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Sample records for strength perceived effort

  1. Self-perceived strengths among people who are homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, Roger G; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Lehman, Darrin R

    2012-11-01

    This study examined self-perceived strengths among 116 people who were homeless. Those who had experienced a longer period of current homelessness tended to report fewer personal strengths (r = -0.23). Nonetheless, in spite of their marginalized position in society, the vast majority of participants (114 out of 116) perceived personal strengths. A prior diagnosis with mental illness was not associated with the number of strengths reported, but self-perception of strengths was associated with altruistic orientation. The Values in Action (VIA) taxonomy of character strengths captured many of the responses generated by this population. The most frequently mentioned character categories included social intelligence, kindness, persistence, authenticity and humour. The most frequently mentioned other strengths included personal skills (e.g. music, sports), job skills, intelligence and education. The results have relevance for efforts to build self-perceptions that facilitate escape from homelessness.

  2. Relations among school students' self-determined motivation, perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    2009-12-01

    Guided by the self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of self-determined motivation toward motivational outcomes (perceived enjoyment, perceived effort, physical activity behaviors) for 286 middle school students in physical education. Analyses indicated that intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and introjected regulation were positively related to students' enjoyment, perceived effort, and physical activity, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with students' enjoyment and perceived effort. The findings highlighted the importance of higher self-determined motivation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) in students' perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors. This study supports the use of self-determination theory to investigate students' motivational outcomes in school physical education.

  3. Perceived effort for motor control and decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Cos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available How effort is internally quantified and how it influences both movement generation and decisions between potential movements are 2 difficult questions to answer. Physical costs are known to influence motor control and decision-making, yet we lack a general, principled characterization of how the perception of effort operates across tasks and conditions. Morel and colleagues introduce an insightful approach to that end, assessing effort indifference points and presenting a quadratic law between perceived effort and force production.

  4. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Self-perceived strengths among people who are homeless

    OpenAIRE

    Tweed, Roger G.; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined self-perceived strengths among 116 people who were homeless. Those who had experienced a longer period of current homelessness tended to report fewer personal strengths (r = −0.23). Nonetheless, in spite of their marginalized position in society, the vast majority of participants (114 out of 116) perceived personal strengths. A prior diagnosis with mental illness was not associated with the number of strengths reported, but self-perception of strengths was associated with ...

  6. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J

    1997-01-01

    exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients......, thus indicating lower effort. The physical performance during an ergometer test corresponded to a maximal oxygen consumption of 21 ml/kg-1 x min-1. The maximal increase in heart rate was only 63% (44-90%) of the predicted increase. Degree of effort or physical capacity did not correlate to psychometric...... scores. Work status was related to psychometric scoring, but not to physical capacity or effort. In conclusion, we found a low degree of effort but near normal physical capacity in the fibromyalgia patients....

  7. Biomechanical Comparison of Three Perceived Effort Set Shots in Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Hillary A; Gascon, Sarah S; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2017-01-01

    Plummer, HA, Gascon, SS, and Oliver, GD. Biomechanical comparison of three perceived effort set shots in team handball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 80-87, 2017-Shoulder injuries are prevalent in the sport of team handball; however, no guidelines currently exist in the implementation of an interval throwing protocol for players returning from an upper extremity injury. These guidelines exist for the sport of baseball, but team handball may present additional challenges due to greater ball mass that must be accounted for. The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic differences in the team handball set shot at 50, 75, and 100% effort which are common throwing intensities in throwing protocols. Eleven male team handball players (23.09 ± 3.05 years; 185.12 ± 8.33 cm; 89.65 ± 12.17 kg) volunteered. An electromagnetic tracking system was used to collect kinematic data at the pelvis, trunk, scapula, and shoulder. Kinematic differences at the shoulder, trunk, and pelvis were observed across effort levels throughout the set shot with most occurring at ball release and maximum internal rotation. Significant differences in ball speed were observed between all 3 effort level shots (p handball players are able to gauge the effort at which they shoot; however, it cannot be assumed that these speeds will be at a certain percentage of their maximum. The results of this study provide valuable evidence that can be used to prepare a team handball player to return to throwing activities.

  8. Development Efforts Of Oil Companies As Perceived By Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the host communities are highly satisfied with companies' efforts (projects and services) to them. Based on these findings, recommendations were made. Key words: Oil producing communities; oil exploration/production; company's development efforts; Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol.4(1) 2004: 60-71 ...

  9. Motivational climate, behaviour regulation and perceived effort in soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the integration of two motivational theoretical models (self-determination theory and the achievement goal theory to analyze the impact of motivational climate in the regulation of motivation and athletes´ effort perception. Participated in the study 460 athletes (male football players at both regional and national level, on the categories of beginners, youth, juniors and seniors, with 17.42 ± 4.37 years-old. The quality of the structural equation model was examined by the Chi-square value and some complementary model fit indices. The results support the model fit (S-Bχ²= 288.84, df= 147, p< 0.001, S-Bχ²/df= 1.96, SRMR= 0.049, NNFI= 0.912, CFI= 0.924, RMSEA= 0.046, 90%IC RMSEA= 0.038−0.054, suggesting that a motivational task-oriented climate has a significant positive effect on autonomous motivation, which in turn has a significant positive effect on athletes' effort perception. On the other hand, an ego-oriented environment had a positive effect on the controlled motivation, which in turn had a negative effect on athletes' effort perception, although not significant.

  10. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health.

  11. Manual handling: differences in perceived effort, success rate and kinematics between three different pushing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcin, Lynn; Claus, Andrew; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived effort, success rates and kinematics for three push strategies in a simulated lateral patient transfer (horizontal slide). Thirteen healthy subjects (four males) completed three repetition pushing loads of 6, 10 and 14 kg in random order; with a spontaneous push strategy, then with a straight-back bent-knees (squat) strategy and the preparatory pelvic movement ('rockback') strategy in random order. Perceived effort and kinematic parameters measured at the onset of movement and at maximum push excursion were compared between strategies and between loads with repeated measures ANOVA. The spontaneous and 'rockback' strategies achieved the pushing task with less perceived effort across all loads than the squat push (P pushing the 14 kg load using a squat strategy, which contrasted with 12/13 participants when the spontaneous strategy or the 'rockback' strategy was used. Forward movement of the pelvis and forward trunk inclination may be positively associated with lower perceived effort in the push task. Practitioner Summary: In a manual-handling task that simulated a lateral patient transfer (horizontal slide), perceived effort and success rates of three push strategies were compared. A straight-back bent-knees push (squat) strategy demonstrated greater perceived effort and lower success rates than a spontaneous push strategy, or a push strategy with preparatory 'rockback' pelvic movement.

  12. Anticipating cognitive effort: roles of perceived error-likelihood and time demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Timothy L; Inzlicht, Michael; Risko, Evan F

    2017-11-13

    Why are some actions evaluated as effortful? In the present set of experiments we address this question by examining individuals' perception of effort when faced with a trade-off between two putative cognitive costs: how much time a task takes vs. how error-prone it is. Specifically, we were interested in whether individuals anticipate engaging in a small amount of hard work (i.e., low time requirement, but high error-likelihood) vs. a large amount of easy work (i.e., high time requirement, but low error-likelihood) as being more effortful. In between-subject designs, Experiments 1 through 3 demonstrated that individuals anticipate options that are high in perceived error-likelihood (yet less time consuming) as more effortful than options that are perceived to be more time consuming (yet low in error-likelihood). Further, when asked to evaluate which of the two tasks was (a) more effortful, (b) more error-prone, and (c) more time consuming, effort-based and error-based choices closely tracked one another, but this was not the case for time-based choices. Utilizing a within-subject design, Experiment 4 demonstrated overall similar pattern of judgments as Experiments 1 through 3. However, both judgments of error-likelihood and time demand similarly predicted effort judgments. Results are discussed within the context of extant accounts of cognitive control, with considerations of how error-likelihood and time demands may independently and conjunctively factor into judgments of cognitive effort.

  13. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF VISUAL AND AUDITORY INTERVENTION ON PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE AND PERCEIVED EFFORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Han Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE. We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible, and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort.

  14. Discounting the value of safety: effects of perceived risk and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Taylor, Matthew A; Wirth, Oliver

    2013-09-01

    Although falls from heights remain the most prevalent cause of fatalities in the construction industry, factors impacting safety-related choices associated with work at heights are not completely understood. Better tools are needed to identify and study the factors influencing safety-related choices and decision making. Using a computer-based task within a behavioral economics paradigm, college students were presented a choice between two hypothetical scenarios that differed in working height and effort associated with retrieving and donning a safety harness. Participants were instructed to choose the scenario in which they were more likely to wear the safety harness. Based on choice patterns, switch points were identified, indicating when the perceived risk in both scenarios was equivalent. Switch points were a systematic function of working height and effort, and the quantified relation between perceived risk and effort was described well by a hyperbolic equation. Choice patterns revealed that the perceived risk of working at heights decreased as the effort to retrieve and don a safety harness increased. Results contribute to the development of computer-based procedure for assessing risk discounting within a behavioral economics framework. Such a procedure can be used as a research tool to study factors that influence safety-related decision making with a goal of informing more effective prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deliberate practice theory: perceived relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice: study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2009-10-01

    This study, based on the theory of deliberate practice, examined the practice relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment aspects of the theory. 25 college undergraduates practiced playing a melody on an electronic keyboard for three 20-min. practice sessions. Following each session, the perceived relevance of the practice for improving performance of the melody, the effort needed to learn the melody, and the inherent enjoyment of the practice were each rated on 10-point scales. Findings were consistent with theory and similar to previous studies also involving music practice and other tasks.

  16. Heart rate variability reflects self-regulatory strength, effort, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Nes, Lise Solberg

    2007-03-01

    Experimental research reliably demonstrates that self-regulatory deficits are a consequence of prior self-regulatory effort. However, in naturalistic settings, although people know that they are sometimes vulnerable to saying, eating, or doing the wrong thing, they cannot accurately gauge their capacity to self-regulate at any given time. Because self-regulation and autonomic regulation colocalize in the brain, an autonomic measure, heart rate variability (HRV), could provide an index of self-regulatory strength and activity. During an experimental manipulation of self-regulation (eating carrots or cookies), HRV was elevated during high self-regulatory effort (eat carrots, resist cookies) compared with low self-regulatory effort (eat cookies, resist carrots). The experimental manipulation and higher HRV at baseline independently predicted persistence at a subsequent anagram task. HRV appears to index self-regulatory strength and effort, making it possible to study these phenomena in the field as well as the lab.

  17. First-Year College Students' Strengths Awareness and Perceived Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Roberts, Julia E.; Reinhard, Alex P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether first-year college students' strengths awareness is associated with their perceived leadership development. The institution in this study offered all first-year students the Clifton StrengthsFinder assessment and strengths-related programming. The results of hierarchical regression analysis of two…

  18. The association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with nurses' efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Farhad Shafiepour; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Yaghoubi, Maryam

    2012-03-01

    One important factor in growth, progress, and increase in work efficiency of employees of any enterprise is to make considerable effort. Supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran also addressed the issue of need for more efforts. The goal of this study was to determine the association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with efforts of nurses to provide a suitable model. The current study was a descriptive study. The study group consists of all nurses who worked in hospitals of Isfahan. Due to some limitations all nurses of the special unit, surgery wards and operating room were questioned. The data collection tools were the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, organizational expectations questionnaire, and double effort questionnaire. Content validity of the mentioned questionnaires was confirmed after considering the experts' comments. The reliability of these questionnaires, using the Cronbach's alpha, were 0.79, 0.83 and 0.92, respectively. The Pearson correlation and the structural equation model were used for the analysis of data. There was a significant correlation between the perceived organizational justice and the double effort of nurses during the surgery of patients. Correlation of the expectation from job, usefulness of job, and its attractiveness with double effort of nurses before the surgery was also statistically significant. Moreover, it was shown that the root of the mean square error of estimation (RMSEA) was 0.087, the fitted goodness index (GFI) was 0.953, the value of chi-square was 268.5, and the model was statistically significant (p Justice is an essential need for human life and its importance in organizations and social life of individuals is evident.

  19. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

  20. The Perceived Psychological Responsibilities Of A Strength And Conditioning Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Jon N; Comfort, Paul; Fawcett, Tom

    2016-09-22

    Research is limited in exploring the specific psychology oriented responsibilities of the strength and conditioning professional. The present research explored the psychological responsibilities adopted by accredited strength and conditioning coaches. Participants comprised 10 participants working within the UK, 3 within the USA and 5 within Australia offering a cross section of experience from raging sport disciplines and educational backgrounds. Participants were interviewed either in person or via Skype. Thematic clustering was employed utilizing interpretative phonological analysis to identify common themes. Over half (61%) of the respondents reported that their position as a strength and conditioning coach required additional psychology orientated responsibilities. These comprised a counselling role in the absence of psychologist the use of 'softer skills' in a mentoring role of the athlete during a challenging situation. The coach could play an influential role in shaping the mentality of the team. The coach identifies how the role results in working to relay information for the athlete to other support staff and similarly from the support staff through the athlete. The coach identifies how the role results in working to relay information for the athlete to other support staff and similarly from the support staff to the athlete. In addition to identifying the resonant psychological orientated responsibilities discussion is made with specific focus on the ethical boundary to which strength and conditioning coaches must reside regarding the competencies to provide psychological support.

  1. Does Hard Work Pay Off? The Influence of Perceived Effort on Romantic Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Dwiggins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how a person’s willingness to exert effort affects how others perceive their romantic desirability. The study also examines whether the participants’ implicit theory of personality (incremental or entity influences ratings of the target’s romantic desirability based on the target’s level of effort. Seventy-eight (17 males, 61 females single college students participated in the study. Participants read one of four descriptions of a target. The descriptions manipulated both the target’s ability (hard work or natural ability and success (successful or unsuccessful. Participants also completed a measure to assess their implicit theory of personality. Participants then rated the target’s desirability. There was a significant difference in desirability ratings of the target for the main effect of ability. There were no other significant differences found between the variables. The findings suggest that when a person expends effort, they are more romantically desirable regardless of how successful they are. Findings also suggest that a person’s implicit theory of personality does not interact with the target’s effort to affect romantic desirability.

  2. Impact of low alcohol verbal descriptors on perceived strength: An experimental study.

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    Vasiljevic, Milica; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-02-01

    Low alcohol labels are a set of labels that carry descriptors such as 'low' or 'lighter' to denote alcohol content in beverages. There is growing interest from policymakers and producers in lower strength alcohol products. However, there is a lack of evidence on how the general population perceives verbal descriptors of strength. The present research examines consumers' perceptions of strength (% ABV) and appeal of alcohol products using low or high alcohol verbal descriptors. A within-subjects experimental study in which participants rated the strength and appeal of 18 terms denoting low (nine terms), high (eight terms) and regular (one term) strengths for either (1) wine or (2) beer according to drinking preference. Thousand six hundred adults (796 wine and 804 beer drinkers) sampled from a nationally representative UK panel. Low, Lower, Light, Lighter, and Reduced formed a cluster and were rated as denoting lower strength products than Regular, but higher strength than the cluster with intensifiers consisting of Extra Low, Super Low, Extra Light, and Super Light. Similar clustering in perceived strength was observed amongst the high verbal descriptors. Regular was the most appealing strength descriptor, with the low and high verbal descriptors using intensifiers rated least appealing. The perceived strength and appeal of alcohol products diminished the more the verbal descriptors implied a deviation from Regular. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of policy implications for lower strength alcohol labelling and associated public health outcomes. Statement of contribution What is already known about this subject? Current UK and EU legislation limits the number of low strength verbal descriptors and the associated alcohol by volume (ABV) to 1.2% ABV and lower. There is growing interest from policymakers and producers to extend the range of lower strength alcohol products above the current cap of 1.2% ABV set out in national legislation. There

  3. Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity. © 2013.

  4. Effect of Acute Effort on Isometric Strength and Body Balance: Trained vs. Untrained Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sterkowicz

    Full Text Available Years of training in competitive sports leads to human body adaptation to a specific type of exercise. In judo bouts, maintaining hand grip on an opponent's clothes and postural balance is essential for the effective technical and tactical actions. This study compares changes after maximal anaerobic exercise among judo athletes and untrained subjects regarding 1 maximum isometric handgrip strength (HGSmax and accuracy at the perceived 50% maximum handgrip force (1/2HGSmax and 2 the balance of 13 judo athletes at national (n = 8 and international (n = 5 competitive levels and 19 untrained university students. The groups did not differ in age, body height, and weight. Body mass index (BMI and body composition (JAWON were evaluated. The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, Monark 875E measured recommended anaerobic capacity indices. Hand grip strength (Takei dynamometer and balance (biplate balance platform were measured before warm-up (T1, before the WAnT test (T2, and after (T3. Parametric or non-parametric tests were performed after verifying the variable distribution assumption. Judoists had higher BMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI than the students. The athletes also showed higher relative total work and relative peak power and lower levels of lactic acid. The difference in judoists between HGSmax at T1 and HGSmax at T3 was statistically significant. Before warm-up (T1, athletes showed higher strength (more divergent from the calculated ½HGSmax value compared to students. Substantial fatigue after the WAnT test significantly deteriorated the body stability indices, which were significantly better in judo athletes at all time points. The findings suggest specific body adaptations in judoists, especially for body composition, anaerobic energy system efficiency, and postural balance. These characteristics could be trained for specifically by judo athletes to meet the time-motion and anaerobic demands of contemporary bouts.

  5. Effect of Acute Effort on Isometric Strength and Body Balance: Trained vs. Untrained Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Jaworski, Janusz; Lech, Grzegorz; Pałka, Tomasz; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Bujas, Przemysław; Pięta, Paweł; Mościński, Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Years of training in competitive sports leads to human body adaptation to a specific type of exercise. In judo bouts, maintaining hand grip on an opponent's clothes and postural balance is essential for the effective technical and tactical actions. This study compares changes after maximal anaerobic exercise among judo athletes and untrained subjects regarding 1) maximum isometric handgrip strength (HGSmax) and accuracy at the perceived 50% maximum handgrip force (1/2HGSmax) and 2) the balance of 13 judo athletes at national (n = 8) and international (n = 5) competitive levels and 19 untrained university students. The groups did not differ in age, body height, and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and body composition (JAWON) were evaluated. The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, Monark 875E) measured recommended anaerobic capacity indices. Hand grip strength (Takei dynamometer) and balance (biplate balance platform) were measured before warm-up (T1), before the WAnT test (T2), and after (T3). Parametric or non-parametric tests were performed after verifying the variable distribution assumption. Judoists had higher BMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI) than the students. The athletes also showed higher relative total work and relative peak power and lower levels of lactic acid. The difference in judoists between HGSmax at T1 and HGSmax at T3 was statistically significant. Before warm-up (T1), athletes showed higher strength (more divergent from the calculated ½HGSmax value) compared to students. Substantial fatigue after the WAnT test significantly deteriorated the body stability indices, which were significantly better in judo athletes at all time points. The findings suggest specific body adaptations in judoists, especially for body composition, anaerobic energy system efficiency, and postural balance. These characteristics could be trained for specifically by judo athletes to meet the time-motion and anaerobic demands of contemporary bouts.

  6. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  7. Effort, performance, and motivation: insights from robot-assisted training of human golf putting and rat grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Rowe, Justin B; Sharp, Kelli; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Robotic devices can modulate success rates and required effort levels during motor training, but it is unclear how this affects performance gains and motivation. Here we present results from training unimpaired humans in a virtual golf-putting task, and training spinal cord injured (SCI) rats in a grip strength task using robotically modulated success rates and effort levels. Robotic assistance in golf practice increased trainees feelings of competence, and, paradoxically, increased their sense effort, even though it had mixed effects on learning. Reducing effort during a grip strength training task led rats with SCI to practice the task more frequently. However, the more frequent practice of these rats did not cause them to exceed the strength gains achieved by rats that exercised less often at higher required effort levels. These results show that increasing success and decreasing effort with robots increases motivation, but has mixed effects on performance gains.

  8. Strengths and Gender: Exploring the Experiences of Collegiate Women in Leadership Who Perceive That Their Strengths Do Not Align with Gender Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah R.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the shared experiences of 7 collegiate women in positions of leadership who perceived their strengths do not align with gender norms. Participants shared experiences through written and oral interviews, and the researcher utilized strengths philosophy and the Status Incongruity Hypothesis as theoretical lenses, and…

  9. Enjoying mathematics or feeling competent in mathematics? Reciprocal effects on mathematics achievement and perceived math effort expenditure.

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    Pinxten, Maarten; Marsh, Herbert W; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Van Damme, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The multidimensionality of the academic self-concept in terms of domain specificity has been well established in previous studies, whereas its multidimensionality in terms of motivational functions (the so-called affect-competence separation) needs further examination. This study aims at exploring differential effects of enjoyment and competence beliefs on two external validity criteria in the field of mathematics. Data analysed in this study were part of a large-scale longitudinal research project. Following a five-wave design, math enjoyment, math competence beliefs, math achievement, and perceived math effort expenditure measures were repeatedly collected from a cohort of 4,724 pupils in Grades 3-7. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the internal factor structure of the math self-concept. Additionally, a series of nested models was tested using structural equation modelling to examine longitudinal reciprocal interrelations between math competence beliefs and math enjoyment on the one hand and math achievement and perceived math effort expenditure on the other. Our results showed that CFA models with separate factors for math enjoyment and math competence beliefs fit the data substantially better than models without it. Furthermore, differential relationships between both constructs and the two educational outcomes were observed. Math competence beliefs had positive effects on math achievement and negative effects on perceived math effort expenditure. Math enjoyment had (mild) positive effects on subsequent perceived effort expenditure and math competence beliefs. This study provides further support for the affect-competence separation. Theoretical issues regarding adequate conceptualization and practical consequences for practitioners are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. The effects of strength-based versus deficit-based self-regulated learning strategies on students' effort intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    In two randomized experiments, one conducted online (n = 174) and one in the classroom (n = 267), we tested the effects of two types of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies on students’ intentions to put effort into professional development activities: strength-based SRL strategies (i.e.,

  11. Perceived vocal fatigue and effort in relation to laryngeal functional measures in paresis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Sheila V; Bielamowicz, Steven A

    2014-07-01

    To determine if differences in objective measures of laryngeal function can meaningfully explain different levels of self-perceptions of effort or fatigue in patients with vocal fold paresis. A retrospective chart review of 72 patients with vocal fold paresis diagnosed using laryngeal electromyography, who had either been observed (n=21), treated only by injection (n=24), or treated only by surgery (n=27). Before and after treatment/observation, patients' subjective ratings of severity of vocal effort and fatigue were assessed using the Glottal Function Index. Laryngeal function was assessed using maximum phonation time and translaryngeal flow. None of the variables demonstrated a significant linear change across time. Post hoc Tukey analyses following analysis of variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in flow among three groups, those rating symptoms of effort as no problem, moderate problem, or severe problem. Post hoc Tukey analyses following ANOVA found significant differences in the amount that flow changed among three groups, those demonstrating no difference, minor differences, or major differences in ratings of effort before and after treatment. Changes in reported symptom severity of effort were related to changes in translaryngeal midvowel flow that were not explained by passage of time. 4. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. The effects of freedom of choice in action selection on perceived mental effort and the sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Zeynep; Hockley, William E; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2017-10-01

    Previous research showed that increasing the number of action alternatives enhances the sense of agency (SoA). Here, we investigated whether choice space could affect subjective judgments of mental effort experienced during action selection and examined the link between subjective effort and the SoA. Participants performed freely selected (among two, three, or four options) and instructed actions that produced pleasant or unpleasant tones. We obtained action-effect interval estimates to quantify intentional binding - the perceived interval compression between actions and outcomes and feeling of control (FoC) ratings. Additionally, participants reported the degree of mental effort they experienced during action selection. We found that both binding and FoC were systematically enhanced with increasing choice-level. Outcome valence did not influence binding, while FoC was stronger for pleasant than unpleasant outcomes. Finally, freely chosen actions were associated with low subjective effort and slow responses (i.e., higher reaction times), and instructed actions were associated with high effort and fast responses. Although the conditions that yielded the greatest and least subjective effort also yielded the greatest and least binding and FoC, there was no significant correlation between subjective effort and SoA measures. Overall, our results raise interesting questions about how agency may be influenced by response selection demands (i.e., indexed by speed of responding) and subjective mental effort. Our work also highlights the importance of understanding how subjective mental effort and response speed are related to popular notions of fluency in response selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. "Fighting a hurricane": tobacco industry efforts to counter the perceived threat of Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Mark; Lee, Kelley; Ali, Haider; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Islamic countries are of key importance to transnational tobacco companies as growing markets with increasing smoking rates. We analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to assess the industry's response to rising concerns about tobacco use within Islamic countries. The tobacco industry perceived Islam as a significant threat to its expansion into these emerging markets. To counter these concerns, the industry framed antismoking views in Islamic countries as fundamentalist and fanatical and attempted to recruit Islamic consultants to portray smoking as acceptable. Tobacco industry lawyers also helped develop theological arguments in favor of smoking. These findings are valuable to researchers and policymakers seeking to implement culturally appropriate measures in Islamic countries under the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  14. Does perceived stress moderate the association between depressive symptoms and socioemotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties in adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätsch, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    More and more students report high level of perceived stress during childhood and adolescence, which is associated with socioemotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties. This study aims-based on the cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory-to examine perceived stress in early adolescence as a potential moderator in the association between depressive symptoms and socioemotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties from early to middle adolescence. Results of latent moderated structural equations with questionnaire data from a longitudinal study with 1,088 German students (Time 1: M age  = 13.70, SD = 0.53; Time 2: N = 845, M age  = 15.32, SD = 0.49) indicate that perceived stress functions as a moderator in the above-mentioned association and dominates the interaction if perceived strongly. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Perceiving political polarization in the United States: party identity strength and attitude extremity exacerbate the perceived partisan divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Jacob; Van Boven, Leaf; Chambers, John R; Judd, Charles M

    2015-03-01

    An important component of political polarization in the United States is the degree to which ordinary people perceive political polarization. We used over 30 years of national survey data from the American National Election Study to examine how the public perceives political polarization between the Democratic and Republican parties and between Democratic and Republican presidential candidates. People in the United States consistently overestimate polarization between the attitudes of Democrats and Republicans. People who perceive the greatest political polarization are most likely to report having been politically active, including voting, trying to sway others' political beliefs, and making campaign contributions. We present a 3-factor framework to understand ordinary people's perceptions of political polarization. We suggest that people perceive greater political polarization when they (a) estimate the attitudes of those categorized as being in the "opposing group"; (b) identify strongly as either Democrat or Republican; and (c) hold relatively extreme partisan attitudes-particularly when those partisan attitudes align with their own partisan political identity. These patterns of polarization perception occur among both Democrats and Republicans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Perception of the Autonomy Supportive Behaviour as a Predictor of Perceived Effort and Physical Self-esteem among School Students from Four Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vello Hein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT, this study tested a model of motivational sequence in which perceived autonomy support from teachers in a physical education (PE context predicted the perceived effort and physical self-esteem via self-determined motivation in school students. School students aged 12 to 16 years from Estonia (N = 816, Lithuania (N = 706, Hungary (N = 664, and Spain (N = 922 completed measures of perceived autonomy support from PE teachers, need satisfaction for autonomy, competence, relatedness, self-determined motivation, perceived effort and physical self-esteem. The results of the structural equation model (SEM of each sample indicated that the students’ perceived autonomy support from the teacher was directly related to effort and indirectly via autonomous motivation, whereas physical self-esteem was related indirectly. Confirmatory factor analyses and multi-sample structural equation revealed well-fitting models within each sample with the invariances of the measurement parameters across four nations. The findings support the generalizability of the measures in the motivational sequence model to predict perceived effort and physical self-esteem.

  17. Elastic Elements in a Wrist Prosthesis for Drumming Reduce Muscular Effort, but Increase Imprecision and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Stillfried

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, progress has been made in the development of mechanical joints with variable intrinsic stiffness, opening up the search for application areas of such variable-stiffness joints. By varying the stiffness of its joints, the resonant frequency of a system can be tuned to perform cyclical tasks most energy-efficiently, making the variable-stiffness joint a candidate element for an advanced prosthetic device specifically designed for the cyclical task of drumming. A prerequisite for a successful variable-stiffness drumming prosthesis is the ability of human drummers to profitably employ different stiffness levels for playing different beats. In this pilot study, 29 able-bodied subjects (20 drumming novices and 9 experts wear a cuff on the forearm, to which a drumstick is connected using changeable adapters, consisting of several leaf springs with different stiffness and one maximally stiff connection element. The subjects are asked to play simple regular drum beats at different frequencies, one of which is the resonant frequency of the adapter-drumstick system. The subject's performance of each drumming task is rated in terms of accuracy and precision, and the effort is measured using questionnaires for the perceived stress as well as electromyography (EMG for the muscular activity. The experiments show that using springs instead of the stiff connection leads to lower muscular activity, indicating that humans are able to use the energy-storing capabilities of the springs, or that muscular activity is reduced due to the lower mass of the springs. However, the perceived stress is increased and the novices' performance lowered, possibly due to a higher cerebral load for controlling the elastic system. The hypothesis that “matching the resonant frequency of the spring-drumstick system to the desired frequency leads to better performance and lower effort” is not confirmed. Possible explanations are discussed. In conclusion, a series

  18. Elastic Elements in a Wrist Prosthesis for Drumming Reduce Muscular Effort, but Increase Imprecision and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillfried, Georg; Stepper, Johannes; Neppl, Hannah; Vogel, Jörn; Höppner, Hannes

    2018-01-01

    Recently, progress has been made in the development of mechanical joints with variable intrinsic stiffness, opening up the search for application areas of such variable-stiffness joints. By varying the stiffness of its joints, the resonant frequency of a system can be tuned to perform cyclical tasks most energy-efficiently, making the variable-stiffness joint a candidate element for an advanced prosthetic device specifically designed for the cyclical task of drumming. A prerequisite for a successful variable-stiffness drumming prosthesis is the ability of human drummers to profitably employ different stiffness levels for playing different beats. In this pilot study, 29 able-bodied subjects (20 drumming novices and 9 experts) wear a cuff on the forearm, to which a drumstick is connected using changeable adapters, consisting of several leaf springs with different stiffness and one maximally stiff connection element. The subjects are asked to play simple regular drum beats at different frequencies, one of which is the resonant frequency of the adapter-drumstick system. The subject's performance of each drumming task is rated in terms of accuracy and precision, and the effort is measured using questionnaires for the perceived stress as well as electromyography (EMG) for the muscular activity. The experiments show that using springs instead of the stiff connection leads to lower muscular activity, indicating that humans are able to use the energy-storing capabilities of the springs, or that muscular activity is reduced due to the lower mass of the springs. However, the perceived stress is increased and the novices' performance lowered, possibly due to a higher cerebral load for controlling the elastic system. The hypothesis that “matching the resonant frequency of the spring-drumstick system to the desired frequency leads to better performance and lower effort” is not confirmed. Possible explanations are discussed. In conclusion, a series-elastic element appears to

  19. Sources of Life Strengths Appraisal Scale: A Multidimensional Approach to Assessing Older Adults’ Perceived Sources of Life Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem S. Fry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both cognitive and psychosocial theories of adult development stress the fundamental role of older adults’ appraisals of the diverse sources of cognitive and social-emotional strengths. This study reports the development of a new self-appraisal measure that incorporates key theoretical dimensions of internal and external sources of life strengths, as identified in the gerontological literature. Using a pilot study sample and three other independent samples to examine older adults’ appraisals of their sources of life strengths which helped them in their daily functioning and to combat life challenges, adversity, and losses, a psychometric instrument having appropriate reliability and validity properties was developed. A 24-month followup of a randomly selected sample confirmed that the nine-scale appraisal measure (SLSAS is a promising instrument for appraising older adults’ sources of life strengths in dealing with stresses of daily life’s functioning and also a robust measure for predicting outcomes of resilience, autonomy, and well-being for this age group. A unique strength of the appraisal instrument is its critically relevant features of brevity, simplicity of language, and ease of administration to frail older adults.

  20. BACK MUSCLES STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT BY MEANS OF INCREASE AND DECREASE OF EFFORT LOAD DURING GIANT SETS IN BODYBUILDING FOR MASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMNEA OLIVIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study is to highlight methodological issues on the back muscle strength development by combining methodological procedures in masses bodybuilding.Methods. The study was conducted in three stages over a period of two months (March-April 2011, performing three workouts per week, monitoring the effective use of strength exercises to develop back muscles in the same muscle area by means of giant sets during workouts. In this context, we conducted a case study in "Tonik Fitness Club" in Bucharest, applied to two athletes of 28 and 34 years old. We recorded subjects’ evolutions during the training session, using statistical and mathematical method and graphical representation method.Results. The study content highlights the training programs depending on muscle zone and the specific methodological aspects, the weekly training program per muscle groups, the stages of study carrying out, the test and control trials applied in terms of anthropometric measurements and of back muscle strength development, and the application of the methodical procedure of effort load increase and decrease within the giant sets in a training micro-cycle.Discussion. The study focused on the training programs over two months, monitoring statistically the development of back muscle strength through the application of the procedure of effort load increase and decrease during giant sets in bodybuilding for masses. From the analysis of training programs content we noticed that three giant sets of exercises were used, performed in four series; each exercise within the giant sets was applied by means of the procedure of increasing and decreasing effort load. Study results emphasize the anthropometric measurement results: the study subjects have the age mean of 24.75, with a size of 175.2 cm and a weight of 83.75 kg at initial testing and a decrease by 2.12 kg in final testing. Regarding the chest perimeter, the inspiration is averaging 89.5 in initial

  1. Cognitive skills and the effect of noise on perceived effort in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Hua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the following study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC, executive functions (EFs and perceived effort (PE after completing a work-related task in quiet and in noise in employees with aided hearing impairment (HI and normal hearing. The study sample consisted of 20 hearing-impaired and 20 normally hearing participants. Measures of hearing ability, WMC and EFs were tested prior to performing a work-related task in quiet and in simulated traffic noise. PE of the work-related task was also measured. Analysis of variance was used to analyze within- and between-group differences in cognitive skills, performance on the work-related task and PE. The presence of noise yielded a significantly higher PE for both groups. However, no significant group differences were observed in WMC, EFs, PE and performance in the work-related task. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were only found between PE in the noise condition and the ability to update information for both groups. In summary, noise generates a significantly higher PE and brings explicit processing capacity into play, irrespective of hearing. This suggest that increased PE involves other factors such as type of task that is to be performed, performance in the cognitive skill required solving the task at hand and whether noise is present. We therefore suggest that special consideration in hearing care should be made to the individual′s prerequisites on these factors in the labor market.

  2. Geometric morphometrics of male facial shape in relation to physical strength and perceived attractiveness, dominance, and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Fink, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists claim that women have adaptive preferences for specific male physical traits. Physical strength may be one of those traits, because recent research suggests that women rate faces of physically strong men as more masculine, dominant, and attractive. Yet, previous research has been limited in its ability to statistically map specific male facial shapes and features to corresponding physical measures (e.g., strength) and ratings (e.g., attractiveness). The association of handgrip strength (together with measures of shoulder width, body height, and body fat) and women's ratings of male faces (concerning dominance, masculinity, and attractiveness) were studied in a sample of 26 Caucasian men (aged 18-32 years). Geometric morphometrics was used to statistically assess the covariation of male facial shape with these measures. Statistical results were visualized with thin-plate spline deformation grids along with image unwarping and image averaging. Handgrip strength together with shoulder width, body fat, dominance, and masculinity loaded positively on the first dimension of covariation with facial shape (explaining 72.6%, P attractive and taller men had longer, narrower jaws and wider/fuller lips. Male physical strength was more strongly associated with changes in face shape that relate to perceived masculinity and dominance than to attractiveness. Our study adds to the growing evidence that attractiveness and dominance/masculinity may reflect different aspects of male mate quality. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  4. Associations Between Parenting Styles and Perceived Child Effortful Control Within Chinese Families in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Lamb, Michael E.; Zhou, Nan

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported authoritarian parenting style. Significant associations also emerged between mothers’ reports of their children’s EC and some parenting dimensions, although there were no cultural group differences in perceived child EC. Different patterns of associations between perceived child EC and parenting styles in these three groups also demonstrated heterogeneity within the Chinese population, and highlighted the need to consider differences between original and receiving societies when seeking to understand parenting and child development in different immigrant groups. PMID:29276309

  5. Associations Between Parenting Styles and Perceived Child Effortful Control Within Chinese Families in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Cheah, Charissa S L; Lamb, Michael E; Zhou, Nan

    2017-07-01

    The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old ( M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers' reported authoritarian parenting style. Significant associations also emerged between mothers' reports of their children's EC and some parenting dimensions, although there were no cultural group differences in perceived child EC. Different patterns of associations between perceived child EC and parenting styles in these three groups also demonstrated heterogeneity within the Chinese population, and highlighted the need to consider differences between original and receiving societies when seeking to understand parenting and child development in different immigrant groups.

  6. Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic...

  7. The job-search grind: perceived progress, self-reactions, and self-regulation of search effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanberg, C.; Zhu, J.; van Hooft, E.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by theory and research on self-regulation and goal pursuit, we offer a framework for studying the dynamics of unemployed individuals’ job search. A daily survey over three weeks demonstrated vacillation in job seeker affect and, to a lesser extent, "reemployment efficacy." Daily perceived job

  8. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  9. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  10. Effort-reward imbalance and perceived quality of patient care: a cross-sectional study among physicians in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Loerbroks

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work stress may impair physicians’ ability to provide high quality patient care. Prior research remains however sparse and has insufficiently explored explanations for this relationship. It has been suggested that physicians’ poor mental health is one potential explanatory factor. We drew on a well-established model to measure work stress (the effort-reward imbalance [ERI] model in order to test this hypothesis. Further, to address another research gap and to potentially inform the development of better-targeted interventions, we aimed to examine associations of individual ERI constructs with the quality of care. Methods We used cross-sectional data, which had been collected in 2014 among 416 physicians in Germany. ERI constructs (i.e. effort, reward, the ERI ratio, and overcommitment were measured by the established 23-item questionnaire. Physicians’ perceptions of quality of care were assessed by a six-item instrument inquiring after poor care practices or attitudes. Physicians’ mental health was operationalized by the state scale of the Spielberger's State-Trait Depression Scales. We used both continuous and categorized dependent and independent variables in multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Both an increasing ERI ratio and increasing effort were associated with poorer quality of care while increasing rewards were related to better care. Physicians’ depressive symptoms did not affect these associations substantially. Associations with overcommitment were weak and attenuated to non-significant levels by correction for depressive symptoms. The level of overcommitment did not modify associations between the ERI ratio and quality of care. Conclusions Our study suggests that high work-related efforts and low rewards are associated with reports of poorer patient care among physicians, irrespectively of physicians’ depressive symptoms. Quality of patient care may thus be improved by

  11. Listening effort and perceived clarity for normal-hearing children with the use of digital noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Samantha; McCreery, Ryan; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy G; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate how digital noise reduction (DNR) impacts listening effort and judgment of sound clarity in children with normal hearing. It was hypothesized that when two DNR algorithms differing in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) output are compared, the algorithm that provides the greatest improvement in overall output SNR will reduce listening effort and receive a better clarity rating from child listeners. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relation between the inversion method measurements and listening effort with DNR processing. Twenty-four children with normal hearing (ages 7 to 12 years) participated in a speech recognition task in which consonant-vowel-consonant nonwords were presented in broadband background noise. Test stimuli were recorded through two hearing aids with DNR off and DNR on at 0 dB and +5 dB input SNR. Stimuli were presented to listeners and verbal response time (VRT) and phoneme recognition scores were measured. The underlying assumption was that an increase in VRT reflects an increase in listening effort. Children rated the sound clarity for each condition. The two commercially available HAs were chosen based on: (1) an inversion technique, which was used to quantify the magnitude of change in SNR with the activation of DNR, and (2) a measure of magnitude-squared coherence, which was used to ensure that DNR in both devices preserved the spectrum. One device provided a greater improvement in overall output SNR than the other. Both DNR algorithms resulted in minimal spectral distortion as measured using coherence. For both devices, VRT decreased for the DNR-on condition, suggesting that listening effort decreased with DNR in both devices. Clarity ratings were also better in the DNR-on condition for both devices. The device showing the greatest improvement in output SNR with DNR engaged improved phoneme recognition scores. The magnitude of this improved phoneme recognition was not accurately predicted with

  12. Social Connectedness and Perceived Listening Effort in Adult Cochlear Implant Users: A Grounded Theory to Establish Content Validity for a New Patient-Reported Outcome Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sarah E; Hutchings, Hayley A; Rapport, Frances L; McMahon, Catherine M; Boisvert, Isabelle

    2018-02-08

    motivated by a need to maintain a sense of social connectedness (i.e., the subjective awareness of being in touch with one's social world). Before implantation, low social connectedness in the presence of high listening effort encouraged self-alienating behaviors and resulted in social isolation with adverse effects for participant's well-being and quality of life. A CI moderated but did not remove the requirement for listening effort. Listening effort, in combination with the improved auditory signal supplied by the CI, enabled most participants to listen and communicate more effectively. These participants reported a restored sense of social connectedness and an acceptance of the continued need for listening effort. Social connectedness, effort-reward balance, and listening effort as a multidimensional phenomenon were the core constructs identified as important to participants' experiences and understanding of listening effort. The study's findings suggest: (1) perceived listening effort is related to social and psychological factors and (2) these factors may influence how individuals with hearing loss report on the actual cognitive processing demands of listening. These findings provide evidence in support of the Framework for Understanding Effortful Listening a heuristic that describes listening effort as a function of both motivation and demands on cognitive capacity. This GT will inform item development and establish the content validity for a new PROM for measuring listening effort.

  13. Associations Between Parenting Styles and Perceived Child Effortful Control Within Chinese Families in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, CY; Cheah, CSL; Lamb, Michael Ernest; Zhou, N

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful\\ud control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese\\ud immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States,\\ud and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54\\ud girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported\\ud authoritarian pare...

  14. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing perceived listening effort in hearing loss: protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Frances L; Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Hutchings, Hayley A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In the UK, it is estimated that a disabling hearing loss (HL) affects 1 in 6 people. HL has functional, economic and social-emotional consequences for affected individuals. Intervention for HL focuses on improving access to the auditory signal using hearing aids or cochlear implants. However, even if sounds are audible and speech is understood, individuals with HL often report increased effort when listening. Listening effort (LE) may be measured using self-reported measures such as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). PROMs are validated questionnaires completed by patients to measure their perceptions of their own functional status and well-being. When selecting a PROM for use in research or clinical practice, it is necessary to appraise the evidence of a PROM’s acceptability to patients, validity, responsiveness and reliability. Methods and analysis A systematic review of studies evaluating the measurement properties of PROMs available to measure LE in HL will be undertaken. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Web of Science will be searched electronically. Reference lists of included studies, key journals and the grey literature will be hand-searched to identify further studies for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently complete title, abstract and full-text screening to determine study eligibility. Data on the characteristics of each study and each PROM will be extracted. Methodological quality of the included studies will be appraised using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, the quality of included PROMs appraised and the credibility of the evidence assessed. A narrative synthesis will summarise extracted data. Ethics and dissemination Ethical permission is not required, as this study uses data from published research. Dissemination will be through publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and the lead author’s doctoral dissertation. Findings may inform the

  15. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals.

  16. The organizational work factors' effect on mental health among hospital workers is mediated by perceived effort-reward imbalance: result of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Sébastien; De Gaudemaris, Régis; Lepage, Benoit; Sobaszek, Annie; Caroly, Sandrine; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lang, Thierry

    2013-07-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to test the hypothesis that organizational work factors (OWFs) may be related to depressive symptoms through an increased effort-reward imbalance (ERI) ratio among registered nurses (RNs) and nursing assistants working in hospitals. We studied 2117 female RNs and nursing assistants who stayed in the same work unit and position during the follow-up from the ORSOSA (ORganisation des SOins-SAnté) longitudinal study. The work characteristics and workers' health were assessed in 2006 and 2008. We confirmed our hypothesis of both direct and mediated effects of OWFs on workers' health. We showed that issues about patient-related information exchanges increased RNs' depressive disorders by increasing first a perceived ERI. Our results advocate integrating both the work organizational level and the individual level into preventive actions to improve workers' mental health.

  17. Strength and Conditioning Coaches’ Application of the Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Method of Monitoring Within Professional Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comyns Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE is a method of monitoring and managing training loads. The purpose of this study was to research how and for what purpose strength and conditioning (S&C coaches implement this monitoring method within professional rugby union. The study also aimed to assess if S&C coaches found this monitoring method to be valid and effective. An online survey containing 24 fixed response questions was used to assess how S&C coaches applied the session-RPE method. The survey was piloted with expert researchers and practitioners in the area of session-RPE prior to distribution and alterations were made to the survey based on the experts’ feedback. Twenty S&C coaches working with professional rugby union clubs in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales completed the survey. The coaches’ responses indicated that the majority found the session-RPE to be a valid and effective monitoring method. While some good implementation practices were identified, not all of the coaches adhered to these guidelines which may impact on the accuracy of the collected data. For example, 30% of coaches do not collect the RPE for every session that a player does per week limiting the use of the session-RPE variables cumulative training load, training monotony, training strain and acute:chronic load ratio. S&C coaches within rugby should consider using session-RPE as a method of monitoring and implement the method in a manner reflective of research findings to enhance the potential applications of this system in maximising adaptations and minimising the risk of injury.

  18. Investigating the impact of a combined approach of perceived organisational support for strengths use and deficit correction on employee outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Els, C.; Mostert, K.; van Woerkom, M.

    2018-01-01

    Orientation: The positive psychology paradigm suggests a balanced focus on employee strengths and deficits. However, an overemphasis on strengths has raised questions regarding the value of a focus on strengths use, deficit improvement or a combined approach with a balanced focus on both. Research

  19. Are rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure modified in elderly women undergoing 8 week of strength training of prescribe intensity?

    OpenAIRE

    Benites, Mariana L.; Alves, Ragami C.; Ferreira, Sandro S.; Follador, Lucio; da Silva, Sergio G.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to verify the rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in elderly women, who did normally perform physical exercises, following eight weeks of strength training in a constant routine. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven sedentary women were subjected to anthropometric assessment. The maximum load (100%) for each used in this study was determined by performing a test to determined the 1RM for each of them according to the protocol of ...

  20. Effects of Aerobic, Strength or Combined Exercise on Perceived Appetite and Appetite-Related Hormones in Inactive Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Penelope S; Donges, Cheyne E; Guelfi, Kym J; Smith, Greg C; Adams, David R; Duffield, Rob

    2017-10-01

    Aerobic exercise (AE) and strength exercise (SE) are reported to induce discrete and specific appetite-related responses; however, the effect of combining AE and SE (i.e., combined exercise; CE) remains relatively unknown. Twelve inactive overweight men (age: 48 ± 5 y; BMI: 29.9 ± 1.9 kg∙m 2 ) completed four conditions in a random order: 1) nonexercise control (CON) (50 min seated rest); 2) AE (50 min cycling; 75% VO 2peak ); 3) SE (10 × 8 leg extensions; 75% 1RM); and 4) CE (50% SE + 50% AE). Perceived appetite, and appetiterelated peptides and metabolites were assessed before and up to 2 h postcondition (0P, 30P, 60P, 90P, 120P). Perceived appetite did not differ between trials (p appetite-related peptides and metabolites. Despite these differential exercise-induced hormone responses, exercise mode appears to have little effect on perceived appetite compared with a resting control in this population.

  1. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körük, Serdar; Öztürk, Abdülkadir; Kara, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and…

  2. Are rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure modified in elderly women undergoing 8 week of strength training of prescribe intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites, Mariana L; Alves, Ragami C; Ferreira, Sandro S; Follador, Lucio; da Silva, Sergio G

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to verify the rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in elderly women, who did normally perform physical exercises, following eight weeks of strength training in a constant routine. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven sedentary women were subjected to anthropometric assessment. The maximum load (100%) for each used in this study was determined by performing a test to determined the 1RM for each of them according to the protocol of Fatouros et al. and the Feeling Scale and RPE scale were explained to the women. After these initial procedures, the subjects followed a routine for strength training, performing three sets of repetitions at 70% of the one-repetition maximum for each exercise (bench press, leg extension, pulldown, leg curl) without modifying the exercises and their execution order. The frequency of training was three days per week. ANOVA was used to analyze the behavior of the dependent variable, and the post hoc tests were used to identify significant differences. [Results] Strength increased only in the fifth week. The rate of perceived exertion showed a reduction only in the fifth week in the leg extension, pulldown, leg curl. [Conclusion] The percentage of 70% the one-repetition maximum recommended to increase the strength gains and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle does not provide feelings of displeasure when performing proposed exercise. However, it may be possible to modulate this percentage to obtain more pleasant feelings over two months.

  3. Analysis of moment structures for assessing relationships among perceived chewing ability, dentition status, muscle strength, and balance in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Shingo; Notani, Kenji; Murata, Ayumi; Inoue, Nobuo; Miura, Hiroko

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relationships among perceived chewing ability, dentition status, muscle strength and balance in community-dwelling older adults using analysis of moment structures (Amos). Physical performance parameters such as muscle strength and balance can predict the future onset of disabilities in activities of daily living among older adults. In this context, elucidation of the relationships among oral conditions and physical performance parameters is necessary. Data on occlusal contact patterns of natural teeth (OPNT), self-assessed masticatory ability (mastication), body mass index (BMI), handgrip strength (HG) and one-leg standing time with eyes open (OLST) were collected from 501 independently living adults aged 65-74 years. The relationships among these parameters were analysed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and Amos. Subjects of both genders showed significant correlations among OPNT, mastication, HG and OLST, evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. For each Amos model, the goodness-of-fit statistic indicated a good level of fit. In both men and women, OPNT was significantly related to mastication, and mastication was related to HG but not to OLST. OPNT was related to neither HG nor OLST in women and was related to OLST but not HG in men. The findings observed in this study present a possible importance of dental status and perceived chewing ability for the onset of disability by influencing physical performance in community-dwelling older adults. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  5. Exploring the Relationship of College Freshmen Honors Students' Effort and Ability Attribution, Interest, and Implicit Theory of Intelligence with Perceived Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del; Da Via Rubenstein, Lisa; Pollard, Elizabeth; Romey, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Although there are several explanations for why one succeeds or fails, effort and ability are the major causes that students report. The purpose of the present study was to measure the perceptions of 149 college freshmen enrolled in a university honors program about their skills in 15 talent areas. In addition, this study explored the relationship…

  6. A Percepção de Esforço no Treinamento de Força Perceived Exertion in Strength Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Leandro Tiggemann

    2010-08-01

    contraditórios os dados apresentados até então pela literatura. Possivelmente, a grande dificuldade destes estudos não está na aplicação da PE em si, mas sim, no isolamento de cada uma das variáveis do TF. Seguindo-se os protocolos similares aos utilizados nos estudos, respeitando o controle das variáveis do TF, parece ser possível a utilização da PE na modulação da intensidade no TF.Perceived exertion (PE is defined by Robertson and Noble(1 as the subjective intensity of effort, strain, discomfort and/or fatigue experienced during both aerobic and resistance exercise. Its application is fairly wide and has as main focus the measurement of physical exertion. The same neuro-physiological pattern, through the integration of feedforward-feedback commands could explain PE(2. Different scales (RPE, CR10, VAS, OMNI were developed and have been applied in studies that investigated different exercises and populations, showing high correlations with important physiological variables. Several studies have been developed, especially in the last decade, in order to verify the PE behavior concerning different variables of the strength training (ST. Regarding the load variable, the results showed that higher loads produce greater PE, even when different volumes or number of repetitions are used, with high and significant correlations between PE and different loads. Maximum efforts (repetition maximum cause a similar PE, regardless of the number of repetitions. Moreover, the higher the load used, the lower the responses variability of the PE among subjects. PE increases according to the number of repetitions performed in the sets for the same load, with no differences in PE being shown between men and women. Further ST variables must be investigated and it is not possible to provide conclusive data on the PE performance when these variables are evaluated. However, the studies presented until the present moment, have indicated that eccentric contractions and higher

  7. Applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring quality of public oral health services as perceived by adult patients in Finland. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, T; Lahti, S; Leino-Kilpi, H

    1999-10-01

    To determine the applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring the quality of public oral health services from the adult client's perspective. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire developed in an earlier study. The study group consisted of all adult (over 18 years of age) clients (n = 256) using public municipal oral health services in Kirkkonummi, Finland, during 2 weeks in 1995. Before treatment, patients filled out a questionnaire that measured the importance of their expectations in different aspects of oral care. After the appointment, they filled out a similar questionnaire that measured the enactment of these expectations in the treatment situation. The response rate was 51%. The difference between subjective importance and enactment of expectations was tested by Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results were interpreted using both a conventional analysis of "expectation enacted or not" and SWOT analysis, which is used in strategic planning to identify areas of strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O) and threats (T) in an organisation. In 28 statements out of 35, the two analyses revealed similar interpretations. In most areas the patient-perceived quality of the services was good. Weaknesses were found in the following areas: communicating to patients the causes and risk of developing oral diseases, informing them about different treatment possibilities, and including patients in decision-making when choosing restorative materials. SWOT analysis provided more structured interpretation of the results, and can be more easily transferred to development of services.

  8. Effortful echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  9. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matthew B; Nix, Carrie M; Greenwood, Lori D; Greenwood, Mike C

    2018-03-01

    Cooke, MB, Nix, C, Greenwood, L, and Greenwood, M. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 736-747, 2018-The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes and weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between 3 recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness, and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15 ± 3.53 years, 75.75 ± 11.91 kg, 180.52 ± 7.3 cm) were randomly matched by V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak (53.86 ± 6.65 ml·kg·min) and assigned to one of 3 recovery methods: anti-gravity treadmill (G-Trainer) (N = 8), conventional treadmill (N = 8) or static stretching (N = 9). Recovery methods were performed 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 45-minute downhill run. Following eccentrically biased running, no significant differences were noted in isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, systemic markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation such as serum creatine kinase (CK), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, and subjective ratings of perceived muscle soreness between recovery methods. The G-Trainer group did however display a higher mood state as indicated by the Profile of Mood State global scores at 24 hours postexercise when compared to the conventional treadmill recovery group (p = 0.035). The improved mood state after the use of the anti-gravity treadmill may provide clinical relevance to other populations.

  10. Interests, Effort, Achievement and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, L.

    1984-01-01

    Relationships between interest in natural sciences and technology and perceived ability, success, and invested effort were studied in Swedish secondary school students. Interests were accounted for by logical orientation and practical value. Interests and grades were strongly correlated, but correlations between interests and effort and vocational…

  11. Perceived knowledge and perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Much discussion in the area of radioactive waste management has centered on the topic of siting waste facilities in the face of public opposition. Waste managers frequently believe that the public perceives risks associated with radioactive waste as much higher than objective risk. Previous research on this topic confirms that waste managers and the public view the risks differently. The scientific literature in this area has been focused on factors that shape risk perception such as how risk perception varies by group and associations among different types of perceived risk. Research in the area of natural hazards and emergency response has focused on how the public obtains information and how that information is interpreted. In addition, much attention has been given to public involvement and public information programs. Critical to each of these research areas is the role of perception of how informed an individual is on a given risk versus how the individual rates a given risk. This paper seeks to do three things: Look at perception of health risk of radioactive waste in the context of other things related to nuclear technology and radioactivity; Investigate the relationship between perceived knowledge and perceived risk; and Determine social and psychological consequences of perceived risk

  12. Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Perceived risk is a function of information, knowledge, values, and perception. This exercise is designed to illustrate that in many situations there is no correct answer, only best-alternative choices. The exercise has five parts in which students work in groups of five. (LZ)

  13. effect of compactive effort on strength indices of laterite treated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Atterberg's limits test, compaction test, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined ... size, highclay content, and the degree to which the soils have been ... in the stabilization of Ikpayongo laterite with cement. However lime which seems to be the conventional ... as soil modification or stabilization, depending on treatment ...

  14. Estimation of inspection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation

  15. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  16. The Development and Validation of the Perceived Academic Underachievement Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kate E.; Adelson, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Academic competence beliefs have been widely studied. However, conceptual and measurement efforts have not yet been directed toward understanding perceived underachievement (feeling that one's accomplishments fall below perceived capability). We conducted two studies in order to develop and examine validity evidence for the Perceived Academic…

  17. Literality and Cognitive Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....

  18. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  19. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  20. Perception of effort in Exercise Science: Definition, measurement and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Perception of effort, also known as perceived exertion or sense of effort, can be described as a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of what is perception of effort in Exercise Science. Due to the addition of sensations other than effort in its definition, the neurophysiology of perceived exertion remains poorly understood. As humans have the ability to dissociate effort from other sensations related to physical exercise, the need to use a narrower definition is emphasised. Consequently, a definition and some brief guidelines for its measurement are provided. Finally, an overview of the models present in the literature aiming to explain its neurophysiology, and some perspectives for future research are offered.

  1. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  2. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  3. The Effort Paradox: Effort Is Both Costly and Valued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; Shenhav, Amitai; Olivola, Christopher Y

    2018-04-01

    According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  5. Goddard Technology Efforts to Improve Space Borne Laser Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, William S.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the risk, perceived and actual, of employing instruments containing space borne lasers NASA initiated the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) in 2001. This program managed jointly by NASA Langley and NASA Goddard and employing lasers researchers from government, university and industrial labs is nearing the conclusion of its planned 5 year duration. This paper will describe some of the efforts and results obtained by the Goddard half of the program.

  6. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  7. Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults׳ recreational walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from cr...

  8. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  9. Similar acute physiological responses from effort and duration matched leg press and recumbent cycling tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Steele

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of exercise utilising traditional resistance training (leg press or ‘cardio’ exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry modalities upon acute physiological responses. Nine healthy males underwent a within session randomised crossover design where they completed both the leg press and recumbent cycle ergometer conditions. Conditions were approximately matched for effort and duration (leg press: 4 × 12RM using a 2 s concentric and 3 s eccentric repetition duration controlled with a metronome, thus each set lasted  60 s; recumbent cycle ergometer: 4 × 60 s bouts using a resistance level permitting 80–100 rpm but culminating with being unable to sustain the minimum cadence for the final 5–10 s. Measurements included VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. Perceived effort was similar between conditions and thus both were well matched with respect to effort. There were no significant effects by ‘condition’ in any of the physiological responses examined (all p > 0.05. The present study shows that, when both effort and duration are matched, resistance training (leg press and ‘cardio’ exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry may produce largely similar responses in VO2, RER, blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that both may offer a similar stimulus to produce chronic physiological adaptations in outcomes such as cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and hypertrophy. Future work should look to both replicate the study conducted here with respect to the same, and additional physiological measures, and rigorously test the comparative efficacy of effort and duration matched exercise of differing modalities with respect to chronic improvements in physiological fitness.

  10. Comparative studies of perceived vibration strength for commercial mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Siak Piang

    2014-05-01

    A mobile phone, also known as cell phone or hand phone, is among the most popular electrical devices used by people all over the world. The present study examines the vibration perception of mobile phones by co-relating the relevant design parameters such as excitation frequency, and size and mass of mobile phones to the vibration perception survey by volunteers. Five popular commercially available mobile phone models were tested. The main findings for the perception surveys were that higher vibration frequency and amplitude of the peak acceleration would result in stronger vibration perception of the mobile phones. A larger contact surface area with the palms and figures, higher peak acceleration and the associated larger peak inertia force may be the main factors for the relatively higher vibration perception. The future design for the vibration alert of the mobile phones is likely to follow this trend. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  12. Perceived justice and recovery satisfaction: the moderating role of customer-perceived quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Subhash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recovery strategies are critical to service providers in their efforts to maintain satisfied and loyal customers. While the existing research shows that recovery satisfaction is a function of customer perception of distributive, procedural and interactional justice, the present study considers an important contextual factor - customer-perceived quality of the service provider in the evaluation of justice dimensions and satisfaction. To test the hypotheses proposed, a survey was carried out in the mobile services context. The findings reveal that customer-perceived quality affects the evaluation of justice dimensions and its outcomes. The findings reveal that while distributive justice enhances recovery satisfaction for low perceived quality services, the procedural justice resulted in greater satisfaction in high perceived quality services. Thus, by understanding the role of customer-perceived quality, service managers can deliver effective recovery strategies thereby enhancing satisfaction and loyalty.

  13. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  14. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  15. Willingness to express emotion depends upon perceiving partner care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Culin, Katherine R; Hirsch, Jennifer L; Clark, Margaret S

    2017-06-01

    Two studies document that people are more willing to express emotions that reveal vulnerabilities to partners when they perceive those partners to be more communally responsive to them. In Study 1, participants rated the communal strength they thought various partners felt toward them and their own willingness to express happiness, sadness and anxiety to each partner. Individuals who generally perceive high communal strength from their partners were also generally most willing to express emotion to partners. Independently, participants were more willing to express emotion to particular partners whom they perceived felt more communal strength toward them. In Study 2, members of romantic couples independently reported their own felt communal strength toward one another, perceptions of their partners' felt communal strength toward them, and willingness to express emotions (happiness, sadness, anxiety, disgust, anger, hurt and guilt) to each other. The communal strength partners reported feeling toward the participants predicted the participants' willingness to express emotion to those partners. This link was mediated by participants' perceptions of the partner's communal strength toward them which, itself, was a joint function of accurate perceptions of the communal strength partners had reported feeling toward them and projections of their own felt communal strength for their partners onto those partners.

  16. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...... populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...

  18. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  19. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  20. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Drews, Christopher; Lantow, Birger

    2018-01-01

    Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation re...

  1. Using Web 2.0 for health promotion and social marketing efforts: lessons learned from Web 2.0 experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Jennifer Allyson; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 experts working in social marketing participated in qualitative in-depth interviews. The research aimed to document the current state of Web 2.0 practice. Perceived strengths (such as the viral nature of Web 2.0) and weaknesses (such as the time consuming effort it took to learn new Web 2.0 platforms) existed when using Web 2.0 platforms for campaigns. Lessons learned were identified--namely, suggestions for engaging in specific types of content creation strategies (such as plain language and transparent communication practices). Findings present originality and value to practitioners working in social marketing who want to effectively use Web 2.0.

  2. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  3. Perceived Accessibility to Services and Sites Among Israeli Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitman-Schorr, Adi; Ayalon, Liat; Khalaila, Rabia

    2017-07-01

    To explore the direct and indirect effects of settlement type (rural-kibbutz vs. urban mid-size cities) on perceived accessibility by sociospatial factors: (a) connection to the living area, (b) familiarity with the living area, (c) social participation, and (d) perceived safety of the living area. A convenience sample of 279 older adults aged 65 and older was interviewed. Using bootstrapping, we tested the strength and significance of the conditional indirect effects of four simultaneous mediators of the relationship between settlement type and perceived accessibility. The relationship between settlement type and perceived accessibility was mediated by social participation and perceived safety of the living area. Policy makers should pay attention to the enhancement of sociospatial dimensions to improve the perceived accessibility of older adults.

  4. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  5. Effects of anger regulation and social anxiety on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mediating role of social anxiety was explored within the effect of anger regulation on perceived stress in the national sample of American and Japanese older adults. Results indicated that anger suppression is a significant factor in perceived stress mediated by social anxiety. Anger suppression was also directly related to perceived stress. The correlation of anger suppression with social anxiety was stronger in Japan than in the United States. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation and perceived stress will be essential for the development of sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts.

  6. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  7. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  8. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  9. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Drews

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation regarding the technical aspects of BPMS migration. The framework provides questions for BPMS comparison and an effort evaluation schema. The applicability of the framework is evaluated based on a simplified BPMS migration scenario.

  10. Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Rob M A; de Vet, Emely; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels depended on the perceived proximity to the goal. Participants with weight-loss intentions were randomly selected from an Internet panel and completed questionnaires at three points in time, baseline (T1; N= 725), 2 weeks later at T2 (N= 582) and again 2 months later at T3 (N= 528). Questionnaires assessed anticipated emotions (at T1) and experienced emotions (at T2) towards goal attainment and non-attainment. Goal proximity, goal desirability, and effort levels in striving for weight loss were assessed at both T1 and T2. Current and target weights were reported at all three assessments. In line with predictions, we found that negative anticipated emotions towards goal non-attainment resulted in increased effort but only if people perceived themselves in close proximity to their goal. Effort, in turn, predicted weight loss and goal achievement. The current data bear important practical implications as they identify anticipated emotions as targets of behaviour change interventions aimed to stimulate effort in striving for broad, health-related goals like weight loss. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  12. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  13. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  14. Have the Guests Perceived Superior Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levyda Levyda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe guests’ perceived value by using a multidimensional approach. From previous research, guests’ perceived value consisted of some functional value, emotional value, and social value. Based on guest experience, and functional value consisted of physical evidence, guest room, food and beverage, hotel staff, and price. This research was conducted in four-star hotels in Jakarta. The respondents were the guests who had stayed in four-star hotels. The number of the respondent was 405. The data were obtained by using self-administered questionnaires. This research shows that guests have not perceived superior value. Some of the values and the necessary efforts need to be improved.

  15. Influence of control and physical effort on cardiovascular reactivity to a video game task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Suzanne E; Quigley, Karen S; Mordkoff, J Toby

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated the influences of both perceived control and physical effort on cardiovascular reactivity. Undergraduates (N = 32) played a video game task interrupted by aversive noise. Perceived control of the noise was manipulated by instructions indicating the presence or absence of a contingency between performance and noise presentations. Physical effort was manipulated by controlling the physical force required to perform the task. There was a significant main effect of control on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR), with both increasing more during low than high control conditions. The results suggest that high perceived control over aversive noise in an effortful task reduces SBP and TPR reactivity relative to low perceived control. The results are consistent with the idea that control buffers the reactivity associated with task performance under aversive conditions.

  16. The effect of recovery time on strength performance following a high-intensity bench press workout in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Burke, Jeanmarie R

    2010-06-01

    To determine the effects of training sessions, involving high-resistance, low-repetition bench press exercise, on strength recovery patterns, as a function of gender and training background. The subjects were 12 athletes (6 males and 6 females) and age-matched college students of both genders (4 males and 4 females). The subjects completed a 3-wk resistance training program involving a bench press exercise, 3 d/wk, to become familiar with the testing procedure. After the completion of the resistance training program, the subjects, on three consecutive weeks, participated in two testing sessions per week, baseline session and recovery session. During the testing sessions, subjects performed five sets of the bench press exercise at 50% to 100% of perceived five repetition maximum (5-RM). Following the weekly baseline sessions, subjects rested during a 4-, 24-, or 48-h recovery period. Strength measurements were estimates of one repetition maximum (1-RM), using equivalent percentages for the number of repetitions completed by the subject at the perceived 5-RM effort of the bench press exercise. The full-factorial ANOVA model revealed a Gender by Recovery Period by Testing Session interaction effect, F(2, 32) = 10.65; P bench press exercises, using different recovery times of 48 h for males and 4 h for females may optimize strength development as a function of gender.

  17. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  18. rganizational features as situational strength: engaging the low-conscientious employee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milam, A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most robust findings in work psychology is the role that conscientiousness plays in performance; more recently, research indicates that conscientious employees are also the most engaged in their work. The present study examines whether the organization has any role in this relation, and if it is possible for individuals who are low in conscientiousness to also feel high levels of engagement. One hundred forty-one full-time Romanian workers and their peers, representing a variety of industries, were surveyed, revealing that features of the organization can actually attenuate the relation between conscientiousness and engagement. Specifically, when employees perceive that the organization is relatively formalized (i.e., where following rules is important, and in organizations where there is a perception that effort is rewarded, conscientiousness is not as strongly associated with engagement. These organizational features represent situational strength, and when situations are strong, scripts and rules tend to predict behavior, rather than personality. As such, it may be possible for low-conscientiousness individuals to actually become more engaged through organizational change. For those who are low in conscientiousness, for example, a formal work environment likely provides structure and decreases ambiguity, which aids in lower conscientious employees becoming more engaged. Similarly, when it is perceived that the organization rewards effort, those who are low in conscientiousness receive this reinforcement, and likely benefit the most, as their levels of engagement tend to approach those who are higher in conscientiousness.

  19. Regularization in global sound equalization based on effort variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, John; Jacobsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    . Effort variation equalization involves modifying the conventional cost function in sound equalization, which is based on minimizing least-squares reproduction errors, by adding a term that is proportional to the squared deviations between complex source strengths, calculated independently for the sources......Sound equalization in closed spaces can be significantly improved by generating propagating waves that are naturally associated with the geometry, as, for example, plane waves in rectangular enclosures. This paper presents a control approach termed effort variation regularization based on this idea...

  20. Launch Effort and NPD Success: A Study of Technology Intensive Companies in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Matti J. Haverila; Nicholas Ashill

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exploratory investigation of the types of product launch tactics managers use in technology-intensive companies in Finland and explore the role that such tactics play in differentiating between successful and unsuccessful NPD outcomes. Our findings indicate that managers perceive two types of tactical product launch tactics during the NPD process, which we label "promotions and sales-distribution effort" and "production start-up effort". All tactical launch effort...

  1. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA

  2. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  3. Effects of Perceived Trust and Perceived Price on Customers’ Intention to Buy in Online Store in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Setiawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Price and trust are important factors that influence customer purchasing decision in online shopping. However, the synergy of these two factors in customer intention to buy still needs to get higher attention. This paper examines the relative influence of perceived trust and perceived price on customers intention to buy, both for customers who have bought item from the store (repeat customers and who have not (potential customers, and examines whether a difference exists on the strength of influence of price and trust to purchase intention in those groups. Data are analyzed with the multiple group analysis structural equation modeling, comparing the repeat customers and potential customers. The results of this paper reveal that there is no significant difference of effect between perceived trust and perceived price on intention to buy between potential and repeat customers and that perceived trust exerts a stronger effect than perceived price on purchase intentions for both potential and repeat customers of an online vendor. This paper also reveals that while perceived trust exerts a positive influence, perceived price exerts a negative influence on both perceived value and intention to buy.

  4. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  5. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  6. A review of the strength properties of dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondrum, S O

    1992-06-01

    New ceramic materials for restorative dentistry have been developed and introduced in recent years. This article reviews advantages and disadvantages of dental ceramics, concentrating on strength properties. Included are factors affecting the strength of dental ceramic materials and the most common mechanisms for increasing the strength of dental ceramics. The properties of presently available materials such as dispersion-strengthened ceramics, cast ceramics, and foil-reinforced materials are discussed. Current research efforts to improve the fracture resistance of ceramic restorative materials are reviewed. A description of methods to evaluate the strength of ceramics is included, as a caution concerning the interpretation of strength data reported in the literature.

  7. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  8. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    -and-death decision-making in the patient's medical records is required. We suggest that a template be implemented in the prehospital medical records describing the basis for any ethical decisions. This template should contain information regarding the persons involved in the deliberations and notes on ethical......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  9. Cognitive capacity limitations and Need for Cognition differentially predict reward-induced cognitive effort expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Dasha A; Otto, A Ross

    2018-03-01

    While psychological, economic, and neuroscientific accounts of behavior broadly maintain that people minimize expenditure of cognitive effort, empirical work reveals how reward incentives can mobilize increased cognitive effort expenditure. Recent theories posit that the decision to expend effort is governed, in part, by a cost-benefit tradeoff whereby the potential benefits of mental effort can offset the perceived costs of effort exertion. Taking an individual differences approach, the present study examined whether one's executive function capacity, as measured by Stroop interference, predicts the extent to which reward incentives reduce switch costs in a task-switching paradigm, which indexes additional expenditure of cognitive effort. In accordance with the predictions of a cost-benefit account of effort, we found that a low executive function capacity-and, relatedly, a low intrinsic motivation to expend effort (measured by Need for Cognition)-predicted larger increase in cognitive effort expenditure in response to monetary reward incentives, while individuals with greater executive function capacity-and greater intrinsic motivation to expend effort-were less responsive to reward incentives. These findings suggest that an individual's cost-benefit tradeoff is constrained by the perceived costs of exerting cognitive effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Communal Relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to determine whether self-esteem, perceived control and communal relationship strength would predict emotional distress in Nigerian university students. 148 students from a Christian university and 158 students from a Secular university responded to measures of the variables listed above.

  11. Perceived Supervisor's Support and Job Insecurity as Predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organisational stability is central to the strength of human development and organizational effectiveness which enables sustainable nation's development amidst global competitiveness. Hence this study examined perceived supervisor's support and job insecurity as predictors of employee anxiety. The study participants ...

  12. Dissociating variability and effort as determinants of coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O'Sullivan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When coordinating movements, the nervous system often has to decide how to distribute work across a number of redundant effectors. Here, we show that humans solve this problem by trying to minimize both the variability of motor output and the effort involved. In previous studies that investigated the temporal shape of movements, these two selective pressures, despite having very different theoretical implications, could not be distinguished; because noise in the motor system increases with the motor commands, minimization of effort or variability leads to very similar predictions. When multiple effectors with different noise and effort characteristics have to be combined, however, these two cost terms can be dissociated. Here, we measure the importance of variability and effort in coordination by studying how humans share force production between two fingers. To capture variability, we identified the coefficient of variation of the index and little fingers. For effort, we used the sum of squared forces and the sum of squared forces normalized by the maximum strength of each effector. These terms were then used to predict the optimal force distribution for a task in which participants had to produce a target total force of 4-16 N, by pressing onto two isometric transducers using different combinations of fingers. By comparing the predicted distribution across fingers to the actual distribution chosen by participants, we were able to estimate the relative importance of variability and effort of 1:7, with the unnormalized effort being most important. Our results indicate that the nervous system uses multi-effector redundancy to minimize both the variability of the produced output and effort, although effort costs clearly outweighed variability costs.

  13. Risk Aversion and Effort in an Incentive Pay Scheme with Multiplicative Noise: Theory and Experimental Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.V. Zubanov (Nick)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe application of the classical "linear" model of incentive pay to the case when the noise is multiplicative to effort generates two predictions for a given strength of incentives: 1) more risk-averse workers will put in less effort, and 2) setting a performance target will weaken the

  14. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  15. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  16. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  17. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  18. The effect of sleep loss on next day effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna

    2003-06-01

    The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding.

  19. Acoustic correlate of vocal effort in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Tanya L; Stepp, Cara E

    2013-03-01

    This study characterized the relationship between relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and listeners' perceptions of vocal effort and overall spasmodic dysphonia severity in the voices of 19 individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Twenty inexperienced listeners evaluated the vocal effort and overall severity of voices using visual analog scales. The squared correlation coefficients (R2) between average vocal effort and overall severity and RFF measures were calculated as a function of the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF estimate (from 1 to 9, of a total of 9 voiced-voiceless-voiced instances). Increases in the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF average led to increases in the variance predicted by the RFF at the first cycle of voicing onset (onset RFF) in the perceptual measures; the use of 6 or more instances resulted in a stable estimate. The variance predicted by the onset RFF for vocal effort (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.43) was higher than that for overall severity (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.35). The offset RFF was not related to the perceptual measures, irrespective of the sample size. This study indicates that onset RFF measures are related to perceived vocal effort in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. These results have implications for measuring outcomes in this population.

  20. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

    2012-03-01

    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  2. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  3. ALARA efforts in nordic BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Lundgren, K.; Elkert, J. [ABB Atom, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Some ALARA-related ABB Atom projects are currently under investigation. One of the projects has been ordered by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, and two others by the Nordic BWR utilities. The ultimate objective of the projects is to identify and develop methods to significantly decrease the future exposure levels in the Nordic BWRS. As 85% to 90% of the gamma radiation field in the Nordic BWRs originates from Co-60, the only way to significantly decrease the radiation doses is to effect Co and Co-60. The strategy to do this is to map the Co sources and estimate the source strength of Co from these sources, and to study the possibility to affect the release of Co-60 from the core surfaces and the uptake on system surfaces. Preliminary results indicate that corrosion/erosion of a relatively small number of Stellite-coated valves and/or dust from grinding of Stellite valves may significantly contribute to the Co input to the reactors. This can be seen from a high measured Co/Ni ratio in the feedwater and in the reactor water. If stainless steel is the only source of Co, the Co/Ni ratio would be less than 0.02 as the Co content in the steel is less than 0.2%. The Co/Ni ratio in the reactor water, however, is higher than 0.1, indicating that the major fraction of the Co originates from Stellite-coated valves. There are also other possible explanations for an increase of the radiation fields. The Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces increases approximately as the square of the burn-up level. If the burn-up is increased from 35 to 5 MWd/kgU, the Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces will be doubled. Also the effect on the behavior of Co-60 of different water chemistry and materials conditions is being investigated. Examples of areas studied are Fe and Zn injection, pH-control, and different forms of surface pre-treatments.

  4. Perceived Possibility of Disclosure and Ethical Decision Making in an Information Technology Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolhari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, substantial research studies have been conducted in the field of ethical decision making in many disciplines. However, ethical efforts in the context of information technology have been limited. In this research, a focus has been put on modeling ethical decision making in cyberspace with emphasis on business intelligence scenarios. The model is comprised of six exogenous and two endogenous constructs, among them seven were delicately selected from valid and empirically tested ethical models and the eighth one is developed by the authors. After pre-testing the model by experts, reliability, convergent and discriminant validities were approved. Data were collected from 188 IT personnel in the banking industry of Iran. Results revealed that the perceived importance of an IT ethical issue, ethical judgment, ethical obligation, perceived possibility of disclosure, ego strength, and locus of control directly impact ethical intention. However, no impact from law on ethical obligation and codes of ethics on ethical intention was observed. As shown, a higher possibility on acting unethically occurs when the person feels confident that his/her actions will go unnoticed.

  5. The role of cognitive effort in subjective reward devaluation and risky decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Matthew A J; Grima, Laura L; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-11-20

    Motivation is underpinned by cost-benefit valuations where costs-such as physical effort or outcome risk-are subjectively weighed against available rewards. However, in many environments risks pertain not to the variance of outcomes, but to variance in the possible levels of effort required to obtain rewards (effort risks). Moreover, motivation is often guided by the extent to which cognitive-not physical-effort devalues rewards (effort discounting). Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the influence of cognitive effort risks or discounting on motivation. We used two cost-benefit decision-making tasks to probe subjective sensitivity to cognitive effort (number of shifts of spatial attention) and to effort risks. Our results show that shifts of spatial attention when monitoring rapidly presented visual stimuli are perceived as effortful and devalue rewards. Additionally, most people are risk-averse, preferring safe, known amounts of effort over risky offers. However, there was no correlation between their effort and risk sensitivity. We show for the first time that people are averse to variance in the possible amount of cognitive effort to be exerted. These results suggest that cognitive effort sensitivity and risk sensitivity are underpinned by distinct psychological and neurobiological mechanisms.

  6. Perceived sexism as a health determinant in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Gil-González, Diana; Pérez, Glòria; Rohlfs, Izabella; Pérez, Katherine

    2010-04-01

    The goals of the present study are to explore the association between perceived sexism and self-perceived health, health-related behaviors, and unmet medical care needs among women in Spain; to analyze whether higher levels of discrimination are associated with higher prevalence of poor health indicators and to examine whether these relationships are modified by country of origin and social class. The study is based on a cross-sectional design using data from the 2006 Spanish Health Interview Survey. We included women aged 20-64 years (n = 10,927). Six dependent variables were examined: four of health (self-perceived health, mental health, hypertension, and having had an injury during the previous year), one health behavior (smoking), and another related to the use of the health services (unmet need for medical care). Perceived sexism was the main independent variable. Social class and country of origin were considered as effect modifiers. We obtained the prevalence of perceived sexism. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were fitted to study the association between sexism and poor health outcomes. The prevalence of perceived sexism was 3.4%. Perceived sexism showed positive and consistent associations with four poor health outcomes (poor self-perceived health, poor mental health, injuries in the last 12 months, and smoking). The strength of these associations increased with increased scores for perceived sexism, and the patterns were found to be modified by country of origin and social class. This study shows a consistent association between perceived sexism and poor health outcomes in a country of southern Europe with a strong patriarchal tradition.

  7. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  8. Cognitive Load and Listening Effort: Concepts and Age-Related Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Ulrike; Besser, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort has been recognized as an important dimension of everyday listening, especially with regard to the comprehension of spoken language. At constant levels of comprehension performance, the level of effort exerted and perceived during listening can differ considerably across listeners and situations. In this article, listening effort is used as an umbrella term for two different types of effort that can arise during listening. One of these types is processing effort, which is used to denote the utilization of "extra" mental processing resources in listening conditions that are adverse for an individual. A conceptual description is introduced how processing effort could be defined in terms of situational influences, the listener's auditory and cognitive resources, and the listener's personal state. Also, the proposed relationship between processing effort and subjectively perceived listening effort is discussed. Notably, previous research has shown that the availability of mental resources, as well as the ability to use them efficiently, changes over the course of adult aging. These common age-related changes in cognitive abilities and their neurocognitive organization are discussed in the context of the presented concept, especially regarding situations in which listening effort may be increased for older people.

  9. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  10. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  11. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice Dan Perceived Value Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Saputro, Daniel Krisno

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh dari Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice dan Perceived Value terhadap Customer Satisfaction di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya. Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice dan perceived value. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan menyebarkan kuesioner kepada 100 orang konsumen di Informa Pakuwon City. Alat analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa regresi linear berganda.Hasil d...

  12. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice, Perceived Value, Dan Price Fairness Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap

    OpenAIRE

    Rifqi, Viola Amdya; Endratno, Hermin

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruh perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness terhadap customer satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap. Dimana variabel independen dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness, sedangkan variabel dependen dalam penelitian ini adalah customer satisfaction.Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan uji v...

  13. Customer perceived value—Conceptualization and avenues for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zauner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the present dynamic consumption environment due to technological innovations as well as interlinked economic developments on the macro-, micro-, and societal-level, researchers and managers have been increasingly showing interest in the concept of customer perceived value. However, especially given its vast empirical application, surprisingly little effort has been paid to synthesize various perspectives on the dimensionality, abstraction, and model taxonomy of customer perceived value. Therefore, based on a comprehensive literature review, this article identifies the predominant conceptualization of customer perceived value, thus also providing a sound basis for future empirical assessments of this concept, and discusses avenues for future research. In addition to contributing to research, this study also contributes to practice by comprehensively positioning customer perceived value as a key source of competitive advantage in the context of relationship marketing, management, and business models.

  14. The Death Penalty: Pancasila, with Efforts to Eradicated Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    R., Anggun Ariena; Ky, Ade Oktariatas

    2015-01-01

    The rise of drugs criminal in Indonesia at this time, making Indonesia would be drugs emergency. Drugs is an extraordinary crime and need special attention in the eradication effort. Therefore it takes great strength to use legal action heaviest where Indonesia has a death penalty sentence. The purpose of the death penalty is to give hard effect for drugs criminal and as warning for the others. The reality of the death penalty in Indonesia shows the operation of the judicial system is not go...

  15. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  16. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among US Latinos: the modifying role of educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julia B; Feinstein, Lydia; Vines, Anissa I; Robinson, Whitney R; Haan, Mary N; Aiello, Allison E

    2017-04-12

    Despite growing evidence that discrimination may contribute to poor mental health, few studies have assessed this association among US Latinos. Furthermore, the interaction between discrimination and educational attainment in shaping Latino mental health is virtually unexplored. This study aims to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms and the modifying role of education among a population of Mexican-origin adults. We utilized population-based data from 629 Mexican-origin adults (mean age = 52.8 years) participating the Niños Lifestyle and Diabetes Study (2013-2014). Perceived discrimination was defined as responding 'sometimes' or 'often' to at least one item on the 9-item Everyday Discrimination Scale. High depressive symptoms were defined as scoring ≥10 on the CESD-10. We used log-binomial and linear-binomial models to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and prevalence differences (PD), respectively, of high depressive symptoms for levels of perceived discrimination. Final models were adjusted for age, sex, education, cultural orientation, and nativity. General estimating equations were employed to account for within-family clustering. Prevalence of perceived discrimination and high depressive symptoms were 49.5% and 29.2%, respectively. Participants experiencing discrimination had higher depressive symptom prevalence than those never or rarely experiencing discrimination [PR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46-2.58; PD = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.12-0.27]. The strength of this association varied by education level. The association between discrimination and depressive symptoms was stronger among those with >12 years of education (PR = 2.69; PD = 0.24) compared to those with ≤12 years of education (PR = 1.36; PD = 0.09). US Latinos suffer a high burden of depressive symptoms, and discrimination may be an important driver of this burden. Our results suggest that effortful coping strategies, such

  17. What characterizes persons with high levels of perceived stress in Denmark? A national representative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Curtis, Tine; Kristensen, Tage S

    2008-01-01

    perceived stress is characterized by individual and neighbourhood factors with negative impacts on quality of life and risk of illness. This knowledge can guide future stress prevention efforts. Additionally, the results suggest a negative social component where perceived stress, unhealthy lifestyle and low...

  18. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  19. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  20. Exploring the Identity-Theft Prevention Efforts of Consumers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jacquelyne L.

    2011-01-01

    Identity theft is quite expensive and devastating for victims; unfortunately, it is also a rapidly growing crime. Much of the prior research on identity theft has focused on legislative efforts that may prevent the crime. However, limited research exists on what consumers perceive as identity prevention and the measures they take to prevent…

  1. Pengaruh Perceived Quality dan Perceived Value terhadap Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Stella Meiliana; Kurniawati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perceived quality dan perceived valueterhadap purchase intention. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dataprimer.Data dikumpulkan langsung melalui penyebaran kuisioner kepada 160responden.Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakanpurposive sampling.Uji instrumen data menggunakan validitas dan reliabilitas.Uji hipotesismenggunakan Structure Equation Model (SEM).Hasil pengujian hipotesa menunjukkanterda...

  2. Perceived Threat and Perceived Neglect: Couples' Underlying Concerns during Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. "Perceived threat" involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. "Perceived neglect" involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or…

  3. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  4. The benefits of personal strengths in mental health of stressed students: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    This study used a two-wave longitudinal research design to explore the role of individual strengths, including interpersonal strength, intellectual strength, and temperance strength, in affecting the mental health of stressed college students. A total of 404 stressed Chinese college students were screened to participate in this 12-month longitudinal study. At the beginning of the study (Time 1), students who had not experienced stressful events within the last 12 months were invited to assess their strengths, psychological well-being, and psychological symptoms. After 12 months (Time 2), 404 students who reported stressful experiences completed the scales again and were retained for the final analyses. Academics-related stressors were the most endorsed life events among college students, whose states of mental health showed downward trends from Time 1 to Time 2. Three strengths had weak to modest correlations to mental health at both Time 1 and Time 2. Although the additional variances of mental health explained by the three strengths were very modest, the mediational roles of the strengths were identified. The perceived stress completely mediated the relationship between the strengths and the psychological symptoms and partly mediated the relationship between the strengths and psychological well-being. Individual strengths may function as a defense against perceived stress and are protective factors of mental health. These strengths maintain mental health by enhancing the psychological well-being and reducing the psychological symptoms of individuals.

  5. The heritability of perceived stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federenko, I.S.; Schlotz, W.; Kirschbaum, C.; Bartels, M.; Hellhammer, D.H.; Wüst, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Exploration of the degree to which perceived chronic stress is heritable is important as these self-reports have been linked to stress-related health outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate whether perceived stress is a heritable condition and to assess whether heritability

  6. Pocket money and child effort at school

    OpenAIRE

    François-Charles Wolff; Christine Barnet-Verzat

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the provision of parental pocket and the level of effort undertaken by the child at school. Under altruism, an increased amount of parental transfer should reduce the child's effort. Our empirical analysis is based on a French data set including about 1,400 parent-child pairs. We find that children do not undertake less effort when their parents are more generous.

  7. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    , and self-rated heath) and self-perceived fracture risk. Although women recognized the importance of some fracture risk factors, a number of significant risk factors appeared to be less well known. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to investigate women's self-perceived fracture risk and potential...... factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self...... their fracture risk significantly higher than their peers. No correlation between self-perceived risk and absolute risk was found. The ordered logistic regression model showed a significant association between high self-perceived fracture risk and previous fragility fracture, parental hip fracture, falls, self...

  8. Incentive Design and Mis-Allocated Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Schnedler, Wendelin

    2013-01-01

    Incentives often distort behavior: they induce agents to exert effort but this effort is not employed optimally. This paper proposes a theory of incentive design allowing for such distorted behavior. At the heart of the theory is a trade-off between getting the agent to exert effort and ensuring that this effort is used well. The theory covers various moral-hazard models, ranging from traditional single-task to multi-task models. It also provides -for the first time- a formalization and proof...

  9. Intention to Use Smartphone Through Perceived Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harries Arizonia Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test the influence of perceived compatibility perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use smartphone using five hypotheses. Purposive sampling was used as the technique of sample collection. There are representative samples that are 92 respondents, consists of lecturers, students, and employees from AKI University in Semarang city. The data had been analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and it was processed using AMOS program version 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence on perceived compatibility toward perceived usefulness, perceived compatibility toward perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use toward perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use toward intention to use. However, perceived usefulness toward intention to use is not significant. It can be caused that reason of owning smartphones is only a prestige and the users do not understand benefit of it’s features.Tujuan penelitian ini menguji pengaruh persepsi kesesuaian, persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kemudahan dan minat penggunaan smartphone. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 92 responden yang terdiri dari dosen, mahasiswa dan karyawan universitas AKI di kota Semarang. Data dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dan diolah dengan program AMOS versi 16.0. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan pengaruh positif dan signifikan pada persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemudahan penggunaan, persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan dan persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap minat penggunaan. Namun demikian, pengaruh persepsi kemanfaatan terhadap minat penggunaan hasil dinyatakan tidak signifikan. Hal ini dikarenakan responden hanya menggunakan smartphones untuk prestis.JEL Classification: M3, M31

  10. Elastic Resistance Effectiveness on Increasing Strength of Shoulders and Hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picha, Kelsey J; Almaddah, Muataz R; Barker, Jordan; Ciochetty, Tavis; Black, W Scott; Uhl, Tim L

    2017-09-12

    Elastic resistance is a common training method used to gain strength. Currently, progression with elastic resistance is based on the perceived exertion of the exercise or completion of targeted repetitions; exact resistance is typically unknown. This study's objective is to determine if knowledge of load during elastic resistance exercise will increase strength gains during exercises. Participants were randomized into two strength training groups, elastic resistance only and elastic resistance using a load cell (LC) that displays force during exercise. The LC group used a Smart Handle (Patterson Medical Supply, Chicago, IL) to complete all exercises. Each participant completed the same exercises three times weekly for 8 weeks. The LC group was provided with a set load for exercises whereas the elastic resistance only group was not. Participant's strength was tested at baseline and program completion, measuring isometric strength for shoulder abduction (SAb), shoulder external rotation (SER), hip abduction (HAb), and hip extension (HEx). Independent t-tests were used to compare the normalized torques between groups. No significant differences were found between groups. Shoulder strength gains did not differ between groups (SAb p>0.05; SER p>0.05). Hip strength gains did not differ between groups (HAb p>0.05; HEx p>0.05). Both groups increased strength due to individual supervision, constantly evaluating degree of difficulty associated with exercise and providing feedback while using elastic resistance. Using a LC is as effective as supervised training and could provide value in a clinic setting when patients are working unsupervised.

  11. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  12. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  13. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  14. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  15. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  16. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  17. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  18. Mindfulness training affects attention—Or is it attentional effort?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Frøkjær, Vibe Gedsø

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress...... reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls......, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of MBSR, NMSR...

  19. Hearing Handicap and Speech Recognition Correlate With Self-Reported Listening Effort and Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanbali, Sara; Dawes, Piers; Lloyd, Simon; Munro, Kevin J

    To investigate the correlations between hearing handicap, speech recognition, listening effort, and fatigue. Eighty-four adults with hearing loss (65 to 85 years) completed three self-report questionnaires: the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Effort Assessment Scale, and the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly. Audiometric assessment included pure-tone audiometry and speech recognition in noise. There was a significant positive correlation between handicap and fatigue (r = 0.39, p speech recognition and fatigue (r = 0.22, p speech recognition both correlate with self-reported listening effort and fatigue, which is consistent with a model of listening effort and fatigue where perceived difficulty is related to sustained effort and fatigue for unrewarding tasks over which the listener has low control. A clinical implication is that encouraging clients to recognize and focus on the pleasure and positive experiences of listening may result in greater satisfaction and benefit from hearing aid use.

  20. Perceived overprotection: support gone bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R; Reinhardt, Joann P; Horowitz, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of perceived overprotection, a potentially problematic aspect of receiving support, on the ability to adjust to a chronic impairment, specifically, age-related vision loss. Perceived overprotection is an especially critical issue in this population of chronically ill older adults because of the safety issues associated with vision impairment and because perceptions on the part of the older adult that the support providers are overprotective may lead to excess disability. Participants were 584 older men and women with age-related vision impairment who applied for services at a vision rehabilitation agency. Path analysis was used to examine the effects of perceived overprotection on two positive indicators of adjustment: vision-specific adaptation and environmental mastery. Moreover, antecedents of perceived overprotection were examined. Higher levels of perceived overprotection were associated with less optimal adjustment to age-related vision loss, with lower scores on measures of vision-specific adaptation and environmental mastery. Higher levels of functional disability and instrumental support received were associated with higher levels of perceived overprotection. Findings indicate that support providers of older adults with visual impairment as well as vision rehabilitation service providers need to be aware of the detrimental impact of perceived overprotection.

  1. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

    2012-06-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  2. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  3. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  4. Visual cues and listening effort: individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.

  5. Perceived intimacy of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, A; Conway, M

    1990-08-01

    Research on norms for emotional expression and self-disclosure provided the basis for two hypotheses concerning the perceived intimacy of emotional self-disclosure. The first hypothesis was that the perceived intimacy of negative emotional disclosure would be greater than that of positive emotional disclosure; the second was that disclosures of more intense emotional states would be perceived as more intimate than disclosures of less intense emotional states for both negative and positive disclosures. Both hypotheses received support when male students in Canada rated the perceived intimacy of self-disclosures that were equated for topic and that covered a comprehensive sample of emotions and a range of emotional intensities. The effects were observed across all the topics of disclosure examined.

  6. Neuroanatomical correlates of perceived usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vi, Chi Thanh; Hornbæk, Kasper; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-01-01

    Usability has a distinct subjective component, yet surprisingly little is known about its neural basis and relation to the neuroanatomy of aesthetics. To begin closing this gap, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in which participants were shown static webpages (in...... the first study) and videos of interaction with webpages (in the second study). The webpages were controlled so as to exhibit high and low levels of perceived usability and perceived aesthetics. Our results show unique links between perceived usability and brain areas involved in functions such as emotional...... processing (left fusiform gyrus, superior frontal gyrus), anticipation of physical interaction (precentral gyrus), task intention (anterior cingulate cortex), and linguistic processing (medial and bilateral superior frontal gyri). We use these findings to discuss the brain correlates of perceived usability...

  7. Relationships between recall of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration in a judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Salvador, A; González-Bono, E G; Sanchís, C; Suay, F

    2001-06-01

    Relationships between perceived exertion and blood lactate have usually been studied in laboratory or training contexts but not in competition, the most important setting in which sports performance is evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and physiological indices of the physical effort in a competition setting, taking into account the duration of effort. For this, we employed two Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE and CR-10) and lactic acid plasma concentration as a biological marker of the effort performed. 13 male judo fighters who participated in a sports club competition provided capillary blood samples to assay lactate concentrations and indicated on scale their Recall of Perceived Exertion in the total competition and again in just the Last Fight to compare the usefulness of RPE and CR-10 in assessing discrete bouts of effort and a whole session. Analysis showed that perceived exertion or the effort made during the whole competition was positively and significantly related to maximal lactate concentration and lactate increase in competition, thus extending the validity of this scale to sports contests. The Recall of Perceived Exertion scores were not significantly correlated with the duration of effort.

  8. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  9. Perceived versus Actual Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Langemeier, Michael R.; Yeager, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between farm characteristics and perceived sources of competitive advantage, and cost-based and revenue-based efficiency indices. Gross farm income and the percentage of labor devoted to crop production were significant and positively correlated with cost and revenue efficiency while the perception of the cowherd being the most important part of the operation was negatively correlated with efficiency. In general, perceived sources of competitive advantage ...

  10. Perceived parental efficacy: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a concept analysis carried out to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of perceived parental efficacy and to distinguish it from related concepts such as parental confidence and parental competence. Constructing parental efficacy is a crucial step for family members after the birth of their first child. For some authors, perceived parental efficacy is a motor for adequate parental practices. Confusion about the definition and measurement of this concept has hindered both psychology and nursing practice and research. Concept delineation and concept clarification are required in order to further the development of the concept of perceived parental efficacy. A literature search using a variety of online databases yielded 113 articles between the years 1980 and 2000. The final sample (n=60) consisted of 30 articles from two disciplines: nursing and psychology. A content analysis of the literature was done using Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis method. Content analysis of the literature yielded four contributors to perceived parental efficacy: positive enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and an appropriate physiological and affective state. Perceived parental efficacy can thus be defined as 'beliefs or judgements a parent holds of their capabilities to organize and execute a set of tasks related to parenting a child'. This conceptual analysis has allowed perceived parental efficacy to be distinguished from parental confidence and parental competence. Both nursing and psychology research, practice and education will benefit from a more precise and delineated concept.

  11. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  12. Software project effort estimation foundations and best practice guidelines for success

    CERN Document Server

    Trendowicz, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Software effort estimation is one of the oldest and most important problems in software project management, and thus today there are a large number of models, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses in general, and even more importantly, in relation to the environment and context in which it is to be applied.Trendowicz and Jeffery present a comprehensive look at the principles of software effort estimation and support software practitioners in systematically selecting and applying the most suitable effort estimation approach. Their book not only presents what approach to take and how

  13. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  14. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  15. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  16. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  17. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  18. Vena Cava Responsiveness to Controlled Isovolumetric Respiratory Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Anna; Benzo, Marco; Pasquero, Paolo; Laguzzi, Andrea; Mesin, Luca; Messere, Alessandro; Porta, Massimo; Roatta, Silvestro

    2017-10-01

    Respirophasic variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) size is affected by large variability with spontaneous breathing. This study aims at characterizing the dependence of IVC size on controlled changes in intrathoracic pressure. Ten healthy subjects, in supine position, performed controlled isovolumetric respiratory efforts at functional residual capacity, attaining positive (5, 10, and 15 mmHg) and negative (-5, -10, and -15 mmHg) alveolar pressure levels. The isovolumetric constraint implies that equivalent changes are exhibited by alveolar and intrathoracic pressures during respiratory tasks. The IVC cross-sectional area equal to 2.88 ± 0.43 cm 2 at baseline (alveolar pressure = 0 mmHg) was progressively decreased by both expiratory and inspiratory efforts of increasing strength, with diaphragmatic efforts producing larger effects than thoracic ones: -55 ± 15% decrease, at +15 mmHg of alveolar pressure (P < .01), -80 ± 33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg diaphragmatic (P < .01), -33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg thoracic. Significant IVC changes in size (P < .01) and pulsatility (P < .05), along with non significant reduction in the response to respiratory efforts, were also observed during the first 30 minutes of supine rest, detecting an increase in vascular filling, and taking place after switching from the standing to the supine position. This study quantified the dependence of the IVC cross-sectional area on controlled intrathoracic pressure changes and evidenced the stronger influence of diaphragmatic over thoracic activity. Individual variability in thoracic/diaphragmatic respiratory pattern should be considered in the interpretation of the respirophasic modulations of IVC size. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Perceived threat and perceived neglect: Couples' underlying concerns during conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-06-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. Perceived threat involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. Perceived neglect involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or investments. Scales measuring these 2 underlying concerns were developed in Study 1, where a sample of 1,224 married people rated a pool of 57 words describing oneself and perceptions of a partner during a specific episode of conflict. Factor analysis identified 2 dimensions, and 2 brief 8-item scales were created. In Study 2, a sample of 2,315 married people completed the resulting 16-item inventory along with 10 self-report scales measuring types of emotion, cognition, and behavior during conflict. A 2-dimensional factor structure was confirmed, and measurement invariance was demonstrated across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Both perceived threat and perceived neglect correlated with relationship satisfaction and conflict communication. More importantly, each concern was associated with a different, and theoretically expected, set of variables regarding self emotion, emotion perceived in a partner, and cognition during conflict.

  20. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  1. The Eagle of Womanhood: Dramatising the Strength of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Man is endowed with talent, he acquires knowledge, and skills that enable him thrive in the hostile world. ... It is Adaugo's unflinching effort in securing the survival of her family despite all odds that is considered the eagle of her womanhood, a womanist strength that also underscores an urgent need for change in the Igbo's ...

  2. Work more, then feel more: the influence of effort on affective predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela M Jiga-Boy

    Full Text Available Two studies examined how effort invested in a task shapes the affective predictions related to potential success in that task, and the mechanism underlying this relationship. In Study 1, PhD students awaiting an editorial decision about a submitted manuscript estimated the effort they had invested in preparing that manuscript for submission and how happy they would feel if it were accepted. Subjective estimates of effort were positively related to participants' anticipated happiness, an effect mediated by the higher perceived quality of one's work. In other words, the more effort one though having invested, the happier one expected to feel if it were accepted, because one expected a higher quality manuscript. We replicated this effect and its underlying mediation in Study 2, this time using an experimental manipulation of effort in the context of creating an advertising slogan. Study 2 further showed that participants mistakenly thought their extra efforts invested in the task had improved the quality of their work, while independent judges had found no objective differences in quality between the outcomes of the high- and low-effort groups. We discuss the implications of the relationship between effort and anticipated emotions and the conditions under which such relationship might be functional.

  3. Comparison of perceived value structural models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčana Piri Rajh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceived value has been considered an important determinant of consumer shopping behavior and studied as such for a long period of time. According to one research stream, perceived value is a variable determined by perceived quality and perceived sacrifice. Another research stream suggests that the perception of value is a result of the consumer risk perception. This implies the presence of two somewhat independent research streams that are integrated by a third research stream – the one suggesting that perceived value is a result of perceived quality and perceived sacrifices while perceived (performance and financial risk mediates the relationship between perceived quality and perceived sacrifices on the one hand, and perceived value on the other. This paper describes the three approaches (models that have been mentioned. The aim of the paper is to determine which of the observed models show the most acceptable level of fit to the empirical data. Using the survey method, research involving three product categories has been conducted on a sample of Croatian consumers. Collected data was analyzed by the structural equation modeling (SEM method. Research has shown an appropriate level of fit of each observed model to the empirical data. However, the model measuring the effect of perceived risk on perceived value indicates the best level of fit, which implies that perceived performance risk and perceived financial risk are the best predictors of perceived value.

  4. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  5. Identification of gaps in the national research effort related to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.; Plews, M.; Kane, P.

    1987-08-01

    Based on papers submitted to the Government's Radioactivity Research and Environmental Monitoring Committee (RadREM), this report presents a consolidated summary of perceived research requirements for 1988/89 and a comparison with the research proposed for that period. On this basis, discussion is included of gaps in the national research effort to 1989, duplication of research plans and areas where better co-ordination or funding of research might be appropriate. (author)

  6. The Dow Chemical Company's synchrotron radiation effort - A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubeck, R.A.; Bare, S.R.; DeKoven, B.M.; Heaney, M.D.; Rudolf, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is used in a broad array of technologies to study everything from molecular orientation at interfaces, through the structure of active catalyst phases. It is also a key to understanding structure-property relationships and providing fundamental information in polymers, ceramics, and other materials. The Dow Synchrotron User group, formed in 1991, has developed a long-term plan for effective utilization of synchrotron technology. The current efforts at Brookhaven National Lab. and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source are examined, as will the long-term commitment at the Advanced Photon Source. Current examples included are in-situ studies of polymer processing, surface and interfaces characterization, and real-time deformation studies. The APS is one of only three open-quotes Third Generationclose quotes synchrotron sources that are planned world-wide, the others being in France and Japan. With a scheduled completion date of mid-1995, the APS has remained both on-budget and ahead-of-schedule since ground-breaking in the spring of 1990. The DuPont - Northwestern University - Dow Collaborative Access Team (DND-CAT) is the first CAT to successfully pass all the necessary hurdles before beamline construction can begin. Some of the goals of the DND-CAT program are mentioned, together with the strengths of this unique collaborative effort

  7. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  8. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  9. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  10. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  11. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  12. Phase transitions in least-effort communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Ay, Nihat; Obst, Oliver; Polani, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We critically examine a model that attempts to explain the emergence of power laws (e.g., Zipf's law) in human language. The model is based on the principle of least effort in communications—specifically, the overall effort is balanced between the speaker effort and listener effort, with some trade-off. It has been shown that an information-theoretic interpretation of this principle is sufficiently rich to explain the emergence of Zipf's law in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems (one signal for all referable objects) and indexical reference systems (one signal per object). The phase transition is defined in the space of communication accuracy (information content) expressed in terms of the trade-off parameter. Our study explicitly solves the continuous optimization problem, subsuming a recent, more specific result obtained within a discrete space. The obtained results contrast Zipf's law found by heuristic search (that attained only local minima) in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems, with an inverse-factorial (sub-logarithmic) law found at the transition that corresponds to global minima. The inverse-factorial law is observed to be the most representative frequency distribution among optimal solutions

  13. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  14. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...

  15. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  16. Workplace High Tech Spurs Retraining Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dwight B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses who should provide training for displaced workers who need new skills. Areas examined include: (1) the need for retraining; (2) current corporate efforts; (3) agreements in the automotive industry; (4) job quality; (5) the federal government's role; and (6) federal legislation related to the problem. (JN)

  17. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reasonable limits to radiation protection efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Y.G.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that change in life expectancy (ΔLE) is an improved estimate for risks and safety efforts, reflecting the relevant social goal. A cost-effectiveness index, safety investment/ΔLE, is defined. The harm from low level radiation is seen as a reduction of life expectancy instead of an increased probability of contracting cancer. (author)

  19. Perceiving Tonal Structure in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses research that may broaden understanding of how music of other styles and cultures is perceived and remembered. Experiments examined serve to isolate similarities and differences that exist across musical cultures and characterize their psychological effects and to study perception of compositional styles in Western music outside the…

  20. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  1. Experimental and numerical investigations of beryllium strength models using the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry de Frahan, M. T., E-mail: marchdf@umich.edu; Johnsen, E. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Belof, J. L.; Cavallo, R. M.; Ancheta, D. S.; El-dasher, B. S.; Florando, J. N.; Gallegos, G. F.; LeBlanc, M. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Raevsky, V. A.; Ignatova, O. N.; Lebedev, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-14

    We present a set of high explosive driven Rayleigh-Taylor strength experiments for beryllium to produce data to distinguish predictions by various strength models. Design simulations using existing strength model parameterizations from Steinberg-Lund and Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) suggested an optimal design that would delineate between not just different strength models, but different parameters sets of the PTW model. Application of the models to the post-shot results, however, suggests growth consistent with little material strength. We focus mostly on efforts to simulate the data using published strength models as well as the more recent RING relaxation model developed at VNIIEF. The results of the strength experiments indicate weak influence of strength in mitigating the growth with the RING model coming closest to predicting the material behavior. Finally, we present shock and ramp-loading recovery experiments.

  2. Effortful control as predictor of adolescents' psychological and physiological responses to a social stress test : The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; Riese, Harriette; Ormel, Johan

    Effortful control is thought to foster adaptive action in defensive contexts and may thereby protect individuals against anxious inhibition and focus on their own distress. We examined if effortful control predicted adolescents' perceived arousal, unpleasantness, and control as well as autonomic

  3. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  5. Summary of process research analysis efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

  6. Non-proliferation efforts in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.

    1994-01-01

    Southern Asia is one of the most volatile regions in the world because of inter-State and intra-State conflicts. Security in the region highly depends on the rival capabilities of the involved states, Pakistan, India, China. Increased Confidence building and nuclear transparency are becoming more significant issues in attaining stability in the region, although non-proliferation efforts in this region have attained little headway

  7. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  8. Evaluative language, cognitive effort and attitude change.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Pligt, J.; van Schie, E.C.M.; Martijn, C.

    1994-01-01

    Tested the hypotheses that evaluatively biased language influences attitudes and that the magnitude and persistence of attitude change depends on the amount of cognitive effort. 132 undergraduates participated in the experiment, which used material focusing on the issue of restricting adolescent driving over the weekends to reduce the number of fatal traffic accidents. Results indicate that evaluatively biased language can affect attitudes. Using words that evaluate the pro-position positivel...

  9. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1982-04-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  10. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, Nazly

    1982-01-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans. (author)

  11. Environmental Determinants of Lexical Processing Effort

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation A central concern of psycholinguistic research is explaining the relative ease or difficulty involved in processing words. In this thesis, we explore the connection between lexical processing effort and measurable properties of the linguistic environment. Distributional information (information about a word’s contexts of use) is easily extracted from large language corpora in the form of co-occurrence statistics. We claim that su...

  12. Estimation of mental effort in learning visual search by measuring pupil response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuto Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual sensitivity and performance with training. In this study, we examined whether learning is accompanied by a release from mental effort on the task, leading to automatization of the learned task. For this purpose, we had subjects conduct a visual search for a target, defined by a combination of orientation and spatial frequency, while we monitored their pupil size. It is well known that pupil size reflects the strength of mental effort invested in a task. We found that pupil size increased rapidly as the learning proceeded in the early phase of training and decreased at the later phase to a level half of its maximum value. This result does not support the simple automatization hypothesis. Instead, it suggests that the mental effort and behavioral performance reflect different aspects of perceptual learning. Further, mental effort would be continued to be invested to maintain good performance at a later stage of training.

  13. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold (Hal) Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr. (.,; .); Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  14. Prediction of Selected Fitness Indicators by Gender, Age, Alienation, and Perceived Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Nancy A.; Wendt, Janice C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between physical factors, psychological factors, gender, and age in middle school physical education (PE) students. Data on PE alienation, perceived competency toward physical fitness (PCf) and physical activity (PCp), and various fitness and strength measures indicated that gender and PCf significantly predicted fitness.…

  15. Older Adults' Perceived Changes in Physical Self-Worth Associated with Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Cannon, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional…

  16. Duke Power's liquid radwaste processing improvement efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.E. Jr.; Bramblett, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The rising cost of processing liquid radwaste and industry efforts to reduce offsite isotopic contributions has drawn greater attention to the liquid radwaste area. Because of economic pressures to reduce cost and simultaneously improve performance, Duke Power has undertaken a wide ranging effort to cost effectively achieve improvements in the liquid radwaste processing area. Duke Power has achieved significant reductions over recent years in the release of curies to the environment from the Liquid Radwaste Treatmentt systems at its Catawba, McGuire, and Oconee stations. System wide site curie reductions of 78% have been achieved in a 3 year period. These curie reductions have been achieved while simultaneously reducing the amount of media used to accomplish treatment. The curie and media usage reductions have been achieved at low capital cost expenditures. A large number of approaches and projects have been used to achieve these curie and media usage reductions. This paper will describe the various projects and the associated results for Duke Power's processing improvement efforts. The subjects/projects which will be described include: (1) Cooperative philosophy between stations (2) Source Control (3) Processing Improvements (4) Technology Testing

  17. Improving Parolees' Participation in Drug Treatment and Other Services through Strengths Case Management

    OpenAIRE

    Prendergast, Michael; Cartier, Jerome J.

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to increase participation in community aftercare treatment for substance-abusing parolees, an intervention based on a transitional case management (TCM) model that focuses mainly on offenders' strengths has been developed and is under testing. This model consists of completion, by the inmate, of a self-assessment of strengths that informs the development of the continuing care plan, a case conference call shortly before release, and strengths case management for three months post...

  18. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  19. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  20. The effectiveness of development programming strength in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Khudolii

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The problems of optimizing development strength in primary school children. The purpose of the program is to validate the technology development strength abilities in the classroom physical education at school. A program of strength training by taking into account the effects of power loads. Found that the use of the combined method (option I makes it possible to obtain positive results in force readiness school classes 2-4 through 3-9 sessions. The combined method (option II significantly affects the dynamics of the forces of the local group of muscles. The use of mobile gaming allows for a higher level of emotional strength to develop the ability of students. The dynamics of power indices (option II significantly affects operation: dynamic method - 25-45 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds, the method of maximum effort - 18-30 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds method of isometric effort - 15-25 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds, the method of repeated efforts - 36-60 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds.

  1. The effectiveness of development programming strength in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolii O.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of optimizing development strength in primary school children. The purpose of the program is to validate the technology development strength abilities in the classroom physical education at school. A program of strength training by taking into account the effects of power loads. Found that the use of the combined method (option I makes it possible to obtain positive results in force readiness school classes 2-4 through 3-9 sessions. The combined method (option II significantly affects the dynamics of the forces of the local group of muscles. The use of mobile gaming allows for a higher level of emotional strength to develop the ability of students. The dynamics of power indices (option II significantly affects operation: dynamic method - 25-45 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds, the method of maximum effort - 18-30 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds method of isometric effort - 15-25 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds, the method of repeated efforts - 36-60 reps (rest interval between sets 30-60 seconds.

  2. Motivated Implicit Theories of Personality: My Weaknesses Will Go Away, but My Strengths Are Here to Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimer, Andreas; Mata, André

    2016-04-01

    Across six studies, this research found consistent evidence for motivated implicit theories about personality malleability: People perceive their weaknesses as more malleable than their strengths. Moreover, motivation also influences how people see themselves in the future, such that they expect their present strengths to remain constant, but they expect their present weaknesses to improve in the future. Several additional findings suggest the motivational nature of these effects: The difference in perceived malleability for strengths versus weaknesses was only observed for the self, not for other people. When the desirability of possessing a certain trait was manipulated, that trait was perceived to be more malleable when it was depicted as undesirable. And these different beliefs that people have about how malleable their traits are, and how they will develop in the future, were associated with their desire for change, which is higher for weaknesses versus strengths. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Influence of text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency on listener recall, comprehension, and mental effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, James; Healey, E Charles

    2009-04-01

    To determine how text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency influence listener recall, comprehension, and perceived mental effort. Sixty adults listened to familiar and unfamiliar narrative and expository texts produced with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% stuttering. Participants listened to 4 experimental text samples at only 1 stuttering frequency. After hearing the text samples, each listener performed a free recall task, answered cued recall questions, answered story comprehension questions, and rated their perceived mental effort. Free and cued recall as well as story comprehension scores were higher for narrative than for expository texts. Free and cued recall scores were better for familiar than for unfamiliar stories, although topic familiarity did not affect story comprehension scores. Samples with all levels of stuttering resulted in higher mental effort ratings for both text types and topic familiarities. Stuttering has a greater influence on listener recall and comprehension for narrative than for expository texts. Topic familiarity affects free and cued recall but has no influence on story comprehension. Regardless of the amount of stuttering, mental effort was high for both text types and levels of familiarity.

  4. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  5. Shopping the way to my goals: an analysis of purchase impact on perceived goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Albornoz Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines the impact of goal related purchases on goal progress perception, and whether this perception depends on the strength of association between product and goal. To test how consumers perceive the act of purchasing goal-related products, three experiments were conducted in an online setting. Participants exposed to purchasing situations perceived greater goal progress than participants exposed to usage situation or a control group. In addition, studies show that this effect is a result of strength of association between product and goal, since participants exposed to more instrumental products perceived greater goal progress than participants exposed to less instrumental products. Therefore, these studies demonstrate how consumers interpret goal related purchases, and the mechanism that influences this interpretation.

  6. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  7. Perceived value of national certification for pediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Patricia R; Hill-Rodriguez, Deborah; Williams, Arthur R; Ernst, Mary E; Tahmooressi, Jill

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated whether pediatric nurses who were certified valued national certifications to a greater degree than those who were not certified. The Gaberson, Schroeter, Killen, and Valentine (2003) Perceived Value of Certification Tool (PVCT) was used to measure nurses' perceptions of certification. The PVCT includes 18 certification-related value statements, using a five-point Likert scale response ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. A principal factor analysis was performed to identify clusters of related variables. Certified pediatric nurses valued national certifications to a greater degree than those who were not certified. More favorable views of certification were moderately associated with favorable views of the effects of certification on salary. The PVCT was found to have one factor, not two, as previously reported in the literature. Lower perceived relationships were reported between certification and salary, clinical competence, and consumer confidence compared with feelings of professionalism and personal satisfaction. Efforts to improve the relationship between certification and its perceived value at one institution were addressed. More attention may be needed to strengthen relationships, perceived or otherwise, between certification and competency skills, public awareness, and compensation of nurses for holding national certification. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Sources of perceived responsiveness in family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William L; Dezangré, Marie; De Mol, Jan

    2018-05-10

    Perceived responsiveness has become one of the most important constructs in the relationship sciences. It is central to the development of a secure attachment style, the experience of social support, an internal locus of control, and the sense of control in close relationships. Conversely, an unresponsive environment is associated with learned helplessness and depression. Viewed through the lens of the social relations model (SRM), perceived responsiveness in family relationships could have multiple sources: the perceiver; the target or partner; the perceiver-target relationship; and the family group. This study used the SRM to determine the relative importance of these sources of perceived responsiveness in the relationships of 207 two-parent two-child families. Characteristics of the perceiver and the target each accounted for about 25% of the systematic variance in perceived responsiveness, whereas the perceiver-target relationship accounted for approximately 48%. At the individual level of analysis, reciprocity of perceived responsiveness was pervasive in the family relationships of the two children. Regardless of age, young people who generally perceived others as responsive were generally perceived by others as responsive. At the dyadic level of analysis, reciprocity was present in two dyads: mother-father and older child-younger child. Reliable target variances support the view that perceived responsiveness is not just "inside the head" of the perceiver, and reciprocity correlations suggest potentially useful systemic interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Thinking aloud influences perceived time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two levels of time constraint (timed, untimed) and resulted in two levels of success (solved, unsolved). The ratio of perceived time to clock time was lower for thinking-aloud than control participants. Participants overestimated time by an average of 47% (thinking aloud) and 94% (control). The effect of thinking aloud on time perception also held separately for timed, untimed, solved, and unsolved trials. Thinking aloud (verbalization at Levels 1 and 2) influences perceived time. Possible explanations of this effect include that thinking aloud may require attention, cause a processing shift that overshadows the perception of time, or increase mental workload. For usability evaluation, this study implies that time estimates made while thinking aloud cannot be compared with time estimates made while not thinking aloud, that ratings of systems experienced while thinking aloud may be inaccurate (because the experience of time influences other experiences), and that it may therefore be considered to replace concurrent thinking aloud with retrospective thinking aloud when evaluations involve time estimation.

  10. Association between self-perceived psychological stress and transitory ischaemic attack and minor stroke: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Moreno, J M; Muñoz Vega, P; Espada, S; Bartolomé Alberca, S; Aguirre, J; Peral, D

    2017-12-22

    Stroke has a complex aetiopathogenesis influenced by numerous risk factors. There is growing interest in the study of the pathophysiological changes associated with stress and their potential relationship with cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to assess the strength of association between exposure to stress and stroke. We conducted a case-control study (1:1) to compare exposure to stress in a group of patients with a history of a first transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke and in a control group. Participants were asked a subjective question about their perception of stress in the previous months and completed the standardised Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. The study included data on 50 cases and 50 controls. There were no significant differences in demographic variables and economic, social, and employment status between cases and controls. Fifty percent of the cases reported moderate to severe stress, compared to 30% of controls (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.02-5.30; P=.041). ERI questionnaire results found that greater effort at work (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.19-1.83) and greater commitment is associated with stroke (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17-1.54), while higher reward constitutes a protective factor against the disease (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61-0.82). There is a strong association between self-perceived psychological stress and TIA. The imbalance between effort and reward at work is also clearly related to TIA. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K

    1995-01-01

    The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.

  12. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  13. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level

  14. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  15. Secretaries' Perceived Strategies for Coping with Occupational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretaries' Perceived Strategies for Coping with Occupational Stress in Banks in Anambra State. ... Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (2015) > ... Results revealed that bank secretaries perceived work functions as cause of stress; these stressors ...

  16. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Personalized Method to Classify Perceived Exertion in Workplaces Using a Wearable Heart Rate Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the perceived exertion of workers during their physical activities facilitates the decision-making of supervisors regarding the worker allocation in the appropriate job, actions to prevent accidents, and reassignment of tasks, among others. However, although wearable heart rate sensors represent an effective way to capture perceived exertion, ergonomic methods are generic and they do not consider the diffuse nature of the ranges that classify the efforts. Personalized monitoring is needed to enable a real and efficient classification of perceived individual efforts. In this paper, we propose a heart rate-based personalized method to assess perceived exertion; our method uses fuzzy logic as an option to manage imprecision and uncertainty in involved variables. We applied some experiments to cleaning staff and obtained results that highlight the importance of a custom method to classify perceived exertion of people doing physical work.

  17. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Burnout Among ICU Nursing Staff: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Fortunatti, Cristobal; Palmeiro-Silva, Yasna K

    Occupational stress is commonly observed among staff in intensive care units (ICUs). Sociodemographic, organizational, and job-related factors may lead to burnout among ICU health workers. In addition, these factors could modify the balance between efforts done and rewards perceived by workers; consequently, this imbalance could increase levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and decrease a sense of personal accomplishment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) among ICU nursing staff in a university hospital in Santiago, Chile. A convenience sample of 36 registered nurses and 46 nurse aides answered the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire and provided sociodemographic and work-related data. Age and effort-reward imbalance were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion in both registered nurses and nurse aides; age was negatively correlated with emotional exhaustion, whereas effort-reward imbalance was positively correlated. Age was negatively associated with depersonalization. None of the predictors were associated with personal accomplishment. This study adds valuable information about relationships of sociodemographic factors and effort-reward imbalance and their impact on dimensions of burnout, particularly on emotional exhaustion.

  18. Comparison of perceived value structural models

    OpenAIRE

    Sunčana Piri Rajh

    2012-01-01

    Perceived value has been considered an important determinant of consumer shopping behavior and studied as such for a long period of time. According to one research stream, perceived value is a variable determined by perceived quality and perceived sacrifice. Another research stream suggests that the perception of value is a result of the consumer risk perception. This implies the presence of two somewhat independent research streams that are integrated by a third research stream – the one sug...

  19. Understanding consumer preferences for communication channels to create consumer-directed health promotion efforts in psychiatric rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Evelina; Bressi, Sara K; Salzer, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    People with serious mental illnesses experience increased rates of physical illnesses. Drop-in centers and psychosocial rehabilitation programs can serve as important settings for health promotion efforts, but such efforts should utilize communication strategies that are used by consumers and are perceived to be reliable. Focus groups involving 23 consumers at drop-in centers in Philadelphia were conducted to assess the perceived usefulness of health information from a variety of sources. Consumers especially liked getting information from other people, including health care professionals, friends, and family, and found the information to be reliable and useful. Print literature, the Internet, and a library had various limitations. Respondents were generally unfamiliar with community health fairs and related events. Consumers considered trustworthiness, proximity and availability, and the specificity and depth of information provided by a communication source when getting health information. Implications for health promotion efforts are discussed.

  20. International Efforts for the Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Lee, Ho Jin; Shim, Hye Won; Lee, Jong Uk

    2005-01-01

    Many concerns have been focused on the nuclear security since the 9.11. With increasing the threat related to nuclear material and nuclear facilities, the demand of strengthening the international physical protection system has been raised. Along with this, the international communities are making their efforts to increase nuclear security. The agreement of revising the 'Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials'(hereafter, CPPNM), which was held in Vienna on the July of 2005, was one of these efforts. U.N is also preparing the 'International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism' to show its firm resolution against nuclear terror. It is important to understand what measures should be taken to meet the international standard for establishing national physical protection system. To do this, international trend on the physical protection system such as CPPNM and U.N. convention should be followed. This paper explains about the content of the CPPNM and U.N convention. They will be helpful to consolidate the physical protection system in Korea

  1. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  2. Discrete Events as Units of Perceived Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverence, Brandon M.; Scholl, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    In visual images, we perceive both space (as a continuous visual medium) and objects (that inhabit space). Similarly, in dynamic visual experience, we perceive both continuous time and discrete events. What is the relationship between these units of experience? The most intuitive answer may be similar to the spatial case: time is perceived as an…

  3. Perceived competence and enjoyment in predicting students' physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the predictive strength of perceived competence and enjoyment on students' physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in physical education classes. Participants (N = 307; 101 in Grade 6, 96 in Grade 7, 110 in Grade 8; 149 boys, 158 girls) responded to questionnaires assessing perceived competence and enjoyment of physical education, then their cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Physical activity in one class was estimated via pedometers. Regression analyses showed enjoyment (R2 = 16.5) and perceived competence (R2 = 4.2) accounted for significant variance of only 20.7% of physical activity and, perceived competence was the only significant contributor to cardiorespiratory fitness performance (R2 = 19.3%). Only a small amount of variance here leaves 80% unaccounted for. Some educational implications and areas for research are mentioned.

  4. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  5. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics usually can safely to start strength ... as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  6. What characterizes persons with high levels of perceived stress in Denmark? A national representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Curtis, Tine; Kristensen, Tage S; Rod Nielsen, Naja

    2008-06-01

    Stress is a growing public health problem, but there are only a few studies with national representative samples on the occurrence of stress. The aim of this study was to assess the level of stress, measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, in Denmark, and to identify and characterize the group with high levels of stress by factors measured at both the individual and neighbourhood levels in a national representative sample of the Danish population. The 10,022 participants in the National Health Interview Survey 2005 were asked about perceived stress and individual factors in a cross-sectional design. Information on neighbourhood factors was derived from a national registry. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression models. Low education, heavy smoking, physical inactivity, lack of social network and poor working conditions were associated with perceived stress. For women, living in a neighbourhood with low average education, and for men, living in a neighbourhood with a high rate of crime and a low degree of ethnic diversity, were associated with higher perceived stress. Perceived stress was also related to indicators of morbidity. The group with high perceived stress is characterized by individual and neighbourhood factors with negative impacts on quality of life and risk of illness. This knowledge can guide future stress prevention efforts. Additionally, the results suggest a negative social component where perceived stress, unhealthy lifestyle and low social status are accumulated, and perceived stress might be used as a measure to identify groups characterized by accumulation of risk factors.

  7. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-jian Li; Jun-ding Liu; Rui Yan; Wen Zheng; Sheng-jun Shao

    2014-01-01

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress (Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural lo...

  8. Perceived Social Support Mediating the Relationship between Perceived Stress and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Rashid, Safia

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the mediating effect of perceived social support between perceived stress and job satisfaction among employees. A conveniently selected sample of 280 employees provided the information on Perceived Social Support Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey. Employing Regression analyses,…

  9. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  10. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  11. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  12. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  13. The present gravitational wave detection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational radiation offers a new non-electromagnetic window through which to observe the universe. The LIGO and Virgo Collaborations have completed a first joint data run with unprecedented sensitivities to gravitational waves. Results from searches in the data for a variety of astrophysical sources are presented. A second joint data run with improved detector sensitivities is underway, and soon major upgrades will be carried out to build Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with expected improvements in event rates of more than 1000. In parallel there is a vigorous effort in the radio pulsar community to detect nHz gravitational waves via the timing residuals in an array of pulsars at different locations in the sky.

  14. Social entrepreneurship in religious congregations' efforts to address health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2014-01-01

    Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Multiple case studies. Los Angeles County, California. Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races/ethnicities (African-American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n = 57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed by using a qualitative, code-based approach. Congregations' health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations' health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from-and for-faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as "incubators" for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Although the small scale of congregations' health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations' position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways.

  15. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  16. Superconducting cavities developments efforts at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.; Bagre, M.; Dwivedi, J.; Shrivastava, P.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S.C.; Potukuchi, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting RE cavities are the work-horse for many existing and proposed linear accelerators. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) has initiated a comprehensive R and D program for development of Superconducting RF cavities suitable for high energy accelerator application like SNS and ADS. For the initial phase of technology demonstration several prototype 1.3 GHz single cell-cavities have been developed. The work began with development of prototype single cell cavities in aluminum and copper. This helped in development of cavity manufacturing process, proving various tooling and learning on various mechanical and RF qualification processes. The parts manufacturing was done at RRCAT and Electron beam welding was carried out at Indian industry. These cavities further served during commissioning trials for various cavity processing infrastructure being developed at RRCAT and are also a potential candidate for Niobium thin film deposition R and D. Based on the above experience, few single cell cavities were developed in fine grain niobium. The critical technology of forming and machining of niobium and the intermediate RF qualification were developed at RRCAT. The EB welding of bulk niobium cavities was carried out in collaboration with IUAC, New Delhi at their facility. As a next logical step efforts are now on for development of multicell cavities. The prototype dumbbells and end group made of aluminium, comprising of RF and HOM couplers ports have also been developed, with their LB welding done at Indian industry. In this paper we shall present the development efforts towards manufacturing of 1.3 GHz single cell cavities and their initial processing and qualification. (author)

  17. Self-regulating the effortful "social dos".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna

    2014-03-01

    In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Effort, anhedonia, and function in schizophrenia: reduced effort allocation predicts amotivation and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Treadway, Michael T; Schoen, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    One of the most debilitating aspects of schizophrenia is an apparent interest in or ability to exert effort for rewards. Such "negative symptoms" may prevent individuals from obtaining potentially beneficial outcomes in educational, occupational, or social domains. In animal models, dopamine abnormalities decrease willingness to work for rewards, implicating dopamine (DA) function as a candidate substrate for negative symptoms given that schizophrenia involves dysregulation of the dopamine system. We used the effort-expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT) to assess the degree to which individuals with schizophrenia were wiling to exert increased effort for either larger magnitude rewards or for rewards that were more probable. Fifty-nine individuals with schizophrenia and 39 demographically similar controls performed the EEfRT task, which involves making choices between "easy" and "hard" tasks to earn potential rewards. Individuals with schizophrenia showed less of an increase in effort allocation as either reward magnitude or probability increased. In controls, the frequency of choosing the hard task in high reward magnitude and probability conditions was negatively correlated with depression severity and anhedonia. In schizophrenia, fewer hard task choices were associated with more severe negative symptoms and worse community and work function as assessed by a caretaker. Consistent with patterns of disrupted dopamine functioning observed in animal models of schizophrenia, these results suggest that 1 mechanism contributing to impaired function and motivational drive in schizophrenia may be a reduced allocation of greater effort for higher magnitude or higher probability rewards.

  19. Effect of effort-reward imbalance and burnout on infection control among Ecuadorian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colindres, C V; Bryce, E; Coral-Rosero, P; Ramos-Soto, R M; Bonilla, F; Yassi, A

    2018-06-01

    Nurses are frequently exposed to transmissible infections, yet adherence to infection control measures is suboptimal. There has been inadequate research into how the psychosocial work environment affects compliance with infection control measures, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To examine the association between effort-reward imbalance, burnout and adherence to infection control measures among nurses in Ecuador. A cross-sectional study linking psychosocial work environment indicators to infection control adherence. The study was conducted among 333 nurses in four Ecuadorian hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographic variables, perceived infection risk, effort-reward imbalance, burnout and infection control adherence. Increased effort-reward imbalance was found to be a unique incremental predictor of exposure to burnout, and burnout was a negative unique incremental predictor of nurses' self-reported adherence with infection control measures. Results suggest an effort-reward imbalance-burnout continuum, which, at higher levels, contributes to reduce adherence to infection control. The Ecuadorean government has made large efforts to improve universal access to health care, yet this study suggests that workplace demands on nurses remain problematic. This study highlights the contribution of effort-reward-imbalance-burnout continuum to the chain of infection by decreased adherence to infection control of nurses. Health authorities should closely monitor the effect of new policies on psychosocial work environment, especially when expanding services and increasing public accessibility with limited resources. Additionally, organizational and psychosocial interventions targeting effort-reward imbalance and burnout in nurses should be considered part of a complete infection prevention and control strategy. Further study is warranted to identify interventions that best ameliorate effort-reward imbalance and burnout in low- and middle

  20. Enjoying Mathematics or Feeling Competent in Mathematics? Reciprocal Effects on Mathematics Achievement and Perceived Math Effort Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Maarten; Marsh, Herbert W.; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Van Damme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The multidimensionality of the academic self-concept in terms of domain specificity has been well established in previous studies, whereas its multidimensionality in terms of motivational functions (the so-called affect-competence separation) needs further examination. Aim: This study aims at exploring differential effects of enjoyment…

  1. The Perceived Role of Direct Support Professionals in the Health Promotion Efforts of Adults with Developmental Disabilities Receiving Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Kendall A.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Havercamp, Susan M.; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Direct support professionals (DSPs) play a large social role in the lives of people with developmental disabilities (DD) and have the potential to influence their health behaviors. Six qualitative focus groups (n = 48) were conducted with DD community agency administrators, DSPs, family members and adults with DD to better understand the perceived…

  2. Using Phenomenology to Study how Junior and Senior High School Students in Japan Perceive their Volunteer Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Ueda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in a phenomenological study aimed at understanding students' perceptions of volunteer experiences from the viewpoint of their existential meanings. In Japan, as volunteer activities have just been recently introduced to youth education, it is necessary to verify the effect of the activity on the students. The authors present phenomenological reduction, which is a fundamental concept in phenomenology, as a health care research method to elucidate the essence of people's lived experiences. The 22 statements presented from volunteer students' group discussion after their practices were redescribed by phenomenological reduction, a method of valid interpretation based on their embodiment and desire. The phenomenological approach allows us to understand the essence of students' perceptions in terms of their purpose in life, which suggests that educators could inspire the students to realize existential growth by participating in volunteer activities through practical communications with others.

  3. Perceived stress in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a normal physiological response to events that make us feel threatened, or upset our balance in some way. In medicine, it is known that stress, as an emotional state, can be a trigger for many psychosomatic disorders. Work stress and burnout are considered to be serious professional risks in dentistry. The dentist should be aware of these stressors and attempt to manage them in order to avoid becoming occupationally dissatisfied. On the other hand, the other common characteristic of modern life is a growing burden of different chronic diseases. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived stress in patients with periodontal pathologies, and to compare it with the stress in doctors-dentists and students of dentistry as future professionals. Our study confirmed the presence of significant stress in all three groups of examinees (patients, doctors, and students). Surprisingly, the obtained PSQ scores are similar in the examined groups. In addition, no differences between perceived stress in males and females have been found. There is a minimal positive correlation between age and obtained scores. However, stress must be evaluated as a risk factor both for professionals or for chronic dental patients and some response measures must be undertaken.

  4. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  5. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  6. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  7. Closed-loop adaptation of neurofeedback based on mental effort facilitates reinforcement learning of brain self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert; Fels, Meike; Royter, Vladislav; Raco, Valerio; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Considering self-rated mental effort during neurofeedback may improve training of brain self-regulation. Twenty-one healthy, right-handed subjects performed kinesthetic motor imagery of opening their left hand, while threshold-based classification of beta-band desynchronization resulted in proprioceptive robotic feedback. The experiment consisted of two blocks in a cross-over design. The participants rated their perceived mental effort nine times per block. In the adaptive block, the threshold was adjusted on the basis of these ratings whereas adjustments were carried out at random in the other block. Electroencephalography was used to examine the cortical activation patterns during the training sessions. The perceived mental effort was correlated with the difficulty threshold of neurofeedback training. Adaptive threshold-setting reduced mental effort and increased the classification accuracy and positive predictive value. This was paralleled by an inter-hemispheric cortical activation pattern in low frequency bands connecting the right frontal and left parietal areas. Optimal balance of mental effort was achieved at thresholds significantly higher than maximum classification accuracy. Rating of mental effort is a feasible approach for effective threshold-adaptation during neurofeedback training. Closed-loop adaptation of the neurofeedback difficulty level facilitates reinforcement learning of brain self-regulation. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Why don't you try harder? An investigation of effort production in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin

    Full Text Available Depression is mainly characterized as an emotional disorder, associated with reduced approach behavior. It remains unclear whether the difficulty in energising behavior relates to abnormal emotional states or to a flattened response to potential rewards, as suggested by several neuroimaging studies. Here, we aimed to demonstrate a specific incentive motivation deficit in major depression, independent of patients' emotional state. We employed a behavioral paradigm designed to measure physical effort in response to both emotional modulation and incentive motivation. Patients did exert more effort following emotionally arousing pictures (whether positive or negative but not for higher monetary incentives, contrary to healthy controls. These results show that emotional and motivational sources of effort production are dissociable in pathological conditions. In addition, patients' ratings of perceived effort increased for high incentives, whereas controls' ratings were decreased. Thus, depressed patients objectively behave as if they do not want to gain larger rewards, but subjectively feel that they try harder. We suggest that incentive motivation impairment is a core deficit of major depression, which may render everyday tasks abnormally effortful for patients.

  9. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A

    1992-10-01

    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  10. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research

  11. ICRP new recommendations. Committee 2's efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may release new primary radiation protection recommendation in 2007. Committee 2 has underway reviews of the dosimetric and biokinetic models and associated data used in calculating dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and exposures to external radiation fields. This paper outlines the work plans of Committee 2 during the current term, 2005-2009, in anticipation of the new primary recommendations. The two task groups of Committee 2 responsible for the computations of dose coefficients, INDOS and DOCAL, are reviewing the models and data used in the computations. INDOS is reviewing the lung model and the biokinetic models that describe the behavior of the radionuclides in the body. DOCAL is reviewing its computational formulations with the objective of harmonizing the formulation with those of nuclear medicine, and developing new computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference individuals of ICRP Publication 89. In addition, DOCAL will issue a publication on nuclear decay data to replace ICRP Publication 38. While the current efforts are focused on updating the dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides plans are being formulated to address dose coefficients for external radiation fields which include consideration of high energy fields associated with accelerators and space travel and the updating of dose coefficients for members of the public. (author)

  12. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  13. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  14. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (pwelding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (pwelding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  15. Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes towards ... perceived usefulness, perceived cultural relevance, perceived competence and access to ... and senior phase, completed the Attitudes Towards Computer Scale.

  16. Strength and life under creeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospishil, B.

    1982-01-01

    Certain examples of the application of the Lepin modified creep model, which are of interest from technical viewpoint, are presented. Mathematical solution of the dependence of strength limit at elevated temperatures on creep characteristics is obtained. Tensile test at elevated temperatures is a particular case of creep or relaxation and both strength limit and conventional yield strength at elevated temperatures are completely determined by parameters of state equations during creep. The equation of fracture summing during creep is confirmed not only by the experiment data when stresses change sporadically, but also by good reflection of durability curve using the system of equations. The system presented on the basis of parameters of the equations obtained on any part of durability curve, permits to forecast the following parameters of creep: strain, strain rate, life time, strain in the process of fracture. Tensile test at elevated temperature is advisable as an addition when determining creep curves (time-strain curves) [ru

  17. How Do Humans Perceive Emotion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen

    2017-01-01

    Emotion carries crucial qualities of the human condition, representing one of the major challenges in artificial intelligence. Re-search in psychology and neuroscience in the past two to three decades has generated rich insights into the processes underlying human emotion. Cognition and emotion represent the two main pillars of the human psyche and human intelligence. While the hu-man cognitive system and cognitive brain has inspired and informed computer science and artificial intelligence, the future is ripe for the human emotion system to be integrated into artificial intelligence and robotic systems. Here, we review behavioral and neu-ral findings in human emotion perception, including facial emotion perception, olfactory emotion perception, multimodal emotion perception, and the time course of emotion perception. It is our hope that knowledge of how humans perceive emotion will help bring artificial intelligence strides closer to human intelligence.

  18. Thinking Aloud Influences Perceived Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-01-01

    a processing shift that overshadows the perception of time, or increase mental workload. Application: For usability evaluation, this study implies that time estimates made while thinking aloud cannot be compared with time estimates made while not thinking aloud, that ratings of systems experienced while......Objective: We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Background: Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which...... a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. Method: In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two...

  19. Reciprocation of perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, R; Armeli, S; Rexwinkel, B; Lynch, P D; Rhoades, L

    2001-02-01

    Four hundred thirteen postal employees were surveyed to investigate reciprocation's role in the relationships of perceived organizational support (POS) with employees' affective organizational commitment and job performance. The authors found that (a) POS was positively related to employees' felt obligation to care about the organization's welfare and to help the organization reach its objectives; (b) felt obligation mediated the associations of POS with affective commitment, organizational spontaneity, and in-role performance; and (c) the relationship between POS and felt obligation increased with employees' acceptance of the reciprocity norm as applied to work organizations. Positive mood also mediated the relationships of POS with affective commitment and organizational spontaneity. The pattern of findings is consistent with organizational support theory's assumption that POS strengthens affective commitment and performance by a reciprocation process.

  20. Quality-oriented efforts in IPD, - a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    It is generally expected that modern quality efforts like TQM and ISO9000 should deliver a sufficient framework for quality efforts in industrial companies. Our findings in Danish industry shows a fragmented picture of islands of efforts and a weak understanding of basic quality concepts between...... designers. The paper propose a framework for quality efforts, illustrated by simple metaphors....

  1. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  2. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  3. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  4. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  5. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to ±5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications

  6. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  7. Perceived and actual academic competence in maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinard, E M

    2001-01-01

    The aims were twofold: 1) to determine whether maltreated and nonmaltreated children differed in the accuracy of their self-assessments of academic achievement; and 2) to determine whether discrepancies between perceived and actual academic competence were related to perceptions of social support from mothers, teachers, and peers. A sample of 195 maltreated children known to a state protective service agency was compared to a control group of 179 nonmaltreated children. The groups were matched on child's gender, age, ethnicity, and birth order; socioeconomic ranking of neighborhood; and family structure. Although maltreated children had significantly lower achievement scores than did nonmal-treated children, the two groups did not differ on perceived academic competence. With regard to discrepancies between perceived and actual competence, maltreated children were more likely than nonmaltreated children to overestimate their level of competence, particularly for reading and arithmetic. Overall, children who reported low maternal support were more likely to overestimate reading competence than were those who reported average or high maternal support. When maltreatment status was considered, maltreated children with low support seemed likely to overestimate abilities, whereas nonmaltreated children with low support seemed likely to underestimate competence. Maltreated children may overestimate their academic abilities in order to compensate for self-perceptions of low self-worth. Efforts to improve academic performance in maltreated children should focus not only on increasing academic skills but also on enhancing self-esteem.

  8. Predicting Consumer Effort in Finding and Paying for Health Care: Expert Interviews and Claims Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sandra; Monsen, Karen A; Pieczkiewicz, David; Wolfson, Julian; Khairat, Saif

    2017-10-12

    For consumers to accept and use a health care information system, it must be easy to use, and the consumer must perceive it as being free from effort. Finding health care providers and paying for care are tasks that must be done to access treatment. These tasks require effort on the part of the consumer and can be frustrating when the goal of the consumer is primarily to receive treatments for better health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that result in consumer effort when finding accessible health care. Having an understanding of these factors will help define requirements when designing health information systems. A panel of 12 subject matter experts was consulted and the data from 60 million medical claims were used to determine the factors contributing to effort. Approximately 60 million claims were processed by the health care insurance organization in a 12-month duration with the population defined. Over 292 million diagnoses from claims were used to validate the panel input. The results of the study showed that the number of people in the consumer's household, number of visits to providers outside the consumer's insurance network, number of adjusted and denied medical claims, and number of consumer inquiries are a proxy for the level of effort in finding and paying for care. The effort level, so measured and weighted per expert panel recommendations, differed by diagnosis. This study provides an understanding of how consumers must put forth effort when engaging with a health care system to access care. For higher satisfaction and acceptance results, health care payers ideally will design and develop systems that facilitate an understanding of how to avoid denied claims, educate on the payment of claims to avoid adjustments, and quickly find providers of affordable care. ©Sandra Long, Karen A. Monsen, David Pieczkiewicz, Julian Wolfson, Saif Khairat. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 12.10.2017.

  9. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

    1982-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort

  10. Individual differences and the development of perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, E A; Zimmer-Gembeck, M J; Connell, J P

    1998-01-01

    Research on individual differences demonstrates that children's perceived control exerts a strong effect on their academic achievement and that, in turn, children's actual school performance influences their sense of control. At the same time, developmental research shows systematic age-graded changes in the processes that children use to regulate and interpret control experiences. Drawing on both these perspectives, the current study examines (1) age differences in the operation of beliefs-performance cycles and (2) the effects of these cycles on the development of children's perceived control and classroom engagement from the third to the seventh grade. Longitudinal data on about 1,600 children were collected six times (every fall and spring) over 3 consecutive school years, including children's reports of their perceived control and individual interactions with teachers; teachers' reports of each student's engagement in class; and, for a subset of students, grades and achievement tests. Analyses of individual differences and individual growth curves (estimated using hierarchical linear modeling procedures) were consistent, not only with a cyclic model of context, self, action, and outcomes, but also with predictors of individual development over 5 years from grade 3 to grade 7. Children who experienced teachers as warm and contingent were more likely to develop optimal profiles of control; these beliefs supported more active engagement in the classroom, resulting in better academic performance; success in turn predicted the maintenance of optimistic beliefs about the effectiveness of effort. In contrast, children who experienced teachers as unsupportive were more likely to develop beliefs that emphasized external causes; these profiles of control predicted escalating classroom disaffection and lower scholastic achievement; in turn, these poor performances led children to increasingly doubt their own capacities and to believe even more strongly in the power of

  11. Forming a Perceived Franchise Value: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights and deals with the topic of perceived franchise value. The objective of the paper is – what elements form the franchisee's perceived value in service business (comparing with alternative of own business model). The aim of the paper is to propose systematic value elements in the process of forming a value of a franchise business model perceived by the franchisee. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be relevant to en...

  12. Perceived parental monitoring and adolescent internet addiction: A moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qingwen; Li, Dongping; Zhou, Yueyue; Dong, Hongning; Luo, Jinjing

    2017-11-01

    Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model focuses on the interrelation between different contexts and the interaction between individuals and their proximal contexts. Based on this theory, the present study tested a moderated mediation model of family, peer, and individual characteristics to investigate how they impact adolescent Internet addiction. Specifically, we examined whether deviant peer affiliation partially mediated the relation between perceived parental monitoring and adolescent Internet addiction, and whether this indirect relation was moderated by effortful control. A total of 747 Chinese middle school students filled out anonymous questionnaires concerning perceived parental monitoring, deviant peer affiliation, effortful control, and Internet addiction. The findings indicated that while the impact of parental monitoring on Internet addiction was partially mediated by deviant peer affiliation, effortful control moderated the first stage of the indirect relationship. For low effortful control adolescents, perceived parental monitoring negatively predicted deviant peer affiliation. Conversely, the indirect path was not significant for high effortful control adolescents. These findings highlight the need to consider family, peer and individual factors simultaneously when evaluating risks associated with adolescent Internet addiction and have important implications for the prevention and intervention of adolescent Internet addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  14. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  15. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...

  16. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess...

  17. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  18. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  19. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  20. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength, makes strength training a more effective training modality for relatively weak individuals.

  1. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M L; Berger, L R

    2002-12-01

    To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%-21%. Rates for infants (71%-80%) far exceeded rates for 1-4 year old children (5%-14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores.

  2. Investing in commitment: Persistence in a joint action is enhanced by the perception of a partner's effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Marcell; Michael, John

    2018-05-01

    Can the perception that one's partner is investing effort generate a sense of commitment to a joint action? To test this, we developed a 2-player version of the classic snake game which became increasingly boring over the course of each round. This enabled us to operationalize commitment in terms of how long participants persisted before pressing a 'finish' button to conclude each round. Our results from three experiments reveal that participants persisted longer when they perceived what they believed to be cues of their partner's effortful contribution (Experiment 1). Crucially, this effect was not observed when they knew their partner to be an algorithm (Experiment 2), nor when it was their own effort that had been invested (Experiment 3). These results support the hypothesis that the perception of a partner's effort elicits a sense of commitment, leading to increased persistence in the face of a temptation to disengage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. What are the Main Physical Functioning Factors Associated With Falls Among Older People With Different Perceived Fall Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Mirian N; Bilton, Tereza L; Dias, Rosangela C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Perracini, Monica R

    2017-07-01

    Fall risk perceptions may influence the judgement over physical and functional competencies to avoid falls. However, few studies have explored the physical functioning characteristics associated with falls among older people with low perceived fall risk. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of falls and physical functioning factors associated with falling among community-dwelling older adults with low and high perceived fall risk. We conducted a cross-sectional population based study with 773 community-dwelling elders. Perceived fall risk was investigated using Falls Efficacy Scale International. We considered fallers those who reported at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Physical functioning measures used were grip strength, usual gait speed, sit-to-stand test, five step test, timed up and go test, one-legged stance test, anterior and lateral functional reach test. At least one fall was reported by 103 (30%) participants with low perceived fall risk and by 196 (46%) participants with high perceived fall risk. The odds of falling were lower among those with greater grip strength and with a greater stance time in one-legged test, and the odds of falling among elders with high perceived fall risk were higher among those who took more time in performing the five step test. We believe that our results highlight the need of not neglecting the risk of falls among active older adults with low perceived fall risk, particularly in those elders that show reduced stability in a small base of support and a lower leg strength. In addition, we suggest that elders with high perceived fall risk should be assessed using anticipatory postural adjustment tests. Particularly, our results may help physiotherapists to identify eligible elders with different perceptions of fall risk for tailored interventions aimed at reducing falls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Perceiving Cardiac Rehabilitation Staff as Mainly Responsible for Exercise: A Dilemma for Future Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Parminder K; McMahon, Casey J; Locke, Sean R; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise therapy facilitates patient recovery and better health following a cardiovascular event. However, post-CR adherence to self-managed (SM)-exercise is suboptimal. Part of this problem may be participants' view of CR staff as mainly responsible for help and program structure. Does post-CR exercise adherence for those perceiving high CR staff responsibility suffer as a consequence? Participants in this prospective, observational study were followed over 12 weeks of CR and one month afterward. High perceived staff responsibility individuals were examined for a decline in the strength of adherence-related social cognitions and exercise. Those high and low in perceived staff responsibility were also compared. High perceived staff responsibility individuals reported significant declines in anticipated exercise persistence (d = .58) and number of different SM-exercise options (d = .44). High versus low responsibility comparisons revealed a significant difference in one-month post-CR SM-exercise volume (d = .67). High perceived staff responsibility individuals exercised half of the amount of low responsibility counterparts at one month post-CR. Perceived staff responsibility and CR SRE significantly predicted SM-exercise volume, R 2 adj = .10, and persistence, R 2 adj = .18, one month post-CR. Viewing helpful well-trained CR staff as mainly responsible for participant behavior may be problematic for post-CR exercise maintenance among those more staff dependent. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  5. Strategies to Build Readiness in Community Mobilization Efforts for Implementation in a Multi-Year Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effort-reward imbalance in the school setting: associations with somatic pain and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte; Östberg, Viveca; Hoven, Hanno; Plenty, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    According to the workplace theory of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), individuals who perceive a lack of reciprocity between their effort spent at work and the rewards received in turn are at an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. It is also assumed that being overcommitted to work is linked to an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. This study applies the effort-reward imbalance model to the school setting. It aims to analyse the associations that effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment share with somatic pain and self-rated health among adolescents. Data are from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS), involving students in grades 8 and 9 (ages 14-16 years) in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, during 2010 (n=403). Information on effort-reward imbalance and health outcomes was gathered from self-report questionnaires. An adjusted short version of ERI was used. Factor analysis showed that extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment constitute three distinct dimensions. The designed measures demonstrated sound psychometric properties both for the full sample and for subgroups. Ordered logistic regressions were conducted. The analyses showed that low reward and higher overcommitment were associated with greater somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Furthermore, effort-reward imbalance was linked with an elevated risk of somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Students are more likely to experience stress-related ill-health when they perceive an imbalance between their effort and rewards. In addition, high overcommitment is associated with an increased risk of ill-health among students. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Matthew R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  8. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Personalized Method to Classify Perceived Exertion in Workplaces Using a Wearable Heart Rate Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Pancardo, Pablo; Hernández-Nolasco, J. A.; Acosta-Escalante, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Knowing the perceived exertion of workers during their physical activities facilitates the decision-making of supervisors regarding the worker allocation in the appropriate job, actions to prevent accidents, and reassignment of tasks, among others. However, although wearable heart rate sensors represent an effective way to capture perceived exertion, ergonomic methods are generic and they do not consider the diffuse nature of the ranges that classify the efforts. Personalized monitoring is ne...

  9. Perceived external prestige as a mediator between quality of work life and organisational commitment of public sector employees in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Idemudia, Erhabor S.; Desouza, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: Research efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment, but these studies have not elucidated the mediating role of perceived external prestige in this relationship. Research purpose: This research seeks to close a research gap by determining the role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment amongst public sector employees in Ghana. ...

  10. Customer Satisfaction, Perceived Service Quality and Mediating Role of Perceived Value

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Saif Ullah

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to first find out perceived service quality using SERVQUAL and then the role of perceived value as a mediating variable in the service sector of Pakistan. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques are used to analyze the effects of independent variables (i.e. perceived service quality) on customer satisfaction (dependent variable) and the role of mediating variable (i.e. perceived value). Stepwise regression analysis is used to examine the eff...

  11. [Perceived risks of food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Lohmann, Mark; Epp, Astrid; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-07-01

    Food contaminants can pose a serious health threat. In order to carry out adequate risk communication measures, the subjective risk perception of the public must be taken into account. In this context, the breadth of the topic and insufficient terminological delimitations from residues and food additives make an elaborate explanation of the topic to consumers indispensable. A representative population survey used language adequate for lay people and a clear definition of contaminants to measure risk perceptions with regard to food contaminants among the general public. The study aimed to assess public awareness of contaminants and the perceived health risks associated with them. In addition, people's current knowledge and need for additional information, their attitudes towards contaminants, views on stakeholder accountability, as well as compliance with precautionary measures, such as avoiding certain foods to reduce health risks originating from contaminants, were assessed. A representative sample of 1001 respondents was surveyed about food contaminants via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The majority of respondents rated contaminants as a serious health threat, though few of them spontaneously mentioned examples of undesirable substances in foods that fit the scientific or legal definition of contaminants. Mercury and dioxin were the most well-known contaminants. Only a minority of respondents was familiar with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The present findings highlight areas that require additional attention and provide implications for risk communication geared to specific target groups.

  12. Older adults' perceived changes in physical self-worth associated with resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A; Cannon, Jack

    2009-06-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional competency, physical condition, and body satisfaction). We conducted three in-depth interviews with each participant over the course of the program. In individual log books, participants recorded the weight lifted and the number of repetitions for each exercise. Our findings showed the course of changes in physical self-perceptions in these older adults and how actual individual changes in strength performance related to perceived changes in important psychological outcomes.

  13. The Effect of Marketing Mix Efforts and Corporate Image on Brand Equity in the IT Software Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Saghar Rafiei; Manijeh Haghighi Nasab; Hamidreza Yazdani

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to prioritize the most important factors that influence brand equity in the software industry. In this regard, the relationships between marketing-mix effort (channel performance, value-oriented price, promotion, and after sales service), corporate image, three dimensions of brand equity (brand awareness with associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty), and market performance have been investigated by the structural equation modeling. A random sampling met...

  14. Interrelationships between trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort predict phonological processing efficiency, but not effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) describes the mechanisms associated with the relationship between anxiety and cognitive performance. We investigated the relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort on phonological performance using a simple (forward-) and complex (backward-) word span task. Ninety undergraduate students participated in the study. Predictor variables were cognitive trait anxiety, indexed using questionnaire scores; situational stress, manipulated using ego threat instructions; and perceived level of mental effort, measured using a visual analogue scale. Criterion variables (a) performance effectiveness (accuracy) and (b) processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) were analyzed in separate multiple moderated-regression analyses. The results revealed (a) no relationship between the predictors and performance effectiveness, and (b) a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency for both the simple and complex tasks, such that at higher effort, trait anxiety and situational stress did not predict processing efficiency, whereas at lower effort, higher trait anxiety was associated with lower efficiency at high situational stress, but not at low situational stress. Our results were in full support of the assumptions of ACT and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. [Factors associated with the strength of organizational culture in a Beninese hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Kouckodila Nzingoula, Michael Florian; Sossa Jérôme, Charles; Hessou Ahahanzo-Glèlè, Yolaine; Damienne Agueh, Victoire; Tinoaga Ouédraogo, Laurent; Makoutodé, Michel

    Organizational culture, a frequently ignored concept, affects job satisfaction and productivity in organizations. To determine the factors associated with the strength of organizational culture (OC) in Mono / Couffo regional hospital in Lokossa in Benin. This cross-sectional and analytical study involved 121 workers of Mono/Couffo hospital in March 2015. Data on the strength of OC was collected using a questionnaire based on the validated tool proposed by Cameron and Quinn (2006). Logistic regression was performed to explore the nature of the relationship between the independent variables and OC using Odds ratios. 62% of the surveyed subjects had a positive perception of organizational culture. This perception was statistically associated with managerial factors (moral support of workers and type of relationship with the executive staff). The risk of perceiving a low strength of OC was sixfold higher OR = 3.78, 95% CI (1.08 - 13.22) among subjects who felt they did not have moral support from executive staff than in those who perceived this moral support. The risk of perceiving a weak OC was higher among subjects who considered relations with the staff to be uncordial [OR = 14.32, 95% CI (4.35 - 47.11)] compared to those who considered these relations to be cordial. Human resource management factors were more closely associated with the strength of organizational culture. Hospital managers should pay more attention to these factors in their hospitals to promote better institutional performance.

  16. Variation of over strength factor for mid-rise R.C. moment resisting frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnimi, A. A.; Mahmoodi Sahebi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The over strength of a multi-storey structure (as a multi-degree of freedom system) is one of the parameters playing the evaluation of the behaviour factor. This is an important property when the structure exhibits inelastic behaviour and is described by over strength factor. The over strength factor and strength reduction factor due to ductility are considered in most seismic design codes of practice to reduce the elastic strength demand of the structure. In spite the importance of the over strength, its influence has not yet been quantified. This paper is a part of an investigation from which the first part was published in Amirkabir Journal No.36/Winter 1998, entitled as E stimation of over strength of low-ri sed flexural R.C. frames using nonlinear analysis . This paper investigates the variation of over strength factor for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames, having several stories (5 to 15) with various spans (3 to 5) and located in high seismicity regions using non-linear inelastic analysis. The results indicate that the over strength factor of these systems efforts 25 to 40 percent reduction in the elastic strength demand of such frames

  17. Multistep triaxial strength tests: investigating strength parameters and pore pressure effects on Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesle, W.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The impact of natural variability between rock samples from a single formation is a common problem for the characterisation of THM properties of rocks. Data variation arising from heterogeneity between samples often obscures details of material behaviour. Besides efforts to reduce this statistical noise by careful selection of samples, there are essentially two approaches to overcome this problem: - To generate very large data sets for better statistics. - To avoid the impact of natural variability by yielding an extensive data set from a single sample. The multistep strength test follows the latter approach to characterise the mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri and the possible impact of pore pressure effects. The concept of the multistep strength test comprises three test sections, each focused on the investigation of one mechanical characteristic of Opalinus Clay. Any section is composed of a series of strain controlled load cycles at various levels of confining pressure. 1) The linear elastic limit, i.e. the onset of nonlinearity in the stress-strain-relationship σ dev (ε 1 ) during strain-controlled triaxial loading, is determined in section 1. It defines a lower limit for the onset of damage. Avoiding sample damage is essential during this test section to ensure that all measurements reflect the behaviour of undisturbed material. Therefore, a rather strict and well detectable criterion for the onset of nonlinearity is required to enable a timely termination of any load phase. 2) Section 2 is focused on shear strength. Any load cycle is stopped as soon as peak stress is detected. As progressive damage of the sample is unavoidable during this process, it must be expected that only very few measured peak stresses approximately represent properties of the undamaged material. 3) Test section 3 is a conventional test of residual strength. Tests are carried out on cylindrical samples (100 mm

  18. The price-perceived quality relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völckner, Franziska; Hofmann, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of study results on the price-perceived quality relationship published from 1989 to 2006. The findings show that the price effect on perceived quality has decreased. Furthermore, the price–quality relationship is stronger in studies that use a within-subjects...

  19. Cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, and perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted among four hundred non-dental undergraduates of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, perceived efficacy in oral self-care and preventing gingivodental diseases among them. The result showed that the perceived ...

  20. Perceived Parenting Styles on College Students' Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Debora R.; McIntyre, Anne; Hardaway, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived parenting styles and levels of optimism in undergraduate college students. Sixty-three participants were administered surveys measuring dispositional optimism and perceived parental Authoritative and Authoritarian styles. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both…

  1. Perceived Competence of Juvenile Delinquents and Nondelinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Peter G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Thirty male juvenile delinquents and 90 male high achievers, low achievers, and students with behavior problems were compared using an adapted version of Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Children. The Australian students (aged 12-15) were compared on 4 different domains of perceived competence--cognitive competence, social competence,…

  2. The Perceived Competence Scale for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Susan

    1982-01-01

    A new self-report instrument, the Perceived Competence Scale for Children, is described. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of a child's sense of competence across different domains, instead of on viewing perceived competence as a unitary construct. (Author/RH)

  3. Perceived parental rearing of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.

    Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we

  4. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  5. Perceived discrimination and health-related quality-of-life: gender differences among older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sheryl L; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Ward, Earlise C; Barnes, Lisa L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-01

    Emerging data suggest that African-American women may fare worse than African-American men in health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL). Perceived discrimination is an important contributor to poor health overall among African Americans, but few studies examined the intersecting effects of perceived discrimination and gender in explaining HRQOL disparities. We investigated gender differences in HRQOL and tested whether perceived discrimination accounted for these differences. We examined data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project in which 5652 African-American adults aged 65 and older completed structured questionnaires about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, HRQOL, perceived discrimination, and health-related variables. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations between perceived discrimination and gender differences in poor HRQOL outcomes (defined as 14+ unhealthy days in overall, physical, or mental health over the past 30 days) when controlling for the other variables. More women reported poor overall HRQOL than men (24 vs. 16% respectively). Higher perceived discrimination was significantly associated with worse overall HRQOL (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.08, 1.15), with stronger effects for women in overall and mental HRQOL. These gender disparities remained significant until controlling for potentially confounding variables. Perceived discrimination did not account for gender differences in poor physical HRQOL. Perceived discrimination is associated with poor HRQOL in older African Americans, with this association appearing stronger in women than men for mental HRQOL. These findings warrant further investigation of effects of perceived discrimination in gender disparities in overall health, and such research can inform and guide efforts for reducing these disparities.

  6. Perceived Calling and Work Engagement Among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedelis, Arunas

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of perceived calling and work engagement in nursing over and above major work environment factors. In all, 351 nurses from various health care institutions completed the survey. Data were collected about the most demanding aspects of nursing, major job resources, the degree to which nursing is perceived as a meaningful calling, work engagement, and main demographic information. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to assess the relation between perceived calling and work engagement, while controlling for demographic and work environment factors, and perceived calling was significantly related to two out of three components of nurses' work engagement. The highest association was found with dedication component, and vigor component was related insignificantly. Results have shown that perceived calling might motivate nurses to engage in their work even in burdensome environment, although possible implications for the occupational well-being of nurses themselves remains unclear.

  7. Worry and perceived threat of proximal and distal undesirable outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Berenbaum, Howard; Spielberg, Jeffrey M

    2012-04-01

    Individuals who are prone to worry tend to overestimate the likelihoods and costs of future undesirable outcomes. However, it is unclear whether these relations vary as a function of the timeframe of the event in question. In the present study, 342 undergraduate students completed a self-report measure of worry and rated the perceived probabilities and costs of 40 undesirable outcomes. Specifically, each participant estimated the probability that each of these outcomes would occur within three different timeframes: the next month, the next year, and the next 10 years. We found that the strength of the association between worry and probability estimates was strongest for the most proximal timeframe. Probability estimates were more strongly associated with worry for participants with elevated cost estimates, and this interactive effect was strongest for the most distal timeframe. Implications of these findings for understanding the etiology and treatment of excessive worry are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceived corporate social responsibility and its implementation in practice: the case study of Lithuanian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Salciuviene, Laura; Hopeniene, Rimante; Dovaliene, Aiste

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports in media and research findings in the scientific literature suggest the growing importance of corporate social responsibility among practitioners, especially in the case of small and medium-sized enterprises that are characterised by limited resources required to adequately compete in the fast changing macro-environment. Previous research still lacks clarity about perceived corporate social responsibility, its strengths and challenges that small and medium-sized enterprises fac...

  9. Tracking Without Perceiving: A Dissociation Between Eye Movements and Motion Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Spering, Miriam; Pomplun, Marc; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Can people react to objects in their visual field that they do not consciously perceive? We investigated how visual perception and motor action respond to moving objects whose visibility is reduced, and we found a dissociation between motion processing for perception and for action. We compared motion perception and eye movements evoked by two orthogonally drifting gratings, each presented separately to a different eye. The strength of each monocular grating was manipulated by inducing adapta...

  10. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  11. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  12. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity...

  13. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  14. Line strengths in WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leep, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The author has analyzed high-dispersion spectra of over 100 WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC). Most of the spectra were obtained through 4-m telescopes (Conti, Leep, and Perry 1981). The measured strengths of the WN classification lines N III lambdalambda4634-41, N IV lambda4057, N V lambda4604 (Smith 1968) for stars on WN subtypes 2.5-8 are shown. The assignments of WN subtypes are based on visual estimates of ratios of line strengths according to the scheme of Smith (1968), except that stars appearing to be earlier than WN3 are classified as WN2 or WN2.5 as explained by van der Hucht et al. (1981) and by Conti, Leep and Perry (1981). (Auth.)

  15. The effects of savings on reservation wages and search effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations among wealth, reservation wages and search effort. A theoretical job search model predicts wealth to affect reservation wages positively, and search effort negatively. Subsequently, reduced form equations for reservation wages and search intensity take these

  16. Effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, G. R.; Cai, Z.; Su, Y. N.; Zong, S. L.; Zhai, G. Y.; Jia, J. H.

    2017-08-01

    Compared with traditional manufacturing mode, could networked manufacturing improve effort levels of the partners? What factors will affect effort level of the partners? How to encourage the partners to improve their effort levels? To answer these questions, we introduce network effect coefficient to build effort level model of the partners in networked manufacturing. The results show that (1) with the increase of the network effect in networked manufacturing, the actual effort level can go beyond the ideal level of traditional manufacturing. (2) Profit allocation based on marginal contribution rate would help improve effort levels of the partners in networked manufacturing. (3) The partners in networked manufacturing who wishes to have a larger distribution ratio must make a higher effort level, and enterprises with insufficient effort should be terminated in networked manufacturing.

  17. Soil strength and forest operations

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed. The study is largely restricted to sandy and loamy soils because of their importance for Dutch forestry.

    Soil strength, defined as the resistance of soil structure against the impa...

  18. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  19. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Forex - one particular alumina ceramic, I our own detailed crack ample, the relatively large values of r, and c* for the VI observations, and those of...particularly toughness indices, 1i71", indicating that there is sonic the c° , T parameters. However, the indentation mcth- kind of trade -o1Tbetwecn...macroscopic and microsnpic odology takes us closer to the strengths of specimens toughness levels, and that this trade -off is cont’olled by with natural

  20. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  1. Indigenous Design for Automatic Testing of Tensile Strength Using Graphical User Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rafay; Junejo Faraz; Imtiaz Rafey; Shamsi Usama Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Tensile Testing is a fundamental material test to measure the tenacity and tensile strength. Tensile strength means ability to take tensile stress. This Universal Testing Machine is designed using Dual Cylinder Technique in order to comply with the maximun load (tensile force) with the reduction of minimum physical effort and minimized losses.It is to provide material testing opportunity to the students of different institutions, locally and globally, at lowest price; so that they can have a ...

  2. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners' ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns.

  3. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka eKoren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 seconds excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which twenty musicians and twenty non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and 9 non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non‐musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note

  4. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns. PMID:24605104

  5. Perceived Discrimination and Longitudinal Change in Kidney Function Among Urban Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A; Poggi-Burke, Angedith; Zonderman, Alan B; Rostant, Ola S; Evans, Michele K; Crews, Deidra C

    2017-09-01

    Perceived discrimination has been associated with psychosocial distress and adverse health outcomes. We examined associations of perceived discrimination measures with changes in kidney function in a prospective cohort study, the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span. Our study included 1620 participants with preserved baseline kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m) (662 whites and 958 African Americans, aged 30-64 years). Self-reported perceived racial discrimination and perceived gender discrimination (PGD) and a general measure of experience of discrimination (EOD) ("medium versus low," "high versus low") were examined in relation to baseline, follow-up, and annual rate of change in eGFR using multiple mixed-effects regression (γbase, γrate) and ordinary least square models (γfollow). Perceived gender discrimination "high versus low PGD" was associated with a lower baseline eGFR in all models (γbase = -3.51 (1.34), p = .009 for total sample). Among white women, high EOD was associated with lower baseline eGFR, an effect that was strengthened in the full model (γbase = -5.86 [2.52], p = .020). Overall, "high versus low" PGD was associated with lower follow-up eGFR (γfollow = -3.03 [1.45], p = .036). Among African American women, both perceived racial discrimination and PGD were linked to lower follow-up kidney function, an effect that was attenuated with covariate adjustment, indicating mediation through health-related, psychosocial, and lifestyle factors. In contrast, EOD was not linked to follow-up eGFR in any of the sex by race groups. Perceived racial and gender discrimination are associated with lower kidney function assessed by glomerular filtration rate and the strength of associations differ by sex and race groups. Perceived discrimination deserves further investigation as a psychosocial risk factors for kidney disease.

  6. Effort-Based Decision-Making Paradigms for Clinical Trials in Schizophrenia: Part 2—External Validity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Reddy, L Felice; Barch, Deanna M; Buchanan, Robert W; Dunayevich, Eduardo; Gold, James M; Marder, Steven R; Wynn, Jonathan K; Young, Jared W; Green, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Effort-based decision making has strong conceptual links to the motivational disturbances that define a key subdomain of negative symptoms. However, the extent to which effort-based decision-making performance relates to negative symptoms, and other clinical and functionally important variables has yet to be systematically investigated. In 94 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, we examined the external validity of 5 effort-based paradigms, including the Effort Expenditure for Rewards, Balloon Effort, Grip Strength Effort, Deck Choice Effort, and Perceptual Effort tasks. These tasks covered 3 types of effort: physical, cognitive, and perceptual. Correlations between effort related performance and 6 classes of variables were examined, including: (1) negative symptoms, (2) clinically rated motivation and community role functioning, (3) self-reported motivational traits, (4) neurocognition, (5) other psychiatric symptoms and clinical/demographic characteristics, and (6) subjective valuation of monetary rewards. Effort paradigms showed small to medium relationships to clinical ratings of negative symptoms, motivation, and functioning, with the pattern more consistent for some measures than others. They also showed small to medium relations with neurocognitive functioning, but were generally unrelated to other psychiatric symptoms, self-reported traits, antipsychotic medications, side effects, and subjective valuation of money. There were relatively strong interrelationships among the effort measures. In conjunction with findings from a companion psychometric article, all the paradigms warrant further consideration and development, and 2 show the strongest potential for clinical trial use at this juncture. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Goal Setting and Expectancy Theory Predictions of Effort and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Luce, Helen E.

    Neither expectancy (VIE) theory nor goal setting alone are effective determinants of individual effort and task performance. To test the combined ability of VIE and goal setting to predict effort and performance, 44 real estate agents and their managers completed questionnaires. Quarterly income goals predicted managers' ratings of agents' effort,…

  8. Handgrip Strength as a Darwinian Fitness Indicator in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Gallup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Handgrip strength (HGS is a robust measure of overall muscular strength and function, and has long been predictive of a multitude of health factors and physical outcomes for both men and women. The fact that HGS represents such a ubiquitous measure of health and vitality may reflect the significance of this trait during human evolution. This trait is also highly sexually dimorphic due to influences of androgenic hormones and fat-free body mass, suggesting that it has been further elaborated through sexual selection. Consistent with this view, research within evolutionary psychology and related fields has documented distinct relationships between HGS and measures of social and sexual behavior, especially in men. Here, we review studies across different societies and cultural contexts showing that male HGS predicts measures of aggression and social dominance, perceived formidability, male-typical body morphology and movement, courtship display, physical attractiveness, and sexual behavior and reproductive fitness. These findings underscore the value of including HGS as an independent measure within studies examining human sexual selection, and corroborate existing research suggesting that specific features of physical strength have and continue to be under positive directional selection in men.

  9. Handgrip Strength as a Darwinian Fitness Indicator in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Fink, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Handgrip strength (HGS) is a robust measure of overall muscular strength and function, and has long been predictive of a multitude of health factors and physical outcomes for both men and women. The fact that HGS represents such a ubiquitous measure of health and vitality may reflect the significance of this trait during human evolution. This trait is also highly sexually dimorphic due to influences of androgenic hormones and fat-free body mass, suggesting that it has been further elaborated through sexual selection. Consistent with this view, research within evolutionary psychology and related fields has documented distinct relationships between HGS and measures of social and sexual behavior, especially in men. Here, we review studies across different societies and cultural contexts showing that male HGS predicts measures of aggression and social dominance, perceived formidability, male-typical body morphology and movement, courtship display, physical attractiveness, and sexual behavior and reproductive fitness. These findings underscore the value of including HGS as an independent measure within studies examining human sexual selection, and corroborate existing research suggesting that specific features of physical strength have and continue to be under positive directional selection in men.

  10. Beholder and Beheld: A Multilevel Model of Perceived Sexual Appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaronis, Julia E; Strassberg, Donald S; Cundiff, Jeanne M; Cann, Deanna J

    2015-11-01

    When individuals (observers) assess how appealing they find sexual stimuli (targets), which factors matter and to whom? The present study examined how observer and target characteristics interact and impact perceived sexual appeal. Participants were 302 men (206 heterosexual, 96 gay) and 289 women (196 heterosexual, 93 lesbian) between the ages of 18 and 67 years, who viewed 34 photographs of targets of their preferred gender and rated each target for sexual appeal, masculinity-femininity, and estimated age. Participants also rated their own masculinity-femininity. A baseline model indicated that roughly 30 % of the variance in sexual appeal ratings was at the observer level (between observers) and 70 % of the variance was at the target level (within observers). In the final model, five characteristics of the participant observers (gender, sexual orientation, age, race/ethnicity, and self-described masculinity-femininity) and six characteristics of the target photographs (gender, whether the photographs were taken from heterosexual versus gay/lesbian media, race/ethnicity, perceived masculinity-femininity, and estimated age) were independently and interactively related to observer ratings of target sexual appeal. Observers displayed preferences for similar targets in terms of race/ethnicity and masculinity-femininity, while also displaying a general preference for target youth. Variation in the strength of these preferences occurred according to observers' own gender, race/ethnicity, masculinity-femininity, and sexual orientation.

  11. Vaccine adverse event monitoring systems across the European Union countries: time for unifying efforts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanoni, Giovanna

    2009-05-26

    A survey conducted among 26 European Countries within the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project assessed the status of organization in prevention and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and level of interconnection, with the aim at individuating points of strength and weakness. The emerging picture is for a strong political commitment to control AEFIs in Member States (MS), but with consistent heterogeneity in procedures, regulations and capacity of systems to collect, analyze and use data, although with great potentialities. Suggestions are posed by authors to promote actions for unifying strategies and policies among MS.

  12. Longitudinal Effects of Student-Perceived Classroom Support on Motivation - A Latent Change Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, Rebecca; Raufelder, Diana

    2017-01-01

    This two-wave longitudinal study examined how developmental changes in students' mastery goal orientation, academic effort, and intrinsic motivation were predicted by student-perceived support of motivational support (support for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in secondary classrooms. The study extends previous knowledge that showed that support for motivational support in class is related to students' intrinsic motivation as it focused on the developmental changes of a set of different motivational variables and the relations of these changes to student-perceived motivational support in class. Thus, differential classroom effects on students' motivational development were investigated. A sample of 1088 German students was assessed in the beginning of the school year when students were in grade 8 ( Mean age = 13.70, SD = 0.53, 54% girls) and again at the end of the next school year when students were in grade 9. Results of latent change models showed a tendency toward decline in mastery goal orientation and a significant decrease in academic effort from grade 8 to 9. Intrinsic motivation did not decrease significantly across time. Student-perceived support of competence in class predicted the level and change in students' academic effort. The findings emphasized that it is beneficial to create classroom learning environments that enhance students' perceptions of competence in class when aiming to enhance students' academic effort in secondary school classrooms.

  13. Longitudinal Effects of Student-Perceived Classroom Support on Motivation – A Latent Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, Rebecca; Raufelder, Diana

    2017-01-01

    This two-wave longitudinal study examined how developmental changes in students’ mastery goal orientation, academic effort, and intrinsic motivation were predicted by student-perceived support of motivational support (support for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in secondary classrooms. The study extends previous knowledge that showed that support for motivational support in class is related to students’ intrinsic motivation as it focused on the developmental changes of a set of different motivational variables and the relations of these changes to student-perceived motivational support in class. Thus, differential classroom effects on students’ motivational development were investigated. A sample of 1088 German students was assessed in the beginning of the school year when students were in grade 8 (Mean age = 13.70, SD = 0.53, 54% girls) and again at the end of the next school year when students were in grade 9. Results of latent change models showed a tendency toward decline in mastery goal orientation and a significant decrease in academic effort from grade 8 to 9. Intrinsic motivation did not decrease significantly across time. Student-perceived support of competence in class predicted the level and change in students’ academic effort. The findings emphasized that it is beneficial to create classroom learning environments that enhance students’ perceptions of competence in class when aiming to enhance students’ academic effort in secondary school classrooms. PMID:28382012

  14. Perceived Social Support among Mentally Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Pokharel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is the perception that one is cared for, has assistance available from significant others and its benefit is by buffering stress by influencing the ability to adjust and live with illness. Social support can uplift the quality and subjective wellbeing of people. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived social support and factors influencing it among mentally ill patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Ninety cases aged more than 18 years visiting outpatient of psychiatric department and diagnosed as a case of mental illness for at least a year were included. Instruments used were self-developed proforma and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Interview technique was used to collect the data. Results: Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family, 28% of the patients perceive social support from significant others. Regression analysis showed that the perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. It is not influenced by gender, subjective financial status and frequency of hospitalization. Conclusion: Perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family.

  15. Perceived Gender Equality in Managerial Positions in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominc Polona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This research aims to achieve two main objectives: to investigate differences between male and female managers regarding the perceived gender equality in organizations and to analyze the gender differences in relationships among the perceived gender equality, the perceived satisfaction with employment position and career, the perceived satisfaction with work, and the perceived work-family conflict.

  16. Experimental setting for assessing mechanical strength of gas hydrate pellet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, S.J.; Choi, J.H.; Koh, B.H. [Dongguk Univ., Phil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Due to the constant increase in global demand for clean energy, natural gas production from stranded medium and small size gas wells has drawn significant interest. Because the ocean transport of natural gas in the form of solid hydrate pellets (NGHP) has been estimated to be economically feasible, several efforts have been made to develop a total NGHP ocean transport chain. The investigation of mechanical strength of solid-form hydrate pellet has been an important task in fully exploiting the benefit of gas hydrate in the perspective of mass transportation and storage. This paper provided the results of a preliminary study regarding the assessment of mechanical properties of the gas hydrate pellet. The preliminary study suggested some of the key issues regarding formation and strength of gas hydrate pellets. Instead of utilizing the gas hydrate pellet, the study focused on a preliminary test setup for developing the ice pellet which was readily applied to the gas hydrate pellet in the future. The paper described the pelletization of ice powder as well as the experimental setup. Several photographs were illustrated, including samples of ice pellets; compression test for ice pellet using air press and load cell; and the initiation of crack in the cross section of an ice pellet. It was found that mechanical strength, especially, compression strength was not significantly affected by different level of press-forming force up to a certain level. 4 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, X. X.; Ge, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material, 20 groups of geopolymer grouting materials were prepared, the compressive strength and flexural strength were determined by mechanical properties test. On the basis of excluding the abnormal values through boxplot, the results show that, the compressive strength test results were normal, but there were two mild outliers in 7days flexural strength test. The compressive strength and flexural strength were linearly fitted by SPSS, six regression models were obtained by linear fitting of compressive strength and flexural strength. The linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength can be better expressed by the cubic curve model, and the correlation coefficient was 0.842.

  18. Hot pressing, strength, and fracture of calcium hexaboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Fracture behavior and strength of hot-pressed CaB 6 were studied. The modulus of elasticity determined by attaching strain gages to the tensile surface of the bend bars to measure strain, was 55 +- 3 x 10 6 psi. The results are compared with values for other low density ceramic materials (B 4 C, SiB 6 , Be 4 B, AlB 12 ) in a table. The fracture mode was observed for both modulus of rupture and impact test specimens. Predominantly transgranular fracture, associated with distinct step cleavages is evident. Fracture origins were examined in an effort to understand the strength limiting features in hot-pressed CaB 6 specimens. Surface defects, large grain agglomerations, and isolated pore pockets were observed and varied from bar to bar; these were similar to those found in B 4 C. (U.S.)

  19. A Thermodamage Strength Theoretical Model of Ceramic Materials Taking into Account the Effect of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodamage strength theoretical model taking into account the effect of residual stress was established and applied to each temperature phase based on the study of effects of various physical mechanisms on the fracture strength of ultrahigh-temperature ceramics. The effects of SiC particle size, crack size, and SiC particle volume fraction on strength corresponding to different temperatures were studied in detail. This study showed that when flaw size is not large, the bigger SiC particle size results in the greater effect of tensile residual stress in the matrix grains on strength reduction, and this prediction coincides with experimental results; and the residual stress and the combined effort of particle size and crack size play important roles in controlling material strength.

  20. Influence of drug colour on perceived drug effects and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Wang, Tieyan; Wang, Tieshan; Qu, Xingda

    2018-02-01

    A drug's physical characteristics, such as colour, could be factors influencing its therapeutic effects. It is not well understood whether people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy are affected by colour, especially among Chinese population. This study was conducted to examine people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy on the basis of drug colour, and to reveal possible gender differences in colour-related drug expectations. Participants (n = 224) were asked to classify seven single-coloured and six two-coloured capsules into one of four categories of drug effects, and to indicate the strength of drug efficacy. It is found that all the coloured capsules yielded non-chance distributions in classifications of drug effects, with six single-coloured and four two-coloured capsules associated with specific drug effects. Colour also conveyed differential strengths of drug efficacy in general and in relation to specific drug effects. There were gender differences in drug expectations for some colours and colour combinations. Practitioner Summary: Drug colour was found to have impacts on perceived drug effects and efficacy. The findings from the present study can be used by ergonomics practitioners to design appropriate drug colours in support of drug differentiation, therapeutic effects and medication adherence.

  1. EFFECTS OF COMPACTIVE EFFORTS ON GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SPENT ENGINE OIL CONTAMINATED LATERITE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUREMI, J. ROTIMI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effects of compactive efforts and spent engine oil (SEO contamination on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soils was made. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing lateritic soil with up to 10 % SEO by dry weight of the soil in step concentration of 2 % and subjected to geotechnical tests. Results indicated a decrease in the fine content, decrease in liquid limit, maximum dry density (MDD and unconfined compressive strength (UCS with up to 10 % SEO content. No general trend was observed in the optimum moisture content (OMC with increasing SEO content. The MDD, OMC and UCS values increased with increase in the compactive effort. Regression analysis of the results showed that optimum moisture content, fine content and compactive effort significantly influence the soils UCS values. Analysis of variance showed that SEO and compactive effort has significant effect on the parameters with the exception in one case. The results of laboratory tests showed that geotechnical properties of the SEO contaminated soil were immensely impaired.

  2. Employee effort - reward balance and first-level manager transformational leadership within elderly care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisu, Britt-Inger; Öhman, Ann; Enberg, Birgit

    2018-03-01

    Negative aspects, staff dissatisfaction and problems related to internal organisational factors of working in elderly care are well-known and documented. Much less is known about positive aspects of working in elderly care, and therefore, this study focuses on such positive factors in Swedish elderly care. We combined two theoretical models, the effort-reward imbalance model and the Transformational Leadership Style model. The aim was to estimate the potential associations between employee-perceived transformational leadership style of their managers, and employees' ratings of effort and reward within elderly care work. The article is based on questionnaires distributed at on-site visits to registered nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists (high-level education) and assistant nurses (low-level education) in nine Swedish elderly care facilities. In order to grasp the positive factors of work in elderly care, we focused on balance at work, rather than imbalance. We found a significant association between employees' effort-reward balance at work and a transformational leadership style among managers. An association was also found between employees' level of education and their assessments of the first-level managers. We conclude that the first-level manager is an important actor for achieving a good workplace within elderly care, since she/he influences employees' psychosocial working environment. We also conclude that there are differences and inequalities, in terms of well-being, effort and reward at the work place, between those with academic training and those without, in that the former group to a higher degree evaluated their first-level manager to perform a transformational leadership style, which in turn is beneficial for their psychosocial work environment. Consequently, this (re)-produce inequalities in terms of well-being, effort and reward among the employees at the work place. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Mental well-being mediates the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Hui Chian; Archer, Josephine A; Chang, Weining; Chen, S H Annabel

    2015-02-01

    The association between stress and health has been well researched in the past; however, comparatively few mediators have been tested to understand the underlying mechanism. With increasing awareness on mental well-being, this study evaluated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health and examined mental well-being as a mediator. Two-hundred undergraduates aged 21 to 26 years completed the English Perceived Stress Scale, Health Status Questionnaire and Asian Mental Well-Being Scale that assess perceived stress, perceived health and mental well-being, respectively. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling on the Perceived Stress Scale replicated the reported two-factor structure after excluding an insignificant item. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived stress was negatively associated with perceived health. Results showed that mental well-being partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health, although it is acknowledged that this association could be bidirectional. Findings from the present study suggest that future research could focus on reducing stress and improving mental well-being to alleviate the effect of stress on health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Perceived discrimination, social support, and perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.

  5. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  6. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hollow building Blocks, granite dust, sand, partial replacement, compressive strength. 1. INTRODUCTION ... exposed to extreme climate. The physical ... Sridharan et al [13] conducted shear strength studies on soil-quarry dust.

  7. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural safety assessment of corroded structures, residual strength should be ... Rahbar-Ranji (2001) has proposed a spectrum for random simulation of ... The main aim of the present work is to investigate the buckling strength of simply ...

  8. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  9. Autonomy and Firefighting: Perceived Competence and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Baley, John; Ponder, Joy; Padilla, Miguel A

    2016-12-01

    In workplace settings, autonomy is implicated in employee motivation as well as supervisor autonomy support. As a profession of risk, firefighters may experience greater levels of stress. A self-determination paradigm was applied to the firefighter workplace. Of particular interest were perceived competence (to perform job duties) and the experience of stress. Firefighters' levels of autonomous and controlled regulation were surveyed, along with their perceptions of the autonomy support of their immediate supervisor. Autonomous regulation was positively related to perceived competence, whereas controlled regulation was negatively related. Higher levels of controlled regulation were also connected with greater stress. In contrast, greater perceived autonomy support was associated with decreased stress. Both perceived competence and stress are related to firefighter motivation and autonomy support. Recommendations are offered to increase autonomy support by chief officers.

  10. Perceived Effectiveness of Community-driven Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Effectiveness of Community-driven Development Approach of Community and Social ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... that CSDP in Oyo state be scaled up and the CDD approach be adopted for rural development.

  11. Exploring the Psychological Influence of Perceived Negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    2017-10-14

    Oct 14, 2017 ... This paper critically examined the psychological influence of ... development, there are some perceived negative foreign factors that have constituted ..... essence, it is the sum total of the individual's cognitive, intellectual and ...

  12. Social phobia and perceived friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2009-10-01

    Although it is clear that people with social phobia have interpersonal impairment, evidence that social phobia (as opposed to other mental disorders) affects friendship in particular is lacking. Two large epidemiological datasets were used to test whether diagnosis of social phobia is related to perceived friendship quality above and beyond perceived family relationship quality, diagnosis of other mental disorders, and a variety of demographic variables. After Bonferroni correction, social phobia was the only diagnosis related to perceived friendship quality above and beyond other factors, such that people with social phobia reported more impaired friendship quality. Social phobia's effect was similar in magnitude to demographic characteristics in both samples. The current study demonstrates that social phobia is specifically related to perceived friendship quality, suggesting that this aspect of social phobia's effects is worthy of further study.

  13. Perceived Discrimination and Social Identity as Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Discrimination and Social Identity as Adolescents' Pathways to ... Also, a comparison of gender on drug use reveals males using more drugs than ... and governmental organizations starting from families should work together in the ...

  14. The Rwandan teachers' and learners' perceived speaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    The innovation of Spolsky's (1989) model of second language learning is that it was presented in the form of a mathematic ... perceived proficiency in speaking Kinyarwanda and English. Methods .... is very effective for the learners' learning.

  15. Perceived weight discrimination, childhood maltreatment, and weight gain in U.S. adults with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-06-01

    Perceived weight discrimination and childhood maltreatment have been independently associated with physical and mental health issues, as well as weight gain. It is not known, however, whether childhood maltreatment modifies the relationship between perceived weight discrimination and weight changes. This study examined the relationship between perceived weight discrimination, childhood maltreatment, and changes in body mass index (BMI) over 3 years in 21,357 men and women with overweight and obesity from Wave 1 and Wave 2 surveys of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Reporting childhood maltreatment, regardless of the specific form of maltreatment, was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of perceived weight discrimination in women. Perceived weight discrimination was associated with a significantly greater increase in BMI in both genders. Among all women with perceived weight discrimination, those who also reported having experienced childhood maltreatment had significantly less BMI increase compared to those reporting not having experienced childhood maltreatment. Perceived weight discrimination may foster weight gain rather than encouraging weight loss in individuals with overweight/obesity and should be addressed in prevention efforts and clinical settings. Childhood maltreatment may perhaps sensitize individuals to subsequent stressors and increase vulnerability to perceived weight discrimination, particularly in women. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  16. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  17. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality...... as efforts to decrease risk of the purchasing decision. Moreover, consumers with such behaviour seem to relate domestic country of origin of meat mostly with perceptions of general safety. Finally, a small, but promising trend with substantial marketing implications of frequent purchases of chicken and pork...... and to develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach...

  18. Academic context and perceived mental workload of psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; López-Higes, Ramón; Díaz-Ramiro, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The excessive workload of university students is an academic stressor. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate and control the workload in education. This research applies the NASA-TLX scale, as a measure of the workload. The objectives of this study were: (a) to measure the workload levels of a sample of 367 psychology students, (b) to group students according to their positive or negative perception of academic context (AC) and c) to analyze the effects of AC on workload. To assess the perceived AC, we used an ad hoc questionnaire designed according to Demand-Control-Social Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance models. Using cluster analysis, participants were classified into two groups (positive versus negative context). The differences between groups show that a positive AC improves performance (p student autonomy and result satisfaction were relevant dimensions of the AC (p < .001 in all cases).

  19. Drive for muscularity and social physique anxiety mediate the perceived ideal physique muscle dysmorphia relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adam; Tod, David A; Edwards, Christian J; McGuigan, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the mediating role of drive for muscularity and social physique anxiety (SPA) in the perceived muscular male ideal physique and muscle dysmorphia relationship in weight training men. Men (N = 146, mean ± SD; age, 22.8 ± 5.0 years; weight, 82.0 ± 11.1 kg; height, 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass index, 25.1 ± 3.0) who participated in weight training completed validated questionnaires measuring drive for muscularity, SPA, perceived muscular male ideal physique, global muscle dysmorphia, and several characteristics of muscle dysmorphia (exercise dependence, diet manipulation, concerns about size/symmetry, physique protection behavior, and supplementation). Perceived ideal physique was an independent predictor of muscle dysmorphia measures except physique protection (coefficients = 0.113-0.149, p ≤ 0.05). Perceived ideal physique also predicted muscle dysmorphia characteristics (except physique protection and diet) through the indirect drive for muscularity pathway (coefficients = 0.055-0.116, p ≤ 0.05). Perceived ideal physique also predicted size/symmetry concerns and physique protection through the indirect drive for muscularity and SPA pathway (coefficients = 0.080-0.025, p ≤ 0.05). These results extend current research by providing insights into the way correlates of muscle dysmorphia interact to predict the condition. The results also highlight signs (e.g., anxiety about muscularity) that strength and conditioning coaches can use to identify at-risk people who may benefit from being referred for psychological assistance.

  20. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  1. Relationship between the edgewise compression strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study were used to determine the linear regression constants in the Maltenfort model by correlating the measured board edgewise compression strength (ECT) with the predicted strength, using the paper components' compression strengths, measured with the short-span compression test (SCT) and the ...

  2. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  3. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  4. Resource scarcity, effort, and performance in physically demanding jobs: An evolutionary explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitesa, Marko; Thau, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Based on evolutionary theory, we predicted that cues of resource scarcity in the environment (e.g., news of droughts or food shortages) lead people to reduce their effort and performance in physically demanding work. We tested this prediction in a 2-wave field survey among employees and replicated it experimentally in the lab. In Study 1, employees who perceived resources in the environment to be scarce reported exerting less effort when their jobs involved much (but not little) physical work. In Study 2, participants who read that resources in the environment were scarce performed worse on a task demanding more (carrying books) but not less (transcribing book titles) physical work. This result was found even though better performance increased participants' chances of additional remuneration, and even though scarcity cues did not affect individuals' actual ability to meet their energy needs. We discuss implications for managing effort and performance, and the potential of evolutionary psychology to explain core organizational phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Internet usage purposes and gender differences in the effects of perceived utilitarian and hedonic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse

    2010-04-01

    Previous research on both hedonic and utilitarian value has focused considerable effort on outcomes. Few studies compare the impact of Internet usage purposes and gender differences on perceived value effect. The current study explores whether differences in the relative influence of hedonic and utilitarian value affect consumer information search and shopping intentions on the Internet. This study also compares perceived value impact on behavioral intention among respondents in regard to gender. This research uses structural equation modeling of survey data (N = 341). Results show that perceived hedonic and utilitarian value have significantly different effect on information search and shopping intention through the Internet. Hedonic values have positively higher association with customer intention to buy than with intent to search information. Findings also show that hedonic values influence male user intentions to search information but do not influence females. This work presents a theoretical discussion and implications based on the results for the benefit of online practitioners.

  6. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  7. Toward a Rational and Mechanistic Account of Mental Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Musslick, Sebastian; Lieder, Falk; Kool, Wouter; Griffiths, Thomas L; Cohen, Jonathan D; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2017-07-25

    In spite of its familiar phenomenology, the mechanistic basis for mental effort remains poorly understood. Although most researchers agree that mental effort is aversive and stems from limitations in our capacity to exercise cognitive control, it is unclear what gives rise to those limitations and why they result in an experience of control as costly. The presence of these control costs also raises further questions regarding how best to allocate mental effort to minimize those costs and maximize the attendant benefits. This review explores recent advances in computational modeling and empirical research aimed at addressing these questions at the level of psychological process and neural mechanism, examining both the limitations to mental effort exertion and how we manage those limited cognitive resources. We conclude by identifying remaining challenges for theoretical accounts of mental effort as well as possible applications of the available findings to understanding the causes of and potential solutions for apparent failures to exert the mental effort required of us.

  8. Perceived barriers to communication between hospital and nursing home at time of patient transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faraaz; Burack, Orah; Boockvar, Kenneth S

    2010-05-01

    To identify perceived barriers to communication between hospital and nursing home at the time of patient transfer and examine associations between perceived barriers and hospital and nursing home characteristics. Mailed survey. Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing homes in New York State. Nursing home administrators, with input from other nursing home staff. Respondents rated the importance as a barrier to hospital-nursing home communication of (1) hospital providers' attitude, time, effort, training, payment, and familiarity with nursing home patients; (2) unplanned and off-hours transfers; (3) HIPAA privacy regulations; and (4) lost or failed information transmission. Associations were determined between barriers and the following organizational characteristics: (1) hospital-nursing home affiliations, pharmacy or laboratory agreements, cross-site staff visits, and cross-site physician care; (2) hospital size, teaching status, and frequency of geriatrics specialty care; (3) nursing home size, location, type, staffing, and Medicare quality indicators; and (4) hospital-to-nursing home communication, consistency of hospital care with health care goals, and communication quality improvement efforts. Of 647 questionnaires sent, 229 were returned (35.4%). The most frequently reported perceived barriers to communication were sudden or unplanned transfers (44.4%), transfers that occur at night or on the weekend (41.4%), and hospital providers' lack of effort (51.0%), lack of familiarity with patients (45.0%), and lack of time (43.5%). Increased hospital size, teaching hospitals, and urban nursing home location were associated with greater perceived importance of these barriers, and cross-site staff visits and hospital provision of laboratory and pharmacy services to the nursing home were associated with lower perceived importance of these barriers. Hospital and nursing home characteristics and interorganizational relationships were associated with nursing home

  9. Complex interplay between health and successful aging: role of perceived stress, resilience, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-06-01

    Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  10. Effort-Based Career Opportunities and Working Time

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, M.; Staffolani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluate the economic effects of the hypothesis of effort-based career opportunities, described as a situation in which a firm creates incentives for employees to work longer hours than bargained (or desired), by making career prospects depend on relative working hours. Firms' personnel management policies may tend to increase working time (or workers' effort) in order to maximize profits. Effort-based career opportunities raise working time, production and output per worker, and ...

  11. The Role of Cognitive Effort in Framing Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Przybyszewski; Dorota Rutkowska

    2013-01-01

    Framing effects are a common bias in people making risky decisions. The account for this bias is found in the loss aversion derived from Prospect Theory. Most often in the decision making literature this is the effortful processes that are claimed to reduce framing effects in risky choice tasks i.e. investing of mental effort should de-bias the decision makers. However, in goal framing studies, effortful mental processes may produce those effects. In our experiment participants were primed wi...

  12. Alcoholic beverage strength discrimination by taste may have an upper threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Given the association between alcohol consumption and negative health consequences, there is a need for individuals to be aware of their consumption of ethanol, which requires knowledge of serving sizes and alcoholic strength. This study is one of the first to systematically investigate the ability to discriminate alcoholic strength by taste. Nine discrimination tests (total n = 413) according to International Standardization Organization (ISO) 4120 sensory analysis methodology "triangle test" were performed. A perceptible difference was found for vodka in orange juice (0.0 vs. 0.5% vol; 0 vs. 1% vol), pilsner and wheat beer (0.5 vs. 5% vol), and vodka in orange juice (5 vs. 10% vol, 20 vs. 30% vol, and 30 vs. 40% vol). The percentage of the population perceiving a difference between the beverages varied between 36 and 73%. Alcoholic strength (higher vs. lower) was correctly assigned in only 4 of the 7 trials at a significant level, with 30 to 66% of the trial groups assigning the correct strength. For the trials that included beverages above 40% vol (vodka unmixed, 40 vs. 50% vol and vodka in orange juice, 40 vs. 50% vol), testers could neither perceive a difference between the samples nor assign correct alcoholic strength. Discrimination of alcoholic strength by taste was possible to a limited degree in a window of intermediate alcoholic strengths, but not at higher concentrations. This result is especially relevant for drinkers of unlabeled, over-proof unrecorded alcoholic beverages who would potentially ingest more alcohol than if they were to ingest commercial alcohol. Our study provides strong evidence for the strict implementation and enforcement of labeling requirements for all alcoholic beverages to allow informed decision making by consumers. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Stretch-sensitive paresis and effort perception in hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinti, Maria; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie; Burke, David; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2015-08-01

    In spastic paresis, stretch applied to the antagonist increases its inappropriate recruitment during agonist command (spastic co-contraction). It is unknown whether antagonist stretch: (1) also affects agonist recruitment; (2) alters effort perception. We quantified voluntary activation of ankle dorsiflexors, effort perception, and plantar flexor co-contraction during graded dorsiflexion efforts at two gastrocnemius lengths. Eighteen healthy (age 41 ± 13) and 18 hemiparetic (age 54 ± 12) subjects performed light, medium and maximal isometric dorsiflexion efforts with the knee flexed or extended. We determined dorsiflexor torque, Root Mean Square EMG and Agonist Recruitment/Co-contraction Indices (ARI/CCI) from the 500 ms peak voluntary agonist recruitment in a 5-s maximal isometric effort in tibialis anterior, soleus and medial gastrocnemius. Subjects retrospectively reported effort perception on a 10-point visual analog scale. During gastrocnemius stretch in hemiparetic subjects, we observed: (1) a 25 ± 7 % reduction of tibialis anterior voluntary activation (maximum reduction 98 %; knee extended vs knee flexed; p = 0.007, ANOVA); (2) an increase in dorsiflexion effort perception (p = 0.03, ANCOVA). Such changes did not occur in healthy subjects. Effort perception depended on tibialis anterior recruitment only (βARI(TA) = 0.61, p hemiparesis, voluntary ability to recruit agonist motoneurones is impaired--sometimes abolished--by antagonist stretch, a phenomenon defined here as stretch-sensitive paresis. In addition, spastic co-contraction increases effort perception, an additional incentive to evaluate and treat this phenomenon.

  14. Sharing Information among Various Organizations in Relief Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costur, Gurkan

    2005-01-01

    .... An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations...

  15. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  16. THE IMPACT OF THE PERCEIVED USEFULNESS OF WORKPLACE SOCIAL NETWORKS UPON THE INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOUR OF SME EMPLOYEES: A SOCIAL CAPITAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    MATTHEW J. XERRI; YVONNE BRUNETTO

    2011-01-01

    This research includes an examination about the impact of three organisational factors upon the perceived usefulness of workplace social networks for problem solving in engineering SMEs. As well this research examines the impact of the perceived usefulness of workplace social networks upon the innovative behaviour of engineering SME employees. More specifically, the dimensions of Social Capital Theory are applied as a lens to develop an understanding into the effect of the strength of workpla...

  17. Gender and the Perceived Equity - Perceived Organizational Support Link in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hossameldin KHALIFA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the relationships between perceived internal and external salary equities as independent variables, and perceived organizational support (POS as a dependent variable among Egyptian employees. Another objective was to investigate the moderation effect of gender on the aforementioned relationships. Data was obtained using a direct survey of 115 Egyptian employees drawn from a variety of industries. Findings suggest that both facets of perceived salary equity (internal and external have positive relationships with POS. Findings further suggest that the relationship between perceived internal salary equity and POS is stronger among males. Theoretical contributions, study limitations, as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.

  18. Effect of perceived Price, Brand Image, perceived Quality and Trust on Consumer’s buying Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Afsar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of factors such as perceived price, brand image, perceived quality and trust on consumers' evaluative judgments for beautification products. Results showed that brand image has positive and significant impact on consumer trust. Increase in perceived quality and trust depicted increase in a particular brand preference. Decrease in perceived price showed significant and positive impact on brand preference. This study measured the effect of brand image, price, quality and consumer trust information on how individuals subjectively evaluate a brand.

  19. PRA: A PERSPECTIVE ON STRENGTHS, CURRENT LIMITATIONS, AND POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI MOSLEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Has PRA delivered on its promise? How do we gage PRA performance? Are our expectations about value of PRA realistic? Are there disparities between what we get and what we think we are getting form PRA and its various derivatives? Do current PRAs reflect the knowledge gained from actual events? How do we address potential gaps? These are some of the questions that have been raised over the years since the inception of the field more than forty years ago. This paper offers a brief assessment of PRA as a technical discipline in theory and practice, its key strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions on ways to address real and perceived shortcomings.

  20. PRA: A Perspective on Strengths, Current Limitations, And Possible Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, Ail

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Has PRA delivered on its promise? How do we gage PRA performance? Are our expectations about value of PRA realistic? Are there disparities between what we get and what we think we are getting form PRA and its various derivatives? Do current PRAs reflect the knowledge gained from actual events? How do we address potential gaps? These are some of the questions that have been raised over the years since the inception of the field more than forty years ago. This paper offers a brief assessment of PRA as a technical discipline in theory and practice, its key strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions on ways to address real and perceived shortcomings

  1. Perceived Benefits and Challenges of Coordinated Approaches to Chronic Disease Prevention in State Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Sonia; Best, Leslie; Jones, Ellen; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic disease prevention efforts have historically been funded categorically according to disease or risk factor. Federal agencies are now progressively starting to fund combined programs to address common risk. The purpose of this study was to inform transitions to coordinated chronic disease prevention by learning views on perceived benefits and challenges of a coordinated approach to funding. Methods A national survey on evidence-based public health was conducted from March through May 2013 among state health department employees working in chronic disease prevention (N = 865). Participants were asked to rank the top 3 benefits and top 3 challenges in coordinating chronic disease approaches from provided lists and could provide additional responses. Descriptive analyses, χ2 tests, and analysis of variance were conducted. Results The most common perceived benefits of coordinated approaches to chronic disease prevention were improved health outcomes, common risk factors better addressed, and reduced duplication of program efforts. The most common perceived challenges were funding restrictions, such as disease-specific performance measures; competing priorities; lack of communication across programs; funding might be reduced; agency not structured for program coordination; and loss of disease-specific partner support. Rankings of benefits and challenges were similar across states and participant roles; the perceived challenges “lack of communication across programs” (P = .02) and “funding might be reduced” differed by program area (P organizational support for coordinated approaches, and create benefits for organizational partners. PMID:24809362

  2. Random matrix theory for transition strengths: Applications and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, V. K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Embedded random matrix ensembles are generic models for describing statistical properties of finite isolated interacting quantum many-particle systems. A finite quantum system, induced by a transition operator, makes transitions from its states to the states of the same system or to those of another system. Examples are electromagnetic transitions (then the initial and final systems are same), nuclear beta and double beta decay (then the initial and final systems are different) and so on. Using embedded ensembles (EE), there are efforts to derive a good statistical theory for transition strengths. With m fermions (or bosons) in N mean-field single particle levels and interacting via two-body forces, we have with GOE embedding, the so called EGOE(1+2). Now, the transition strength density (transition strength multiplied by the density of states at the initial and final energies) is a convolution of the density generated by the mean-field one-body part with a bivariate spreading function due to the two-body interaction. Using the embedding U(N) algebra, it is established, for a variety of transition operators, that the spreading function, for sufficiently strong interactions, is close to a bivariate Gaussian. Also, as the interaction strength increases, the spreading function exhibits a transition from bivariate Breit-Wigner to bivariate Gaussian form. In appropriate limits, this EE theory reduces to the polynomial theory of Draayer, French and Wong on one hand and to the theory due to Flambaum and Izrailev for one-body transition operators on the other. Using spin-cutoff factors for projecting angular momentum, the theory is applied to nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD). In this paper we will describe: (i) various developments in the EE theory for transition strengths; (ii) results for nuclear matrix elements for 130Te and 136Xe NDBD; (iii) important open questions in the current form of the EE theory.

  3. The Perceived Leadership Style and Employee Performance in Hotel Industry – a Dual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia ISPAS

    2012-01-01

    Hotel industry is an industry based on specific services and a high degree of employees (especially front line employees) client direct contact. A good relationship with the manager helps the subordinate to work beyond his daily effort, to be oriented to improve continuously his work performance and to give maximum of satisfaction to clients. This research paper is aiming to discuss the perceived leadership style and employees’ individual performance related to job satisfaction and organizati...

  4. Cobalt: for strength and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  5. High-strength beryllium block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.P.; Keith, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium billets hot isopressed using fine powder of high purity have exceptionally attractive properties; average tensile ultimate, 0.2% offset yield strength and elongation are 590 MPa, 430 MPa and 4.0% respectively. Properties are attributed to the fine grain size (about 4.0 μm average diameter) and the relatively low levels of BeO present as fine, well-dispersed particles. Dynamic properties, e.g., fracture toughness, are similar to those of standard grade, high-purity beryllium. The modulus of beryllium is retained to very high stress levels, and the microyield stress or precision elastic limit is higher than for other grades, including instrument grades. Limited data for billets made from normal-purity fine powders show similar room temperature properties. (author)

  6. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  7. Preparation, mechanical strengths, and thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Furukawa, S.; Hagiwara, M.; Masumoto, T.

    1987-05-01

    Ni-based amorphous wires with good bending ductility have been prepared for Ni75Si8B17 and Ni78P12B10 alloys containing 1 to 2 at. pct Al or Zr by melt spinning in rotating water. The enhancement of the wire-formation tendency by the addition of Al has been clarified to be due to the increase in the stability of the melt jet through the formation of a thin A12O3 film on the outer surface. The maximum wire diameter is about 190 to 200 μm for the Ni-Si (or P)-B-Al alloys and increases to about 250 μm for the Ni-Si-B-Al-Cr alloys containing 4 to 6 at. pct Cr. The tensile fracture strength and fracture elongation are 2730 MPa and 2.9 pct for (Ni0.75Si0.08B0.17 99Al1) wire and 2170 MPa and 2.4 pct for (Ni0.78P0.12B0.1)99Al1 wire. These wires exhibit a fatigue limit under dynamic bending strain in air with a relative humidity of 65 pct; this limit is 0.50 pct for a Ni-Si-B-Al wire, which is higher by 0.15 pct than that of a Fe75Si10B15 amorphous wire. Furthermore, the Ni-base wires do not fracture during a 180-deg bending even for a sample annealed at temperatures just below the crystallization temperature, in sharp contrast to high embrittlement tendency for Fe-base amorphous alloys. Thus, the Ni-based amorphous wires have been shown to be an attractive material similar to Fe- and Co-based amorphous wires because of its high static and dynamic strength, high ductility, high stability to thermal embrittlement, and good corrosion resistance.

  8. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; Pstrength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reference Values of Grip Strength, Prevalence of Low Grip Strength, and Factors Affecting Grip Strength Values in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Ong, Sherlin; Cheung, Osbert; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to update the reference values of grip strength, to estimate the prevalence of low grip strength, and to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol on grip strength values in Chinese adults. A cross-sectional survey of Chinese men (n = 714) and women (n = 4014) aged 18-102 years was undertaken in different community settings in Hong Kong. Grip strength was measured with a digital dynamometer (TKK 5401 Grip-D; Takei, Niigata, Japan). Low grip strength was defined as grip strength 2 standard deviations or more below the mean for young adults. The effects of measurement protocol on grip strength values were examined in a subsample of 45 men and women with repeated measures of grip strength taken with a hydraulic dynamometer (Baseline; Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY), using pair t-tests, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland and Altman plots. Grip strength was greater among men than among women (P values than the Baseline hydraulic dynamometer (P values were also observed when the measurement was performed with the elbow extended in a standing position, compared with that with the elbow flexed at 90° in a sitting position, using the same dynamometer (P values of grip strength and estimated the prevalence of low grip strength among Chinese adults spanning a wide age range. These findings might be useful for risk estimation and evaluation of interventions. However, grip strength measurements should be interpreted with caution, as grip strength values can be affected by type of dynamometer used, assessment posture, and elbow position. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as "ego depletion". A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes,…

  11. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  12. Does perceived teacher affective support matter for middle school students in mathematics classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Gonul; Pape, Stephen J; Hoy, Anita Woolfolk

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the importance of perceived teacher affective support in relation to sense of belonging, academic enjoyment, academic hopelessness, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in middle school mathematics classrooms. A self-report survey was administered to 317 seventh- and eighth-grade students in 5 public middle schools. Structural equation modeling indicated significant associations between perceived teacher affective support and middle school students' motivational, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. The structural model explained a significant proportion of variance in students' sense of belonging (42%), academic enjoyment (43%), self-efficacy beliefs (43%), academic hopelessness (18%), and academic effort (32%) in mathematics classrooms. In addition to providing the basis for a concise new measure of perceived teacher affective support, these findings point to the importance of students' perceptions of the affective climate within learning environments for promoting academic enjoyment, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in mathematics. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attributions to Success and Failure in English Language Learning: The Effects of Gender, Age and Perceived Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Gülten

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze Turkish tertiary level EFL learners' attributions to success and failure and the effects of gender, age, and perceived success on their attributions. The results indicated that EFL learners respectively attributed interest, ability, task difficulty, effort, luck and the influence of teacher and school…

  14. "I put in effort, therefore I am passionate": Investigating the path from effort to passion in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Gielnik, Michael Marcus; Spitzmuller, Matthias; Schmitt, Antje; Klemann, Katharina; Frese, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Most theoretical frameworks in entrepreneurship emphasize that entrepreneurial passion drives entrepreneurial effort. We hypothesize that the reverse effect is also true, and investigate changes in passion as an outcome of effort. Based on theories of self-regulation and self-perception, we hypothesize that making new venture progress and free choice are two factors that help to explain why and under which conditions entrepreneurial effort affects entrepreneurial passion. We undertook two stu...

  15. Best-effort Support for a Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Todirica, Edward Alexandru

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the RTMM Virtual Seminar Room, an interactive distributed multimedia application based on a platform with a simple middleware architecture, using best effort scheduling and a best effort network service. Emphasis has been placed on achieving low latency in all parts...

  16. Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this…

  17. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit the...

  18. Seasonal abundance, distribution, and catch per unit effort using gill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch per unit effort was obtained for the fish of the Sundays .... Methods. Catch per unit effort (numbers and weight/net) of fish in the estuary was obtained from 55 .... Table 1 CPUE (number and mass) of fish caught monthly using gill-net over 12·h periods with 55 nettings at .... The abundance of some other species may.

  19. Quantifying commercial catch and effort of monkfish Lophius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch-per-unit-effort (cpue) data of vessels targeting monkfish and sole (the two ... analysed using two different methods to construct indices of abundance. ... in Namibia to all tail-weight classes is not appropriate for the current fishery and needs ... Keywords: catch per unit effort, Generalized Linear Model, Lophius vaillanti, ...

  20. Determinants of Tourists Information Search Effort: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines tourist information search effort prior to the visit to a selected destination. The focus was on identifying the key variables that influence the information search effort of Ghana's international visitors from the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Germany. The Dummy Multiple Regression ...

  1. Policies and Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood: Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Bellotti, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    The articles in this section focus attention on (1) the historical shift in policies that affect the young men of this nation (2) how fatherhood policies and programmatic efforts are expanding and (3) how fatherhood practices and policies could and perhaps should be expanded and elaborated further. These efforts are linked to a growing body of…

  2. Money Laundering and International Efforts to Fight It

    OpenAIRE

    David Scott

    1996-01-01

    According to one estimate, US$300 billion to US$500 billion in proceeds from serious crime is laundered each year. Left unchecked, money laundering could criminalize the financial system and undermine development efforts in emerging markets. The author reviews efforts by international bodies to fight it.

  3. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization.

  4. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  5. Private Speech Moderates the Effects of Effortful Control on Emotionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Neal, Amy; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: In addition to being a regulatory strategy, children's private speech may enhance or interfere with their effortful control used to regulate emotion. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether children's private speech during a selective attention task moderated the relations of their effortful control to their…

  6. Improving health profile of blood donors as a consequence of transfusion safety efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Tran, Trung Nam; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion safety rests heavily on the health of blood donors. Although they are perceived as being healthier than average, little is known about their long-term disease patterns and to which extent the blood banks' continuous efforts to optimize donor selection has resulted...... in improvements. Mortality and cancer incidence among blood donors in Sweden and Denmark was investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All computerized blood bank databases were compiled into one database, which was linked to national population and health data registers. With a retrospective cohort study design, 1......,110,329 blood donors were followed for up to 35 years from first computer-registered blood donation to death, emigration, or December 31, 2002. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios expressed relative risk of death and cancer comparing blood donors to the general population. RESULTS: Blood donors had...

  7. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  8. Traditional versus functional strength training: Effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...

  9. Men's Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astone, Nan Marie; Dariotis, Jacinda; Sonenstein, Freya; Pleck, Joseph H; Hynes, Kathryn

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we tested three hypotheses: (a) the transition to fatherhood is associated with an increase in work effort; (b) the positive association (if any) between the transition to fatherhood and work effort is greater for fathers who are married at the time of the transition; and (c) the association (if any) is greater for men who make the transition at younger ages. The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The transition to fatherhood was associated with an increase in work effort among young unmarried men, but not for married men. Among married men who were on-time fathers, work effort decreased. Among childless men, the marriage transition was associated with increased work effort.

  10. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  11. European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits relative to other personal health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Valli, Veronica; Mazzocchi, Mario; Traill, W Bruce; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Poor eating habits are a key priority on the European public health agenda due to their large health and economic implications. Healthy eating interventions may be more effective if consumers perceive their eating habits as a more serious personal health risk. This study investigates European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits, its determinants and relative importance among other potential personal health risks including weight, stress and pollution. A quantitative survey was conducted during Spring 2011 among samples representative for age, gender and region in five European countries (n=3003). Participants were neutral towards the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. Eating habits were ranked third after stress and weight. Gender, age, country, health motive, body mass index, and subjective health status were important determinants of the perceived seriousness of their eating habits, whereas perceived financial condition, smoking and education were insignificant. Eating habits were perceived more seriously by women, Italians, obese, and younger individuals with stronger health motives and fair subjective health status. Nevertheless, other health risks were often considered more important than eating habits. More or specific efforts are required to increase Europeans' awareness of the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. © 2013.

  12. Motivational climate, goal orientation, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment within Finnish junior ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, T; Ntoumanis, N; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations among situational motivational climate, dispositional approach and avoidance achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment in Finnish male junior ice hockey players. The sample comprised 265 junior B-level male players with a mean age of 17.03 years (SD = 0.63). Players filled questionnaires tapping their perceptions of coach motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment. For the statistical analysis, players were divided into high and low perceived sport ability groups. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect path from task-involving motivational climate via task-approach goal to enjoyment. Additionally, SEM demonstrated four other direct associations, which existed in both perceived ability groups: from ego-involving motivational climate to ego-approach and ego-avoidance goals; from ego-approach goal to ego-avoidance goal; and from task-avoidance goal to ego-avoidance goal. Additionally, in the high perceived sport ability group, there was an association from task-involving motivational climate to enjoyment. The results of this study reveal that motivational climate emphasizing effort, personal development and improvement, and achievement goal mastering tasks are significant elements of enjoyment in junior ice hockey. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Patient characteristics and perceived health status of individuals with HIV and tuberculosis coinfection in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujia; Wu, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Chen, Huanhuan; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Li; Luo, Liuhong; Rui, Chao

    2017-04-01

    To explore demographics, clinical and medication profiles, patients' social support, and perceived health status in HIV/TB coinfected patients in Guangxi, China.We performed a cross-sectional study in the HIV clinic of the Guigang City People's Hospital (N = 150). Health professionals conducted face-to-face interviews and collected data from patients' electronic medical records regarding patients' demographic, clinical, and medication information, as well as their social support and perceived health status. We classified all HIV/AIDS patients into HIV monoinfected and TB coinfected, at a ratio of 2:1.Compared with the HIV monoinfected, patients with HIV/TB coinfection were more likely to be older, male, less educated, unemployed, carrying health insurance, having advanced stage of HIV infection, longer history with HIV, and other opportunistic infections. Patients coinfected with TB were also more likely to hold a negative belief that their HIV treatment could prevent exacerbations, and reported significantly worse emotional/informational support, social interaction, and perceived health status. Better social support and better self-efficacy to the HIV treatment adherence was significantly associated with better perceived health status among patients with HIV and TB coinfection.Having HIV/TB coinfection was associated with poorer perceived general well-being and mental health, particularly in those undergoing TB therapy. Our findings suggest the need for mental health referrals and medication management for coinfected individuals, as well as further efforts and policies to improve coordinated care.

  14. Perceived Stress, Its Physiological Correlates, and Quality of Life in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kristen R; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Fletcher, Jason; Henderson, Wendy A

    2018-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract associated with high psychological comorbidity and diminished quality of life. Patients with IBS display a heightened sensitivity to stress, although the literature is inconsistent as to whether they have a dysregulated stress response. The purpose of the present investigation, a substudy of a larger research effort, was to examine physiological correlates of perceived stress in patients with IBS (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) and to explore associations between perceived stress and quality of life. A total of 101 participants (35 with IBS [predominant subtypes IBS-constipation and IBS-diarrhea] and 66 healthy controls [HCs]) completed self-report inventories regarding perceived stress and quality of life, and fasting peripheral blood was drawn. Participants with IBS did not differ from the HC in demographic or physiological measures but did differ in psychological measures, reporting significantly higher levels of perceived stress and lower levels of quality of life. Perceived stress and quality of life were not significantly associated in IBS participants. However, differential findings of the stress response were found within IBS participants by sex, race, and subtype. These findings illustrate the heterogeneity of the IBS patient population, underscore the necessity of evaluating larger sample sizes and increasing the diversity of such samples to include males and ethnic minorities, and demonstrate the importance of taking an individualized approach to evaluation and treatment in the IBS patient population.

  15. Patient-reported Communication Quality and Perceived Discrimination in Maternity Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    2015-10-01

    High-quality communication and a positive patient-provider relationship are aspects of patient-centered care, a crucial component of quality. We assessed racial/ethnic disparities in patient-reported communication problems and perceived discrimination in maternity care among women nationally and measured racial/ethnic variation in the correlates of these outcomes. Data for this analysis came from the Listening to Mothers III survey, a national sample of women who gave birth to a singleton baby in a US hospital in 2011-2012. Outcomes were reluctance to ask questions and barriers to open discussion in prenatal care, and perceived discrimination during the birth hospitalization, assessed using multinomial and logistic regression. We also estimated models stratified by race/ethnicity. Over 40% of women reported communication problems in prenatal care, and 24% perceived discrimination during their hospitalization for birth. Having hypertension or diabetes was associated with higher levels of reluctance to ask questions and higher odds of reporting each type of perceived discrimination. Black and Hispanic (vs. white) women had higher odds of perceived discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Higher education was associated with more reported communication problems among black women only. Although having diabetes was associated with perceptions of discrimination among all women, associations were stronger for black women. Race/ethnicity was associated with perceived racial discrimination, but diabetes and hypertension were consistent predictors of communication problems and perceptions of discrimination. Efforts to improve communication and reduce perceived discrimination are an important area of focus for improving patient-centered care in maternity services.

  16. Perceived social support in the personnel of a manufacturing industry in Urmia in 2014-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohhammad Hajagazadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Perceived social support in the personnel of any organization is an important psychological factor that affects the efficiency of the workforce and exerts direct and positive effects on the their quality of life. The present study was conducted to investgiate the level of perceived social support in the personnel of a manufacturing industry in Urmia and to determine its relationship with certain demographic variables. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted on 156 personnel of a manufacturing industry in Urmia. Data collection was conducted using the Perceived Social Support Questionnaire. The results obtained were then analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, including the chi-squared test and the one-way analysis of variance. Results: The mean value of perceived social support from coworkers (3.36±0.72 was higher than the mean value of perceived social support from managers (2.99±0.65. Perceived social support from coworkers and managers was found to have a statistically significant relashionship with age, work experience and type of employment contract (P-value<0.05. Conclusion: Given that perceived social support from coworkers and managers fell in the medium range in the present study, managers should make efforts to foster a greater social support in the workplace for their personnel and to create better relationships with them in the attempt to improve their performance in different domains. Due to the greater need of the less-experienced personnel for social support, managers are recommended to show their support through devising bonus schemes, providing emotional support and establishing a better relationship with their personnel.

  17. The associations of perceived neighborhood disorder and physical activity with obesity among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Kaur Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Baskin, Monica L

    2013-05-04

    According to recent research studies, the built and socioeconomic contexts of neighborhoods are associated with African American adolescents' participation in physical activity and obesity status. However, few research efforts have been devoted to understand how African American adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhood environments may affect physical activity behaviors and obesity status. The objective of the current study was to use a perceived neighborhood disorder conceptual framework to examine whether physical activity mediated the relationship between perceived neighborhood disorder and obesity status among African American adolescents. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that examined social and cultural barriers and facilitators of physical activity among African American adolescents. The study included a sample of 101 African American adolescents age 12 to 16 years and their parents who were recruited from the Birmingham, Alabama metropolitan area. The primary outcome measure was obesity status which was classified using the International Obesity Task Force cut off points. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Perceived neighborhood disorder was assessed using the Perceived Neighborhood Disorder Scale. Mediation models were used to examine whether the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status was mediated by physical activity. Perceived neighborhood disorder was significantly and positively related to obesity status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with obesity status. However, there was no evidence to support a significant mediating effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status. Future studies should longitudinally assess perceived neighborhood disorder characteristics and childhood adiposity to examine the timing, extent, and the mechanisms by which perceived neighborhood

  18. Isometric shoulder strength in young swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaine, Sally J; Ginn, Karen A; Fell, James W; Bird, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of shoulder pain in young swimmers is high. Shoulder rotation strength and the ratio of internal to external rotation strength have been reported as potential modifiable risk factors associated with shoulder pain. However, relative strength measures in elevated positions, which include flexion and extension, have not been established for the young swimmer. The aim of this study was to establish clinically useful, normative shoulder strength measures and ratios for swimmers (14-20 years) without shoulder pain. Cross-sectional, observational study. Swimmers (N=85) without a recent history of shoulder pain underwent strength testing of shoulder flexion and extension (in 140° abduction); and internal and external rotation (in 90° abduction). Strength tests were performed in supine using a hand-held dynamometer and values normalised to body weight. Descriptive statistics were calculated for strength and strength ratios (flexion:extension and internal:external rotation). Differences between groups (based on gender, history of pain, test and arm dominance) were explored using independent and paired t tests. Normative shoulder strength values and ratios were established for young swimmers. There was a significant difference (pdifferences in strength ratios. Relative strength of the dominant and non-dominant shoulders (except for extension); and for swimmers with and without a history of shoulder pain was not significantly different. A normal shoulder strength profile for the young swimmer has been established which provides a valuable reference for the clinician assessing shoulder strength in this population. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Opportunity Evaluation through Experiential Learning (OETEL): An Analysis of Perceived Desirability, Perceived Feasibility, and Entrepreneurial Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Krisakorn Sukavejworakit; Triyuth Promsiri; Thanaphol Virasa

    2018-01-01

    The entrepreneurial intention is recognized as the best predictor of entrepreneurship activity. This study aims to extend the understanding of entrepreneurial intention within the context of entrepreneurship education. The role of opportunity evaluation on entrepreneurial intention was explored with the application of Experiential Learning Theory. The conceptual framework was developed based on the integrated entrepreneurial intention model, where perceived desirability and perceived feasibil...

  20. Perceived stress and cognitive function in older adults: which aspect of perceived stress is important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Nicole C M; Comijs, Hannie C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2017-04-01

    Few studies examined the association between perceived stress and cognitive function in older adults. This study will examine which aspects of perceived stress especially impact cognitive function. Cross-sectional data of 1099 older adults between 64 and 100 years from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Perceived stress and its subscales perceived helplessness and perceived self-efficacy were measured with the Perceived Stress Scale. Cognitive function was assessed regarding memory, processing speed and executive function. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed between the stress measures and the domains of cognitive function. Perceived stress was associated with worse processing speed, direct and delayed recall, semantic fluency and digit span backwards (range β = -0.10; -0.11; p cognitive function, also after adjustment for depressive symptoms or sense of mastery (range β = 0.10; 0.18; p cognitive functions. Perceived self-efficacy might be an important factor in reducing stress and the prevention of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Richard F; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Garfein, Richard S; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    We identified correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. PWID ≥18 years of age who injected drugs in the past month were recruited between 2006-2007 and completed risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with high-perceived risk of HIV infection. Among 974 PWID, HIV prevalence was 4.4%; 45.0% of participants perceived themselves to be more likely to become HIV infected relative to other PWID in Tijuana. Participants who reported high-perceived risk of HIV infection participated in high-risk behaviors such as injecting with used syringes, transactional sex, and were less likely to have had an HIV test. Recognition of HIV infection risk was associated with high risk behaviors and markers of vulnerability. Findings support efforts to encourage HIV testing and access to health care for this vulnerable population.

  2. Do public attitudes affect conservation effort? Using a questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, amphibians are among the least appreciated vertebrates and are often negatively perceived by the general public. Such attitudes are particularly prevalent in South Africa, where fear, superstitions and myths associated with frogs are pervasive in some cultures. These attitudes could have harmful consequences ...

  3. Engaging Students via Social Media: Is It Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Rania B.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores for the first time the moderating effect of students' readiness for cocreation on the student social media engagement and perceived value relationship. Ping's and Cadogan et al.'s procedures for assessing the structural model with interaction terms were followed. Results based on a sample of 353 university students…

  4. Belief in a Just World Lowers Perceived Intention of Corruption: The Mediating Role of Perceived Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-yu; Liu, Xiao-xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people’s attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed. PMID:24835428

  5. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  6. PENGARUH PERCEIVED VALUE AND PERCEIVED QUALITY TERHADAP KEPERCAYAAN KONSUMEN DI RUMAH SAKIT KARTIKA SARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory Budi Dharma

    2012-07-01

    The objective (s of this research was identifying the effect perceived value and perceived quality toward consumer’s trust honesty and consumer’s trust benevolence. The design of this research applies hypothesis testing to examine all hypotheses in this study. The method used in this study is multiple regressions between independent variables and dependent variable. Data analysis used in this research was collected by distributing questionnaires which were distributed on 110 respondents at Kartika Sari Hospital. There were 107 responses of which 100 completed and usable for analyzed by multiple regressions. The result of this research conclude that the professionalism, perceived quality, value monetary costs, value non monetary costs have positive and significant impact on consumer’s trust honesty dan consumer’s trust benevolence. Keywords : Sonsumer loyalty, Perceived value, Perceived quality, Satisfaction

  7. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Yu Bai

    Full Text Available Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  8. Direct and Indirect Effects of IQ, Parental Help, Effort, and Mathematics Self-Concept on Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abu-Hilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the structural relationships among cognitive constructs (intelligence and achievement and affective constructs (perceived parental help, effort and self-concept. It was proposed that the relationships are not invariant across gender. The sample consisted of 219 boys and 133 girls from elementary and preparatory public schools in Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates. Intelligence (IQ was measured by the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI and parental help was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Effort was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Self-concept (SC was measured by 8-Likert-type items taken from the SDQ I (Abu-Hilal, 2000. Mathematic Achievement was the scores of students in mathematics from school records. The structural model assumed that IQ would have an effect on parental help, effort, SC and achievement. Parental help would have an effect on effort, SC and achievement. Also, effort would have an effect on SC and achievement. Finally, SC would have an effect on achievement. The structural model was tested for invariance across gender. The measurement model proved to be invariant across gender and so was the structural model. The non-constrained model indicated that the structural relationships among the variables do vary according to gender. For example, boys benefited from parental help by exerting more effort while girls did not. Boys with high IQ exerted more effort than boys with low IQ; but girls with high IQ exerted the same amount of effort as girls with low IQ. The model explained 45% and 39% of the variance in math scores for boys and girls, respectively.

  9. Training visual imagery: Improvements of metacognition, but not imagery strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne Lynn Rademaker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual imagery has been closely linked to brain mechanisms involved in perception. Can visual imagery, like visual perception, improve by means of training? Previous research has demonstrated that people can reliably evaluate the vividness of single episodes of sensory imagination – might the metacognition of imagery also improve over the course of training? We had participants imagine colored Gabor patterns for an hour a day, over the course of five consecutive days, and again two weeks after training. Participants rated the subjective vividness and effort of their mental imagery on each trial. The influence of imagery on subsequent binocular rivalry dominance was taken as our measure of imagery strength. We found no overall effect of training on imagery strength. Training did, however, improve participant’s metacognition of imagery. Trial-by-trial ratings of vividness gained predictive power on subsequent rivalry dominance as a function of training. These data suggest that, while imagery strength might be immune to training in the current context, people’s metacognitive understanding of mental imagery can improve with practice.

  10. The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; Pstrength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047

  11. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  12. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  13. [The effect of 24 weeks of moderate-to-high intensity strength training on the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà Serrabou, Marta; López del Amo, José Luis; Valero, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Strength programs have been seen to be useful in minimizing the effects of sarcopenia, although intervention protocols may vary in their content and characteristics. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the influence of a particular strength protocol for the elderly. A total of 35 individuals took part in the study, with 18 in the exercise group (4 men and 14 women), and 17 in the control group (4 men and 13 women). The average age was 73. The exercise group carried out a strength training program at moderate to high intensity over 24 weeks. Strength was evaluated using the chair stand test, 2-minute step and 2 vertical jumps-squat jump (SJ), and countermovement jump (CMJ). Falls in both groups were also compared before and after the intervention, as well as their relationship with the chair stand variable. A tendency towards improvement was observed in all tests, with the exception of CMJ; while the control group showed a tendency in the opposite direction. Contrast between the two groups at the end of the intervention was notable in all the tests. An inverse relationship between the chair stand strength variable and the number of falls was evident. According to the results achieved, the training was perceived to exercise a positive influence on both the strength of the elderly people and a reduction of the number of falls. The gap between the two groups widened towards the end of the intervention. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of total Effort and Effort Elapsed in Each Step of Software Development Using Optimal Bayesian Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zare Baghiabad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy in estimating the needed effort for software development caused software effort estimation to be a challenging issue. Beside estimation of total effort, determining the effort elapsed in each software development step is very important because any mistakes in enterprise resource planning can lead to project failure. In this paper, a Bayesian belief network was proposed based on effective components and software development process. In this model, the feedback loops are considered between development steps provided that the return rates are different for each project. Different return rates help us determine the percentages of the elapsed effort in each software development step, distinctively. Moreover, the error measurement resulted from optimized effort estimation and the optimal coefficients to modify the model are sought. The results of the comparison between the proposed model and other models showed that the model has the capability to highly accurately estimate the total effort (with the marginal error of about 0.114 and to estimate the effort elapsed in each software development step.

  16. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following......: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...

  17. Analysis of uncertainty in modeling perceived risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, R.; Sandquist, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Expanding on a mathematical model developed for quantifying and assessing perceived risks, the distribution functions, variances, and uncertainties associated with estimating the model parameters are quantified. The analytical model permits the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. Those risk perception factors associated with major technical issues are modeled using lognormal probability density functions to span the potentially large uncertainty variations associated with these risk perceptions. The model quantifies the logic of public risk perception and provides an effective means for measuring and responding to perceived risks. (authors)

  18. Effects of news frames on perceived risk, emotions, and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Otieno

    Full Text Available The media play a key role in forming opinions by influencing people´s understanding and perception of a topic. People gather information about topics of interest from the internet and print media, which employ various news frames to attract attention. One example of a common news frame is the human-interest frame, which emotionalizes and dramatizes information and often accentuates individual affectedness. Our study investigated effects of human-interest frames compared to a neutral-text condition with respect to perceived risk, emotions, and knowledge acquisition, and tested whether these effects can be "generalized" to common variants of the human-interest frame. Ninety-one participants read either one variant of the human-interest frame or a neutrally formulated version of a newspaper article describing the effects of invasive species in general and the Asian ladybug (an invasive species in particular. The framing was achieved by varying the opening and concluding paragraphs (about invasive species, as well as the headline. The core text (about the Asian ladybug was the same across all conditions. All outcome variables on framing effects referred to this common core text. We found that all versions of the human-interest frame increased perceived risk and the strength of negative emotions compared to the neutral text. Furthermore, participants in the human-interest frame condition displayed better (quantitative learning outcomes but also biased knowledge, highlighting a potential dilemma: Human-interest frames may increase learning, but they also lead to a rather unbalanced view of the given topic on a "deeper level".

  19. Effects of News Frames on Perceived Risk, Emotions, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Christine; Spada, Hans; Renkl, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The media play a key role in forming opinions by influencing people´s understanding and perception of a topic. People gather information about topics of interest from the internet and print media, which employ various news frames to attract attention. One example of a common news frame is the human-interest frame, which emotionalizes and dramatizes information and often accentuates individual affectedness. Our study investigated effects of human-interest frames compared to a neutral-text condition with respect to perceived risk, emotions, and knowledge acquisition, and tested whether these effects can be "generalized" to common variants of the human-interest frame. Ninety-one participants read either one variant of the human-interest frame or a neutrally formulated version of a newspaper article describing the effects of invasive species in general and the Asian ladybug (an invasive species) in particular. The framing was achieved by varying the opening and concluding paragraphs (about invasive species), as well as the headline. The core text (about the Asian ladybug) was the same across all conditions. All outcome variables on framing effects referred to this common core text. We found that all versions of the human-interest frame increased perceived risk and the strength of negative emotions compared to the neutral text. Furthermore, participants in the human-interest frame condition displayed better (quantitative) learning outcomes but also biased knowledge, highlighting a potential dilemma: Human-interest frames may increase learning, but they also lead to a rather unbalanced view of the given topic on a “deeper level”. PMID:24223999

  20. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  1. Elastic stability and the limit of strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris Jr., J.W.; Krenn, C.R.; Roundy, D.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2002-01-01

    The upper limit of strength (the ''theoretical strength'') has been an active subject of research and speculation for the better part of a century. The subject has recently become important, for two reasons. First, given recent advances in ab initio techniques and computing machines, the limits of strength can be calculated with considerable accuracy, making this one of the very few problems in mechanical behavior that can actually be solved. Second, given recent advances in materials engineering, the limits of strength are being approached in some systems, such as hardened or defect-free films, and their relevance is becoming recognized in others. The present paper discusses some interesting results from recent research on the limits of strength, with an intermixture of speculations based on those results. Topics include the inherent nature of {100} cleavage and ''pencil slip'' in bcc metals, the inherent ductility of fcc metals, the anomalous properties of Al, and the possibility of measuring ideal strength with nanoindentation

  2. Prediction of concrete strength in massive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Makino, H.; Nakane, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Ohike, T.

    1989-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures of a nuclear power plant are mostly of mass concrete with cross-sectional dimensions larger than 1.0 m. The temperature of concrete inside after placement rises due to heat of hydration of cement. It is well known that concrete strengths of mass concrete structure subjected to such temperature hysteresis are generally not equal to strengths of cylinders subjected to standard curing. In order to construct a mass concrete structure of high reliability in which the specified concrete strength is satisfied by the specified age, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the strength gain property of concrete in the structure and its relationships with the water-cement ratio of the mix, strength of standard-cured cylinders and the internal temperature hysteresis. This report describes the result of studies on methods of controlling concrete strength in actual construction projects

  3. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  4. Trust and Reciprocity: Are Effort and Money Equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilares, Iris; Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Trust and reciprocity facilitate cooperation and are relevant to virtually all human interactions. They are typically studied using trust games: one subject gives (entrusts) money to another subject, which may return some of the proceeds (reciprocate). Currently, however, it is unclear whether trust and reciprocity in monetary transactions are similar in other settings, such as physical effort. Trust and reciprocity of physical effort are important as many everyday decisions imply an exchange of physical effort, and such exchange is central to labor relations. Here we studied a trust game based on physical effort and compared the results with those of a computationally equivalent monetary trust game. We found no significant difference between effort and money conditions in both the amount trusted and the quantity reciprocated. Moreover, there is a high positive correlation in subjects' behavior across conditions. This suggests that trust and reciprocity may be character traits: subjects that are trustful/trustworthy in monetary settings behave similarly during exchanges of physical effort. Our results validate the use of trust games to study exchanges in physical effort and to characterize inter-subject differences in trust and reciprocity, and also suggest a new behavioral paradigm to study these differences. PMID:21364931

  5. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves. Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  6. The reliabilty of isokinetic strength measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Title: Reliability of isometric and isokinetic strength testing in the knee flexion and extension Objectives: To compare the reliability of isometric and isokinetic testing of the knee strength in flexion and extension Methods: I used intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: I have discovered that the reliability measured on isokinetic and isometric dynamometer is high. Furthermore the reliability of the maximum strength measurement was higher with-us...

  7. Strength and failure modes of ceramic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Linderoth, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A model was developed for the prediction of the tensile strength of thin, symmetric 3-layer sandwich specimens. The model predictions rationalize the effect of heat-treatment temperature on the strength of sandwich specimens consisting of an YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) substrate coated with ...... and propagating into the substrate. These predictions are consistent with microstructural observations of the fracture surfaces. A good agreement was found between the measured strength values and model predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Understanding and building upon effort to return to work for people with long-term disability and job loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, S L; MacEachen, E; Nedelec, B

    2015-01-01

    Effort is a concept that underlies programs assisting people with work disability to re-enter the labour force. During re-entry, attention is paid to the effort invested by the worker with an injury. However, for those with chronic work disability, the motivation to return to work (RTW) may be questioned by benefit service providers and healthcare professionals. The objective of this paper is to describe the efforts made by people with long term work-disability to regain a foothold on the labour market. This phenomenological study explored the meaning of work for people with long-term work disability and job loss. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with nine participants. A thematic analysis was completed of the collected data. A key finding of this study is the variety and degree of effort exerted by participants to regain employment, despite time away from the workplace and system barriers. Effort was exerted to retain pre-accident employment; to obtain new work following job loss; and, to remain in a new job. This study suggests that if the RTW effort of people with long-term work disability is not fully acknowledged or supported, this population will remain unemployed where their strengths as competent, experienced workers will continue to be wasted.

  9. Dopamine does double duty in motivating cognitive effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Andrew; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is subjectively costly, suggesting that engagement is modulated in relationship to incentive state. Dopamine appears to play key roles. In particular, dopamine may mediate cognitive effort by two broad classes of functions: 1) modulating the functional parameters of working memory circuits subserving effortful cognition, and 2) mediating value-learning and decision-making about effortful cognitive action. Here we tie together these two lines of research, proposing how dopamine serves “double duty”, translating incentive information into cognitive motivation. PMID:26889810

  10. Handgrip performance in relation to self-perceived fatigue, physical functioning and circulating IL-6 in elderly persons without inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorus Ellen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low grip strength is recognized as one of the characteristics of frailty, as are systemic inflammation and the sensation of fatigue. Contrary to maximal grip strength, the physical resistance of the muscles to fatigue is not often included in the clinical evaluation of elderly patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if the grip strength and the resistance of the handgrip muscles to fatigue are related to self-perceived fatigue, physical functioning and circulating IL-6 in independently living elderly persons. Methods Forty elderly subjects (15 female and 25 male, mean age 75 ± 5 years were assessed for maximal grip strength, as well as for fatigue resistance and grip work (respectively time and work delivered until grip strength drops to 50% of its maximum during sustained contraction, self perceived fatigue (VAS-Fatigue, Mob-Tiredness scale and the energy & fatigue items of the WHOQOL-100, self rated physical functioning (domain of physical functioning on the MOS short-form and circulating IL-6. Relationships between handgrip performance and the other outcome measures were assessed. Results In the male participants, fatigue resistance was negatively related to actual sensation of fatigue (VAS-F, p Conclusion Well functioning elderly subjects presenting less handmuscle fatigue resistance and weaker grip strength are more fatigued, experience more tiredness during daily activities and are more bothered by fatigue sensations. Body weight seems to play an important role in the relation of muscle performance to fatigue perception. Elderly patients complaining from fatigue should be physically assessed, both evaluating maximal grip strength and fatigue resistance, allowing the calculation of grip work, which integrates both parameters. Grip work might best reflect the functional capacity resulting from the development of a certain strength level in relation to the time it can be maintained.

  11. Ethnic differences in problem perception and perceived need for care for young children with problem behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevaart, Floor; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Raat, Hein; Donker, Marianne C H; Verhulst, Frank C; van Oort, Floor V A

    2012-10-01

     Problem perception and perceived need for professional care are important determinants that can contribute to ethnic differences in the use of mental health care. Therefore, we studied ethnic differences in problem perception and perceived need for professional care in the parents and teachers of 5- to 6-year-old children from the general population who were selected for having emotional and behavioural problems. A cross-sectional study with data of 10,951 children from grade two of the elementary schools in the Rotterdam-Rijnmond area, The Netherlands. Parents and teachers completed the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) as well as questions on problem perception and perceived need for care. The SDQ was used to identify children with emotional and behavioural problems. We included Dutch, Surinamese, Antillean, Moroccan and Turkish children in our sample with high (>P90) SDQ scores (N = 1,215), who were not currently receiving professional care for their problems. Amongst children with high SDQ scores, problem perception was lower in non-Dutch parents than in Dutch parents (49% vs. 81%, p ethnic differences were found in parental perceived need and in problem perception and perceived need reported by teachers. Higher levels of problem perception and perceived need were reported by teachers than by parents in all ethnic groups (PP: 87% vs. 63% and PN: 48% vs. 23%). Child health professionals should be aware of ethnic variations in problem perception as low problem perception in parents of non-Dutch children may lead to miscommunication and unmet need for professional care for the child. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Accounting for the Strengths of MNC Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsgren, Mats; Pedersen, Torben; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    1999-01-01

    that organizational strength can to some extent be proxied by strength in the market place. Based on analysis of data on foreign-owned production firms in Denmark, we test three hypotheses: 1) that internal factors (capabilities, patents....) are positively related to the organizational strengths of MNC subsidiaries......This paper links up with recent work on the role of subsidiaries in multinational corporations as well as with recent work in the strategy and business network literature. We discuss the sources of organizational strengths of subsidiaries in the larger multinational corporation, and argue...

  13. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations of beryllium strength models using the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry de Frahan, M. T. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; Belof, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Cavallo, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Raevsky, V. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov 607188, Russia; Ignatova, O. N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov 607188, Russia; Lebedev, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov 607188, Russia; Ancheta, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; El-dasher, B. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Florando, J. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Gallegos, G. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA; Johnsen, E. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; LeBlanc, M. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808, USA

    2015-06-14

    A recent collaboration between LLNL and VNIIEF has produced a set of high explosive driven Rayleigh-Taylor strength data for beryllium. Design simulations using legacy strength models from Steinberg-Lund and Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) suggested an optimal design that would delineate between not just different strength models, but different parameters sets of the PTW model. Application of the models to the post-shot results, however, shows close to classical growth. We characterize the material properties of the beryllium tested in the experiments. We also discuss recent efforts to simulate the data using the legacy strength models as well as the more recent RING relaxation model developed at VNIIEF. Finally, we present shock and ramp-loading recovery experiments conducted as part of the collaboration.

  15. The Importance of Perceived Service Value in Retail Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Pisnik; Jasmina Dlačić; Borut Milfelner

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – In many industries, perceived service value is found to be a significant mediator between perceived service quality and customer satisfaction and loyalty. Therefore, this paper aims to test a conceptual model of perceived service value with its antecedents, such as perceived price and perceived service quality, and consequences, customer satisfaction and loyalty, in the retail banking industry. Design/Methodology/Approach – For the empirical study, a measurement instrument was d...

  16. Differences in strength and conditioning coach self-perception of leadership style behaviors at the National Basketball Association, Division I-A, and Division II levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusen, Marshall J

    2010-06-01

    Leader behaviors have been found to vary by competitive level (6,9,11,26). Similar differences based on the competitive environment have been reported with strength coaches and their training emphases (15,28) but not their leadership style behaviors. This latter area is important to explore because strength coach leader behaviors may result in enhanced cooperation, improved communication, and improved athlete psychological and emotional well-being (14,23,25,27). Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in self-perceived leadership styles of National Basketball Association, Division I-A (DI-A) men's basketball, and Division II (DII) men's basketball strength and conditioning coaches. The self-perceived leadership styles of 145 men's basketball strength coaches (National Basketball Association [NBA]=22, DI-A=92, and DII=31) were obtained using the Revised Leadership Scale for Sport (26,41). Frequency data about demographics and training methods were also collected. No significant differences were reported for positive feedback. Otherwise, NBA strength coaches reported more democratic leadership style behaviors than DI-A strength coaches. Division I-A strength coaches were found to be more autocratic than NBA or DII strength coaches. Both NBA and DI-A strength coaches indicated a higher level of training and instruction than did DII strength coaches. National Basketball Association strength coaches also reported engaging in more situational and socially supportive leader behaviors than DI-A and DII strength coaches. Leader behaviors can positively and negatively impact an athlete (23); thus, strength coaches need to evaluate their competitive environment and reflect on the impact of their behaviors and how their approach to leading athletes may need to vary based on the situation.

  17. The Effect of Perceived Motivational Structure of Classroom on Achievement Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Talepasand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of perceived motivational structure of classroom on achievement behaviors (the choice of problem, effort, persistence in solving algorithm and flowchart problems. There were 45 high school male students (Mean age = 17 years old in the third grade of computer field in three classes. Classes were divided into two experimental and one control group. Instructional content was given in 10 sessions for 180 minutes. The variables of choice, effort, and persistence were collected by direct as-sessment method. A pre-test and post-test design was used. The Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicated that mastery structure had positive effect on the amount of effort and persistence in solving algorithm and flowchart problems in comparison with control group. Mastery structure in comparison with performance structure increased the amount of effort in solving problems significantly. In addition, an interactive effect between previous achieve-ment and perceived structure of classroom was achieved in a mastery level. The amount of persistence in that of students with very weak previous achievement was more than students with average previous achievement. The find-ing of this study is compatible with the theory of achievement goal and illustrates that the mastery structure plays an effective role in forming achievement behaviors.

  18. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline.

  19. Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening Variable ... This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior ...

  20. A critical evalluation of internal revenue generating efforts of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their bad financial state has robbed our rural areas of ... electricity, food production, staff welfare and general condition of living in the rural areas. This ugly ... Inspite of these efforts by successive governments, the problem continues to persist.