history of RT. This indicates that the volume and/or intensity of the endurance training does not influence the magnitude of strength improvements during short periods of concurrent training, at least for highly-trained individuals when the endurance training is performed after RT. However, since VO2max improved only after RT + HIIT and this is a time efficient protocol, we recommend this type of concurrent endurance training. Key points Lower body maximal strength is improved after concurrent strength and endurance training in highly trained individuals. The magnitude of this strength improvement is not influenced by the type of endurance training, i.e. HIIT or CT. HIIT improves VO2max and is more time efficient than CT. HIIT is recommended to athletes when concurrently training for strength and endurance. PMID:29769816

  15. STS-46 TCDT Slideware Training and Photo Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-46, Commander Loren J. Shriver, Pilot Andrew M. Allen, Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, Mission Specialists Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Claude Nicollier, and Marsha S. Ivins are seen introducing themselves and discussing the mission during a photo session. The crew then answers questions from the press.

  16. Does a single session of high-intensity interval training provoke a transient elevated risk of falling in seniors and adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Balance and strength training can reduce seniors' fall risk up to 50%. Available evidence suggests that acute bouts of neuromuscular and endurance exercise deteriorate postural control. High-intensity endurance training has been successfully applied in different populations. Thus, it seemed valuable to examine the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on neuromuscular performance in seniors and young adults.; The acute impact of a HIIT session on balance performance and mus...

  17. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain.

  18. The Effect of Two Different Concurrent Training Programs on Strength and Power Gains in Highly-Trained Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petré, Henrik; Löfving, Pontus; Psilander, Niklas

    2018-06-01

    The effects of concurrent strength and endurance training have been well studied in untrained and moderately-trained individuals. However, studies examining these effects in individuals with a long history of resistance training (RT) are lacking. Additionally, few studies have examined how strength and power are affected when different types of endurance training are added to an RT protocol. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of concurrent training incorporating either low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 8-24 Tabata intervals at ~150% of VO 2max ) or high-volume, medium-intensity continuous endurance training (CT, 40-80 min at 70% of VO 2max ), on the strength and power of highly-trained individuals. Sixteen highly-trained ice-hockey and rugby players were divided into two groups that underwent either CT (n = 8) or HIIT (n = 8) in parallel with RT (2-6 sets of heavy parallel squats, > 80% of 1RM) during a 6-week period (3 sessions/wk). Parallel squat performance improved after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT (12 ± 8% and 14 ± 10% respectively, p HIIT (4 ± 3%, p HIIT in athletes with a prior history of RT. This indicates that the volume and/or intensity of the endurance training does not influence the magnitude of strength improvements during short periods of concurrent training, at least for highly-trained individuals when the endurance training is performed after RT. However, since VO 2max improved only after RT + HIIT and this is a time efficient protocol, we recommend this type of concurrent endurance training.

  19. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessi...

  20. A nuclear training simulator implementing a capability for multiple, concurrent-training sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, B.J.; Nannister, D.G.; Estes, K.R.; Johnsen, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Simulator at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has recently been upgraded to reflect plant installation of a distributed control system (DCS). The ATR Simulator re-design implements traditional needs for software extensibility and plant installation prototyping, but the driving force behind its new design was an instruction requirement for multiple, concurrent-training sessions. Support is provided for up to three concurrent, independent or interacting, training sessions of reactor, balance of plant, and experiment loop operators. This capability has been achieved by modifying the existing design to consistently apply client-server, parent-child, and peer-to-peer processing technologies, and then to encapsulate concurrency software into all interfaces. When the resulting component-oriented design is linked with build and runtime flexibility in a distributed computing environment, traditional needs for extensibility and parallel software and scenario development are satisfied with minimal additional effort. Sensible configuration management practices coupled with the ability to perform piecewise system builds also greatly facilitate prototyping of plant changes prior to installation

  1. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm 3 , p hamstring strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  2. Feasibility of progressive strength training implemented in the acute ward after hip fracture surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Kronborg

    Full Text Available Patients with a hip fracture lose more than 50% knee-extension strength in the fractured limb within one week of surgery. Hence, immediate progressive strength training following hip fracture surgery may be rational, but the feasibility unknown.To examine the feasibility of in-hospital progressive strength training implemented in the acute ward following hip fracture surgery, based on pre-specified criteria for feasibility.A prospective cohort study conducted in an acute orthopedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. A consecutive sample of 36 patients, 18 with a cervical and 18 with a trochanteric hip fracture (27 women and 9 men, mean (SD age of 79.4 (8.3 years were included between June and December 2012.A daily (on weekdays program of progressive knee-extension strength training for the fractured limb, using ankle weight cuffs in 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum loadings.The primary outcome was the change in training load (kg during the knee-extension strength training. The secondary outcomes were changes in hip fracture-related pain and maximal isometric knee-extension strength.The strength training was commenced at a mean of 2.4 (0.7 days after surgery. The training loads (kilograms lifted increased from 1.6 (0.8 to 4.3 (1.7 kg over 4.3 (2.2 training sessions (P<.001. The maximal isometric knee-extension strength of the fractured limb increased from 0.37 (0.2 to 0.61 (0.3 Nm/kg (P<.001, while the average strength deficit in the fractured limb decreased from 50% to 32% (% non-fractured, P<.001. Only 3 of 212 sessions were not performed because of severe hip fracture-related pain.Progressive knee-extension strength training of the fractured limb commenced in the acute ward seems feasible, and may reduce strength asymmetry between limbs without hip pain interfering. The clinical efficacy needs confirmation in a randomized controlled design.ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01616030.

  3. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p velocity (9%, p velocity (31%, p training regimen could be used as an adjunct or even alternative to traditional balance and/or resistance training. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Feasibility of progressive strength training shortly after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jan; Kristensen, Morten T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a 6-wk progressive strength-training programme commenced shortly after hip fracture surgery in community-dwelling patients.......To investigate the feasibility of a 6-wk progressive strength-training programme commenced shortly after hip fracture surgery in community-dwelling patients....

  5. What Is the Effect of Strength Training on Pain and Sleep in Patients With Fibromyalgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Alexandro; Vilarino, Guilherme Torres; Bevilacqua, Guilherme Guimarães

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of an 8-wk structured strength training program on pain and sleep quality in patients with fibromyalgia. Fifty-two patients with fibromyalgia were evaluated; 31 submitted to strength training and 21 comprised the control group. The instruments used were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The questionnaires were applied before the first training session, at 12 sessions, and after 24 sessions. Descriptive statistics (mean, SD, and frequency) and inferential tests were used. After 8 wks of intervention, significant differences were found between groups in subjective quality of sleep (P = 0.03), sleep disturbance (P = 0.02), daytime dysfunction (P = 0.04), and total sleep score (P < 0.01). The correlation analysis using Spearman's test indicated a positive relationship between the variables of pain intensity and sleep quality (P < 0.01); when pain intensity increased in patients with fibromyalgia, sleep quality worsened. Strength training is safe and effective in treating people with fibromyalgia, and a significant decrease in sleep disturbances occurs after 8 wks of intervention.

  6. Implementation of Motor Imagery during Specific Aerobic Training Session in Young Tennis Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Guillot

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of implementing motor imagery (MI during specific tennis high intensity intermittent training (HIIT sessions on groundstroke performance in young elite tennis players. Stroke accuracy and ball velocity of forehand and backhand drives were evaluated in ten young tennis players, immediately before and after having randomly performed two HIIT sessions. One session included MI exercises during the recovery phases, while the other included verbal encouragements for physical efforts and served as control condition. Results revealed that similar cardiac demand was observed during both sessions, while implementing MI maintained groundstroke accuracy. Embedding MI during HIIT enabled the development of physical fitness and the preservation of stroke performance. These findings bring new insight to tennis and conditioning coaches in order to fulfil the benefits of specific playing HIIT sessions, and therefore to optimise the training time.

  7. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Bibby, Bo Martin; Sollie, Ove; Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-01-01

    Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous training camp. In a randomized, double-blinded study, 18 elite cyclists consumed either a whey protein hydrolysate-carbohydrate beverage (PRO-CHO, 14 g protein/h and 69 g CHO/h) or an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage (CHO, 84 g/h) during each training session for six days (25-29 h cycling in total). Diet and training were standardized and supervised. The diet was energy balanced and contained 1.7 g protein/kg/day. A 10-s peak power test and a 5-min all-out performance test were conducted before and after the first training session and repeated at day 6 of the camp. Blood and saliva samples were collected in the morning after overnight fasting during the week and analyzed for biochemical markers of muscle damage, stress, and immune function. In both groups, 5-min all-out performance was reduced after the first training session and at day 6 compared to before the first training session, with no difference between groups. Peak power in the sprint test did not change significantly between tests or between groups. In addition, changes in markers for muscle damage, stress, and immune function were not significantly influenced by treatment. Intake of protein combined with carbohydrate during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested

  8. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cravana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing and Group B (not competing. To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and postcompetition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. Results: In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; p<0.001, only in the post-competition training sessions, while in Group B showed no significant effects. Two-way RM-ANOVA showed, after post-competition training sessions, a significant difference between Group A and Group B (F=6.235; p=0.023, with higher β-endorphin changes in Group A, compared to Group B. During the competitive show jumping sessions, one-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=51.10; p<0.001. The statistical analysis, in Group A, showed a significant difference between postcompetition training and competitive exercise (F=6.32; p=0.024 with higher β-endorphin values in competitive sessions compared to those of post-competition training. Conclusion: Lactate concentrations seem to be the main factors being correlated with the raise of β-endorphin during anaerobic exercise of competitive events. Exercise of low intensity, as well as that one of training sessions, does not appear to stimulate a significant increased release of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise

  9. Variable Resistance Training Promotes Greater Strength and Power Adaptations Than Traditional Resistance Training in Elite Youth Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Maxence; Louit, Loic; Strokosch, Alasdair; Seitz, Laurent B

    2017-04-01

    Rivière, M, Louit, L, Strokosch, A, and Seitz, LB. Variable resistance training promotes greater strength and power adaptations than traditional resistance training in elite youth rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 947-955, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, velocity, and power adaptations in youth rugby league players in response to a variable resistance training (VRT) or traditional free-weight resistance training (TRAD) intervention. Sixteen elite youth players were assigned to a VRT or TRAD group and completed 2 weekly upper- and lower-body strength and power sessions for 6 weeks. Training programs were identical except that the VRT group trained the bench press exercise with 20% of the prescribed load coming from elastic bands. Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and bench press mean velocity and power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM were measured before and after the training intervention, and the magnitude of the changes was determined using effect sizes (ESs). The VRT group experienced larger increases in both absolute (ES = 0.46 vs. 0.20) and relative (ES = 0.41 vs. 0.19) bench press 1RM. Similar results were observed for mean velocity as well as both absolute and relative mean power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM. Furthermore, both groups experienced large gains in both velocity and power in the heavier loads but small improvements in the lighter loads. The improvements in both velocity and power against the heavier loads were larger for the VRT group, whereas smaller differences existed between the 2 groups in the lighter loads. Variable resistance training using elastic bands may offer a greater training stimulus than traditional free-weight resistance training to improve upper-body strength, velocity, and power in elite youth rugby league players.

  10. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  11. [Training session on healthy environments: evaluation of an intervention for local stakeholders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Virginie; Rivard, Marie-Claude; Trudeau, François

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, various interventions have been developed to encourage the adoption of healthy lifestyles, particularly nutrition and physical activity. Physical, political, economic and socio-cultural environments have a major influence on individual attitudes in relation to healthy lifestyle. However, stakeholders with the greatest impact on improving these environments are not always well informed about the theory and their roles on the creation of environments favourable to healthy lifestyles. Various stakeholders from the province of Quebec were therefore invited to attend training sessions in order to prepare them to act on these four environments. 1) To describe the perceptions of the stakeholders who attended these sessions concerning the content and teaching methods and 2) to identify stakeholders’ changes of perceptions and practices following the training session. Twelve (12) focus groups and 52 individual interviews were conducted across Quebec with stakeholders who attended a training session. Our results indicate increased awareness of stakeholders on the importance of their role but also the need to more precisely target those aspects requiring increased awareness. A content better suited to the level of expertise is therefore proposed to maximize the benefits of these training sessions. Training sessions must be addressed to influential stakeholders with a limited knowledge on the subject, which is often the case for municipal decision-makers known to play a major role in promoting environments favourable to healthy eating and physical activity.

  12. Effects of Heavy Squat Training on a Vibration Platform on Maximal Strength and Jump Performance in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Roger L; Linton, Joshua T; Hammer, Adam M

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine maximal strength and jump performance outcomes of heavy squat training on a low-amplitude (<1.0 mm peak-to-peak) vibration platform (VP). Nineteen recreationally resistance-trained college-aged men (22.3 ± 1.66 years) completed the 6-week study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: SQT (n = 10) performed conventional back squats on the floor; SQTV (n = 9) performed back squats on the VP. Supervised training took place over 12 sessions (2 days/week) which utilized an aggressive strength development protocol (85-95 % 1-RM), which was identically followed by both groups. After the intervention, both groups showed (via t-test) a marked increase (p < 0.001) in 1-RM squat strength (SQT = 34.5 kg vs SQTV = 36.2 kg), but there was no significant difference (via mixed ANOVA) between groups (p = 0.875). Standing broad jump performance increased by an average of 5-6 cm, but was not significantly changed in either group (SQT; p = 0.199, SQTV; p = 0.087). In conclusion, squats performed with whole body vibration (WBV) were not superior to conventional squats with respect to maximal strength and jump performance outcomes. It appears that there was no additive effect of superimposed WBV training in strength beyond that caused by strength training alone. This study can help strength conditioning professionals and athletes make an informed decision on whether to invest in a VP and use WBV as an alternative or a complementary mode of training.

  13. Vocational training in Tunisia Strengths and weaknesses

    OpenAIRE

    bouoiyour, jamal

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of institutional aspects of professional training in Tunisia. We describe briefly the genesis of this system and pointed out that Tunisia in spite of remarkable progress, suffers from some problems related to the low and partial integration of the professional training system in the general system of training. In a more precise way, the implement of professional training turns out incapable to anticipate future professions. Furthermore, when certain professions a...

  14. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirth Klaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001, while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001. The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance.

  15. Effects of resistance training, detraining, and retraining on strength and functional capacity in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakugawa, Raphael Luiz; Moura, Bruno Monteiro; Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa; Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2018-05-17

    The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) at 45° leg press, maximum isometric knee extension torque, rate of torque development (RTD), 30-s sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and stair ascent and descent tests were assessed. The 1-RM increased after training (p training (p training period (p > 0.05). For RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand, there was an increase after retraining when compared to pre-training values (p training and post-training periods (p functional capacity at the same level obtained after a detraining period. The inclusion of an explosive strength session in retraining period improves RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand performance and can accelerate the recovery of strength after a detraining period.

  16. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  17. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations...... to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength...... training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force...

  18. Astronaut Richard H. Truly in training session RMS for STS-2 bldg 9A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly in training session with the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) for STS-2 bldg 9A. Views show Truly working at the command console while watching out the windows. Karen Ehlers, an RMS procedures specialist, can be seen at left side of frame (34314); view from behind Truly as he trains at the RMS console (34315).

  19. Views of STS-4 crew during a training session in the SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Views of STS-4 crew during a training session in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) in bldg 5. Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, II. (left) and Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., commander and pilot respectively for STS-4 get in some training time in the SMS.

  20. Muscular coordination and strength training. Implications for injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, O M

    1988-03-01

    Strength training is commonly used in the rehabilitation of muscles atrophied as a result of injury and/or disuse. Studies on the effects of conventional leg extension training in healthy subjects have shown the changes to be very task-specific to the training manoeuvre itself. After conventional leg extension training for the quadriceps muscle the major improvement was in weightlifting ability with only small increases in isometric strength. The maximum dynamic force and power output during sprint cycling showed no improvement. These results suggest that the major benefit of this type of training is learning to coordinate the different muscle groups involved in the training movement rather than intrinsic increases in strength of the muscle group being trained. Other studies have shown changes in strength to be specific to the length and speed at which the muscle has been trained. The implication for rehabilitation is that strength training for isolated muscle groups may not be the most effective way of increasing functional ability. As the major changes are task-specific it may be better to incorporate the training into task-related practice. This would have the advantage of strengthening the muscle groups affected whilst increasing performance in those activities which are required in daily life.

  1. ASTP crewmen have a meal during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Three ASTP crewmen have a meal in the Apollo Command Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Aleksay A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew; Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot of the American ASTP prime crew; and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American ASTP prime crew.

  2. Longitudinal Recovery and Reduced Costs After 120 Sessions of Locomotor Training for Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sarah A; Lorenz, Douglas; Eskay, Carol P; Forrest, Gail F; Basso, D Michele

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact of long-term, body weight-supported locomotor training after chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), and to estimate the health care costs related to lost recovery potential and preventable secondary complications that may have occurred because of visit limits imposed by insurers. Prospective observational cohort with longitudinal follow-up. Eight outpatient rehabilitation centers that participate in the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation NeuroRecovery Network (NRN). Individuals with motor incomplete chronic SCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale C or D; N=69; 0.1-45y after SCI) who completed at least 120 NRN physical therapy sessions. Manually assisted locomotor training (LT) in a body weight-supported treadmill environment, overground standing and stepping activities, and community integration tasks. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury motor and sensory scores, orthostatic hypotension, bowel/bladder/sexual function, Spinal Cord Injury Functional Ambulation Inventory (SCI-FAI), Berg Balance Scale, Modified Functional Reach, 10-m walk test, and 6-minute walk test. Longitudinal outcome measure collection occurred every 20 treatments and at 6- to 12-month follow-up after discharge from therapy. Significant improvement occurred for upper and lower motor strength, functional activities, psychological arousal, sensation of bowel movement, and SCI-FAI community ambulation. Extended training enabled minimal detectable changes at 60, 80, 100, and 120 sessions. After detectable change occurred, it was sustained through 120 sessions and continued 6 to 12 months after treatment. Delivering at least 120 sessions of LT improves recovery from incomplete chronic SCI. Because walking reduces rehospitalization, LT delivered beyond the average 20-session insurance limit can reduce rehospitalizations and long-term health costs. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  3. Safety Training: places available in the forthcoming sessions in May

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    There are places available in the forthcoming Safety courses. For updates and registrations, please refer to the Safety Training Catalogue. MAY 2010: Confined spaces – for supervisors, 4 May, in French, 1 day, 09:00 – 17:30 Laser safety, 5 May, in French, 4 hours, 13:30 – 17:30 Radiological Protection, 7 May, in English, 4 hours, 13:30 – 17:30 Secourisme - Cours de recyclage, 7 May, in French, 4 hours, 08:30 – 12:30 Secourisme - Cours de recyclage, 7 May, in French, 4 hours, 12:30 – 17:30 Cherry-picker driving (basic course), 10-11 May, in French, 2 days, 08:00 – 17:30 Habilitation électrique : Personnel électricien effectuant des opérations du domaine de tension BTA, 10-11 May, in English, 2 days, 09:00 – 17:30 Biocell Training, 11 May, in French, 1.5 hour, 08:30 – 10:00 Biocell Training, 11 May, in French, 1.5 hour, 10:30 – 12:00 Radiological Protection, 11 May, in English, ...

  4. Interprofessional communication in a simulation-based team training session in healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Gerhard Peter

    2016-01-01

    and attitudes towards interprofessional communication in a simulation-based training session. Methods: The study was designed as an explorative case study based on qualitative content analysis Data was based on observation of two simulation scenarios (“Internal Bleeding”, “Huddle”) and analysis of debriefing...... less explicit in the training session. Conclusion: Exploring the student perspective of interprofessional communication has the following implications for the design and implementation of simulation-based training sessions: (a) to balance clinical exchange and collaborative exchange, (b) to introduce......Background: Interprofessional teamwork and communication training have entered the healthcare education setting, mainly investigated through surveys. However, little is known about the student’s perceptions in more depth. The aim of the study was to investigate healthcare students’ perspectives...

  5. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Saun M; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training

  6. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravana, Cristina; Medica, P; Ragonese, G; Fazio, E

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and post-competition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA) showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; prelease of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise program. Moreover, the responses during exercise in the course of post-competition training sessions seem to be significantly different from those the pre-competition training. These data show that the preliminary competitive stress induced additional significant changes of β-endorphin pattern. It would reflect the need of a long-lasting modulation of fatigue and pain perception related to the effect of an additional physical and mental effort for the consecutive competitive and training sessions.

  7. A comparison of the effects of 6 weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Christopher J; Lamont, Hugh S; Garner, John C

    2012-02-01

    Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is a form of training that may potentially bring about a state of postactivation potentiation, resulting in increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. Such a method may be more effective than either modality, independently for developing strength. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT), plyometric training (PT), and CT on lower body strength and anthropometrics. Thirty recreationally trained college-aged men were trained using 1 of 3 methods: resistance, plyometric, or complex twice weekly for 6 weeks. The participants were tested pre, mid, and post to assess back squat strength, Romanian dead lift (RDL) strength, standing calf raise (SCR) strength, quadriceps girth, triceps surae girth, body mass, and body fat percentage. Diet was not controlled during this study. Statistical measures revealed a significant increase for squat strength (p = 0.000), RDL strength (p = 0.000), and SCR strength (p = 0.000) for all groups pre to post, with no differences between groups. There was also a main effect for time for girth measures of the quadriceps muscle group (p = 0.001), the triceps surae muscle group (p = 0.001), and body mass (p = 0.001; post hoc revealed no significant difference). There were main effects for time and group × time interactions for fat-free mass % (RT: p = 0.031; PT: p = 0.000). The results suggest that CT mirrors benefits seen with traditional RT or PT. Moreover, CT revealed no decrement in strength and anthropometric values and appears to be a viable training modality.

  8. The Specificity of Rugby Union Training Sessions in Preparation for Match Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick G; Peake, Jonathan M; Minett, Geoffrey M

    2018-04-01

    Investigations into the specificity of rugby union training practices in preparation for competitive demands have predominantly focused on physical and physiological demands. The evaluation of the contextual variance in perceptual strain or skill requirements between training and matches in rugby union is unclear, yet holistic understanding may assist to optimize training design. This study evaluated the specificity of physical, physiological, perceptual, and skill demands of training sessions compared with competitive match play in preprofessional, elite club rugby union. Global positioning system devices, video capture, heart rate, and session ratings of perceived exertion were used to assess movement patterns, skill completions, physiologic, and perceptual responses, respectively. Data were collected across a season (training sessions n = 29; matches n = 14). Participants (n = 32) were grouped in playing positions as: outside backs, centers, halves, loose forwards, lock forwards, and front row forwards. Greater total distance, low-intensity activity, maximal speed, and meters per minute were apparent in matches compared with training in all positions (P  0.90). Similarly, match heart rate and session ratings of perceived exertion responses were higher than those recorded in training (P  0.8). Key skill completions for forwards (ie, scrums, rucks, and lineouts) and backs (ie, kicks) were greater under match conditions than in training (P  1.50). Considerable disparities exist between the perceptual, physiological, and key skill demands of competitive matches versus training sessions in preprofessional rugby union players. Practitioners should consider the specificity of training tasks for preprofessional rugby players to ensure the best preparation for match demands.

  9. Data organisation & description - presentation. RDM Support basic training course for information specialists session 4

    OpenAIRE

    Selm, Mariette van

    2015-01-01

    Presentation for session 4 of RDM Support. RDM Support is a basic training course in research data management (support) for information specialists. The training course was developed by Mariëtte van Selm for the information specialists of the Library of the University of Amsterdam (UvA), within the framework of the RDM Support project (2013-2015). The training course was held from January to April 2014.

  10. Isometric strength training lowers the O2 cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Grassi, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    The effect of maximal voluntary isometric strength training of knee extensor muscles on pulmonary V'O(2) on-kinetics, the O(2) cost of cycling and peak oxygen uptake (V'O(2peak)) in humans was studied. Seven healthy males (mean ± SD, age 22.3 ± 2.0 years, body weight 75.0 ± 9.2 kg, V'O(2peak) 49.5 ± 3.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed maximal isometric strength training lasting 7 weeks (4 sessions per week). Force during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) increased by 15 % (P Strength training resulted in a significant decrease (by ~7 %; P Isometric strength training rapidly (i.e., after 1 week) decreases the O(2) cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise, whereas it does not affect the amplitude of the slow component of the V'O(2) on-kinetics during heavy-intensity exercise. Isometric strength training can have beneficial effects on performance during endurance events.

  11. Strength training and body composition in middle-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrup, Rachelle; Tucker, Larry A; LE Cheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2018-01-01

    Strength training is a sound method to improve body composition. However, the effect of age, diet, menopause, and physical activity on the relationship between strength training and body composition in women remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the intricacies of the relationship between strength training and body composition in 257 middle-age women and to quantify the effect of these factors on the association. The study was cross-sectional. Five variables were used to index strength training participation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diet was assessed by 7-day weighed food records, and physical activity was measured objectively using accelerometers. There were 109 strength trainers in the sample. For each day per week of strength training, body fat was 1.3 percentage points lower (F=14.8, Pdevote to strength training, the lower their body fat and the higher their fat-free mass tend to be. A significant portion of the differences in body composition seems to result from lifters participating in more physical activity than non-lifters. Menopause status also contributes significantly to the relationship.

  12. Effects of complex training on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a complex training program, a combined practice of weight training and plyometrics, on explosive strength development of young basketball players. Twenty-five young male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were assessed using squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test (ABA), depth jump (DJ), mechanical power (MP), and medicine ball throw (MBT), before and after a 10-week in-season training program. Both the control group (CG; n = 10) and the experimental group (EG; n = 15) kept up their regular sports practice; additionally, the EG performed 2 sessions per week of a complex training program. The EG significantly improved in the SJ, CMJ, ABA, and MBT values (p training to improve the upper and lower body explosivity levels in young basketball players. In conclusion, this study showed that more strength conditioning is needed during the sport practice season. Furthermore, we also conclude that complex training is a useful working tool for coaches, innovative in this strength-training domain, equally contributing to a better time-efficient training.

  13. Effects of functional training on pain, leg strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 18-week functional training (FT) program consisting in two sessions a week of in-water exercise and one of on-land exercise on pain, strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia. A sample consisting of 36 fibromyalgia patients was included in the study. The patients were allocated randomly into the experimental group (EG, n = 20), and control group (CG, n = 16). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand and handgrip strength) and agility/dynamic balance and static balance. Fibromyalgia impact and pain were analyzed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), tender points (TPs), visual analog scale (VAS). We observed a significant reduction in the FIQ (p = 0.042), the algometer scale of TP (p = 0.008), TP (p < 0.001), and VAS (p < 0.001) in the EG. The EG shows better results in leg strength (p < 0.001), handgrip strength (p = 0.025), agility/dynamic balance (p = 0.032) and balance (p = 0.006). An 18-week intervention consisting in two sessions of in-water exercise and one session of on-land exercise of FT reduces pain and improves functional capacity in FM patients. These results suggested that FT could play an important role in maintaining an independent lifestyle in patients with FM.

  14. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; [Formula: see text], 44 ± 11 mL kg -1 ·min -1 ) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower-body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

  15. The effects of high-load strength training with protein- or nonprotein-containing nutritional supplementation in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    or a nonprotein drink after every training session. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Muscle strength and power were tested using the good strength equipment and the leg extensor power rig. Physical performance and function were assessed using a chair stand test and the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Muscle fiber type size......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-load strength training and protein intake in patients undergoing dialysis with a focus on muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle morphology. DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled study conducted in three dialysis...... centers. SUBJECTS: Subjects for the study included 29 patients undergoing dialysis. INTERVENTION: The participants went through a control period of 16 weeks before completing 16 weeks of strength training. Before the training period, the participants were randomly assigned to receive a protein...

  16. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation does not affect lower extremity muscle strength training in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kazuhei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on lower extremity muscle strength training in 24 healthy participants. In this triple-blind, sham-controlled study, participants were randomly allocated to the anodal tDCS plus muscle strength...... training (anodal tDCS) group or sham tDCS plus muscle strength training (sham tDCS) group. Anodal tDCS (2 mA) was applied to the primary motor cortex of the lower extremity during muscle strength training of the knee extensors and flexors. Training was conducted once every 3 days for 3 weeks (7 sessions......). Knee extensor and flexor peak torques were evaluated before and after the 3 weeks of training. After the 3-week intervention, peak torques of knee extension and flexion changed from 155.9 to 191.1 Nm and from 81.5 to 93.1 Nm in the anodal tDCS group. Peak torques changed from 164.1 to 194.8 Nm...

  18. Effect of patients' rights training sessions for nurses on perceptions of nurses and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa A; Hassan, Mona A; Hamouda, Seham Ibrahim; Abd Allah, Nama M

    2017-11-01

    Patients' rights are universal values that must be respected; however, it is not easy to put such values and principles into effect as approaches and attitudes differ from individual to individual, from society to society, and from country to country. If we want to reach a general conclusion about the status of patient rights in the world as whole, we should examine the situation in individual countries. To study the effect of training sessions for nurses about patients' rights on the perceptions of nurses and patients in two Egyptian hospitals. Quasi-experimental with pre- and posttest design was used in this study. Two groups of participants were included in the study: the first with 97 nurses and the second with 135 patients. A questionnaire sheet was used for nurses and patients to assess their perceptions about patients' rights before starting sessions. The training sessions were developed based on the baseline information gathered in the assessment phase and related literature. After the implementation of the sessions, a posttest was immediately conducted for nurses, while for patients the posttest was conducted 1 month after implementation to evaluate the effect of the nurses' training sessions on the patients' perceptions. The same tools were used in pretest and posttest. Ethical considerations: Written approval was sought and obtained from the administrators of the studied hospitals prior to conducting the study. Oral consent was obtained from nurses and patients willing to participate. Confidentiality and anonymity of the participants were strictly maintained through code numbers on the questionnaires. The improvement in nurses' knowledge and perceptions about patients' rights after implementation of the training sessions was remarkable. Moreover, an improvement in patients' perceptions regarding their rights was reported. Repetition of the training sessions is suggested to achieve continuous improvement. Provision of posters and booklets about a bill of

  19. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burich, Rasmus; Teljigović, Sanel; Boyle, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate if combined strength and aerobic training can enhance aerobic capacity in the elderly to a similar extent as aerobic training alone when training duration is matched. METHODS: Elderly men and women (age 63.2 ± 4.7) were randomized into two intervention groups: an aerobic...... on the general health dimension on the SF-36 health survey improved more than AG's score. CONCLUSION: Elderly can substitute a part of their aerobic training with strength training and still improve VO2max to a clinically significant degree when strength training is performed with large muscle groups...

  20. Acute Responses of a Physical Training Session with a Nintendo Wii on Hemodynamic Variables of an Individual with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Junior, Renato Sobral; Dantas, Aretha; de Souza, Cíntia Pereira; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurological illness that decreases motor functions. This disease can cause weakness of cardiorespiratory muscles and impaired functional capacity and quality of life. Therefore it requires preventive treatments. This study investigated the acute responses of a virtual physical training session with the Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™ on hemodynamic variables of an individual with multiple sclerosis (relapsing-remitting). A 34-year-old man with multiple sclerosis with previous experience in aerobic, strength, and functional training (2 years) was tested. His Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.5. We compared the heart rate, blood pressure, and double product obtained at rest and during (heart rate) and after the Nintendo Wii games "Boxing" and "Sword Play." In rest, the variables were measured in the supine position. Our results showed positive hemodynamic alterations after execution of both games. The peak of heart rate was 121 beats per minute (65% of maximal heart rate) and 104 beats per minute (56% of maximal heart rate) for "Boxing" and "Sword Play," respectively. The training session with "Boxing" was able to stimulate the heart rate to achieve the recommended values for the maintenance of physical fitness in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. We conclude that an exercise training program with the Nintendo Wii may improve physical fitness in people with multiple sclerosis. Moreover, these activities could improve affective status and perhaps maintain the individual engaged at treatment program.

  1. Avoiding Surgical Skill Decay: A Systematic Review on the Spacing of Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Cnossen, Fokie; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Tio, René A

    Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing training sessions would also improve long-term retention of surgical skills. We searched the Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Eric, and Web of Science online databases. We only included articles that were randomized trials with a sample of medical trainees acquiring surgical motor skills in which the spacing effect was reported. The quality and bias of the articles were assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias assessment tool. With respect to the spacing effect, 1955 articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 11 articles remained. The overall quality of the experiments was "moderate." Trainees in the spaced condition scored higher in a retention test than students in the massed condition. Our systematic review showed evidence that spacing training sessions improves long-term surgical skills retention when compared to massed practice. However, the optimal gap between the re-study sessions is unclear. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of whistle production related to training sessions in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Marulanda, Juliana; Adam, Olivier; Delfour, Fabienne

    2016-11-01

    Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary. To investigate this, we recorded 10 bottlenose dolphins of Parc Asterix dolphinarium (France) before, during and after 10 training sessions for a total duration of 7 hr and 32 min. We detected 3,272 whistles with 2,884 presenting a quality good enough to be categorized. We created a catalog of whistle types by visual categorization verified by five naive judges (Fleiss' Kappa Test). We then applied the SIGID method to identify the signatures whistles present in our recordings. We found 279 whistles belonging to one of the four identified signature whistle types. The remaining 2,605 were classified as non-signature whistles. The non-signature whistles emission rate was higher during and after the training sessions than before. Emission rate of three signature whistles types significantly increased afterwards as compared to before the training sessions. We suggest that dolphins use their signature whistles when they return to their intraspecific social interactions succeeding scheduled and human-organized training sessions. More observations are needed to make conclusions about the function of signature whistles in relation to training sessions. Zoo Biol. 35:495-504, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Strength Training: A Natural Prescription for Staying Healthy and Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Raymond, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter highlights the importance of strength training in keeping older adults healthy and fit, explaining how it can forestall declines in strength and muscle mass, along with their attendant negative impact upon other metabolic functions and activities of daily living. Physical inactivity is common throughout the nation. Approximately 11…

  4. Influence of strength training intensity on subsequent recovery in elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Rosa Orssatto, Lucas Bet; de Moura, Bruno Monteiro; de Souza Bezerra, Ewertton

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the influence of strength training intensity on subsequent recovery in elderly is important to avoid reductions in physical function during the days following training. Twenty-two elderly were randomized in two groups: G70 (65.9 ± 4.8 years, n = 11) and G95 (66.9 ± 5.1, n = 11...... in elderly depending on the type of physical function and intensity of training. Higher intensity resulted in greater impairment. Exercise prescription in elderly should take this into account, e.g., by gradually increasing intensity during the first months of strength training. These results have relevance...... for elderly who have to be fit for work or other activities in the days following strength training....

  5. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if 70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  6. Effects of high-intensity strength interval training program on body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Juránková, Michaela; Bílý, Jiří; Hrazdíra, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine effects of 10-week high-intensity strength interval training (HIIT) program on body composition. Seven women (31.0 ± 6.0 years old, 65.7 ± 9.8 kg body weight, 23.6 ± 2.8 kg*m−2 BMI, 18.6 ± 5.8 kg body fat, 26.0 ± 3.4 kg muscle mass) completed intervention program. We performed an analyze of body composition before and after training program. We focused especially on body fat and muscle mass. Each session consisted of short term bouts (until 30 s duration) w...

  7. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. POWER-TYPE STRENGTH TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Surakka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength declines with increasing age, and the power-type strength characteristics decline even more drastically than the maximal muscle strength. Therefore, it is important to design training programmes specifically for sedentary middle-aged people to effectively improve the power-type strength in leg and trunk muscles. To be suitable for the target group, the exercise programmes should be feasible, motivating and easy to practice. The aim of this study was to design and investigate the effects and feasibility of a power-type strength training programme in 226 middle-aged men and women, with 26 persons as non-training controls. The subjects trained three times a week during 22 weeks, in 12 groups with exercise classes of 10-20 subjects, and using no or very little external equipment. All training sessions were controlled and supervised by an professional instructor. Vertical squat jump, standing long jump, 20 metre running time, maximal anaerobic cycling power, maximal oxygen uptake, and angular trunk muscle flexion and extension velocities were measured before and after the training period to evaluate the training effects. Questionnaires concerning employment, physical activity, smoking, musculoskeletal symptoms and exercise motives were also filled in before and after the training period. The greatest improvements were achieved in vertical squat jump (18% and in angular trunk flexion (14% and extension (16% velocities. An external loading totalling 2.2 kg (attached in ankles increased the height in vertical squat jump by 23% and maximal anaerobic cycling power by 12%, these improvements were significant compared with subjects in no load training group (p = 0.03 in vertical squat jump and p = 0.05 in maximal anaerobic cycling power. Exercise induced injuries occurred in 19% of men and 6% of women. Low back symptoms decreased in exercisers by 12% and knee symptoms (increased by 4% during the intervention. Of all subjects, 24% dropped out

  9. ASTP crewmen in Soyuz orbital module mock-up during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An interior view of the Soyuz orbital module mock-up in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. The ASTP crewmen are Astronaut Vance D. Brand (on left), command module pilot of the American ASTP prime crew; and Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew. The training session simulated activities on the second day in Earth orbit.

  10. ASTP crewmen in Docking Module trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An interior view of the Docking Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American ASTP prime crew, is on the right. The other crewman is Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP prime crew. The training session simulated activities on the second day in Earth orbit. The Docking Module is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft.

  11. Astronaut Terry J. Hart in training session RMS for STS-2 bldg 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Terry J. Hart in training session with the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) for STS-2 bldg 29. Views show Truly working at the command console while watching out the windows. Karen Ehlers, an RMS procedures specialist, can be seen at left side of frame while Astronaut Sally Ride waits on right for her time at the RMS.

  12. STS-48 MS Buchli and MS Gemar on MB SMS middeck during JSC training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) James F. Buchli (left) and MS Charles D. Gemar listen to instructions while on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Buchli and Gemar are reviewing inflight procedures during this preflight familiarization session held in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  13. Astronaut Donald H. Peterson talks with others during training session STS-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Astronaut Donald H. Peterson talks with Astronaut James P. Bagian (almost out of frame at right edge) during a training session for STS-6 crew members in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. Petterson is wearing the shuttle flight suit and holding his helmet.

  14. STS-71 astronauts and cosmonauts listen to briefing during training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A number of Russian cosmonauts and an American astronaut listen to a briefing on launch and landing emergency situations during a training session in the Systems Integration Facility at JSC. Scheduled to launch aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis with the S

  15. Learning Physical Examination Skills outside Timetabled Training Sessions: What Happens and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Robbert J.; van Geel, Koos; van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Lack of published studies on students' practice behaviour of physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions inspired this study into what activities medical students undertake to improve their skills and factors influencing this. Six focus groups of a total of 52 students from Years 1-3 using a pre-established interview guide.…

  16. STS-41 crew is briefed on camera equipment during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 crewmembers are briefed on camera equipment during training session at JSC. Trainer Judy M. Alexander explains the use 16mm motion picture equipment to (left to right) Pilot Robert D. Cabana, Mission Specialist (MS) Bruce E. Melnick, and MS Thomas D. Akers.

  17. STS-9 payload specialist Merbold and backup Ockels in training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    STS-9 payload specialist Ulf Merbold, right, a West German physicist and backup Wubbo Ockels, a Dutch scientist, are pictured in a training session in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. In this view Ockels appears to be showing Merbold how to operate a camera.

  18. Strength Training Parallel with Plyometric and Cross training Influences on Speed Endurance

    OpenAIRE

    C.C.Chandra Obul Reddy; Dr. K. Rama Subba Reddy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of weight training parallel with plyometric and cross training on speed endurance. To achieve this purpose of the study, forty-five men students studying CSSR & SRRM Degree College, Kamalapuram, YSR (D), Andhra Pradesh, India were randomly selected as subjects during the year 2015-2016. They were divided into three equal groups of fifteen subjects each. Group I underwent weight training parallel with plyometric training for three sessions...

  19. Using goal orientations to understand motivation in strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Todd A; Chow, Graig M; Ewing, Martha E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the importance that today's athletics place on strength training, research exploring the motivation of athletes in this arena is sparse. It is known that not all athletes will use the same motivational cognitions as inspiration, and these differences can be explored through achievement goal orientations. Through questionnaire data and semistructured interviews, the present study investigated how collegiate athletes maintain high levels of motivation over a period of time during strength training and explored relationships among five goal orientations: task-orientation, self-enhancing ego-orientation, self-defeating ego-orientation, social-approval orientation, and work-avoidance orientation. Subjects (N = 133), comprising 90 men and 43 women, were current varsity collegiate athletes from 15 different sports at a major Midwestern university. In addition, using a screener survey to assess achievement goal orientations, 15 subjects from the sample group who demonstrated a stronger inclination to only one achievement goal orientation were interviewed to gain a more in-depth understanding of their motivation cognitions in strength training. Results showed that the strongest achievement goal orientations reported from all athletes were task-orientation and social-approval. Additionally, five higher-order themes (significant others, improvement, competitive demands, being stronger than others, and miscellaneous) were consistent among the interviewed athletes when describing how they stay motivated during strength training. Whereas all athletes were able to describe at least one motivational strategy they employed during strength training, the dominant achievement goal orientation of some athletes influenced their motivational strategy. By employing the T.A.R.G.E.T. model (), strength coaches can foster adaptive achievement goal orientations and thereby enhance intrinsic motivation for athletes engaging in strength training.

  20. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT REST INTERVAL LENGTHS IN RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSIONS FOR UPPER AND LOWER BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Senna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2. 2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl, with two-minute (SEQA and with five-minute interval (SEQB. The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley, with two (SEQC and five-minute intervals (SEQD. For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9 was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9. Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7 compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1. The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets

  1. Comparison of between-training-sessions recovery strategies for world-class BMX pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Hays, Arnaud; Vettoretti, Fabrice; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of between-training-sessions recovery strategies (passive [PAS], active [ACT], cold-water immersion [CWI], and ingestion of a recovery drink [NUTR]) on maximal cycling performance, perceptions of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and fatigue in world-class BMX riders. Eleven elite BMX athletes, members of the French national team (top country in the 2011 international ranking, 4 medals at the 2012 World Championships, top European country), participated in the study, which involved standardized training periods. Athletes performed 3 maximal-sprint power tests: the first day of the week before the training session and before and after training on the third day of the week (D3). The recovery strategy was randomly assigned to each participant on day 2 immediately after the last training period of the day. Perceptions of DOMS and general fatigue were recorded on D3. After training on D3, the decrease in maximal-sprint power (Pmax) was significantly greater for PAS than with CWI (P=.02) and NUTR (P=.018). Similar results were found with ACT (vs CWI P=.044, and vs NUTR P=.042). Self-reported DOMS and fatigue were significantly greater after PAS than after other strategies. For elite BMX riders, between training days, nutritional and/or CWI recovery strategies appear to be best for reducing muscle fatigue and increasing the capacity to withstand the training schedule.

  2. Validity and reliability of the session-RPE method for quantifying training load in karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabben, M; Tourny, C; Haddad, M; Chaabane, H; Chamari, K; Coquart, J B

    2015-04-24

    To test the construct validity and reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method by examining the relationship between RPE and physiological parameters (heart rate: HR and blood lactate concentration: [La --] ) and the correlations between sRPE and two HR--based methods for quantifying internal training load (Banister's method and Edwards's method) during karate training camp. Eighteen elite karate athletes: ten men (age: 24.2 ± 2.3 y, body mass: 71.2 ± 9.0 kg, body fat: 8.2 ± 1.3% and height: 178 ± 7 cm) and eight women (age: 22.6 ± 1.2 y, body mass: 59.8 ± 8.4 kg, body fat: 20.2 ± 4.4%, height: 169 ± 4 cm) were included in the study. During training camp, subjects participated in eight karate--training sessions including three training modes (4 tactical--technical, 2 technical--development, and 2 randori training), during which RPE, HR, and [La -- ] were recorded. Significant correlations were found between RPE and physiological parameters (percentage of maximal HR: r = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.64--0.86; [La --] : r = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.49--0.75; P training load ( r = 0.65--0.95; P reliability of the same intensity across training sessions (Cronbach's α = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.61--0.92). This study demonstrates that the sRPE method is valid for quantifying internal training load and intensity in karate.

  3. Affective Responses to Repeated Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saanijoki, Tiina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna M; Vahlberg, Tero; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2015-12-01

    Vigorous exercise feels unpleasant, and negative emotions may discourage adherence to regular exercise. We quantified the subjective affective responses to short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training (MIT). Twenty-six healthy middle-age (mean age, 47 ± 5 yr; mean VO2peak, 34.2 ± 4.1 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) sedentary men were randomized into HIT (n = 13, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling efforts at approximately 180% of peak workload with 4-min recovery) or MIT (n = 13, 40- to 60-min continuous cycling at 60% of peak workload) groups, performing six sessions within two weeks. Perceived exertion, stress, and affective state were recorded before, during, and after each session. Perceived exertion and arousal were higher, and affective state, more negative during the HIT than that during MIT sessions (P training. Peak oxygen consumption increased (P training). Short-term HIT and MIT are equally effective in improving aerobic fitness, but HIT increases experience of negative emotions and exertion in sedentary middle-age men. This may limit the adherence to this time-effective training mode, even though displeasure lessens over time and suggests similar mental adaptations to both MIT and HIT.

  4. Training visual imagery: Improvements of metacognition, but not imagery strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne Lynn Rademaker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual imagery has been closely linked to brain mechanisms involved in perception. Can visual imagery, like visual perception, improve by means of training? Previous research has demonstrated that people can reliably evaluate the vividness of single episodes of sensory imagination – might the metacognition of imagery also improve over the course of training? We had participants imagine colored Gabor patterns for an hour a day, over the course of five consecutive days, and again two weeks after training. Participants rated the subjective vividness and effort of their mental imagery on each trial. The influence of imagery on subsequent binocular rivalry dominance was taken as our measure of imagery strength. We found no overall effect of training on imagery strength. Training did, however, improve participant’s metacognition of imagery. Trial-by-trial ratings of vividness gained predictive power on subsequent rivalry dominance as a function of training. These data suggest that, while imagery strength might be immune to training in the current context, people’s metacognitive understanding of mental imagery can improve with practice.

  5. Comparison of isokinetic and isometric strength training effects on hamstring and quadriceps torques and physical function in knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, T.; Khan, H.M.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of isokinetic and isometric strength trainings on hamstring and quadriceps average-peak-torques, physical performance, and pain. Methodology: Twenty athletes with knee pain were randomly assigned to two equal groups: Isokinetic training and isometric training. Both groups were trained on Biodex System 3 Pro for 10 sessions. Isokinetic-group received isokinetic training on 5 different velocities while isometric-group performed isometric contractions at 3 knee joint angles. Results: Hamstring isokinetic average-peak-torque was significantly higher at all velocities without significant improvement in quadriceps average-peak-torque except for at the slowest velocity. Isometric training did not cause significant change in isometric average-peak-torque at any knee angle for either hamstring or quadriceps. Agility, elastic leg strength, and pain improved significantly in both groups with no significant between-group differences. No significant statistical correlation was observed between pain and any other parameter after either type of training. Conclusions: Athletes participating in sports requiring dynamic hamstring strength should prefer isokinetic strength training for physical rehabilitation of knee pain. However, physical performance and pain can be improved with both isometric and isokinetic strength training. (author)

  6. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (pwelding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (pwelding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  7. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting.

  8. CERN Technical Training 2006: ANSYS Course Sessions (August-September 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. The following ANSYS course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2006, and in collaboration with CAD-FEM AG (CH): ANSYS DesignModeler (course in French): 29-30.8.2006 (2 days) ANSYS Workbench (course in French): 12-15.9.2006 (4 days, only 3 places available) If you are interested in attending any of the above course sessions, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO, and apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages that can be found at http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300 under 'Upcoming course sessions', with th...

  9. The efficacy of incorporating partial squats in maximal strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Sato, Kimitake; Wassinger, Craig A; Lamont, Hugh S; Stone, Michael H

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of 2 different training methods on dynamic and isometric measures of maximal strength. Seventeen recreationally trained men (1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat: 146.9 ± 22.4 kg) were assigned to 2 groups: full range of motion (ROM) squat (F) and full ROM with partial ROM squat (FP) for the 7-week training intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that there was a statistically significant group-by-time interaction for impulse scaled at 50, 90, and 250 milliseconds at 90° of knee flexion and rate of force development at 200 milliseconds with 120° of knee flexion (p ≤ 0.05). There was also a statistically significant time effect (p ≤ 0.05) for the 1RM squat, 1RM partial squat, isometric squat peak force allometrically scaled (IPFa) 90°, IPFa 120°, and impulse allometrically scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Additionally, the FP group achieved statistically larger relative training intensities (%1RM) during the final 3 weeks of training (p ≤ 0.05). There was a trend for FP to improve over F in 1RM squat (+3.1%, d = 0.53 vs. 0.32), 1RM partial squat (+4.7%, d = 0.95 vs. 0.69), IPFa 120° (+5.7%, d = 0.52 vs. 0.12), and impulse scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° (+6.3 to 13.2%, d = 0.50-1.01 vs. 0.30-0.57) and 120° (+3.4 to 16.8%, d = 0.45-1.11 vs. 0.08-0.37). These larger effect sizes in the FP group can likely be explained their ability to train at larger relative training intensities during the final 3 weeks of training resulting in superior training adaptations. Our findings suggest that partial ROM squats in conjunction with full ROM squats may be an effective training method for improving maximal strength and early force-time curve characteristics in men with previous strength training experience. Practically, partial squats may be beneficial for strength and power athletes during a strength-speed mesocycle while peaking

  10. Short-term high intensity plyometric training program improves strength, power and agility in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 - 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer.

  11. Short-Term High Intensity Plyometric Training Program Improves Strength, Power and Agility in Male Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 – 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer. PMID:23717351

  12. The effects of tapering on strength performance in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, M J; MacDougall, J D; Sale, D G

    1994-11-01

    The optimum pre-competition taper procedure for "strength athletes" is not known. We examined voluntary strength and evoked contractile properties of the elbow flexors over a 10 day rest only (ROT) and a 10 day reduced volume taper (RVT) in 8 resistance trained males (23 +/- 2.1 years). Following 3 wks of standardized training of the elbow flexors, subjects were randomly assigned to one of the tapers. Upon completion, they resumed training for 3 wks and completed the other taper. No arm training was performed during the ROT, while high intensity, low volume training was done every second day during the RVT. Maximum isometric (MVC), low (0.52 rad.s-1; LV) and high velocity (3.14 rad.s-1; HV) concentric peak torque, and evoked isometric twitch contractile properties were measured before and after each training phase and every 48 h during each taper. ANOVA comparison of the tapers revealed that MVC increased (p pre-taper values throughout the RVT (measurement days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10), as did LV at 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. MVC did not change over the ROT but LV was significantly higher on day 2 and lower on days 8 and 10. LV was also greater on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 during the RVT compared to the ROT. The evoked contractile properties remained largely unchanged. The data indicate that resistance-trained athletes can improve low velocity concentric strength for at least 8 days by greatly reducing training volume, but maintaining training intensity.

  13. Session-RPE Method for Training Load Monitoring: Validity, Ecological Usefulness, and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monoem Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this review is to (1 retrieve all data validating the Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE-method using various criteria, (2 highlight the rationale of this method and its ecological usefulness, and (3 describe factors that can alter RPE and users of this method should take into consideration.Method: Search engines such as SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases in the English language between 2001 and 2016 were consulted for the validity and usefulness of the session-RPE method. Studies were considered for further analysis when they used the session-RPE method proposed by Foster et al. in 2001. Participants were athletes of any gender, age, or level of competition. Studies using languages other than English were excluded in the analysis of the validity and reliability of the session-RPE method. Other studies were examined to explain the rationale of the session-RPE method and the origin of RPE.Results: A total of 950 studies cited the Foster et al. study that proposed the session RPE-method. 36 studies have examined the validity and reliability of this proposed method using the modified CR-10.Conclusion: These studies confirmed the validity and good reliability and internal consistency of session-RPE method in several sports and physical activities with men and women of different age categories (children, adolescents, and adults among various expertise levels. This method could be used as “standing alone” method for training load (TL monitoring purposes though some recommend to combine it with other physiological parameters as heart rate.

  14. An analysis of the delivery of anaesthetic training sessions in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Tatham, K C; Yentis, S M; Wilson, J; Cox, M

    2017-11-01

    We analysed data from the electronic rota system CLWRota, covering 2,689,962 anaesthetic sessions between 01/01/2014 and 31/12/2015, in 91 UK Trusts, in order to investigate trainees' supervision. There were 8209 trainee attachments analysed, during which 618,695 sessions were undertaken by trainees. The number of supervised sessions per week that trainees worked varied considerably (median (IQR [range]) 2.6 (1.6-3.6 [0-10]) for all grades combined), with senior trainees more likely than junior trainees to be supervised for fewer than the three sessions per week mandated by the Royal College of Anaesthetists. The number of supervised sessions was unrelated to Trusts' size, suggesting that trainees in smaller hospitals receive the same level of supervision as in larger teaching hospitals. Analysis of a dataset of this size should be a good reflection of the delivery of anaesthesia training in the UK. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of strength training on cardiac risk prevention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has widely been shown that exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, has extensive cardioprotective benefits and is an important tool in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). The present investigation aimed to determine the multivariate impact of strength training, designed to prevent the development of CHD, on ...

  17. Implementation of specific strength training among industrial laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Andersen, Christoffer Højnicke; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of physical exercise at the workplace on musculoskeletal disorders. However, long-term adherence remains a challenge. The present study evaluates long-term adherence and effects of a workplace strength training intervention on back, neck and upper extr...

  18. Effect of strength training on orthostatic hypotension in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilla, L R; Stephens, A B; Knutzen, K M; Caine, D

    1998-01-01

    This preliminary study attempted to identify the frequency of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in community dwelling older adults who volunteered to participate in an 8-week, heavy-resistance, strength-training program. It also assessed the effect of the strength-training program on OH. From a larger study (n = 53) on high-resistance strength training in older adults (mean age 71.4 +/- 6.6 years), a subset of subjects (n = 24), mean age 71.0 +/- 5.8 years, was evaluated who met at least one criterion for OH. All subjects were tested for resting blood pressures (BP) and heart rates (HR) in the supine, sitting, and standing positions. Also noted was their response to orthostatism in rising from a cot after 10 minutes and rising from a chair after 5 minutes. The subset was not different from the overall group in gender ratio, age, or effect of medication on BP. The treatment was an 8-week strength-training program at 80% of their one repetition maximum. Significant changes (P response to the orthostatic challenge, significant (P positive adaptation to an orthostatic challenge.

  19. Endurance and strength training in pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Daabis

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: PR is an effective intervention for the post-exacerbation management of COPD patients. It leads to significant improvements of dyspnea, HRQL and functional exercise capacity. When added to a program of ET, strength training confers additional benefits in muscle force, but not in overall exercise capacity or health status.

  20. How Much Weight to Use During Strength Training Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many women want to start a strength training routine but aren’t sure how much weight to use. Start with resistance bands, soup cans, or light weights (1 to 3 pounds) and build up to tighter bands or heavier weights as you feel and become stronger.

  1. Mind-muscle connection training principle: influence of muscle strength and training experience during a pushing movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, Juan Carlos; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of different attentional focus conditions on muscle activity during the push-up exercise and to assess the possible influence of muscle strength and training experience. Eighteen resistance-trained men performed 1RM bench press testing and were familiarized with the procedure during the first session. In the second session, three different conditions were randomly performed: regular push-up and push-up focusing on using the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles, respectively. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded and analyzed (EMG normalized to max; nEMG) for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Participants had on average 8 (SD 6) years of training experience and 1RM of 1.25 (SD 0.28) kg per kg bodyweight. Focusing on using pectoralis major increased activity in this muscle by 9% nEMG (95% CI 5-13; Cohen's d 0.60) compared with the regular condition. Triceps activity was not significantly influenced by triceps focus although borderline significant, with a mean difference of 5% nEMG (95% CI 0-10; Cohen's d 0.30). However, years of training experience was positively associated with the ability to selectively activate the triceps (β = 0.41, P = 0.04), but not the pectoralis. Bench press 1RM was not significantly associated with the ability to selectively activate the muscles. Pectoralis activity can be increased when focusing on using this muscle during push-ups, whereas the ability to do this for the triceps is dependent on years of training experience. Maximal muscle strength does not appear to be a decisive factor for the ability to selectively activate these muscles.

  2. STS-48 MS Gemar uses laptop during training session in JSC's MB SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar, wearing lightweight headset, enters data into a portable laptop computer on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Gemar is participating in a preflight familiarization session in the MB-SMS located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Visible to Gemar's right is a stowed extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and on his left are forward locker mockups.

  3. Relationship between isometric and dynamic strength in recreationally trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Michael J; Winchester, Jason B; Nelson, Arnold G

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between measures of maximal isometric force (peak force [PF]), rate of force development (RFD), vertical jump performance (VJ) and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength in recreationally trained men. The subjects in this study were 26 men ([mean +/- SD]: age 22 +/- 1 years; height 175 +/- 7 cm; mass 90 +/- 10 kg). They were tested for PF using the isometric midthigh pull exercise. The 1RM for the squat and bench press exercise were determined as a measure of dynamic strength. Explosive strength was measured as RFD from the isometric force-time curve. Correlations between the variables were calculated using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. There was a nearly perfect correlation between measures of PF and 1RM squat (r = 0.97, p isometric maximum strength determined during the isometric midthigh pull test correlated well with 1RM and VJ testing. However, RFD measured during the same test did not appear to correlate as well with other measures. The isometric midthigh pull provides an efficient method for assessing strength in recreationally trained individuals. Practitioners wishing to obtain performance data related to maximum strength may wish to consider isometric testing as a less time intensive method of testing.

  4. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Warren B

    2006-06-01

    The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

  5. CERN Technical Training 2006: ANSYS Course Sessions (August-September 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The following ANSYS course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2006, and in collaboration with CAD-FEM AG (CH): ANSYS Design Modeler (course in French): 29-30.8.2006 (2 days) ANSYS Workbench (course in French): 12-15.9.2006 (4 days, only 2 places available) If you are interested in attending any of the above course sessions, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO, and apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages that can be found at under "Upcoming course sessions", with the detailed course programmes. The complete training offer of ANSYS courses at CERN can be found at the same website, under the Mechanical Design curriculum. CERN Technical Training courses are open only to the members of CERN personnel (staff members and fellows; associates, students, users, project associates; apprentices: employees of CERN contractors, with some restrictions). In particular, quoted prices and programmes refer specifically to the CERN ...

  6. Strength Development: Using Functional Isometrics in an Isotonic Strength Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study was made to determine if a combination of functional isometrics and standard isotonic training would be superior to a standard isotonic program in an instructional setting. The results provide support for functional isometrics as an enhancement where achievement of maximum strength is the goal. (Author/MT)

  7. Core stability training on lower limb balance strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Ayalon, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of core stability training on lower limbs' muscular asymmetries and imbalances in team sport. Twenty footballers were divided into two groups, either core stability or control group. Before each daily practice, core stability group (n = 10) performed a core stability training programme, while control group (n = 10) did a standard warm-up. The effects of the core stability training programme were assessed by performing isokinetic tests and single-leg countermovement jumps. Significant improvement was found for knee extensors peak torque at 3.14 rad · s(-1) (14%; P core stability group. The jump tests showed a significant reduction in the strength asymmetries in core stability group (-71.4%; P = 0.02) while a concurrent increase was seen in the control group (33.3%; P core exercises for optimal lower limbs strength balance development in young soccer players.

  8. Effects of Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Well-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Peterson, Mark D; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, Gul T

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low- versus high-load resistance training (RT) on muscular adaptations in well-trained subjects. Eighteen young men experienced in RT were matched according to baseline strength and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a low-load RT routine (LL) where 25-35 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9) or a high-load RT routine (HL) where 8-12 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9). During each session, subjects in both groups performed 3 sets of 7 different exercises representing all major muscles. Training was performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days, for a total of 8 weeks. Both HL and LL conditions produced significant increases in thickness of the elbow flexors (5.3 vs. 8.6%, respectively), elbow extensors (6.0 vs. 5.2%, respectively), and quadriceps femoris (9.3 vs. 9.5%, respectively), with no significant differences noted between groups. Improvements in back squat strength were significantly greater for HL compared with LL (19.6 vs. 8.8%, respectively), and there was a trend for greater increases in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (6.5 vs. 2.0%, respectively). Upper body muscle endurance (assessed by the bench press at 50% 1RM to failure) improved to a greater extent in LL compared with HL (16.6 vs. -1.2%, respectively). These findings indicate that both HL and LL training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well-trained young men; however, HL training is superior for maximizing strength adaptations.

  9. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  10. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula Born; Pereira, Gleber; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo C B; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-03-03

    It has been proposed that muscle power is more effective to prevent falls than muscle force production capacity, as rapid reactions are required to allow the postural control. This study aimed to compare the effects of strength and power training on lower limb force, functional capacity, and static and dynamic balance in older female adults. Thirty-seven volunteered healthy women had been allocated into the strength-training group (n = 14; 69 ± 7.3 years, 155 ± 5.6 cm, 72 ± 9.7 kg), the power-training group (n = 12; 67 ± 7.4 years, 153 ± 5.5 cm, 67.2 ± 7 kg), and control group (n = 11; 65 ± 3.1 years, 154 ± 5.6 cm, 70.9 ± 3 kg). After 12 weeks of training, the strength-training and power-training groups increased significantly maximum dynamic strength (29% and 27%), isometric strength (26% and 37%), and step total time (13% and 14%, dynamic balance), respectively. However, only the power-training group increased the rate of torque development (55%) and the functional capacity in 30-second chair stand (22%) and in time up and go tests (-10%). Empirically, power training may reduce the risk of injuries due to lower loads compared to strength training, and consequently, the physical effort demand during the training session is lower. Therefore, power training should be recommended as attractive training stimuli to improve lower limb force, functional capacity, and postural control of older female adults.

  12. Effectiveness of acute in-hospital physiotherapy with knee-extension strength training in reducing strength deficits in patients with a hip fracture: A randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Kronborg

    Full Text Available Is acute in-hospital physiotherapy with additional progressive knee-extension strength training (ST of the fractured limb more effective in reducing knee-extension strength deficit at follow-up compared to physiotherapy without strength training in patients with a hip fracture?Assessor blinded, randomised controlled trial with intention-to-treat analysis.90 patients with a hip fracture admitted to an acute orthopaedic Hip Fracture Unit at a university hospital between October 2013 and May 2015.Daily physiotherapy with or without progressive knee-extension strength training (10RM, 3 x 10 repetitions, of the fractured limb using ankle weight cuffs conducted by ward physical therapists during hospital stay.Primary outcome was the change in maximal isometric knee-extension strength in the fractured limb in percentage of the non-fractured limb from inclusion to postoperative day 10 or discharge (follow-up. Secondary outcome was Timed Up and Go test measured early after surgery and at follow-up.In the intention-to-treat analysis of between-group differences, the primary outcome improved 8.1% (95% CI -2.3; 18.4 by additional strength training from baseline to follow-up. In the per-protocol analysis of non-missing data, significant between-group improvements by 10.5% (95% CI 0.3; 20.7 were found in favour of additional ST. No significant between-group differences were found in any secondary outcome.Physiotherapy with addition of 5 sessions of ST yielded no additional improvements compared to physiotherapy without strength training in reducing the knee-extension strength deficit at follow-up in patients with a hip fracture. It is debatable whether larger improvements than the observed 8-10% can be expected given that only five exercise sessions, on average, were completed. In fragile patients with a hip fracture in the acute phase, where the ability to participate in functional exercise is compromised, we still consider early strength training a

  13. Comparing the Impact of Specific Strength Training vs General Fitness Training on Professional Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard Andersen, Lotte; Mann, Stephanie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms, especially in the upper body, are frequent among professional symphony orchestra musicians. Physical exercise may relieve pain but might also interfere with playing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and effect of "specific strength training" (SST) versus...... "general fitness training" (GFT). METHODS: A feasibility study using randomized controlled methods. Primarily, evaluations involved self-reported impact on instrument playing and satisfaction with the interventions. Secondary evaluations included pain intensity, hand-grip strength, aerobic capacity, body...

  14. Static muscle strength trained and untrained of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopanski R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Static muscle strength is one of the defining characteristics of human motor potential. Standard terms and exclude the impact of short-term measurement techniques for motion and strain measurements, hence the widespread use of Mm measurements in the assessment of fitness of both trained and untrained, healthy subjects and patients undergoing a variety of reasons the process of rehabilitation. The paper deals with static muscle strength (dynamometry back of the hand of female students trained (n = 38 and untrained (n = 213. Examined relationships between individual measurements and body weight in both groups, the degree of asymmetry of the palmar and the differences in the level of power (at the level of the absolute and relative terms between the groups. Disclosed according to form the basis of their conclusions.

  15. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarker responses after a moderate-intensity soccer training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Rodrigo; Mello, Ricardo; Gomes, Diego; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Nasser, Igor; Miranda, Humberto; Salerno, Verônica P

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a moderate-intensity soccer training session on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant capacity in athletes along with the biomarkers creatine kinase and transaminases for lesions in muscle and liver cells. Twenty-two male soccer players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5 min before and after a moderate-intensity game simulation. The results showed a decrease in the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) from an elevation in the production of ROS that maintained the redox homeostasis. Although the session promoted an elevated energy demand, observed by an increase in lactate and glucose levels, damage to muscle and/or liver cells was only suggested by a significant elevation in the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT). Of the two biomarkers analysed, the results suggest that measurements of the ALT levels could be adopted as a method to monitor recovery in athletes.

  16. How repeated 15-minute assertiveness training sessions reduce wrist cutting in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine a possible treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder who have wrist-cutting syndrome, a condition characterized by repeated, superficial wrist cutting in a non-suicidal fashion. Within the current healthcare system in Japan, the average amount of time a doctor can spend with a psychiatric outpatient is about 8 to 15 minutes. We, therefore, examined whether repeated 15-minute psychotherapy sessions to improve patient assertiveness would be effective for reducing wrist cutting and possibly other forms of self-mutilation. We treated 13 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and wrist-cutting syndrome with assertiveness training during 15-minute, biweekly therapy sessions over a course of one to four years. At the conclusion of psychotherapeutic treatment, 69% of outpatients showed a statistically significant reduction in wrist-cutting behavior.

  17. Relationships between rating-of-perceived-exertion- and heart-rate-derived internal training load in professional soccer players: a comparison of on-field integrated training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Vazquez, Miguel Angel; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Gonzalez-Jurado, Jose Antonio; León-Prados, Juan Antonio; Santalla, Alfredo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To describe the internal training load (ITL) of common training sessions performed during a typical week and to determine the relationships between different indicators of ITL commonly employed in professional football (soccer). Session-rating-of-perceived-exertion TL (sRPE-TL) and heart-rate- (HR) derived measurements of ITL as Edwards TL and Stagno training impulses (TRIMPMOD) were used in 9 players during 3 periods of the season. The relationships between them were analyzed in different training sessions during a typical week: skill drills/circuit training + small-sided games (SCT+SSGs), ball-possession games+technical-tactical exercises (BPG+TTE), tactical training (TT), and prematch activation (PMa). HR values obtained during SCT+SSGs and BPG+TTE were substantially greater than those in the other 2 sessions, all the ITL markers and session duration were substantially greater in SCT+SSGs than in any other session, and all ITL measures in BPG+TTE were substantially greater than in TT and PMa sessions. Large relationships were found between HR>80% HRmax and HR>90% HRmax vs sRPE-TL during BPG+TTE and TT sessions (r=.61-.68). Very large relationships were found between Edwards TL and sRPE-TL and between TRIMPMOD and sRPE-TL in sessions with BPG+TTE and TT (r=.73-.87). Correlations between the different HR-based methods were always extremely large (r=.92-.98), and unclear correlations were observed for other relationships between variables. sRPE-TL provided variable-magnitude within-individual correlations with HR-derived measures of training intensity and load during different types of training sessions typically performed during a week in professional soccer. Caution should be applied when using RPE- or HR-derived measures of exercise intensity/load in soccer training interchangeably.

  18. Practicing the Test Produces Strength Equivalent to Higher Volume Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kevin T; Buckner, Samuel L; Jessee, Matthew B; Dankel, Scott J; Mouser, J Grant; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-09-01

    To determine if muscle growth is important for increasing muscle strength or if changes in strength can be entirely explained from practicing the strength test. Thirty-eight untrained individuals performed knee extension and chest press exercise for 8 wk. Individuals were randomly assigned to either a high-volume training group (HYPER) or a group just performing the one repetition maximum (1RM) strength test (TEST). The HYPER group performed four sets to volitional failure (~8RM-12RM), whereas the TEST group performed up to five attempts to lift as much weight as possible one time each visit. Data are presented as mean (90% confidence interval). The change in muscle size was greater in the HYPER group for both the upper and lower bodies at most but not all sites. The change in 1RM strength for both the upper body (difference of -1.1 [-4.8, 2.4] kg) and lower body (difference of 1.0 [-0.7, 2.8] kg for dominant leg) was not different between groups (similar for nondominant). Changes in isometric and isokinetic torque were not different between groups. The HYPER group observed a greater change in muscular endurance (difference of 2 [1,4] repetitions) only in the dominant leg. There were no differences in the change between groups in upper body endurance. There were between-group differences for exercise volume (mean [95% confidence interval]) of the dominant (difference of 11,049.3 [9254.6-12,844.0] kg) leg (similar for nondominant) and chest press with the HYPER group completing significantly more total volume (difference of 13259.9 [9632.0-16,887.8] kg). These findings suggest that neither exercise volume nor the change in muscle size from training contributed to greater strength gains compared with just practicing the test.

  19. Improved skeletal muscle mass and strength after heavy strength training in very old individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær; Gliese, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    , muscle fiber type distribution and size did not differ significantly between groups. We conclude that in protein supplemented very old individuals, heavy resistance training can increase muscle mass and strength, and that the relative improvement in mass is more pronounced when initial muscle mass is low.......Age-related loss of muscle mass and function represents personal and socioeconomic challenges. The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptation of skeletal musculature in very old individuals (83 + years) performing 12 weeks of heavy resistance training (3 ×/week) (HRT) compared to a non....... The increase in CSA is correlated inversely with the baseline level of CSA (R2 = 0.43, P muscle isometric strength, isokinetic peak torque and power increased significantly only in HRT by 10–15%, whereas knee extension one-repetition maximum (1 RM) improved by 91%. Physical functional tests...

  20. CERN Technical Training 2006: Software and System Technologies Curriculum - Scheduled Course Sessions (October-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    he Software and System Technologies Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme offers comprehensive training in C++, Java, Perl, Python, XML, OO programming, JCOP/PVSS, database design and Oracle. In the PERL, C++, OO and Java course series there are some places available on the following course sessions, scheduled until the end of this year: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17-19 October 2006 (3 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1: Web Applications: 19-20 October 2006 (2 days) JAVA - Level 1: 30 Oct. -1 Nov. 2006 (3 days) PERL 5 - Advanced Aspects: 2 November 2006 (1 day) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming: 14-16 November 2006 (3 days) JAVA - Level 2: 4-7 December 2006 (4 days) C++ Programming Part 2 - Advanced C++ and its Traps and Pitfalls: 12-15 December 2006 (4 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBeans : 18.20 December 2006 (3 days) All the above sessions will be given in English, at the CERN Training Centre....

  1. Acute hemodynamic responses following a training session with active video game in wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael José Perrier Melo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed:This study aimed to analyze the hemodynamic responses during an active game session (VGA with the use of a wheelchair. Method: Twelve subjects (6 men and 6 women (24 ± 3.98 years; 22.6 ± 2.17 kg / m2 , apparently healthy (PAR-Q, not wheelchair users. Rest measures for heart rate (HR: bpm, blood pressure (BP;mmHg and calculation of double product (DP; mmHg/bpm were taken following the anthropometric assessment. Subsequently, they performed a session of Kinect Sports Boxing game for 15 minutes. The variables HR, BP and DP were measured at rest, during and after the session. Data was analyzed using the Friedman’s test with Dunn’s post hoc test for no parametric data to compare pre, during and post session. Values of p<0.05 were accepted as significant. Results: Immediately post session data showed significant increases in HR, SBP and DP for both men (HR: 68.00 ± 8.99 vs 105.17 ± 22.55; PAS: 123.67 ± 68 vs 134.17 ± 8.23; DP = 8446.00 ± 1453.54 vs 3628.76 ± 14217.50 and women (HR: 68.00 ± 8.00 vs 126.00 ± 20.44; PAS: 100.33 ± 8.82 vs 113.17 ± 9.15; DP: 6.843 ± 1160.36 vs 3597.45 ± 14 405. Similarly, after the experimental session were observed significant decreases in HR, SBP and DP compared to the immediately post session, for both boys and for girls. (HR: 74.67 ± 9.46 vs 105.17 ± 22.55; SBP: 121 ± 5.62 vs 134.17 ± 8.23; SD: 9066.50 ± 1449.98 vs 14217.50 ± 3628.76 and for women (HR: 76.83 ± 9.02 vs 126.00 ± 20.44; PAS: 100.67 ± 3.01 vs 113.17 ± 9.15; DP= 7745.33 ± 1025.34 vs 3597.45 ± 14.405. Conclusion: The practice of VGAs contributes to increased hemodynamic demands, being a safe alternative in the period of rehabilitation and training for athletes using wheelchair.

  2. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalla, Alfredo; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Brea-Alejo, Lidia; Pagola-Aldazábal, Itziar; Díez-Bermejo, Jorge; Fleck, Steven J; Ara, Ignacio; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting) training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female) on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA), strength, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities' lean mass (P training by +855 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 1679) and +547 g (95%CI: 116, 978), respectively, and significantly decreasing with detraining. Body fat showed no significant changes over the study period. Bench press and half-squat performance, expressed as the highest value of average muscle power (W) or force (N) in the concentric-repetition phase of both tests showed a consistent increase over the 4-month training period, and decreased with detraining. Yet muscle strength and power detraining values were significantly higher than pre-training values, indicating that a training effect was still present after detraining. Importantly, all the participants, with no exception, showed a clear gain in muscle strength after the 4-month training period, e.g., bench press: +52 W (95% CI: 13, 91); half-squat: +173 W (95% CI: 96, 251). No significant time effect (P > 0.05) was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3) after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as class 1 for disease severity.

  3. Augmenting one-session treatment of children's specific phobias with attention training to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Farrell, Lara J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Milliner, Ella; Tiralongo, Evelin; Donovan, Caroline L; McConnell, Harry; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy of combining two promising approaches to treating children's specific phobias, namely attention training and one 3-h session of exposure therapy ('one-session treatment', OST). Attention training towards positive stimuli (ATP) and OST (ATP+OST) was expected to have more positive effects on implicit and explicit cognitive mechanisms and clinical outcome measures than an attention training control (ATC) condition plus OST (ATC+OST). Thirty-seven children (6-17 years) with a specific phobia were randomly assigned to ATP+OST or ATC+OST. In ATP+OST, children completed 160 trials of attention training responding to a probe that always followed the happy face in happy-angry face pairs. In ATC+OST, the probe appeared equally often after angry and happy faces. In the same session, children completed OST targeting their phobic situation/object. Clinical outcomes included clinician, parent and child report measures. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in terms of change in attention bias to happy and angry faces and in danger and coping expectancies. Assessments were completed before and after treatment and three-months later. Compared to ATC+OST, the ATP+OST condition produced (a) significantly greater reductions in children's danger expectancies about their feared situations/object during the OST and at three-month follow-up, and (b) significantly improved attention bias towards positive stimuli at post-treatment, which in turn, predicted a lower level of clinician-rated phobia diagnostic severity three-months after treatment. There were no significant differences between ATP+OST and ATC+OST conditions in clinician, parent, or child-rated clinical outcomes. Training children with phobias to focus on positive stimuli is effective in increasing attention towards positive stimuli and reducing danger expectancy biases. Studies with larger sample sizes and a stronger 'dose' of ATP prior to the OST may reveal promising outcomes on clinical measures

  4. Training sessions for radiation protection. A singular occasion to analyze the risk perception by nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudie, M.

    1986-04-01

    The training sessions for radiation protection - given on the one hand to employees of the decontamination and storage action section, of the nuclear center of Saclay, and on the other hand to technicians of low and medium activity laboratories - represent a goog ground to test hypotheses mentioned at the origin of the analysis of the perception of risk by the nuclear workers undertaken by the Laboratoire d'Etude du Facteur Humain (L.E.F.H., Human Factor Analysis Laboratory) of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA, Atomic Energy Commission of France)

  5. STS-37 crewmembers test CETA hand cart during training session in JSC's WETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt test crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross pulls the CETA manual cart along the rail while Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The test will determine how difficult it is to maneuver cargo in such a manner when it is done in space on STS-37. The goal is to find the best method for astronauts to move around the exterior of Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  6. CERN Technical Training 2005: New Short Course (SC) Sessions on Office Software - July 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    The following new course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2005, within the Office Software curriculum: OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course I) - E-mail : 6.7.2005 (morning) OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course II) - Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 7.7.2005 (morning) OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course III) - Meetings and Delegation : 8.7.2005 (morning) WORD 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with repetitive tasks: 4.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge : 5.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course III) - HowTo... Work with long documents : 6.7.2005 (afternoon) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with formulae : 7.7.2005 (afternoon) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Format your worksheet for printing : 8.7.2005 (afternoon) All the above sessions are organised in the new format of Short Courses (SC): 3 hour sessions (9h30-12h30 or 14h30-17h30), at a nominal cost of 75.- CHF per person per course. Any course can be followed independe...

  7. Changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Cunha, Raphael; Raiana Bentes, Mariana; Araújo, Victor H; DA Costa Souza, Mayara C; Vasconcelos Noleto, Marcelo; Azevedo Soares, Ademar; Machado Lehnen, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Blood glucose changes response during and after exercise are modulated by the postabsorptive state, intensity and duration of exercise, and the level of physical fitness as well. This study focused on the idea that high-intensity interval exercise, as mini-trampoline class, can reduce blood glucose. Thus, we examined acute changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session. Twenty-four normoglycemic adult subjects were enrolled in the study. After physical assessment they were randomly assigned to either the experimental (N.=12) or the control group (N.=12). The experimental group performed a 50-minute session of moderate-to-high intensity (70 to 85% HRmax) exercise on a mini-trampoline commonly used in fitness classes. The control group did not perform any exercise, and all procedures were otherwise similar to the experimental group. Capillary blood glucose was measured before and every 15 minutes during the exercise session. The effects of exercise on blood glucose levels (group; time; and group interaction) were estimated using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc Test (Ptrampoline can be used for reducing blood glucose levels and thus can potentially control blood glucose.

  8. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  9. The effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and long-term memory in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Helle; Ladewig, Jan; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    dogs such as guide dogs and police dogs, also the training of family dogs can benefit from this knowledge. We studied the effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and on long-term memory. Forty-four laboratory Beagles were divided into 4 groups and trained by means......Most domestic dogs are subjected to some kind of obedience training, often on a frequent basis, but the question of how often and for how long a dog should be trained has not been fully investigated. Optimizing the training as much as possible is not only an advantage in the training of working...

  10. Vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy are not altered 6 hours after strength training in collegiate women basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Bailey, Brooke Kerbs; Allsen, Philip E

    2004-08-01

    We measured vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy in 18 Division I women basketball players (age 18-22 years) 6 hours following a morning strength training routine called a lift day (LD) and on a control day in which no strength training was performed. Subjects had been strength trained for 4 weeks prior to testing. The strength training session on lift day was a full-body workout and included 7 exercises performed in 3-6 sets at loads ranging from a 5 to 12 repetition maximum (RM). There were no significant differences in jump height with 2 legs (49.5 +/- 4.8 cm and 49.0 +/- 4.8 cm, LD and control, respectively), relative mean power output over 30 seconds on a Wingate bicycle test (6.4 +/- 0.8 W.kg(-1) and 6.6 +/- 0.7 W.kg(-1), LD and control, respectively), or shooting accuracy over 60 seconds (21.5 +/- 3.8 points/min and 21.3 +/- 4.1 points/min, LD and control, respectively). These data suggest that in collegiate women basketball players, a previous bout of strength training has no negative effect on vertical jump height, anaerobic power, or shooting accuracy.

  11. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm. During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm. Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2] repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018 of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61 after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes.

  12. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, C; Pekünlü, E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week) participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm). During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm). Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2]) repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018) of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61) after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes.

  13. Effects of plyometric training volume and training surface on explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different volume and training surfaces during a short-term plyometric training program on neuromuscular performance. Twenty-nine subjects were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control group (CG, n = 5), moderate volume group (MVG, n = 9, 780 jumps), moderate volume hard surface group (MVGHS, n = 8, 780 jumps), and high volume group (HVG, n = 7, 1,560 jumps). A series of tests were performed by the subjects before and after 7 weeks of plyometric training. These tests were measurement of maximum strength (5 maximum repetitions [5RMs]), drop jumps (DJs) of varying heights (20, 40, and 60 cm), squat and countermovement jumps (SJ and CMJ, respectively), timed 20-m sprint, agility, body weight, and height. The results of the present study suggest that high training volume leads to a significant increase in explosive performance that requires fast stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions (such as DJ and sprint) in comparison to what is observed after a moderate training volume regimen. Second, when plyometric training is performed on a hard training surface (high-impact reaction force), a moderate training volume induces optimal stimulus to increase explosive performance requiring fast SSC actions (e.g., DJ), maximal dynamic strength enhancement, and higher training efficiency. Thus, a finding of interest in the study was that after 7 weeks of plyometric training, performance enhancement in maximal strength and in actions requiring fast SSC (such as DJ and sprint) were dependent on the volume of training and the surface on which it was performed. This must be taken into account when using plyometric training on different surfaces.

  14. Progressive-overload whole-body vibration training as part of periodized, off-season strength training in trained women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of progressive-overload, whole-body vibration (WBV) training on strength and power as part of a 15-week periodized, strength training (ST) program. Eighteen collegiate women athletes with ≥1 year of ST and no prior WBV training participated in the crossover design. Random assignment to 1 of the 2 groups followed pretests of seated medicine ball throw (SMBT), single-leg hop for distance (LSLH, RSLH), countermovement jump (CMJ), 3 repetition maximum (3RM) front squat (FS), pull-up (PU), and 3RM bench press (BP). Whole-body vibration was two 3-week phases of dynamic and static hold body weight exercises administered 2 d·wk in ST sessions throughout the 15-week off-season program. Total WBV exposure was 6 minutes broken into 30-second bouts with 60-second rest (1:2 work-to-relief ratio). Exercises, frequency, and amplitude progressed in intensity from the first 3-week WBV training to the second 3-week phase. Repeated-measures analysis of variances were used to analyze the SMBT, CMJ, LSLH, RSLH, FS, PU, and BP tests. Alpha level was p ≤ 0.05. Front squat, LSLH, and RSLH increased (p = 0.001) from pre- to posttest; FS increased from mid- to posttest. Pull-up increased (p = 0.008) from pre- to posttest. Seated medicine ball throw and BP showed a trend of increased performance from pre- to posttest (p = 0.11). Two 3-week phases of periodized, progressive-overload WBV + ST training elicited gains in strength and power during a 15-week off-season program. Greatest improvements in performance tests occurred in the initial WBV phase. Implementing WBV in conjunction with ST appears to be more effective in the early phases of training.

  15. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessi...

  16. [Training of residents in obstetrics and gynecology: Assessment of an educational program including formal lectures and practical sessions using simulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A; El Haloui, O; Breaud, J; Chevalier, D; Antomarchi, J; Bongain, A; Boucoiran, I; Delotte, J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate an educational program in the training of residents in gynecology-obstetrics (GO) with a theory session and a practical session on simulators and analyze their learning curve. Single-center prospective study, at the university hospital (CHU). Two-day sessions were leaded in April and July 2013. An evaluation on obstetric and gynecological surgery simulator was available to all residents. Theoretical knowledge principles of obstetrics were evaluated early in the session and after formal lectures was taught to them. At the end of the first session, a satisfaction questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Twenty residents agreed to participate to the training sessions. Evaluation of theoretical knowledge: at the end of the session, the residents obtained a significant improvement in their score on 20 testing knowledge. Obstetrical simulator: a statistically significant improvement in scores on assessments simulator vaginal delivery between the first and second session. Subjectively, a larger increase feeling was seen after breech delivery simulation than for the cephalic vaginal delivery. However, the confidence level of the resident after breech delivery simulation has not been improved at the end of the second session. Simulation in gynecological surgery: a trend towards improvement in the time realized on the peg-transfer between the two sessions was noted. In the virtual simulation, no statistically significant differences showed, no improvement for in salpingectomy's time. Subjectively, the residents felt an increase in the precision of their gesture. Satisfaction: All residents have tried the whole program. They considered the pursuit of these sessions on simulators was necessary and even mandatory. The approach chosen by this structured educational program allowed a progression for the residents, both objectively and subjectively. This simulation program type for the resident's training would use this tool in assessing their skills and develop

  17. Acute Effects of the Elevation Training Mask on Strength Performance in Recreational Weight lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagim, Andrew R; Dominy, Trevor A; Camic, Clayton L; Wright, Glenn; Doberstein, Scott; Jones, Margaret T; Oliver, Jonathan M

    2018-02-01

    Jagim, AR, Dominy, TA, Camic, CL, Wright, G, Doberstein, S, Jones, MT, and Oliver, JM. Acute effects of the elevation training mask on strength performance in recreational weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 482-489, 2018-The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) is a novel device that purportedly simulates altitude training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of the ETM on resistance exercise performance, metabolic stress markers, and ratings of mental fatigue. Twenty male recreational weight lifters completed 2 training sessions of back squat and bench press (6 sets of 10 repetitions at 85% of 5-repetition maximum and seventh set to failure) as well as a maximal effort sprint test (18% body mass) with the mask (ETM) and without the mask (NM). Training evaluation included baseline and postexercise blood lactate and oxygen saturation measures. Performance evaluation included peak and average velocity bar velocity, total volume load, total work, total repetitions completed, and sprint performance. Adverse side effects were reported in 12% (n = 3) of participants, which included feelings of light headedness, anxiety, and discomfort. No differences were found in repetitions or total workload in back squat (p = 0.07) or bench press (p = 0.08) between conditions. A lower peak velocity was identified during the back squat, bench press, and sprint test in the ETM condition (p = 0.04). Blood lactate values were lower after bench press and sprint during the ETM condition (p bench press, and sprint test in the ETM condition compared with the NM condition (p velocity during training bouts and negatively influence ratings of alertness and focus for task.

  18. [Simulation as possible training for palliative emergencies: prospective initial data analysis of participants from two simulation training sessions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, C H R; Bosse, G; Schröder, T; Lassen, C L; Bundscherer, A C; Graf, B M; Zausig, Y A

    2015-01-01

    Palliative emergencies describe an acute situation in patients with a life-limiting illness. At present defined curricula for prehospital emergency physician training for palliative emergencies are limited. Simulation-based training (SBT) for such palliative emergency situations is an exception both nationally and internationally. This article presents the preparation of recommendations in the training and development of palliative care emergency situations. A selected literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline and the Cochrane database (1990-2013). Reference lists of included articles were checked by two reviewers. Data of the included articles were extracted, evaluated und summarized. In the second phase the participants of two simulated scenarios of palliative emergencies were asked to complete an anonymous 15-item questionnaire. The results of the literature search and the questionnaire-based investigation were compared and recommendations were formulated based on the results. Altogether 30 eligible national and international articles were included. Overall, training curricula in palliative emergencies are currently being developed nationally and internationally but are not yet widely integrated into emergency medical training and education. In the second part of the investigation, 25 participants (9 male, 16 female, 20 physicians and 5 nurses) were included in 4 multiprofessional emergency medical simulation training sessions. The most important interests of the participants were the problems for training and further education concerning palliative emergencies described in the national and international literature. The literature review and the expectations of the participants underlined that the development and characteristics of palliative emergencies will become increasingly more important in outpatient emergency medicine. All participants considered palliative care to be very important concerning the competency for end-of-life decisions

  19. High-frequency resistance training is not more effective than low-frequency resistance training in increasing muscle mass and strength in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gederson K; Franco, Cristiane M; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo P; Orsatti, Fábio L

    2018-02-27

    We studied the effects of two different weekly frequency resistance training (RT) protocols over eight weeks on muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in well-trained men. Twenty-three subjects (age: 26.2±4.2 years; RT experience: 6.9±3.1 years) were randomly allocated into the two groups: low frequency (LFRT, n = 12) or high frequency (HFRT, n = 11). The LFRT performed a split-body routine, training each specific muscle group once a week. The HFRT performed a total-body routine, training all muscle groups every session. Both groups performed the same number of sets (10-15 sets) and exercises (1-2 exercise) per week, 8-12 repetitions maximum (70-80% of 1RM), five times per week. Muscle strength (bench press and squat 1RM) and lean tissue mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed prior to and at the end of the study. Results showed that both groups improved (ptrained subjects when the sets and intensity are equated per week.

  20. Acute effect of passive static stretching on lower-body strength in moderately trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergley, Jeffrey C

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was conducted to determine the acute effect of passive static stretching (PSS) of the lower-body musculature on lower-body strength in a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat exercise in young (18-24 years.) moderately trained men (n = 17). Two supervised warm-up treatments were applied before each performance testing session using a counterbalanced design on nonconsecutive days. The first treatment consisted of an active dynamic warm-up (AD) with resistance machines (i.e., leg extension/leg flexion) and free weights (i.e., barbell squat), whereas the second treatment added PSS of the lower body plus the AD treatment. One repetition maximum was determined using the maximum barbell squat following a progressive loading protocol. Subjects were also asked to subjectively evaluate their lower-body stability during 1RM testing sessions for both the AD and PSS treatments. A significant decrease in 1RM (8.36%) and lower-body stability (22.68%) was observed after the PSS treatment. Plausible explanations for this observation may be related to a more compliant muscle tendon unit and/or altered or impaired neurologic function in the active musculature. It is also possible that strength was impaired by the PSS because of joint instability. The findings of this study suggest that intensive stretching such as lower-body PSS should be avoided before training the lower body or performing the 1RM in the squat exercise in favor of an AD dynamic warm-up using resistance training equipment in the lower-body musculature.

  1. Adaptive Hierarchical Control for the Muscle Strength Training of Stroke Survivors in Robot-Aided Upper-Limb Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength training for stroke patients is of vital importance for helping survivors to progressively restore muscle strength and improve the performance of their activities in daily living (ADL. An adaptive hierarchical therapy control framework which integrates the patient's real biomechanical state estimation with task-performance quantitative evaluation is proposed. Firstly, a high-level progressive resistive supervisory controller is designed to determine the resistive force base for each training session based on the patient's online task-performance evaluation. Then, a low-level adaptive resistive force triggered controller is presented to further regulate the interactive resistive force corresponding to the patient's real-time biomechanical state – characterized by the patient's bio-damping and bio-stiffness in the course of one training session, so that the patient is challenged in a moderate but engaging and motivating way. Finally, a therapeutic robot system using a Barrett WAM™ compliant manipulator is set up. We recruited eighteen inpatient and outpatient stroke participants who were randomly allocated in experimental (robot-aided and control (conventional physical therapy groups and enrolled for sixteen weeks of progressive resistance training. The preliminary results show that the proposed therapy control strategies can enhance the recovery of strength and motor control ability.

  2. Workplace strength training prevents deterioration of work ability among workers with chronic pain and work disability: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Imbalance between work demands and individual resources can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two contrasting interventions on work ability among slaughterhouse workers with chronic pain and work disability....... METHODS: Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with upper-limb chronic pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of either strength training for the shoulder, arm, and hand muscles (3 times per week, 10 minutes per session) or ergonomic training (usual care control group) from September.......9-3.7] in the strength training group corresponding to a moderate effect size (Cohen's d 0.52). Within-group changes indicated that between-group differences were mainly caused by a reduction in WAI in the ergonomic group. Of the 7 items of WAI, item 2 (work ability in relation to the demands of the job) and item 7...

  3. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AS THE TOOL OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVING OF FUTURE PHYSICS TEACHERS TRAINING TO LABORATORY SESSION IN OPTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the problem of the use of information technologies implementation as the tool of the efficiency improving of future physics teachers training to execution of laboratory session in Optics is considered in the article. The problems and contradictions concerning ICT tools use in higher education institutions, the work of which is aimed at future physics teachers training are described. Due to the specifics of future teachers training in higher education institutions, labor market requirements and public procurement, the main ICT tools are identified, that are effective in students’ self-activity work to laboratory session execution. The developed list of electronic resources is divided into blocks according to the topics of laboratory works in Optics. The methodology of using of ICT tools at future students training for laboratory session on the example of individual topics is considered.

  4. Alterations in Strength and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Consequent to Nautilus Circuit Weight Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Dill, Mary Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    The study compared the effects on muscular strength and maximal oxygen uptake of a Nautilus circuit weight training program, a free weight strength training program, and a running program. Nautilus circuit weight training appears to be equally effective for a training period of short duration. (MT)

  5. A pilot study of a single-session training to promote mindful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jayme; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Block-Lerner, Jennifer; McMahon, Cori

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers have not yet examined the applicability of mindfulness for weight-gain prevention, mindfulness training has the potential to increase an individual's awareness of factors that enable an individual to avoid weight gain caused by overconsumption. The study intended to examine the effects of 1 h of mindfulness training on state mindfulness and food consumption. The research team performed a pilot study. The study occurred at an urban, northeastern, Catholic university. Participants were 26 undergraduate, English-speaking students who were at least 18 y old (77% female, 73% Caucasian). Students with food allergies, an inability to fast, or a current or past diagnosis of an eating disorder were ineligible. Participants fasted for 4 h. Between the third and fourth hours, they attended a 1-h session of mindfulness training that integrated three experiential mindfulness exercises with group discussion. Following training, they applied the skills they learned during a silent lunch. The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS), the Awareness subscale of the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS-AW), and a modified version of the Acting with Awareness subscale of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-AW) were used preand posttraining to assess changes in state mindfulness, present-moment awareness, and mealtime awareness, respectively. A postmeal, subjective hunger/fullness Likert scale was used to assess food consumption (healthy vs unhealthy consumption). The study found a statistically significant increase in state mindfulness (P=.002). Eighty-six percent of participants engaged in healthy food consumption. No statistically significant changes occurred in either present-moment awareness (P=.617) or mealtime awareness (P=.483). Preliminary results suggest promising benefits for use of mindfulness training on weight-gain prevention in healthy individuals. More research is needed to understand the impact that mindfulness may have on long-term, weight

  6. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH VS. BALLISTIC-POWER TRAINING ON THROWING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Zaras

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9 and Power (n = 8 groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ, Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively. Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively, while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05. Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05, while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (% decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations

  7. Effects of In-Season Explosive Strength Training on Maximal Leg Strength, Jumping, Sprinting, and Intermittent Aerobic Performance in Male Handball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Fieseler, Georg; Bartels, Thomas; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Schwesig, René

    2017-09-01

    Background  Team handball is an intense ball sport with specific requirements on technical skills, tactical understanding, and physical performance. The ability of handball players to develop explosive efforts (e. g. sprinting, jumping, changing direction) is crucial to success. Objective  The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of an in-season high-intensity strength training program on the physical performance of elite handball players. Materials and methods  Twenty-two handball players (a single national-level Tunisian team) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n = 10) or a training group (TG; n = 12). At the beginning of the pilot study, all subjects performed a battery of motor tests: one repetition maximum (1-RM) half-squat test, a repeated sprint test [6 × (2 × 15 m) shuttle sprints], squat jumps, counter movement jumps (CMJ), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1. The TG additionally performed a maximal leg strength program twice a week for 10 weeks immediately before engaging in regular handball training. Each strength training session included half-squat exercises to strengthen the lower limbs (80 - 95 % of 1-RM, 1 - 3 repetitions, 3 - 6 sets, 3 - 4 min rest between sets). The control group underwent no additional strength training. The motor test battery was repeated at the end of the study interventions. Results  In the TG, 3 parameters (maximal strength of lower limb: η² = 0.74; CMJ: η² = 0.70, and RSA best time: η² = 0.25) showed significant improvements, with large effect sizes (e. g. CMJ: d = 3.77). A reduction in performance for these same 3 parameters was observed in the CG (d = -0.24). Conclusions  The results support our hypothesis that additional strength training twice a week enhances the maximal strength of the lower limbs and jumping or repeated sprinting performance. There was no evidence of shuttle sprints ahead of regular

  8. CERN Technical Training 2006: LabVIEW Course Sessions (September-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The following LabVIEW course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2006, and in collaboration with National Instruments (CH): LabVIEW Basics 1 (course in English): 11-13.9.2006 (3 days, only 3 places available) LabVIEW Basics 2 (course in English): 14-15.9.2006 (2 days) LabVIEW: Working efficiently with LabVIEW 8 (course in English): 18.9.2006 (1 day) **NEW COURSE** LabVIEW Application Development (course in English): 13-15.11.2006 (3 days. Pre-requisite: LabVIEW Basics I ans II, or equivalent experience) LabVIEW Advanced Programming (course in English): 16-17.11.2006 (2 days. Pre-requisite: LabVIEW Application Development, or equivalent experience) LabVIEW Base 1 (course in French): 4-6.12.2006 (3 days, only 1 place available) LabVIEW Base 2 (course in French): 7-8.12.2006 (2 days) If you are interested in attending any of the above course sessions, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO, and apply electronically via EDH from the cour...

  9. CERN Technical Training 2006: LabVIEW Course Sessions (September-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The following LabVIEW course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2006, and in collaboration with National Instruments (CH): LabVIEW Basics 1 (course in English): 11-13.9.2006 (3 days, only 3 places available) (course in English): 14-15.9.2006 (2 days) LabVIEW: Working efficiently with LabVIEW 8 (course in English): 18.9.2006 (1 day) **NEW COURSE** LabVIEW Application Development (course in English): 13-15.11.2006 (3 days. Pre-requisite: LabVIEW Basics I ans II, or equivalent experience) LabVIEW Advanced Programming (course in English): 16-17.11.2006 (2 days. Pre-requisite: LabVIEW Application Development, or equivalent experience) LabVIEW Base 1 (course in French): 4-6.12.2006 (3 days, only 1 place available) LabVIEW Base 2 (course in French): 7-8.12.2006 (2 days) If you are interested in attending any of the above course sessions, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO,...

  10. Effect of resistance training on muscle strength and rate of force development in healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizelini, Pedrode Camargo; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Caputo, Fabrizio; Greco, Camila Coelho

    2018-02-01

    Rapid force capacity, identified by rate of rise in contractile force at the onset of contraction, i.e., the rate of force development (RFD), has been considered an important neuromuscular parameter of physical fitness in elderly individuals. Randomized control studies conducted in adults have found that resistance training may elicit different outcomes in terms of RFD and muscle strength. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to review systematically the literature for studies regarding the influence of resistance training on muscle strength and RFD in elderly persons. A literature search was performed in major electronic databases from inception to March 2017. Studies including health individuals with a mean age≥60years, describing the effect of resistance training on RFD and muscle strength were found eligible. The outcomes were calculated as the difference in percentage change between control and experimental groups (% change) and data were presented as mean±95% confidence limits. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model and, in addition, simple and multiple meta-regression analyses were used to identify effects of age, training type, sessions per week and training duration on % change in RFD and muscle strength. Thirteen training effects were collected from 10 studies included in the meta-analysis. The resistance training program had a moderate beneficial effect on both muscle strength (% change=18.40%, 95% CL 13.69-23.30, pchange=26.68, 95% CL 14.41-35.52, pchanges in muscle strength and RFD. It can be concluded that explosive training and heavy strength training are effective resistance training methods aiming to improve both muscle strength and RFD after short-to-medium training period. However, muscle strength and RFD seem to adapt differently to resistance training programs, suggesting caution for their interchangeable use in clinical assessments of the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The physiological response to cold-water immersion following a mixed martial arts training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Carr, Sam; Cross, Sean; Petersen, Carl; Lewis, John G; Gieseg, Steven P

    2017-05-01

    Combative sport is one of the most physically intense forms of exercise, yet the effect of recovery interventions has been largely unexplored. We investigated the effect of cold-water immersion on structural, inflammatory, and physiological stress biomarkers following a mixed martial arts (MMA) contest preparation training session in comparison with passive recovery. Semiprofessional MMA competitors (n = 15) were randomly assigned to a cold-water immersion (15 min at 10 °C) or passive recovery protocol (ambient air) completed immediately following a contest preparation training session. Markers of muscle damage (urinary myoglobin), inflammation/oxidative stress (urinary neopterin + total neopterin (neopterin + 7,8-dihydroneopterin)), and hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) activation (saliva cortisol) were determined before, immediately after, and 1, 2, and 24 h postsession. Ratings of perceived soreness and fatigue, counter movement jump, and gastrointestinal temperature were also measured. Concentrations of all biomarkers increased significantly (p < 0.05) postsession. Cold water immersion attenuated increases in urinary neopterin (p < 0.05, d = 0.58), total neopterin (p < 0.05, d = 0.89), and saliva cortisol after 2 h (p < 0.05, d = 0.68) and urinary neopterin again at 24 h (p < 0.01, d = 0.57) in comparison with passive recovery. Perceived soreness, fatigue, and gastrointestinal temperatures were also lower for the cold-water immersion group at several time points postsession whilst counter movement jump did not differ. Combative sport athletes who are subjected to impact-induced stress may benefit from immediate cold-water immersion as a simple recovery intervention that reduces delayed onset muscle soreness as well as macrophage and HPA activation whilst not impairing functional performance.

  12. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters.

  13. Cold-water immersion after training sessions: Effects on fiber type-specific adaptations in muscle K+ transport proteins to sprint-interval training in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Danny; Bishop, David John; Broatch, James R; Bangsbo, Jens; McKenna, Michael John; Murphy, Robyn M

    2018-05-10

    Effects of regular use of cold-water immersion (CWI) on fiber type-specific adaptations in muscle K + transport proteins to intense training, along with their relationship to changes in mRNA levels after the first training session, were investigated in humans. Nineteen recreationally-active men (24{plus minus}6 y, 79.5{plus minus}10.8 kg, 44.6{plus minus}5.8 mL∙kg -1 ∙min -1 ) completed six weeks of sprint-interval cycling either without (passive rest; CON) or with training sessions followed by CWI (15 min at 10{degree sign}C; COLD). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after training to determine abundance of Na + ,K + -ATPase isoforms (α 1-3 , β 1-3 ) and FXYD1, and after recovery treatments (+0h and +3h) on the first day of training to measure mRNA content. Training increased (ptraining (p>0.05). CWI after each session did not influence responses to training (p>0.05). However, α 2 mRNA increased after the first session in COLD (+0h, p0.05). In both conditions, α 1 and β 3 mRNA increased (+3h; p 0.05) after the first session. In summary, Na + ,K + -ATPase isoforms are differently regulated in type I and II muscle fibers by sprint-interval training in humans, which for most isoforms do not associate with changes in mRNA levels after the first training session. CWI neither impairs nor improves protein adaptations to intense training of importance for muscle K + regulation.

  14. Within-session responses to high-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-02-01

    Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake. During subsequent sessions, they completed moderate intensity exercise, HIIT, or sprint interval training. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased (p  0.05) to moderate intensity exercise. Peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were higher (p HIIT (90% peak oxygen uptake and 99% peak heart rate) and sprint interval training (80% peak oxygen uptake and 96% peak heart rate) versus moderate intensity exercise. Despite a higher intensity and peak cardiorespiratory strain, all participants preferred interval training versus moderate exercise. Examining long-term efficacy and feasibility of interval training in this population is merited, considering that exercise intensity is recognized as the most important variable factor of exercise programming to optimize maximal oxygen uptake. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury (SCI) reduces locomotion which impairs voluntary physical activity, typically resulting in a reduction in peak oxygen uptake and enhanced chronic disease risk. In various able-bodied populations, completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been consistently reported to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and other health-related outcomes, although its efficacy in persons with SCI is poorly understood. Data from this study in 9 men and women with SCI show similar changes in oxygen uptake and heart in response to HIIT compared to a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise, although peak values were higher in response to HIIT. Due to

  15. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: Clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eSantalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA, strength, serum creatine kinase (CK activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥ 84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities’ lean mass (P0.05 was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3 after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as class 1 for

  16. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, psquats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term. Key points Jump squat exercise is one of many exercises to develop explosive strength that has been the focus of several researches, while the load used during the training seem to be an important factor that affects training outcomes. Experimental group improved performance in all assessed parameters, such as Fmax, RFD100, CMJ, SJ and 50 m sprint time. However, improvements in CMJ and SJ were recorded after the entire power training period and thereafter plateau occurred. The portable FitroDyne could serve as a valuable device to individualize the load that maximizes mean power output and visual feedback can be provided to athletes during the training. PMID:27803628

  17. Coordinated Analysis 101: A Joint Training Session Sponsored by LPI and ARES/JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), co-sponsored a training session in November 2016 for four early-career scientists in the techniques of coordinated analysis. Coordinated analysis refers to the approach of systematically performing high-resolution and -precision analytical studies on astromaterials, particularly the very small particles typical of recent and near-future sample return missions such as Stardust, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, and OSIRIS-REx. A series of successive analytical steps is chosen to be performed on the same particle, as opposed to separate subsections of a sample, in such a way that the initial steps do not compromise the results from later steps in the sequence. The data from the entire series can then be integrated for these individual specimens, revealing important in-sights obtainable no other way. ARES/JSC scientists have played a leading role in the development and application of this approach for many years. Because the coming years will bring new sample collections from these and other planned NASA and international exploration missions, it is timely to begin disseminating specialized techniques for the study of small and precious astromaterial samples. As part of the Cooperative Agreement between NASA and the LPI, this training workshop was intended as the first in a series of similar training exercises that the two organizations will jointly sponsor in the coming years. These workshops will span the range of analytical capabilities and sample types available at ARES/JSC in the Astromaterials Research and Astro-materials Acquisition and Curation Offices. Here we summarize the activities and participants in this initial training.

  18. Changes in muscle strength in elderly women after proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation based training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivã Bernardo da Silva

    Full Text Available Introduction Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF can be used to improve the quality of life of both healthy and diseased subjects, including the elderly, who suffer muscular weakness due to aging, leading to an impairment in functional capacity. Objective Verify the effectiveness of PNF as a tool for functional conditioning. Materials and methods We evaluated a total of ten elderly women aged 60–70 years, clinically healthy and physically active. They had the force of motion of hip flexion with knee extension analyzed by an analog dynamometer. They were then randomly and equally divided into experimental (EG and control group (CG. The GC was instructed to continue with their normal activities while the GE held 15 training sessions in the lower limb (LL based on the diagonal D1 and D2. Finally, a new collection wrench the two groups was performed and the data compared. Results There was a significant increase in the average strength of GE, on the order of 31% (p 0.05. Discussion : The results confirm that the FNP through initial work of readjustment and proprioceptive neuromuscular activation, and after that, conditioning of the muscle fibers (mainly resistive is capable of amplifying the force developed by the muscle. Conclusion The PNF was effective as training to gain muscle strength, should be better analyzed as a tool fitness, not to cause health risks, have low cost and easy application.

  19. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  20. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  2. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Behm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics, there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with

  3. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  4. TECHNICAL TRAINING PROGRAMME MISE A JOUR AUTOCAD 14 VERS 2002: DERNIERE SESSION - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    Dans le cadre de la transition vers AutoCAD 2002, le service de l'Enseignement Technique va proposer les 25 et 26 avril prochains la dernière session du cours « Mise à jour AutoCAD 14 vers 2002 ». Le coût du cours est fixé à 400 CHF. Au terme de ce cours, les participants seront capables de mettre en oeuvre toutes les améliorations et nouvelles fonctionnalités offertes par le logiciel. Le cours est ciblé pour tout le personnel ayant à effectuer des études et des dessins techniques, mais n'utilisant pas AutoCAD dans son environnement mécanique. Plus d'information, et possibilité d'inscription par EDH sont accessibles depuis les pages Internet du Technical Training and Mechanical Design sous le chapitre « Conception assistée par ordinateur ». Merci de contacter Technical.Training@cern.ch et/ou Mme Monique Duval (74924) pour tout ren...

  5. CERN Technical Training 2006: Software and System Technologies Curriculum - Scheduled Course Sessions (August-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Software and System Technologies Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme offers comprehensive training in C++, Java, Perl, Python, XML, OO programming, JCOP/PVSS, database design and Oracle. In the PERL, C++, OO and Java course series there are some places available on the following course sessions, scheduled until the end of this year: PERL 5 - Introduction: 31.8-1.9.2006 (2 days) C++ for Particle Physicists: 16-20.10.2006 (6 half days, the popular course given by Paul Kunz) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17-19.10.2006 (3 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1: Web Applications: 19-20.10.2006 (2 days) JAVA - Level 1: 30.10-1.11.2006 (3 days) PERL 5 - Advanced Aspects: 2.11.2006 (1 day) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming: 14-16.11.2006 (3 days) JAVA - Level 2: 4-7.12.2006 (4 days) C++ Programming Part 2 - Advanced C++ and its Traps and Pitfalls: 12-15.12.2006 (4 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBea...

  6. CERN Technical Training 2006: Software and System Technologies Curriculum - Scheduled Course Sessions (October 2006-March 2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Software and System Technologies Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme offers comprehensive training in C++, Java, Perl, Python, XML, OO programming, JCOP/PVSS, database design and Oracle. In the Oracle, C++, OO and Java course series there are some places available on the following course sessions, currently scheduled until March 2007: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17-19 October 2006 (3 days) JAVA - Level 1: 30 October - 1 November 2006 (3 days) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming: 14-16 November 2006 (3 days) Oracle Database Server Administration: 23-29 November 2007 (5 days) JAVA - Level 2: 4-7 December 2006 (4 days) C++ Programming Part 2 - Advanced C++ and its Traps and Pitfalls: 12-15 December 2006 (4 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBeans: 18-20 December 2006 (3 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1: Web Applications: 15-16 January 2007 (2 days) C++ Programming Part 3 - Templates and the STL (St...

  7. CERN Technical Training 2002: Learning for the LHC! INTRODUCTION TO PVSS: FREE SESSION ON 11.11.2002 (AFTERNOON)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    A free-of-charge Introduction to PVSS session will be offered at CERN on November 11, 2002 (afternoon). This course is designed for people interested in SCADA-systems, and will provide an overview of PVSS features and possibilities. The programme will include a presentation of what can be done with the SCADA-system PVSS and of how PVSS is being used at CERN. A session of the complete Basic PVSS course would follow on 12-14 November (cost: 600.- CHF). More information, full programme and online registration by EDH are available from the CERN 2002 Technical Training pages or by contacting Technical.Training@cern.ch

  8. One session of strength exercise does not promote negative changes in the structure venous leg and thigh in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilson de Araújo Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the venous diameter is associated with the incompetence of the venous system of lower limb. In order to analyze the acute effects of one session of strength exercise (SE on superficial venous diameter (VD of the lower limbs (LL. Twenty-two men (22 ± 2 years old, 81.2 ± 13.4kg weight, 173.0 ± 4.0 cm height and 18.6 ± 3.3% estimated body fat performed a circuit of  three SE, with 3 sets of 6 repetitions, controlled by metronome, with a load of 85% (1-RM and 3 minutes rest. The VDs of the internal saphenous vein (ISV, in right and left LL, were measured at baseline and immediately after each set with color eco-Doppler. Data were analyzed by means of a one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. There was a significant effect of time for the right and left VSI (p= 0.001, the VDs at baseline were higher than in series for both. Furthermore, between sets, there was a significant decrease between the first and second (p= 0.009 and an increase between the second and third series (p= 0.027 for the right ISV. For the left ISV, only measured after the first and second are different (p= 0.001. There was a trend toward reduction in VD after the acute bout of strength exercise, indicating that their practice is efficient for the performance of this structure.

  9. MUSCLE STRENGTH AND DAMAGE FOLLOWING TWO MODES OF VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Jalal Aboodarda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nautilus Machine (NM and Elastic Resistance (ER have gained considerable popularity among athletes and recreational lifters seeking to increase muscle strength. However, there is controversy concerning the use of ER for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength among healthy-trained individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of repeated near maximal contractions by ER/NM on indicators of muscle damage including: maximal strength decrement (MVIC, rate of muscle soreness (DOMS, concentration of plasma creatine kinase (CK and increased high muscle signal on T2 weighted images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Nine healthy male subjects completed two modalities of exercise (5 sets × 10RM ER/NM in a counterbalance cross-over study design with three weeks "wash-out" period between experiments. The MVIC was measured and DOMS rated and recorded for 4 consecutive days while blood samples were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Prior to and forty eight hours after completion of each mode of exercise, subjects underwent MRI scanning. The average of applied forces demonstrated significantly higher value for NM compared with ER (362 ± 34.2 N vs 266.73 ± 44.6 N respectively throughout the 5 sets of dynamic exercise (all p < 0.05. However, the indicators of muscle damage (T2 relaxation time, DOMS, MVIC and serum CK exhibited a very similar response across both modes of training. Plasma CK increased significantly following both modes of training with the peak value on Day 3 (p < 0.05. The time course of muscle soreness reached a significant level after both modes of exercise and showed a peak value on the 2nd day (p < 0.05. The T2 relaxation time demonstrated a statistically significant increase following ER and NM compared with the pre-test value (p < 0.05. The similarity of these responses following both the ER and NM exercise training session suggests that both modes of training provide a similar training stress; despite a considerably

  10. A randomised controlled trial of three or one breathing technique training sessions for breathlessness in people with malignant lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam J; Kanaan, Mona; Richardson, Gerry; Nabb, Samantha; Torgerson, David; English, Anne; Barton, Rachael; Booth, Sara

    2015-09-07

    About 90 % of patients with intra-thoracic malignancy experience breathlessness. Breathing training is helpful, but it is unknown whether repeated sessions are needed. The present study aims to test whether three sessions are better than one for breathlessness in this population. This is a multi-centre randomised controlled non-blinded parallel arm trial. Participants were allocated to three sessions or single (1:2 ratio) using central computer-generated block randomisation by an independent Trials Unit and stratified for centre. The setting was respiratory, oncology or palliative care clinics at eight UK centres. Inclusion criteria were people with intrathoracic cancer and refractory breathlessness, expected prognosis ≥3 months, and no prior experience of breathing training. The trial intervention was a complex breathlessness intervention (breathing training, anxiety management, relaxation, pacing, and prioritisation) delivered over three hour-long sessions at weekly intervals, or during a single hour-long session. The main primary outcome was worst breathlessness over the previous 24 hours ('worst'), by numerical rating scale (0 = none; 10 = worst imaginable). Our primary analysis was area under the curve (AUC) 'worst' from baseline to 4 weeks. All analyses were by intention to treat. Between April 2011 and October 2013, 156 consenting participants were randomised (52 three; 104 single). Overall, the 'worst' score reduced from 6.81 (SD, 1.89) to 5.84 (2.39). Primary analysis [n = 124 (79 %)], showed no between-arm difference in the AUC: three sessions 22.86 (7.12) vs single session 22.58 (7.10); P value = 0.83); mean difference 0.2, 95 % CIs (-2.31 to 2.97). Complete case analysis showed a non-significant reduction in QALYs with three sessions (mean difference -0.006, 95 % CIs -0.018 to 0.006). Sensitivity analyses found similar results. The probability of the single session being cost-effective (threshold value of £20,000 per QALY) was over 80 %. There was no

  11. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...

  12. Investigating the Effects of Typical Rowing Strength Training Practices on Strength and Power Development and 2,000 m Rowing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gee Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of a short-term, strength training intervention, typically undertaken by club-standard rowers, on 2,000 m rowing performance and strength and power development. Twenty-eight male rowers were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. All participants performed baseline testing involving assessments of muscle soreness, creatine kinase activity (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (leg-extensors (MVC, static-squat jumps (SSJ, counter-movement jumps (CMJ, maximal rowing power strokes (PS and a 2,000 m rowing ergometer time-trial (2,000 m with accompanying respiratory-exchange and electromyography (EMG analysis. Intervention group participants subsequently performed three identical strength training (ST sessions, in the space of five days, repeating all assessments 24 h following the final ST. The control group completed the same testing procedure but with no ST. Following ST, the intervention group experienced significant elevations in soreness and CK activity, and decrements in MVC, SSJ, CMJ and PS (p < 0.01. However, 2,000 m rowing performance, pacing strategy and gas exchange were unchanged across trials in either condition. Following ST, significant increases occurred for EMG (p < 0.05, and there were non-significant trends for decreased blood lactate and anaerobic energy liberation (p = 0.063 – 0.086. In summary, club-standard rowers, following an intensive period of strength training, maintained their 2,000 m rowing performance despite suffering symptoms of muscle damage and disruption to muscle function. This disruption likely reflected the presence of acute residual fatigue, potentially in type II muscle fibres as strength and power development were affected.

  13. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p marathon running velocities (2.4 and 2.8 m·s⁻¹) and submaximal blood lactate thresholds (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mmol·L⁻¹). Stride length and stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short intervention period.

  15. Individual responses to combined endurance and strength training in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavirta, Laura; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kauhanen, Antti; Arija-Blázquez, Alfredo; Sillanpää, Elina; Rinkinen, Niina; Häkkinen, Arja

    2011-03-01

    A combination of endurance and strength training is generally used to seek further health benefits or enhanced physical performance in older adults compared with either of the training modes alone. The mean change within a training group, however, may conceal a wide range of individual differences in the responses. The purpose, therefore, was to examine the individual trainability of aerobic capacity and maximal strength, when endurance and strength training are performed separately or concurrently. For this study, 175 previously untrained volunteers, 89 men and 86 women between the ages of 40 and 67 yr, completed a 21-wk period of either strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (ES) four times per week, or served as controls. Training adaptations were quantified as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion and maximal isometric bilateral leg extension force (MVC) in a dynamometer. A large range in training responses, similar to endurance or strength training alone, was also observed with combined endurance and strength training in both ΔVO2peak (from -8% to 42%) and ΔMVC (from -12% to 87%). There were no significant correlations between the training responses in VO2peak and MVC in the E, S, or especially in the ES group, suggesting that the same subjects did not systematically increase both aerobic capacity and maximal strength. The goal of combined endurance and strength training--increasing both aerobic capacity and maximal strength simultaneously--was only achieved by some of the older subjects. New means are needed to personalize endurance, strength, and especially combined endurance and strength training programs for optimal individual adaptations.

  16. Influence of strength on magnitude and mechanisms of adaptation to power training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the magnitude of performance improvements and the mechanisms driving adaptation to ballistic power training differ between strong and weak individuals. Twenty-four men were divided into three groups on the basis of their strength level: stronger (n = 8, one-repetition maximum-to-body mass ratio (1RM/BM) = 1.97 +/- 0.08), weaker (n = 8, 1RM/BM = 1.32 +/- 0.14), or control (n = 8, 1RM/BM = 1.37 +/- 0.13). The stronger and weaker groups trained three times per week for 10 wk. During these sessions, subjects performed maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM. The impact of training on athletic performance was assessed using a 2-d testing battery that involved evaluation of jump and sprint performance as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P < or = 0.05) improvements in jump (stronger: peak power = 10.0 +/- 5.2 W.kg, jump height = 0.07 +/- 0.04 m; weaker: peak power = 9.1 +/- 2.3 W.kg, jump height = 0.06 +/- 0.04 m) and sprint performance after training (stronger: 40-m time = -2.2% +/- 2.0%; weaker: 40-m time = -3.6% +/- 2.3%). Effect size analyses revealed a tendency toward practically relevant differences existing between stronger and weaker individuals in the magnitude of improvements in jump performance (effect size: stronger: peak power = 1.55, jump height = 1.46; weaker: peak power = 1.03, jump height = 0.95) and especially after 5 wk of training (effect size: stronger: peak power = 1.60, jump height = 1.59; weaker: peak power = 0.95, jump height = 0.61). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P < or = 0.05) changes in the force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, and neural activation, with no changes to muscle architecture observed. The magnitude of improvements after ballistic power training was not significantly influenced by strength level. However, the training had a tendency toward

  17. Plyometric training improves voluntary activation and strength during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Mueller, Karoline; Heise, Sandra; Gube, Martin; Beuster, Nico; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Fischer, Dagmar-C; Bruhn, Sven

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated effects of plyometric training (6 weeks, 3 sessions/week) on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) strength and neural activation of the knee extensors during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Maximum voluntary torques (MVT) during the different types of contraction were measured at 110° knee flexion (180°=full extension). The interpolated twitch technique was applied at the same knee joint angle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to measure voluntary activation. In addition, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal at MVT was calculated. The twitch torque signal induced by electrical nerve stimulation at rest was used to evaluate training-related changes at the muscle level. In addition, jump height in countermovement jump was measured. After training, MVT increased by 20Nm (95% CI: 5-36Nm, P=0.012), 24Nm (95% CI: 9-40Nm, P=0.004) and 27Nm (95% CI: 7-48Nm, P=0.013) for isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs compared to controls, respectively. The strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation during isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs by 7.8% (95% CI: 1.8-13.9%, P=0.013), 7.0% (95% CI: 0.4-13.5%, P=0.039) and 8.6% (95% CI: 3.0-14.2%, P=0.005), respectively. Changes in the twitch torque signal of the resting muscle, induced by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve, were not observed, indicating no alterations at the muscle level, whereas jump height was increased. Given the fact that the training exercises consisted of eccentric muscle actions followed by concentric contractions, it is in particular relevant that the plyometric training increased MVC strength and neural activation of the quadriceps muscle regardless of the contraction mode. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The corticospinal responses of metronome-paced, but not self-paced strength training are similar to motor skill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael; Rantalainen, Timo; Teo, Wei-Peng; Kidgell, Dawson

    2017-12-01

    The corticospinal responses to skill training may be different to strength training, depending on how the strength training is performed. It was hypothesised that the corticospinal responses would not be different following skill training and metronome-paced strength training (MPST), but would differ when compared with self-paced strength training (SPST). Corticospinal excitability, short-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI) and strength and tracking error were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks. Participants (n = 44) were randomly allocated to visuomotor tracking, MPST, SPST or a control group. MPST increased strength by 7 and 18%, whilst SPST increased strength by 12 and 26% following 2 and 4 weeks of strength training. There were no changes in strength following skill training. Skill training reduced tracking error by 47 and 58% at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no changes in tracking error following SPST; however, tracking error reduced by 24% following 4 weeks of MPST. Corticospinal excitability increased by 40% following MPST and by 29% following skill training. There was no change in corticospinal excitability following 4 weeks of SPST. Importantly, the magnitude of change between skill training and MPST was not different. SICI decreased by 41 and 61% following 2 and 4 weeks of MPST, whilst SICI decreased by 41 and 33% following 2 and 4 weeks of skill training. Again, SPST had no effect on SICI at 2 and 4 weeks. There was no difference in the magnitude of SICI reduction between skill training and MPST. This study adds new knowledge regarding the corticospinal responses to skill and MPST, showing they are similar but different when compared with SPST.

  19. Workplace strength training prevents deterioration of work ability among workers with chronic pain and work disability: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Persson, Roger; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-05-01

    Imbalance between work demands and individual resources can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two contrasting interventions on work ability among slaughterhouse workers with chronic pain and work disability. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with upper-limb chronic pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of either strength training for the shoulder, arm, and hand muscles (3 times per week, 10 minutes per session) or ergonomic training (usual care control group) from September to December 2012. The outcome measure was the change from baseline to 10-week follow-up in the work ability index (WAI). A priori hypothesis testing showed a group×time interaction for WAI (Ptraining group, WAI increased 2.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.9-3.7] in the strength training group corresponding to a moderate effect size (Cohen's d 0.52). Within-group changes indicated that between-group differences were mainly caused by a reduction in WAI in the ergonomic group. Of the 7 items of WAI, item 2 (work ability in relation to the demands of the job) and item 7 (mental resources) increased following strength training compared with ergonomic training (Ptraining at the workplace prevents deterioration of work ability among manual workers with chronic pain and disability exposed to forceful and repetitive job tasks. Thus, strength training performed at the workplace may in fact be regarded as a complex biopsychosocial intervention modality that reaches further than the specific physiological benefits of training per se.

  20. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Improved Walking Capacity and Muscle Strength After Functional Power-Training in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    Background. Strength training programs for children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed inconclusive evidence for improving walking, despite improvements in strength. Recent studies have suggested that strength training with high movement velocity is more effective for improving walking than traditional

  2. Muscular strength after different types of training in physically active patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlberg, M.; Svantesson, U.; Magnusson, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Physical training is important in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Optimal types of training and intensity are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on muscular strength after 6 months of endurance training (ET) and/or resistance training (RT). Twenty patients....... Vitamin E and cytokines were analyzed. Fifteen tests of muscular strength were used. Handgrip strength in females and quadriceps strength in males were significantly decreased compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls and positively associated with lung function. Sixteen patients completed...

  3. Motor skill training and strength training are associated with different plastic changes in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Marstrand, Peter C.D.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Changes in corticospinal excitability induced by 4 wk of heavy strength training or visuomotor skill learning were investigated in 24 healthy human subjects. Measurements of the input-output relation for biceps brachii motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation...... decreased significantly at rest but not during contraction in the strength-trained subjects (P = 0.01). No significant changes were observed in a control group. A significant correlation between changes in neurophysiological parameters and motor performance was observed for skill learning but not strength...... were obtained at rest and during voluntary contraction in the course of the training. The training paradigms induced specific changes in the motor performance capacity of the subjects. The strength training group increased maximal dynamic and isometric muscle strength by 31% (P

  4. Progressive high-load strength training compared with general low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Kim G; Christensen, Robin; Sørensen, Lilli

    2015-01-01

    of this trial is to compare the efficacy of progressive high-load exercises with traditional low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Methods/Design: The current study is a randomised, participant- and assessor-blinded, controlled multicentre trial. A total of 260 patients with rotator...... cuff tendinopathy will be recruited from three outpatient shoulder departments in Denmark, and randomised to either 12 weeks of progressive high-load strength training or to general low-load exercises. Patients will receive six individually guided exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and perform...

  5. Effects of manipulating the duration and intensity of aerobic training sessions on the physical performance of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Barbosa, Nicolas Henrique Santos; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Cordeiro, Letícia Maria de Souza; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Pires, Washington; Soares, Danusa Dias; Wanner, Samuel Penna

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of manipulating the load components of aerobic training sessions on the physical performance of rats. To achieve this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: an untrained control (CON) group and training groups with a predominant overload in intensity (INT) or duration (DUR) or alternating and similar overloads in intensity and duration (ID). Prior to, during, and after 8 weeks of the control or training protocols, the performance of the rats (evaluated by their workload) was determined during fatiguing, incremental-speed treadmill running. Two additional incremental running tests were performed prior to and at the end of the protocols to measure the peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak). As expected, the rats in the trained groups exhibited increased performance, whereas the untrained rats showed stable performance throughout the 8 weeks. Notably, the performance gain exhibited by the DUR rats reached a plateau after the 4th week. This plateau was not present in the INT or ID rats, which exhibited increased performance at the end of training protocol compared with the DUR rats. None of the training protocols changed the VO2peak values; however, these values were attained at faster speeds, which indicated increased running economy. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the training protocols improved the physical performance of rats, likely resulting from enhanced running economy. Furthermore, compared with overload in duration, overload in the intensity of training sessions was more effective at inducing performance improvements across the 8 weeks of the study.

  6. Impact determination of strength and resistance training on Glycoside hemoglobin and blood sugar on patients with type II diabetes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Hasanvand

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that endurance training reduces Glycoside hemoglobin levels, the amount of strength training, although it did not significantly reduce, the strength training appears to cause more significant changes.

  7. Regular Formal Evaluation Sessions are Effective as Frame-of-Reference Training for Faculty Evaluators of Clerkship Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Paul A; Dadekian, Gregory A; Terndrup, Christopher; Pangaro, Louis N; Weisbrod, Allison B; Corriere, Mark D; Rodriguez, Rechell; Short, Patricia; Kelly, William F

    2015-09-01

    Face-to-face formal evaluation sessions between clerkship directors and faculty can facilitate the collection of trainee performance data and provide frame-of-reference training for faculty. We hypothesized that ambulatory faculty who attended evaluation sessions at least once in an academic year (attendees) would use the Reporter-Interpreter-Manager/Educator (RIME) terminology more appropriately than faculty who did not attend evaluation sessions (non-attendees). Investigators conducted a retrospective cohort study using the narrative assessments of ambulatory internal medicine clerkship students during the 2008-2009 academic year. The study included assessments of 49 clerkship medical students, which comprised 293 individual teacher narratives. Single-teacher written and transcribed verbal comments about student performance were masked and reviewed by a panel of experts who, by consensus, (1) determined whether RIME was used, (2) counted the number of RIME utterances, and (3) assigned a grade based on the comments. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients. The authors reviewed 293 individual teacher narratives regarding the performance of 49 students. Attendees explicitly used RIME more frequently than non-attendees (69.8 vs. 40.4 %; p sessions used RIME terminology more frequently and provided more accurate grade recommendations than teachers who did not attend. Formal evaluation sessions may provide frame-of-reference training for the RIME framework, a method that improves the validity and reliability of workplace assessment.

  8. Systematic review on strength training in Parkinson’s disease: an unsolved question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazzina I

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ileana Ramazzina,1 Benedetta Bernazzoli,2 Cosimo Costantino1 1Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Graduate School of Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Italy Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of strength training, performed against a different resistance from body weight, in improving motor and nonmotor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Thirteen high-quality randomized controlled trials were included. Strength training performed against external resistance is well tolerated and appears to be a suitable physical activity to improve both physical parameters and quality of life parameters of PD subjects. However, although the study intervention included strength training, only a few selected studies assessed the improvement of muscle strength. Despite the encouraging results, it is difficult to establish a correlation between strength training and the improvements made. Our review highlights the lack of common intent in terms of study design and the presence of different primary and secondary outcomes. Accordingly, further studies are needed to support the beneficial effects of different types of strength training in PD subjects and to underline the superiority of strength training in PD patients with respect to other training. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, strength training, muscle strength

  9. Individual and average responses of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after four weeks of strength training in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Julia Lyra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: To analyze the average and individual responses of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in adolescents after four weeks of strength training. Methods: 19 adolescents with sleep problems recruited in the Federal Institute of Pernambuco, were subject to anthropometric evaluations as well as those for body composition assessment, a 1 repetition maximum test, the sleep parameters (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI and Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS and were submitted to four weeks of strength-training, performed alternately by segment, two sessions per week, according to recommendations for this population. Results: A decrease in the average PSQI score was observed (10.3±3.3 vs 8.8±4.0; p=0.006, but not in ESS (p>0.05, after intervention. The individual analyses demonstrated that ~63% of adolescents experienced reductions ≥ 3 points in the PSQI and ~58% of them experienced reductions ≥ 3 points in the measure of daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness reduced from 84.2% to 68.4% and from 52.6% to 31.6%, respectively. The comparisons of high and low responders to exercise training show that adolescents who reduced ≥3 points in the score of a least one sleep parameter presented lower weight, fat mass, and fat percentage (p<0.05. Conclusion: A short-term strength-training program is able to improve global sleep quality, but not daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Furthermore, the changes after training are highly heterogeneous. Further studies are required to better understand the effects of strength training on sleep parameters of adolescents.

  10. Impact of expiratory strength training in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Emily K; Watts, Stephanie A; Tabor, Lauren; Robison, Raele; Gaziano, Joy; Domer, Amanda S; Richter, Joel; Vu, Tuan; Gooch, Clifton

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and impact of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on respiratory and bulbar function in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Twenty-five ALS patients participated in this delayed intervention open-label clinical trial. Following a lead-in period, patients completed a 5-week EMST protocol. Outcome measures included: maximum expiratory pressure (MEP); physiologic measures of swallow and cough; and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) scores. Of participants who entered the active phase of the study (n = 15), EMST was well tolerated and led to significant increases in MEPs and maximum hyoid displacement during swallowing post-EMST (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for PAS scores or cough spirometry measures. EMST was feasible and well tolerated in this small cohort of ALS patients and led to improvements in expiratory force-generating pressures and swallow kinematics. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. Muscle Nerve 54: 48-53, 2016. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. The effects of long term strength training on hemodynamic parameters and resistin level in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Tardivo Marin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the influence of strength training (ST on serum resistin levels and blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: Longitudinal study conducted at the Federal University of São Carlos with twenty-three sedentary postmenopausal women. The ST lasted 13 months (Dec./2008 to Jan./2010 and consisted of two weekly sessions with three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions and one exercise for each main muscle group. Maximum muscular strength was tested in the following exercises: bench press, 45° leg press, and standing arm curl. Serum resistin level was determined using the ELISA method. ANOVA (with repeated measures was used for the comparisons between periods Pre-, 6 months and 13 months (p < 0.05; Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between resistin × blood pressure, resistin × muscle strength and strength × blood pressure. Results: Women presented the following anthropometric profile: 61.33±3.8 years; height 148.5±32.7 cm; body mass 67.56±10.85 kg. The ST decreased resistin levels (30272.4 ± 8100.1 to 16350.6 ± 2404.6 pg/mL and systolic blood pressure (120.5 ± 11.8 to 115.8 ± 1.6 mmHg, and increased muscular strength in the leg press 45o (172.3 ± 27.3 to 348.6 ± 40.8kg, bench press (31.9 ± 4.1 to 41.8 ± 5.6 kg and arm curl (21.0 ± 2.4 to 26.5 ± 2.9 kg after 13 months (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that long-term ST increases maximum muscular strength, decreases systolic blood pressure and serum resistin levels, which are beneficial physiological alterations that reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p325

  12. Intensity of training sessions among professional indoor soccer players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimara Budal Arins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available > This study aimed to characterize physiological responses of indoor soccer (futsal professional players to training sessions, according to playing position. The sample was composed by five players ( X =23.9±3.0 yrs of an adult professional futsal team from Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. The athletes performed a maximal exercise test for measuring oxygen consumption, heart rate (HR and respiratory quotient (RQ, variables used to create regression equations for energy expenditure (EE, kcal prediction and to estimate relative work intensity (% max HR. During the sessions, HR was measured with a S610i Polar® monitor. The results showed that the goalkeeper played at 60% to 70% max HR. The mid-fi elders and the attacker worked at more intense levels (81% to 100%, while the defender varied the intensity at intermediate exercise range (71% to 90%. Total EE was similar among mid-fi elders and attacker ( X =339.5 kcal, while the defender presented lower values ( X =255.0 kcal. The goalkeeper had the lowest EE ( X =106.9 kcal. The results agreed with those reported in soccer studies and facilitate planning and control of an individualized training program according to playing position. ABSTRACT Este estudo objetivou caracterizar as respostas fi siológicas de atletas profissionais de futsal durante o treinamento coletivo, de acordo com a posição tática desempenhada. A amostra foi composta pelos cinco jogadores titulares ( X =23,9±3,0 anos de uma equipe de futsal masculino profi ssional adulto da cidade de Florianópolis, SC. Os atletas foram avaliados por um teste ergoespirométrico máximo, que forneceu o consumo de oxigênio, a freqüência cardíaca (FC e o quociente respiratório (RQ, valores utilizados para gerar equações de regressão para estimativa do gasto calórico (GCal e da intensidade do trabalho (expressa em % FC máxima predita pela idade (% FC máx. Durante os coletivos, a FC foi mensurada com um monitor Polar modelo S610i®. Os

  13. Assessment of a sixteen-week training program on strength, pain, and function in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Lisse, Jeffrey; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B; Guido, Terri; Cussler, Ellen; Gates, Donald; Yocum, David E

    2009-06-01

    To assess the effects of a 16-week progressive, individualized, high-intensity strength training program on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-four RA patients (men, n = 5; women, n = 19) receiving infliximab participated in a randomized controlled trial. The strength training (ST) group (n = 16) participated in a supervised program 3 times per week, and the control (C) group (n = 8) continued with standard of care as overseen by their rheumatologist. Assessments were completed at baseline and at weeks 8 and 16. Strength was measured by 3 repetition maximum (3RM), isometric hand dynamometer, and isokinetic dynamometer. A 100-mm visual analogue scale was used to assess pain. Functional performance was derived from a timed 50-foot walk and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index. The mean percent increase in strength (3RM) for the ST group from baseline to week 16 was 46.1% +/- 31.6% (P < 0.01) (mean of all three 3RM exercises: hammer curl, leg press, and incline dumbbell press), with mean gains in strength up to 4 times that of baseline values reported in all strength training exercises (upper and lower body) performed during exercise sessions. On average, right-hand grip strength increased by 2.9 +/- 4.0 kg in the ST group, in comparison with a loss of 1.2 +/- 3.0 kg in the C group over 16 weeks. The ST group had a 53% reduction in pain, in comparison with almost no change in the C group. The ST group had a significant improvement in 50-foot walk time, with a mean reduction of -1.2 +/- 1.6 seconds, in comparison with the C group (mean increase of 0.8 +/- 1.0 seconds; P = 0.01) over the 16 weeks. There was a clinically important difference (predefined as mean change +/-0.25) in the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index in the ST group (-0.4 +/- 0.4) but not in the C group (-0.1 +/- 0.4). High-intensity strength training in RA patients with varying levels of disease activity and joint damage

  14. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were rand...... and speed endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.......PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were...... randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate...

  15. Inter- and intramuscular differences in training-induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps femoris: association with muscle activation during the first training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakahara, Taku; Ema, Ryoichi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether inter- and intramuscular differences in hypertrophy induced by resistance training correspond to differences in muscle activation during the first training session. Eleven young men completed 12 weeks of training intervention for knee extension. Before and after the intervention, T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were recorded to determine the volume and anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) along the length of the individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The T2-weighted MR images were also acquired before and immediately after the first training session. The T2 was calculated for each pixel within the quadriceps femoris, from which the muscle activation was evaluated as %activated volume and area. The results showed that the %activated volume after the first training session was significantly higher in the vastus intermedius than the vastus medialis. However, the relative change in muscle volume after the training intervention was significantly greater in the rectus femoris than the vasti muscles (vastus lateralis, intermedius and medialis). Within the rectus femoris, both the %activated area and relative increase in CSA were significantly greater in the distal region than the proximal region. In contrast, the %activated area and relative increase in CSA of the vasti were nearly uniform along each muscle. These results suggest that the muscle activation during the first training session is associated with the intramuscular difference in hypertrophy induced by training intervention, but not with the intermuscular difference. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of Short-Term Jump Squat Training With and Without Chains on Strength and Power in Recreational Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Archer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of chains in resistance training is a way to accommodate the muscular strength curve. Short-term training and jump squats have been shown to increase back squat strength, but not in conjunction with each other or with chains. Jump squats have also been used to increase jump height and power. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term jump squat training with and without chains on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one resistance-trained men volunteered to participate (age = 23.87 ± 2.2 years, height=174.87 ± 6.94 cm, mass = 82.74 ± 14.95 kg and were randomly assigned to one of three groups [control (C = 10, no chains (NC =10, or chains (CH = 11]. Participants had their jump height (VJ and back squat strength (BS tested before and after a week of training. The NC and CH groups performed three training sessions consisting of five sets of three reps of jump squats at 30% 1RM with 30s rest between sets. The CH group had 20% of their load added by chains when standing erect. The C group did not train. Results: A 3 (group: CH, NC, C x 2 (time: pre, post mixed factor ANOVA revealed a significant (p = 0.006 interaction for back squat 1RM. Both the CH (pre 142.56 ± 20.40 kg; post 145.66 ± 19.59 kg and NC (pre 150.00 ± 15.23 kg; post 154.77 ± 15.09 kg groups significantly increased while the C (pre 157.27 ± 25.35 kg; post 156.36 ± 24.85 kg group showed no difference. There were no significant interactions (p =0.32 or main effects for VJ (C = pre 50.59 ± 9.39cm; post 51.29 ± 9.68cm; NC = pre 55.29 ± 5.23cm; post 57.39 ± 5.22cm; CH = pre 46.19 ± 5.02; post 47.45 ± 4.62. Conclusions: The CH group was able to increase strength while lifting less overall weight. Coaches may use short-term training with chains to yield a similar increase in back squat strength as without chains. Keywords: variable resistance, back squats, novel, vertical jump

  17. Effects of core strength training using stable versus unstable surfaces on physical fitness in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Schellbach, Jörg; Klein, Katja; Prieske, Olaf; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that core strength training is an effective means to enhance trunk muscle strength (TMS) and proxies of physical fitness in youth. Of note, cross-sectional studies revealed that the inclusion of unstable elements in core strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus provide potential extra training stimuli for performance enhancement. Thus, utilizing unstable surfaces during core strength training may even produce larger performance gains. However, the effects of core strength training using unstable surfaces are unresolved in youth. This randomized controlled study specifically investigated the effects of core strength training performed on stable surfaces (CSTS) compared to unstable surfaces (CSTU) on physical fitness in school-aged children. Twenty-seven (14 girls, 13 boys) healthy subjects (mean age: 14 ± 1 years, age range: 13-15 years) were randomly assigned to a CSTS (n = 13) or a CSTU (n = 14) group. Both training programs lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions/week) and included frontal, dorsal, and lateral core exercises. During CSTU, these exercises were conducted on unstable surfaces (e.g., TOGU© DYNAIR CUSSIONS, THERA-BAND© STABILITY TRAINER). Significant main effects of Time (pre vs. post) were observed for the TMS tests (8-22%, f = 0.47-0.76), the jumping sideways test (4-5%, f = 1.07), and the Y balance test (2-3%, f = 0.46-0.49). Trends towards significance were found for the standing long jump test (1-3%, f = 0.39) and the stand-and-reach test (0-2%, f = 0.39). We could not detect any significant main effects of Group. Significant Time x Group interactions were detected for the stand-and-reach test in favour of the CSTU group (2%, f = 0.54). Core strength training resulted in significant increases in proxies of physical fitness in adolescents. However, CSTU as compared to CSTS had only limited additional effects (i.e., stand-and-reach test). Consequently, if the

  18. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  19. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-09-15

    We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase(Thr421/Ser424) increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  20. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  1. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of South African Marathon Runners During Competition Marathon Runs and Training Sessions: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Victoria; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin; McKenzie, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners spend considerable time in outdoor training for and participating in marathons. Outdoor runners may experience high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. South Africa, where running is popular, experiences high ambient solar UVR levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. This feasibility study explores the use of personal dosimeters to determine solar UVR exposure patterns and possible related acute health risks of four marathon runners during marathons and training sessions in Cape Town and Pretoria. Runners running marathons that started early in the day, and that did not exceed 4 hours, yielded low total solar UVR exposure doses (mean 0.093 SED per exposure period run, median 0.088 SED, range 0.062-0.136 SED; average of 16.54% of ambient solar UVR). Training sessions run during early morning and late afternoon presented similar results. Several challenges hindered analysis including accounting for anatomical position of personal dosimeter and natural shade. To assess health risks, hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated using a hypothetical runner's schedule. Cumulative, annual solar UVR exposure-calculated acute health risks were low (HQ = 0.024) for training sessions and moderate (HQ = 4.922) for marathon runs. While these data and calculations are based on 18 person-days, one can measure marathon runners' personal solar UVR exposure although several challenges must be overcome. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Respostas cardiopulmonares agudas de mulheres no treinamento de força Acute cardiopulmonary responses of women in strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antônio Gonsalves Sindorf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as respostas cardiopulmonares de uma sessão de treinamento de força em mulheres jovens. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 23 mulheres, com idade entre 18 e 29 anos. Todas as voluntárias foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: cardiopulmonar e de uma repetição máxima (1-RM. O protocolo de treinamento de força teve ênfase em hipertrofia muscular, três séries de oito a 12 repetições a 70% de 1-RM, com intervalos de um minuto e 30 segundos entre as séries. Durante a sessão de treinamento foi realizada a medida das variáveis cardiopulmonares por meio de analisador de gases metabólicos e módulo de telemetria. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do consumo de oxigênio da sessão de treinamento foram de 8,43 ± 1,76 ml/kg/min e da frequência cardíaca de 108,08 ± 15,26 bpm. Os resultados do consumo de oxigênio e da frequência cardíaca do treino foram inferiores (p OBJETIVE: Investigate the cardiopulmonary responses of one strength training session in young women. METHOD: Twenty-three women aged between 18 and 29 years participated in this study. All the volunteers were submitted to the following tests: cardiopulmonary and one-repetition maximum (1-RM. The strength training protocol had emphasis on muscular hypertrophy, three sets from eight to twelve repetitions under 70% of 1-RM, with a one minute thirty-second break between sets. During the training session, the cardiopulmonary variables were measured with a metabolic gas analyzer and a telemetry module. RESULTS: The results of the oxygen consumption in the training session were from 8.43 + 1.76 ml/kg/min and of the heart rate of 108.08 + 15.26 bpm. The results of the oxygen consumption and of the heart rate in the training were lower (p < 0.01 than in the ventilatory threshold and of the oxygen consumption and the heart rate reserves. CONCLUSION: The obtained data show that the present protocol of strength training provided low overload to the cardiopulmonary system of

  3. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P autogenic training, and other interventions that aim to increase HRV, could be a useful addition to treatment protocols for women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of

  4. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Jesper L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...

  5. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik Ozmen; Bekir Yuktasir; Necmiye Un Yildirim; Birol Yalcin; Mark ET Willems

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs) were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES); control (CN)] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Fede...

  6. Effects of drop sets with resistance training on increases in muscle CSA, strength, and endurance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hayao; Kubota, Atsushi; Natsume, Toshiharu; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Abe, Takashi; Machida, Shuichi; Naito, Hisashi

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a single high-load (80% of one repetition maximum [1RM]) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load (30% 1RM) without recovery intervals on muscle strength, endurance, and size in untrained young men. Nine untrained young men performed dumbbell curls to concentric failure 2-3 days per week for 8 weeks. Each arm was randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions: 3 sets of high-load (HL, 80% 1RM) resistance exercise, 3 sets of low-load [LL, 30% 1RM] resistance exercise, and a single high-load (SDS) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load. The mean training time per session, including recovery intervals, was lowest in the SDS condition. Elbow flexor muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) increased similarly in all three conditions. Maximum isometric and 1RM strength of the elbow flexors increased from pre to post only in the HL and SDS conditions. Muscular endurance measured by maximum repetitions at 30% 1RM increased only in the LL and SDS conditions. A SDS resistance training program can simultaneously increase muscle CSA, strength, and endurance in untrained young men, even with lower training time compared to typical resistance exercise protocols using only high- or low-loads.

  7. Weekly Time Course of Neuro-Muscular Adaptation to Intensive Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Niklas; Bubeck, Dieter; Haeufle, Daniel F B; Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Alt, Wilfried; Schmitt, Syn

    2017-01-01

    Detailed description of the time course of muscular adaptation is rarely found in literature. Thus, models of muscular adaptation are difficult to validate since no detailed data of adaptation are available. In this article, as an initial step toward a detailed description and analysis of muscular adaptation, we provide a case report of 8 weeks of intense strength training with two active, male participants. Muscular adaptations were analyzed on a morphological level with MRI scans of the right quadriceps muscle and the calculation of muscle volume, on a voluntary strength level by isometric voluntary contractions with doublet stimulation (interpolated twitch technique) and on a non-voluntary level by resting twitch torques. Further, training volume and isokinetic power were closely monitored during the training phase. Data were analyzed weekly for 1 week prior to training, pre-training, 8 weeks of training and 2 weeks of detraining (no strength training). Results show a very individual adaptation to the intense strength training protocol. While training volume and isokinetic power increased linearly during the training phase, resting twitch parameters decreased for both participants after the first week of training and stayed below baseline until de-training. Voluntary activation level showed an increase in the first 4 weeks of training, while maximum voluntary contraction showed only little increase compared to baseline. Muscle volume increased for both subjects. Especially training status seemed to influence the acute reaction to intense strength training. Fatigue had a major influence on performance and could only be overcome by one participant. The results give a first detailed insight into muscular adaptation to intense strength training on various levels, providing a basis of data for a validation of muscle fatigue and adaptation models.

  8. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ozmen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES; control (CN] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF classification scores. The ES group underwent 6-weeks of training, twice weekly, at 50% 1RM, 10-12 repetitions and 3-4 sets in addition to routine training. Effects of training were measured by the 20 m sprint test and Illinois agility test. RESULTS: The ES group, showed significantly higher increases in speed and agility performance (p ≤ .05. CONCLUSION: A short-duration (i.e. 6-week explosive strength training programme in wheelchair basketball athletes results in significant improvements in sprint and agility performance.

  9. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... functional training advises can be made. Thus, more than a review in the traditional context this review should be viewed upon as an attempt to bring sports-physiologists and coaches or others working directly with the athletes together for a mutual discussion on how recently acquired physiological knowledge...

  10. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties......Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... functional training advises can be made. Thus, more than a review in the traditional context this review should be viewed upon as an attempt to bring sports-physiologists and coaches or others working directly with the athletes together for a mutual discussion on how recently acquired physiological knowledge...

  11. Combined Carbohydrate and Protein Ingestion During Australian Rules Football Matches and Training Sessions Does Not Reduce Fatigue or Accelerate Recovery Throughout a Weeklong Junior Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nathan A; Fell, James W; Pitchford, Nathan W; Hall, Andrew H; Leveritt, Michael D; Kitic, Cecilia M

    2018-02-01

    Lee, NA, Fell, JW, Pitchford, NW, Hall, AH, Leveritt, MD, and Kitic, CM. Combined carbohydrate and protein ingestion during Australian rules football matches and training sessions does not reduce fatigue or accelerate recovery throughout a weeklong junior tournament. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 344-355, 2018-Australian rules football (ARF) is a physically demanding sport that can induce high levels of fatigue. Fatigue may be intensified during periods where multiple matches are played with limited recovery time. Combined carbohydrate and protein (CHO + PRO) intake during physical activity may provide performance and recovery benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CHO + PRO ingestion during ARF matches and training sessions throughout a tournament would enhance performance or recovery in comparison with CHO-only ingestion. Australian rules football players (n = 21) competing in a 7-day national tournament participated in this randomized and double-blinded study. Beverages containing either CHO (n = 10) or CHO + PRO (n = 11) were provided during matches (day 1, day 4, and day 7) and training sessions (day 2 and day 3). Countermovement jumps (CMJs), ratings of muscle soreness, and autonomic function were assessed throughout the tournament. Gastrointestinal tract (GI) discomfort was measured after matches. Countermovement jump peak velocity increased in the CHO + PRO group (p = 0.01) but not in the CHO group. There were no differences in the other CMJ variables. In both groups, muscle soreness increased from days 0 and 1 to day 2 (p ≤ 0.05) but did not remain elevated. R-R intervals (time elapsed between successive peaks in QRS complexes) increased in both groups from day 1 to day 7 (mean difference = 59.85 ms, p 0.05) between groups. When daily dietary protein is adequate (>1.8 g·kg·d), the ingestion of CHO + PRO during matches and training sessions throughout a tournament does not reduce muscle soreness nor have clear benefits for neuromuscular

  12. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  13. Effects of Kettlebell Swing vs. Explosive Deadlift Training on Strength and Power

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R. Maulit; David C. Archer; Whitney D. Leyva; Cameron N. Munger; Megan A. Wong; Lee E. Brown; Jared W. Coburn; Andrew J. Galpin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent research has compared explosive deadlift to kettlebell training observing their effects on strength. The kettlebell swing is a popular practical exercise as it shares share a hip hinge movement with the explosive deadlift, but the two have not been compared. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of kettlebell swing vs. explosive deadlift training on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one recreationally resistance-trained men (age = 23.1 ± 2.3 yea...

  14. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  15. Change of Direction Speed: Toward a Strength Training Approach with Accentuated Eccentric Muscle Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Prieske, Olaf; Negra, Yassine; Granacher, Urs

    2018-03-28

    There is growing evidence that eccentric strength training appears to have benefits over traditional strength training (i.e., strength training with combined concentric and eccentric muscle actions) from muscular, neuromuscular, tendinous, and metabolic perspectives. Eccentric muscle strength is particularly needed to decelerate and stabilize the body during the braking phase of a jump exercise or during rapid changes of direction (CoD) tasks. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to elucidate the effects of eccentric strength training or strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance. In this current opinion article, we present findings from cross-sectional studies on the relationship between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance. In addition, we summarize the few available studies on the effects of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletic populations. Finally, we propose strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions as a promising element in strength and conditioning programs of sports with high CoD speed demands. Our findings from five cross-sectional studies revealed statistically significant moderate- to large-sized correlations (r = 0.45-0.89) between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance in athletic populations. The identified three intervention studies were of limited methodological quality and reported small- to large-sized effects (d = 0.46-1.31) of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletes. With reference to the available but preliminary literature and from a performance-related point of view, we recommend strength and conditioning coaches to include strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions in training routines of sports with high CoD speed demands (e.g., soccer, handball, basketball, hockey) to

  16. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio

    2012-02-01

    Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

  17. The effects of a 6 week plyometric training programme on explosive strength and agility in professional basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week plyometric training applied in training units during the pre-season in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (N = 12, age 24.36 ± 3.9 years, height 196.2 ± 9.6 cm, weight 92.9 ± 13.9 kg performed a 6 week plyometric training (PT programme predominantly focused on explosive strength of the lower body and upper body and was conducted in sixteen training units during pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the Counter Movement Jump Free Arms test and Two Step Run Up Jump test; agility was measured using the “T” Drill test and Hexagonal Obstacle test. The players participated in three measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season, the 2nd (post-testing was done two days after completing the PT programme and the 3rd (post-testing six weeks after completing the PT programme. Friedman’s ANOVA for repeated measurements was used to determine the significance of differences between the measurement sessions (p < .05. RESULTS: A significant effect of the training programme was observed only for the Hexagonal Obstacle test (p = .01. A post hoc analysis revealed a significant increase in test performance between the 1st and 3rd measurement (p < .01 and between the 2nd and 3rd measurement (p < .01. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study of elite basketball players did not positively support the assumption that plyometric exercises can be an effective tool for the improvement of explosive strength and agility. However, in some players the

  18. Strength training improves fatigue resistance and self-rated health in workers with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual...... (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.......-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P

  19. Will a Short Training Session Improve Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Quality by Dental School Faculty? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinges, Mark A; Curtis, Donald A

    2017-08-01

    Faculty members are expected to write high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in order to accurately assess dental students' achievement. However, most dental school faculty members are not trained to write MCQs. Extensive faculty development programs have been used to help educators write better test items. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if a short workshop would result in improved MCQ item-writing by dental school faculty at one U.S. dental school. A total of 24 dental school faculty members who had previously written MCQs were randomized into a no-intervention group and an intervention group in 2015. Six previously written MCQs were randomly selected from each of the faculty members and given an item quality score. The intervention group participated in a training session of one-hour duration that focused on reviewing standard item-writing guidelines to improve in-house MCQs. The no-intervention group did not receive any training but did receive encouragement and an explanation of why good MCQ writing was important. The faculty members were then asked to revise their previously written questions, and these were given an item quality score. The item quality scores for each faculty member were averaged, and the difference from pre-training to post-training scores was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between pre-training and post-training MCQ difference scores for the intervention group (p=0.04). This pilot study provides evidence that the training session of short duration was effective in improving the quality of in-house MCQs.

  20. Strategies to Optimize Strength and Endurance Concurrent Training in Elite Handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sánchez López

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: The study revealed that when combining different intensities with the objective of avoiding the interference phenomenon, the intensities used should not be those that could produce peripheral adaptations, and that an 8-hour interval must be left in case of having two sessions on the same day. Furthermore, it became clear that players with more strength and power might have a head start in the game actions due to the strength requirements of the sport.

  1. Effect of Resistance Training using Thera-Band on Muscular Strength and Quality of Life among the Elderly

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    Fatemeh Pourtaghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of mobility and motor impairments can intensify mental health problems in the elderly. Muscle weakness is one of the most important cause of fall in the old individuals. Muscular performance is regarded as one of the significant components of quality of life in older adults. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training using Thera-Band on muscular strength and quality of life among the elderly. Method: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 elderly people referring to the health centers of Mashhad in 2016. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group was subjected to lower- and upper-extremity resistance training with Thera-Band performed two thirty-minute sessions a week for six weeks. However, the control group did not receive any training. Data collection was performed using a dynamometer and the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life. The data were analyzed in SPSS version 16 using independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, paired t-test, Chi-square test, and exact Chi-square. Results: The mean ages of the individuals in the intervention and control groups were 69.7±6.1 and 77.2±6.2 years, respectively. After intervention, the mean scores of quality of life (P>0.001 and muscular strength in the upper and lower extremities (P>0.001 were significantly higher in the intervention group than those in the control group. Implications for Practice: Resistance training with Thera-Band could enhance muscular strength and improve quality of life in the elderly. It was concluded that the promotion of this exercise program could have a positive effect on the muscular strength and quality of life among this population.

  2. Effect of programmed strength training on explosive strength of lower extremities in children aged 11 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković Andrija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical jumps are an integral part of many sport activities. There are several factors that affect the athlete's jumping ability: strength, force and acceleration that occur when we jump. The jump is a complex and more articulated activity that requires not only strength, but great power as well. The main types of training to increase explosive strength are plyometric training and myogenic training with weight load on the lower extremities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of myogenic training with weight load on explosive strength of the lower extremities. The first group is the control group (K, while the second group is an experimental group (E, each consisting of eighteen respondents. By Using the Myotest and performing the squat jump (SJ, the Height, Power, Force and Velocity were determined. The programme of power lasted for six weeks, twice a week for up to 60 minutes. We conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the final and initial measurements in the experimental group, the multivariate level sig = 0.000. Increase in jump height ΔHeight = 3.28 in cm, force ΔForce = 4.68 in N/kg, the strength ΔPower = 6.18 in W/kg, the acceleration ΔVelocity = 21.8 in cm/s. The results of this study show that myogenic training with weight load has a positive impact on the explosive power of the lower extremities. This research was carried out against children aged 11 to 14 years, so we cannot say with certainty that this type of programme can have identical effects on athletes.

  3. Hip abduction strength training in the clinical setting: with or without external loading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, T; Petersen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    only the weight of the leg as resistance, whereas training with external loading was performed with a relative load corresponding to 10 repetition maximum. Hip abduction strength was measured pre- and post-intervention. Isometric and eccentric hip abduction strength of the trained leg increased after......The side-lying hip abduction exercise is one of the most commonly used exercises in rehabilitation to increase hip abduction strength, and is often performed without external loading. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 6 weeks of side-lying hip abduction training, with and without...... external loading, on hip abduction strength in healthy subjects. Thirty-one healthy, physically active men and women were included in a randomised controlled trial and allocated to side-lying hip abduction training, with or without external loading. Training without external loading was performed using...

  4. The effects of plyometric training followed by detraining and reduced training periods on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of (a) plyometric training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent male basketball players and (b) detraining and reduced training on previously achieved explosive strength gains. Two groups were formed: an experimental and a control group. The former was submitted to a 10-week in-season plyometric training program, twice weekly, along with regular basketball practice. Simultaneously, the control group participated in regular basketball practice only. At the end of this period, the experimental group was subdivided into 2 groups: a reduced training group and a detraining group. All participants were assessed on squat jump, countermovement jump, Abalakov test, depth jump, mechanical power, and medicine ball throw at the beginning and at the end of the 10-week in-season plyometric training and on weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the in-season detraining and reduced training periods. In the first phase of the study, the experimental group significantly increased all the assessed indicators (p training showed positive effects on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. Moreover, we can state that both detraining and a reduced training program indistinctly contribute to maintenance of strength levels. These results highlight the unique power that basketball-specific training seems to have on the sustainability and maintenance of sport performance.

  5. Changes of explosive strength in professional basketball players after a six week training cycle with plyometric training and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week strength training with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (n = 12; age 24.71 ± 1.5 years; height 197.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight 95.8 ± 8.1 kg performed during pre-season a 6 week training program with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises which were conducted biweekly during the pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the squat jump without arms, the counter movement jump without arms, the counter movement jump free arms and the 2 step run up jump. The players participated in two measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season and the 2nd (posttesting was completed two days after terminating the PT programme. The differences between the average values of the monitored parameters were determined by the Wilcoxon paired test. To calculate the effect size formula according to Fritz, Morris, and Richler (2012: R = Z/√N was used. RESULTS: Analysis of intra-group changes confirmed significant differences between the two measurements in tests of vertical jump squat (Z = 2.58, p = .01, r = .75, vertical jump from the point of the swing arm (Z = 2.49, p = .01, r = .72 and vertical jump from place without the swing arm (Z = 2.75, p = .01, r = .79. In case of the two step run up jump significant differences were not found (Z = 1.60, p = .11, r = .56. Analysis of intra-individual changes showed the significant interindividual differences in the changes of the explosive power of the lower limbs after a 6 week training. The

  6. Effects of Sprint Interval Training With Active Recovery vs. Endurance Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Bülent; Witchey, Ronald L; Adams, Gene M; Beam, William C

    2018-03-01

    Sökmen, B, Witchey, RL, Adams, GM, and Beam, WC. Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 624-631, 2018-This study compared sprint interval training with active recovery (SITAR) to moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) in aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint time results. Forty-two recreationally active adults were randomly assigned to a SITAR or ET group. Both groups trained 3× per week for 10 weeks at 75% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 30 minutes weeks 1-4, with duration increasing to 35 minutes weeks 5-7 and 40 minutes weeks 8-10. While ET ran on a 400-m track without rest for the full training session, SITAR sprinted until the 200-m mark and recovered with fast walking or light jogging the second 200 m to the finish line in 3× original sprint time. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), anaerobic treadmill run to exhaustion at 12.5 km·h at 20% incline, isokinetic leg extension and flexion strength at 60 and 300°·s, and 50 m sprint time were determined before and after training. Results showed a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in absolute and relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, anaerobic treadmill run, and sprint time in both groups. Only SITAR showed significant improvements in isokinetic leg extension and flexion at 300°·s and decreases in body mass (p ≤ 0.05). SITAR also showed significantly greater improvement (p ≤ 0.05) over ET in anaerobic treadmill run and 50 m sprint time. These data suggest that SITAR is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max comparable to ET with added improvements in anaerobic power, isokinetic strength, and sprint time not observed with ET.

  7. Effects of basketball training on maximal oxygen uptake, muscle strength, and joint mobility in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Galazoulas, Christos; Stefanidis, Panagiotis; Metaxas, Thomas I; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged basketball skills training on maximal aerobic power, isokinetic strength, joint mobility, and body fat percentage, in young basketball players, and controls of the same age. Twenty basketball players and 18 control boys participated in the study. Basketball players participated both in their school's physical education program and in a children's basketball team training program. Controls participated only in their school's physical education program. All subjects were tested every 6 months (18 months total, 11(1/2), 12, 12(1/2), 13 years old) for VO(2)max, peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings at 180 and 300 degrees x s(-1) and range of motion of the knee and hip joints. Body fat percentage was assessed at the beginning and the end of the experimental period. Results showed that the basketball group had lower heart rate values in all ages and higher VO(2) values in the initial test compared with the control in submaximal intensity. The VO(2)max was altered in both groups on the final test, when compared to the initial test. However, the basketball group had a higher VO(2)max on each of the 6-month follow-up measurements, compared to the control group (p trained group had significantly lower percentage body fat values, compared to controls. In conclusion, regular basketball training increased aerobic power and decreased body fat percentage of prepubescent boys, while it did not affect muscle strength and joint mobility of the lower limbs. The major implication suggested by the findings of the present study is that, in order to improve the basic physical components, specific training procedures should be incorporated during the basketball training sessions. It is recommended that all children should be involved in some type of cardiovascular and resistance training program.

  8. The Effect of Training at 2100-m Altitude on Running Speed and Session Rating of Perceived Exertion at Different Intensities in Elite Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Avish P; Saunders, Philo U; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Brad; Stanley, Jamie; Robertson, Eileen Y; Thompson, Kevin G

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of training at 2100-m natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD age 25 ± 5 y, VO 2 max, 71 ± 5 mL · kg -1 · min -1 ) completed either 4-6 wk of sea-level training (CON, n = 7) or a 4- to 5-wk natural altitude-training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) after a period of sea-level training. Each training session was recorded on a GPS watch, and athletes also provided a score for session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Training sessions were grouped according to duration and intensity. RS (km/h) and sRPE from matched training sessions completed at sea level and 2100 m were compared within ALT, with sessions completed at sea level in CON describing normal variation. In ALT, RS was reduced at altitude compared with sea level, with the greatest decrements observed during threshold- and VO 2 max-intensity sessions (5.8% and 3.6%, respectively). Velocity of low-intensity and race-pace sessions completed at a lower altitude (1400 m) and/or with additional recovery was maintained in ALT, though at a significantly greater sRPE (P = .04 and .05, respectively). There was no change in velocity or sRPE at any intensity in CON. RS in elite middle-distance athletes is adversely affected at 2100-m natural altitude, with levels of impairment dependent on the intensity of training. Maintenance of RS at certain intensities while training at altitude can result in a higher perceived exertion.

  9. A pilot study evaluating a one-session attention modification training to decrease overeating in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Carlson, Jordan; Amir, Nader

    2014-05-01

    There are a number of neurocognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to overeating and obesity, including an attentional bias to food cues. Attention modification programs, which implicitly train attention away from specific cues, have been used in anxiety and substance abuse, and could logically be applied to food cues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial efficacy of a single session attention modification training for food cues (AMP) on overeating in overweight and obese children. Twenty-four obese children who eat in the absence of hunger participated in two visits and were assigned to an attention modification program (AMP) or attentional control program (ACC). The AMP program trained attention away 100% of the time from food words to neutral words. The ACC program trained attention 50% of the time to neutral and 50% of the time to food. Outcome measures included the eating in the absence of hunger free access session, and measures of craving, liking and salivation. Results revealed significant treatment effects for EAH percent and EAH kcal (group by time interactions pattentional bias (group by time interaction p=.073). Changes in craving, liking and saliva were not significantly different between groups (ps=.178-.527). This is the first study to demonstrate that an AMP program can influence eating in obese children. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these results. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Improving body composition and strength in athletes through a 4-month combined martial arts and strength training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stachoń

    2016-06-01

    2Zakład Sportów Indywidualnych, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, ul. Paderewskiego 35, Wrocław       Corresponding author: Dr Aleksandra Jadwiga Stachoń, e-mail: aleksandra.stachon@awf.wroc.pl Departament of Physical Anthropology, University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, al. I.J. Paderewskiego 35, bud. P2, 51-612 Wrocław; Poland Phone: 71 347 33 44         Key words: resistance training, body build, body composition, combat sport.   Abstract Background and aim. Body composition is one of key components of health in both general and athletic populations. In martial arts great significance is attached to the development of mesomorphy and strength, which are crucial for performing offensive and defensive actions during fights. The study proposes to introduce progressive strength training programme - arranged primarily for beginners – in order to improve body composition of non-elite male martial arts competitors. The present study aims to evaluate the changes in body massiveness, body composition and strength in 31 martial arts practitioners from academic sports clubs after a combined martial arts and strength training programme. Material and methods. The 16-week intervention was based on a targeted progressive resistance training protocol developed by Stefaniak [1995]. The anthropometric, physical and motoric measurements were performed twice at four months interval. This programme includes training three times weekly with increased number of repetitions (19-24, number of sets (1-3 and increased loads (5%. Results. After the completion of the training program, significant increase for about 1.8 kgin body mass was observed. Body massiveness (BMI increased from 23.2 ± 1.8 kg/m2 to 23.9 ± 1.8 kg/m2. The analysis using Sheldon’s somatotypes revealed an increase of mesomorphy (from 5.5 to 5.7 and decrease of ectomorphy (from 2.5 to 2.4. The level of endomorphy became stable (2.1. The maximal circumferences of flexed arm, forearm, calf and

  11. ADAPTIVE CHANGES OF MYOSIN ISOFORMS IN RESPONSE TO LONG-TERM STRENGTH AND POWER TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN

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    Raivo Puhke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the adaptive changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC and light chain (MLC isoforms in human vastus lateralis muscle caused by long-term strength and power training (54 weeks, approximately 3 times a week in untrained middle- aged men (16 in the training and 6 in the control group. Muscular MHC and MLC isoforms were determined by means of SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. During the training period, maximal anaerobic cycling power increased by 64 W (p < 0.001 and the maximal jumping height by 1.5 cm (p < 0. 05 in the training group, but no significant changes were found in the control group. However, the group by time effect was not significant. In the training group, the increase of the maximal jumping height correlated with the number of strength and power training sessions (r = 0.56; p < 0.05. The change of the proportion of MHC IIa isoform from 52.6 ± 12.2% to 59.4 ± 11.6% did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.070 for group by time; within training group p = 0.061 and neither did the change of the proportion of MHC IIx isoform from 18.1 ± 11.4% to 11.1 ± 9.1% (p = 0.104 for group by time; within training group p=0.032. The degree of change of MHC IIx isoform correlated with the amount of earlier recreational sports activity (r = 0.61; p < 0.05. In the training group, the changes of MLC1s isoform correlated negatively with the changes of MLC1f isoform (r = -0. 79; p < 0.05 as well as with the changes in maximal anaerobic cycling power (r = -0.81; p < 0.05, and positively with those of MHC I isoform (r = 0.81; p < 0.05. In conclusion, the long- term strength and power training ~3 times a week seemed to have only slight effects on fast MHC isoforms in the vastus lateralis muscle of untrained middle-aged men; the proportion of MHC IIa tended to increase and that of MHC IIx tended to decrease. No changes in MLC isoform profile could be shown

  12. The effects of training by virtual reality or gym ball on pelvic floor muscle strength in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Martinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of abdominopelvic training by virtual reality compared to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT using a gym ball (a previously tested and efficient protocol on postmenopausal women’s pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength. Method A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 60 postmenopausal women, randomly allocated into two groups: Abdominopelvic training by virtual reality – APT_VR (n=30 and PFMT using a gym ball – PFMT_GB (n=30. Both types of training were supervised by the same physical therapist, during 10 sessions each, for 30 minutes. The participants’ PFM strength was evaluated by digital palpation and vaginal dynamometry, considering three different parameters: maximum strength, average strength andendurance. An intention-to-treat approach was used to analyze the participants according to original groups. Results No significant between-group differences were observed in most analyzed parameters. The outcome endurance was higher in the APT_VR group (p=0.003; effect size=0.89; mean difference=1.37; 95% CI=0.46 to 2.28. Conclusion Both protocols have improved the overall PFM strength, suggesting that both are equally beneficial and can be used in clinical practice. Muscle endurance was higher in patients who trained using virtual reality.

  13. Efficacy of phosphatidic acid ingestion on lean body mass, muscle thickness and strength gains in resistance-trained men

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    Hoffman Jay R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidic acid (PA has been reported to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway and is thought to enhance the anabolic effects of resistance training. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if oral phosphatidic acid administration can enhance strength, muscle thickness and lean tissue accruement during an 8-week resistance training program. Methods Sixteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA (n = 7, 23.1 ± 4.4 y; 176.7 ± 6.7 cm; 86.5 ± 21.2 kg or a placebo (PL, n = 9, 22.5 ± 2.0 y; 179.8 ± 5.4 cm; 89.4 ± 13.6 kg group. During each testing session subjects were assessed for strength (one repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press and squat and body composition. Muscle thickness and pennation angle were also measured in the vastus lateralis of the subject’s dominant leg. Results Subjects ingesting PA demonstrated a 12.7% increase in squat strength and a 2.6% increase in LBM, while subjects consuming PL showed a 9.3% improvement in squat strength and a 0.1% change in LBM. Although parametric analysis was unable to demonstrate significant differences, magnitude based inferences indicated that the Δ change in 1-RM squat showed a likely benefit from PA on increasing lower body strength and a very likely benefit for increasing lean body mass (LBM. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that a combination of a daily 750 mg PA ingestion, combined with a 4-day per week resistance training program for 8-weeks appears to have a likely benefit on strength improvement, and a very likely benefit on lean tissue accruement in young, resistance trained individuals.

  14. Effect of football or strength training on functional ability and physical performance in untrained old men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 16 weeks of football or strength training on performance and functional ability were investigated in 26 (68.2 ± 3.2 years) untrained men randomized into a football (FG; n = 9), a strength training (ST; n = 9), or a control group (CO; n = 8). FG and ST trained 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0......% lower (P training for old men improves functional ability and physiological response to submaximal exercise, while football...... additionally elevates maximal aerobic fitness and exhaustive exercise performance....

  15. The Use of Session RPE to Monitor the Intensity of Weight Training in Older Women: Acute Responses to Eccentric, Concentric, and Dynamic Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro S. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rating of perceived exertion (RPE is ability to detect and interpret organic sensations while performing exercises. This method has been used to measure the level of effort that is felt during weight-training at a given intensity. The purpose of this investigation was to compare session RPE values with those of traditional RPE measurements for different weight-training muscle actions, performed together or separately. Fourteen women with no former weight-training experience were recruited for the investigation. All participants completed five sessions of exercise: familiarization, maximum force, concentric-only (CONC-only, eccentric-only (ECC-only, and dynamic (DYN = CONC + ECC. The traditional RPE method was measured after each series of exercises, and the session RPE was measured 30 min after the end of the training session. The statistical analyses used were the paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and repeated measures analysis of variance. Significant differences between traditional RPE and session RPE for DYN, CONC, and ECC exercises were not found. This investigation demonstrated that session RPE is similar to traditional RPE in terms of weight-training involving concentric, eccentric, or dynamic muscle exercises, and that it can be used to prescribe and monitor weight-training sessions in older subjects.

  16. Effects of training programs based on ipsilateral voluntary and stimulated contractions on muscle strength and monopedal postural control of the contralateral limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Mohamed Abdelhafid; Noé, Frederic; Nouar, Merbouha Boulahbel; Paillard, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    To compare the effects of unilateral strength training by stimulated and voluntary contractions on muscle strength and monopedal postural control of the contralateral limb. 36 non-active healthy male subjects were recruited and split randomly into three groups. Two groups of 12 subjects took part in a strength-training program (3 sessions a week over 8 weeks) comprising 43 contractions of the quadriceps femoris of the ipsilateral limb (at 20% of the MVC). One group carried out voluntary contractions exclusively (VOL group), while the other group benefited exclusively from electro-induced contractions (NMES group). The other 12 subjects formed the control (CON) group. Assessments of MVC and monopedal postural control in static and dynamic postural tasks were performed with the ipsilateral (ISPI) and contralateral (CONTRA) limbs before (PRE) and after (POST) completion of the training program. After the training program, the MVC of the IPSI and CONTRA limbs increased similarly for both experimental groups (VOL and NMES). There were no significant improvements of monopedal postural control for the IPSI or CONTRA limbs in either the VOL or NMES experimental group. No change was observed for the CON group over the protocol period. The purposed training program with NMES vs VOL contractions induced strength gains but did not permit any improvement of contralateral monopedal postural control in healthy young subjects. This has potential for therapeutic application and allows clinicians to focus their training programs on dynamic and poly-articular exercises to improve the postural control in young subjects.

  17. Effects of walking and strength training on walking capacity in individuals with claudication: meta-analysis

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    Alessandra de Souza Miranda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the past few years, several clinical trials have been performed to analyze the effects of exercise training on walking ability in patients with intermittent claudication (IC. However, it remains unclear which type of physical exercise provides the maximum benefits in terms of walking ability. OBJECTIVE: To analyze, by means of a meta-analysis, the effects of walking and strength training on the walking capacity in patients with IC. METHODS: Papers analyzing the effects of walking and strength training programs in patients with IC were browsed on the Medline, Lilacs, and Cochrane databases. Randomized clinical trials scoring >4 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale and assessing claudication distance (CD and total walking distance (TWD were included in the review. RESULTS: Walking and strength training yielded increases in CD and TWD (P < 0.05. However, walking training yielded greater increases than strength training (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Walking and strength training improve walking capacity in patients with IC. However, greater improvements in TWD are obtained with walking training.

  18. Suppression of endogenous testosterone production attenuates the response to strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Andersen, Marianne; Brixen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    We hypothesized that suppression of endogenous testosterone would inhibit the adaptations to strength training in otherwise healthy men. Twenty-two young men with minor experience with strength training participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention study....... The subjects were randomized to treatment with the GnRH analog goserelin (3.6 mg) or placebo (saline) subcutaneously every 4 wk for 12 wk. The strength training period of 8 wk, starting at week 4, included exercises for all major muscles [3-4 sets per exercise x 6-10 repetitions with corresponding 6- to 10......), whereas it remained constant in the placebo group. The goserelin group showed no changes in isometric knee extension strength after training, whereas the placebo group increased from 240.2 +/- 41.3 to 264.1 +/- 35.3 Nm (P

  19. Is strength-training frequency a key factor to develop performance adaptations in young elite soccer players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Esquina, Carlos; de Hoyo Lora, Moisés; Gonzalo-Skok, Óliver; Domínguez-Cobo, Sergio; Sánchez, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a combined strength-training programme (full-back squat, YoYo TM leg curl, plyometrics and sled towing exercises) on performance in elite young soccer players and to examine the effects when this training programme was performed one or two days per week. Thirty-six male soccer players (U-17 to U-19) were recruited and assigned to experimental groups (EXP1: 1 s w -1 ; EXP2: 2 s w -1 ) or a control group (CON). Performance was assessed through a countermovement jump (CMJ) test (relative peak power [CMJ PP ] and CMJ height [CMJ H ]), a 20-m linear sprint test with split-times at 10-m, and a change of direction test (V-cut test) 1 week before starting the training programme and also 1 week after performing such training programme. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in CMJ variables (ES: 0.39-0.81) and COD (ES: 0.70 and 0.76) in EXP1 and EXP2, while EXP2 also showed substantial enhancements in all linear sprinting tests (ES: 0.43-0.52). Between-group analysis showed substantially greater improvements in CMJ variables (ES: 0.39-0.68) in experimental groups in comparison to CON. Furthermore, EXP2 achieved a substantial better performance in 20-m (ES: 0.48-0.64) than EXP1 and CON. Finally, EXP2 also showed greater enhancements in 10-m (ES: 0.50) and V-cut test (ES: 0.52) than EXP1. In conclusion, the combined strength-training programme improved jumping ability, independently of training frequency, though the achievement of two sessions per week also enhanced sprinting abilities (linear and COD) in young soccer players.

  20. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether past research provides conclusive evidence about the effects of type and timing of ingestion of specific sources of protein by those engaged in resistance weight training. Two essential, nutrition-related, tenets need to be followed by weightlifters to maximize muscle hypertrophy: the consumption of 1.2-2.0 g protein.kg -1 of body weight, and ≥44-50 kcal.kg-1 of body weight. Researchers have tested the effects of timing of protein supplement ingestion on various physical changes in weightlifters. In general, protein supplementation pre- and post-workout increases physical performance, training session recovery, lean body mass, muscle hypertrophy, and strength. Specific gains, differ however based on protein type and amounts. Studies on timing of consumption of milk have indicated that fat-free milk post-workout was effective in promoting increases in lean body mass, strength, muscle hypertrophy and decreases in body fat. The leucine content of a protein source has an impact on protein synthesis, and affects muscle hypertrophy. Consumption of 3–4 g of leucine is needed to promote maximum protein synthesis. An ideal supplement following resistance exercise should contain whey protein that provides at least 3 g of leucine per serving. A combination of a fast-acting carbohydrate source such as maltodextrin or glucose should be consumed with the protein source, as leucine cannot modulate protein synthesis as effectively without the presence of insulin. Such a supplement post-workout would be most effective in increasing muscle protein synthesis, resulting in greater muscle hypertrophy and strength. In contrast, the consumption of essential amino acids and dextrose appears to be most effective at evoking protein synthesis prior to rather than following resistance exercise. To further enhance muscle hypertrophy and strength, a resistance weight- training program of at least 10–12 weeks with compound movements for

  1. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this review was to determine whether past research provides conclusive evidence about the effects of type and timing of ingestion of specific sources of protein by those engaged in resistance weight training. Two essential, nutrition-related, tenets need to be followed by weightlifters to maximize muscle hypertrophy: the consumption of 1.2-2.0 g protein.kg -1 of body weight, and ≥44-50 kcal.kg-1 of body weight. Researchers have tested the effects of timing of protein supplement ingestion on various physical changes in weightlifters. In general, protein supplementation pre- and post-workout increases physical performance, training session recovery, lean body mass, muscle hypertrophy, and strength. Specific gains, differ however based on protein type and amounts. Studies on timing of consumption of milk have indicated that fat-free milk post-workout was effective in promoting increases in lean body mass, strength, muscle hypertrophy and decreases in body fat. The leucine content of a protein source has an impact on protein synthesis, and affects muscle hypertrophy. Consumption of 3–4 g of leucine is needed to promote maximum protein synthesis. An ideal supplement following resistance exercise should contain whey protein that provides at least 3 g of leucine per serving. A combination of a fast-acting carbohydrate source such as maltodextrin or glucose should be consumed with the protein source, as leucine cannot modulate protein synthesis as effectively without the presence of insulin. Such a supplement post-workout would be most effective in increasing muscle protein synthesis, resulting in greater muscle hypertrophy and strength. In contrast, the consumption of essential amino acids and dextrose appears to be most effective at evoking protein synthesis prior to rather than following resistance exercise. To further enhance muscle hypertrophy and strength, a resistance weight- training program of at least 10–12 weeks

  2. Ballistic strength training compared with usual care for improving mobility following traumatic brain injury: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gavin; Ada, Louise; Hassett, Leanne; Morris, Meg E; Clark, Ross; Bryant, Adam L; Olver, John

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of disability in young adults aged 15 to 45 years. Mobility limitations are prevalent, and range in severity from interfering with basic day-to-day tasks to restricting participation in higher level social, leisure, employment and sporting activities. Despite the prevalence and severity of physical impairments, such as poor balance and spasticity, the main contributor to mobility limitations following traumatic brain injury is low muscle power generation. Strengthening exercises that are performed quickly are termed 'ballistic' as they are aimed at improving the rate of force production and, hence, muscle power. This is compared with conventional strength training, which is performed slowly and aims to improve maximum force production, yet has limited impact on mobility. In people recovering from traumatic brain injury: (1) is a 12-week ballistic strength-training program targeting the three muscle groups critical for walking more effective than usual care at improving mobility, strength and balance; and (2) does improved mobility translate to better health-related quality of life? A prospective, multi-centre, randomised, single-blind trial with concealed allocation will be conducted. Participants will be patients with a neurologically based movement disorder affecting mobility as a result of traumatic brain injury. Patients will be recruited during the acute phase of rehabilitation (n=166), from brain injury units in large metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. For 12 weeks, participants in the experimental group will have three 60-minute sessions of usual physiotherapy intervention replaced by three 60-minute sessions of strength training (ballistic strength, gait). The three key muscle groups responsible for forward propulsion will be targeted: ankle plantarflexors, hip flexors and the hip extensors. Initial loads will be low, to facilitate high contraction velocities. Progression to higher loads

  3. Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training can significantly improve muscular performance in young female volleyball players. These findings may be useful for all physical education teachers and volleyball coaches.

  4. Injuries in women associated with a periodized strength training and running program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, K L; Harman, E A; Worsham, R E; Sykes, M B; Frykman, P N; Backus, V L

    2001-02-01

    Forty-five women participated in a 24-week physical training program designed to improve lifting, load carriage, and running performance. Activities included weightlifting, running, backpacking, lift and carry drills, and sprint running. Physicians documented by passive surveillance all training-related injuries. Thirty-two women successfully completed training program. Twenty-two women (48.9%) suffered least 1 injury during training, but only 2 women had to drop out of the study because of injuries. The rate of injury associated with lost training time was 2.8 injuries per 1,000 training hours of exposure. Total clinic visits and days lost from training were 89 and 69, respectively. Most injuries were the overuse type involving the lower back, knees, and feet. Weightlifting accounted for a majority of the lost training days. A combined strength training and running program resulted in significant performance gains in women. Only 2 out of 45 participants left the training program cause of injuries.

  5. Masculinity in the Making: Men’s Increased Consumption of Strength Training

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlock, Roger; Freeman, Olivia; Dunne, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the body, masculinity and the consumption of body-focussed activities. It examines the meaning and importance of strength training for men. Strength training is of interest because its increase in popularity is occurring at a particular point in time when a growing number of men are experiencing insecurities over their masculine identities as a result of recent socioeconomic changes. This paper proposes that men today are facing a dilemma in terms ...

  6. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  7. Learning by observing: the effect of multiple sessions of action-observation training on the spontaneous movement tempo and motor resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bisio, Ambra; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco; Avanzino, Laura

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to explore the changes in motor performance and motor resonance after multiple sessions of action observation (AO) training. Subjects were exposed to the observation of a video showing finger tapping movements executed at 3Hz, a frequency higher than the spontaneous one (2Hz) for four consecutive days. Motor performance and motor resonance were tested before the AO training on the first day, and on the last day. Results showed that multiple sessions of AO training induced a shift of the speed of execution of finger tapping movements toward the observed one and a change in motor resonance. Before the 3Hz-AO training cortical excitability was highest during the observation of the 2Hz video. This motor resonance effect was lost after one single session of 3Hz-AO training whereas after multiple sessions of 3Hz-AO training cortical excitability was highest during the observation of the 3Hz video. Our study shows for the first time that multiple sessions of AO training are able not only to induce performance gains but also to change the way by which the observer's motor system recognizes a certain movement as belonging to the individual motor repertoire. These results may encourage the development of novel rehabilitative protocols based on multiple sessions of action observation aimed to regain a correct movement when its spontaneous speed is modified by pathologies or to modify the innate temporal properties of certain movements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effects of neck strength training on isometric neck strength in rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Kevin; Green, Brian S; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a neck strengthening program on the isometric neck strength profile of male rugby union players. Controlled laboratory study. Professional rugby union club. Fifteen professional and 10 semiprofessional rugby union players. The 15 professional players undertook a 5-week neck strengthening intervention, which was performed twice per week, whereas the 10 semiprofessional players acted as the control group. Isometric strength of the neck musculature was tested using a hand-held dynamometer, for flexion (F), extension (E), left-side flexion (LSF), and right-side flexion (RSF). Preintervention and postintervention evaluations were undertaken. No significant between-group differences in isometric neck strength were noted preintervention. A significant main effect for time was observed (P isometric neck strength in all planes after the 5-week intervention (F preintervention = 334.45 ± 39.31 N vs F postintervention 396.05 ± 75.55 N; E preintervention = 606.19 ± 97.34 vs E postintervention = 733.88 ± 127.16 N; LSF preintervention = 555.56 ± 88.34 N vs LSF postintervention = 657.14 ± 122.99 N; RSF preintervention = 570.00 ± 106.53 N vs RSF postintervention = 668.00 ± 142.18 N). No significant improvement in neck strength was observed for control group participants. The results of the present study indicate that a 5-week neck strengthening program improves isometric neck strength in rugby union players, which may have implications for injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation. The strengthening program described in the present study may facilitate rehabilitation specialists in the development of neck injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation protocols.

  9. Feasibility of ballistic strength training in sub-acute stroke: A randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrey, Genevieve; Clark, Ross A; Holland, Anne E; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Davis, Carly; Windfeld-Lund, Cristie; Raymond, Melissa J; Williams, Gavin

    2018-05-30

    To establish the feasibility and effectiveness of a six week ballistic strength training protocol in people with stroke. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded study. Sub-acute inpatient rehabilitation. Consecutively admitted inpatients with a primary diagnosis of first ever stroke with lower limb weakness, functional ambulation category score of ≥3, and ability to walk ≥14m were screened for eligibility to recruit 30 participants for randomization. Participants were randomized to standard therapy or ballistic strength training three times per week for six weeks. The primary aim was to evaluate feasibility and outcomes included recruitment rate, participant retention and attrition, feasibility of the exercise protocol, therapist burden and participant safety. Secondary outcomes included measures of mobility, lower limb muscle strength, muscle power and quality of life. Thirty participants (11% of those screened) with mean age of 50 (SD 18) years were randomized. The median number of sessions attended was 15/18 and 17/18 for the ballistic and control groups respectively. Earlier than expected discharge home (n=4) and illness (n=7) were the most common reasons for non-attendance. Participants performed the exercises safely, with no study-related adverse events. There were significant (pballistic group for comfortable gait velocity (mean difference (MD) 0.31m/s, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.08 to 0.52), muscle power, as measured by peak jump height (MD 8cm, 95% CI: 3 to 13) and peak propulsive velocity (MD 64cm/s, 95% CI: 17 to 112). Ballistic training was safe and feasible in select ambulant people with stroke. Similar rates of retention and attrition suggest that ballistic training was acceptable to patients. Secondary outcomes provide promising results that warrant further investigation in a larger trial. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, William H; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Spiering, Barry A

    2012-05-01

    Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition. J Strength Cond Res 26(5): 1199-1202, 2012-The present study compared the effects of 6 weeks of weightlifting plus traditional heavy resistance training exercises vs. kettlebell training on strength, power, and anthropometric measures. Thirty healthy men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (a) weightlifting (n = 13; mean ± SD: age, 22.92 ± 1.98 years; body mass, 80.57 ± 12.99 kg; height, 174.56 ± 5.80 cm) or (b) kettlebell (n = 17; mean ± SD: age, 22.76 ± 1.86 years; body mass, 78.99 ± 10.68 kg; height, 176.79 ± 5.08 cm) and trained 2 times a week for 6 weeks. A linear periodization model was used for training; at weeks 1-3 volume was 3 × 6 (kettlebell swings or high pull), 4 × 4 (accelerated swings or power clean), and 4 × 6 (goblet squats or back squats), respectively, and the volume increased during weeks 4-6 to 4 × 6, 6 × 4, and 4 × 6, respectively. Participants were assessed for height (in centimeters), body mass (in kilograms), and body composition (skinfolds). Strength was assessed by the back squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM), whereas power was assessed by the vertical jump and power clean 1RM. The results of this study indicated that short-term weightlifting and kettlebell training were effective in increasing strength and power. However, the gain in strength using weightlifting movements was greater than that during kettlebell training. Neither method of training led to significant changes in any of the anthropometric measures. In conclusion, 6 weeks of weightlifting induced significantly greater improvements in strength compared with kettlebell training. No between-group differences existed for the vertical jump or body composition.

  11. Functional and muscular adaptations in an experimental model for isometric strength training in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Krüger

    Full Text Available Exercise training induces muscular adaptations that are highly specific to the type of exercise. For a systematic study of the differentiated exercise adaptations on a molecular level mouse models have been used successfully. The aim of the current study was to develop a suitable mouse model of isometric strength exercise training characterized by specific adaptations known from strength training. C57BL/6 mice performed an isometric strength training (ST for 10 weeks 5 days/week. Additionally, either a sedentary control group (CT or a regular endurance training group (ET groups were used as controls. Performance capacity was determined by maximum holding time (MHT and treadmill spirometry, respectively. Furthermore, muscle fiber types and diameter, muscular concentration of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK, succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 were determined. In a further approach, the effect of ST on glucose intolerance was tested in diabetic mice. In mice of the ST group we observed an increase of MHT in isometric strength tests, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 protein content in the membrane fraction. In contrast, in mice of the ET group an increase of VO(2max, a shift to oxidative muscle fiber type and an increase of oxidative enzyme content was measured. Furthermore strength training was effective in reducing glucose intolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. An effective murine strength training model was developed and evaluated, which revealed marked differences in adaptations known from endurance training. This approach seems also suitable to test for therapeutical effects of strength training.

  12. Kinetics of Hypotension during 50 Sessions of Resistance and Aerobic Training in Hypertensive Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damorim, Igor Rodrigues; Santos, Tony Meireles; Barros, Gustavo Willames Pimentel; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Cavalcanti

    2017-04-01

    Resistance and aerobic training are recommended as an adjunctive treatment for hypertension. However, the number of sessions required until the hypotensive effect of the exercise has stabilized has not been clearly established. To establish the adaptive kinetics of the blood pressure (BP) responses as a function of time and type of training in hypertensive patients. We recruited 69 patients with a mean age of 63.4 ± 2.1 years, randomized into one group of resistance training (n = 32) and another of aerobic training (n = 32). Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and one repetition maximum (1RM) testing was performed. BP was measured before each training session with a digital BP arm monitor. The 50 training sessions were categorized into quintiles. To compare the effect of BP reduction with both training methods, we used two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for the BP values obtained before the interventions. The differences between the moments were established by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 6.9 mmHg and 5.3 mmHg, respectively, with resistance training and 16.5 mmHg and 11.6 mmHg, respectively, with aerobic training. The kinetics of the hypotensive response of the SBP showed significant reductions until the 20th session in both groups. Stabilization of the DBP occurred in the 20th session of resistance training and in the 10th session of aerobic training. A total of 20 sessions of resistance or aerobic training are required to achieve the maximum benefits of BP reduction. The methods investigated yielded distinct adaptive kinetic patterns along the 50 sessions. Os treinamentos de força e aeróbio são indicados para o tratamento adjuvante da hipertensão. Entretanto, o número de sessões necessárias até estabilização do efeito hipotensor com o exercício ainda não está claramente estabelecido. Estabelecer a cinética adaptativa das respostas tensionais em função do

  13. Increased cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake in response to ten sessions of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael M; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi A

    2018-01-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are widely reported in response to completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the mechanism explaining this result is poorly understood. This study examined changes in VO2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to 10 sessions of low-volume HIIT. Participants included 30 active men and women (mean age and VO2max=22.9±5.4 years and 39.6±5.6 mL/kg/min) who performed HIIT and 30 men and women (age and VO2max=25.7±4.5 years and 40.7±5.2 mL/kg/min) who served as non-exercising controls (CON). High intensity interval training consisted of 6-10 s bouts of cycling per session at 90-110 percent peak power output (PPO) interspersed with 75 s recovery. Before and after training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which CO, stroke volume (SV), and heart rate (HR) were estimated using thoracic impedance. To confirm VO2max attainment, a verification test was completed after progressive cycling at a work rate equal to 110%PPO. Data demonstrated significant improvements in VO2max (2.71±0.63 L/min to 2.86±0.63 L/min, Psessions of HIIT is due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  14. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  15. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9(th) and 17(th) session and four days after the final 24(th) training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (ptraining of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  16. The effect of endurance training on muscle strength in young, healthy men in relation to hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Sztefko, K; Zoladz, J A

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on muscle strength in relation to hormonal changes in the body. Fifteen young, healthy men took part in 5 week endurance training performed on a cycloergometer. Before and after training program, exercise testing sessions were performed involving all participants. Training program significantly increased V(O2 max) (P<0.05) and time to fatigue at 50% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (TTF 50% MVC), P<0.03, but it did not affect maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). This was accompanied by an increase (P<0.001) in total plasma testosterone (T) and free testosterone (fT) concentrations, whereas a decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (P<0.02), growth hormone (P<0.05), free triiodothyronine (P<0.001) and free thyroxine (P<0.02) concentrations was observed. No changes were found in plasma cortisol (C) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. Additionally, MVC was positively correlated to T/C, fT/C and IGF-I/C ratios after the training, whereas time to fatigue at 50% of MVC was closely positively correlated to the SHBG concentration, both before and after endurance training. We have concluded that moderate intensity endurance training resulting in a significant increase in V(O2 max), did not affect the MVC, but it significantly increased time to fatigue at 50% of MVC. This index of local muscular endurance was greater in subjects with higher concentration of SHBG, both before and after the training.

  17. Knee Pain during Strength Training Shortly following Fast-Track Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Kehlet, Henrik; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2014-01-01

    Background Loading and contraction failure (muscular exhaustion) are strength training variables known to influence neural activation of the exercising muscle in healthy subjects, which may help reduce neural inhibition of the quadriceps muscle following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is unknown how these exercise variables influence knee pain after TKA. Objective To investigate the effect of loading and contraction failure on knee pain during strength training, shortly following TKA. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Consecutive sample of patients from the Copenhagen area, Denmark, receiving a TKA, between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants Seventeen patients, no more than 3 weeks after their TKA. Main outcome measures: In a randomized order, the patients performed 1 set of 4 standardized knee extensions, using relative loads of 8, 14, and 20 repetition maximum (RM), and ended with 1 single set to contraction failure (14 RM load). The individual loadings (kilograms) were determined during a familiarization session >72 hours prior. The patients rated their knee pain during each repetition, using a numerical rating scale (0–10). Results Two patients were lost to follow up. Knee pain increased with increasing load (20 RM: 3.1±2.0 points, 14 RM: 3.5±1.8 points, 8 RM: 4.3±2.5 points, P = 0.006), and repetitions to contraction failure (10% failure: 3.2±1.9 points, 100% failure: 5.4±1.6 points, Pknee pain 60 seconds after the final repetition (2.7±2.4 points) was not different from that recorded before strength training (2.7±1.8 points, P = 0.88). Conclusion Both loading and repetitions performed to contraction failure during knee- extension strength-training, increased post-operative knee pain during strength training implemented shortly following TKA. However, only the increase in pain during repetitions to contraction failure exceeded that defined as clinically relevant, and was very short-lived. Trial Registration Clinical

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Endurance and Strength Training in Power Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleva, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research work is to track down the level of relation between strength and endurance in training exercises of handball athletes. The most successful ratio has been established during work with two groups of 10 players each, all of whom are university students. They were trained, respectively, according to the general training…

  19. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  20. Effect of Strength Training on Rate of Force Development in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjao, Andre Luiz Demantova; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Carneiro, Nelson Hilario; Goncalves, Raquel; Ferreira de Moura, Rodrigo; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Altimari, Leandro Ricardo; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of an 8-week strength training (ST) program on the rate of force development (RFD) and electromyographic activity (EMG) in older women. Seventeen women (M age = 63.4 years, SD = 4.9) without previous ST experience were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 7) or training (n = 10) group. A leg-press isometric test was…

  1. Effects of Nintendo Wii Fit Plus training on ankle strength with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Heo, Myoung

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a training program using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus on the ankle muscle strengths of subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted using subjects in their 20s who had functional ankle instability. They were randomized to a strengthening training group and a balance training group with 10 subjects in each, and they performed an exercise using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus for 20 minutes. In addition, every participant completed preparation and finishing exercises for 5 minutes, respectively. [Results] The muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion and dorsiflexion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the strengthening training group. Furthermore, the muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, eversion, and inversion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the balance training group. [Conclusion] The balance training group using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus showed better results than the strengthening training group. Consequently, it is recommended to add the balance training program of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus to conventional exercise programs to improve ankle muscle strength in functional ankle instability at a low cost.

  2. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...

  3. Establishing the minimal number of virtual reality simulator training sessions necessary to develop basic laparoscopic skills competence: evaluation of the learning curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jordao Duarte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Materials and Methods Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA, including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. Results By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p < 0.001 was obtained, being necessary 4.26 (∼five sessions to reach the plateau of 80% of the estimated acquired knowledge, being that 100% of the students have reached this level of skills. From the fifth session till the 10th, the gain of knowledge was not significant, although some students reached 96% of the expected improvement. Conclusions This study revealed that after five simulator training sequential sessions the students' learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training

  4. Establishing the minimal number of virtual reality simulator training sessions necessary to develop basic laparoscopic skills competence: evaluation of the learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ricardo Jordão; Cury, José; Oliveira, Luis Carlos Neves; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping). The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA), including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting) were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p sessions) to reach the plateau of 80% of the estimated acquired knowledge, being that 100% of the students have reached this level of skills. From the fifth session till the 10th, the gain of knowledge was not significant, although some students reached 96% of the expected improvement. This study revealed that after five simulator training sequential sessions the students' learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training tasks level.

  5. Relationship Between Depression and Strength Training in Survivors of the Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidar Felipe José

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cerebral Vascular Accident is responsible for a significant increase in the mortality rate in individuals who have suffered this condition, regardless of the level of subsequent disability. This study aimed to analyze the influence of a strength training program on indicators of depression in survivors of the ischemic stroke. The study sample included subjects from both genders who were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG consisting of 11 subjects aged 51.7 8.0 years, and a control group (CG consisting of 13 subjects aged 52.5 7.7 years. The EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training. Assessment was made in the pre-test before training and at the re-test after 12 weeks of training. We used the Beck Depression Inventory and evaluated 1RM. Significant differences in depression were found between post-test and pretest measurements (Δ% = -21.47%, p = 0,021 in the EG; furthermore, there were significant differences in all indicators of depression between the EG and CG after completing 12 weeks of training. There were significant gains in strength of the EG in relation to the CG. There was a negative correlation between the strength gains as determined with the 1RM test and the levels of depression, especially in lower-limb exercises. The results of this study suggest that improvements in strength are negatively correlated with levels of depression. Improvements in strength are therefore associated with a reduction in levels of depression.

  6. Isometric parameters in the monitoring of maximal strength, power, and hypertrophic resistance-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Heikki; Walker, Simon; Lähitie, Anuliisa; Häkkinen, Keijo; Avela, Janne

    2018-02-01

    This study monitored strength-training adaptations via isometric parameters throughout 2 × 10 weeks of hypertrophic (HYP I-II) or 10 weeks maximum strength (MS) followed by 10 weeks power (P) training with untrained controls. Trainees performed bilateral isometric leg press tests analyzed for peak force (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and rate of force development (RFD) every 3.5 weeks. These parameters were compared with dynamic performance, voluntary and electrically induced isometric contractions, muscle activity, and cross-sectional area (CSA) in the laboratory before and after 10 and 20 weeks. RFD increased similarly during the first 7 weeks (HYP I, 44% ± 53%; MS, 48% ± 55%, P strength/power training, while MVC cannot distinguish between strength or muscle mass changes. Monitoring RFD provided important information regarding plateaus in RFD improvement, which were observed in dynamic explosive performances after HYP II compared with P.

  7. Preservation of eccentric strength in older adults: Evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Marc; Macintyre, Donna L; Eng, Janice J; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Reid, W Darlene

    2010-06-01

    Overall reductions in muscle strength typically accompany the aging process. However, older adults show a relatively preserved capacity of producing eccentric strength. The preservation of eccentric strength in older adults is a well-established phenomenon, occurring indiscriminately across different muscle groups, independent of age-related architectural changes in muscle structure and velocity of movement. The mechanisms for the preservation of eccentric strength appear to be mechanical and cellular in origin and include both passive and active elements regulating muscle stiffness. The age-related accumulation of non-contractile material in the muscle-tendon unit increases passive stiffness, which might offer mechanical advantage during eccentric contractions. In addition, the preserved muscle tension and increased instantaneous stiffness of old muscle fibers during stretch increase active stiffness, which might enhance eccentric strength. The fact that the preservation of eccentric strength is present in people with chronic conditions when compared to age-matched healthy controls indicates that the aging process per se does not exclusively mediate the preservation of eccentric strength. Physical inactivity, which is common in elderly and people with chronic conditions, is a potential factor regulating the preservation of eccentric strength. When compared to concentric strength, the magnitude of preservation of eccentric strength in older adults ranges from 2% to 48% with a mean value of 21.6% from all studies. This functional reserve of eccentric strength might be clinically relevant, especially to initiate resistance training and rehabilitation programs in individuals with low levels of strength. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Concurrent Strength and HIIT Training in Octogenarians with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Aznar-Laín, Susana; Mañas, Asier; Castellanos, Juan; Alcázar, Julián; Ara, Ignacio; Mata, Esmeralda; Daimiel, Rosa; García-García, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the short- and long-term effects of concurrent strength and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on octogenarian COPD patients, nine males (age = 84.2 ± 2.8 years, BMI = 29.3 ± 2.3) with low to severe COPD levels (2.1 ± 1.5 BODE index) underwent a supervised 9-week strength and HIIT exercise program. Training had a significant (p HIIT training increases physical fitness in the oldest-old COPD patients, and has potential long-term benefits.

  9. Strength Training for Middle- and Long-Distance Performance: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Nicolas; Mujika, Inigo; Arvisais, Denis; Roubeix, Marie; Binet, Carl; Bosquet, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    To assess the net effects of strength training on middle- and long-distance performance through a meta-analysis of the available literature. Three databases were searched, from which 28 of 554 potential studies met all inclusion criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and weighted by the inverse of variance to calculate an overall effect and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were conducted to determine whether the strength-training intensity, duration, and frequency and population performance level, age, sex, and sport were outcomes that might influence the magnitude of the effect. The implementation of a strength-training mesocycle in running, cycling, cross-country skiing, and swimming was associated with moderate improvements in middle- and long-distance performance (net SMD [95%CI] = 0.52 [0.33-0.70]). These results were associated with improvements in the energy cost of locomotion (0.65 [0.32-0.98]), maximal force (0.99 [0.80-1.18]), and maximal power (0.50 [0.34-0.67]). Maximal-force training led to greater improvements than other intensities. Subgroup analyses also revealed that beneficial effects on performance were consistent irrespective of the athletes' level. Taken together, these results provide a framework that supports the implementation of strength training in addition to traditional sport-specific training to improve middle- and long-distance performance, mainly through improvements in the energy cost of locomotion, maximal power, and maximal strength.

  10. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Eckardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT] on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT and free-weight URT (F-URT, on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Methods Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65–80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength, power (e.g., chair rise test and balance (e.g., functional reach test, carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Results Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Conclusion Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an

  11. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  12. Construction of a Urologic Robotic Surgery Training Curriculum: How Many Simulator Sessions Are Required for Residents to Achieve Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Scott; Haddock, Peter; Shichman, Steven; Dorin, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    To define the time needed by urology residents to attain proficiency in computer-aided robotic surgery to aid in the refinement of a robotic surgery simulation curriculum. We undertook a retrospective review of robotic skills training data acquired during January 2012 to December 2014 from junior (postgraduate year [PGY] 2-3) and senior (PGY4-5) urology residents using the da Vinci Skills Simulator. We determined the number of training sessions attended and the level of proficiency achieved by junior and senior residents in attempting 11 basic or 6 advanced tasks, respectively. Junior residents successfully completed 9.9 ± 1.8 tasks, with 62.5% completing all 11 basic tasks. The maximal cumulative success rate of junior residents completing basic tasks was 89.8%, which was achieved within 7.0 ± 1.5 hours of training. Of senior residents, 75% successfully completed all six advanced tasks. Senior residents attended 6.3 ± 3.5 hours of training during which 5.1 ± 1.6 tasks were completed. The maximal cumulative success rate of senior residents completing advanced tasks was 85.4%. When designing and implementing an effective robotic surgical training curriculum, an allocation of 10 hours of training may be optimal to allow junior and senior residents to achieve an acceptable level of surgical proficiency in basic and advanced robotic surgical skills, respectively. These data help guide the design and scheduling of a residents training curriculum within the time constraints of a resident's workload.

  13. A Strength Training Program for Primary Care Patients, Central Pennsylvania, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vijay A.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Messina, Dino A.; Stuckey, Heather L.; Curry, William J.; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Sherwood, Lisa L.; Hess, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Primary care providers can recommend strength training programs to use “Exercise as Medicine,” yet few studies have examined the interest of primary care patients in these programs. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of primary care patients in central Pennsylvania. Interest in participating in free group-based strength training and weight control programs was assessed, in addition to patient demographics, medical history, and quality of life. Results Among 414 patients, most (61.0%) were aged 54 or older, and 64.0% were female. More patients were interested in a strength training program (55.3%) than in a weight control program (45.4%). Nearly three-quarters (72.8%) of those reporting 10 or more days of poor physical health were interested in a strength training program compared with 49.5% of those reporting no days of poor physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, those reporting poorer physical health had 2.7 greater odds (95% confidence interval, 1.4–5.1) of being interested in a strength training program compared with those reporting better physical health. Patients with hypertension, diabetes, or high cholesterol were not more interested in a strength training program than those without these conditions. Conclusion Primary care practices may consider offering or referring patients to community-based strength training programs. This study observed high levels of interest in these widely available programs. Practices may also consider screening and referring those with poorer physical health, as they may be the most interested and have the most to gain from participating. PMID:24967829

  14. Effects of yoga, strength training and advice on back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Bergström, Gunnar; Jensen, Irene; Hagberg, Jan; Kwak, Lydia

    2017-03-29

    Among the working population, non-specific low-back pain and neck pain are one of the most common reasons for sickness absenteeism. The aim was to evaluate the effects of an early intervention of yoga - compared with strength training or evidence-based advice - on sickness absenteeism, sickness presenteeism, back and neck pain and disability among a working population. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 159 participants with predominantly (90%) chronic back and neck pain. After screening, the participants were randomized to kundalini yoga, strength training or evidence-based advice. Primary outcome was sickness absenteeism. Secondary outcomes were sickness presenteeism, back and neck pain and disability. Self-reported questionnaires and SMS text messages were completed at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months. The results did not indicate that kundalini yoga and strength training had any statistically significant effects on the primary outcome compared with evidence-based advice. An interaction effect was found between adherence to recommendations and sickness absenteeism, indicating larger significant effects among the adherers to kundalini yoga versus evidence-based advice: RR = 0.47 (CI 0.30; 0.74, p = 0.001), strength training versus evidence-based advice: RR = 0.60 (CI 0.38; 0.96, p = 0.032). Some significant differences were also found for the secondary outcomes to the advantage of kundalini yoga and strength training. Guided exercise in the forms of kundalini yoga or strength training does not reduce sickness absenteeism more than evidence-based advice alone. However, secondary analyses reveal that among those who pursue kundalini yoga or strength training at least two times a week, a significantly reduction in sickness absenteeism was found. Methods to increase adherence to treatment recommendations should be further developed and applied in exercise interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01653782, date of registration: June, 28

  15. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  16. Effects of isolated or combined carbohydrate and caffeine supplementation between 2 daily training sessions on soccer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Souza, Victor Amorim; Bertuzzi, Romulo; de Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; Bishop, David; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether isolated or combined carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) supplementation have beneficial effects on performance during soccer-related tests performed after a previous training session. Eleven male, amateur soccer players completed 4 trials in a randomized, double-blind, and crossover design. In the morning, participants performed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). Then, participants ingested (i) 1.2 g·kg(-1) body mass·h(-1) CHO in a 20% CHO solution immediately after and 1, 2, and 3 h after the LIST; (ii) CAF (6 mg·kg(-1) body mass) 3 h after the LIST; (iii) CHO combined with CAF (CHO+CAF); and (iv) placebo. All drinks were taste-matched and flavourless. After this 4-h recovery, participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) test, a Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT), and a repeated-sprint test. There were no main effects of supplementation for CMJ, LSPT total time, or best sprint and total sprint time from the repeated-sprint test (p>0.05). There were also no main effects of supplementation for heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pleasure-displeasure, and perceived activation (p>0.05). However, there were significant time effects (psoccer-related performance tests when performed after a previous training session.

  17. Effects of Supervised vs. Unsupervised Training Programs on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, André; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Beurskens, Rainer; Granacher, Urs

    2017-11-01

    to the following modalities: period, frequency, volume, modalities of supervision (i.e., number of supervised/unsupervised sessions within the supervised or unsupervised training groups, respectively). Heterogeneity was computed using I 2 and χ 2 statistics. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Our analyses revealed that in older adults, supervised balance/resistance training was superior compared with unsupervised balance/resistance training in improving measures of static steady-state balance (mean SMD bs  = 0.28, p = 0.39), dynamic steady-state balance (mean SMD bs  = 0.35, p = 0.02), proactive balance (mean SMD bs  = 0.24, p = 0.05), balance test batteries (mean SMD bs  = 0.53, p = 0.02), and measures of muscle strength/power (mean SMD bs  = 0.51, p = 0.04). Regarding the examined dose-response relationships, our analyses showed that a number of 10-29 additional supervised sessions in the supervised training groups compared with the unsupervised training groups resulted in the largest effects for static steady-state balance (mean SMD bs  = 0.35), dynamic steady-state balance (mean SMD bs  = 0.37), and muscle strength/power (mean SMD bs  = 1.12). Further, ≥30 additional supervised sessions in the supervised training groups were needed to produce the largest effects on proactive balance (mean SMD bs  = 0.30) and balance test batteries (mean SMD bs  = 0.77). Effects in favor of supervised programs were larger for studies that did not include any supervised sessions in their unsupervised programs (mean SMD bs : 0.28-1.24) compared with studies that implemented a few supervised sessions in their unsupervised programs (e.g., three supervised sessions throughout the entire intervention program; SMD bs : -0.06 to 0.41). The present findings have to be interpreted with caution because of the low number of eligible studies and the moderate methodological quality

  18. Effects of instability versus traditional resistance training on strength, power and velocity in untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p velocity and jumping ability. Key PointsSimilar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs.Both the stability and instability approaches seem suitable for healthy, physically-active individuals with or with limited experience in resistance training.RPE emerged as a useful tool to monitor exercise intensity during instability strength training.

  19. Effects of low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction on muscle size and strength of professional soccer players with muscle imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Sergio Denadai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine whether low intensity resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR could affect the concentric hamstrings/quadriceps muscle strength ratio (Hcon:Qcon of professional soccer players with Hcon:Qcon imbalance (Study 1, and whether hamstrings strength response observed after LI-BFR is associated with muscle hypertrophy (Study 2. In the Study 1, athletes were randomly divided into a training group (n = 6 and a control group (n = 5. In the Study 2, all athletes (n = 11 have performed the training programme. The athletes participated in a 6-week (twice a week supervised training programme (unilateral knee flexion at 30% 1RM consisting of 12 training sessions. Peak concentric torque of knee flexors (+8%; P < 0.001 and Hcon:Qcon (+9%; P < 0.01 were significantly increased after LI-BFR. Moreover, the cross sectional area (CSA of the hamstrings was significantly increased (+10%; P < 0.001 after LI-BFR. Thus, the addition of hamstrings strength training programme using LI-BFR during preseason is able to enhance both Hcon:Qcon and hamstrings CSA of professional soccer players with Hcon:Qcon imbalance.

  20. Effects of a low-intensity strength-training program on knee-extensor strength and functional ability of frail older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhoff, M.H.; Stemmerik, L.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate whether a 10-week low-intensity strength-training program could improve strength of the knee extensors and functional ability. Participants 65 years and older with low knee-extensor muscle strength were randomized into an exercise (n = 11) and a control group

  1. Health condition and physical function as predictors of adherence in long-term strength and balance training among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Lönnroos, Eija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Häkkinen, Arja

    2015-01-01

    Strength and balance training (SBT) has remarkable health benefits, but little is known regarding exercise adherence in older adults. We examined the adherence to strength and balance training and determinants of adherence among ≥75 year old adults. 182 community-dwelling individuals (aged 75-98 years, 71% female) began group-based SBT as part of a population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly study. Training was offered once a week for 2.3 years. Adherence was defined as the proportion of attended sessions relative to offered sessions. Participants were classified based on their adherence level into low (≤33.3%), moderate (33.4-66.5%) and high (≥66.6%) adherers. The mean length of training was 19 ± 9 months, and 68% continued participation for at least two years. The mean training adherence was 55 ± 29% for all participants and 18%, 53% and 82% for low, moderate and high adherers, respectively. High adherence was predicted by female sex; younger age; better cognition; independence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; higher knee extension strength; faster walking speed; and better performance on the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go tests. Poorer self-perceived health and the use of a walking aid were related to low adherence. Long-term continuation of training is possible for older community-dwelling adults, although poorer health and functional limitations affect training adherence. Our findings have implications for tailoring interventions and support for older adults to optimize their exercise adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non-periodized training plans. Variation in training stimuli

  3. ASTP crewmen in Apollo Command Module Trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.

  4. A Single Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia; Meston, Cindy

    2017-10-03

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has recently been associated with female sexual function (Stanton, Lorenz, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). Below-average HRV was identified as a possible risk factor for sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Based on this newly established relationship between HRV and female sexual function, the present study examined the effect of autogenic training to increase HRV on acute physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. Specifically, vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), an index of genital sexual arousal, and subjective sexual arousal were assessed in 33 sexually functional women, aged 18 to 27, before and after a short session of autogenic training. Autogenic training, a relaxation technique that restores the balance between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, has been shown to significantly increase HRV (Miu, Heilman, & Miclea, 2009). After autogenic training, significant increases in both VPA (p <.05) and subjective sexual arousal (p <.005) were observed. Moreover, change in HRV from pre- to postmanipulation significantly moderated changes in subjective sexual arousal (p <.05) when it was measured continuously during the presentation of the erotic stimulus. This cost-effective, easy-to-administer behavioral intervention may have important implications for increasing sexual arousal in women.

  5. Developing Mentoring Competency: Does a One Session Training Workshop Have Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chloe; Ford, Jennifer; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saperson, Karen; McConnell, Meghan; McCabe, Randi

    2016-06-01

    Mentorship remains vital to the career development, research productivity, and professional advancement of healthcare professionals in all disciplines of academic medicine. Recent studies describe mentor training initiatives aimed at increasing mentoring competency through multisession training curricula. Although the published results of these programs are promising, they require the following: (1) substantial financial resources from the institution, and (2) continuous participation and time commitment from faculty, which may reduce participation and effectiveness. A single, half-day of evidence-based mentor training would represent a more cost-effective and accessible option for educating mentors. The present study investigates the impact of a half-day interactive mentor training workshop on mentoring competency in faculty, staff, and trainees of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences at McMaster University. Overall, participants' self-reported mentoring competency mean scores were significantly higher post-workshop compared to pre-workshop ratings [mean = 4.48 vs. 5.02 pre- and post-workshop, respectively; F(1, 31) = 18.386, P < 0.001, η p2 = 0.37]. Survey respondents gave positive feedback and reported greater understanding of mentorship and specific mentoring changes they planned to apply after attending the workshop. Academic and healthcare institutions may use this framework to guide the development of a half-day mentoring workshop into their education programs.

  6. A Systematic Review of Isometric Lingual Strength-Training Programs in Adults With and Without Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Victoria S; Zhang, Bin; Haines, Morgan B; Kelchner, Lisa N

    2017-05-17

    This systematic review summarizes the effects of isometric lingual strength training on lingual strength and swallow function in adult populations. Furthermore, it evaluates the designs of the reviewed studies and identifies areas of future research in isometric lingual strength training for dysphagia remediation. A comprehensive literature search of 3 databases and additional backward citation search identified 10 studies for inclusion in the review. The review reports and discusses the isometric-exercise intervention protocols, pre- and postintervention lingual-pressure data (maximum peak pressures and lingual-palatal pressures during swallowing), and oropharyngeal swallowing measures such as penetration-aspiration scales, oropharyngeal residue and duration, lingual volumes, and quality-of-life assessments. Studies reported gains in maximum peak lingual pressures following isometric lingual strength training for both healthy adults and select groups of individuals with dysphagia. However, due to the variability in study designs, it remains unclear whether strength gains generalize to swallow function. Although isometric lingual strength training is a promising intervention for oropharyngeal dysphagia, the current literature is too variable to confidently report specific therapeutic benefits. Future investigations should target homogenous patient populations and use randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of this treatment for individuals with dysphagia.

  7. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Linda E M; Favejee, Marein M; Wens, Stephan C A; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Praet, Stephan F E; Reuser, Arnold J J; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van Doorn, Pieter A; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2015-07-19

    Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability exercises over 12 weeks. Before and after, the primary outcome measures safety, endurance (aerobic exercise capacity and distance walked on the 6 min walk test) and muscle strength, and secondary outcome measures core stability, muscle function and body composition, were evaluated. Of 25 patients enrolled, 23 successfully completed the training. Improvements in endurance were shown by increases in maximum workload capacity (110 W before to 122 W after training, [95 % CI of the difference 6 · 0 to 19 · 7]), maximal oxygen uptake capacity (69 · 4 % and 75 · 9 % of normal, [2 · 5 to 10 · 4]), and maximum walking distance (6 min walk test: 492 meters and 508, [-4 · 4 to 27 · 7] ). There were increases in muscle strength of the hip flexors (156 · 4 N to 180 · 7 N [1 · 6 to 13 · 6) and shoulder abductors (143 · 1 N to 150 · 7 N [13 · 2 to 35 · 2]). As an important finding in secondary outcome measures the number of patients who were able to perform the core stability exercises rose, as did the core stability balancing time (p core stability exercises is feasible, safe and beneficial to adults with Pompe disease.

  8. Hypotensive response after water-walking and land-walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocalini DS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Rodriguez1, Valter Silva2, Jonato Prestes3, Roberta Luksevicius Rica4, Andrey Jorge Serra5, Danilo Sales Bocalini6, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior71São Judas Tadeu University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2College of Physical Education of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil; 3Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia-DF, Brazil; 4Department of Physical Education, Arbos College, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 5Department of Physical Education and Laboratory of Rehabilitation Science, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 6Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 7School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to compare post-exercise hypotension after acute sessions of water-walking and land-walking in healthy trained and untrained women.Methods: Twenty-three untrained (n = 12 and trained (n = 11 normotensive women performed two walking sessions in water and on land at 40% of peak VO2 for 45 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the exercise sessions.Results: No differences were found between the groups for age and anthropometric parameters, but peak VO2 for the trained women (45 ± 8 mL/kg/minute was higher than for the untrained women (31 ± 3 mL/kg/minute. No differences were found between the groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after water immersion. The heart rate in the trained group (62 ± 3 beats per minute [bpm] was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than in the untrained group (72 ± 4 bpm on land, and after water immersion, this difference disappeared (58 ± 5 bpm in the trained women and 66 ± 5 bpm in the untrained women. Sixty minutes after water-walking, systolic blood pressure (108 ± 8 mmHg vs

  9. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  10. Strength Training and Kinematics Parameters of Gait in Healthy Female Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Sadeghi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was under taken to consider the effect of strength training on some kinematics parameters of gait (step length, cadence and speed walking. Methods & Materials: Twenty-four healthy elderly women (with average and standard deviation age of 61.53±2.84 years, height of 157.1±5.5 cm, weight of 69.13±7.6 kg and BMI 28.1±3.6 kg/m participated in this study. The strength of lower limb assessed using leg press test. The subjects were randomly divided in to control and experimental group. Video camera, 3DMax, Premier and Photoshop soft ware’s were used to measure speed walking, cadence and step length before and after training program. The control group continued their daily activity, while experimental group were in eight weeks for strength training for lower limb and body stabilizer muscles. Within group differences using T-test for independent groups and between group differences were analyzed using by T-test for dependent group before and after training at significant level of 0.05. Results: The changes of speed walking and lower limb strength weren't significant in control group. While significant differences observed in step length and speed walking and lower limb strength in experimental group. In comparison between groups, except of cadence, step length, speed walking and lower limb strength showed significant increase in experimental group. Conclusion: The results confirmed the effectiveness of strength training and increasing lower limb and stabilizer muscles strength on step length and speed walking in healthy elder women.

  11. Effects of strength training on blood lipoprotein concentrations in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strength training is often identified as a contributing factor in prevention of diseases and as a non-pharmacological treatment for metabolic disorders and for control of body mass. Its protective effects and utility for management of disease are amplified in people at risk of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Recently the benefits of strength training have been used to reduce the risk of these diseases emerging in postmenopausal women, who are at greater risk of CVD than men of the same age. Notwithstanding, little is known about the effects of strength training on metabolism of blood lipoproteins. The objective of this review was to compare the results of articles that have investigated the effects on lipoprotein concentrations of strength training in postmenopausal women. Current articles dealing with the subject, with publication dates from 1979 to 2012 and large numbers of citations by well-known researchers were identified on the Pubmed, Scopus and EBSCO databases. It was concluded that strength training possibly has an action that affects lipoprotein metabolism and concentrations in postmenopausal women.

  12. Effects of Menstrual Phase-Dependent Resistance Training Frequency on Muscular Hypertrophy and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Min, Seokki; Kamemoto, Kayoko; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated how different training frequencies during menstrual phases affect muscle hypertrophy and strength. Fourteen eumenorrheic women performed 3 sets of arm curls (8-15 repetitions) until failure for 12 weeks. Depending on the menstrual cycle phase, each subject trained each arm separately after either a 3- or a 1-d·wk training protocol during the follicular phase (FP-T) and a 3- or 1-d·wk training protocol during the luteal phase (LP-T). Cross-sectional area (CSA), 1 repetition maximum, and maximum voluntary contraction significantly increased 6.2 ± 4.4, 36.4 ± 11.9, and 16.7 ± 5.6%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the FP-T group and 7.8 ± 4.2, 31.8 ± 14.1, and 14.9 ± 12.7%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the LP-T group. Changes in CSA between the FP-T and the LP-T groups significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.54, p ≤ 0.05). There were no major differences among the different training protocols with regard to muscle hypertrophy and strength. Therefore, we suggest that variations in female hormones induced by the menstrual cycle phases do not significantly contribute to muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during 12 weeks of resistance training.

  13. Trampoline exercise vs. strength training to reduce neck strain in fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Ylinen, Jari; Siitonen, Simo

    2006-01-01

    Fighter pilots' muscular strength and endurance are subjected to very high demands. Pilots' fatigued muscles are at higher risk for injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different training methods in reducing muscular loading during in-flight and cervical loading testing (CLT). There were 16 volunteer Finnish Air Force cadets who were divided into 2 groups: a strength training group (STG) and a trampoline training group (TTG). During the 6-wk training period, the STG performed dynamic flexion and extension and isometric rotation exercises, and the TTG performed trampoline bouncing exercises. During in-flight and CLT, muscle strain from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical erector spinae, trapezius, and thoracic erector spinae muscles was recorded with EMG. In-flight muscle strain in the STG after the training period decreased in the sternocleidomastoid 50%, cervical erector spinae 3%, trapezius 4%, and thoracic erector spinae 8%. In the TTG, the decrease was 41%, 30%, 20%, and 6%, respectively. In CLT, the results were similar. After a 3-mo follow-up period with intensive high +Gz flying, EMG during CLT was still lower than in baseline measurements. Both training methods were found to be effective in reducing muscle strain during in-flight and CLT, especially in the cervical muscles. There was no statistically significant difference between the training groups. Introduced exercises expand muscles' capacities in different ways and the authors recommend both strength and trampoline training programs to be included in fighter pilots' physical education programs.

  14. The Effect of Maximal Strength Training on Strength, Walking, and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb I. Karpatkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little literature examining the use of maximal strength training (MST in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS. This pretest-posttest study examined the effects of a MST program on strength, walking, balance, and fatigue in a sample of pwMS. Seven pwMS (median EDSS 3.0, IQR 1.5 participated in a MST program twice weekly for eight weeks. Strength was assessed with 1-repetition maximum (1RM on each leg. Walking and balance were measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT and Berg Balance Scale (BBS, respectively. Fatigue was measured during each week of the program with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. The program was well tolerated, with an attendance rate of 96.4%. Participants had significant improvements in right leg 1RM (t6=-6.032, P=0.001, left leg 1RM (t(6=-5.388, P=0.002, 6MWT distance (t(6=-2.572,P=0.042, and BBS score (Z=-2.371, P=0.018 after the MST intervention. There was no significant change in FSS scores (F(1,3.312=2.411, P=0.092. Participants in the MST program experienced improved balance and walking without an increase in fatigue. This MST program may be utilized by rehabilitation clinicians to improve lower extremity strength, balance, and mobility in pwMS.

  15. Effectiveness of Training Sessions on a Measure of Optimism and Pessimism Concepts among the Kindergarten Children in the District of Al-Shobak in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad; ALdarab'h, Intisar Turki; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the effects of training sessions on children's levels of optimism versus pessimism among the kindergarten children in the district of Shobak in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted 21 children whom their ages were between 5 to 6 years old. A training program was applied. The level of optimism and pessimism…

  16. The effect of whole-body vibration and resistance training on muscle strength in a 13-year-old boy with m. biceps femoris lesion and posttraumatic calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantović Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common adaptation after major muscle lesion of m. biceps femoris that results in numerous health-sport related complications. Resistance strength training and whole-body vibration (WBV have been recognized as an effective tool, which attenuates atrophy and evokes hypertrophy. Case report. We presented a 13-year-old boy with a lesion of m. biceps femoris and posttraumatic calcification sustained in soccer training session 6 month prior participation in this study. The patient underwent training 3 times a week for 7 weeks, including unilateral progressive WBV + resistance training (RT of the right hamstrings muscle group using WBV and weights. Hamstrings muscle strength was measured using a Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. At the end of week 4, the patient peak torque value of the involved leg increased from 39% body weight (BW to 72% BW and bilateral deficit decreased from -64% to -35%; at the end of week 7 the participant’s peak torque value of the involved leg increased from 72% BW to 98% BW and bilateral deficit decreased from -35% to -3%, respectively. Conclusion. Unilateral WBV + RT protocol evokes strength increase in the hamstrings muscle group. This case study suggests that adding WBV, as well as the RT program have to be considered in the total management of strength disbalance. Further studies are needed to verify the efficiency of WBV + RT protocol over the classic physical therapy exercise program.

  17. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. EFFECT OF TRAINING WITH NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON ELBOW FLEXION STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Holcomb

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES may be used to prevent strength loss associated with post-surgical immobilization. Most studies testing the effectiveness of NMES have trained the knee extensors. The purpose of this investigation was to test the effectiveness of NMES when training the elbow flexors. Twenty-four students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: NMES training, isometric training or control. Testing and training were completed using a Biodex™ dynamometer. After a standard warm-up, subjects were positioned on the Biodex™ with left shoulder in anatomical neutral, elbow flexed to 90o and forearm supinated. Subjects performed three maximum isometric contractions of 5 seconds duration, with 1 min rest between repetitions. Average peak torque during three repetitions was calculated. Subjects trained on three days per week for four weeks. Training included 15 maximum contractions of 15 seconds duration with 45 seconds recovery between repetitions. Russian current was delivered by a Forte™ 400 Combo via electrodes placed over ends of biceps brachii. A maximum tolerable ramped intensity was delivered with frequency of 90 bps and duty cycle of 15:45. After training, subjects were post-tested in a manner identical to pretest. Mean normalized strength data were analyzed using a 3 (Group x 2 (Test ANOVA. The Group x Test interaction was significant. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the voluntary training group (normalized means of 0.49 to 0.71 for the pretest and post-test, respectively had a significantly greater increase than the other two groups, which were not significantly different from each other. The lack of significant strength gains with NMES was likely due to low average training intensity, which was only 20.4% of MVIC. Based on these results, NMES training may not be an effective alternative to voluntary training in healthy subjects

  19. Finnish vocational education and training in comparison: Strengths and weaknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Virolainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four Nordic countries have wellorganised labour markets and universal types of welfare states. Priority is given to goals related to equal opportunities and social inclusion. At the same time, these countries have different models of IVET. While the study compares the Finnish model of organising IVET to those of other Nordic countries, it also examines the German and UK models, which represent differing societal approaches to IVET. The differences in the outcomes of the IVET systems are described and analysed through reviewing secondary data provided by Eurydice and Eurostat, along with country reports produced in a Nordic comparative project, Nord-VET.

  20. Global plants introductory session. Modern training meeting the future needs of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramdohr, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    For the AREVA group training is more than just transferring knowledge skills. It also means developing attitudes and meeting the changing challenges of people development, of its customer's employees and of its own employees. AREVA wants to meet the world's energy challenges and has therefore taken on the mission of enabling as many as possible to have access to energy that is clean, safe and economical. In order to meet this greatest challenge of the 21 st century with its growing demand for energy, AREVA requires a rapid increase of its global workforce. This means that 45.000 new recruits must be hired by 2012. In particular the rapid growth of AREVA's Reactors and Services division due to its business development produces an increasing demand for effective training services in order to prepare the newly recruited employees for their professional activities. (orig.)

  1. Randomised trial of structured antenatal training sessions to improve the birth process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimburg, R D; Vaeth, M; Dürr, J; Hvidman, L; Olsen, J

    2010-07-01

    To compare the birth process in nulliparous women enrolled in a structured antenatal training programme, the 'Ready for Child' programme, with women allocated to routine care. A randomised controlled trial. A Danish university hospital. Thousand hundred and ninety-three nulliparous women, recruited before week 22 + 0. Methods Compliance to the protocol was monitored by questionnaires sent to the women by email, and by data from the local birth cohort database. Data were analysed according to the 'intention-to-treat' principle. Women were randomised to receive 9 hours of antenatal training or no formalised training. Of the 1193 women, 603 were randomised to the intervention group and 590 were allocated to the reference group. Cervix dilatation on arrival at the maternity ward, use of pain relief and medical interventions during the birth process, and the women's birth experience. Women who attended the 'Ready for Child' programme arrived at the maternity ward in active labour more often than the reference group [relative risk (RR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26-1.65, P less epidural analgesia during labour (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.97, P less pain relief overall (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04, P women's self-reported birth experiences were similar in the two groups. We found no adverse effects of the intervention. Attending the 'Ready for Child' programme may help women to cope better with the birth process. Adverse effects are few, if any.

  2. Effect of training supervision on effectiveness of strength training for reducing neck/shoulder pain and headache in office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Andersen, Christoffer; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of workplace neck/shoulder strength training with and without regular supervision on neck/shoulder pain and headache among office workers. Method. A 20-week cluster randomized controlled trial among 351 office workers was randomized into three groups: two trai...

  3. Effect of strength training on muscle function in elderly hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Magnusson, S P; Beyer, N

    2007-01-01

    Immobilization due to hospitalization and major surgery leads to an increased risk of morbidity, disability and a decline in muscle function especially in frail elderly individuals. In fact, many elderly patients fail to regain their level of function and self-care before admission to hospital....... Given that reduced lower limb muscle strength and loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) have been associated with functional impairments and disability with aging, attempts to counteract this process seem highly relevant. In recent years, strength training has emerged as an effective method...... to induce muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength and functional performance in frail elderly individuals. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that strength training is an effective method to restore muscle function in post-operative patients and in patients with chronic diseases. Despite this...

  4. Supervised progressive cross-continuum strength training compared with usual care in older medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Merete; Petersen, Janne; Beyer, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospitalization in older adults is characterized by physical inactivity and a risk of losing function and independence. Systematic strength training can improve muscle strength and functional performance in older adults. Few studies have examined the effect of a program initiated during...... hospitalization and continued after discharge. We conducted a feasibility study prior to this trial and found a progression model for loaded sit-to-stands feasible in older medical patients. This study aims to determine whether a simple supervised strength training program for the lower extremities (based...... on the model), combined with post-training protein supplementation initiated during hospitalization and continued at home for 4 weeks, is superior to usual care on change in mobility 4 weeks after discharge in older medical patients. Methods: Eighty older medical patients (65 years or older) acutely admitted...

  5. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...... a week. Muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density were analyzed in biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis muscle. Glucose tolerance and the insulin response were measured by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results: All outcome measures remained unchanged during the control period....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...

  6. The Design of EMG Measurement System for Arm Strength Training Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Yee Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The setup of interactive communication between arm strength training machine and the people will make exercise and rehabilitation therapy become more friendly. The employment of electromyographic not only can help physical therapy but also can achieve more effective rehabilitation. Both of the system hardware and software of the arm strength training machine with EMG system are well designed and described. The fundamental design of electromyographic measurement system based on a microcontroller is analyzed and discussed. The software programming is developed in MPLAB integrated development environment from the Microchip Technology Inc. and the friendly user interface is created as well. Finally, an arm strength training machine with electromyographic control system is realized and demonstrated. The experimental results show the feasibility and fidelity of the complete designed system.

  7. Knee Pain during Strength Training Shortly following Fast-Track Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Lunn, Troels Haxholdt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Loading and contraction failure (muscular exhaustion) are strength training variables known to influence neural activation of the exercising muscle in healthy subjects, which may help reduce neural inhibition of the quadriceps muscle following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is unkn......BACKGROUND: Loading and contraction failure (muscular exhaustion) are strength training variables known to influence neural activation of the exercising muscle in healthy subjects, which may help reduce neural inhibition of the quadriceps muscle following total knee arthroplasty (TKA......). It is unknown how these exercise variables influence knee pain after TKA. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of loading and contraction failure on knee pain during strength training, shortly following TKA. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Consecutive sample of patients from the Copenhagen area, Denmark...... TKA. However, only the increase in pain during repetitions to contraction failure exceeded that defined as clinically relevant, and was very short-lived. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01729520....

  8. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...

  9. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  10. Strength Training with Vascular Occlusion: A Review of Possible Adaptive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Castro Fábio Marzliak Pozzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Strength training with blood flow restriction, or KAATSU training, has been shown to be as effective as conventional strength training to promote muscular strength and hypertrophy. Several mechanisms have been suggested as hypotheses to explain the adaptations arising from this training method. Among these is metabolic stress, which exerts important physiological effects and may influence the training adaptations in question. In addition, hypoxia produced by the technique may change the neural recruitment pattern. Growth hormone (GH concentrations increase as a result of practicing this method, which can trigger an increase in plasmatic and, perhaps, muscular insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentrations. The increase in concentrations of these factors can play a leading role in responses to KAATSU training. Among the effects of the GH/IGF-1 axis in muscle cells is the increase in the signalling pathway activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, which has been associated with increased protein synthesis. On the other hand, the decrease in the activity of the myostatin pathway, which has an antagonistic effect to mTOR, has been demonstrated after training with occlusion. Other factors, such as increases in the expression of heat shock proteins, may play an important role in adaptations to exercise. Nitric oxide synthase could increase nitric oxide concentration, which in turn has an effect on satellite cells and blood flow. However, despite the results obtained, the transfer to other situations (e.g. speed sports is not yet clear.

  11. A Progressive Resistance Weight Training Program Designed to Improve the Armor Crewman’s Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    Training with a weightlifting belt which supports the abdominal region and lower back can help reduce the chance for injury . A belt 35 should be used...life-saving task more efficiently. If the wounded or unconscious crewman has a traumatic injury , extreme care must be taken not to cause further... injury . This justifies the need for added strength. Three strength related maintenance tasks routinely performed are: (1) checking the link assembly, (2

  12. Strategies for monitoring and training strength and power in elite rugby union players.

    OpenAIRE

    Gannon, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union requires high levels of strength and power in order to support the physical requirements of the game. The competitive structure of rugby union in the English premiership places limitations on the time available for players’ physical development. The aim of this thesis was to analyse the scope and magnitude of strength and power adaptation potential, whilst identifying effective training strategies to support physical development in professional rugby union players. Chapter 3 monit...

  13. Effects of two programs of metabolic resistance training on strength and hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Brandt Meister

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The effects of low intensity resistance training combined with vascular occlusion have been investigated by several studies. Similar results on strength and hypertrophy have been observed when such method was compared to high intensity protocols. However, due to the specific apparatus needed to apply vascular occlusion (ex.: Kaatsu on some exercises, alternative forms of metabolic training might be used. In the present study, an isometric contraction was performed within each concentric-eccentric transition phase, for every repetition, to elicit metabolic stress. Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of two resistance training protocols with metabolic characteristics on strength (1MR, circumference (CIRC and muscle thickness (measured with ultrasonography [MT]. Subjective perception of discomfort was also recorded with an analogical-visual pain scale (AVP. Methods: Twelve young, healthy men were trained with two different methods during 10 weeks. The right limb was trained with an isometric contraction within each concentric-eccentric transition phases for every repetition (ISO whereas the left limb was trained with a pneumatic cuff to apply vascular occlusion (OC on the knee extensor muscles. Both methods were trained at 20% 1MR. Results: It was observed increases on medial tight CIRC, proximal MT, medial MT, distal MT and 1MR, with no difference between both methods. The perception of discomfort was greater for ISO at the end of the third set and lower than reported by OC, at the beginning and end of the training program. Conclusions: Both protocols produced similar gains on strength and hypertrophy. The advantages of training with low loads are important to elderly or rehabilitation training programs. Other studies that compare this method with conventional resistance training are warranted.

  14. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  15. Lower limb strength in professional soccer players: profile, asymmetry, and training age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousekis, Konstantinos; Tsepis, Elias; Vagenas, George

    2010-01-01

    Kicking and cutting skills in soccer are clearly unilateral, require asymmetrical motor patterns and lead to the development of asymmetrical adaptations in the musculoskeletal function of the lower limbs. Assuming that these adaptations constitute a chronicity-dependent process, this study examined the effects of professional training age (PTA) on the composite strength profile of the knee and ankle joint in soccer players. One hundred soccer players (n=100) with short (5-7 years), intermediate (8-10 years) and long (>11 years) PTA were tested bilaterally for isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles. Knee flexion-extension was tested concentrically at 60°, 180° and 300 °/sec and eccentrically at 60° and 180 °/sec. Ankle dorsal and plantar flexions were tested at 60 °/sec for both the concentric and eccentric mode of action. Bilaterally averaged muscle strength [(R+L)/2] increased significantly from short training age to intermediate and stabilized afterwards. These strength adaptations were mainly observed at the concentric function of knee extensors at 60°/sec (p = 0. 023), knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.042) and 180°/sec (p = 0.036), and ankle plantar flexors at 60o/sec (p = 0.044). A linear trend of increase in isokinetic strength with PTA level was observed for the eccentric strength of knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.02) and 180°/sec (p = 0.03). Directional (R/L) asymmetries decreased with PTA, with this being mainly expressed in the concentric function of knee flexors at 180°/sec (p = 0.04) and at 300 °/sec (p = 0.03). These findings confirm the hypothesis of asymmetry in the strength adaptations that take place at the knee and ankle joint of soccer players mainly along with short and intermediate PTA. Players with a longer PTA seem to adopt a more balanced use of their lower extremities to cope with previously developed musculoskeletal asymmetries and possibly reduce injury risk. This has certain implications

  16. Strength Training for Women as a Vehicle for Health Promotion at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Kai; Witzki, Alexander; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas; Tofaute, Kim Alexander; Leyk, Dieter

    2017-06-30

    Women, on average, have less muscle strength than men. This anthropometric-physiological trait may make them more vulnerable to ex - cessive physical strain, injury, and inability to work. Strength training is used for preventive health maintenance and to lessen musculoskeletal symptoms. In this context, we studied whether the degree of muscle strength has any effect on women's health in everyday working life, and also the effects of strength training for women on their health in the workplace. We systematically searched the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and SPOLIT databases for pertinent publications, in accordance with the PRISMA criteria for literature searches. We analyzed all of the retrieved randomized controlled trials conducted on women aged 18 to 65 to determine the effects of training on muscle strength, physical performance ability, and health-related parameters including body composition, musculo - skeletal pain, and subjective well-being. We did not find any studies that provided answers to the first question. As for the second question, the selection criteria were met by 12 of the 4969 retrieved studies, which dealt with the effect of strength training on health in the occupational environment and involved a total of 1365 female subjects. These studies were carried out in heterogeneous subject groups, with a variety of overlapping interventions consisting of both strength and endurance training. Significantly increased strength was found in all studies, as was a reduction of pain in all of the studies where this question was asked. Inconsistent results were obtained with respect to body weight, body composition, and subjective well-being. The interventions that were conducted in these studies succeeded in increasing strength and reducing pain, even when the training was brief and of low intensity. This was true not only for women working in occupations requiring unusual physical strength, but also for those in sedentary

  17. [Effects of education and strength training on functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez S, Christian Edgardo; Fernández G, Rubén; Zurita O, Félix; Linares G, Daniel; Farías M, Ariel

    2014-04-01

    Hip and knee osteoarthritis are important causes of pain and disability among older people. Education and strength training can alleviate symptoms and avoid functional deterioration. To assess muscle strength, fall risk and quality of life of older people with osteoarthritis and the effects of physiotherapy education and strength training on these variables. Thirty participants aged 78 ± 5 years (63% women) were randomly assigned to receive physiotherapy (Controls), physiotherapy plus education (Group 1) and physiotherapy plus strength training (group 2). At baseline and after 16 weeks of intervention, patients were evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test, Timed Up and Go and Quality of Life score short form (SF-36). During the intervention period, Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go scores improved in all groups and SF-36 did not change. The improvement in Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go was more marked in Groups 1 and 2 than in the control group. Education and strength training improve functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis.

  18. Barriers and motivators for strength training among women of color and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Dallman, Amber; Turcotte, Lucie; Patterson, Joan; Napolitano, Melissa A; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined factors associated with adherence to a strength training (ST) intervention in a randomized controlled intervention trial testing whether twice-weekly strength training over 2 years could prevent age-associated increases in body fat in 80 overweight to mildly obese women, aged 25-44 years. Two sets of focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 25 women of color and 24 Caucasian participants, representing 60% of intervention participants. Fifty-five percent of FG participants had low adherence (defined as motivators.

  19. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, M; Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players.

  20. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Hatle

    Full Text Available The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively.Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF or three weeks (high frequency, HF followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was evaluated before training, at the 9(th and 17(th session and four days after the final 24(th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training.The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126, whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p = 0.035. The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p = 0.026 twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001 above baseline in the MF group (group difference p = 0.609.Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  1. Effects of a 16-week Pilates exercises training program for isometric trunk extension and flexion strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Vilkiene, Jovita; Astrauskiene, Audrone; Cibulskas, Gintautas; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 min. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0.001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dedicated Barrett's surveillance sessions managed by trained endoscopists improve dysplasia detection rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Joanne; Wilson, Patrick; Walker, Giles; Blaker, Paul; DeMartino, Sabina; O'Donohue, John; Reffitt, David; Lanaspre, Effie; Chang, Fuju; Meenan, John; Dunn, Jason M

    2017-06-01

    Background and study aim  Barrett's esophagus (BE)-associated dysplasia is an important marker for risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and an indication for endoscopic therapy. However, BE surveillance technique is variable. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dedicated BE surveillance lists on dysplasia detection rate (DDR). Patients and methods  This was a prospective study of patients undergoing BE surveillance at two hospitals - community (UHL) and upper gastrointestinal center (GSTT). Four endoscopists (Group A) were trained in Prague classification, Seattle protocol biopsy technique, and lesion detection prior to performing BE surveillance endoscopies at both sites, with dedicated time slots or lists. The DDR was then compared with historical data from 47 different endoscopists at GSTT and 24 at UHL (Group B) who had undertaken Barrett's surveillance over the preceding 5-year period. Results  A total of 729 patients with BE underwent surveillance endoscopy between 2007 and 2012. There was no significant difference in patient age, sex, or length of BE between the two groups. There was a significant difference in detection rate of confirmed indefinite or low grade dysplasia and high grade dysplasia (HGD)/EAC between the two groups: 18 % (26 /142) Group A vs. 8 % (45/587) in Group B ( P  < 0.001). Documentation of Prague criteria and adherence to the Seattle protocol was significantly higher in Group A. Conclusion  This study demonstrated that a group of trained endoscopists undertaking Barrett's surveillance on dedicated lists had significantly higher DDR than a nonspecialist cohort. These findings support the introduction of dedicated Barrett's surveillance lists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Ballistic strength training compared with usual care for improving mobility following traumatic brain injury: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Williams

    2016-07-01

    Discussion: Strength training in neurological rehabilitation is highly topical because muscle weakness has been identified as the primary impairment leading to mobility limitations in many neurological populations. This project represents the first international study of ballistic strength training after traumatic brain injury. The novelty of ballistic strength training is that the exercises attempt to replicate how lower limb muscles work, by targeting the high angular velocities attained during walking and higher level activities.

  4. GH and cortisol responses following an acute session of respiratory muscle endurance training in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, A; Agosti, F; Patrizi, A; Gattico, A; Tringali, G; Giunta, M; Muller, E E; Rigamonti, A E

    2013-03-01

    It is well established that obese patients are hypo-responsive to classical GH-releasing stimuli, including aerobic exercise. Recently, we have demonstrated that whole body vibration was able to markedly stimulate GH secretion in obese patients, thus suggesting that this refractoriness is not absolute but dependent on the GH-releasing stimulus. Furthermore, we have shown the ability of a respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) to stimulate GH and cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RMET on GH and cortisol responses in severely obese patients. Eight severely obese patients (4 M/4 F, mean age±SEM: 22.8±1.6 years, body mass index, BMI: 39.9±1.1 kg/m2) underwent an incremental progressive RMET protocol of 11 daily sessions, obtained through the use of a specifically designed respiratory device (Spiro Tiger®). The 12th session of RMET (15 min duration: 1 min at a respiration rate of 28 acts/min, 5 min at 32 acts/min, 5 min at 34 acts/min, 4 min at 36 acts/min) was associated with blood samplings for determination of GH, cortisol, and lactate (LA) levels. An age- and sex-matched normal-weighted control group (n=7, 4 M/3 F, age: 26.1±3.1 years, BMI: 22.4±0.6 kg/m2) was also recruited. In both normal-weighted subjects and obese patients, GH secretion significantly increased after a 15-min RMET session. Although serum GH levels at 30 min were higher in normal-weighted subjects than in obese patients, there was no statistically significant difference in either GH peaks or net GH areas under the curve between the 2 groups. RMET significantly increased serum cortisol levels in normal-weighted subjects, but was associated to a progressive cortisol decline in obese patients. RMET stimulated LA production, with no significant differences in normal-weighted subjects and in obese patients. A 15-min RMET session was capable to induce a GH response in severely obese patients, which was comparable to that

  5. Unipedal Postural Balance and Countermovement Jumps After a Warm-up and Plyometric Training Session: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the immediate effects of a plyometric training protocol on unipedal postural balance and countermovement jumps. In addition, we analyzed the effects of a warm-up on these parameters. Thirty-two amateur male sprinters (24.9 ± 4.1 years; 72.3 ± 10.7 kg; 1.78 ± 0.05 m; 22.6 ± 3.3 kg·m) were randomly sorted into a control group (n = 16) (they did not perform any physical activity) and a plyometric training group (n = 16) (they performed a 15-minute warm-up and a high-intensity plyometric protocol consisting of 10 sets of 15 vertical jumps). Before and after the warm-up, and immediately after and 5 minutes after the plyometric protocol, all athletes indicated the perceived exertion on calf and quad regions on a scale from 0 (no exertion) to 10 (maximum exertion). They also carried out a maximum countermovement jump and a unipedal postural balance test (athletes would remain as still as possible for 15 seconds in a left leg and right leg support stance). Results showed that, in the plyometric group, length and velocity of center-of-pressure movement in right leg support stance increased compared with baseline (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively) and to the control group (p = 0.035 and p = 0.029, respectively) immediately after the plyometric protocol. In addition, the countermovement jump height decreased right after the plyometric protocol (p unipedal postural balance remained unaltered. As a conclusion, high-intensity plyometric exercises blunt unipedal postural balance and countermovement jump performance. The deterioration lasts at least 5 minutes, which may influence future exercises in the training session. Coaches should plan the training routine according to the immediate effects of plyometry on postural balance and vertical jumps, which play a role in injury prevention and sports performance.

  6. Effects of a Modified German Volume Training Program on Muscular Hypertrophy and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirthalingam, Theban; Mavros, Yorgi; Wilson, Guy C; Clarke, Jillian L; Mitchell, Lachlan; Hackett, Daniel A

    2017-11-01

    Amirthalingam, T, Mavros, Y, Wilson, GC, Clarke, JL, Mitchell, L, and Hackett, DA. Effects of a modified German volume training program on muscular hypertrophy and strength. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3109-3119, 2017-German Volume Training (GVT), or the 10 sets method, has been used for decades by weightlifters to increase muscle mass. To date, no study has directly examined the training adaptations after GVT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a modified GVT intervention on muscular hypertrophy and strength. Nineteen healthy men were randomly assign to 6 weeks of 10 or 5 sets of 10 repetitions for specific compound resistance exercises included in a split routine performed 3 times per week. Total and regional lean body mass, muscle thickness, and muscle strength were measured before and after the training program. Across groups, there were significant increases in lean body mass measures, however, greater increases in trunk (p = 0.043; effect size [ES] = -0.21) and arm (p = 0.083; ES = -0.25) lean body mass favored the 5-SET group. No significant increases were found for leg lean body mass or measures of muscle thickness across groups. Significant increases were found across groups for muscular strength, with greater increases in the 5-SET group for bench press (p = 0.014; ES = -0.43) and lat pull-down (p = 0.003; ES = -0.54). It seems that the modified GVT program is no more effective than performing 5 sets per exercise for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength. To maximize hypertrophic training effects, it is recommended that 4-6 sets per exercise be performed, as it seems gains will plateau beyond this set range and may even regress due to overtraining.

  7. Effects of Pelvic and Core Strength Training on High School Cross-Country Race Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anne W; Goedeke, Maggie K; Cunningham, Saengchoy R; Rockwell, Derek E; Lehecka, Bryan J; Manske, Robert C; Smith, Barbara S

    2017-08-01

    Clark, AW, Goedeke, MK, Cunningham, SR, Rockwell, DE, Lehecka, BJ, Manske, RC, and Smith, BS. Effects of pelvic and core strength training on high school cross-country race times. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2289-2295, 2017-There is only limited research examining the effect of pelvic and core strength training on running performance. Pelvic and core muscle fatigue is believed to contribute to excess motion along frontal and transverse planes which decreases efficiency in normal sagittal plane running motions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adding a 6-week pelvic and core strengthening program resulted in decreased race times in high school cross-country runners. Thirty-five high school cross-country runners (14-19 years old) from 2 high schools were randomly assigned to a strengthening group (experimental) or a nonstrengthening group (control). All participants completed 4 standardized isometric strength tests for hip abductors, adductors, extensors, and core musculature in a test-retest design. The experimental group performed a 6-week pelvic and core strengthening program along with their normal training. Participants in the control group performed their normal training without additional pelvic and core strengthening. Baseline, 3-week, and 6-week race times were collected using a repeated measures design. No significant interaction between experimental and control groups regarding decreasing race times and increasing pelvic and core musculature strength occurred over the 6-week study period. Both groups increased strength and decreased overall race times. Clinically significant findings reveal a 6-week pelvic and core stability strengthening program 3 times a week in addition to coach led team training may help decrease race times.

  8. Assessment of neuromuscular function after different strength training protocols using tensiomyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Á; Harms, Nico; Raeder, Christian; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze tensiomyography (TMG) sensitivity to changes in muscle force and neuromuscular function of the muscle rectus femoris (RF) using TMG muscle properties after 5 different lower-limb strength training protocols (multiple sets; DS = drop sets; eccentric overload; FW = flywheel; PL = plyometrics). After baseline measurements, 14 male strength trained athletes completed 1 squat training protocol per week over a 5-week period in a randomized controlled order. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), TMG measurements of maximal radial displacement of the muscle belly (Dm), contraction time between 10 and 90% of Dm (Tc), and mean muscle contraction velocities from the beginning until 10% (V10) and 90% of Dm (V90) were analyzed up to 0.5 (post-train), 24 (post-24), and 48 hours (post-48) after the training interventions. Significant analysis of variance main effects for measurement points were found for all TMG contractile properties and MVIC (p TMG muscle properties are sensitive to changes in muscle force, and different lower-limb strength training protocols lead to changes in neuromuscular function of RF. In addition, those protocols involving high and eccentric load and a high total time under tension may induce higher changes in TMG muscle properties.

  9. Increased strength of the scapular stabilizer and lumbar muscles after twelve weeks of Pilates training using the Reformer machine: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Núbia Tomain Otoni; Raimundo, Karoline Cipriano; da Silva, Sheila Aparecida; Souza, Lara Andrade; Ferreira, Karoline Carregal; Borges Santo Urbano, Zuleika Ferreira; Gasparini, Andréa Licre Pessina; Bertoncello, Dernival

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m 2 ) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm 2 ). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of Plyometric and Cluster Resistance Training on Explosive Power and Maximum Strength in Karate Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of plyometric and cluster resistance training on explosive power and maximum strength in karate players. Eighteen women, karate players (age mean ± SD 18.22 ± 3.02 years, mean height 163 ± 0.63cm, and mean body mass 53.25 ± 7.34 kg were selected as volunteer samples. They were divided into two groups with respect to their recorded one repetition maximum squat exercise: [1] plyometric training (PT=9 and [2] Cluster training (CT=9 groups and performed a 9-week resistance training protocol that included three stages; [1] General fitness (2 weeks, [2] Strength (4 weeks and [3] Power (3 weeks. Each group performed strength and power trainings for 7 weeks in stage two and three with owned protocol. The subjects were evaluated three times before stage one and after two and three stages for maximum strength and power. Data was analyzed using two way Repeated Measures (ANOVA at a significance level of (P≤0.05. The statistical analysis showed that training stages on all research variables had a significant impact. The maximum strength of the pre-test, post-test strength and post-test power were in cluster group: 29.05 ± 1.54; 32.89 ± 2.80 and 48.74 ± 4.33w and in plyometric group were 26.98 ± 1.54; 38.48 ± 2.80 and 49.82 ± 4.33w respectively. The explosive power of the pre-test, post-test strength and post-test power in cluster group were 359.32±36.20; 427.91±34.56 and 460.55±36.80w and in plyometric group were 333.90±36.20; 400.33±34.56 and 465.20±36.80w respectively. However, there were not statistically significant differences in research variables between resistance cluster and plyometric training groups after 7 weeks. The results indicated both cluster and plyometric training program seems to improve physical fitness elements at the same levels.

  11. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00172 The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (CircuitHIIT) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuitcombined) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk−1) of either Ci...

  12. The Influence of Resistance Training Experience on the Between-Day Reliability of Commonly Used Strength Measures in Male Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Read, Dale B; Jones, Ben L

    2017-07-01

    Weakley, JJS, Till, K, Darrall-Jones, J, Roe, GAB, Phibbs, PJ, Read, DB, and Jones, BL. The influence of resistance training experience on the between-day reliability of commonly used strength measures in male youth athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2005-2010, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the between-day reliability of commonly used strength measures in male youth athletes while considering resistance training experience. Data were collected on 25 male athletes over 2 testing sessions, with 72 hours rest between, for the 3 repetition maximum (3RM) front squat, chin-up, and bench press. Subjects were initially categorized by resistance training experience (inexperienced; 6-12 months, experienced; >2 years). The assessment of the between-day reliability (coefficient of variation [CV%]) showed that the front squat (experienced: 2.90%; inexperienced: 1.90%), chin-up (experienced: 1.70%; inexperienced: 1.90%), and bench press (experienced: 4.50%; inexperienced: 2.40%) were all reliable measures of strength in both groups. Comparison between groups for the error of measurement for each exercise showed trivial differences. When both groups were combined, the CV% for the front squat, bench press, and chin-up were 2.50, 1.80, and 3.70%, respectively. This study provides scientists and practitioners with the between-day reliability reference data to determine real and practical changes for strength in male youth athletes with different resistance training experience. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that 3RM front squat, chin-up, and bench press are reliable exercises to quantify strength in male youth athletes.

  13. A randomized clinical trial comparing pelvic floor muscle training to a Pilates exercise program for improving pelvic muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culligan, Patrick J; Scherer, Janet; Dyer, Keisha; Priestley, Jennifer L; Guingon-White, Geri; Delvecchio, Donna; Vangeli, Margi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a Pilates exercise program and a pelvic floor muscle-training (PFMT) program could provide similar improvements in pelvic muscle strength. Sixty-two women with little or no pelvic floor dysfunction were randomized to Pilates or PFMT. Each group had 24 biweekly 1-h sessions with either a physical therapist or Pilates instructor. Strength was measured via perineometry (cmH(2)O). Two questionnaires--pelvic floor distress inventory (PFDI-20) and pelvic floor impact questionnaire (PFIQ-7)--were also collected. At baseline, the Pilates and PFMT groups measured 14.9 +/- 12.5 and 12.5 +/- 10.4 cmH(2)O, respectively (p = 0.41). Both the Pilates and PFMT groups got stronger (6.2 +/- 7.5 cmH(2)O, p = 0.0002 and 6.6 +/- 7.4 cmH(2)O, p = 0.0002, respectively), with no difference between groups p = 0.85. PFIQ and PFDI scores improved from baseline but not between groups. Further study is required to determine if Pilates can actually treat pelvic floor dysfunction.

  14. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  15. Strength and Conditioning Training by the Danish National Handball Team Before an Olympic Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvorning, Thue; Hansen, Mikkel R B; Jensen, Kurt

    2017-07-01

    Kvorning, T, Hansen, MRB, and Jensen, K. Strength and conditioning training by the Danish national handball team before an Olympic tournament. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1759-1765, 2017-The physical demands imposed on national team handball teams during the Olympics imply significant physical preparation to improve performance and reduce incidence of injuries. The purpose of this case report was to describe and analyze the strength and conditioning (S&C) training performed by the Danish national handball team before the Beijing Olympic Games. Eight weeks of S&C was divided into 5 weeks emphasizing muscle hypertrophy and long-interval running followed by 3 weeks emphasizing strength, power, and short-interval running. Body mass increased by 1.6% (p 0.05). Agility performance was evaluated by a T-test and improved by 2.5% (p handball teams preparing for competition. Detailed and periodized S&C training programs for 8 weeks are provided and can be used by teams ranging from moderately to highly trained.

  16. Effect of a step-training program on muscle strength in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Coelho Zazá

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Step-training is associated with strength improvement of the lower limbs. Muscle strength is a critical component for the maintenance of functional capacity. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of 6 weeks of step-training on work and power of the lower limbs in older women. Thirteen healthy and active women volunteered to participate in the study. All subjects underwent step-training classes three times per week for 60 min. Strength variables of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle work and power were assessed at an angular velocity of 60 and 180°/s. A significant difference (p<0.05 in knee flexor muscle work was observed between pre- and post-test at 60 and 180°/s. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in knee extensor muscle work between pre- and post-test at 60°/s. Significant differences were observed between pre- and post-test values of knee flexor muscle power at 60°/s (p<0.05 and knee extensor muscle power at 60 and 180°/s (p<0.05. In conclusion, step-training can be recommended as an alternative physical activity to increase strength performance (work and power of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in older subjects.

  17. Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P training. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Training in Strength-Based Intervention and Assessment Methodologies in APA-Accredited Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kayla; Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of identifying and building on individual strengths has been a key component of many psychoeducational theories and modalities focused on developing interventions. However, program training in this growing area is not well known. As such, this is the first study designed to ascertain the American Psychological Association-accredited…

  19. Effects of Balance Training on Postural Sway, Leg Extensor Strength, and Jumping Height in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Kriemler, Susi

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in strength of the lower extremities and postural control have been associated with a high risk of sustaining sport-related injuries. Such injuries often occur during physical education (PE) classes and mostly affect the lower extremities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of balance training on postural…

  20. The Evaluation of Strength Training and Body Plyometric Effects on the Male Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Metin

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the effects of resistance training with upper body plyometric effects on the performance of male basketball players. Sixteen males in the physical education and sport science faculty of Ataturk University were randomly determined into two groups. The experimental group performed a combined strength and plyometric training…

  1. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  2. Development of a hybrid strength training technique for paretic lower-limb muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, T. L.; Glaser, R. M.; Janssen, T. W J; Couch, W. P.; Herr, C. J.; Almeyda, J. W.; Petrofsky, S. H.; Akuthota, P.

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid resistance exercise technique for strength training of patients with lower-limb paresis was developed. It consists of electrical stimulation-induced contractions (ESIC) superimposed on voluntary contractions to increase recruitment of motor units and the functional load capability of

  3. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  4. The effects of two different explosive strength training programs on vertical jump performance in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciacci, Simone; Bartolomei, Sandro

    2017-06-08

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different training programs oriented to improve vertical jump performance and leg stiffness in basketball players. Fifty-eight male basketball players were involved, divided into three age groups (Senior, U19 and U17). Subsequently, within any age group, the players were randomly divided into two training groups, respectively performing a 16-week "hang-clean" training program (HCL), and a "half-squat" training program (HSQ), lasting for the same duration. HCL was based on the hang clean exercise and included also jump rope training; HSQ was based on the half squat exercise and included also speed ladder training. The Squat jump (SJ), the Countermovement jump without and with arm swing, and with one step approach (respectively, CMJ, CMJS, and TCMJS) and explosive strength indices obtained with a leg stiffness test were assessed pre- and post-training. In Senior and U19 athletes both training programs involved an improvement of Vertical Jump performance, with some differences between different age groups. Instead, for the U17 players, only the HSQ led to an enhancement of SJ and TCMJS. Significant enhancement of leg stiffness was observed only in U19 and U17 groups after training. The present study showed that the programs based on the hang-clean and half squat allowed to improve explosive strength in basketball training. However, only HSQ was effective for the U17 group. Thus, the present findings demonstrate that specific training programs should be designed according to the age of the players.

  5. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J. Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key Points Similar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs. Both the stability and instability approaches

  6. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants ( n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength

  7. The effects of a 6 week plyometric training programme on explosive strength and agility in professional basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Lehnert; Karel Hůlka; Tomáš Malý; Jaroslav Fohler; František Zahálka

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week plyometric training applied in training units during the pre-season in elite basketball p...

  8. Effects of 18-week in-season heavy-resistance and power training on throwing velocity, strength, jumping, and maximal sprint swim performance of elite male water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Veliz, Rafael; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Newton, Robert U; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of 18 weeks of strength and high-intensity training on key sport performance measures of elite male water polo (WP) players. Twenty-seven players were randomly assigned to 2 groups, control (in-water training only) and strength group, (strength training sessions [twice per week] + in-water training). In-water training was conducted 5 d·wk. Twenty-meter maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength 1-repetition maximum (1RM) for upper bench press (BP) and lower full squat (FS) body, countermovement jump (CMJ), and throwing velocity were measured before and after the training. The training program included upper and lower body strength and high-intensity exercises (BP, FS, military press, pull-ups, CMJ loaded, and abs). Baseline-training results showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. No improvement was found in the control group; however, meaningful improvement was found in all variables in the experimental group: CMJ (2.38 cm, 6.9%, effect size [ES] = 0.48), BP (9.06 kg, 10.53%, ES = 0.66), FS (11.06 kg, 14.21%, ES = 0.67), throwing velocity (1.76 km·h(-1), 2.76%, ES = 0.25), and 20-m maximal sprint swim (-0.26 seconds, 2.25%, ES = 0.29). Specific strength and high-intensity training in male WP players for 18 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to WP. Therefore, we propose modifications to the current training methodology for WP players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  9. [The effect of 24 weeks of moderate-to-high intensity strength training on the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà Serrabou, Marta; López del Amo, José Luis; Valero, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Strength programs have been seen to be useful in minimizing the effects of sarcopenia, although intervention protocols may vary in their content and characteristics. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the influence of a particular strength protocol for the elderly. A total of 35 individuals took part in the study, with 18 in the exercise group (4 men and 14 women), and 17 in the control group (4 men and 13 women). The average age was 73. The exercise group carried out a strength training program at moderate to high intensity over 24 weeks. Strength was evaluated using the chair stand test, 2-minute step and 2 vertical jumps-squat jump (SJ), and countermovement jump (CMJ). Falls in both groups were also compared before and after the intervention, as well as their relationship with the chair stand variable. A tendency towards improvement was observed in all tests, with the exception of CMJ; while the control group showed a tendency in the opposite direction. Contrast between the two groups at the end of the intervention was notable in all the tests. An inverse relationship between the chair stand strength variable and the number of falls was evident. According to the results achieved, the training was perceived to exercise a positive influence on both the strength of the elderly people and a reduction of the number of falls. The gap between the two groups widened towards the end of the intervention. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of rest-pause vs. traditional bench press training on muscle strength, electromyography, and lifting volume in randomized trial protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korak, J Adam; Paquette, Max R; Brooks, Justin; Fuller, Dana K; Coons, John M

    2017-09-01

    Rest-pause (4-s unloaded rest between repetitions) training effects on one repetition maximum (1 RM), lifting volume, and neural activation via electromyography (EMG) are currently vague in the literature and can benefit strength and conditioning professionals for resistance training programme design. Therefore, this study compared 1 RM, neural activation via (EMG), and volume differences between rest-pause vs. traditional resistance training. Trained males (N = 20) were randomly assigned to either a rest-pause or a traditional training group. Pre- and post-1 RM testing was recorded. Training sessions were completed twice a week for 4 weeks and consisted of four sets of bench press to volitional fatigue at 80% of pre-test 1 RM with a 2-min rest between sets. Total volume completed was recorded on each training day. Neural activation of the pectoralis major was measured on the first and last training days. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated both groups significantly increased their 1 RMs following the 4-week training protocol (p  .05). An independent samples t test indicated that total volume lifted was significantly higher for the rest-pause group (56,778 vs. 38,315 lbs; p < .05) throughout the protocol and independently during weeks 2, 3, and 4. While strength and neural activation changes did not differ between groups, both increased 1 RMs and the rest-pause group achieved greater increases in volume than the traditional group. If volume is the focus of training, the rest-pause method should be utilized.

  11. Modeling and Simulation to Muscle Strength Training of Lower Limbs Rehabilitation Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the issues of lower limb rehabilitation robots with single control strategies and poor training types, a training method for improving muscle strength was put forward in this paper. Patients’ muscle strength could be achieved by targeted exercises at the end of rehabilitation. This approach could be realized through programming wires’ force. On the one hand, each wires force was measured by tension sensor and force closed loop control was established to control the value of wires’ force which was acted on trainees. On the other hand, the direction of output force was changed by detecting the trainees’ state of motion and the way of putting load to patient was achieved. Finally, the target of enhancing patients’ muscle strength was realized. Dynamic model was built by means of mechanism and training types of robots. Force closed loop control strategy was established based on training pattern. In view of the characteristics of the redundance and economy of wire control, the process for simple wire's load changes was discussed. In order to confirm the characteristics of robot control system, the controller was simulated in Matlab/Simulink. It was verified that command signal could be traced by control system availably and the load during muscle training would be provided effectively.

  12. Habit strength is predicted by activity dynamics in goal-directed brain systems during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwosta, Katharina; Ruge, Hannes; Goschke, Thomas; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2018-01-15

    Previous neuroscientific research revealed insights into the brain networks supporting goal-directed and habitual behavior, respectively. However, it remains unclear how these contribute to inter-individual differences in habit strength which is relevant for understanding not only normal behavior but also more severe dysregulations between these types of action control, such as in addiction. In the present fMRI study, we trained subjects on approach and avoidance behavior for an extended period of time before testing the habit strength of the acquired stimulus-response associations. We found that stronger habits were associated with a stronger decrease in inferior parietal lobule activity for approach and avoidance behavior and weaker vmPFC activity at the end of training for avoidance behavior, areas associated with the anticipation of outcome identity and value. VmPFC in particular showed markedly different activity dynamics during the training of approach and avoidance behavior. Furthermore, while ongoing training was accompanied by increasing functional connectivity between posterior putamen and premotor cortex, consistent with previous assumptions about the neural basis of increasing habitualization, this was not predictive of later habit strength. Together, our findings suggest that inter-individual differences in habitual behavior are driven by differences in the persistent involvement of brain areas supporting goal-directed behavior during training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.