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Sample records for strength martensitic stainless

  1. Gaseous surface hardening of martensitic stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibollo, Chiara; Villa, Matteo; Christiansen, Thomas L.

    The present work addresses heat and surface treatments of martensitic stainless steel EN 1.4028. Different combinations of heat treatments and surface treatments were performed: conventional austenitisation, cryogenic treatment and in particular high temperature solution nitriding (HTSN) and low...... that cubic lath martensite in conventionally austenitised EN 1.4028 dissolves nitrogen and develops expanded martensite (ferrite) during LTSH. HTSN leads to a microstructure of tetragonal plate martensite and retained austenite. The content of retained austenite can be reduced by a cryo...

  2. Microstructure of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available and martensite with 10% ferrite for Material B. Table 7 - Proposed martensitic stainless steel alloys for laser cladding Material C* Cr Ni Mn Si Mo Co Ms (ºC)* Cr eq Ni eq Material A 0.4 13 - 1 0.5 2.5 5.5 120 16.5 12.5 Material B 0.2 15 2 1 0.7 2.5 5.5 117... dilution, low heat input, less distortion, increased mechanical and corrosion properties excellent repeatability and control of process parameters. Solidification of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel is primarily austenitic. Microstructures...

  3. Influence of microscopic strain heterogeneity on the formability of martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettanini, Alvise Miotti; Delannay, Laurent; Jacques, Pascal J.; Pardoen, Thomas; Badinier, Guillaume; Mithieux, Jean-Denis

    2017-10-01

    Both finite element modeling and mean field (Mori-Tanaka) modeling are used to predict the strain partitioning in the martensite-ferrite microstructure of an AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel. Numerical predictions reproduce experimental trends according to which macroscopic strength is increased when the dissolution of carbides leads to carbon enrichment of martensite. However, the increased strength contrast of ferrite and martensite favours strain localization and high stress triaxiality in ferrite, which in turn promotes ductile damage development.

  4. Deformation induced martensitic transformation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, E.; Mertinger, V.; Tranta, F.; Solyom, J.

    2003-01-01

    Deformation induced martensitic transformation was investigated in metastable austenitic stainless steel. This steel can present a microstructure of austenite (γ), α' martensite and non magnetic ε martensite. Uni-axial tensile test was used for loading at different temperatures below room temperature (from -120 to 20 deg. C). During the deformation the transformation takes place at certain places in an anisotropic way and texture also develops. Quantitative phase analysis was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic methods while the texture was described by X-ray diffraction using a special inverse pole figure. The quantitative phase analysis has shown that the formation of α' and ε martensite from austenite is the function of deformation rate, and deformation temperature. The transformation of the textured austenite takes place in an anisotropic way and a well defined crystallographic relationship between the parent and α' martensite phase has been measured

  5. Investigation of Microstructure and Corrosion Propagation Behaviour of Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin Kamal Ariff Zainal; Ismail Elya Atikah; Zainuddin Azman; Hussain Patthi

    2014-01-01

    Martensitic stainless steels are commonly used for fabricating components. For many applications, an increase in surface hardness and wear resistance can be beneficial to improve performance and extend service life. However, the improvement in hardness of martensitic steels is usually accompanied by a reduction in corrosion strength. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of nitriding on AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, in terms of microstructure and corrosion propagat...

  6. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabruri, Efendi, E-mail: effe004@lipi.go.id; Anwar, Moch Syaiful, E-mail: moch.syaiful.anwar@lipi.go.id; Prifiharni, Siska, E-mail: siska.prifiharni@lipi.go.id; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang [Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Gd. 470 Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  7. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabruri, Efendi; Anwar, Moch Syaiful; Prifiharni, Siska; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  8. Characterization of long term aged martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubota, M.; Hattori, K.; Okada, T.

    1992-01-01

    Types CA6NM (13Cr), 431 and 630 (17Cr) were aged at 400 degrees C and 350 degrees C for up to 10000 hours, and their hardness change and SCC susceptibility in 288 degrees C water were investigated. Hardness of the alloys increased with aging. Hardness of type 431 aged at 400 degrees C for 10000 hours exceeded 340 in Hv, over which tempered martensitic stainless steels had become susceptible to SCC, and showed high SCC susceptibility. Type 630 had high SCC susceptibility in before and after aged condition, and the hardness in both conditions was more than Hv 340. Therefore, hardness was considered to be a parameter which could describe the SCC susceptibility of martensitic stainless steels. Using activation energy for hardness change 105-125kJ/mol and the critical hardness level Hv=340, the marginal life-time for martensitic stainless steels at 288 degrees C was estimated. Predicted life of type 431 and CA6NM were around 10 5 hours and more than 10 6 hours, respectively. Activation energies obtained for toughness change and hardness change were different. Consequently, it was concluded that at least two factors should be taken into consideration for determining the total life-limit for usage of martensitic stainless steels in the light water reactor environment. The meaning of the existence of critical hardness for SCC susceptibility has been also discussed. Higher than 340 in Hv, yield strength and strain for uniform deformation showed a tendency of saturation. Therefore, it was conjectured that some extreme internal strain level, which may change the plastic deformation manner, is the absolute factor for determining the SCC susceptibility of the alloys in high temperature water

  9. Investigation of Microstructure and Corrosion Propagation Behaviour of Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Kamal Ariff Zainal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are commonly used for fabricating components. For many applications, an increase in surface hardness and wear resistance can be beneficial to improve performance and extend service life. However, the improvement in hardness of martensitic steels is usually accompanied by a reduction in corrosion strength. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of nitriding on AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, in terms of microstructure and corrosion propagation behavior. The results indicate that the microstructure and phase composition as well as corrosion resistance were influenced by nitriding temperatures.

  10. Reversed austenite for enhancing ductility of martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, S.; Rosemann, P.; Kromm, A.; Halle, T.

    2017-03-01

    The novel heat treatment concept, “quenching and partitioning” (Q&P) has been developed for high strength steels with enhanced formability. This heat treatment involves quenching of austenite to a temperature between martensite start and finish, to receive a several amount of retained austenite. During the subsequent annealing treatment, the so called partitioning, the retained austenite is stabilized due to carbon diffusion, which results in enhanced formability and strength regarding strain induced austenite to martensite transformation. In this study a Q&P heat treatment was applied to a Fe-0.45C-0.65Mn-0.34Si-13.95Cr stainless martensite. Thereby the initial quench end temperature and the partitioning time were varied to characterize their influence on microstructural evolution. The microstructural changes were analysed by dilatometer measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, including electron back-scatter diffraction. Compression testing was made to examine the mechanical behaviour. It was found that an increasing partitioning time up to 30 min leads to an enhanced formability without loss in strength due to a higher amount of stabilized retained and reversed austenite as well as precipitation hardening.

  11. Martensite transformation in antimony implanted stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Littmark, U.; Johansen, A.; Christodoulides, C.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have used Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffraction to investigate austenitic stainless steel crystals implanted at room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5 x 10 20 ions/m 2 , thus providing implantation with a heavy group V element. RBS channeling spectra from implanted crystals show a damage peak which approaches the height of the random level and therefore indicates a very high degree of disorder in the implanted layers. The distribution of the disorder extends to a depth 3-5 times the depth of the primary radiation damage. The Sb peaks under channeling as well as random conditions are indistinguishable, confirming that substitutionality during implantation is negligible. To establish the nature of the disorder which cannot be assessed from the RBS analysis alone, and in particular to assess whether an amorphous alloy is formed in the implanted layer as indicated from the RBS spectra, samples implanted under similar conditions were investigated in the TEM. Significant extra spots in the patterns can be ascribed to the presence of a radiation induced b.c.c. phase of martensitic origin. The result that a significant amount of martensite can be induced by antimony implantation seems to indicate that the main driving force for the transition is due to damage induced stress concentrations. (Auth.)

  12. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Martensitic PH Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T.; Nelson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation-hardening alloys evaluated in marine environment tests. Report describes marine-environment stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) tests of three martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless-steel alloys.

  13. Anomalous kinetics of lath martensite formation in stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Pantleon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of lath martensite formation in Fe-17.3 wt-%Cr-7.1 wt-%Ni-1.1 wt-%Al-0.08 wt-%C stainless steel was investigated with magnetometry and microscopy. Lath martensite forms during cooling, heating and isothermally. For the first time, it is shown by magnetometry during extremely slow...

  14. Sensitization of Laser-beam Welded Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Rajendran, Kousika Dhasanur; Lindner, Stefan

    Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels are an attractive alternative in vehicle production due to their inherent corrosion resistance. By the opportunity of press hardening, their strength can be increased to up to 2000 MPa, making them competitors for unalloyed ultra-high strength steels. Welding, nevertheless, requires special care, especially when it comes to joining of high strength heat treated materials. With an adopted in-line heat treatment of the welds in as-rolled as well as press hardened condition, materials with sufficient fatigue strength and acceptable structural behavior can be produced. Because of microstructural transformations in the base material such as grain coarsening and forced carbide precipitation, the corrosion resistance of the weld zone may be locally impaired. Typically the material in the heat-affected zone becomes sensitive to intergranular cracking in the form of knife-edge corrosion besides the fusion line. The current study comprises of two text scenarios. By an alternating climate test, general response in a corroding environment is screened. In order to understand the corrosion mechanisms and to localize the sensitive zones, sensitisation tests were undertaken. Furthermore, the applicability of a standard test according to ASTM 763-83 was examined. It was found that the alternative climate test does not reveal any corrosion effects. Testing by the oxalic acid test revealed clearly the effect of welding, weld heat treatment and state of thermal processing. Also application of the standard which originally suited for testing ferritic stainless steels could have been justified.

  15. Depth distribution of martensite in xenon implanted stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Steenstrup, S.; Hayashi, N.; Sakamoto, I.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of stress-induced martensite and its distribution in depth in xenon implanted austenitic stainless steel poly- and single crystals have been measured by Rutherford backscattering and channeling analysis, depth selective conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. In low nickel 17/7, 304 and 316 commercial stainless steels and in 17:13 single crystals the martensitic transformation starts at the surface and develops towards greater depth with increasing xenon fluence. The implanted layer is nearly completely transformed, and the interface between martensite and austenite is rather sharp and well defined. In high nickel 310 commercial stainless steel and 15:19 and 20:19 single crystals, on the other hand, only insignificant amounts of martensite are observed. (orig.)

  16. Strength of 10CR-N martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrami, F.; Hendry, A.

    1993-01-01

    10Cr stainless steel has been employed to examine the effect of nitrogen on microstructure and strength. Applying Solid state gaseous nitrogenising treatments a whole range of nitrogen martensite structures containing up to 0.45 wt% were obtained. It was found that a linear relationship exists between strength and nitrogen content in precipitate free martensitic structures. Yield strength increased from 705 to 1295 MPa for nitrogen free base material and alloys with 0.35 wt%N respectively. Pronounce secondary hardening was observed at a tempering temperature of 500 C. A linear relationship was also observed between the lattice parameter and nitrogen concentration in these alloys. A model for mechanical behaviour is presented. (orig.)

  17. Joining method for pressure tube and martensitic stainless steel tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, Hiroshi; Koike, Hiromitsu.

    1993-01-01

    In a joining portion of zirconium alloy and a stainless steel, the surface of martensitic stainless steel being in contact with Zr and Zr alloy is applied with a laser quenching solidification treatment before expanding joining of them to improve the surface. This can provide the surface with refined coagulated cell tissues and make deposits and impurities homogeneous and solubilized. As a result, the surface of the martensitic stainless steel has highly corrosion resistance, to suppress contact corrosion with Zr and Zr alloy. Accordingly, even if it is exposed to high temperature water of 200 to 350degC, failures of Zr and Zr alloy can be suppressed. (T.M.)

  18. Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The resistance of the martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels PH13-8Mo, 15-5PH, and 17-4PH to stress corrosion cracking was investigated. Round tensile and c-ring type specimens taken from several heats of the three alloys were stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths and exposed to alternate immersion in salt water, to salt spray, and to a seacoast environment. The results indicate that 15-5PH is highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking in conditions H1000 and H1050 and is moderately resistant in condition H900. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of PH13-8Mo and 17-4PH stainless steels in conditions H1000 and H1050 was sensitive to mill heats and ranged from low to high among the several heats included in the tests. Based on a comparison with data from seacoast environmental tests, it is apparent that alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water is not a suitable medium for accelerated stress corrosion testing of these pH stainless steels.

  19. Microstructural Characterization of Low Temperature Gas Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents microstructural investigations of the surface zone of low temperature gas nitrided precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel AISI 630. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate the present phases after successive removal of very thin sections...... of the sample surface. The development of epsilon nitride, expanded austenite and expanded martensite resulted from the low temperature nitriding treatments. The microstructural features, hardness and phase composition are discussed with emphasis on the influence of nitriding duration and nitriding potential....

  20. The Formation of Martensitic Austenite During Nitridation of Martensitic and Duplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangiabadi, Amirali; Dalton, John C.; Wang, Danqi; Ernst, Frank; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2017-01-01

    Isothermal martensite/ferrite-to-austenite phase transformations have been observed after low-temperature nitridation in the martensite and δ-ferrite phases in 15-5 PH (precipitation hardening), 17-7 PH, and 2205 (duplex) stainless steels. These transformations, in the region with nitrogen concentrations of 8 to 16 at. pct, are consistent with the notion that nitrogen is a strong austenite stabilizer and substitutional diffusion is effectively frozen at the paraequilibrium temperatures of our experiments. Our microstructural and diffraction analyses provide conclusive evidence for the martensitic nature of these phase transformations.

  1. Deformation induced martensite in AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, N.; Solomon, I.

    2010-01-01

    The forming process leads to a considerable differentiation of the strain field within the billet, and finally causes the non-uniform distribution of the total strain, microstructure and properties of the material over the product cross-section. This paper focus on the influence of stress states on the deformation-induced a martensitic transformation in AISI Type 316 austenitic stainless steel. The formation of deformation-induced martensite is related to the austenite (g) instability at temperatures close or below room temperature. The structural transformation susceptibility is correlated to the stacking fault energy (SFE), which is a function not only of the chemical composition, but also of the testing temperature. Austenitic stainless steels possess high plasticity and can be easily cold formed. However, during cold processing the hardening phenomena always occurs. Nevertheless, the deformation-induced martensite transformation may enhance the rate of work-hardening and it may or may not be in favour of further material processing. Due to their high corrosion resistance and versatile mechanical properties the austenitic stainless steels are used in pressing of heat exchanger plates. However, this corrosion resistance is influenced by the amount of martensite formed during processing. In order to establish the links between total plastic strain, and martensitic transformation, the experimental tests were followed by numerical simulation. (Author) 21 refs.

  2. Nanotribological behavior of deep cryogenically treated martensitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Prieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryogenic treatments are increasingly used to improve the wear resistance of various steel alloys by means of transformation of retained austenite, deformation of virgin martensite and carbide refinement. In this work the nanotribological behavior and mechanical properties at the nano-scale of cryogenically and conventionally treated AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel were evaluated. Conventionally treated specimens were subjected to quenching and annealing, while the deep cryogenically treated samples were quenched, soaked in liquid nitrogen for 2 h and annealed. The elastic–plastic parameters of the materials were assessed by nanoindentation tests under displacement control, while the friction behavior and wear rate were evaluated by a nanoscratch testing methodology that it is used for the first time in steels. It was found that cryogenic treatments increased both hardness and elastic limit of a low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, while its tribological performance was enhanced marginally.

  3. Nanotribological behavior of deep cryogenically treated martensitic stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Germán; Bakoglidis, Konstantinos D; Tuckart, Walter R; Broitman, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Cryogenic treatments are increasingly used to improve the wear resistance of various steel alloys by means of transformation of retained austenite, deformation of virgin martensite and carbide refinement. In this work the nanotribological behavior and mechanical properties at the nano-scale of cryogenically and conventionally treated AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel were evaluated. Conventionally treated specimens were subjected to quenching and annealing, while the deep cryogenically treated samples were quenched, soaked in liquid nitrogen for 2 h and annealed. The elastic-plastic parameters of the materials were assessed by nanoindentation tests under displacement control, while the friction behavior and wear rate were evaluated by a nanoscratch testing methodology that it is used for the first time in steels. It was found that cryogenic treatments increased both hardness and elastic limit of a low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, while its tribological performance was enhanced marginally.

  4. Design of aging-resitant martensitic stainless steels for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozar, R.; Meyzaud, Y.

    1983-06-01

    With the exception of AISI 403 or 410 grades, the use of high strength martensitic stainless steels in PWR is poorly developped because these materials, like ferritic stainless steels, become embrittled by the precitation of a b.c.c. chromium-rich phase during aging at the operating temperature (290 to 350 0 C). The influence of alloying elements and microstructure on the aging behavior of forged low-carbon martensitic stainless steels containing 12 to 16% Cr, 0 to 2% Mo and 0 to 8% Ni was determined during accelerated aging at 450 0 C. Quantitative relationships were derived between the maximum increase in hardness, the maximum shift in CVN transition temperature and the chemical composition (Cr, Mo, C) and microstructure

  5. AM363 martensitic stainless steel: A multiphase equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia; Crockett, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    A multiphase equation of state for stainless steel AM363 has been developed within the Opensesame approach and has been entered as material 4295 in the LANL-SESAME Library. Three phases were constructed separately: the low pressure martensitic phase, the austenitic phase and the liquid. Room temperature data and the explicit introduction of a magnetic contribution to the free energy determined the martensitic phase, while shock Hugoniot data was used to determine the austenitic phase and the phase boundaries. More experimental data or First Principles calculations would be useful to better characterize the liquid.

  6. Alloying effect on martensite transformation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.P.; Shlyamnev, A.P.; Sorokina, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of cobalt, nickel, molybdenum on the martensite transformation kinetics in stainless steels containing 9 to 13% Cr has been studied. Cobalt in Fe-Cr base alloys decreases the temperature of the Msub(in) and Msub(fin) points without a considerable decrease of the martensite phase amount after the transformation. Nickel reduces the martensite transformation temperature range, the nickel effect being enhanced in the presence of cobalt, which is characterized by a change of the linear dependence Msub(in)=f(%Ni) for a quadratic one. Molybdenum decreases the temperature of the Msub(in) and Msub(fin) points intensively, thus, substantially increasing the residual austenite amount. In the steels investigated Ni and Co decrease, whereas Mo increases, to some extent, the temperature of the reverse a-γ-transformation. The reduction of chromium content from 13 to 9% stimulates the martensite transformation initiation, that is why, in alloys containing 9% Cr, the increase in the contents of Ni, Co., Mo with the martensite structure maintained is possible. A further alloying of steel containing 13% Cr with these elements is rather limited due to the inhibition of the martensite transformation

  7. Aging in PWR conditions of martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boursier, J.M.; Buisine, D.; Fronteau, M.; Michel, D.; Rouillon, Y.; Yrieix, B.; Meyzaud, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Martensitic stainless steels are largely used in Nuclear Power Plant (pump impeller, valve stem...) because of their high mechanical characteristics and their good resistance to corrosion. Nevertheless some of those components could operate at temperature higher than 250 deg.C, which could embrittle the material by the precipitation of a chromium-rich phase during aging. In collaboration with Framatome, Electricite de France has undertaken numerous studies in order to understand this process of embrittlement. This paper presents a review of the metallurgical investigations on martensitic stainless steels components which were performed in the EDF hot laboratory. In peculiar, it should be noted the good correlation between inservice experience and the modelling developed by EDF R and D division. Finally and in association with safety analysis, these results will allow to establish the maintenance strategy of the French Nuclear Power Plants. (authors)

  8. Characteristics of modified martensitic stainless steel surfaces under tribocorrosion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozing, Goran; Marusic, Vlatko; Alar, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Stainless steel samples were tested in the laboratory and under real conditions of tribocorrosion wear. Electrochemical tests were also carried out to verify the corrosion resistance of modified steel surfaces. Metallographic analysis and hardness testing were conducted on stainless steel samples X20Cr13 and X17CrNi16 2. The possibilities of applications of modified surfaces of the selected steels were investigated by testing the samples under real wear conditions. The results have shown that the induction hardened and subsequently nitrided martensitic steels achieved an average wear resistance of up to three orders of magnitude higher as compared to the delivered condition.

  9. Characteristics of modified martensitic stainless steel surfaces under tribocorrosion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozing, Goran [Osijek Univ. (Croatia). Chair of Mechanical Engineering; Marusic, Vlatko [Osijek Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Engineering Materials; Alar, Vesna [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. Materials

    2017-04-01

    Stainless steel samples were tested in the laboratory and under real conditions of tribocorrosion wear. Electrochemical tests were also carried out to verify the corrosion resistance of modified steel surfaces. Metallographic analysis and hardness testing were conducted on stainless steel samples X20Cr13 and X17CrNi16 2. The possibilities of applications of modified surfaces of the selected steels were investigated by testing the samples under real wear conditions. The results have shown that the induction hardened and subsequently nitrided martensitic steels achieved an average wear resistance of up to three orders of magnitude higher as compared to the delivered condition.

  10. In-service thermal ageing of martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tampigny, R.; Molinie, E.; Foct, F.; Dignocourt, P.

    2011-01-01

    Martensitic stainless steels are largely used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) mainly as valve stems, bolts or nuts due to their high mechanical properties and their good resistance to corrosion in primary water. At the end of the eighties, research studies have demonstrated a thermal ageing irreversible embrittlement due to the precipitation of a chromium-rich phase for X6 CrNiCu 17-04, X6 CrNiMo 16.04 and X12 Cr 13 martensitic stainless steels and a semi-empirical modeling has been proposed. Numerous metallurgical examinations have been performed in hot laboratories to consolidate the good correlation between in-service experience and the modeling developed by EDF RD. According to the feedback analysis, thermal ageing embrittlement can appear at different in-service temperatures or do not appear in relation with chemical composition of martensitic stainless steels and end of manufacturing heat treatments associated. A new campaign of metallurgical examinations has been proposed to consolidate previous studies and to contribute to maintenance policy for the next ten years after the third decennial outages for 900 MWe NPP. Influence of real in-service temperatures and end of manufacturing heat treatments have been examined to understand reasons why in some cases thermal ageing embrittlement does not occur or occur with a lowest intensity. These new results have contributed to reinforce EDF RD modeling validity and technical specifications defined in RCC-M for new valve stems, bolts or nuts. (authors)

  11. The Microstructure and Properties of Super Martensitic Stainless Steel Microalloyed with Tungsten and Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Li, Jun; Liu, Yu-Rong; Yong, Qi-Long; Su, Jie; Cao, Jian-Chun; Tao, Jing-Mei; Zhao, Kun-Yu

    2011-06-01

    The microstructure and properties of super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) microalloyed with tungsten and copper were studied by means of optical microscopy, dilatometer, X-ray diffraction, and tensile tests. The results showed that the microstructure of SMSS, after quenching and tempering, was a typical biphase structure with tempered martensite and reversed austenite dispersedly distributed in the martensite matrix. W and Cu were added into the SMSS to reduce the transformation temperature (Ms) and improve the strength and hardness of the matrix by grain refining and solid solution strengthening. Thermocalc calculations confirmed that M23C6 compound and Laves phase were precipitated during tempering in the investigated steel. Compared with the traditional SMSS, the steel microalloyed with W and Cu performed better mechanical properties.

  12. Damping Capacity of High Manganese Austenitic Stainless Steel with a Two Phase Mixed Structure of Martensite and Austenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Tae Hyun; Kang, Chang-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The damping capacity of high manganese austenitic stainless steel with a two phase mixed structure of deformation-induced martensite and reversed austenite was studied. Reversed austenite with an ultra-fine grain size of less than 0.2 μm was obtained by reversion treatment. The two phase structure of deformation-induced martensite and reversed austenite was obtained by annealing treatment at a range of 500-700 °C and various times in cold rolled high manganese austenitic stainless steel. The damping capacity increased with an increasing annealing temperature and time. In high manganese stainless steel with the two phase mixed structure of martensite and austenite, the damping capacity decreased with an increasing volume fraction of deformation-induced martensite. Thus, the damping capacity was strongly affected by deformation-induced martensite. The results confirmed that austenitic stainless steel with a good combination of strength and damping capacity was obtained from the two phase mixed structure of austenite and martensite.

  13. Linear Friction Welding Process Model for Carpenter Custom 465 Precipitation-Hardened Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-11

    Carpenter Custom 465 precipitation-hardened martensitic stainless steel to develop a linear friction welding (LFW) process model for this material...Model for Carpenter Custom 465 Precipitation-Hardened Martensitic Stainless Steel The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are... Martensitic Stainless Steel Report Title An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite-element analysis is combined with thermo-mechanical material

  14. Study of electroless Ni-W-P alloy coating on martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitasari, Arini, E-mail: arini-nikitasari@yahoo.com; Mabruri, Efendi, E-mail: efendi-lipi@yahoo.com [Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (470 Building, Puspiptek, Serpong, Indonesia 15313) (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Electroless nickel phospor (Ni-P) is widely used in many industries due to their corrosion and wear resistance, coating uniformity, and ability to coat non-conductive surfaces. The unique properties of tungsten such as high hardness, higher melting point, lower coefficient of linear thermal expansion, and high tensile strength have created a lot of interest in developing ternary Ni-W-P alloys. This article presents the study of electroless Ni-W-P alloys coating using acid or alkaline bath on martensitic stainless steel. Nickel sulfate and sodium tungstate were used as nickel and tungsten sources, respectively, and sodium hypophosphite was used as a reducing agent. Acid or alkaline bath refer to bath pH condition was adjusted by adding sulfuric acid. Martensitic stainless steel was immersed in Ni-W-P bath for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The substrate of martensitic stainless steel was subjected to pre-treatment (polishing and cleaning) and activation prior to electroless plating. The plating characteristics were investigated for concentration ratio of nickel and hypophosphite (1:3), sodium tungstate concentration 0,1 M, immersion time (15 min, 30 min, 60 min), and bath condition (acid, alkaline). The electroless Ni-W-P plating was heat treated at 400°C for 1 hour. Deposits were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and corrosion measurement system (CMS).

  15. Martensitic transformation induced by irradiation and deformation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the peculiarities of martensite γ → α , (γ → ε → α , ) transformation in the steels with a low stacking fault energy (12Cr18Ni10T, Cr15AG14) irradiated by neutrons, α-particles and electrons (pulse and stationary) and then deformed with the various strain rates in the temperature range - 20 - 1000 C are considered. It is established by the electron-microscope research that the phase γ → α ' transition in irradiated and deformed steels is observed on the definite stage of evolution of the dislocation structure (after the cell formation) and the martensite formation preferentially occurs on a stacking fault aggregation. The regularities of the irradiation by high energy particles effect on the formation parameters and martensite α , -phase accumulation kinetics ones and also their role in forming of the strength and ductile properties in steels are analysed. (A.A.D.)

  16. The Investigation on Strain Strengthening Induced Martensitic Phase Transformation of Austenitic Stainless Steel: A Fundamental Research for the Quality Evaluation of Strain Strengthened Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cai Ren, Fa; Tang, Xiao Ying

    2018-03-01

    The manufacture of pressure vessels with austenitic stainless steel strain strengthening technology has become an important technical means for the light weight of cryogenic pressure vessels. In the process of increasing the strength of austenitic stainless steel, strain can induce the martensitic phase transformation in austenite phase. There is a quantitative relationship between the transformation quantity of martensitic phase and the basic mechanical properties. Then, the martensitic phase variables can be obtained by means of detection, and the mechanical properties and safety performance are evaluated and calculated. Based on this, the quantitative relationship between strain hardening and deformation induced martensite phase content is studied in this paper, and the mechanism of deformation induced martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel is detailed.

  17. Characterization of a Laser Surface-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    S.R. Al-Sayed; A.A. Hussein; A.A. Nofal; S.I. Hassab Elnaby; H. Elgazzar

    2017-01-01

    Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface treatment with those achieved by the conventional treatment. Laser power of different values (700 and 1000 W) with four corresponding different laser scanning speeds (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 m?min?1) was adopted to reach the op...

  18. Microstructural stability of fast reactor irradiated 10 to 12% Cr ferritic-martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, E.A.; Stoter, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    The strength and microstructural stability of three 10 to 12% Cr ferritic-martensitic stainless steels have been characterized following fast reactor irradiation to damage levels of 30 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures in the range 380 to 615 0 C. Irradiation results in either increases or decreases in room temperature hardness depending on the irradiation temperature. These strength changes can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of the combined effects of irradiation-induced interstitial dislocation loop formation and recovery of the dislocation networks comprising the initial tempered martensite structures. Precipitate evolution in the irradiated steels is associated with the nonequilibrium segregation of the elements nickel, silicon, molybdenum, chromium and phosphorus, brought about by solute-point defect interactions. The principal irradiation-induced precipitates identified are M 6 X, intermetallic chi and sigma phases and also α' (Cr-rich ferrite). The implications of the observed microstructural changes on the selection of martensitic stainless steels for fast reactor wrapper applications are briefly considered

  19. Analysis of the non-isothermal austenite-martensite transformation in 13% Cr-type martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-De-Andris, C.; Alvarez, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    In martensitic stainless steels, as in other alloyed containing carbide-forming elements, the carbide dissolution and precipitation processes that take place during heat treatment can cause modifications to the chemical composition of the austenite phase of these steels. The chemical composition of this phase is a fundamental factor for the evolution of the martensitic transformation. As a result of their influence on the dissolution and precipitation processes, the parameters of the quenching heat treatment exert a strong influence on the behavior of the martensitic transformation in these steels. In the present study, the effect of the heating temperature and the cooling rate on the martensitic transformation in two 13% Cr-type martensitic stainless steels with different carbon contents were properly evaluated. (author)

  20. Microstructural development during laser cladding of low-C martensitic stainless steel.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat input plays an important role in the microstructural development of 12%Cr martensitic stainless steel. The microstructure of low-C 12%Cr martensitic stainless steel resulting from laser cladding was investigated. For 410L a ferritic...

  1. Ionic nitriding of high chromium martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhl, S.P; Charadia, R; Vaca, L.S; Cimetta, J

    2008-01-01

    Martensitic stainless steels are used in industrial applications where resistance to corrosion and mechanical resistance are needed simultaneously. These steels are normally used in tempering and annealing condition which gives them hardnesses of 500 and 600 HV (about 54 HRC). Ionic nitriding is an assisted diffusion technique that has recently been successfully applied to harden austenitic stainless steels without reducing their resistance to corrosion. The application with AISI 420 martensitic steels has not given good results yet, because in most cases, it affects their corrosion resistance. This work presents the results of the pulsed nitriding of martensitic steels with a higher chrome content, such as the M340 and M333 Boehler steels and they are compared with the same materials after tempering and annealing, without nitriding. The influence of the variations in the parameters of the process, such as the percentage of active time in the pulsed wave, partial nitrogen pressure, current density and effective tension in the microstructure, hardness and wear and corrosion resistance was studied. The microstructure was studied with an optic microscope; the wear resistance with abrasion tests following ASTM G-65 and corrosion with 100 hour long saline haze tests, in a device built according to ASTM B117. Hardness was found to rise to values of 1000 to 1350 HV in all the steels after ionic nitriding, the modified layers oscillated from 3 to 15 microns. As a result, wear resistance also increased, with differences depending on the microstructure and the thickness of the modified layer. However, corrosion resistance was not good, except in the case of the M333 steel test piece with less hardness and a less thick nitrided layer without a noticeable interphase (au)

  2. Role of Nb in low interstitial 13Cr super martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.P.; Wang, L.J. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, C.M., E-mail: cmliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Subramanian, S.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S-4L7 (Canada)

    2011-08-25

    Highlights: {yields} Nb retards the kinetics of reversed austenite formation. {yields} Nb suppresses the occurrence of Cr rich precipitates. {yields} Nano-scale precipitates contribute to the significant increase in strength. - Abstract: The effect of adding 0.1 wt% Nb to low interstitial (N 0.01 wt%, C 0.01 wt%) 13Cr super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) on solid phase transformation and microstructures achieved by normalizing and tempering was investigated using dilatometer, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and its consequence on mechanical properties was examined to clarify the role of Nb in low interstitial martensitic stainless steel. Nb was found to retard kinetics of reversed austenite formation during tempering and to suppress the occurrence of Cr rich precipitates. The measurement of mechanical properties shows that while the strength properties were significantly increased by nano-scale precipitates enriched in Nb in the steel with 0.10 wt% Nb, the ductility and toughness properties were restored by optimum volume fraction of retained austenite. Excellent strength and adequate toughness properties were obtained by tempering the steel with 0.10 wt% Nb and low interstitial (N 0.01 wt%, C 0.01 wt%) steel at 600 deg. C.

  3. Deformation induced martensite in AISI 316 stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon, N.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The forming process leads to a considerable differentiation of the strain field within the billet, and finally causes the non-uniform distribution of the total strain, microstrusture and properties of the material over the product cross-section. This paper focus on the influence of stress states on the deformation-induced a’ martensitic transformation in AISI Type 316 austenitic stainless steel. The formation of deformation-induced martensite is related to the austenite (g instability at temperatures close or below room temperature. The structural transformation susceptibility is correlated to the stacking fault energy (SFE, which is a function not only of the chemical composition, but also of the testing temperature. Austenitic stainless steels possess high plasticity and can be easily cold formed. However, during cold processing the hardening phenomena always occurs. Nevertheless, the deformation-induced martensite transformation may enhance the rate of work-hardening and it may or may not be in favour of further material processing. Due to their high corrosion resistance and versatile mechanical properties the austenitic stainless steels are used in pressing of heat exchanger plates. However, this corrosion resistance is influenced by the amount of martensite formed during processing. In order to establish the links between total plastic strain, and martensitic transformation, the experimental tests were followed by numerical simulation.

    El proceso de conformación da a lugar a una considerable diferenciación del campo de tensiones dentro de una barra de extrusión y, finalmente, causa una distribución no uniforme de la tensión total, la microestructura y propiedades del material sobre el corte transversal. En este trabajo se estudia la influencia de los estados de tensión sobre la transformación martensítica inducida por deformación en un acero inoxidable austenítico tipo AISI 316. La formación de martensita inducida por

  4. Deformation Induced Martensitic Transformation and Its Initial Microstructure Dependence in a High Alloyed Duplex Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Lin; Huang, Tian Lin; Wang, Yu Hui

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) usually occurs in metastable austenitic stainless steels. Recent studies have shown that DIMT may occur in the austenite phase of low alloyed duplex stainless steels. The present study demonstrates that DIMT can also take place in a high alloyed...... Fe–23Cr–8.5Ni duplex stainless steel, which exhibits an unexpectedly rapid transformation from γ-austenite into α′-martensite. However, an inhibited martensitic transformation has been observed by varying the initial microstructure from a coarse alternating austenite and ferrite band structure...

  5. Laser milling of martensitic stainless steels using spiral trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, L.; Tantussi, F.; Fuso, F.

    2017-04-01

    A laser beam with sub-picosecond pulse duration was driven in spiral trajectories to perform micro-milling of martensitic stainless steel. The geometry of the machined micro-grooves channels was investigated by a specifically conceived Scanning Probe Microscopy instrument and linked to laser parameters by using an experimental approach combining the beam energy distribution profile and the absorption phenomena in the material. Preliminary analysis shows that, despite the numerous parameters involved in the process, layer removal obtained by spiral trajectories, varying the radial overlap, allows for a controllable depth of cut combined to a flattening effect of surface roughness. Combining the developed machining strategy to a feed motion of the work stage, could represent a method to obtain three-dimensional structures with a resolution of few microns, with an areal roughness Sa below 100 nm.

  6. The effect of deformation mode on the sensitisation of partially martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briant, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The metallurgical process by which austenitic stainless steels become susceptible to corrosion is defined as sensitisation. It is now well established that if the austenite is partially transformed to martensite by deformation, the kinetics of sensitisation will be accelerated. In this paper the effects of martensite induced by various deformation modes on sensitisation are examined. It will be shown that in all cases the martensite accelerates sensitisation which in turn leads to rapid corrosion. This effect is independent of the way the martensite is induced. The results also show that this effect is observed over a wide range of martensite content. (author)

  7. Comparative Study of Hardening Mechanisms During Aging of a 304 Stainless Steel Containing α'-Martensite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. W.; Kang, U. G.; Choi, J. Y.; Nam, W. J.

    2012-09-01

    Strain aging and hardening behaviors of a 304 stainless steel containing deformation-induced martensite were investigated by examining mechanical properties and microstructural evolution for different aging temperature and time. Introduced age hardening mechanisms of a cold rolled 304 stainless steel were the additional formation of α'-martensite, hardening of α'-martensite, and hardening of deformed austenite. The increased amount of α'-martensite at an aging temperature of 450 °C confirmed the additional formation of α'-martensite as a hardening mechanism in a cold rolled 304 stainless steel. Additionally, the increased hardness in both α'-martensite and austenite phases with aging temperature proved that hardening of both α'-martensite and austenite phases would be effective as hardening mechanisms in cold rolled and aged 304 stainless steels. The results suggested that among hardening mechanisms, hardening of an α'-martensite phase, including the diffusion of interstitial solute carbon atoms to dislocations and the precipitation of fine carbide particles would become a major hardening mechanism during aging of cold rolled 304 stainless steels.

  8. Hydrogen Embrittlement Mechanism in Fatigue Behaviour of Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brück Sven

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of hydrogen on the fatigue behaviour of the high strength martensitic stainless steel X3CrNiMo13-4 and the metastable austenitic stainless steels X2Crni19-11 with various nickel contents was examined in the low and high cycle fatigue regime. The focus of the investigations was the changes in the mechanisms of short crack propagation. The aim of the ongoing investigation is to determine and quantitatively describe the predominant processes of hydrogen embrittlement and their influence on the short fatigue crack morphology and crack growth rate. In addition, simulations were carried out on the short fatigue crack growth, in order to develop a detailed insight into the hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms relevant for cyclic loading conditions.

  9. Effects of heat treatment influencing factors on microstructure and mechanical properties of a low-carbon martensitic stainless bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shaohong; Yuan, Xiaohong; Jiang, Wen; Sun, Hudai; Li, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhao, Kunyu, E-mail: zhaokunyu.kmust@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yang, Maosheng [Department of Structural Materials, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-05-01

    The effects of different heat treatment parameters and cryogenic treatment (−75 °C) on microstructural changes and mechanical properties of a low-carbon martensitic stainless bearing steel were investigated. These analyses were performed via the optical microscope (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained results showed that the execution of cryogenic treatment on quenched and tempered bearing steel increases hardness, tensile strength and decreases toughness with the increment of cryogenic treatment and tempering cycles. This paper also showed that the cryogenic cycle's treatment incorporating tempering can refine the martensite laths resulting in improvement of tensile strength. In addition, cryogenic treatment further reduces the retained austenite content but it cannot make retained austenite transform into martensite completely even tempering at high temperature.

  10. Effects of heat treatment influencing factors on microstructure and mechanical properties of a low-carbon martensitic stainless bearing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shaohong; Yuan, Xiaohong; Jiang, Wen; Sun, Hudai; Li, Jun; Zhao, Kunyu; Yang, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different heat treatment parameters and cryogenic treatment (−75 °C) on microstructural changes and mechanical properties of a low-carbon martensitic stainless bearing steel were investigated. These analyses were performed via the optical microscope (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained results showed that the execution of cryogenic treatment on quenched and tempered bearing steel increases hardness, tensile strength and decreases toughness with the increment of cryogenic treatment and tempering cycles. This paper also showed that the cryogenic cycle's treatment incorporating tempering can refine the martensite laths resulting in improvement of tensile strength. In addition, cryogenic treatment further reduces the retained austenite content but it cannot make retained austenite transform into martensite completely even tempering at high temperature

  11. Influence of the Martensitic Transformation on the Microscale Plastic Strain Heterogeneities in a Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, Audrey; Martin, Guilhem; Comby, Solène; Roussel-Dherbey, Francine; Deschamps, Alexis; Mantel, Marc; Meyer, Nicolas; Verdier, Marc; Veron, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the martensitic transformation on microscale plastic strain heterogeneity of a duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Microscale strain heterogeneities were measured by digital image correlation during an in situ tensile test within the SEM. The martensitic transformation was monitored in situ during tensile testing by high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A clear correlation is shown between the plasticity-induced transformation of austenite to martensite and the development of plastic strain heterogeneities at the phase level.

  12. A macroscopic model to simulate the mechanically induced martensitic transformation in metastable austenitic stainless steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanically induced martensitic transformation and the associated transformation plasticity phenomena in austenitic stainless steels are studied. The mechanisms responsible for the transformation are investigated and put into perspective based on experimental evidence. The stress and strain

  13. Study of martensitic transformation in stainless steel by CEMS and RBS channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Sakamoto, I.; Tanoue, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Xe ion irradiation in a single crystal of 17/13 stainless steel has been studied, using RBS channeling techniques and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). 300 keV Xe ions were used to induce martensitic transformation in the austentic steel. A dynamic behavior of the transformation was observed as functions of the fluence and depth dependence. The martensite appears abruptly at a critical fluence, in contrast with polycrystalline 17/7 stainless steel. (orig.)

  14. Hydrogen Embrittlement Mechanism in Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Brück

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of hydrogen on the fatigue behavior of the high strength martensitic stainless steel X3CrNiMo13-4 and the metastable austenitic stainless steels X2Crni19-11 with various nickel contents was examined in the low and high cycle fatigue regime. The focus of the investigations were the changes in the mechanisms of short crack propagation. Experiments in laboratory air with uncharged and precharged specimen and uncharged specimen in pressurized hydrogen were carried out. The aim of the ongoing investigation was to determine and quantitatively describe the predominant processes of hydrogen embrittlement and their influence on the short fatigue crack morphology and crack growth rate. In addition, simulations were carried out on the short fatigue crack growth, in order to develop a detailed insight into the hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms relevant for cyclic loading conditions. It was found that a lower nickel content and a higher martensite content of the samples led to a higher susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. In addition, crack propagation and crack path could be simulated well with the simulation model.

  15. Evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the 15-5PH martensitic stainless steel after ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herny, E.; Lafont, M.C.; Andrieu, E.; Lours, P.; Herny, E.; Lagain, P.; Cloue, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The structural hardening martensitic stainless steel 15-5PH is used in aerospace and nuclear industries for the manufacture of pieces which are thermo-mechanically highly stressed. For this reason, the steel has to have good mechanical properties in a large range of running temperatures as well as a good corrosion resistance. During long time periods between 300 and 400 C, the 15-5PH is susceptible to embrittlement due to the decomposition of the martensite into a Cr-rich area and a Fe-rich area. This embrittlement induces a drop of the impact strength and of the ductility with a strong increase of the ductile-brittle transition and of the tensile properties. Transition electron microscopy observations have revealed the appearance of a thin chromium carbides precipitation after ageing. The spinodal decomposition of the martensite has been revealed by the tomographic atomic probe. (O.M.)

  16. Ultrafine Structure and High Strength in Cold-Rolled Martensite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu; Morito, S.; Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Structural refinement by cold rolling (10 to 80 pct reductions) of interstitial free (IF) steel containing Mn and B has been investigated from samples with different initial structures: (a) lath martensite, (b) coarse ferrite (grain size 150 mu m), and (c) fine ferrite (22 mu m). Unalloyed IF steel....... At low to medium strains, lath martensite transforms into a cell block structure composed of cell block boundaries and cell boundaries with only a negligible change in strength. At medium to large strains, cell block structures in all samples refine with increasing strain and the hardening rate...... is constant (stage IV). A strong effect of the initial structure is observed on both the structural refinement and the strength increase. This effect is largest in lath martensite and smallest in unalloyed ferrite. No saturation in structural refinement and strength is observed. The discussion covers...

  17. A study of the prospects for development of low-activation martensitic stainless steels for first-wall and blanket structures in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupholme, K.W.; Orr, J.; Dulieu, D.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    This study examines the potential of the elemental substitution approach to the design of low-activity martensitic stainless steels, subject to the requirement that the contact γ dose rate falls to a value that would allow essentially unrestricted handling of discarded material after a cooling period of 100 years. The factors governing the structure and properties of the 9-12%Cr martensitic steels are reviewed. Practicable substitutes for the proscribed elements molybdenum, nickel and niobium include tungsten, tantalum and an increased vanadium content in conjunction with optimised carbon, nitrogen and boron levels. Given the generally attractive combination of properties offered by the martensitic steels, the prospects for developing a satisfactory low-activity composition appear favourable. A series of experimental compositions and a programme of investigations are proposed to explore possible alloys with the objective of reproducing, as far as possible, the characteristics of existing fully martensitic high strength stainless steels. (author)

  18. Characterization of a Laser Surface-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Al-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface treatment with those achieved by the conventional treatment. Laser power of different values (700 and 1000 W with four corresponding different laser scanning speeds (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 m•min−1 was adopted to reach the optimum conditions for impact toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance for laser heat treated (LHT samples. The 0 °C impact energy of LHT samples indicated higher values compared to the conventionally heat treated (CHT samples. This was accompanied by the formation of a hard surface layer and a soft interior base metal. Microhardness was studied to determine the variation of hardness values with respect to the depth under the treated surface. The wear resistance at the surface was enhanced considerably. Microstructure examination was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The corrosion behavior of the LHT samples was also studied and its correlation with the microstructures was determined. The corrosion data was obtained in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique.

  19. Characterization of a Laser Surface-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, S R; Hussein, A A; Nofal, A A; Hassab Elnaby, S I; Elgazzar, H

    2017-05-29

    Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface treatment with those achieved by the conventional treatment. Laser power of different values (700 and 1000 W) with four corresponding different laser scanning speeds (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 m•min-1) was adopted to reach the optimum conditions for impact toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance for laser heat treated (LHT) samples. The 0 °C impact energy of LHT samples indicated higher values compared to the conventionally heat treated (CHT) samples. This was accompanied by the formation of a hard surface layer and a soft interior base metal. Microhardness was studied to determine the variation of hardness values with respect to the depth under the treated surface. The wear resistance at the surface was enhanced considerably. Microstructure examination was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The corrosion behavior of the LHT samples was also studied and its correlation with the microstructures was determined. The corrosion data was obtained in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique.

  20. Thermally activated growth of lath martensite in Fe–Cr–Ni–Al stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Pantleon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The austenite to martensite transformation in a semi-austenitic stainless steel containing 17 wt-%Cr, 7 wt-%Ni and 1 wt-%Al was investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry and electron backscatter diffraction. Magnetometry demonstrated that, within experimental accuracy, martensite formation...... can be suppressed on fast cooling to 77 K as well as on subsequent fast heating to 373 K. Surprisingly, martensite formation was observed during moderate heating from 77 K, instead. Electron backscatter diffraction demonstrated that the morphology of martensite is lath type. The kinetics...... of the transformation is interpreted in terms of athermal nucleation of lath martensite followed by thermally activated growth. It is anticipated that substantial autocatalytic martensite formation occurs during thermally activated growth. The observation of a retardation of the transformation followed by a new...

  1. Strength of zirconium--titanium martensites and deformation behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Vijayakar, S.J.; Krishnan, R.

    1978-01-01

    The deformation behavior of pure zirconium and of zirconium--titanium alloys containing 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt % titanium was studied in two heat treated conditions: furnace cooled and water quenched from the β phase field. By comparing the flow stresses of the furnace cooled α and the water quenched α' (martensite) structures it was possible to isolate the strengthening contributions of the martensitic structure (comprising the contributions due to the small size of the martensite units and to the distributions of defects like dislocations and internal twins) from those arising from the solid solution. The internally twinned plate martensite structure in the Zr--15% Ti and the Zr--20% Ti alloys was responsible for a significant increase in strength, while the strengthening due to the dislocated lath martensite structure in the more dilute alloys was only marginal. Stress relaxation experiments revealed that strengthening associated with the martensite structure was mainly due to an increase in the athermal component of the flow stress. The effectiveness of the lath boundaries and the (10 anti 11) twin boundaries in offering resistance to an approaching deformation front (either slip or twin) was examined. While the lath boundaries were found to be transparent with respect to the propagation of slip dislocations and deformation twins, a majority of plate as well as twin boundaries were effective barriers against their propagation. TEM observations showed an extensive accumulation of geometrically necessary dislocations in the plastically deformed twinned martensites. Enhanced work hardening was related to the geometric slip distances in these structures in accordance with Ashby's one parameter work hardening theory for plastically inhomogeneous materials. The effect of the martensite structure on different components of the flow stress (dependent on or independent of grain size and strain) was discussed

  2. Martensitic Stainless Steels Low-temperature Nitriding: Dependence of Substrate Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Lauro Mariano; Brunatto, Silvio Francisco; Cardoso, Rodrigo Perito

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature plasma assisted nitriding is a very promising technique to improve surface mechanical properties of stainless steels, keeping unaltered or even improving their surface corrosion resistance. During treatment, nitrogen diffuses into the steel surface, increasing its hardness and wear resistance. In the present work the nitriding process of different martensitic stainless steels was studied. As-quenched AISI 410, 410NiMo, 416 and 420 stainless steel samples were plasma nitrided a...

  3. The role of martensitic transformation on bimodal grain structure in ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabooni, S.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H.; Ngan, A.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metastable AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel samples were subjected to different cold rolling reductions from 70% to 93%, followed by annealing at 700 °C for 300 min to form ultrafine grained (UFG) austenite with different grain structures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation were used to characterize the martensitic transformation, in order to relate it to the bimodal distribution of the austenite grain size after subsequent annealing. The results showed that the martensite morphology changed from lath type in the 60% rolled sample to a mixture of lath and dislocation-cell types in the higher rolling reductions. Calculation of the Gibbs free energy change during the reversion treatment showed that the reversion mechanism is shear controlled at the annealing temperature and so the morphology of the reverted austenite is completely dependent on the morphology of the deformation induced martensite. It was found that the austenite had a bimodal grain size distribution in the 80% rolled and annealed state and this is related to the existence of different types of martensite. Increasing the rolling reduction to 93% followed by annealing caused changing of the grain structure to a monomodal like structure, which was mostly covered with small grains of around 300 nm. The existence of bimodal austenite grain size in the 80% rolled and annealed 304L stainless steel led to the improvement of ductility while maintaining a high tensile strength in comparison with the 93% rolled and annealed sample

  4. The effect of nitrogen on martensite formation in a Cr-Mn-Ni stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, T.; Knutsen, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen (0 to 0.27 wt%) on martensite formation in an experimental low-nickel stainless-steel alloy (Fe-17Cr-7Mn-4Ni) has been investigated. The alloys containing 0.1 wt% or more nitrogen are fully austenitic at room temperature; those containing less nitrogen consist of a mixture of austenite, martensite and δ-ferrite. The alloys containing less than 0.2 wt% nitrogen are metastable and undergo a transformation from austenite to martensite on deformation. Transmission electron microscopy investigations suggest that, within the nitrogen range considered in this investigation, the addition of nitrogen causes an increase in stacking fault energy which in turn inhibits the nucleation of martensite. As the low-nitrogen alloys (less than 0.2 wt% nitrogen) undergo deformation, ε-martensite (with the [ anti 110] γ and [ anti 12 anti 10] ε zone axes parallel) is observed at the intersection of stacking faults. With increasing strain, the presence of α'-martensite is observed in conjunction with the ε-martensite, and only α'-martensite is observed at very high strains. Both the Nishiyama-Wasserman and Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationships are observed between austenite and α'-martensite. The transformation to martensite during deformation causes a significant variation in room-temperature mechanical properties, despite the overall narrow range in composition considered. (orig.)

  5. Effect of high temperature tempering on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the modified 410 martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabruri, Efendi; Pasaribu, Rahmat Ramadhan; Sugandi, Moh. Tri; Sunardi

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the influence of high tempering temperature and holding time on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the recently modified 410 martensitic stainless steel. The modified steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The hardness and tensile strength of the steels decreased with increasing tempering temperature from 600 to 700 °C and with increasing holding time from 1 to 6 h. Based on microstructural images, it was observed the coarsening of lath martensite and of the metal carbides as well. However, a relatively high hardness and strength were still exibited by this steel after tempering at a such high temperature of 600-700 °C. The partition of Mo into the carbides identified by EDS analysis may correlate with this situation.

  6. Structure and microstructure evolution of a ternary Fe–Cr–Ni alloy akin to super martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Kumar, B.; Sharma, Sailaja; Munda, Parikshit; Minz, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Reaustenisation by recrystallisation rather by a diffusion controlled process. • Ultrafine grained austenite formation in martensite matrix by recrystallisation. • In situ high temperature austenite transformation studies by X-ray diffraction. • Microstructure tailoring to achieve tensile strength (∼1 GPa) with good ductility. - Abstract: A ternary Fe–Cr–Ni alloy, akin to super martensitic stainless steels was prepared in vacuum induction furnace. The as cast ingot was solution treated at 1200 °C for 25 h and then hot forged and rolled to reduce into plate form. The hot rolled plate of martensitic microstructure was then cold rolled to 80% of thickness reduction. The phase transformation studies by X-ray diffraction analysis of hot and cold rolled specimens showed presence of retained austenite in air cooled as well as in water quenched state after annealing/austenising temperature of 1060 °C. The reaustenisation behaviour of the cold rolled alloy in water quenched state was studied by high temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. It showed very stable martensitic phase and the completion of reaustenisation process were observed to occur at about 950 °C. The recrystallisation behaviour of cold rolled material under isothermal and repeated annealing treatment was studied in detail by electron microscope. The tensile properties of the material were evaluated after various annealing treatments. The study revealed that by a suitable sequence of repetitive annealing process microstructure could be tailored to achieve tensile strength above 1 GPa with good ductility in a super martensitic stainless steel

  7. Effect of thermal cycling on martensitic transformation and mechanical strengthening of stainless steels – A phase-field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Shaw, Brian A.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D elastoplastic phase-field model is used to study the effect of thermal cycling on martensitic transformationas well as on mechanical strengthening of both austenite and martensite in stainless steel. The results show that with an increasing number of thermal cycles, martensite becomes more...

  8. Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through the formation and reversion of deformation-induced martensite: Mechanisms, microstructures, mechanical properties, and TRIP effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirdel, M., E-mail: mshirdel1989@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: hmirzadeh@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsa, M.H., E-mail: mhparsa@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out on the strain-induced martensitic transformation, its reversion to austenite, the resultant grain refinement, and the enhancement of strength and strain-hardening ability through the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect in a commercial austenitic 304L stainless steel with emphasis on the mechanisms and the microstructural evolution. A straightforward magnetic measurement device, which is based on the measurement of the saturation magnetization, for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite after cold rolling and reversion annealing in metastable austenitic stainless steels was used, which its results were in good consistency with those of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. A new parameter called the effective reduction in thickness was introduced, which corresponds to the reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite fraction based on the saturation in the martensitic transformation. By means of thermodynamics calculations, the reversion mechanisms were estimated and subsequently validated by experimental results. The signs of thermal martensitic transformation at cooling stage after reversion at 850 °C were found, which was attributed to the rise in the martensite start temperature due to the carbide precipitation. After the reversion treatment, the average grain sizes were around 500 nm and the nanometric grains of the size of ~ 65 nm were also detected. The intense grain refinement led to the enhanced mechanical properties and observation of the change in the work-hardening capacity and TRIP effect behavior. A practical map as a guidance for grain refining and characterizing the stability against grain growth was proposed, which shows the limitation of the reversion mechanism for refinement of grain size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through martensite treatment • A parameter descriptive of a reasonable upper bound on

  9. Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through the formation and reversion of deformation-induced martensite: Mechanisms, microstructures, mechanical properties, and TRIP effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out on the strain-induced martensitic transformation, its reversion to austenite, the resultant grain refinement, and the enhancement of strength and strain-hardening ability through the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect in a commercial austenitic 304L stainless steel with emphasis on the mechanisms and the microstructural evolution. A straightforward magnetic measurement device, which is based on the measurement of the saturation magnetization, for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite after cold rolling and reversion annealing in metastable austenitic stainless steels was used, which its results were in good consistency with those of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. A new parameter called the effective reduction in thickness was introduced, which corresponds to the reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite fraction based on the saturation in the martensitic transformation. By means of thermodynamics calculations, the reversion mechanisms were estimated and subsequently validated by experimental results. The signs of thermal martensitic transformation at cooling stage after reversion at 850 °C were found, which was attributed to the rise in the martensite start temperature due to the carbide precipitation. After the reversion treatment, the average grain sizes were around 500 nm and the nanometric grains of the size of ~ 65 nm were also detected. The intense grain refinement led to the enhanced mechanical properties and observation of the change in the work-hardening capacity and TRIP effect behavior. A practical map as a guidance for grain refining and characterizing the stability against grain growth was proposed, which shows the limitation of the reversion mechanism for refinement of grain size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through martensite treatment • A parameter descriptive of a reasonable upper bound on

  10. The influence of deformation-induced martensite on the cryogenic behavior of 300-series stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Chan, J.W.; Mei, Z.

    1992-06-01

    The 300-series stainless steels that are commonly specified for the structures of high field superconducting magnets are metastable austenitic alloys that undergo martensitic transformations when deformed at low temperature. The martensitic tranformation is promoted by plastic deformation and by exposure to high magnetic fields. The transformation significantly influences the mechanical properties of the alloy. The mechanisms of this influence are reviewed, with emphasis on fatigue crack growth effects and magnetomechanical phenomena that have only recently been recognized

  11. Dilatometry Analysis of Dissolution of Cr-Rich Carbides in Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuliang; Volkova, Olena; Biermann, Horst; Mola, Javad

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution of Cr-rich carbides formed in the martensitic constituent of a 13 pct Cr stainless steel was studied by dilatometry and correlative electron channeling contrast examinations. The dissolution of carbides subsequent to the martensite reversion to austenite was associated with a net volume expansion which in turn increased the dilatometry-based apparent coefficient of thermal expansion (CTEa) during continuous heating. The effects of carbides fraction and size on the CTEa variations during carbides dissolution are discussed.

  12. Influence of Mo addition on the tempered properties of 13Cr martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Byong Ho; Ahn, Yong Sik

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Mo addition on the mechanical properties of 13Cr-0.2C martensitic stainless steel, tensile test and Charpy V-notch test were performed after tempering at the temperature range of 200∼700 .deg. C following austenitizing at 1100 .deg. C. The yield strength and hardness of the steel were increased with the increase of Mo content at all tempering conditions, because Mo causes retardation of precipitation and coarsening of carbides and solid solution strengthening of matrix. Except 500 .deg. C of tempering temperature, the Charpy impact energy was significantly increased with Mo content and showed the highest value at 1.5 wt% addition. The increase of impact energy of the steel containing Mo is thought to be caused by δ-ferrite formed in the tempered martensitic matrix. At 500 .deg. C tempering, Charpy impact energy was decreased drastically due to temper embrittlement and it was not possible to prevent it even though Mo was added up to 1.5 wt%

  13. Relationship between thermomechanical treatment, microstructure and α' martensite in stainless Fe-based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otubo, J.; Mei, P.R.; Shinohara, A.H.; Suzuki, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    This work presents some preliminary results relating training treatment, training temperature and the formation of α' martensite to the shape recovery effect of stainless shape memory alloys. For the composition tested, the sample shows some mechanical memory (constant tensile stress at 4% strain and constant yield stress throughout the training cycles) with a very good shape recovery (95% after 4% tensile strain) at a training temperature of 873 K. Its residual strain is related to the generation of perfect dislocations only. For the sample trained at 723 K, the residual strain could be attributed to incomplete reversion of stress-induced ε martensite, in part due to the blocking effect of α' martensite and also to the generation of perfect dislocations. The influence of α' martensite on shape recovery is relative and is dependent on training temperature, and the preferential growth of α' martensite is shown to occur for large grain size. (orig.)

  14. The effects of strain induced martensite on stress corrosion cracking in AISI 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. S.; Kwon, S. I.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of strain induced martensite on stress corrosion cracking behavior in AISI 304 stainless steel in boiling 42 wt% MgCl 2 solution were investigated using monotonic SSRT and cyclic SSRT with R=0.1 stress ratio. As the amount of pre-strain increased, the failure time of the specimens in monotonic SSRT test decreased independent of the existence of strain induced martensite. The strain induced martensite seems to promote the crack initiation but to retard the crack propagation during stress corrosion cracking

  15. Stepwise transformation behavior of the strain-induced martensitic transformation in a metastable stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedstroem, Peter; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jon; Oden, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    In situ high-energy X-ray diffraction during tensile loading has been used to investigate the evolution of lattice strains and the accompanying strain-induced martensitic transformation in cold-rolled sheets of a metastable stainless steel. At high applied strains the transformation to α-martensite occurs in stepwise bursts. These stepwise transformation events are correlated with stepwise increased lattice strains and peak broadening in the austenite phase. The stepwise transformation arises from growth of α-martensite embryos by autocatalytic transformation

  16. Deformation induced martensite in an AISI 301LN stainless steel: characterization and influence on pitting corrosion resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu,Hamilton Ferreira Gomes de; Carvalho,Sheyla Santana de; Lima Neto,Pedro de; Santos,Ricardo Pires dos; Freire,Válder Nogueira; Silva,Paulo Maria de Oliveira; Tavares,Sérgio Souto Maior

    2007-01-01

    In austenitic stainless steels, plastic deformation can induce martensite formation. The induced martensite is related to the austenite (gamma) instability at temperatures close or below room temperature. The metastability of austenite stainless steels increases with the decreasing of stacking fault energy (SFE). In this work, the deformation induced martensite was analyzed by X ray diffraction, electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), magnetic methods and atomic force microscope (AFM) in sa...

  17. The Investigation of Strain-Induced Martensite Reverse Transformation in AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cios, G.; Tokarski, T.; Żywczak, A.; Dziurka, R.; Stępień, M.; Gondek, Ł.; Marciszko, M.; Pawłowski, B.; Wieczerzak, K.; Bała, P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on the strain-induced martensitic transformation and reversion transformation of the strain-induced martensite in AISI 304 stainless steel using a number of complementary techniques such as dilatometry, calorimetry, magnetometry, and in-situ X-ray diffraction, coupled with high-resolution microstructural transmission Kikuchi diffraction analysis. Tensile deformation was applied at temperatures between room temperature and 213 K (-60 °C) in order to obtain a different volume fraction of strain-induced martensite (up to 70 pct). The volume fraction of the strain-induced martensite, measured by the magnetometric method, was correlated with the total elongation, hardness, and linear thermal expansion coefficient. The thermal expansion coefficient, as well as the hardness of the strain-induced martensitic phase was evaluated. The in-situ thermal treatment experiments showed unusual changes in the kinetics of the reverse transformation (α' → γ). The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the reverse transformation may be stress assisted—strains inherited from the martensitic transformation may increase its kinetics at the lower annealing temperature range. More importantly, the transmission Kikuchi diffraction measurements showed that the reverse transformation of the strain-induced martensite proceeds through a displacive, diffusionless mechanism, maintaining the Kurdjumov-Sachs crystallographic relationship between the martensite and the reverted austenite. This finding is in contradiction to the results reported by other researchers for a similar alloy composition.

  18. Sandblasting induced stress release and enhanced adhesion strength of diamond films deposited on austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Ye, Jiansong; Zhang, Hangcheng; Feng, Tao; Chen, Jianqing; Hu, Xiaojun

    2017-08-01

    We firstly used sandblasting to treat austenite stainless steel and then deposited a Cr/CrN interlayer by close field unbalanced magnetron sputtering on it. After that, diamond films were prepared on the interlayer. It is found that the sandblasting process induces phase transition from austenite to martensite in the surface region of the stainless steel, which decreases thermal stress in diamond films due to lower thermal expansion coefficient of martensite phase compared with that of austenite phase. The sandblasting also makes stainless steel's surface rough and the Cr/CrN interlayer film inherits the rough surface. This decreases the carburization extent of the interlayer, increases nucleation density and modifies the stress distribution. Due to lower residual stress and small extent of the interlayer's carburization, the diamond film on sandblast treated austenite stainless steel shows enhanced adhesion strength.

  19. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  20. Estimation of the kinetics of martensitic transformation in austenitic stainless steels by conventional and novel approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirdel, M., E-mail: mshirdel1989@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: hmirzadeh@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsa, M.H., E-mail: mhparsa@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-29

    A comparative study was carried out on the kinetics of the martensitic transformation in a 304L stainless steel during cold rolling by conventional and novel approaches. The phase analysis based on X-ray diffraction patterns and metallography and also magnetic measurements based on ferritescope readings were utilized to elucidate the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. A straightforward magnetic measurement approach for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite in metastable austenitic stainless steels has been introduced in this study. This technique collects the data throughout the bulk of the material to give a realistic estimate of the amount of ferromagnetic martensite. This is an advantage over the surface collecting methods such as ferritescope readings, which overestimates the amount of martensite due to its inhomogeneous distribution through the thickness based on the frictional effects between the rolls and the specimen surface. The proposed approach can be applied in various designs for static/continuous magnetic measurement of bulk materials that is advantageous compared with the conventional vibrating sample magnetometer technique which is useful for static measurement of bulk materials with specific shapes. Moreover, in analogy to ferritescope, the output data of the developed device is directly related to the amount of martensite.

  1. Estimation of the kinetics of martensitic transformation in austenitic stainless steels by conventional and novel approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the kinetics of the martensitic transformation in a 304L stainless steel during cold rolling by conventional and novel approaches. The phase analysis based on X-ray diffraction patterns and metallography and also magnetic measurements based on ferritescope readings were utilized to elucidate the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. A straightforward magnetic measurement approach for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite in metastable austenitic stainless steels has been introduced in this study. This technique collects the data throughout the bulk of the material to give a realistic estimate of the amount of ferromagnetic martensite. This is an advantage over the surface collecting methods such as ferritescope readings, which overestimates the amount of martensite due to its inhomogeneous distribution through the thickness based on the frictional effects between the rolls and the specimen surface. The proposed approach can be applied in various designs for static/continuous magnetic measurement of bulk materials that is advantageous compared with the conventional vibrating sample magnetometer technique which is useful for static measurement of bulk materials with specific shapes. Moreover, in analogy to ferritescope, the output data of the developed device is directly related to the amount of martensite

  2. Martensitic transformation behaviour in sensitized SUS304 austenitic stainless steel during isothermal holding at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-hwa; Fukuda, Takashi; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    We investigated martensitic transformation behaviour in sensitized SUS304 austenitic stainless steel to determine the stability of the austenitic phase at low temperatures. We found that a specimen that was sensitized at 973 K for 100 h exhibits an isothermal martensitic transformation when the specimen is held in the temperature range between 60 and 260 K. We constructed a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram corresponding to the formation of 0.5 vol. % α'-martensite. A magnetization measurement was used to evaluate the volume fraction of a'-martensite. The TTT diagram shows a double-C curve with two noses located at about 100 and 200 K. In-situ optical microscope observations reveal that the double C-curve is due to two different transformation sequences. That is, the upper part of the C-curve is due to a direct γ → α' martensitic transformation and the lower part of the C-curve is due to a successive γ → ψ → α' martensitic transformation. The direct γ → α' transformation occurs in the vicinity of grain boundaries while the successive γ → ψ' → α' transformation occurs near the centre of grains. A scanning electron microscope observation reveals that carbide particles of M 23 C 6 are formed in the grain boundaries. The concentration difference between the centre of the grains and regions near grain boundaries is the reason for the difference in the isothermal transformation sequence for the sensitized SUS304 stainless steel.

  3. Effect of martensitic phase transformation on the behavior of 304 austenitic stainless steel under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H., E-mail: wanghm@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jeong, Y. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Clausen, B.; Liu, Y.; McCabe, R.J. [Materials Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barlat, F. [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH (Korea, Republic of); Tomé, C.N. [Materials Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The present work integrates in-situ neutron diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and crystal plasticity modeling to investigate the effect of martensitic phase transformation on the behavior of 304 stainless steel under uniaxial tension. The macroscopic stress strain response, evolution of the martensitic phase fraction, texture evolution of each individual phase, and internal elastic strains were measured at room temperature and at 75 °C. Because no martensitic transformation was observed at 75 °C, the experimental results at 75 °C were used as a reference to quantify the effect of formed martensitic phase on the behavior of 304 stainless steel at room temperature. A crystallographic phase transformation model was implemented into an elastic–viscoplastic self-consistent framework. The phase transformation model captured the macroscopic stress strain response, plus the texture and volume fraction evolution of austenite and martensite. The model also predicts the internal elastic strain evolution with loading in the austenite, but not in the martensite. The results of this work highlight the mechanisms that control phase transformation and the sensitivity of modeling results to them, and point out to critical elements that still need to be incorporated into crystallographic phase transformation models to accurately describe the internal strain evolution during phase transformation.

  4. Depth distribution analysis of Martensitic transformations in Xe implanted austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, E.; Gerritsen, E.; Chechenin, N.G.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years the implantation of noble gases in metals has been found to induce some exciting phenomena such as formation of inclusions containing solid gas at extremely high pressures. In stainless steels these inclusions are the origin of a stress-induced martensitic fcc → bcc phase...... transformation in the implanted layer. In this work we present results from a depth distribution analysis of the martensitic phase change occurring in Xe implanted single crystals of austenitic stainless steel. Analysis was done by in situ RBS/channeling analysis, X-ray diffraction and cross-section transmission...... electron microscopy (XTEM) of the implanted surface. It is found that the martensitic transformation of the surface layer occurs for fluences above 1 × 1020 m−2. The thickness of the transformed layer increases with fluence to ≈ 150 nm at 1 × 10 21 m−2, which far exceeds the range plus straggling...

  5. Constitutive modelling of stainless steels for cryogenic applications. Strain induced martensitic transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2001-01-01

    The 300-series stainless steels are metastable austenitic alloys: martensitic transformation occurs at low temperatures and/or when plastic strain fields develop in the structures. The transformation influences the mechanical properties of the material. The present note aims at proposing a set of constitutive equations describing the plastic strain induced martensitic transformation in the stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The constitutive modelling shall create a bridge between the material sciences and the structural analysis. For the structures developing and accumulating plastic deformations at sub-zero temperatures, it is of primary importance to be able to predict the intensity of martensitic transformation and its effect on the material properties. In particular, the constitutive model has been applied to predict the behaviour of the components of the LHC interconnections, the so-called bellows expansion joints (the LHC mechanical compensation system).

  6. Martensitic transformation in 304L and 316L types stainless steels cathodically hydrogen charged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkovitz, E.; Eliezer, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports a TEM study on the role of phase transitions at the crack tip in 304L and 316L types stainless steels cathodically hydrogen charged in the absence of any eternally applied forces. The possible role of α prime and epsilon martensite phases in the fracture mechanism is discussed

  7. Strain direction dependency of martensitic transformation in austenitic stainless steels: The effect of gamma-texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilkhuijsen, P.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests on both a non-textured and a highly textured, fully austenitic stainless steel were performed in both the rolling and the transverse directions. Both materials show mechanically induced phase transformation from the austenitic FCC to the martensitic BCC phase. Differences in

  8. Improved hardness of laser alloyed X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyi, DI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in hardness of X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel laser alloyed with 99.9% pure titanium carbide, stellite 6 and two cases of premixed ratio of titanium carbide and stellite 6 [TiC (30 wt.%)- stellite 6 (70 wt.%) and TiC (70 wt...

  9. A Shear Strain Route Dependency of Martensite Formation in 316L Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu; Jang, Jinsung; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of simple shearing on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Two different shear strain routes were obtained by twisting cylindrical specimens in the forward and backward directions. The strain-induced martensite phase was effectively obtained by alteration of the routes. Formation of the martensite phase clearly resulted in significant hardening of the steel. Grain-size reduction and strain-induced martensitic transformation within the deformed structures of the strained specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy - electron back-scattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and the TEM-ASTAR (transmission electron microscopy - analytical scanning transmission atomic resolution, automatic crystal orientation/phase mapping for TEM) system. Significant numbers of twin networks were formed by alteration of the shear strain routes, and the martensite phases were nucleated at the twin interfaces.

  10. Austenite reversion in low-carbon martensitic stainless steels – a CALPHAD-assisted review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niessen, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Low-carbon martensitic stainless steels with 11.5–16 wt-% Cr and martensite upon inter-critical annealing. The review treats...... the mechanisms governing the formation and stabilisation of reverted austenite and is assisted by the computation of phase equilibria. Literature data on Cr and Ni concentrations of the reverted austenite/martensite dual-phase microstructure are assessed with respect to predicted concentrations. Reasonable...... agreement was found for concentrations in martensite. Systematic excess of Cr in austenite of approx. 2 wt-% relative to calculations was suspected to originate from the growth of M23C6 with a coherent interface to austenite. Within large scatter, measured values of Ni in austenite were on average 2 wt...

  11. Characterization of the martensite phase formed during hydrogen ion irradiation in austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Lim, Sangyeob; Kwon, Junhyun

    2017-10-01

    Microstructural changes in austenitic stainless steel caused by hydrogen ion irradiation were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It has been confirmed that the irradiation induced the formation of martensite along the grain boundary; the martensite phase exhibited a crystal orientation relationship with the adjacent austenite phase. The results of this study also indicate that the concentration of Cr in the martensite phase is lower compared to that in the austenite matrix. The TEM results showed the development of asymmetric radiation-induced segregation (RIS) near the grain boundary, which leads to local changes in the chemical composition such as reduction of Cr near the grain boundary. The asymmetric RIS serves as a prerequisite for the formation of the martensite under hydrogen irradiation.

  12. Martensitic transformation in helium implanted 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimatsu, Manabu; Tsukuda, Noboru

    1997-01-01

    In order to simulate surface deterioration phenomenon due to particle loading of SUS-316 steel which is one of candidate materials for nuclear fusion reactor vacuum wall structure material, helium ion implanting was conducted at room temperature, 473 K and 573 K. To martensitic phase formed as a results, implantation dose dependence, implanting temperature dependence, and annealing under 1073 K were conducted. Formation of the martensitic phase was suppressed at high implanting temperature. At room temperature implantation, the martensitic phase disappeared at more than 873 K, but at high temperature implantation, it increased abnormally near at 973 K. This showed that deterioration of materials depended extremely upon using temperature and temperature history. (G.K.)

  13. In-situ analysis of redistribution of carbon and nitrogen during tempering of low interstitial martensitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niessen, F.; Villa, M.; Danoix, F.

    2018-01-01

    The redistribution of C and N during tempering of X4CrNiMo16-5-1 martensitic stainless steel containing 0.034 wt% C and 0.032 wt% N was studied using in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT). The unit cell volume of martensite decreased continuously during...... tempering. APT showed that this volume decrease is accounted entirely for by segregation of the interstitial atoms, implying that in low interstitial martensitic stainless steel stress relaxation only contributes negligibly to changes in the martensite unit cell volume....

  14. Plasma assisted nitriding for micro-texturing onto martensitic stainless steels*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoh Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-texturing method has grown up to be one of the most promising procedures to form micro-lines, micro-dots and micro-grooves onto the mold-die materials and to duplicate these micro-patterns onto metallic or polymer sheets via stamping or injection molding. This related application requires for large-area, fine micro-texturing onto the martensitic stainless steel mold-die materials. A new method other than laser-machining, micro-milling or micro-EDM is awaited for further advancement of this micro-texturing. In the present paper, a new micro-texturing method is developed on the basis of the plasma assisted nitriding to transform the two-dimensionally designed micro-patterns to the three dimensional micro-textures in the martensitic stainless steels. First, original patterns are printed onto the surface of stainless steel molds by using the dispenser or the ink-jet printer. Then, the masked mold is subjected to high density plasma nitriding; the un-masked surfaces are nitrided to have higher hardness, 1400 Hv than the matrix hardness, 200 Hv of stainless steels. This nitrided mold is further treated by sand-blasting to selectively remove the soft, masked surfaces. Finally, the micro-patterned martensitic stainless steel mold is fabricated as a tool to duplicate these micro-patterns onto the plastic materials by the injection molding.

  15. Quenching and partitioning treatment of a low-carbon martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiyama, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshi@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tobata, Junya; Tao, Teruyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nakada, Nobuo; Takaki, Setsuo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of retained austenite was increased by Q and P treatment in 12Cr-0.1C steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ideal carbon concentrations in austenite and ferrite were calculated assuming CCE condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum partitioning treatment condition for 12Cr-0.1C steel was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strength-ductility balance of 12Cr-0.1C steel was improved by TRIP effect. - Abstract: Quenching and partitioning (Q and P) treatment was applied to a commercial low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, AISI Type 410 (Fe-12Cr-0.1C). The quench interruption temperature was optimized with consideration of the ideal carbon concentration in untransformed austenite after partitioning to lower the Ms temperature to room temperature. After partitioning at an appropriate temperature, a significant fraction of austenite was retained through the enrichment of carbon into the untransformed austenite. It was also suggested that the addition of silicon is not necessarily required for the Q and P treatment of 12Cr steel because of the retardation of carbide precipitation at the partitioning temperature owing to the large amount of chromium. Tensile testing revealed that the Q and P-treated material exhibited a significantly improved strength-ductility balance compared with conventional quench-and-tempered materials due to the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect by the retained austenite.

  16. Effect of tensile pre-strain at different orientation on martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, F.; Zulfi, F. R.; Korda, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensite was studied in 316L stainless steel through tensile pre-strain deformation in the rolling direction (RD) and perpendicular to the rolling direction (LT) at various %pre-strain. The experiment was carried out at various given %pre-strain, which were 0%, 4.6%, 12%, 17.4%, and 25.2% for the RD, whereas for LT were 0%, 4.6%, 12%, 18%, and 26% for LT. Changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties were observed using optical microscope, tensile testing, hardness testing, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The experimental results showed that the volume fraction of martensite was increased as the %pre-strain increased. In the same level of deformation by tensile pre-strain, the volume of martensite for RD was higher than that with LT direction. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and hardness of the steel were increased proportionally with the increases in %pre-strain, while the value of elongation and toughness were decreased with the increases in %pre-strain.

  17. Influence of Deposition Conditions on Fatigue Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel with Tin Film Coated by Arc Ion Plating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Satoshi; Yonekura, Daisuke; Murakami, Ri-Ichi

    The surface properties like roughness etc. strongly influence the fatigue strength of high-tensile steel. To investigate the effect of surface condition and TiN coating on the fatigue strength of high-strength steel, four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out for martensitic stainless steel with TiN film coated using arc ion plating (AIP) method. This study, using samples that had been polished under several size of grind particle, examines the influence of pre-coating treatment on fatigue properties. A 2-µm-thick TiN film was deposited onto the substrate under three kinds of polishing condition. The difference of the hardness originated in the residual stress or thin deformation layer where the difference of the size of grinding particle of the surface polishing. And it leads the transformation of the interface of the substrate and the TiN film and improves fatigue limit.

  18. Fatigue of DIN 1.4914 martensitic stainless steel in a hydrogen environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, J. I.; Ullmaier, H.; Little, E. A.; Faulkner, R. G.; Schmilz, W.; Chung, T. E.

    1994-09-01

    Fatigue tests at room temperature in vacuum, air and hydrogen have been carried out on specimens of DIN 1.4914 martensitic stainless steel in load-controlled, push-pull type experiments. Fatigue lifetimes in hydrogen are significantly lower than in both vacuum and air and the degradation is enhanced by lowering the test frequency or introducing hold times into the tension half-cycle. Fractographic examinations reveal hydrogen embrittlement effects in the form of internal cracking between fatigue striations together with surface modifications, particularly at low stress amplitudes. It is suggested that gaseous hydrogen can influence both fatigue crack initiation and propagation events in martensitic steels.

  19. Martensitic transformation in an intergranular corrosion area of austenitic stainless steel during thermal cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Yen, Hung-Wei; Trimby, Patrick; Moody, Steven; Miller, Sarah; Chensee, Martin; Ringer, Simon; Cairney, Julie

    2014-01-01

    An oxidation-assisted martensitic phase transformation was observed in an austenitic stainless steel after thermal cycling up to 970 °C in air in a solar thermal steam reformer. The intergranular corrosion areas were investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural-and-chemical maps revealed that within intergranular corrosion areas this martensitic transformation primarily occurs in oxidation-induced chromium-depleted zones, rather than due to only sensitization. This displacive transformation may also play a significant role in the rate at which intergranular corrosion takes place

  20. Influence of the welding process on martensitic high strength steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hanus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is martensitic 22MnB5 steels, which are used in the automotive industry. The main purpose of the performed analyses is a study of strength differences in heat affected zones of the spot welding. For the needs of the strength decrease assessment, the critical layer of the heat affected area was experimentally simulated. The aim of the work is to determine the most suitable methodology for evaluating the local changes of the elastic-plastic material response. The aim of this work is to determine the optimal methods for the determination of the yield strength and to find a firming trend in these zones.

  1. Effect of martensitic transformation on springback behavior of 304L austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, H.; Mohammadian Semnani, H. R.; Emadoddin, E.; Sadeghi, B. Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    The present paper studies the effect of martensitic transformation on the springback behavior of 304L austenitic stainless steel. Martensite volume fraction was determined at the bent portion under various strain rates after bending test. Martensitic transformation has a significant effect on the springback behavior of this material. The findings of this study indicated that the amount of springback was reduced under a situation of low strain rate, while a higher amount of springback was obtained with a higher strain rate. The reason for this phenomenon is that higher work hardening occurs during the forming process with the low strain rate due to the higher martensite volume fraction, therefore the formability of the sheet is enhanced and it leads to a decreased amount of springback after the bending test. Dependency of the springback on the martensite volume fraction and strain rate was expressed as formulas from the results of the experimental tests and simulation method. Bending tests were simulated using LS-DYNA software and utilizing MAT_TRIP to determine the martensite volume fraction and strain under various strain rates. Experimental result reveals good agreement with the simulation method.

  2. In-situ investigation of strain-induced martensitic transformation kinetics in an austenitic stainless steel by inductive measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso de Celada Casero, C.; Kooiker, Harm; Groen, Manso; Post, J; San Martin, D

    2017-01-01

    An inductive sensor developed by Philips ATC has been used to study in-situ the austenite (γ) to martensite (α′) phase transformation kinetics during tensile testing in an AISI 301 austenitic stainless steel. A correlation between the sensor output signal and the volume fraction of α′-martensite

  3. Rapid Tempering of Martensitic Stainless Steel AISI420: Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Khazaei, Bijan; Mollaahmadi, Akbar

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the effect of rapid tempering on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel has been investigated. At first, all test specimens were austenitized at 1050 °C for 1 h and tempered at 200 °C for 1 h. Then, the samples were rapidly reheated by a salt bath furnace in a temperature range from 300 to 1050 °C for 2 min and cooled in air. The tensile tests, impact, hardness and electrochemical corrosion were carried out on the reheated samples. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure and fracture surface. To investigate carbides, transmission electron microscopy and also scanning electron microscopy were used. X-ray diffraction was used for determination of the retained austenite. The results showed that the minimum properties such as the tensile strength, impact energy, hardness and corrosion resistance were obtained at reheating temperature of 700 °C. Semi-continuous carbides in the grain boundaries were seen in this temperature. Secondary hardening phenomenon was occurred at reheating temperature of 500 °C.

  4. Microstructure and tensile properties of high strength duplex ferrite-martensite (DFM) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, P.C.; Mitra, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    Duplex ferrite-martensite (DFM) steels containing 38-80% martensite of varying morphologies were developed by batch intercritical annealing of a commercial variety vanadium bearing 0.2% C-Mn steel at different temperatures. Microstructures before intercritical annealing were found to control the morphological distribution of the phase constituents of the developed DFM steels. Tensile test results revealed best strength-ductility combination for finely distributed lamellar ferrite-martensite phase aggregate containing ∼60% martensite developed from a prior martensitic structure. Taking consideration of the modified law of mechanical mixture the experimental tensile strength data of the developed DFM steels has been formulated with some success and very good estimation for tensile strengths of pure ferrite and low carbon martensite has been made from tensile strength data of DFM steels

  5. Evolution of microstructure in stainless martensitic steel for seamless tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyshmintsev, I. Yu.; Bityukov, S. M.; Pastukhov, V. I.; Danilov, S. V.; Vedernikova, L. O.; Lobanov, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with orientation analysis by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) method is used to study microstructures and textures formed in the 0.08C-13Cr-3Ni-Mo-V-Nb steel through seamless tube production route: after hot deformation by extrusion; after quenching from various temperatures and subsequent high tempering. It is shown that the martensitic microstructure formed both after hot deformation and after quenching is characterized by the presence of deformation crystallographic texture, which is predetermined by the texture of austenite. The effect of heat treatment on texture, packet refinement, lath width, precipitation of carbides and Charpy impact energy is analyzed.

  6. Effect of Cu addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of 15%Cr super martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Dong; Li, Jun; Jiang, Wen; Su, Jie; Zhao, Kunyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cu contributes to refine the grains. ► Cu solutes in matrix under quenching and precipitates as ε-Cu during tempering. ► Cu promotes the kinetics of reversed austenite formation. ► Mechanical properties are significantly influenced by austenite amount. ► Cu alloyed super martensitic stainless steel exhibits greatly improved mechanical properties. -- Abstract: The effect of adding different content of Cu (0 wt.%, 1.5 wt.% and 3 wt.%) to the 15%Cr super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) was investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Its consequence on mechanical properties was examined to clarify the role of Cu in the tested steels. The experimental results indicate that the microstructures of three tested steels are tempered martensite, retained austenite and reversed austenite; two kinds of austenites are dispersedly distributed among martensite matrix. Cu can solute in matrix under quenching condition and can precipitate as Cu-rich nanometer phase (ε-Cu) during tempering. Cu is helpful for the grain refinement and to promote the formation of reversed austenite during tempering. The maximum volume fraction of austenite is 55.9% in the steel with 3 wt.% Cu, which is responsible for the improvement of ductility. The results of the mechanical properties tests reveal that the mechanical properties are significantly influenced by the volume fraction of austenite. Cu can cause solid solution strengthening, precipitation strengthening and grain refinement strengthening in SMSS. Cu alloyed super martensitic stainless steel exhibits greatly improved mechanical properties.

  7. Martensite phase reversion-induced nano/ ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel with magnificent mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shirdel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels are extensively used in various applications requiring good corrosion resistance and formability. In the current study, the formation of nano/ ultrafine grained austenitic microstructure in a microalloyed AISI 304L stainless steel was investigated by the advanced thermomechanical process of reversion of strain-induced martensite. For this purpose, samples were subjected to heavy cold rolling to produce a nearly complete martensitic structure. Subsequently, a wide range of annealing temperatures (600 to 800°C and times (1 to 240 min were employed to assess the reversion behavior and to find the best annealing condition for the production of the nano/ultrafine grained austenitic microstructure. Microstructural characterizations have been performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and magnetic measurement, whereas the mechanical properties were assessed by tensile and hardness tests. After thermomechanical treatment, a very fine austenitic structure was obtained, which was composed of nano sized grains of ~ 85 nm in an ultrafine grained matrix with an average grain size of 480 nm. This microstructure exhibited superior mechanical properties: high tensile strength of about 1280 MPa with a desirable elongation of about 41%, which can pave the way for the application of these sheets in the automotive industry.

  8. Moessbauer and TEM study of martensitic transformations in ion implanted 17/7 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Graabaek, L.

    1986-01-01

    It has earlier been shown that implantation of antimony into austenitic stainless steels induces martensitic phase transformations γ (fcc)→α (bcc). In the present work we have investigated which mechanisms are responsible for the transformation. Samples of 17/7 steels were implanted with noble gases (Kr, Ar) or the stainless steel constituent elements (Fe, Ni, Cr). The energies were selected to give ranges ∝40 nm. The phases present after implantation and the microstructures of the implanted samples were studied by CEMS and TEM respectively. A martensitic (α) phase was found to form after implantation both with Ni, Fe and Cr, in spite of the fact that these elements have opposite tendencies for stabilization of the austenite (γ) phase. The efficiency of martensite formation is therefore mainly related to stress relief associated with secondary radiation damage. This was substantiated from the noble gas implantations, where the highest degree of transformation was observed for fluences where bubble formation occurs. The CEMS analyses show that the transformation efficiency in such cases is nearly 100%. The hyperfine parameters of the implantation induced α phase are similar to those from conventionally induced martensites. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of surface residual stress profile on martensitic stainless steel weldment with X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of residual stresses during fabrication is inevitable and often neglected with dire consequences during the service life of the fabricated components. In this work, the surface residual stress profile following the martensitic stainless steel (MSS pipe welding was investigated with X-ray diffraction technique. The results revealed the presence of residual stresses equilibrated across the weldment zones. Tensile residual stress observed in weld metal was balanced by compressive residual stresses in the parent material on the opposing sides of weld metal. Keywords: Residual stress, Weld, Stainless steel, X-ray, HAZ

  10. Electrochemical characterisation of a martensitic stainless steel in a neutral chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelin, Sabrina; Pébère, Nadine; Régnier, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A better knowledge of the electrochemical behaviour of a martensitic stainless steel in bulk electrolyte was obtained. ► Quantitative parameters were obtained from impedance measurements. ► The study will be used as reference to investigate crevice corrosion using a thin layer cell. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the characterisation of the electrochemical behaviour of a martensitic stainless steel in 0.1 M NaCl + 0.04 M Na 2 SO 4 solution and is a part of a study devoted to crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels. Polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance measurements were obtained for different experimental conditions in bulk electrolyte. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyse the passive films. At the corrosion potential, the stainless steel was in the passive state and the corrosion process was controlled by the properties of the passive film formed during air exposure. During immersion in the deaerated solution, the passive film was only slightly modified, whereas it was altered both in composition and thickness during immersion in the aerated solution. After cathodic polarisation of the stainless steel electrode surface, the oxide film was almost totally removed and the surface appeared to be uniformly active for oxygen reduction. The new passive film, formed at the corrosion potential, was enriched with iron species and less protective. Impedance diagrams allowed the characterisation of both the oxide film (high-frequency range) and the charge transfer process (low-frequency range).

  11. Repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades using austenitic and martensitic stainless-steel consumables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Gill, T.P.S.; Albert, S.K.; Shanmugam, K.; Iyer, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The procedure for repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades made of martensitic stainless steels has been developed using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Weld repair procedures were developed using both ER 316L austenitic and ER 410 martensitic stainless-steel filler wire. The overall development of the repair welding procedure included selection of welding consumables (for austenitic filler metal), optimisation of post-weld heat treatment parameters, selection of suitable method for local pre-heating and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the blades, determination of mechanical properties of weldments in as-welded and PWHT conditions, and microsturctural examination. After various trials using different procedures, the procedure of local PWHT (and preheating when using martensitic stainless-steel filler wire) using electrical resistance heating on the top surface of the weldment and monitoring the temperature by placing a thermocouple at the bottom of the weld was found to give the most satisfactory results. These procedures have been developed and/or applied for repair welding of cracked blades in steam turbines

  12. Martensitic transformation of type 304 stainless steel by high-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayahara, A.; Satou, M.; Nakashima, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Sasaki, T.; Kurokawa, M.; Kiyama, S.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of high-energy ion implantation on the structural changes of type 304 stainless steel were investigated. Gold, copper and silicon ions with an energy of 1.5 MeV was implanted into stainless steel. The fluences were in the range from 5x10 15 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 . It was found that the structure of stainless steel was transformed form the austenitic to the martensitic structure by these ion implantations. This structural change was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The depth profile of the irradiated ions was also analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS). The degree of martensitic transformation was found to be strongly dependent on the surface pretreatment, either mechanical or electrolytic polishing. When the surface damages or strains by mechanical polishing were present, the martensitic transformation was greatly accelerated presumably due to the combined action of ion irradiation and strain-enhanced transformation. Heavier ions exhibit a high efficiency for the transformation. (orig.)

  13. Laser Beam Welding of Ultra-high Strength Chromium Steel with Martensitic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Janzen, Vitalij; Lindner, Stefan; Wagener, Rainer

    A new class of steels is going to be introduced into sheet manufacturing. Stainless ferritic and martensitic steels open up opportunities for sheet metal fabrication including hot stamping. Strengths of up to 2 GPa at fracture elongations of 15% can be attained through this. Welding of these materials, as a result, became a challenge. Energy-reduced welding methods with in-situ heat treatment are required in order to ensure the delicate and complex heat control. Laser beam welding is the joining technique of choice to supply minimum heat input to the fusion process and to apply efficient heat control. For two application cases, tailored blank production in as-rolled condition and welding during assembly in hot stamped condition, welding processes have been developed. The welding suitability is shown through metallurgical investigations of the welds. Crash tests based on the KS-II concept as well as fatigue tests prove the applicability of the joining method.

  14. High carbon microalloyed martensitic steel with ultrahigh strength-ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Ying [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai 200245 (China); Chen, Nailu, E-mail: nlchen@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Based on the idea of rising the mechanical stability of retained austenite by the addition of Si in Fe-Mn based steels, an Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb was designed, then its hot rolled plate was successively tread by normalization process as pretreatment of novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) process. Product of tensile and elongation (PSE) of 53.94 GPa% were obtained for this high carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel, and the PSE (40.18 GPa%) obtained by the conversion of tensile sample size using Oliver formula still is more excellent PSE than those of other microalloyed advanced high strength steels reported. The microstructural characterization reveals origin of ultrahigh PSE resulting from both the increase of considerable and dispersed carbon enriched retained austenite with relative high mechanical stability in volume fraction and the decrease of brittle twin-type martensite with the sensitivity of notch.

  15. Evaluation of selected martensitic stainless steels for use in downhole tubular expansion - Results of a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Robert [Shell International E and P, b.v. Kessler Park 1, Postbus 60, 2280 AB Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    A laboratory program was performed to evaluate the potential of selected martensitic stainless steels for downhole cladding applications. The evaluation of the effects of tubular expansion on mechanical properties, defects, and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking demonstrated that some steels were acceptable for the intended application. The results were used to qualify and select the stainless steel for the intended sweet cladding applications. (authors)

  16. Influence of cycle number, temperature and manufacturing process on deformation-induced martensite in meta-stable austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkhof, D.; Niffenegger, M.; Grosse, M.; Bart, G.

    2002-01-01

    During cyclic loading of austenitic stainless steel, microstructural changes occur, which affect both the mechanical and the physical properties. Typical features are the rearrangement of dislocations and, in some cases, a deformation-induced martensitic phase transformation. In our investigation martensite formation was used as an indication for material degradation due to fatigue. Knowledge about mechanisms and influencing parameters of the martensitic transformation process is essential for the application in a lifetime monitoring system. The investigations showed that for a given meta-stable austenitic stainless steel the deformation-induced martensite depends on the applied strain amplitude, the cycle number (accumulated plastic strain) and the temperature. It was demonstrated that the volume fraction of martensite continuously increases with the cycle number. Therefore, martensite content could be used for indication of the fatigue usage. According to the Coffin-Manson relation the dependence of the martensite content on the cycle number could be described with a power law. The exponent was determined to be equal to 0.5 for the applied loading and temperature conditions. The influence of temperature on deformation-induced martensite was considered by means of a thermodynamic relation. Furthermore, the initial material state (initial defect density) played an important role for the martensite formation rate. Material properties and microstructures were characterised by metallography, neutron diffraction, and advanced magnetic non-destructive techniques. In order to investigate the correlation between the martensite content in the austenitic matrix and magnetic properties, the magnetic susceptibility was determined. Furthermore, a high sensitive Giant Magneto Resistant sensor was used to visualize the martensite distribution at the surface of the fatigue specimens. All applied techniques, neutron diffraction and advanced magnetic methods allowed the detection

  17. Influence of PWHT on Toughness of High Chromium and Nickel Containing Martensitic Stainless Steel Weld Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, M.; Das, Chitta Ranjan; Mahadevan, S.; Albert, S. K.; Pandian, R.; Kar, Sujoy Kumar; Bhaduri, A. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2015-06-01

    Commonly used 12.5Cr-5Ni consumable specified for welding of martensitic stainless steels is compared with newly designed 14.5Cr-5Ni consumable in terms of their suitability for repair welding of 410 and 414 stainless steels by gas tungsten arc welding process. Changes in microstructure and austenite evolution were investigated using optical, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction techniques and Thermo-Calc studies. Microstructure of as-welded 12.5Cr-5Ni weld metal revealed only lath martensite, whereas as-welded 14.5Cr-5Ni weld metal revealed delta-ferrite, retained austenite, and lath martensite. Toughness value of as-welded 12.5Cr-5Ni weld metal is found to be significantly higher (216 J) than that of the 14.5Cr-5Ni weld metal (15 J). The welds were subjected to different PWHTs: one at 923 K (650 °C) for 1, 2, 4 hours (single-stage PWHT) and another one at 923 K (650 °C)/4 h followed by 873 K (600 °C)/2 h or 873 K (600 °C)/4 h (two-stage heat treatment). Hardness and impact toughness of the weld metals were measured for these weld metals and correlated with the microstructure. The study demonstrates the importance of avoiding formation of delta-ferrite in the weld metal.

  18. Martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel orthodontic wires during intraoral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Paula P; de Biasi, Ronaldo S; Elias, Carlos N; Nojima, Lincoln I

    2010-12-01

    Our purpose was to study the mechanical properties and phase transformations of orthodontic wires submitted to in-vivo exposure in the mouth for different periods of time. Stainless steel wires were tied to fixed orthodontic appliances of 30 patients from the orthodontics clinic of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro School of Dentistry in Brazil. According to the duration of the clinical treatment, the patients were divided into 3 groups. After in-vivo exposure, the samples were studied by mechanical testing (torsion) and ferromagnetic resonance. Statistical analyses were carried out to evaluate the correlation between time of exposure, mechanical properties, and austenite-to-martensite transformation among the groups. The results were compared with as-received control samples. The torque values increased as time in the mouth increased. The increase in torque resistance showed high correlations with time of exposure (P = 0.005) and austenite-martensite phase transformation. The resistance of stainless steel orthodontic wires increases as the time in the mouth increases; this effect is attributed to the austenite-to-martensite transformation. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of welding by MIG in martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, M.A.; Mariano, N.A.; Marinho, D.H.C. Marinho

    2010-01-01

    This work evaluated structure's characterization and mechanical properties after the welding process of the stainless steel CA6NM. The employed welding process was the metal active gas with tubular wire. The control of the thermal cycle in the welding process has fundamental importance regarding the properties of the welded joint, particularly in the thermally affected zone. The mechanical properties were appraised through impact resistance tests and the hardness and microstructure through metallographic characterization and Ray-X diffraction. The parameters and the process of welding used promoted the hardness and toughness appropriate to the applications of the steel. Welding energy's control becomes an essential factor that can affect the temperature of carbide precipitation and the nucleation of the retained austenite in the in the region of the in the thermally affected zone. (author)

  20. Aging between 300 and 450 deg C of wrought martensitic 13-17 wt-%Cr stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yrieix, B.; Guttmann, M.

    1993-06-01

    Martensitic stainless steels containing 13-17 wt-% Cr, some also containing nickel and some having precipitation hardening additions, have been aged between 300 and 450 deg C for times up to 30 000 h. For all the steels examined, the aging response takes the form of an increase of strength and hardness, correlated with embrittlement. The rate and intensity of aging increase with increasing chromium and molybdenum concentrations. In addition, two steels exhibit some temper embrittlement on long term aging at 400 deg C; such embrittlement of these materials is not expected in service at temperatures up to 300 deg C. A general method of prediction of the mechanical properties of these steels as a function of aging conditions is proposed. (authors). 11 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Martensitic transformations in 304 stainless steel after implantation with helium, hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Grabaek, L.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Hayashi, N.; Sakamoto, I.

    1988-01-01

    Using conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and glancing angle X-ray diffraction, martensitic transformations have been studied in type 304 austenitic stainless steels implanted with 8 keV helium, hydrogen and deuterium. Furthermore, using CEMS in the energy selective mode (DCEMS), the distribution of martensite in the implantation zone has been analysed as a function of depth. Transformation of the implanted layer occurs after implantation with 10 21 m -2 He + ions while 100 times higher fluence is required for the implanted layer to transform after hydrogen or deuterium implantations. This difference is due to the ability of helium to form high pressure gas bubbles, while implanted hydrogen is continuously lost by back diffusion to the surface. The helium bubbles, which are confined under pressures as high as 60 GPa, will induce extremely high stress levels in the implanted layer, by which the martensitic transformation is directly induced. The fact that a much higher fluence of hydrogen or deuterium is required to induce the transformation, shows that radiation damage plays only a minor role. In this case, the martensitic transformation first occurs when the implanted layer resembles the state of a cathodically charged surface. (orig.)

  2. Microstructural evolution and response to double-loop reactivation testing of heat-treated PH 13-8 Mo martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Cieslak, M.J.; Hills, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Compared to the austenitic stainless steels, relatively few studies have been reported of the intergranular corrosion suceptibility of martensitic stainless steels, particularly those containing 0.05 corresponds to a ditch structure in ASTM A 262-A (oxalic acid)

  3. A macroscopic model to simulate the mechanically induced martensitic transformation in metastable austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdahcıoğlu, E.S.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanically induced martensitic transformation and the associated transformation plasticity phenomena in austenitic stainless steels are studied. The mechanisms responsible for the transformation are investigated and put into perspective based on experimental evidence. The stress and strain partitioning into the austenite and martensite phases are formulated using a mean-field homogenization approach. At this intermediate length-scale the average stress in the austenite phase is computed and utilized to compute the mechanical driving force resolved in the material. The amount of transformation and the transformation plasticity is derived as a function of the driving force. The mechanical response of the material is obtained by combining the homogenization and the transformation models. The model is verified by mechanical tests under biaxial loading conditions during which different transformation rates are observed. As a final verification of the model, a bending test is used which manifests the stress-state dependency of the transformation.

  4. Microstructural investigations of fast reactor irradiated austenitic and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueev, V.S.; Medvedeva, E.A.; Mitrofanova, N.M.; Romanueev, V.V.; Tselishev, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopy has been used to characterize the microstructural changes induced in advanced fast reactor fuel claddings fabricated from Cr16Ni15Mo3NbB and Cr16Ni15Mo2Mn2TiVB austenitic stainless steels in the cold worked condition and Cr13Mo2NbVB ferritic -martensitic steel following irradiation in the BOR-60, BN-350 and BN-600 fast reactors. The data are compared with the results obtained from a typical austenitic commercial cladding material, Cr16Ni15Mo3Nb, in the cold worked condition. The results reveal a beneficial effect of boron and other alloying elements in reducing void swelling in 16Cr-15Ni type austenitic steels. The high resistance of ferritic-martensitic steels to void swelling has been confirmed in the Cr13Mo2NbVB steel. (author)

  5. Sub-Zero Celsius treatment: a promising option for future martensitic stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    A series of samples of (in wt.%) 11.5Cr-0.67C martensiticstainless steel grade were austenitized in Argon for 1 hour attemperatures ranging from 1010°C to 1190°C. Additionally, aseries of samples of (in wt.%) 15.0Cr-5.8Ni-1.0Mo-0.03C (EN1.4418) martensitic stainless steel grade were solution...... and Vickers micro-hardness indentation.Complementary electron back-scatter diffraction was appliedfor determining the phase fractions of austenite and martensite.Data shows that sub-zero Celsius treatment yields anadditional hardening response when austenite is retained in thematerial. The relevance...

  6. Soft-martensitic stainless Cr-Ni-Mo steel for turbine rotors in geothermic power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonfeld, K.; Potthast, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steel Grade X5 Cr-Ni-Mo 12 6 containing 0.05% carbon, 12% chromium, 6% nickel, and 1.50% molybdenum is an advantageous material for turbine rotors in geothermic power stations because of its excellent strength and toughness properties in combination with good erosion and corrosion resistance. In terms of the phase diagram, this soft-martensitic steel has its place at the martensite/austenite/ferrite interface. Therefore, its chemical composition must be chosen so as to have a completely martensitic structure after hardening. The manufacture of and the mechanical properties of a turbine rotor 1200 mm in diameter by 5600 mm in length with a finished weight of approximately 21.5 tons are described in detail

  7. Predicting Microstructure Development During HighTemperature Nitriding of Martensitic Stainless SteelsUsing Thermodynamic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Tschiptschin, André Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of the Fe-Cr-N System in the region of the Gas Phase Equilibria have been compared with experimental results of maximum nitrogen absorption during nitriding of two Martensitic Stainless Steels (a 6 mm thick sheet of AISI 410S steel and green powder compacts of AISI 434L steel) under N2 atmospheres. The calculations have been performed combining the Fe-Cr-N System description contained in the SGTE Solid Solution Database and the gas phase for the N System contained i...

  8. Plasma assisted nitriding for micro-texturing onto martensitic stainless steels*

    OpenAIRE

    Katoh Takahisa; Aizawa Tatsuhiko; Yamaguchi Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Micro-texturing method has grown up to be one of the most promising procedures to form micro-lines, micro-dots and micro-grooves onto the mold-die materials and to duplicate these micro-patterns onto metallic or polymer sheets via stamping or injection molding. This related application requires for large-area, fine micro-texturing onto the martensitic stainless steel mold-die materials. A new method other than laser-machining, micro-milling or micro-EDM is awaited for further advancement of t...

  9. Influence of martensitic transformation on the low-cycle fatigue behaviour of 316LN stainless steel at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botshekan, M.; Degallaix, S.; Desplanques, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Tensile and low-cycle fatigue tests were performed on a 316LN austenitic stainless steel at 300 and 77 K. The tensile and low-cycle fatigue properties were obtained and analysed in terms of influence of temperature on the plastic deformation process, and particularly on the strain-induced martensite formation. The martensite content was measured by a magnetic-at-saturation method. No martensite was detected at 300 K. On the contrary, strain-induced martensite transformation is responsible for the higher tensile elongation at 77 K and for the secondary hardening observed on softening-hardening curves in low-cycle fatigue at 77 K. The induced martensite content in tensile tests is a function of the strain according to Angel's model, and in low-cycle fatigue it is a function of the strain level and of the accumulated plastic strain. (orig.)

  10. Effects of strain and strain-induced α′-martensite on passive films in AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Jinlong; Luo, Hongyun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of strain and heat treatment on strain-induced α′-martensite of AISI 304 stainless steel tubes were measured by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the effects of strain and content of α′-martensite on passivated property on the surface of the material in borate buffer solution were evaluated by electrochemical technique. The results showed that the volume fraction of α′-martensite increased gradually with the increase of tensile strain for as-received and solid solution samples. However, α′-martensite in as-received sample was more than that in the solid solution sample. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that the solid solution treatment improved corrosion resistance of the steel, especially for samples with small strain. Moreover, acceptor densities were always higher than donor densities for as-received and solid solution samples. With the increase of strain, the increase tendency of acceptor density was more significant than that of donor density. We also found that the total density of the acceptor and donor almost increased linearly with the increase of α′-martensite. The present results indicated that the increased acceptor density might lead to the decreased corrosion resistance of the steel. - Highlights: • The solid solution treatment improved corrosion resistance of the stainless steel. • The deteriorated passivated property after strain could be attributed to the increased acceptor density. • The α′-martensite reduced corrosion resistance of the stainless steel

  11. The influence of the martensitic transformation on the fatigue of an AISI type 316 metastable stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, D.J; Sousa e Silva, A.S. de; Monteiro, S.N.

    The influence of the martensitic transformation on the process of pulse tension fatigue of a AISI type 316 metastable stainless steel was studied at 25 0 and 196 0 c. The fatigue tests were performed on annealed and cold worked specimens in order to separate the effects of static transformation, dynamic transformation and work hardening. The fatigue limits obtained from the corresponding Wohler curves were compared for the different test conditions. The results showed that the fatigue is not affected by the dynamically induced martensite. On the other hand the static martensite, previously induced, appears to decrease the resistance to fatigue. The reasons for these effects are discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Study on aging embrittlement of 17-4PH martensite stainless steel at 350 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Shen Baoluo

    2005-01-01

    The transformation of microstructure and hardness with the extension of aging time on the 17-4PH Martensite stainless steel at 350 degree C is studied, and the change of dynamic fracture toughness and fractography of the stainless steel for various holding time at this temperature are also studied by instrumental impact test and scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the crack initiation energy (E i ), crack propagation energy (E p ), absorbed-in-fracture energy (E t ) and dynamic fracture toughness (K 1d ) of this type of alloy Charpy v-notch sample is decreased with the continuation of time at 350 degree C. It means that the toughness of the alloy is degraded, and the hardness of the steel is ascended when aging time is expanded and reaches the maximum at 9000 h. The fractography of this steel changes from dimple fracture into cleavage fracture and inter-granular rapture. (authors)

  13. Modification and characterization of the AISI 410 martensitic stainless steels surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bincoleto, A.V.L.; Nascente, P.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Steam turbines are used in the generation of more than half the electric energy produced in the world nowadays. It is important the study which aims to improve the efficiency by means of the optimization of leaks and of the aerodynamic profiles, as well as to maintain the integrity of the components. The martensitic stainless steels are widely employed due to the combination of their good mechanical properties with higher corrosion resistance. However, their lower wear resistance and their poor tribological behavior limit their use, since they decrease the component life time. In order to evaluate the improvement in the performance of the AISI 410 stainless steel, several process of surface modification were employed. Five samples were produced: the first one was not treated, the second one received liquid nitriding, the third, gas nitriding, the forth, thermal aspersion of tungsten carbide, and the fifth, boronizing. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, surface microhardness, and X-ray diffractometry. (author)

  14. A New Maraging Stainless Steel with Excellent Strength-Toughness-Corrosion Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialong; Wang, Wei; Babar Shahzad, M; Yan, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Jiang, Zhouhua; Yang, Ke

    2017-11-10

    A new maraging stainless steel with superior strength-toughness-corrosion synergy has been developed based on an innovative concept of alloy design. The high strength-toughness combination is achieved by forming dispersive nano-sized intermetallic compounds in the soft lath martensitic matrix with a slight amount of residual austenite. The good corrosion resistance is guaranteed by exactly controlling the Co content based on understanding the synergistic effect between Co and Cr. The fine structure characteristics of two dominant strengthening precipitations including Ni₃Ti and Mo-rich phases were finely characterized associated with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) analyses. The relationship among microstructure, strength and toughness is discussed. The precipitation mechanism of different precipitates in the new maraging stainless steel is revealed based on the APT analysis.

  15. Depth distribution analysis of martensitic transformations in Xe implanted austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Chechenin, N.G.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we present results from a depth distribution analysis of the martensitic phase change occurring in Xe implanted single crystals of austenitic stainless steel. Analysis was done by 'in situ' RBS/channeling analysis, X-ray diffraction and cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) of the implanted surface. It is found that the martensitic transformation of the surface layer occurs for fluences above 1x10 20 m -2 . The thickness of the transformed layer increases with fluence to ≅ 150 nm at 1x10 21 m -2 , which far exceeds the range plus straggling of the implanted Xe as calculated by the TRIM computer simulation code. Simulations using the MARLOWE code indicate that the thickness of the transformed layer coincides with the range of the small fraction of ions channeled under random implantation conditions. Using cross sectional TEM on the Xe implanted crystals, the depth distribution of gas inclusions and defects can be directly observed. Using X-ray diffraction on implanted single crystals, the solid epitaxial nature of the Xe inclusions, induced prior to the martensitic transformation, was established. The lattice constant obtained from the broad diffraction peak indicates that the pressure in the inclusions is ≅ 5 GPa. (orig./BHO)

  16. Analysis of martensitic transformation and residual tension in an 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Juciane Maria

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between plastic deformation and the strain induced phase transformation, that provides a practical route to the development of new engineering materials with excellent mechanical properties, characterize the TRIP effect 'Transformation Induced Plasticity'. Among the stainless steels, the metastable 304 L austenitic steel is susceptible to transformation of austenite-martensite phase from tensile tests at room temperature by increments of plastic deformation. It is of great technological and scientific interest the knowledge of the evolution of phase transformation and residual stress from different levels and rates of plastic deformation imposed to the material. It is also important to evaluate the interference of metallographic preparation in quantitative analyzes of this steel. The main techniques used in this study consisted of X-rays diffraction and Ferritoscopy for the quantitation phase, and XRD to residual stress analysis also. As observed, the phase transformation quantification has not suffered significant influence of the metallographic preparation and evolved from increments of plastic deformation due to different stop charges and strain rates, leading to a further strengthening of the austenite matrix. The evaluation of residual stress resulting from the martensitic transformation was susceptible to the metallographic preparation and increased its value on comparison to sample without metallographic preparation. It was also observed that the residual stress decreased with the increase of the fraction of transformed martensite. (author)

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot wire laser clad layers for repairing precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng; Cai, Zhipeng; Feng, Zhenhua; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (PH-MSS) is widely used as load-bearing parts because of its excellent overall properties. It is economical and flexible to repair the failure parts instead of changing new ones. However, it is difficult to keep properties of repaired part as good as those of the substrate. With preheating wire by resistance heat, hot wire laser cladding owns both merits of low heat input and high deposition efficiency, thus is regarded as an advantaged repairing technology for damaged parts of high value. Multi-pass layers were cladded on the surface of FV520B by hot wire laser cladding. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared and analyzed for the substrate and the clad layer. For the as-cladded layer, microstructure was found non-uniform and divided into quenched and tempered regions. Tensile strength was almost equivalent to that of the substrate, while ductility and impact toughness deteriorated much. With using laser scanning layer by layer during laser cladding, microstructure of the clad layers was tempered to fine martensite uniformly. The ductility and toughness of the clad layer were improved to be equivalent to those of the substrate, while the tensile strength was a little lower than that of the substrate. By adding TiC nanoparticles as well as laser scanning, the precipitation strengthening effect was improved and the structure was refined in the clad layer. The strength, ductility and toughness were all improved further. Finally, high quality clad layers were obtained with equivalent or even superior mechanical properties to the substrate, offering a valuable technique to repair PH-MSS.

  18. Effect of nanograin-boundary networks generation on corrosion of carburized martensitic stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruang, Chatdanai; Thong-On, Atcharawadi; Kidkhunthod, Pinit

    2018-02-02

    Martensitic stainless steel parts used in carbonaceous atmosphere at high temperature are subject to corrosion which results in a large amount of lost energy and high repair and maintenance costs. This work therefore proposes a model for surface development and corrosion mechanism as a solution to reduce corrosion costs. The morphology, phase, and corrosion behavior of steel are investigated using GIXRD, XANES, and EIS. The results show formation of nanograin-boundary networks in the protective layer of martensitic stainless steel. This Cr 2 O 3 -Cr 7 C 3 nanograin mixture on the FeCr 2 O 4 layer causes ion transport which is the main reason for the corrosion reaction during carburizing of the steel. The results reveal the rate determining steps in the corrosion mechanism during carburizing of steel. These steps are the diffusion of uncharged active gases in the stagnant-gas layer over the steel surface followed by the conversion of C into C 4- and O into O 2- at the gas-oxide interface simultaneously with the migration of Cr 3+ from the metal-oxide interface to the gas-oxide interface. It is proposed that previous research on Al 2 O 3 coatings may be the solution to producing effective coatings that overcome the corrosion challenges discussed in this work.

  19. Optimizing Heat Treatment Process of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni Martensitic Stainless of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. S.; Prifiharni, S.; Mabruri, E.

    2017-05-01

    The Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels are modified into martensitic stainless steels for steam turbine blades application. The working temperature of steam turbine was around 600 - 700 °C. The improvement properties of turbine blade material is necessary to maintain steam turbine work. The previous research revealed that it has corrosion resistance of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni which is better than 13Cr stainless steels in the chloride environment. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels has been studied. The steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging. The steels were austenitized at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C for 1 hour and were tempered at 600, 650, and 700 °C for 1 hour. The steels were then subjected to metallographic observation and hardness test of Rockwell C. The optimal heat treatment of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni was carried out austenitized in 1050 °C and tempered in 600 - 700 °C.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Laser Beam Welded Ultra-high Strength Chromium Steel with Martensitic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Janzen, Vitalij; Lindner, Stefan; Wagener, Rainer

    A new class of steels is going to be introduced into sheet manufacturing. Stainless ferritic and martensitic steels open up opportunities for sheet metal fabrication including hot stamping. A strength of up to 2 GPa at a fracture strain of 15% can be attained. Welding of these materials became apparently a challenge. Energy-reduced welding methods with in-situ heat treatment are required in order to ensure the delicate and complex heat control. Laser beam welding is the joining technique of choice to supply minimum heat input to the fusion process and to apply an efficient heat control. For two application cases, production of tailored blanks in as-rolled condition and welding in assembly in hot stamped conditions, welding processes have been developed. The welding suitability is shown in metallurgical investigations of the welds. Crash tests based on the KSII concept as well as fatigue tests prove the applicability of the joining method. For the case of assembly also joining with deep drawing and manganese boron steel was taken into consideration. The strength of the joint is determined by the weaker partner but can benefit from its ductility.

  1. Bootstrap calculation of ultimate strength temperature maxima for neutron irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obraztsov, S. M.; Konobeev, Yu. V.; Birzhevoy, G. A.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2006-12-01

    The dependence of mechanical properties of ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels on irradiation temperature is of interest because these steels are used as structural materials for fast, fusion reactors and accelerator driven systems. Experimental data demonstrating temperature peaks in physical and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated pure iron, nickel, vanadium, and austenitic stainless steels are available in the literature. A lack of such an information for F/M steels forces one to apply a computational mathematical-statistical modeling methods. The bootstrap procedure is one of such methods that allows us to obtain the necessary statistical characteristics using only a sample of limited size. In the present work this procedure is used for modeling the frequency distribution histograms of ultimate strength temperature peaks in pure iron and Russian F/M steels EP-450 and EP-823. Results of fitting the sums of Lorentz or Gauss functions to the calculated distributions are presented. It is concluded that there are two temperature (at 360 and 390 °C) peaks of the ultimate strength in EP-450 steel and single peak at 390 °C in EP-823.

  2. Thermal Aging Effect Analysis of 17-4PH Martensitic Stainless Steel Valves for Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Bing; ZHANG; Chang-yi; TONG; Zhen-feng; YANG; Wen

    2015-01-01

    The valve stem used in the main steam system of nuclear power plant is usually martensitic stainless steel(such as 17.4ph16.4Mo etc.).When served in high temperature for a long time,the thermal aging embrittlement of valve stem will be significant,and even lead to the fracture.

  3. Effect of Plasma Nitriding Process Conditions on Corrosion Resistance of 440B Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łępicka Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are used in a large number of various industrial applications, e.g. molds for plastic injections and glass moldings, automotive components, cutting tools, surgical and dental instruments. The improvement of their tribological and corrosion properties is a problem of high interest especially in medical applications, where patient safety becomes a priority. The paper covers findings from plasma nitrided AISI 440B (PN-EN or DIN X90CrMoV18 stainless steel corrosion resistance studies. Conventionally heat treated and plasma nitrided in N2:H2 reaction gas mixture (50:50, 65:35 and 80:20, respectively in two different temperature ranges (380 or 450°C specimens groups were examined. Microscopic observations and electrochemical corrosion tests were performed using a variety of analytical techniques. As obtained findings show, plasma nitriding of AISI 440B stainless steel, regardless of the process temperature, results in reduction of corrosion current density. Nevertheless, applying thermo-chemical process which requires exceeding temperature of about 400°C is not recommended due to increased risk of steel sensitization to intergranular and stress corrosion. According to the results, material ion nitrided in 450°C underwent leaching corrosion processes, which led to significant disproportion in chemical composition of the corroded and corrosion-free areas. The authors suggest further research into corrosion process of plasma nitrided materials and its degradation products.

  4. Creep resistant, precipitation-dispersion-strengthened, martensitic stainless steel and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, R.F.

    1994-05-10

    An iron-based, corrosion-resistant, precipitation strengthened, martensitic steel essentially free of delta ferrite for use at high temperatures has a nominal composition of 0.05--0.1 C, 8--12 Cr, 1--5 Co, 0.5--2.0 Ni, 0.41--1.0 Mo, 0.1--0.5 Ti, and the balance iron. This steel is different from other corrosion-resistant martensitic steels because its microstructure consists of a uniform dispersion of fine particles, which are very closely spaced, and which do not coarsen at high temperatures. Thus at high temperatures this steel combines the excellent creep strength of dispersion-strengthened steels, with the ease of fabricability afforded by precipitation hardenable steels. 2 figures.

  5. Creep resistant, precipitation-dispersion-strengthened, martensitic stainless steel and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    An iron-based, corrosion-resistant, precipitation strengthened, martensitic steel essentially free of delta ferrite for use at high temperatures has a nominal composition of 0.05-0.1 C, 8-12 Cr, 1-5 Co, 0.5-2.0 Ni, 0.41-1.0 Mo, 0.1-0.5 Ti, and the balance iron. This steel is different from other corrosion-resistant martensitic steels because its microstructure consists of a uniform dispersion of fine particles, which are very closely spaced, and which do not coarsen at high temperatures. Thus at high temperatures this steel combines the excellent creep strength of dispersion-strengthened steels, with the ease of fabricability afforded by precipitation hardenable steels.

  6. A new ultrahigh-strength stainless steel strengthened by various coexisting nanoprecipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W., E-mail: w.xu@m2i.nl [Materials Innovation Institute M2i, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)] [Novel Aerospace Materials (NovAM) Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J. [Novel Aerospace Materials (NovAM) Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Yan, W.; Yang, K. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); San Martin, D. [Materalia Group, Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kestens, L.A.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Zwaag, S. van der [Novel Aerospace Materials (NovAM) Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    A general computational alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and physical metallurgical principles and coupled with a genetic optimization scheme is presented. The model is applied to develop a new ultrahigh-strength maraging stainless steel. The alloy composition and heat treatment parameters are integrally optimized so as to achieve microstructures of fully lath martensite matrix strengthened by multiple precipitates of MC carbides, Cu particles and Ni{sub 3}Ti intermetallics. The combined mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and identification of actual strengthening precipitates in the experimental prototype produced on the basic of the model predictions provide a strong justification for the alloy design approach.

  7. A new ultrahigh-strength stainless steel strengthened by various coexisting nanoprecipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.; Yan, W.; Yang, K.; San Martin, D.; Kestens, L.A.I.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    A general computational alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and physical metallurgical principles and coupled with a genetic optimization scheme is presented. The model is applied to develop a new ultrahigh-strength maraging stainless steel. The alloy composition and heat treatment parameters are integrally optimized so as to achieve microstructures of fully lath martensite matrix strengthened by multiple precipitates of MC carbides, Cu particles and Ni 3 Ti intermetallics. The combined mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and identification of actual strengthening precipitates in the experimental prototype produced on the basic of the model predictions provide a strong justification for the alloy design approach.

  8. Combining gradient structure and TRIP effect to produce austenite stainless steel with high strength and ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X.L.; Yang, M.X.; Yuan, F.P.; Chen, L.; Zhu, Y.T.

    2016-01-01

    We report a design strategy to combine the benefits from both gradient structure and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP). The resultant TRIP-gradient steel takes advantage of both mechanisms, allowing strain hardening to last to a larger plastic strain. 304 stainless steel sheets were treated by surface mechanical attrition to synthesize gradient structure with a central coarse-grained layer sandwiched between two grain-size gradient layers. The gradient layer is composed of submicron-sized parallelepiped austenite domains separated by intersecting ε-martensite plates, with increasing domain size along the depth. Significant microhardness heterogeneity exists not only macroscopically between the soft coarse-grained core and the hard gradient layers, but also microscopically between the austenite domain and ε-martensite walls. During tensile testing, the gradient structure causes strain partitioning, which evolves with applied strain, and lasts to large strains. The γ → α′ martensitic transformation is triggered successively with an increase of the applied strain and flow stress. Importantly, the gradient structure prolongs the TRIP effect to large plastic strains. As a result, the gradient structure in the 304 stainless steel provides a new route towards a good combination of high strength and ductility, via the co-operation of both the dynamic strain partitioning and TRIP effect.

  9. Influence of Cryogenic Treatments on the Wear Behavior of AISI 420 Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, G.; Tuckart, W. R.

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present work is to characterize the wear behavior of a cryogenically treated low-carbon AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, by means of ball-on-disk tribological tests. Wear tests were performed under a range of applied normal loads and in two different environments, namely a petrolatum bath and an argon atmosphere. Wear tracks were analyzed by both optical and scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate wear volume, track geometry, surface features and the tribolayers generated after testing. This paper is an extension of the work originally reported in the VIII Iberian Conference of Tribology (Prieto and Tuckart, in: Ballest Jiménez, Rodríguez Espinosa, Serrano Saurín, Pardilla Arias, Olivares Bermúdez (eds) VIII Iberian conference of tribology, Cartagena, 2015). In this study, it has been experimentally demonstrated that cryogenically treated specimens showed a wear resistance improvement ranging from 35 to 90% compared to conventionally treated ones.

  10. Thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior of reduced activation ferrite/martensite stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, C.; Rodrian, D.

    2002-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical cycling fatigue (TMCF) behavior of reduced activation ferrite/martensite stainless steels is examined. The test rig consists of a stiff load frame, which is directly heated by the digitally controlled ohmic heating device. Cylindrical specimens are used with a wall thickness of 0.4 mm. Variable strain rates are applied at TMCF test mode, due to the constant heating rate of 5.8 K/s and variable temperature changes. TMCF results of as received EUROFER 97 in the temperature range between 100 and 500-600 deg. C show a reduction in life time (a factor of 2) compared to F82H mod. and OPTIFER IV. TMCF-experiments with hold times of 100 and 1000 s show dramatic reduction in life time for all three materials

  11. Microstructure and Hardness of High Temperature Gas Nitrided AISI 420 Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nor Nurulhuda Md.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the microstructure and hardness of as-received and nitrided AISI 420 martensitic stainless steels. High temperature gas nitriding was employed to treat the steels at 1200°C for one hour and four hours using nitrogen gas, followed by furnace cooled. Chromium nitride and iron nitride were formed and concentrated at the outmost surface area of the steels since this region contained the highest concentration of nitrogen. The grain size enlarged at the interior region of the nitrided steels due to nitriding at temperature above the recrystallization temperature of the steel and followed by slow cooling. The nitrided steels produced higher surface hardness compared to as-received steel due to the presence of nitrogen and the precipitation of nitrides. Harder steel was produced when nitriding at four hours compared to one hour since more nitrogen permeated into the steel.

  12. Softening mechanisms of the AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel under hot torsion simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago Santana de; Silva, Eden Santos; Rodrigues, Samuel Filgueiras; Nascimento, Carmem Celia Francisco; Leal, Valdemar Silva; Reis, Gedeon Silva, E-mail: samuel.filgueiras@ifma.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Maranhao (PPGEM/IFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    This study investigated the softening mechanisms of the AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel during torsion simulation under isothermal continuous in the temperature range of 900 to 1150 °C and strain rates of 0.1 to 5.0s{sup -1}. In the first part of the curves, before the peak, the results show that the critical (ε-c) and peak (ε-p) strains are elevated for higher strain rate and lower temperatures contributing for higher strain hardening rate (h). Moreover, this indicated that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and dynamic recovery (DRV) are not effective in this region. After the peak, the reductions in stresses are associated to the different DRX/DRV competitions. For lower temperatures and higher strain rates there is a delay in the DRX while the DRV is acting predominantly (with low Avrami exponent (n) and high t{sub 0.5}). The steady state was reached after large strains showing DRX grains, formation of retained austenite and the presence of chromium carbide (Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}) and ferrite δ at the martensitic grain boundaries. These contribute for impairing the toughness and ductility on the material. The constitutive equations at the peak strain indicated changes in the deformation mechanism, with variable strain rate sensitivity (m), which affected the final microstructure. (author)

  13. Strength of interface in stainless clad steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohji, Kiyotsugu; Nakai, Yoshikazu; Hashimoto, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    Mechanical tests were conducted on four kinds of stainless clad steels to establish test methods for determining crack growth resistance of bimaterial interface. In tension tests, smooth specimens and shallow notched specimens were employed. In these tests, all of the smooth specimens were broken in carbon steel, not along the bimaterial interface. On the other hand, most of the shallow notched specimens were broken along the interface, when the notch root was located at the interface. Therefore, the shallow notched specimens were suitable for estimating the strength of the interface in tension tests. For fracture toughness tests, chevron notched specimens are recommended, since pre-fatigue cracks were susceptible to initiate and grow in carbon steel for conventional straight notched specimens. In fatigue crack growth tests, side-grooved and non-side-grooved specimens were employed. Although the side-grooves were machined so that the minimum cross-sectional plane of the specimens coincided with the plane of the bimaterial interface, cracks did not always propagate along the interface. Therefore, the side-grooves were judged not to be effective for cracks to propagate along the bimaterial interface. Both in fracture toughness tests and fatigue tests, the crack growth resistance along bimaterial interface was much lower than the resistance of matrix steels. In all of the mechanical tests conducted, the crack growth resistance along the interface was higher for the normalized material than that for the as-rolled material. The nickel foil inserted between carbon steel and stainless steel improved the growth resistance of interfacial cracks. (author)

  14. Corrosion behaviour of dissimilar welds between ferritic-martensitic stainless steel and austenitic stainless steel from secondary circuit of CANDU NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, L.; Fulger, M.; Tunaru, M.; Velciu, L.; Lazar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion damages of welds occur in spite of the fact that the proper base metal and filler metal have been correctly selected, industry codes and standards have been followed and welds have been realized with full weld penetration and have proper shape and contour. In secondary circuit of a Nuclear Power Station there are some components which have dissimilar welds. The principal criteria for selecting a stainless steel usually is resistance to corrosion, and white most consideration is given to the corrosion resistance of the base metal, additional consideration should be given to the weld metal and to the base metal immediately adjacent to the weld zone. Our experiments were performed in chloride environmental on two types of samples: non-welded (410 or W 1.4006 ferritic-martensitic steel and 304L or W 1.4307 austenitic stainless steel) and dissimilar welds (dissimilar metal welds: joints between 410 ferritic-martensitic and 304L austenitic stainless steel). To evaluate corrosion susceptibility of dissimilar welds was used electrochemical method (potentiodynamic method) and optic microscopy (microstructural analysis). The present paper follows the localized corrosion behaviour of dissimilar welds between austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic steel in solutions containing chloride ions. It was evaluated the corrosion rates of samples (welded and non-welded) by electrochemical methods. (authors)

  15. Influence of strain-induced martensitic transformation on fatigue short crack behaviour in an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffie, N.; Stolarz, J.; Magnin, Th.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of martensitic transformation induced by cyclic straining on the mechanisms of low cycle fatigue damage in a metastable austenitic stainless steel with different grain sizes has been investigated using macroscopic measurements and microscopic observations of short crack evolutions. The amount of martensite formed during cyclic straining increases with increasing plastic strain amplitude and cumulative plastic strain but the dominant parameter is the grain size of austenite. The fine microstructure (D = 10 μm) with maximum martensite fraction of about 20% is characterised by a better fatigue resistance than the coarse one (D 40μm and only 2% of martensite) for the same plastic strain amplitude. Martensitic transformation is found to radically modify the cyclic response of the alloy and consequently the damage mechanisms. Indeed, both short crack nucleation and growth take place exclusively in the transformed regions. A mechanism of short crack propagation based on the γ→ α' transformation assisted by stress concentration at the crack tip is proposed. The indirect influence of grain boundaries in the austenite on crack propagation in the martensite is demonstrated. The better fatigue resistance of metastable alloys with fine granular structure can thus be understood. (authors)

  16. Dependence of Microelastic-plastic Nonlinearity of Martensitic Stainless Steel on Fatigue Damage Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Self-organized substructural arrangements of dislocations formed in wavy slip metals during cyclic stress-induced fatigue produce substantial changes in the material microelastic-plastic nonlinearity, a quantitative measure of which is the nonlinearity parameter Beta extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The contributions to Beta from the substructural evolution of dislocations and crack growth for fatigued martensitic 410Cb stainless steel are calculated from the Cantrell model as a function of percent full fatigue life to fracture. A wave interaction factor f(sub WI) is introduced into the model to account experimentally for the relative volume of material fatigue damage included in the volume of material swept out by an interrogating acoustic wave. For cyclic stress-controlled loading at 551 MPa and f(sub WI) = 0.013 the model predicts a monotonic increase in Beta from dislocation substructures of almost 100 percent from the virgin state to roughly 95 percent full life. Negligible contributions from cracks are predicted in this range of fatigue life. However, over the last five percent of fatigue life the model predicts a rapid monotonic increase of Beta by several thousand percent that is dominated by crack growth. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements of 410Cb stainless steel samples fatigued in uniaxial, stress-controlled cyclic loading at 551 MPa from zero to full tensile load with a measured f(sub WI) of 0.013.

  17. Microstructural evolution in 13Cr-8Ni-2.5Mo-2Al martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, D.H.; Ohnuma, M.; Hirakawa, Y.; Kadoya, Y.; Hono, K.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure of 13Cr-8Ni-2.5Mo-2Al martensitic precipitation-hardened (PH) stainless steel has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, three-dimensional atom probe and small-angle X-ray scattering. A high number density (∼10 23-25 m -3 ) of ultra-fine (1-6 nm) β-NiAl precipitates are formed during aging at 450-620 deg. C, which are spherical in shape and dispersed uniformly with perfect coherency with the matrix. As the annealing temperature increases, the size and concentration of the precipitates increase concurrently while the number density decreases. The Mo and Cr segregation to the precipitate-matrix interface has been detected and is suggested to suppress precipitate coarsening. In the sample aged for 500 h at 450 deg. C, the matrix decomposes into Cr-rich (α') and Cr-poor (α) regions. The decrease in the strength at higher temperature (above 550 deg. C) is attributed to the formation of larger carbides and reverted austenite

  18. Experimental Analysis of Residual Stresses in Samples of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welded on Martensitic Stainless Steel Used for Kaplan Blades Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses occur in materials as a result of mechanical processes: welding, machining, grinding etc. If residual stresses reach high values they can accelerate the occurrence of cracks and erosion of material. An experimental research was made in order to study the occurrence of residual stresses in the repaired areas of hydraulic turbine components damaged by cavitation erosion. An austenitic stainless steel was welded in various layer thicknesses on a martensitic stainless steel base. The residual stresses were determined using the hole drilling strain gage method.

  19. Refinement of the magnetic composite model of type 304 stainless steel by considering misoriented ferromagnetic martensite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

    2017-05-01

    We improved a magnetic composite model that combines the Jiles-Atherton model and Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method to consider misoriented martensite particles. The magnetic permeability of type 304 stainless steel were analyzed by using both experimental data on the orientation distribution of type 304 stainless steel specimens and the improved model. We found that the model is able to qualitatively explain the variation of permeability with the orientation angle and orientation distribution, an effect that depends on the direction of the excitation magnetic field.

  20. Influence of helium embrittlement on post-irradiation creep rupture behaviour of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassilew, C.

    1982-01-01

    The author has investigated the influence of helium embrittlement on the creep rupture properties of the austenitic stainless steels 1.4970 and 1.4962 and the martensitic stainless steel 1.4914 after irradiation in the BR-2 reactor in Mol, Belgium. The results show that austenitic steels react much more strongly to the embrittlement effect of the helium than do martensitic steels. The causes of the lower embrittlement tendency of the martensitic than of both austenitic stainless steels were analysed carefully. A new embrittlement model was developed on the basis of data derived from the creep rupture experiments, and reinforced by a simple metallographic investigation of the fracture zone and its immediate environment. This model pays specific attention to the role of the twin planes as the most efficient area of increased vacancy production, and takes into account the ability of the twin boundaries to transport these vacancies with reduced energy and low loss into the high-angle grain boundaries. (author)

  1. Some initial considerations on the suitability of Ferritic/ martensitic stainless steels as first wall and blanket materials in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    The constitution of stainless iron alloys and the characteristic properties of alloys in the main ferritic, martensitic and austenitic groups are discussed. A comparison of published data on the mechanical, thermal and irradiation properties of typical austenitic and martensitic/ferritic steels shows that alloys in the latter groups have certain advantages for fusion applications. The ferromagnetism exhibited by martensitic and ferritic alloys has, however, been identified as a potentially serious obstacle to their utilisation in magnetic confinement devices. The paper describes measurements performed in other laboratories on the magnetic properties of two representative martensitic alloys 12Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-2Mo. These observations show that a modest bias magnetic field of magnitude 1 - 2 tesla induces a state of magnetic saturation in these materials. They would thus behave as essentially paramagnetic materials having a relative permeability close to unity when saturated by the toroidal field of a tokamak reactor. The results of computations by the General Atomic research group to assess the implications of such magnetic behaviour on reactor design and operation are presented. The results so far indicate that the ferromagnetism of martensitic/ferritic steels would not represent a major obstacle to their utilisation as first wall or blanket materials. (author)

  2. A comparison of dilatometry and in-situ neutron diffraction in tracking bulk phase transformations in a martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christien, F., E-mail: frederic.christien@univ-nantes.fr [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS, Rue Christian Pauc, BP 50609, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Telling, M.T.F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Knight, K.S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Phase transformations in the 17-4PH martensitic stainless steel have been studied using different in-situ techniques, including dilatometry and high resolution neutron diffraction. Neutron diffraction patterns were quantitatively processed using the Rietveld refinement method, allowing the determination of the temperature-dependence of martensite (α′, bcc) and austenite (γ, fcc) phase fractions and lattice parameters on heating to 1000 °C and then cooling to room temperature. It is demonstrated in this work that dilatometry doesn't permit an accurate determination of the end temperature (Ac3) of the α′ → γ transformation which occurs upon heating to high temperature. The analysis of neutron diffraction data has shown that the respective volumes of the two phases become very close to each other at high temperature, thus making the dilatometric technique almost insensitive in that temperature range. However, there is a very good agreement between neutron diffraction and dilatometry at lower temperature. The martensitic transformation occurring upon cooling has been analysed using the Koistinen–Marburger equation. The thermal expansion coefficients of the two phases have been determined in addition. A comparison of the results obtained in this work with data from literature is presented. - Highlights: • Martensite is still present at very high temperature (> 930 °C) upon heating. • The end of austenitisation cannot be accurately monitored by dilatometry. • The martensite and austenite volumes become similar at high temperature (> ∼ 850 °C)

  3. Post-irradiation characterization of PH13-8Mo martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, M.; Schmalz, F.; Rensman, J.W. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Luzginova, N.V., E-mail: luzginova@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Wouters, O.; Hegeman, J.B.J.; Laan, J.G. van der [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-10-01

    The irradiation response of PH13-8Mo stainless steel was measured up to 2.5 dpa at 200 and 300 deg. C irradiation temperatures. The PH13-8Mo, a martensitic precipitation-hardened steel, was produced by Hot Isostatic Pressing at 1030 deg. C. The fatigue tests (high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation) showed a test temperature dependency but no irradiation effects. Tensile tests showed irradiation hardening (yield stress increase) of approximately 37% for 200 deg. C irradiated material tested at 60 deg. C and approximately 32% for 300 deg. C irradiated material tested at 60 deg. C. This contradicts the shift in reference temperature (T{sub 0}) measured in toughness tests (Master Curve approach), where the {Delta}T{sub 0} for 300 deg. C irradiated is approximately 170 deg. C and the {Delta}T{sub 0} for the 200 deg. C irradiated is approximately 160 deg. C. This means that the irradiation hardening of PH13-8Mo steel is not suitable to predict the shift in the reference temperature for the Master Curve approach.

  4. Corrosion of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels in flowing 17Li83Pb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broc, M.; Flament, T.; Fauvet, P.; Sannier, J.

    1988-07-01

    With regard to the behaviour of 316 L stainless steel at 400°C in flowing anisothermal 17Li83Pb the mass transfer suffered by this steel appears to be quite important without noticeable influence of constant or cyclic stress. Evaluation made from solution-annealed specimens leads to a corrosion rate of approximately 30 μm yr -1 at steady state to which a depth of 25 μm has to be added to take into account the initial period phenomena. On the other hand, with semi-stagnant 17Li83Pb at 400° C, the mass transfer of 316 L steel appears to be lower and more acceptable after a 3000-h exposure; but long-time kinetics data have to be achieved in order to see if that better behaviour is persistent and does not correspond to a longer incubation period. As for the martensitic steels their corrosion rate at 450°C in the thermal convection loop TULIP is constant up to 3000 h and five times lower than that observed for 316 L steel in the same conditions.

  5. Effect of electroslag remelting on carbides in 8Cr13MoV martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin-tian; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao

    2015-11-01

    The effect of electroslag remelting (ESR) on carbides in 8Cr13MoV martensitic stainless steel was experimentally studied. Phases precipitated from liquid steel during solidification were calculated using the Thermo-Calc software. The carbon segregation was analyzed by original position analysis (OPA), and the carbides were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that more uniform carbon distribution and less segregation were obtained in the case of samples subjected to the ESR process. After ESR, the amount of netty carbides decreased significantly, and the chromium and vanadium contents in the grain-boundary carbides was reduced. The total area and average size of carbides were obviously smaller after the ESR process. In the sample subjected to ESR, the morphology of carbides changed from lamellar and angular to globular or lump, whereas the types of carbides did not change; both M23C6 and M7C3 were present before and after the ESR process.

  6. Quenching and partitioning treatment of a low-carbon martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiyama, Toshihiro; Tobata, Junya; Tao, Teruyuki; Nakada, Nobuo; Takaki, Setsuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The amount of retained austenite was increased by Q and P treatment in 12Cr–0.1C steel. ► Ideal carbon concentrations in austenite and ferrite were calculated assuming CCE condition. ► The optimum partitioning treatment condition for 12Cr–0.1C steel was found. ► The strength–ductility balance of 12Cr–0.1C steel was improved by TRIP effect. - Abstract: Quenching and partitioning (Q and P) treatment was applied to a commercial low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, AISI Type 410 (Fe–12Cr–0.1C). The quench interruption temperature was optimized with consideration of the ideal carbon concentration in untransformed austenite after partitioning to lower the Ms temperature to room temperature. After partitioning at an appropriate temperature, a significant fraction of austenite was retained through the enrichment of carbon into the untransformed austenite. It was also suggested that the addition of silicon is not necessarily required for the Q and P treatment of 12Cr steel because of the retardation of carbide precipitation at the partitioning temperature owing to the large amount of chromium. Tensile testing revealed that the Q and P-treated material exhibited a significantly improved strength–ductility balance compared with conventional quench-and-tempered materials due to the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect by the retained austenite.

  7. Microhardness and Stress Analysis of Laser-Cladded AISI 420 Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad K.; Edrisy, Afsaneh; Urbanic, Jill; Pineault, James

    2017-03-01

    Laser cladding is a surface treatment process which is starting to be employed as a novel additive manufacturing. Rapid cooling during the non-equilibrium solidification process generates non-equilibrium microstructures and significant amounts of internal residual stresses. This paper investigates the laser cladding of 420 martensitic stainless steel of two single beads produced by different process parameters (e.g., laser power, laser speed, and powder feed rate). Metallographic sample preparation from the cross section revealed three distinct zones: the bead zone, the dilution zone, and the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The tensile residual stresses were in the range of 310-486 MPa on the surface and the upper part of the bead zone. The compressive stresses were in the range of 420-1000 MPa for the rest of the bead zone and the dilution zone. The HAZ also showed tensile residual stresses in the range of 140-320 MPa for both samples. The post-cladding heat treatment performed at 565 °C for an hour had significantly reduced the tensile stresses at the surface and in the subsurface and homogenized the compressive stress throughout the bead and dilution zones. The microstructures, residual stresses, and microhardness profiles were correlated for better understanding of the laser-cladding process.

  8. Static Recrystallization Behavior of Z12CN13 Martensite Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Zhou, Bing; Li, Rong-bin; Xu, Chun; Guo, Yan-hui

    2017-09-01

    In order to increase the hot workability and provide proper hot forming parameters of forging Z12CN13 martensite stainless steel for the simulation and production, the static recrystallization behavior has been studied by double-pass hot compression tests. The effects of deformation temperature, strain rate and inter-pass time on the static recrystallization fraction by the 2% offset method are extensively studied. The results indicate that increasing the inter-pass time and the deformation temperature as well as strain rate appropriately can increase the fraction of static recrystallization. At the temperature of 1050-1150 °C, inter-pass time of 30-100 s and strain rate of 0.1-5 s-1, the static recrystallization behavior is obvious. In addition, the kinetics of static recrystallization behavior of Z12CN13 steel has been established and the activation energy of static recrystallization is 173.030 kJ/mol. The substructure and precipitates have been studied by TEM. The results reveal that the nucleation mode is bulging at grain boundary. Undissolved precipitates such as MoNi3 and Fe3C have a retarding effect on the recrystallization kinetics. The effect is weaker than the accelerating effect of deformation temperature.

  9. Predicting Microstructure Development During HighTemperature Nitriding of Martensitic Stainless SteelsUsing Thermodynamic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschiptschin André Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations of the Fe-Cr-N System in the region of the Gas Phase Equilibria have been compared with experimental results of maximum nitrogen absorption during nitriding of two Martensitic Stainless Steels (a 6 mm thick sheet of AISI 410S steel and green powder compacts of AISI 434L steel under N2 atmospheres. The calculations have been performed combining the Fe-Cr-N System description contained in the SGTE Solid Solution Database and the gas phase for the N System contained in the SGTE Substances Database. Results show a rather good agreement for total nitrogen absorption in the steel and nitrogen solubility in austenite in the range of temperatures between 1273 K and 1473 K and in the range of pressures between 0.1 and 0.36 MPa. Calculations show that an appropriate choice of heat treatment parameters can lead to optimal nitrogen absorption in the alloy. It was observed in the calculations that an increased pressure stabilizes CrN at expenses of Cr2N - type nitrides.

  10. Weldability examination of ASTM A 240 S41500 martensitic stainless steel by thermal cycles simulation testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Velázquez-del Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The weldability assets of ASTM A 240 S41500 (ASTM A 240/A 240M martensitic stainless steel are presented through the study of the effects of single and double thermal weld cycles on mechanical properties and microstructure of base metal (BM and the artificial heat affected zone (HAZ created by thermal weld simulations. For single cycles, separate peak temperatures of 1000 ºC/12 s and 1350 ºC/12 s (cooling times: 12 s in both cases were evaluated, whilst two combinations of peak temperatures: (1350 ºC/5 s + 1000 ºC/5 s ºC and (1350 ºC/12 s + 1000 ºC/12 s ºC (cooling times: 5 s and 12 s, were applied for double cycles. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT with short and long holding times were applied and Vickers hardness, impact toughness and metallographic examinations were used in order to assess mechanical and metallographic properties in the as-simulated (no heat treated and postweld heat treated conditions. Best properties of the welded joint for double thermal weld cycles with long holding times were reached, which reveals the good weldability and applicability of the tested material in post weld heat treated conditions.

  11. Hot Deformation Behavior of 1Cr12Ni3Mo2VN Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaomao; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Leyu; Chen, Chao; Deng, Xiaochun

    2017-08-01

    1Cr12Ni3Mo2VN is a new type of martensitic stainless steel for the last-stage blades of large-capacity nuclear and thermal power turbines. The deformation behavior of this steel was studied by thermal compression experiments that performed on a Gleeble-3500 thermal simulator at a temperature range of 850°C to 1200°C and a strain rate of 0.01s-1 to 20s-1. When the deformation was performed at high temperature and low strain rate, a necklace type of microstructures was observed, the plastic deformation mechanism is grain boundary slip and migration, when at low temperature and lower strain rate, the slip bands were observed, the mechanism is intracrystalline slips, and when at strain rate of 20s-1, twins were observed, the mechanism are slips and twins. The Arrhenius equation was applied to describe the constitutive equation of the flow stress. The accuracy of the equation was verified by using the experimental data and the correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9786, and the equation can provide reasonable data for the design and numerical simulation of the forging process.

  12. Reversed austenite in 0Cr13Ni4Mo martensitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.Y., E-mail: songyuanyuan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, X.Y.; Rong, L.J.; Li, Y.Y. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Nagai, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    The austenite reversion process and the distribution of carbon and other alloying elements during tempering in 0Cr13Ni4Mo martensitic stainless steel have been investigated by in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The microstructure of the reversed austenite was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that the amount of the reversed austenite formed at high temperature increased with the holding time. Direct experimental evidence supported carbon partitioning to carbides and Ni to the reversed austenite. The reversed austenite almost always nucleated in contact with lath boundary M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides during tempering and the diffusion of Ni promoted its growth. The Ni enrichment and the ultrafine size of the reversed austenite were considered to be the main factors that accounted for the stability of the reversed austenite. - Highlights: • The amount of the reversed austenite formed at high temperature increases with the holding time. • STEM results directly show that carbon is mainly partitioned into the carbides and Ni into the reversed austenite. • The Ni enrichment and the ultrafine size are the main factors leading to the stabilization of the reversed austenite.

  13. Corrosion of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels in flowing 17Li-83Pb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broc, M.; Flament, T.; Fauvet, P.; Sannier, J.

    1988-01-01

    With regard to the behaviour of 316 L stainless steel at 400 0 C in flowing anisothermal 17Li-83Pb the mass transfer suffered by this steel appears to be quite important without noticeable influence of constant or cyclic stress. Evaluation made from solution-annealed specimens leads to a corrosion rate of approximately 30 μm yr -1 at steady state to which a depth of 25 μm has to be added to take into account the initial period phenomena. On the other hand, with semi-stagnant 17Li-83Pb at 400 0 C, the mass transfer of 316 L steel appears to be lower and more acceptable after a 3000-h exposure; but long-time kinetics data have to be achieved in order to see if that better behaviour is persistent and does not correspond to a longer incubation period. As for the martensitic steels their corrosion rate at 450 0 C in the thermal convection loop TULIP is constant up to 3000 h and five times lower than that observed for 316 L steel in the same conditions. (orig.)

  14. Strength of initially virgin martensites at - 196 °C after aging and tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldis, George T.; Cohen, Morris

    1983-06-01

    The compressive strength at -196°C of martensites in Fe-0.26 pct C-24 pct Ni, Fe-0.4 pct C-21 pct Ni, and Fe-0.4 pct C-18 pct Ni-3 pct Mo alloys, all with subzero M temperatures, has been determined in the virgin condition and after one hour at temperatures from -80 to +400 °C. The effects of ausforming (20 pct reduction in area of the austenite by swaging at room temperature prior to the martensitic transformation) were also investigated. For the unausformed martensites, aging at temperatures up to 0 °C results in relatively small increases in strength. Above 0 °C, the age hardening increment increases rapidly, reaching a maximum at 100 °C. Above 100 °C, the strength decreases continuously with increasing tempering temperature except for the molybdenum-containing alloy, which exhibits secondary hardening on tempering at 400 °C. For the ausformed martensites, the response to aging at subzero temperatures is greater than for unausformed material. Strength again passes through a maximum on aging at 100 °C. However, on tempering just above 100 °C, the ausformed materials show a slower rate of softening than the unausformed martensites. The strengthening produced by the ausforming treatment is largest for the Fe-0.4 pct C-18 pct Ni-3 pct Mo alloy, but there is no evidence of carbide precipitation in the deformed austenite to a°Count for this effect of molybdenum.

  15. Irradiation performance of 9--12 Cr ferritic/martensitic stainless steels and their potential for in-core application in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Gelles, D.S.

    1993-08-01

    Ferritic-martensitic stainless steels exhibit radiation stability and stress corrosion resistance that make them attractive replacement materials for austenitic stainless steels for in-core applications. Recent radiation studies have demonstrated that 9% Cr ferritic/martensitic stainless steel had less than a 30C shift in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) following irradiation at 365C to a dose of 14 dpa. These steels also exhibit very low swelling rates, a result of the microstructural stability of these alloys during radiation. The 9 to 12% Cr alloys to also exhibit excellent corrosion and stress corrosion resistance in out-of-core applications. Demonstration of the applicability of ferritic/martensitic stainless steels for in-core LWR application will require verification of the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking behavior, measurement of DBTT following irradiation at 288C, and corrosion rates measurements for in-core water chemistry

  16. Microstructure and properties of 13Cr5Ni1Mo0.025Nb0.09V0.06N super martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.P.; Wang, L.J. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, C.M., E-mail: cmliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Subramanian, S.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S-4L7 (Canada)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the microstructures of a commercial martenistic stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excess N content causes the occurrence of coarse carbo-nitride and Cr{sub 2}N. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation of microstructures with mechanical and corrosion properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The poor pitting resistance is due to Cr rich precipitates. - Abstract: The morphological microstructure, the density and dispersion of high angle boundaries, morphology and micro chemical composition of precipitates and the volume fraction of retained austenite of a commercial super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) normalized and tempered at various temperatures were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the light of equilibrium phase diagram of the alloy calculated using Thermo-Calc software. The mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance were determined to correlate with microstructures. Two kinds of morphology of precipitate were observed in tempered commercial super martensitic stainless. Besides the globular Nb and V rich carbo-nitride precipitates, rod-like Cr rich nitrides were formed due to excess N content. While high density of high angle boundaries and precipitates contribute to strength properties, the dislocation softening of the matrix and retained austenite from tempering restore the ductility and impact toughness properties. The poor resistance to pitting corrosion is attributed to the occurrence of Cr rich precipitates. It is demonstrated that by lowering the nitrogen content and adding niobium, the Cr rich precipitates can be suppressed and the mechanical properties and resistance to pitting corrosion can be significantly improved.

  17. Microstructure and properties of 13Cr5Ni1Mo0.025Nb0.09V0.06N super martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, X.P.; Wang, L.J.; Liu, C.M.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of the microstructures of a commercial martenistic stainless steel. ► Excess N content causes the occurrence of coarse carbo-nitride and Cr 2 N. ► Correlation of microstructures with mechanical and corrosion properties. ► The poor pitting resistance is due to Cr rich precipitates. - Abstract: The morphological microstructure, the density and dispersion of high angle boundaries, morphology and micro chemical composition of precipitates and the volume fraction of retained austenite of a commercial super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) normalized and tempered at various temperatures were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the light of equilibrium phase diagram of the alloy calculated using Thermo-Calc software. The mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance were determined to correlate with microstructures. Two kinds of morphology of precipitate were observed in tempered commercial super martensitic stainless. Besides the globular Nb and V rich carbo-nitride precipitates, rod-like Cr rich nitrides were formed due to excess N content. While high density of high angle boundaries and precipitates contribute to strength properties, the dislocation softening of the matrix and retained austenite from tempering restore the ductility and impact toughness properties. The poor resistance to pitting corrosion is attributed to the occurrence of Cr rich precipitates. It is demonstrated that by lowering the nitrogen content and adding niobium, the Cr rich precipitates can be suppressed and the mechanical properties and resistance to pitting corrosion can be significantly improved.

  18. Corrosion and Nanomechanical Behaviors of 16.3Cr-0.22N-0.43C-1.73Mo Martensitic Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Rahul; Krishna, S. Chenna; Venugopal, A.; Narayanan, P. Ramesh; Jha, Abhay K.; Ramkumar, P.; Venkitakrishnan, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on the electrochemical corrosion and nanomechanical behaviors of martensitic stainless steel was examined using potentiodynamic polarization and nanoindentation test methods. The results indicate that partial replacement of carbon with nitrogen effectively improved the passivation and pitting corrosion resistance of conventional high-carbon and high- chromium martensitic steels. Post-test observation of the samples after a potentiodynamic test revealed a severe pitting attacks in conventional martensitic steel compared with nitrogen- containing martensitic stainless steel. This was shown to be due to (i) microstructural refinement results in retaining a high-chromium content in the matrix, and (ii) the presence of reversed austenite formed during the tempering process. Since nitrogen addition also resulted in the formation of a Cr_2N phase as a process of secondary hardening, the hardness of the nitrogen- containing steel is slightly higher than the conventional martensitic stainless steel under tempered conditions, even though the carbon content is lowered. The added nitrogen also improved the wear resistance of the steel as the critical load (Lc2) is less, along with a lower scratch friction coefficient (SFC) when compared to conventional martensitic stainless steel such as AISI 440C.

  19. Corrosion and Nanomechanical Behaviors of 16.3Cr-0.22N-0.43C-1.73Mo Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Rahul; Krishna, S. Chenna; Venugopal, A.; Narayanan, P. Ramesh; Jha, Abhay K.; Ramkumar, P.; Venkitakrishnan, P. V. [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (ISRO), Kerala (India)

    2016-12-15

    The effect of nitrogen on the electrochemical corrosion and nanomechanical behaviors of martensitic stainless steel was examined using potentiodynamic polarization and nanoindentation test methods. The results indicate that partial replacement of carbon with nitrogen effectively improved the passivation and pitting corrosion resistance of conventional high-carbon and high- chromium martensitic steels. Post-test observation of the samples after a potentiodynamic test revealed a severe pitting attacks in conventional martensitic steel compared with nitrogen- containing martensitic stainless steel. This was shown to be due to (i) microstructural refinement results in retaining a high-chromium content in the matrix, and (ii) the presence of reversed austenite formed during the tempering process. Since nitrogen addition also resulted in the formation of a Cr{sub 2}N phase as a process of secondary hardening, the hardness of the nitrogen- containing steel is slightly higher than the conventional martensitic stainless steel under tempered conditions, even though the carbon content is lowered. The added nitrogen also improved the wear resistance of the steel as the critical load (Lc2) is less, along with a lower scratch friction coefficient (SFC) when compared to conventional martensitic stainless steel such as AISI 440C.

  20. The influence of elevated temperature transformation and mechanical properties of a precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel on its wear behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.F.

    1989-11-01

    Self wear tests of a martensitic stainless steel in CO 2 in the temperature range 20-300degC showed transitional behaviour at 20 and 300degC. In the mid temperature range a severe wear rate of ∼ 2 x 10 -13 m 3 /Nm persisted for sliding distances up to 2000 m. A possible explanation was that while strain induced transformation of retained austenite at low temperatures provided a sufficiently hardened substrate that allowed inelastic rather than plastic interactions this did not occur at 200degC. Tests were carried out to determine the temperature above which strain no longer transformed austenite into martensite. Although a martensite start temperature of ∼ 150degC was found for the present steel the presence of only ∼ 10% retained austenite in the ''as heat treated'' material suggests that its transformation to martensite at 200degC would not materially affect the extent of subsurface hardening. It is proposed that a surface reaction plays a role in transition behaviour. At 300degC the reaction product is an oxide but at room temperature it is possibly a carbonate. The stability of the carbonate decreases with temperature thus giving an intermediate temperature range where metal/metal contacts prevail leading to the persistent high wear behaviour. (author)

  1. Alloying effect on hardening of martensite stainless steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Co systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Savkina, L.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of alloying elements is considered on the γ → a-transformation and hardening of certain compositions of the ternary Fe-Cr-Ni- and Fe-Cr-Co alloy systems with the martensite structure. In martensite Fe-(10 to 14)% Cr base steels the elements Co, Cu, W, Ni, Mo, Si, Cr decrease, Mn, Si, Mo, Cu increase, and Cr, Ni, Co decrease the temperature of α → γ-transition. The tempering of martensite steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni- and Fe-Cr-Co-systems containing 10 to 14% Cr, 4 to 9% Ni, and 7 to 12% Co does not lead to hardening. Alloyage of the martensite Fe-Cr-Ni-, Fe-Cr-Co- and Fe-Cr-Ni-Co base separately with Mo, W, Si or Cu leads to a hardening during tempering, the hardening being the higher, the higher is the content of Ni and, especially, of Co. The increase in the content of Mo or Si produces the same effect as the increase in the Co content. In on Fe-Cr-Co or Fe-Cr-Ni-Co based steels alloyed with Mo or Si, two temperature ranges of ageing have been revealed which, evidently, have different hardening natures. The compositions studied could serve as the base material for producing maraging stainless steels having a complex variety of properties

  2. Effect of Nb Addition to Ti-Bearing Super Martensitic Stainless Steel on Control of Austenite Grain Size and Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Langelier, Brian; Gault, Baptiste; Subramanian, Sundaresa

    2017-05-01

    The role of Nb in normalized and tempered Ti-bearing 13Cr5Ni2Mo super martensitic stainless steel is investigated through in-depth characterization of the bimodal chemistry and size of Nb-rich precipitates/atomic clusters and Nb in solid solution. Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography are used to analyze the samples and clarify precipitates/atom cluster interactions with dislocations and austenite grain boundaries. The effect of 0.1 wt pct Nb addition on the promotion of (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates, as well as the retention of Nb in solution after cooling to room temperature, are analyzed quantitatively. (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates with average diameters of approximately 24 ± 8 nm resulting from epitaxial growth of Nb(C,N) on pre-existing (Ti,Nb)N particles, with inter-particle spacing on the order of 205 ± 68 nm, are found to be associated with mean austenite grain size of 28 ± 10 µm in the sample normalized at 1323 K (1050 °C). The calculated Zener limiting austenite grain size of 38 ± 13 µm is in agreement with the experimentally observed austenite grain size distribution. 0.08 wt pct Nb is retained in the as-normalized condition, which is able to promote Nb(C, N) atomic clusters at dislocations during tempering at 873 K (600 °C) for 2 hours, and increases the yield strength by 160 MPa, which is predicted to be close to maximum increase in strengthening effect. Retention of solute Nb before tempering also leads to it preferentially combing with C and N to form Nb(C, N) atom clusters, which suppresses the occurrence of Cr- and Mo-rich carbides during tempering.

  3. Martensitic transformations, structure, and strengthness of processed high-nitrogen and high-carbon ferrous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaputkina, L. M.; Prokoshkina, V. G.

    2003-10-01

    Structures and properties of metastable austenitic alloys Fe-18Cr-16Ni-I2Mn-(0.17 to 0. 50)N, Fe-18Cr-12Mn-(0.48 to 1.12)N, Fe-18Cr-(0.1 to 1.18)N, and Fe-(12 to 20)Ni-(0.6 to 1.3)C, Fe-(6 to 8)Mn-(0.6 to 1.0)C, Fe-(5 to 6)Cr-(4 to 5)Mn-(0.6 to 0.8)C, Fe-6Cr-(1.0 to 1.3)C resulting from martensitic transformations under cooling and cold deformation (CD), as well as following tempering processes, were studied by magnetometry, X-ray and electron microscopy analyses, hardness measurements and mechanical properties tests. Martensite with a b.c.t. lattice was formed in all alloys with M_s{>}-196^circC during cooling. Under CD transformations of γ{to}α, γ{to}\\varepsilon{to}α, or γ{to}\\varepsilon types were realized depending on the alloy composition. Carbon increased but nitrogen decreased stacking fault energy. Thus carbon assists α-martensite formation but nitrogen promotese. As CD level and/or concentration of carbon and nitrogen increase residual stresses resulting from the CD also increase. The martensitic transformation during CD can decrease the residual stresses. Kinetic of tempering of b.c.t. thermal martensite differs from those of CD-induced martensite. In the second case, deformation aging, texture, and residual stresses are more visible. The maximal strengthening under CD takes place in (Mn+N)-steels. (Cr+N) and (Cr+Mn+N)-steels are high-strength, non-magnetic and corrosion resistant and are easily hardened by a low level of plastic deformation.

  4. In-Situ Investigation of Strain-Induced Martensitic Transformation Kinetics in an Austenitic Stainless Steel by Inductive Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Celada-Casero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An inductive sensor developed by Philips ATC has been used to study in-situ the austenite (γ to martensite (α′ phase transformation kinetics during tensile testing in an AISI 301 austenitic stainless steel. A correlation between the sensor output signal and the volume fraction of α′-martensite has been found by comparing the results to the ex-situ characterization by magnetization measurements, light optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor has allowed for the observation of the stepwise transformation behavior, a not-well-understood phenomena that takes place in large regions of the bulk material and that so far had only been observed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

  5. Gradient twinned 304 stainless steels for high strength and high ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aiying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Hongtao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Jian, E-mail: jianlu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Y. Morris, E-mail: ymwang@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Gradient materials often have attractive mechanical properties that outperform uniform microstructure counterparts. It remains a difficult task to investigate and compare the performance of various gradient microstructures due to the difficulty of fabrication, the wide range of length scales involved, and their respective volume percentage variations. We have investigated four types of gradient microstructures in 304 stainless steels that utilize submicrotwins, nanotwins, nanocrystalline-, ultrafine- and coarse-grains as building blocks. Tensile tests reveal that the gradient microstructure consisting of submicrotwins and nanotwins has a persistent and stable work hardening rate and yields an impressive combination of high strength and high ductility, leading to a toughness that is nearly 50% higher than that of the coarse-grained counterpart. Ex- and in-situ transmission electron microscopy indicates that nanoscale and submicroscale twins help to suppress and limit martensitic phase transformation via the confinement of martensite within the twin lamellar. Twinning and detwinning remain active during tensile deformation and contribute to the work hardening behavior. We discuss the advantageous properties of using submicrotwins as the main load carrier and nanotwins as the strengthening layers over those coarse and nanocrystalline grains. Our work uncovers a new gradient design strategy to help metals and alloys achieve high strength and high ductility.

  6. Partial-Isothermally-Treated Low Alloy Ultrahigh Strength Steel with Martensitic/Bainitic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Quanshun; Kitchen, Matthew; Patel, Vinay; Filleul, Martin; Owens, Dave

    We introduce a new strengthening heat treatment of a Ni-Cr-Mo-V alloyed spring steel by partial isothermal salt-bath and subsequent air-cooling and tempering. Detailed isothermal treatments were made at temperatures below or above the Ms point (230°C). The salt bath time was controlled between 10 and 80 minutes. Through the new treatment, the candidate steel developed ultrahigh tensile strength 2,100 MPa, yield strength 1,800 MPa, elongation 8-10 %, hardness 580-710 HV, and V-notch Charpy toughness 10-12 J. Optical and electron microscopic observations and X-ray diffraction revealed multi-phase microstructures of bainitic/martensitic ferrites, fine carbide precipitates and retained austenite. Carbon partitioning during the bainitic/martensitic transformation was investigated for its remarkable influence on the strengthening mechanism.

  7. Consitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih

    2008-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels combine high formability and high strength, which are generally opposing properties in materials. This property is a consequence of the martensitic phase transformation that takes place during deformation. This transformation is purely mechanically induced

  8. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated in the SINQ target irradiation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Dai, Y.; Kikuchi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Titanium-doped austenitic stainless steel (JPCA) and reduced activated ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) irradiated with high-energy protons and spallation neutrons were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. Subnanometer-sized (steel, the positron annihilation lifetime of the bubbles decreased with increasing irradiation dose and annealing temperature because the bubbles absorb additional He atoms. In the case of JPCA steel, the positron annihilation lifetime increased with increasing annealing temperature above 773 K, in which case the dissociation of complexes of vacancy clusters with He atoms and the growth of He bubbles was detected. He bubble size and density were also discussed.

  9. Evolution behavior of nanohardness after thermal-aging and hydrogen-charging on austenite and strain-induced martensite in pre-strained austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Chengshuang; Hong, Yuanjian; Zheng, Jinyang; Zhang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Nanoindentation has been used to study the effects of thermal-aging and hydrogen on the mechanical property of the metastable austenitic stainless steel. Thermal-aging at 473 K decreases the nanohardness of austenite, while it increases the nanohardness of strain-induced ɑ‧ martensite. Hydrogen-charging at 473 K increases the nanohardness of austenite, while it decreases the nanohardness of strain-induced ɑ‧ martensite. The opposite effect on austenite and ɑ‧ martensite is first found in the same pre-strained sample. This abnormal evolution behavior of hardness can be attributed to the interaction between dislocation and solute atoms (carbon and hydrogen). Carbon atoms are difficult to move and redistribute in austenite compared with ɑ‧ martensite. Therefore, the difference in the diffusivity of solute atoms between austenite and ɑ‧ martensite may result in the change of hardness.

  10. Thermally activated formation of martensite in Fe-C alloys and Fe-17%Cr-C stainless steels during heating from boiling nitrogen temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The thermally activated austenite-to-martensite transformation was investigated by magnetometry in three Fe-C alloys and in two 17%Cr stainless steels. After quenching to room temperature, samples were immersed in boiling nitrogen and martensite formation was followed during subsequent (re......)heating to room temperature. Different tests were performed applying heating rates from 0.5 K/min to 10 K/min. An additional test consisted in fast (re)heating the samples by immersion in water. Thermally activated martensite formation was demonstrated for all investigated materials by a heating rate......-dependent transformation curve. Moreover, magnetometry showed that the heating rate had an influence on the fraction of martensite formed during sub-zero Celsius treatment. The activation energy for thermally activated martensite formation was quantified in the range 11‒21 kJ/mol by a Kissinger-like method....

  11. Ultrahigh Charpy impact toughness (~450J) achieved in high strength ferrite/martensite laminated steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenquan; Zhang, Mingda; Huang, Chongxiang; Xiao, Shuyang; Dong, Han; Weng, Yuqing

    2017-02-01

    Strength and toughness are a couple of paradox as similar as strength-ductility trade-off in homogenous materials, body-centered-cubic steels in particular. Here we report a simple way to get ultrahigh toughness without sacrificing strength. By simple alloying design and hot rolling the 5Mn3Al steels in ferrite/austenite dual phase temperature region, we obtain a series of ferrite/martensite laminated steels that show up-to 400-450J Charpy V-notch impact energy combined with a tensile strength as high as 1.0-1.2 GPa at room temperature, which is nearly 3-5 times higher than that of conventional low alloy steels at similar strength level. This remarkably enhanced toughness is mainly attributed to the delamination between ferrite and martensite lamellae. The current finding gives us a promising way to produce high strength steel with ultrahigh impact toughness by simple alloying design and hot rolling in industry.

  12. Anti-Corrosion Performance of 1,3-BENZOTHIAZOLE on 410 Martensitic Stainless Steel in H2SO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loto, Roland Tolulope

    The corrosion inhibition effect of synthesized 1,3-benzothiazole at very low concentrations on 410 martensitic stainless steel in 3MH2SO4 solution was studied through potentiodynamic polarization and weight loss measurements. The observation showed that the organic compound performed effectively with average inhibition efficiencies of 94% and 98% at the concentrations studied from both electrochemical methods due to the inhibition action of protonated inhibitor molecules in the acid solution. The amine and aromatics functional groups of the molecules active in the corrosion inhibition reaction were exposed from Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. Thermodynamic calculations showed cationic adsorption to be chemisorption adsorption, obeying the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Images from optical microscopy showed an improved morphology in comparison to images from corroded stainless steel. Severe surface deterioration and macro-pits were observed in the uninhibited samples.

  13. characterization and weldability of plasma nitrided P/M martensitic stainless steel X 20 Cr Ni 172

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Karim, R.A.; El-demellawy, M.A; Waheed, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    stainless steels are widely used in nuclear applications, as a construction material. in these applications stainless steels suffer from corrosion degradation due severe environment and operating conditions. improving the engineering properties of such material prolong the service life time.in the present study, powder metallurgy technique namely plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) was used to produce martensitic steel DIN X 20 Cr Ni 172 with 0.5 % N. this step was followed by hot isostatic pressing process (HIP) . the effect of N on the weldability of this steel has been investigated . this included microstructure characterization, hardness evaluation and ferrite content measurements. the results showed that the presence of high nitrogen content in this steel resulted in a pore free structure with improved the hardness across the welding area. A single phase with few precipitates was detected on the grain boundaries in the heat affected zone. the results were supplemented by x-ray diffraction patterns and EDAX analysis

  14. Creep strength of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel Eurofer'97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Lancha, A.M.; Lapena, J.; Lindau, R.; Rieth, M.; Schirra, M.

    2005-01-01

    Creep rupture strength of tempered martensitic steel Eurofer'97 has been investigated. Different products form (plate and bar) have been tested in the temperature range from 450 deg. C to 650 deg. C at different loads. No significant differences in the creep rupture properties have been found between the studied product forms. The Eurofer'97 has shown adequate creep rupture strength levels at short creep rupture tests, similar to those of the F-82 H mod. steel. However, for long testing times (>9000 h) the results available up to now at 500 deg. C and 550 deg. C seem to indicate a change in the creep degradation mechanism

  15. Evaluation of creep rupture property of high strength ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehira, Akihiro; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Ukai, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1999-04-01

    High Strength Ferritic/Martensitic Steel (PNC-FMS : 11Cr-0.5Mo-2W,Nb,V), developed by JNC, is one of the candidate materials for the long-life core of large-scale fast breeder reactor. The material design base standard (tentative) of PNC-FMS was established and the creep rupture strength reduction factor in the standard was determined in 1992. This factor was based on only evaluation of decarburization effect on tensile strength after sodium exposure. In this study, creep rupture properties of PNC-FMS under out of pile sodium exposure and in pile were evaluated, using recent test results as well as previous ones. The evaluation results are summarized as follows : a. Decarburization rate constant of pressurized tubes under sodium exposure is identical with stress free specimens. b. In case of the same decarburization content under out of pile sodium exposure, creep strength tends to decrease more significantly than tensile strength. c. Creep strength under out of pile sodium exposure showed significant decrease in high temperature and long exposure time, but in pile (MOTA) creep strength showed little decrease. A new creep rupture strength reduction factor, which is the ratio of creep rupture strength under sodium exposure or in pile to in air, was made by correlating the creep rupture strength. This new method directly using the ratio of creep rupture strength was evaluated and discussed from the viewpoint of design applicability, compared with the conventional method based on decarburization effect on tensile strength. (author)

  16. On the cryogenic magnetic transition and martensitic transformation of the austenite phase of 7MoPLUS duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.H., E-mail: KHLO@umac.m [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2010-08-15

    The magnetic behaviour and martensitic transformation at cryogenic temperatures (down to 4 K) of the austenite phase of the duplex stainless steel (DSS), 7MoPLUS, were studied. As regards the prediction of Neel temperature, the empirical expressions for austenitic stainless steels are not applicable to the austenite phase of 7MoPLUS, although the composition of the austenite phase falls within the composition ranges within which the expressions were developed. Regarding the prediction of martensitic point Ms, the applicability of 'old' and recently developed expressions has been examined. The recently developed expressions, which take into account more alloying elements and their interactions, are not suitable for the austenite phase of 7MoPLUS. But for the 'old', simpler expressions, they seem to be valid in the sense that they all predict high stability of the austenite phase. Results obtained from 7MoPLUS were qualitatively the same as those obtained from another DSS, designated as 2205. Reasons for the applicability and inapplicability of these empirical expressions are suggested.

  17. Effect of precipitate on yield strength of ferritic/martensitic steel exposed to 650 .deg. C liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Ferritic/martensitic steels(FMS) which are used as one of cladding and structure materials in UCFR, have high creep strength at 600~650°C, low expansion coefficient, and dimensional stability with irradiation-induced void swelling in circumstance of fast neutrons compared to austenitic stainless steel. However, as exposed to high temperature liquid sodium during the design life time (30 to 60 years), the surface of FMS experienced Cr-depletion and decarburization by dissolution of components into sodium and formed oxidations by reacting with sodium. This changes chemical compositions of inter-surface and effects on behavior of precipitations. This change can cause a degradation of mechanical strength of structure material of UCFR. The research about FMS on effects of long term exposure in liquid sodium at 650 °C involve analysis of yield strength by change of microstructure, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening. It shows how this three parts occupy total yield strength respectively and change over time. In a specific procedure, the microstructure and the surface phenomenon of FMS (Gr. 92) that are exposed to liquid sodium at 650°C, 20 ppm oxygen and are aged in high pure Argon gas environment to express bulk have been investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). When specimens were exposed to 650 °C liquid sodium for 1583, 3095 hours and Ar-gas 1601, 2973 hours, mechanical properties of materials were analyzed quantitatively. After experiment, NaCrO{sub 2} oxidation was formed on the surface of Gr.92 at sodium environment. Also, change of microstructure, dissolution of elements, and nucleation and growth of precipitation was raised. During exposed to high temperature at sodium or Ar-gas, annealed lath structure as well as coarsening of tempered martensite structure affects reduction of mechanical properties. And dissolution of elements results in reduction of solid solution hardening. This

  18. Martensitic Transformation in Ultrafine-Grained Stainless Steel AISI 304L Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Werner Höppel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The monotonic and cyclic deformation behavior of ultrafine-grained metastable austenitic steel AISI 304L, produced by severe plastic deformation, was investigated. Under monotonic loading, the martensitic phase transformation in the ultrafine-grained state is strongly favored. Under cyclic loading, the martensitic transformation behavior is similar to the coarse-grained condition, but the cyclic stress response is three times larger for the ultrafine-grained condition.

  19. Modern high strength QT, TM and duplex-stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, P.; Luxenburger, G.; Porter, D.; Ericsson, C.

    2003-01-01

    Pressure vessels are commonly manufactured with normalised steel grades with a yield strength up to 355 MPa or with austenitic stainless steels when corrosion as to be considered. From three decades, modern steels with higher mechanical properties - up to yield strength of 960 Mpa - are available and largely used for other applications where weight saving is of major importance as per off-shore, bridges, cranes, shipbuilding, line pipes.. The paper presents these modern steel's families - TMCP (Thermo Mechanically Controlled Process), QT (Quenched and Tempered) and Duplex (austeno-ferritic) stainless - in comparison with the normalised and austenitic steel grades. The following aspects are presented: the main mechanical properties (tensile and Charpy) as per the requirements of the standards for pressure equipment; some examples of use of these modern steels in the industry are given; the limitations of the forming conditions are considered; the weldability aspects and welds properties are developed; the interest of the PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment) is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Effect of martensitic phase transformation on the hardening behavior and texture evolution in a 304L stainless steel under compression at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakmak, Ercan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Choo, Hahn, E-mail: hchoo@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The martensitic phase transformation behavior and its relations with the macroscopic hardening rate and the evolutions in the crystallographic texture of the constituent phases were studied for a 304L stainless steel that exhibits the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction was used to measure the evolutions of phase fractions and texture in terms of pole figures as a function of the applied compressive strain at the liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The phase transformation analyses show that the hcp-martensite phase fraction reaches a significant level of about 22 wt% at 15% applied strain and remains constant. The bcc-martensite phase fraction increases continuously with the deformation that correlates well with the macroscopic hardening behavior. Furthermore, the texture analyses show that transformation has dominant effect on the bcc-martensite texture evolution with little influence from subsequent plastic deformation at current testing conditions.

  1. Effect of martensitic phase transformation on the hardening behavior and texture evolution in a 304L stainless steel under compression at liquid nitrogen temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmak, Ercan; Vogel, Sven C.; Choo, Hahn

    2014-01-01

    The martensitic phase transformation behavior and its relations with the macroscopic hardening rate and the evolutions in the crystallographic texture of the constituent phases were studied for a 304L stainless steel that exhibits the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction was used to measure the evolutions of phase fractions and texture in terms of pole figures as a function of the applied compressive strain at the liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The phase transformation analyses show that the hcp-martensite phase fraction reaches a significant level of about 22 wt% at 15% applied strain and remains constant. The bcc-martensite phase fraction increases continuously with the deformation that correlates well with the macroscopic hardening behavior. Furthermore, the texture analyses show that transformation has dominant effect on the bcc-martensite texture evolution with little influence from subsequent plastic deformation at current testing conditions

  2. The influence of grain size on the strain-induced martensite formation in tensile straining of an austenitic 15Cr–9Mn–Ni–Cu stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisko, A.; Misra, R.D.K.; Talonen, J.; Karjalainen, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve understanding on the behavior of ultrafine-grained austenitic stainless steels during deformation, the influence of the austenite grain size and microstructure on the strain-induced martensite transformation was investigated in an austenitic 15Cr–9Mn–Ni–Cu (Type 204Cu) stainless steel. By different reversion treatments of the 60% cold-rolled sheet, varying grain sizes from ultrafine (0.5 μm), micron-scale (1.5 μm), fine (4 μm) to coarse (18 μm) were obtained. Some microstructures also contained a mixture of ultrafine or micron-scale and coarse initially cold-worked austenite grains. Samples were tested in tensile loading and deformation structures were analyzed after 2%, 10% and 20% engineering strains by means of martensite content measurements, scanning electron microscope together with a electron backscatter diffraction device and transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the martensite nucleation sites and the rate of transformation vary. In ultrafine grains strain-induced α′-martensite nucleates at grain boundaries and twins, whereas in coarser grains as well as in coarse-grained retained austenite, α′-martensite formation occurs at shear bands, sometimes via ε-martensite. The transformation rate of strain-induced α′-martensite decreases with decreasing grain size to 1.5 μm. However, the rate is fastest in the microstructure containing a mixture of ultrafine and retained cold-worked austenite grains. There the ultrafine grains transform quite readily to martensite similarly as the coarse retained austenite grains, where the previous cold-worked microstructure is still partly remaining

  3. Composition design of superhigh strength maraging stainless steels using a cluster model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition characteristics of maraging stainless steels were studied in the present work investigation using a cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The least solubility limit of high-temperature austenite to form martensite in basic Fe–Ni–Cr corresponds to the cluster formula [NiFe12]Cr3, where NiFe12 is a cuboctahedron centered by Ni and surrounded by 12 Fe atoms in FCC structure and Cr serves as glue atoms. A cluster formula [NiFe12](Cr2Ni with surplus Ni was then determined to ensure the second phase (Ni3M precipitation, based on which new multi-component alloys [(Ni,Cu16Fe192](Cr32(Ni,Mo,Ti,Nb,Al,V16 were designed. These alloys were prepared by copper mould suction casting method, then solid-solution treated at 1273 K for 1 h followed by water-quenching, and finally aged at 783 K for 3 h. The experimental results showed that the multi-element alloying results in Ni3M precipitation on the martensite, which enhances the strengths of alloys sharply after ageing treatment. Among them, the aged [(Cu4Ni12Fe192](Cr32(Ni8.5Mo2Ti2Nb0.5Al1V1 alloy (Fe74.91Ni8.82Cr11.62Mo1.34Ti0.67Nb0.32Al0.19V0.36Cu1.78 wt% has higher tensile strengths with YS=1456 MPa and UTS=1494 MPa. It also exhibits good corrosion-resistance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution.

  4. Modeling of the Austenite-Martensite Transformation in Stainless and TRIP Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Hilkhuijsen, P.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Zhang, S.-H.; Liu, X.-H.; Gheng, M.; Li, J.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of austenite to martensite is a dominant factor in the description of the constitutive behavior during forming of TRIP assisted steels. To predict this transformation different models are currently available. In this paper the transformation is regarded as a stress induced process

  5. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated in the SINQ target irradiation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K., E-mail: ksato@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Dai, Y. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kikuchi, K. [Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, Ibaraki University, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Titanium-doped austenitic stainless steel (JPCA) and reduced activated ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) irradiated with high-energy protons and spallation neutrons were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. Subnanometer-sized (<{approx}0.8 nm) helium bubbles, which cannot be observed by transmission electron microscopy, were detected by positron annihilation lifetime measurements for the first time. For the F82H steel, the positron annihilation lifetime of the bubbles decreased with increasing irradiation dose and annealing temperature because the bubbles absorb additional He atoms. In the case of JPCA steel, the positron annihilation lifetime increased with increasing annealing temperature above 773 K, in which case the dissociation of complexes of vacancy clusters with He atoms and the growth of He bubbles was detected. He bubble size and density were also discussed.

  6. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated in the SINQ target irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Dai, Y.; Kikuchi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-doped austenitic stainless steel (JPCA) and reduced activated ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) irradiated with high-energy protons and spallation neutrons were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. Subnanometer-sized (<∼0.8 nm) helium bubbles, which cannot be observed by transmission electron microscopy, were detected by positron annihilation lifetime measurements for the first time. For the F82H steel, the positron annihilation lifetime of the bubbles decreased with increasing irradiation dose and annealing temperature because the bubbles absorb additional He atoms. In the case of JPCA steel, the positron annihilation lifetime increased with increasing annealing temperature above 773 K, in which case the dissociation of complexes of vacancy clusters with He atoms and the growth of He bubbles was detected. He bubble size and density were also discussed.

  7. Effect of post weld heat treatments on the resistance to the hydrogen embrittlement of soft martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarabedian, Alfredo; Ovejero Garcia, Jose; Bilmes, P.; Llorente, C.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of external hydrogen on the tensile properties of an all weld sample of a soft martensitic stainless steel was studied. The material was tested in the as weld condition and after tempered conditions modifying the austenite content, and changing the quantity, type and distribution of precipitates. Hydrogen was introduced by cathodic charge or by immersion in an acid brine saturated whit 1 atm hydrogen sulphide, during the mechanical test. The as weld condition showed a good resistance in the hydrogen sulphide, were the tempered samples were embrittled. Under cathodic charge, all samples were susceptible to hydrogen damage. The embritting mechanisms were the same in both environments. When the austenite content, was below 10% the crack path is on the primary austenite grain boundary. At higher austenite content, the crack is transgranular. (author)

  8. Corrosion behaviour of dissimilar welds between martensitic stainless steel and carbon steel from secondary circuit of candu npp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, L.; Fulger, M.; Tunaru, M.; Velciu, L.; Lazar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion damages of welds occur in spite of the fact that the proper base metal and filler metal have been correctly selected, industry codes and standards have been followed and welds have been realized with full weld penetration and have proper shape and contour. It is not unusual to find that, although the base metal or alloy is resistant to corrosion in a particular environment, the welded counterpart is not resistant. In secondary circuit of a Nuclear Power Station there are some components which have dissimilar welds. Our experiments were performed in chloride environmental on two types of samples: non-welded (420 martensitic steel and 52.2k carbon steel) and dissimilar welds (dissimilar metal welds: joints beetween 420 martensitic steel and 52.2k carbon steel). To evaluate corrosion susceptibility of dissimilar welds was used electrochemical method (potentiodynamic method) and metallography microscopy (microstructural analysis). The present paper follows the localized corrosion behaviour of dissimilar welds between austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel in solutions containing chloride ions. We have been evaluated the corrosion rates of samples (welded and non-welded) by electrochemically. (authors)

  9. Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Friction Stir Welding High Nitrogen Martensitic Stainless Steel 30Cr15Mo1N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Geng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen martensitic stainless steel 30Cr15Mo1N plates were successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW at a tool rotation speed of 300 rpm with a welding speed of 100 mm/min, using W-Re tool. The sound joint with no significant nitrogen loss was successfully produced. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of an FSW joint were investigated. The results suggest that the grain size of the stir zone (SZ is larger than the base metal (BM and is much larger the case in SZ-top. Some carbides and nitrides rich in chromium were found in BM while not observed in SZ. The martensitic phase in SZ could transform to austenite phase during the FSW process and the higher peak temperature, the greater degree of transformation. The hardness of SZ is significantly lower than that of the BM. An abrupt change of hardness defined as hard zone (HZ was found in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ on the advancing side (AS, and the HZ is attributed to a combination result of temperature, deformation, and material flow behavior. The corrosion resistance of SZ is superior to that of BM, which can be attributed to less precipitation and lower angle boundaries (LABs. The corrosion resistance of SZ-bottom is slight higher than that of SZ-top because of the finer grained structure.

  10. Study on the crystallographic orientation relationship and formation mechanism of reversed austenite in economical Cr12 super martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Dong; Li, Shaohong; Li, Jun; Jiang, Wen; Su, Jie; Zhao, Kunyu

    2015-01-01

    Effect of carbides and crystallographic orientation relationship on the formation mechanism of reversed austenite of economical Cr12 super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) has been investigated mainly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results indicate that the M_2_3C_6 precipitation and the formation of the reversed austenite have the interaction effect during tempering process in SMSS. The reversed austenite forms intensively at the sub-block boundary and the lath boundary within a misorientation range of 0–60°. M_2_3C_6 has the same crystallographic orientation relationship with reversed austenite. There are two different kinds of formation modes for reversed austenite. One is a nondiffusional shear reversion; the other is a diffusion transformation. Both are strictly limited by crystallographic orientation relationship. The austenite variants are limited to two kinds within one packet and five kinds within one prior austenite grain. - Highlights: • Reversed austenite forms at martensite boundaries with misorientation of 0–60° • M_2_3C_6 precipitation and reversed austenite formation have the interaction effect. • Two austenite variants with different orientations can be formed inside a packet. • Two reversed austenite formation modes: shear reversion; diffusion transformation

  11. Study on the crystallographic orientation relationship and formation mechanism of reversed austenite in economical Cr12 super martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Dong; Li, Shaohong; Li, Jun; Jiang, Wen [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Su, Jie [Institute for Structural Materials, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Kunyu, E-mail: kyzhaoy@sina.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Effect of carbides and crystallographic orientation relationship on the formation mechanism of reversed austenite of economical Cr12 super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) has been investigated mainly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results indicate that the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitation and the formation of the reversed austenite have the interaction effect during tempering process in SMSS. The reversed austenite forms intensively at the sub-block boundary and the lath boundary within a misorientation range of 0–60°. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} has the same crystallographic orientation relationship with reversed austenite. There are two different kinds of formation modes for reversed austenite. One is a nondiffusional shear reversion; the other is a diffusion transformation. Both are strictly limited by crystallographic orientation relationship. The austenite variants are limited to two kinds within one packet and five kinds within one prior austenite grain. - Highlights: • Reversed austenite forms at martensite boundaries with misorientation of 0–60° • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitation and reversed austenite formation have the interaction effect. • Two austenite variants with different orientations can be formed inside a packet. • Two reversed austenite formation modes: shear reversion; diffusion transformation.

  12. Influence of processing parameters on the characteristics of surface layers of low temperature plasma nitrocarburized AISI 630 martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Insup

    2017-11-01

    Plasma nitrocarburizing was performed on solution-treated AISI 630 martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel samples with a gas mixture of H2, N2, and CH4 with changing temperature, discharge voltage and amount of CH4. When nitrocarburized with increasing temperature from 380 °C to 430 °C at fixed 25% N2 and 6% CH4, the thickness of expanded martensite (α'N) layer and surface hardness increased up to 10 μm and 1323 HV0.05, respectively but the corrosion resistance decreased. Though the increase of discharge voltage from 400 V to 600 V increased α'N layer thickness and surface hardness (up to 13 μm and 1491 HV0.05, respectively), the treated samples still showed very poor corrosion behavior. Thus, to further improve the corrosion resistance, the influence of variation of the amount of CH4 in the nitrocarburizing process was investigated. Increasing the CH4 percentage aided higher corrosion resistance, although it decreased the α'N layer thickness. The most appropriate conditions for moderate α'N layer thickness, high surface hardness and better corrosion resistance than the solution-treated bare sample were established, which is plasma nitrocarburizing at 400 °C with 400 V discharge voltage and containing 25% N2 and 4% CH4.

  13. Phase transformation system of austenitic stainless steels obtained by permanent compressive strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: mitsuhiro.okayasu@utoronto.ca; Tomida, Sai

    2017-01-27

    In order to understand more completely the formation of strain-induced martensite, phase structures were investigated both before and after plastic deformation, using austenitic stainless steels of various chemical compositions (carbon C=0.007–0.04 mass% and molybdenum Mo=0–2.10 mass%) and varying pre-strain levels (0–30%). Although the stainless steels consisted mainly of γ austenite, two martensite structures were generated following plastic deformation, comprising ε and α′ martensite. The martensitic structures were obtained in the twin deformation and slip bands. The severity of martensite formation (ε and α′) increased with increasing C content. It was found that α′ martensite was formed mainly in austenitic stainless steel lacking Mo, whereas a high Mo content led to a strong ε martensite structure, i.e. a weak α′ martensite. The formation of α′ martensite occurred from γ austenite via ε martensite, and was related to the slip deformation. Molybdenum in austenitic stainless steel had high slip resistance (or weak stress-induced martensite transformation), because of the stacking fault energy of the stainless steel affecting the austenite stability. This resulted in the creation of weak α′ martensite. Models of the martensitic transformations γ (fcc)→ε (hcp)→α′ (bcc) were proposed on both the microscopic and nanoscopic scales. The α′ martensite content of austenitic stainless steel led to high tensile strength; conversely, ε martensite had a weak effect on the mechanical strength. The influence of martensitic formation on the mechanical properties was evaluated quantitatively by statistical analysis.

  14. Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking of Modern Ultra-High Strength Martensitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioszak, Greger L.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    2017-09-01

    Martensitic steels (Aermet®100, Ferrium®M54™, Ferrium®S53®, and experimental CrNiMoWV at ultra-high yield strength of 1550 to 1725 MPa) similarly resist hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) in aqueous NaCl. Cracking is transgranular, ascribed to increased steel purity and rare earth addition compared to intergranular HEAC in highly susceptible 300M. Nano-scale precipitates ((Mo,Cr)2C and (W,V)C) reduce H diffusivity and the K-independent Stage II growth rate by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude compared to 300M. However, threshold K TH is similarly low (8 to 15 MPa√m) for each steel at highly cathodic and open circuit potentials. Transgranular HEAC likely occurs along martensite packet and {110}α'-block interfaces, speculatively governed by localized plasticity and H decohesion. Martensitic transformation produces coincident site lattice interfaces; however, a connected random boundary network persists in 3D to negate interface engineering. The modern steels are near-immune to HEAC when mildly cathodically polarized, attributed to minimal crack tip H production and uptake. Neither reduced Co and Ni in M54 and CrNiMoWV nor increased Cr in S53 broadly degrade HEAC resistance compared to baseline AM100. The latter suggests that crack passivity dominates acidification to widen the polarization window for HEAC resistance. Decohesion models predict the applied potential dependencies of K TH and d a/d t II with a single-adjustable parameter, affirming the importance of steel purity and trap sensitive H diffusivity.

  15. Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Morris; Voisin, Thomas; McKeown, Joseph T.; Ye, Jianchao; Calta, Nicholas P.; Li, Zan; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Wen; Roehling, Tien Tran; Ott, Ryan T.; Santala, Melissa K.; Depond, Philip J.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Hamza, Alex V.; Zhu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Many traditional approaches for strengthening steels typically come at the expense of useful ductility, a dilemma known as strength-ductility trade-off. New metallurgical processing might offer the possibility of overcoming this. Here we report that austenitic 316L stainless steels additively manufactured via a laser powder-bed-fusion technique exhibit a combination of yield strength and tensile ductility that surpasses that of conventional 316L steels. High strength is attributed to solidification-enabled cellular structures, low-angle grain boundaries, and dislocations formed during manufacturing, while high uniform elongation correlates to a steady and progressive work-hardening mechanism regulated by a hierarchically heterogeneous microstructure, with length scales spanning nearly six orders of magnitude. In addition, solute segregation along cellular walls and low-angle grain boundaries can enhance dislocation pinning and promote twinning. This work demonstrates the potential of additive manufacturing to create alloys with unique microstructures and high performance for structural applications.

  16. Transformation of deformation martensite into austenite in stainless steels at various heating rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gojkhenberg, Yu.N.; Shtejnberg, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    Under isothermal conditions and with continuous preheating at defferent rates, the inverse transformation of deformation martensite that is obtained through reductions to small, medium and great degrees, has been studied. It has been established that depending on the preheat rate, the temperature of the end α → ν of rebuilding varies according to a curve having a maximum. The ascending branch of that curve is connected with the diffusion-controlled shear transformation, whereas the descending branch with the transition to the martensite reaction of austenite formation. As the deformation degree increases, the temperature of the end of the inverse transformation decreases. As a result, recrystallization of austenite proceeds only after completing α → ν transition, when heating the steels deformed to the medium degree at rates of at least 25 deg/sec and after high reductions at rates of at least 0.8 deg/sec

  17. Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on the Strength Properties of Heat Resistant Stainless Steel (07X16H6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, D. S.; Bhat, M. R.; Pavan, V. K.; Mahishi, Chandan

    2017-09-01

    Cryogenic treatment on metals is a well known technology where the materials are exposed to cryogenic temperature for prolonged time duration. The process involves three stages viz. slow cooling, holding at cryogenic temperature and warming to room temperature. During this process, hard and micro sized carbide particles are released within the steel material. In addition, soft and unconverted austenite of steel changes to strong martensite structure. These combined effects increase the strength and hardness of the cryotreated steel. In this experimental study, the effects of cryogenic treatment, austenitising and tempering on the mechanical properties of stainless steel (07X16H6) have been carried. After determining the strength properties of the original material, the specimens were cryotreated at 98K for 24 hours in a specially developed cryotreatment system. The effects of austenitising prior to cryogenic treatment and tempering post cryotreatment on the mechanical properties of steel samples have been experimentally determined and analysed.

  18. Ultrahigh strength martensite-austenite dual-phase steels with ultrafine structure: The response to indentation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Venkatsurya, P. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Wu, K.M. [International Research Institute for Steel Technolgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Karjalainen, L.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2013-01-10

    In medium to high carbon steels, characterized by martensite-austenite microstructure processed by quenching and partitioning process, martensite potentially provides high strength, while austenite provides work hardening [Fu, Wu, and Misra, DOI: 10.1179/1743284712/068]. Given the significant interest in these steels in the steel community, the paper reports for the first time the nanoscale deformation experiments and accompanying microstructural evolution to obtain micromechanical insights into the deformation behavior of ultrahigh strength-high ductility dual-phase steels with significant retained austenite fraction of {approx}0.35. During deformation experiments with nanoindenter, dislocations were distributed on several slip systems, whereas strain-induced twinned martensite and twinning were the deformation mechanisms in carbon-enriched and thermally stabilized retained austenite. Furthermore, ultrafine dual-phase steels exhibited high strain rate sensitivity.

  19. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  20. Modern high strength QT, TM and duplex-stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, P. [Industeel (France); Luxenburger, G. [Aktiengesellschaft der Dillinger Huettenwerke, Dillingen/Saar (Germany); Porter, D. [Rautaruukki (Finland); Ericsson, C. [Avesta Polarit (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Pressure vessels are commonly manufactured with normalised steel grades with a yield strength up to 355 MPa or with austenitic stainless steels when corrosion as to be considered. From three decades, modern steels with higher mechanical properties - up to yield strength of 960 Mpa - are available and largely used for other applications where weight saving is of major importance as per off-shore, bridges, cranes, shipbuilding, line pipes.. The paper presents these modern steel's families - TMCP (Thermo Mechanically Controlled Process), QT (Quenched and Tempered) and Duplex (austeno-ferritic) stainless - in comparison with the normalised and austenitic steel grades. The following aspects are presented: the main mechanical properties (tensile and Charpy) as per the requirements of the standards for pressure equipment; some examples of use of these modern steels in the industry are given; the limitations of the forming conditions are considered; the weldability aspects and welds properties are developed; the interest of the PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment) is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Effect of protective gas on the properties of the pure support of super-martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappa, Sebastian; Svoboda, Hernan G; Ramini de Rissone, N.Mabel; Surian, Estela S; De Vedia, Luis A

    2006-01-01

    This work studied the effect of protective gas on the operability, mechanical properties and microstructure of the super-martensitic stainless pure support metal, deposited with a metal-cored tubular wire, using the semi-automatic welding process under gaseous protection. Three pure support test tubes were welded following ANSI/AWS A5.22-95, with a 1.2 mm diameter tubular wire using three gaseous mixtures as protection: 70 % Ar-30 % He, 98 % Ar-2 % Co 2 and 82 % Ar-18 % Co 2 . The welding position was by hand with an average thermal support of 1.1 kJ/mm. Transverse cuts were extracted from each welded coupon for metallography and chemical composition, 1 'Minitrac' traction test piece and about 20 test pieces for a V-Charpy impact trial. The microstructure was defined with optic and scanning electronic microscopes and with X-ray diffraction. Micro hardness profiles were determined as well as the properties in traction and on impact. With reference to operability, the number of spatters increased noticeably with an increased content of Co 2 in the protective mixture. The content of Mn, Si and Mo dropped after increasing the gas oxidation potential. Regarding the mechanical properties small variations in the flow limit, the resistance to traction and the hardness for the different gaseous mixtures used were observed. A slight drop in the absorbed energy, with an increase in the Co2 content in the protective gas was noted in the V-Charpy impact tests carried out at 20, 0, -20, -40 and -60 o C. Expressions were obtained that correlated the measured properties with the oxidation potential of the gas for these materials. The microstructure consists of martensite, ferrite and retained austenite. Significant variations were not observed in the ferrite and austenite fractions for the different gases that were used (CW)

  2. Microstructural examination of 12% Cr martensitic stainless steel after irradiation at elevated temperatures in FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chen-Yih; Gelles, D.S.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1986-06-01

    A remelted 12% Cr martensitic stainless steel (HT-9) has been examined by transmission electron microscopy before and after irradiation in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The irradiation temperatures were 365,420, 520, and 600 degree C with the fluences as high as 7.3 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) or 34 dpa. The extracted precipitates from each specimen were identified using x-ray microanalysis and selected area diffraction. The precipitates in the unirradiated condition were primarily M 23 C 6 carbides, which formed at martensite lath and prior austenite grain boundaries. During irradiation at elevated temperatures, small amounts of other phases formed, which were tentatively identified as the chromium-rich α', the nickel-silicon rich G-phase, and the intermetallic Chi phase. Irradiation-induced voids were observed only in specimens irradiated at 420 degree C to a dose of 34 dpa; no voids were found for specimens irradiated at 365, 520, and 600 degree C (∼11, ∼34, and ∼34 dpa). These results are not in agreement with previous experiments in that voids have not been reported in this alloy at relatively high fluence level (∼67 dpa) following irradiation in another fast-spectrum reactor (EBR.II). This is, however, the first observation following FFTF irradiation. The present results indicate that cavities can form in HT-9 at modest fluence levels even without significant generation of helium. Hence, the cavity formation in this class of ferritic alloys is not simply caused by helium generation but rather more complex mechanisms. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Multiscale simulation of yield strength in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chen Chong; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zhao, Ji Jun [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2017-04-15

    One of the important requirements for the application of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel is to retain proper mechanical properties under irradiation and high-temperature conditions. To simulate the yield strength and stress-strain curve of steels during high-temperature and irradiation conditions, a multiscale simulation method consisting of both microstructure and strengthening simulations was established. The simulation results of microstructure parameters were added to a superposition strengthening model, which consisted of constitutive models of different strengthening methods. Based on the simulation results, the strength contribution for different strengthening methods at both room temperature and high-temperature conditions was analyzed. The simulation results of the yield strength in irradiation and high-temperature conditions were mainly consistent with the experimental results. The optimal application field of this multiscale model was 9Cr series (7–9 wt.%Cr) RAFM steels in a condition characterized by 0.1–5 dpa (or 0 dpa) and a temperature range of 25–500°C.

  4. Austenite Formation from Martensite in a 13Cr6Ni2Mo Supermartensitic Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojack, A.; Zhao, L.; Morris, P.F.; Sietsma, J.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of austenitization treatment of a 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel (X2CrNiMoV13-5-2) on austenite formation during reheating and on the fraction of austenite retained after tempering treatment is measured and analyzed. The results show the formation of austenite in two

  5. Microstructural characterization of AISI 431 martensitic stainless steel laser-deposited coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmati, I.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    High cooling rates during laser cladding of stainless steels may alter the microstructure and phase constitution of the claddings and consequently change their functional properties. In this research, solidification structures and solid state phase transformation products in single and multi layer

  6. Fracture toughness of the IEA heat of F82H ferritic/martensitic stainless steel as a function of loading mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huaxin; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States); Hirth, J.P. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness tests were performed for the IEA heat of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic stainless steel F82H at ambient temperature in order to provide comparison with previous measurements on a small heat given a different heat treatment. The results showed that heat to heat variations and heat treatment had negligible consequences on Mode I fracture toughness, but behavior during mixed-mode testing showed unexpected instabilities.

  7. Nucleation and evolution of strain-induced martensitic (b.c.c.) embryos and substructure in stainless steel: a transmission electron microscope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudhammer, K.P.; Hecker, S.S.; Murr, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    The deformation of type 304 stainless steel produces a preponderance of strain-induced /chi/ (b.c.c.) martensite, which nucleates as stable embryos at micro-shear band or twin-fault intersections as proposed by Olson and Cohen. The two intersecting micro-shear bands must have a specific defect (fault-displacement) structure, and for stable martensite embryos to form requires a minimal micro-shear band thickness ranging from 50-70 A. The critical nature of nucleation is influenced by the local temperature and strain. The structure, geometry, and morphology of strain-induced martensite embryos is essentially invariant regardless of the strain rate, strain state or temperature. Larger volume fractions of martensite evolve at large strains (greater than or equal to 20%) as a result of embryo coalescence to produce a blocky-type morphology. Martensite embryos and coalesced volume elements of /chi/ are frequently characterized by an irregular non-homogeneous distribution of smaller b.c.c. regimes which result from the irregular satisfaction of the necessary and specific fault-displacement requirements within a larger intersection volume

  8. Effect of heavy tempering on microstructure and yield strength of 28CrMo48VTiB martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Gu, Shunjie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Huibin; Wang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Fucheng

    2018-02-01

    The 28CrMo48VTiB martensitic steel for sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance oil country tubular goods (OCTG) of C110 grade was thermally processed through quenching at 890 °C and tempering at 600 °C-720 °C for 30-90 min. The microstructures of all samples were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). Also, the tensile properties were measured. The results indicated that the yield strength (YS) decreased as both the tempering temperature and duration increased, due to the coarsening of martensitic packet/block/lath structures, the reduction of dislocation density, as well as the increase of both the volume fraction and average diameter of the precipitates. The martensitic lath width was the key microstructural parameter controlling the YS of this heavily-tempered martensitic steel, whereas the corresponding relationship was in accordance with the Langford-Cohen model. Furthermore, the martensitic structure boundary and the solid solution strengthening were the two most significant factors dominating the YS, in comparison with the dislocation and precipitation strengthening.

  9. Effect of implanted helium on tensile properties and hardness of 9% Cr martensitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, P.; Henry, J.; Chen, J.; Brachet, J.-C.

    2003-05-01

    Hundred micrometer thick specimens of 9% Cr martensitic steels EM10 and T91 were homogeneously implanted with He 4 to concentrations up to 0.5 at.% at temperatures from 150 to 550 °C. The specimens were tensile tested at room temperature and at the respective implantation temperatures. Subsequently the fracture surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and some of the specimens were examined in an instrumented hardness tester. The implanted helium caused hardening and embrittlement which both increased with increasing helium content and with decreasing implantation temperature. Fracture surfaces showed intergranular brittle appearance with virtually no necking at the highest implantation doses, when implanted below 250 °C. The present tensile results can be scaled to tensile data after irradiation in spallation sources on the basis of helium content but not on displacement damage. An interpretation of this finding by microstructural examination is given in a companion paper [J. Nucl. Mater., these Proceedings].

  10. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of 13 Wt Pct Cr-Type Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Si-Yuan; Yao, Ke-Fu; Chen, Yun-Bo; Wang, Miao-Hui; Ge, Xue-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and the electrochemical properties of a typical corrosion-resistant plastic mold steel in Cl--containing solution were studied in this research. Through X-ray diffraction patterns, SEM and TEM analysis, it was found that the sequence of the precipitates in the steels tempered at 573 K, 773 K, and 923 K (300 °C, 500 °C, and 650 °C) was θ-M3C carbides, nano-sized Cr-rich M23C6 carbides, and micro/submicron-sized Cr-rich M23C6 carbides, respectively. The results of the electrochemical experiments showed that the pitting potential of the as-quenched martensitic stainless steels increased with the austenitizing temperature. However, the corrosion resistance of the steels would decreased after tempering, especially when tempered at 773 K (500 °C), no passivation regime could be found in the polarization curve of the MSSs and no effective passive film could be formed on the steels in Cl--containing environments. The present results suggested that the temperature around 773 K (500 °C) should be avoided for tempering process of MSS used as plastic molds.

  11. Experimental design approach to the process parameter optimization for laser welding of martensitic stainless steels in a constrained overlap configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. M. A.; Romoli, L.; Fiaschi, M.; Dini, G.; Sarri, F.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental design approach to process parameter optimization for the laser welding of martensitic AISI 416 and AISI 440FSe stainless steels in a constrained overlap configuration in which outer shell was 0.55 mm thick. To determine the optimal laser-welding parameters, a set of mathematical models were developed relating welding parameters to each of the weld characteristics. These were validated both statistically and experimentally. The quality criteria set for the weld to determine optimal parameters were the minimization of weld width and the maximization of weld penetration depth, resistance length and shearing force. Laser power and welding speed in the range 855-930 W and 4.50-4.65 m/min, respectively, with a fiber diameter of 300 μm were identified as the optimal set of process parameters. However, the laser power and welding speed can be reduced to 800-840 W and increased to 4.75-5.37 m/min, respectively, to obtain stronger and better welds.

  12. Improvement of impact toughness by modified hot working and heat treatment in 13%Cr martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivatsa, Kulkarni, E-mail: srivatsa.kulkarni@kcssl.com; Srinivas, Perla; Balachandran, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2016-11-20

    Improvement of the general mechanical properties and in particular sub-zero impact toughness in a 0.2%C-13%Cr martensitic stainless steel has been explored by varying the hot deformation and heat treatment conditions. The deformation conditions include hot rolling an ingot in one case and cogging the ingot to a semis followed by hot rolling in another case. The bars made from both routes were subjected to a single hardening heat treatment at 980 °C and 1040 °C oil quenched and a double hardening heat treatment at 1040 °C followed by 980 °C oil quenched. The hardened steels were subjected to a standard two stage tempering at 710 °C followed by 680 °C. The impact toughness was found to be doubled in the cogged and rolled steel in double hardened condition. Other processing conditions show varying impact toughness levels. The toughness observed was correlated to the grain size and the carbide distribution in the matrix and the fractography features.

  13. Cyclic deformation behavior and microstructural changes of 12Cr-WMoV martensitic stainless steel at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, X.L.; Yang, G.X.; Zhou, S.L.; Fan, H.; Yang, S.S.; Zhu, J.W.; Liu, Y.N.

    2008-01-01

    Strain-controlled uniaxial push-pull low-cycle fatigue tests were performed on 12Cr-WMoV martensitic stainless steel at room temperature and 600 deg. C. Specimens were tested at total strain amplitudes of 1.5% and 0.8% with a constant strain rate of 0.004 s -1 . The microstructures of the specimens subjected to different cycles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cyclic softening was observed at room temperature and 600 deg. C. TEM investigations revealed that cellular structures of dislocations were formed in the fatigued specimens at both room and elevated temperatures. Dynamic recovery has a very significant effect on the dislocation structure of specimens tested at elevated temperature. The thickness and density of the dislocation cell walls formed in specimens cycled at 600 deg. C are less than that at room temperature. Cellular dislocation structures formed during cycling are annihilated in the specimens subjected to 1 h annealing at 600 deg. C

  14. Tribological behavior of 440C martensitic stainless steel from -184 C to 750 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifka, A. J.; Compos, R.; Morgan, T. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1992-01-01

    Characterization of the coefficient of friction and wear rate of 440C stainless steel is needed to understand the effects of frictional heating in the bearings of the High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The coefficient of friction and wear rate have been measured over a range of temperature varying from liquid oxygen temperature (-184 C) to 750 C. The normal load has also been varied resulting in a variation of Hertzian stress from 0.915 to 3.660 GPa while the surface velocity has been varied from 0.5 to 2.0 m/s.

  15. Influence of martensitic phase in abrasion behaviour of stainless steel 304 L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzante, J.; Alvarez, P.; Hey, A.; Gestido, G.D.; Vosen, J.H.; Fernandez, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Abrasion behaviour is studied in commercial stainless steels of different class compositions by standard. The work achieved guieds in structural analysis of superficial coat formed and its relation with abrasion variables, load and velocity. The abrasion is made in an equipment LF WK of high velocity with friction powers, abrasion velocity and temperature variation registered on the tested piece. The abrasion zone is studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The deformed superficial zone nature is studied relationing its microstructure with profile corresponding of microhardness. (C.M.C.T.R.) [pt

  16. High Cycle Fatigue of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Fargas Ribas, Gemma; Zapata Dederle, Ana Cristina; Anglada Gomila, Marcos Juan; Mateo García, Antonio Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels are currently used in applications where severe forming operations are required, such as automotive bodies, due to its excellent ductility. They are also gaining interest for its combination of high strength and formability after forming. The biggest disadvantage is the difficulty to predict the mechanical response, which depends heavily on the amount of martensite formed. The martensitic transformation in metastable stainless steels can b...

  17. Evaluation of Electrochemical Characteristics on Graphene Coated Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels for Metallic Bipolar Plates in PEMFC Fabricated with Hydrazine Reduction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seong-Yun; Lee, Jae-Bong [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Graphene was coated on austenitic and martensitic stainless steels to simulate the metallic bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and was reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a hydrazine process. rGO was confirmed by FE-SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) between the bipolar plate and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) was measured to confirm the electrical conductivity. Both ICR and corrosion current density decreased on graphene coated stainless steels. Corrosion resistance was also improved with immersion time in cathodic environments and satisfied the criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE), USA. The total concentrations of metal ions dissolved from graphene coated stainless steels were reduced. Furthermore hydrophobicity was improved by increasing the contact angle.

  18. Shielding Gas and Heat Input Effects on the Mechanical and Metallurgical Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding of Super Martensitic Stainless Steel (12Cr5Ni2Mo) Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, T.; Prabhakar, M.; Sathiya, P.

    This paper deals with the effects of shielding gas mixtures (100% CO2, 100% Ar and 80 % Ar + 20% CO2) and heat input (3.00, 3.65 and 4.33kJ/mm) on the mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of AISI 410S (American Iron and Steel Institute) super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) by gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. AISI 410S SMSS with 1.2mm diameter of a 410 filler wire was used in this study. A detailed microstructural analysis of the weld region as well as the mechanical properties (impact, microhardness and tensile tests at room temperature and 800∘C) was carried out. The tensile and impact fracture surfaces were further analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). 100% Ar shielded welds have a higher amount of δ ferrite content and due to this fact the tensile strength of the joints is superior to the other two shielded welds.

  19. Influence of low-temperature nitriding on the strain-induced martensite and laser-quenched austenite in a magnetic encoder made from 304L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovšek, Vojteh; Godec, Matjaž; Kogej, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of producing a magnetic encoder by an innovative process. Instead of turning grooves in the encoder bar for precise positioning, we incorporated the information in 304L stainless steel by transforming the austenite to martensite after bar extrusion in liquid nitrogen and marking it with a laser, which caused a local transformation of martensite back into austenite. 304L has an excellent corrosion resistance, but a low hardness and poor wear resistance, which limits its range of applications. However, nitriding is a very promising way to enhance the mechanical and magnetic properties. After low-temperature nitriding at 400 °C it is clear that both ε- and α′-martensite are present in the deformed microstructure, indicating the simultaneous stress-induced and strain-induced transformations of the austenite. The effects of a laser surface treatment and the consequent appearance of a non-magnetic phase due to the α′ → γ transformation were investigated. The EDS maps show a high concentration of nitrogen in the alternating hard surface layers of γN and α′N (expanded austenite and martensite), but no significantly higher concentration of chromium or iron was detected. The high surface hardness of this nitride layer will lead to steels and encoders with better wear and corrosion resistance. PMID:27492862

  20. The Potential of Self-Tempered Martensite and Bainite in Improving the Fatigue Strength of Thermomechanically Processed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupp Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to a two-stage hardening and tempering process, the definition of optimized cooling routes after hot working of low-alloy Cr steel allows the adjustments of high-strength microstructures with a sufficient degree of ductility at the same time without any additional heat-treatment. While compressed air cooling after hot forging of micro-alloyed steel grades leads to the formation of lower bainite with finedispersed cementite platelets, quenching by water spray down to the martensite start temperature results in the formation of martensite, that is self-tempered during the subsequent slow-cooling in air. The precipitation of nano-sized cementite precipitates result in superior mechanical properties with respect to impact and tensile testing. Cyclic deformation and crack propagation tests being carried out using resonance testing (100Hz and ultrasonic fatigue testing (20kHz systems revealed a pronounced increase in fatigue strength by about 150MPa of the self-tempered martensite condition as compared to the bainitic modification. For the latter one, a steady decrease of the fatigue strength is observed rather than the existence of a real fatigue limit.

  1. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Hardness of 17Cr-0.17N-0.43C-1.7 Mo Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, S. Chenna; Gangwar, Narendra Kumar; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; George, Koshy M.

    2015-04-01

    The microstructure and hardness of a nitrogen-containing martensitic stainless steel were investigated as a function of heat treatment using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, amount of retained austenite, and hardness measurement. The steel was subjected to three heat treatments: hardening, cryo treatment, and tempering. The hardness of the steel in different heat-treated conditions ranged within 446-620 HV. The constituents of microstructure in hardened condition were lath martensite, retained austenite, M23C6, M7C3, MC carbides, and M(C,N) carbonitrides. Upon tempering at 500 °C, two new phases have precipitated: fine spherical Mo2C carbides and needle-shaped Cr2N particles.

  2. Mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness of a ferritic/martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huaxin; Jones, R.H.; Gelles, D.S.; Hirth, J.P.

    1993-10-01

    The critical J-integrals of mode I (J IC ), mixed-mode I/III (J MC ), and mode III (J IIIC ) were examined for a ferritic stainless steel (F-82H) at ambient temperature. A determination of J MC was made using modified compact-tension specimens. Different ratios of tension/shear stress were achieved by varying the principal axis of the crack plane between 0 and 55 degrees from the load line. Results showed that J MC and tearing modulus (T M ) values varied with the crack angles and were lower than their mode I and mode III counterparts. Both the minimum J MC and T M values occurred at a crack angle between 40 and 50 degrees, where the load ratio of σ i /σ iii was 1.2 to 0.84. The J min was 240 Kj/M 2 , and ratios of J IC /J min and J IIIC /J min were 2.1 and 1.9, respectively. The morphology of fracture surfaces was consistent with the change of J MC and T M values. While the upper shelf-fracture toughness of F-82H depends on loading mode, the J min remains very high. Other important considerations include the effect of mixed-mode loading on the DBT temperature, and effects of hydrogen and irradiation on J min

  3. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malau, Viktor, E-mail: malau@ugm.ac.id; Ilman, Mochammad Noer, E-mail: noer-ilman@yahoo.com; Iswanto, Priyo Tri, E-mail: priyatri@yahoo.com; Jatisukamto, Gaguk, E-mail: gagukjtsk@yahoo.co.id [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten thin film deposited on surface of AISI 410 steel has been performed. Tungsten thin film produced by dc magnetron sputtering method was deposited on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel substrates, and then the nitrogen ions were implanted on tungsten thin film. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of implantation deposition time on surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of nitrogen implanted on tungsten film. Magnetron sputtering process was performed by using plasma gas of argon (Ar) to bombardier tungsten target (W) in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 7.6 x 10{sup −2} torr, a voltage of 300 V, a sputter current of 80 mA for sputtered time of 10 minutes. Nitrogen implantation on tungsten film was done with an initial pressure of 3x10{sup −6} mbar, a fluence of 2 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, an energy of 100 keV and implantation deposition times of 0, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of the films were evaluated by surfcorder test, Vickers microhardness test, wear test and potentiostat (galvanostat) test respectively. The results show that the nitrogen ions implanted deposition time on tungsten film can modify the surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate. The minimum surface roughness, specific wear and corrosion rate can be obtained for implantation time of 20 minutes and the maximum microhardness of the film is 329 VHN (Vickers Hardness Number) for implantation time of 30 minutes. The specific wear and corrosion rate of the film depend directly on the surface roughness.

  4. A roadmap for tailoring the strength and ductility of ferritic/martensitic T91 steel via thermo-mechanical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Sun, C.; Fan, Z.; Chen, Y.; Zhu, R.; Yu, K.Y.; Hartwig, K.T.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels with high strength and excellent ductility are important candidate materials for the life extension of the current nuclear reactors and the design of next generation nuclear reactors. Recent studies show that equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) was able to improve mechanical strength of ferritic T91 steels moderately. Here, we examine several strategies to further enhance the mechanical strength of T91 while maintaining its ductility. Certain thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) processes enabled by combinations of ECAE, water quench, and tempering may lead to “ductile martensite” with exceptionally high strength in T91 steel. The evolution of microstructures and mechanical properties of T91 steel were investigated in detail, and transition carbides were identified in water quenched T91 steel. This study provides guidelines for tailoring the microstructure and mechanical properties of T91 steel via ECAE enabled TMT for an improved combination of strength and ductility.

  5. Intergranular corrosion of 13Cr and 17Cr martensitic stainless steels in accelerated corrosive solution and high-temperature, high-purity water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Toshinori; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    1988-01-01

    Intergranular corrosion behavior of 13Cr and 17Cr martensitic stainless steels was studied by electrochemical and immersing corrosion tests. Effects of the mEtallurgical and environmental conditions on the intergranular corrosion of various tempered steels were examined by the following tests and discussed. (a) Anodic polarization measurement and electrolytical etching test in 0.5 kmol/m 3 H 2 SO 4 solution at 293 K. (b) Immersion corrosion test in 0.88 kmol/m 3 HNO 3 solution at 293 K. (c) Long-time immersion test for specimens with a crevice in a high purity water at 473 K∼561 K. It was found from the anodic polarization curves in 0.5 kmol/m 3 H 2 SO 4 solution-at 293 K that the steels tempered at 773∼873 K had susceptibility to intergranular corrosion in the potential region indicating a second current maximum (around-0.1 V. vs. SCE). But the steel became passive in the more noble potential region than the second current peak potential, while in the less noble potential region general corrosion occurred independent of its microstructure. The intergranular corrosion occurred due to the localized dissolution along the pre-austenitic grain boundary and the martensitic lath boundary. It could be explained by the same dissolution model of the chromium depleted zone as proposed for the intergranular corrosion of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The intergranular corrosion occurred entirely at the free surface in 0.88 kmol/m 3 HNO 3 solution, while in the high temperature and high purity water only the entrance of the crevice corroded. It was also suggested that this intergranular corrosion might serve as the initiation site for stress corrosion cracking of the martensitic stainless steel. (author)

  6. Properties of high temperature low cycle fatigue in austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Han, C. H.; Ryu, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    Tensile and fatigue tests were conducted at R. T. and 300 .deg. C for type 304 and 316 stainless steel. Tensile strength and elongation decreased and fatigue life increased with temperature for both type 304 and 316 stainless steel. Dislocation structures were mixed with cell and planar at R. T. and 300 .deg. C for both type 304 and 316 stainless steel. Strain induced martensite of type 316 stainless steel was less than that of type 304 stainless steel and decreased with temperature. It is considered that strain induced martensite is an important factor to increase fatigue life at 300 .deg. C

  7. Effect of Titanium on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel 8Cr13MoV

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Tao Yu; Jing Li; Cheng-Bin Shi; Qin-Tian Zhu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of titanium on the carbides and mechanical properties of martensitic stainless steel 8Cr13MoV was studied. The results showed that TiCs not only acted as nucleation sites for δ-Fe and eutectic carbides, leading to the refinement of the microstructure, but also inhibited the formation of eutectic carbides M7C3. The addition of titanium in steel also promoted the transformation of M7C3-type to M23C6-type carbides, and consequently more carbides could be dissolved into the matrix duri...

  8. Modification and characterization of the AISI 410 martensitic stainless steels surface; Modificacao e caracterizacao da superficie do aco inoxidavel martensitico AISI 410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bincoleto, A.V.L. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEM/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Nascente, P.A.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Steam turbines are used in the generation of more than half the electric energy produced in the world nowadays. It is important the study which aims to improve the efficiency by means of the optimization of leaks and of the aerodynamic profiles, as well as to maintain the integrity of the components. The martensitic stainless steels are widely employed due to the combination of their good mechanical properties with higher corrosion resistance. However, their lower wear resistance and their poor tribological behavior limit their use, since they decrease the component life time. In order to evaluate the improvement in the performance of the AISI 410 stainless steel, several process of surface modification were employed. Five samples were produced: the first one was not treated, the second one received liquid nitriding, the third, gas nitriding, the forth, thermal aspersion of tungsten carbide, and the fifth, boronizing. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, surface microhardness, and X-ray diffractometry. (author)

  9. Constitutive modelling and identification of parameters of the plastic strain-induced martensitic transformation in 316L stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C; Sgobba, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The present paper is focused on constitutive modelling and identification of parameters of the relevant model of plastic strain- induced martensitic transformation in austenitic stainless steels at low temperatures. The model used to describe the FCCrightward arrow BCC phase transformation in austenitic stainless steels is based on the assumption of linearization of the most intensive part of the transformation curve. The kinetics of phase transformation is described by three parameters: transformation threshold (p/sub xi/), slope (A) and saturation level (xi/sub L/). It is assumed that the phase transformation is driven by the accumulated plastic strain p. In addition, the intensity of plastic deformation is strongly coupled to the phase transformation via the description of mixed kinematic /isotropic linear plastic hardening based on the Mori-Tanaka homogenization. The theory of small strains is applied. Small strain fields, corresponding to phase transformation, are decomposed into the volumic and the shea...

  10. Analysis of martensitic transformation and residual tension in an 304L stainless steel; Analise da transformacao martensitica e tensao residual em um aco inoxidavel 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juciane Maria

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between plastic deformation and the strain induced phase transformation, that provides a practical route to the development of new engineering materials with excellent mechanical properties, characterize the TRIP effect 'Transformation Induced Plasticity'. Among the stainless steels, the metastable 304 L austenitic steel is susceptible to transformation of austenite-martensite phase from tensile tests at room temperature by increments of plastic deformation. It is of great technological and scientific interest the knowledge of the evolution of phase transformation and residual stress from different levels and rates of plastic deformation imposed to the material. It is also important to evaluate the interference of metallographic preparation in quantitative analyzes of this steel. The main techniques used in this study consisted of X-rays diffraction and Ferritoscopy for the quantitation phase, and XRD to residual stress analysis also. As observed, the phase transformation quantification has not suffered significant influence of the metallographic preparation and evolved from increments of plastic deformation due to different stop charges and strain rates, leading to a further strengthening of the austenite matrix. The evaluation of residual stress resulting from the martensitic transformation was susceptible to the metallographic preparation and increased its value on comparison to sample without metallographic preparation. It was also observed that the residual stress decreased with the increase of the fraction of transformed martensite. (author)

  11. Sulfide stress corrosion study of a super martensitic stainless steel in H2S sour environments: Metallic sulfides formation and hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Martin; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Roche, Virginie; Berthomé, Grégory; Chauveau, Eric; Estevez, Rafael; Mantel, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Thanks to their high corrosion resistance, super martensitic stainless steels are commonly used in the oil and gas industry, particularly in sour environments. Some grades are however susceptible to undergo hydrogen and mechanically-assisted corrosion processes in the presence of H2S, depending on the pH. The martensitic stainless steel EN 1.4418 grade exhibits a clear protective passive behavior with no sulfide stress corrosion cracking when exposed to sour environments of pH ≥ 4, but undergoes a steep decrease in its corrosion resistance at lower pH conditions. The present paper investigated this abrupt loss of corrosion resistance with electrochemical measurements as well as different physicochemical characterization techniques. Results indicated that below pH 4.0 the metal surface is covered by a thick (ca 40 μm) porous and defect-full sulfide-rich corrosion products layer shown to be straightforwardly related to the onset of hydrogen and sulfide mechanically-assisted corrosion phenomena.

  12. Effect of fluoride mouthwash on tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, D. I.; Anggani, H. S.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Patients with orthodontic treatment are commonly recommended to use a fluoride mouthwash for maintaining their oral hygiene and preventing dental caries. However, fluoride may affect the characteristics of stainless steel orthodontic archwires used during treatment. The effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to know the effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Examine the tensile strength of 0.016 inch stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersion in 0.05%, 100 ml fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min. There is no statistically significant difference in the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersed in fluoride mouthwash. The p-values on immersion fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min consecutively are 0.790; 0.742; and 0.085 (p > 0.05). The use of fluoride mouthwash did not have an effect on the tensile strength of stainless Steel orthodontic archwires.

  13. Effect of heat input on dissimilar welds of ultra high strength steel and duplex stainless steel: Microstructural and compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasalloti, H., E-mail: hamed.tasalloti.kashani@student.lut.fi; Kah, P., E-mail: paul.kah@lut.fi; Martikainen, J., E-mail: jukka.martikainen@lut.fi

    2017-01-15

    The effect of heat input on the microstructure and compositional heterogeneity of welds of direct-quenched ultra high strength steel (Optim 960 QC) and duplex stainless steel (UNS S32205) was studied. The dissimilar welds were made using GMAW with a fully austenitic filler wire. In addition to grain coarsening in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the ferritic side, it was found that an increase in heat input correlatively increased the proportional volume of bainitic to martensitic phases. Coarse ferritic grains were observed in the duplex HAZ. Higher heat input, however, had a beneficial effect on the nucleation of austenite in the HAZ. Heat input had a regulatory effect on grain growth within the austenitic weld and more favorable equiaxed austenite was obtained with higher heat input. On the ferritic side of the welds, macrosegregation in the form of a martensitic intermediate zone was observed for all the cooling rates studied. However, on the duplex side, macrosegregation in the fusion boundary was only noticed with higher cooling rates. Microstructural observations and compositional analysis suggest that higher heat input could be beneficial for the structural integrity of the weld despite higher heat input increasing the extent of adverse coarse grains in the HAZ, especially on the ferritic side. - Highlights: •The effect of heat input on dissimilar welds of UHSS and DSS was studied. •Transmutation of the microstructure was discussed in detail. •The influence of heat input on compositional heterogeneity of welds was described. •Higher heat input enhanced bainitic transformation on the ferritic side. •Macrosegregation was affected by the amount of heat input on the DSS side.

  14. New stainless steels of ferrite-martensite grade and perspectives of their application in thermonuclear facilities and fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtkhozhin, Eh.S.; Maksimkin, O.P.

    2007-01-01

    Review of scientific literature for last 5 years in which results on study of radiation effect on ferrite-martensite steels - construction materials of fast reactors and most probable candidates for first wall and blanket of the thermonuclear facilities ITER and Demo - are presented. Alongside with this a prior experimental data on study of microstructure changing and physical- mechanical properties of ferrite-martensite steel EhP-450 - the material of hexahedral case of spent assembly of BN-350 fast reactor- are cited. Principal attention was paid to considering of radiation effects of structural components content changing and ferrite-martensite steel swelling irradiated at comparatively low values of radiation damage climb rate

  15. Effects of recycling and bonding agent application on bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Bahnasi, Faisal I.; Abd-Rahman, Aida NA.; Abu-Hassan, Mohame I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: 1) to assess different methods of recycling orthodontic brackets, 2) to evaluate Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of (a) new, (b) recycled and (c) repeated recycled stainless steel brackets (i) with and (ii) without bracket base primer. Study Design: A total of 180 extracted human premolar teeth and 180 premolar stainless steel brackets were used. One hundred teeth and 100 brackets were divided into five groups of 20-teeth each. Four methods of recycling orthodontic brackets were used in...

  16. Effect of Titanium on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel 8Cr13MoV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of titanium on the carbides and mechanical properties of martensitic stainless steel 8Cr13MoV was studied. The results showed that TiCs not only acted as nucleation sites for δ-Fe and eutectic carbides, leading to the refinement of the microstructure, but also inhibited the formation of eutectic carbides M7C3. The addition of titanium in steel also promoted the transformation of M7C3-type to M23C6-type carbides, and consequently more carbides could be dissolved into the matrix during hot processing as demonstrated by the determination of extracted carbides from the steel matrix. Meanwhile, titanium suppressed the precipitation of secondary carbides during annealing. The appropriate amount of titanium addition decreased the size and fraction of primary carbides in the as-cast ingot, and improved the mechanical properties of the annealed steel.

  17. Compatibility of graphite with a martensitic-ferritic steel, an austenitic stainless steel and a Ni-base alloy up to 1250 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1994-08-01

    To study the chemical interactions between graphite and a martensitic-ferritic steel (1.4914), an austenitic stainless steel (1.4919; AISI 316), and a Ni-base alloy (Hastelloy X) isothermal reaction experiments were performed in the temperature range between 900 and 1250 C. At higher temperatures a rapid and complete liquefaction of the components occurred as a result of eutectic interactions. The chemical interactions are diffusion-controlled processes and can be described by parabolic rate laws. The reaction behavior of the two steels is very similar. The chemical interactions of the steels with graphite are much faster above 1100 C than those for the Ni-base alloy. Below 1000 C the effect is opposite. (orig.) [de

  18. Influence of corrosion environment composition on crack propagation in high-strength martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Tsirul'nik, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    The 40 Kh steel is taken as an example to investigate the dependence of electrochemical parameters in the crack tip and characteristics of corrosion static cracking resistance of martensitic steel on the composition of environment. The tests are performed in acidic and alkaline solutions prepared by adding HC or NaOH in distilled water. It is established that growth of pH value of initial solutions trom 0 to 13 brings about linear increase of a threshold stress intensity factor. It is found that acidic medium in the crack tip preserves up to pH 13 of initial medium. The possibility of corrosion crack propagation in alkaline solutions according to the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is proved

  19. Cold-rolled sheets production of stainless martensite-ageing steel smelted by vacuum arc and electroslag techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, A A; Grishkov, A I; Suslin, A P; Nesterenko, A A; Lola, V N [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    In cooperation with a number of metallurgical works the production of a high strength sheet stainless maraging steel EHP678 (000KH11N10M2T) has been tested by rolling cylindrical ingots of vacuum arc smelting at the blooming (the mass of rough ingots was 5.1 to 6.0 t, that of cleaned ingots - 3.8 to 5.1 t) or rectangular ingots of electroslag smelting (13 t) at the slabbing. The recommended regimes of heating and deformation are much similar to those used for the steel-KH18N10T. The output of valid cold-rolled sheets proved to be rather low (0.24 t/t for the vacuum arc smelting and 0.30 t/t for the electroslag smelting) mainly due to the losses on cleaning and a considerable portion of wrong-size slabs. The data are presented on the steel-EHP678 properties after various heat treatments. For the production of wide cold-rolled sheets of the steel EHP678 it is recommended to use steelmaking procedure with electroslag smelting including open-hearth melting in arc furnaces, rolling of ingots at the slabbing with heating up to 1260-1280 deg C (hold-up of 4.5 to 5 hrs); electroslag smelting for rectangular section slabs, rolling of ingots of electroslag smelting at the slabbing with their heating up to 1250 deg C (hold-up of 5.5 to 6 hrs), rolling at the 1680-type mill with heating up to 1250-1260 deg C (hold-up of 4 to 4.5 hrs ensuring the rolling temperature after a rough group not below 1100 deg C), quenching of hot-rolled sheets heating up to 920-940 deg C (hold-up of 3 to 3.5 min/mm), shot peening of sheets for descaling (provided the respective equipment is available) with a subsequent short-time pickling in an acid solution and cold rolling with a summary deformation of 35 to 45 %. The steelmaking with the electroslag smelting is much more profitable as regards to the fine technology of number of the main procedures, convenient cooperation of the works and a considerably greater output of the final products out of one ton of the steel produced.

  20. Analysis of the hydrogen permeation properties of TiN-TiC bilayers deposited on martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checchetto, R.; Horino, Y.; Benamati, G.

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of TiN-TiC bilayer coatings, deposited by ion-beam-assisted deposition on martensitic steel, as a hydrogen permeation barrier was investigated by a gas phase method; the hydrogen permeability in the TiN-TiC bilayers is very low, at least 10 4 times lower than in the steel substrate in the temperature interval 470-570 K. Possible physical mechanisms, responsible for the reduced permeability of the ceramic bilayers, are discussed. In particular, from our experimental results, it can be concluded that chemisorption and/or hydrogen jumping from surface sites to the first subsurface atomic layer represents the hydrogen permeation limiting process. (orig.)

  1. Estimates of margins in ASME Code strength values for stainless steel nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The margins in the ASME Code stainless steel allowable stress values that can be attributed to the variations in material strength are evaluated for nuclear piping steels. Best-fit curves were calculated for the material test data that were used to determine allowable stress values for stainless steels in the ASME Code, supplemented by more recent data, to estimate the mean stresses. The mean yield stresses (on which the stainless steel S m values are based) from the test data are about 15 to 20% greater than the ASME Code yield stress values. The ASME Code yield stress values are estimated to approximately coincide with the 97% confidence limit from the test data. The mean and 97% confidence limit values can be used in the probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear piping

  2. Effect of quenching temperature on martensite multi-level microstructures and properties of strength and toughness in 20CrNi2Mo steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Shao-lei [College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou University (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China); Liang, Yi-long, E-mail: liangyilong@126.com [College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou University (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China); Jiang, Yun [Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China); Liang, Yu; Yang, Ming; Yi, Yan-liang [College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou University (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Materials (China); National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for High-performance Metal Structure Material and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (China)

    2016-10-31

    The martensite multi-level microstructures of 20CrNi2Mo steel, which were quenched at the different temperatures of 900–1200 °C and tempered at 200 °C, were investigated by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the relationship between the microstructures and properties of strength and toughness was discussed by the classic formula of Hall–Petch. The results show that the size of prior austenite grain (d{sub r}), martensite packet (d{sub p}) and block (d{sub b}) increase with increasing of the quenching temperature, while the martensite lath (d{sub l}) size is opposite. On another hand, the confusion degree of the martensite packets changes from disorder to order. The boundaries of prior austenite grain, packet, block and the martensite lath are high angle boundaries (HBs) and low angle boundaries (LBs), respectively, and the ratio of the low angle boundaries increase with the quenching temperature by calculating to the multi-level microstructure size with the mathematical model established by myself. In addition, the relationship between the packet/block and strength follows the classical formula of Hall–Petch, and the size of d{sub b} is far lower than the size of d{sub p}, d{sub b} is the effective control unit of the strength. Meanwhile, d{sub l} is the effective control unit of toughness because it strongly impacts the crack initiation and propagation and follows also the Hall-Petch with toughness in 20CrNi2Mo steel.

  3. Low cycle fatigue strength of some austenitic stainless steels at room temperature and elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type 304, 316, and 316L stainless steels were tested from room temperature to 650 0 C using two kinds of bending test specimens. Particularly, Type 304 was tested at several cyclic rates and 550 0 and 650 0 C, and the effect of cyclic rate on its fatigue strength was investigated. Test results are summarized as follows: (1) The bending fatigue strength at room temperature test shows good agreement with the axial fatigue one, (2) Manson--Coffin's fatigue equation can be applied to the results, (3) the ratio of crack initiation to failure life becomes larger at higher stress level, and (4) the relation between crack propagation life and total strain range or elastic strain range are linear in log-log scale. This relation also agrees with the equations which were derived from some crack propagation laws. It was also observed at the elevated temperature test: (1) The reduction of fatigue strength is not noticeable below 500 0 C, but it is noted at higher temperature. (2) The cycle rate does not affect on fatigue strength in faster cyclic rate than 20 cpm and below 100,000 cycles life range. (3) Type 316 stainless steel shows better fatigue property than type 304 and 316L stainless steels. 30 figures

  4. Microstructural evolution and strain hardening behavior of the cold-drawn austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeom Yong; Jin, Won

    1998-01-01

    The strain induced α ' -martensite formation and the strain hardening behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steel during cold drawing have been investigated. The strain induced α ' -martensite nucleates mainly at the intersection of the mechanical twins rather than ε-martensite. It could be explained by the increase of stacking fault energy which arises from the heat generated during high speed drawing and, for AISI 304/Cu, the additional effect of Cu additions. The strain hardening behavior of austenitic stainless steel is strongly related to the microstructural evolution accompanied by strain induced α ' -martensite. The work hardening rates of cold-drawn 304 increased with increasing interstitial element(C,N) contents which affect the strength of the strain induced α ' -martensite

  5. Hydrogen embrittlement property of a 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength tempered martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Songjie; Zhang Boping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Hidian Zone, Beijing 100083 (China); Akiyama, Eiji; Yuuji, Kimura; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Uno, Nobuyoshi, E-mail: AKIYAMA.Eiji@nims.go.j [Nippon Steel and Sumikin Metal Products Co, Ltd, SA Bldg., 17-12 Kiba 2-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The hydrogen embrittlement property of a prototype 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength steel (NIMS17) containing hydrogen traps was evaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) after cathodic hydrogen precharging, cyclic corrosion test (CCT) and atmospheric exposure. The hydrogen content in a fractured specimen was measured after SSRT by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The relationship between fracture stress and hydrogen content for the hydrogen-precharged specimens showed that the fracture stress of NIMS17 steel was higher, at a given hydrogen content, than that of conventional AISI 4135 steels with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa. This suggests better resistance of NIMS17 steel to hydrogen embrittlement. However, hydrogen uptake to NIMS17 steel under CCT and atmospheric exposure decreased the fracture stress. This is because of the stronger hydrogen uptake to the steel containing hydrogen traps than to the AISI 4135 steels. Although NIMS17 steel has a higher strength level than AISI 4135 steel with a tensile strength of 1500 MPa, the decrease in fracture stress is similar between these steels.

  6. Hydrogen embrittlement property of a 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength tempered martensitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjie Li, Eiji Akiyama, Kimura Yuuji, Kaneaki Tsuzaki, Nobuyoshi Uno and Boping Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen embrittlement property of a prototype 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength steel (NIMS17 containing hydrogen traps was evaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT after cathodic hydrogen precharging, cyclic corrosion test (CCT and atmospheric exposure. The hydrogen content in a fractured specimen was measured after SSRT by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS. The relationship between fracture stress and hydrogen content for the hydrogen-precharged specimens showed that the fracture stress of NIMS17 steel was higher, at a given hydrogen content, than that of conventional AISI 4135 steels with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa. This suggests better resistance of NIMS17 steel to hydrogen embrittlement. However, hydrogen uptake to NIMS17 steel under CCT and atmospheric exposure decreased the fracture stress. This is because of the stronger hydrogen uptake to the steel containing hydrogen traps than to the AISI 4135 steels. Although NIMS17 steel has a higher strength level than AISI 4135 steel with a tensile strength of 1500 MPa, the decrease in fracture stress is similar between these steels.

  7. Hydrogen embrittlement property of a 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength tempered martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songjie; Zhang Boping; Akiyama, Eiji; Yuuji, Kimura; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki; Uno, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen embrittlement property of a prototype 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength steel (NIMS17) containing hydrogen traps was evaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) after cathodic hydrogen precharging, cyclic corrosion test (CCT) and atmospheric exposure. The hydrogen content in a fractured specimen was measured after SSRT by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The relationship between fracture stress and hydrogen content for the hydrogen-precharged specimens showed that the fracture stress of NIMS17 steel was higher, at a given hydrogen content, than that of conventional AISI 4135 steels with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa. This suggests better resistance of NIMS17 steel to hydrogen embrittlement. However, hydrogen uptake to NIMS17 steel under CCT and atmospheric exposure decreased the fracture stress. This is because of the stronger hydrogen uptake to the steel containing hydrogen traps than to the AISI 4135 steels. Although NIMS17 steel has a higher strength level than AISI 4135 steel with a tensile strength of 1500 MPa, the decrease in fracture stress is similar between these steels.

  8. Effects of Mo Content on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of PH13-8Mo Martensitic Precipitation-Hardened Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubing, Pei; Tianjian, Wang; Zhenhuan, Gao; Hua, Fan; Gongxian, Yang

    This paper introduces the effects of Mo content on microstructure and mechanical property of PH13-8Mo martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steel which is used for LP last stage blade in steam turbine. Thermodynamic software Thermo-Calc has been used to calculate precipitation temperature and the mass fraction of precipitated phases in PH13-8Mo steel with different Mo content. The result shows that when the mass of Mo is below 0.6wt.%, chi-phase mu-phase and sigma-phase could disappear. The microstructure and mechanical property of high Mo PH13-8Mo (Mo=0.57wt.%) and low Mo PH13-8Mo (Mo=2.15wt.%)have been investigated in different heat treatments. The investigations reveal that austenitizing temperature decrease with the reduce of Mo content, so the optimum solution temperature for low Mo PH13-8Mo is lower than that for high Mo PH13-8Mo.The influence of solution temperature on grain size is weakened with the increase of Mo content, Mo rich carbides could retard coarsening of grain. An enormous amount of nano-size uniformly distributed β-NiAl particles are found in both kinds of steels using transmission electron microscopy, they are the most important strengthening phase in PH13-8Mo.

  9. Electrochemical analysis of the corrosion inhibition effect of trypsin complex on the pitting corrosion of 420 martensitic stainless steel in 2M H2SO4 solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loto, Roland Tolulope

    2018-01-01

    Inhibition effect of trypsin complex (TC) on the pitting corrosion of martensitic stainless steel (type 420) in 1M H2SO4 solution was studied with potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential measurement and optical microscopy. TC reduced the corrosion rate of the steel with maximum inhibition efficiency of 80.75%. Corrosion potential shifted anodically due to the electrochemical action of TC. The pitting potential increased from 1.088VAg/AgCl (3M) at 0% TC to 1.365VAg/AgCl(3M) at 4% TC. TC shifts the open circuit corrosion potential from -0.270s at 0% TC concentration to -0.255V at 5% TC. The compound completely adsorbed onto the steel according to Langmuir, Frumkin and Temkin isotherms. ATF-FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the inhibition mode to be through surface coverage. Thermodynamic calculations showed physisorption molecular interaction. Corrosion pits are present on the uninhibited 420 morphology in comparison to TC inhibited surface which slightly deteriorated.

  10. Analysis of the Mechanical Behavior, Creep Resistance and Uniaxial Fatigue Strength of Martensitic Steel X46Cr13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnic, Josip; Krscanski, Sanjin; Lanc, Domagoj; Brcic, Marino; Turkalj, Goran; Canadija, Marko; Niu, Jitai

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of the mechanical behavior at different temperatures, uniaxial creep and uniaxial fatigue of martensitic steel X46Cr13 (1.4034, AISI 420). For the purpose of considering the aforementioned mechanical behavior, as well as determining the appropriate resistance to creep and fatigue strength levels, numerous uniaxial tests were carried out. Tests related to mechanical properties performed at different temperatures are presented in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Short-time creep tests performed at different temperatures and different stress levels are presented in the form of creep curves. Fatigue tests carried out at stress ratios R=0.25 and R=−1 are shown in the form of S–N (fatigue) diagrams. The finite fatigue regime for each of the mentioned stress ratios is modeled by an inclined log line, while the infinite fatigue regime is modeled by a horizontal line, which represents the fatigue limit of the material and previously was calculated by the modified staircase method. Finally, the fracture toughness has been calculated based on the Charpy V-notch impact energy. PMID:28772749

  11. Development of ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened) ferritic-martensitic steels for fast reactor fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu

    2000-01-01

    In order to attain higher burnup and higher coolant outlet temperature in fast reactor, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels were developed as a long life fuel cladding. The improvement in formability and ductility, which are indispensable in the cold-rolling method for manufacturing cladding tube, were achieved by controlling the microstructure using techniques such as recrystallization heat-treatment and α to γ phase transformation. The ODS ferritic-martensitic cladding tubes manufactured using these techniques have the highest internal creep rupture strength in the world as ferritic stainless steels. Strength level approaches adequate value at 700degC, which meets the requirement for commercial fast reactors. (author)

  12. Effect of Boron on the Strength and Toughness of Direct-Quenched Low-Carbon Niobium Bearing Ultra-High-Strength Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Jaakko; Kömi, Jukka; Porter, David A.; Somani, Mahesh C.; Kaijalainen, Antti; Suikkanen, Pasi; Yang, Jer-Ren; Tsai, Shao-Pu

    2017-11-01

    The effect of boron on the microstructures and mechanical properties of laboratory-control-rolled and direct-quenched 6-mm-thick steels containing 0.08 wt pct C and 0.02 wt pct Nb were studied. The boron contents were 24 ppm and a residual amount of 4 ppm. Two different finish rolling temperatures (FRTs) of 1093 K and 1193 K (820 °C and 920 °C) were used in the hot rolling trials to obtain different levels of pancaked austenite prior to DQ. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were constructed to reveal the effect of boron on the transformation behavior of these steels. Microstructural characterization was carried out using various microscopy techniques, such as light optical microscopy (LOM) and scanning electron microscopy-electron backscatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). The resultant microstructures after hot rolling were mixtures of autotempered martensite and lower bainite (LB), having yield strengths in the range 918 to 1067 MPa with total elongations to fracture higher than 10 pct. The lower FRT of 1093 K (820 °C) produced better combinations of strength and toughness as a consequence of a higher degree of pancaking in the austenite. Removal of boron lowered the 34 J/cm2 Charpy-V impact toughness transition temperature from 206 K to 158 K (-67 °C to -115 °C) when the finishing rolling temperature of 1093 K (820 °C) was used without any loss in the strength values compared to the boron-bearing steel. This was due to the finer and more uniform grain structure in the boron-free steel. Contrary to expectations, the difference was not caused by the formation of borocarbide precipitates, as verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, but through the grain coarsening effect of boron.

  13. Creep rupture strength and creep behavior of low-activation martensitic OPTIFER alloys. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirra, M.; Falkenstein, A.; Heger, S.; Lapena, J.

    2001-07-01

    The creep rupture strength and creep experiments performed on low-activation OPTIFER alloys in the temperature range of 450-700 C shall be summarized in the present report. Together with the reference alloy of the type 9.5Cr1W-Mn-V-Ta, W-free variants (+Ge) with a more favorable activation and decay behavior shall be studied. Their smaller strength values are compensated by far better toughness characteristics. Of each development line, several batches of slightly varying chemical composition have been investigated over service lives of up to 40,000 h. Apart from the impact of a reference thermal treatment at a hardening temperature of 1075 C and an annealing temperature of 750 C, the influence of reduced hardening temperatures (up to 950 C) has been determined. A long-term use at increased temperatures (max. 550 C-20,000 h) produces an aging effect with strength being decreased in the annealed state. To determine this aging effect quantitatively, creep rupture experiments have been performed using specimens that were subjected to variable types of T/t annealing (550 -650 C, 330-5000 h). Based on all test results, minimum values for the 1% time-strain limit and creep rupture in the T range of 400-600 C can be given as design curves for 20,000 h. The minimum creep rates obtained from the creep curves recorded as a function of the experimental stress yield the stress exponent n (n=Norton) for the individual test temperatures. Creep behavior as a function of the test temperature yields the values for the effective activation energy of creeping Q K . The influence of a preceding temperature transient up to 800 C (≤Ac 1b ) or 840 C (>Ac 1b ) with subsequent creep rupture tests at 500 C and 550 C, respectively, shall be described. The results obtained for the OPTIFER alloys shall be compared with the results achieved for the Japanese 2% W-containing F82H-mod. alloy. (orig.) [de

  14. The effect of microstructural change on the Charpy impact properties of the high-strength ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) irradiated in JOYO/MARICO-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yasuhide; Akasaka, Naoaki; Yoshitake, Tsunemitsu; Abe, Yasuhiro

    2004-03-01

    It is well known that the irradiation embrittlement is one of the most important issues to apply ferritic steels for FBR core materials, although ferritic steels have been considered to be candidate core materials of the commercialized FBR core material because of their superior swelling resistance. In order to evaluate the effects of microstructural changes during irradiation on the Charpy impact properties of the high-strength ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS), microstructural observations were performed with transmission electron microscopy on ruptured halves of the half-sized Charpy specimens of PNC-FMS irradiated in the JOYO/MARICO-1. The results obtained in this study are as follows: (1) There was remarkable disappearance of the lath of martensite in the samples irradiated at 650degC, although there was no significant change in microstructures, especially the lath of martensite between the samples irradiated at 500degC and unirradiated. The disappearance of martensitic lath in the samples irradiated at 650degC was larger than that of the samples thermally aged at 650degC. (2) The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of irradiated PNC-FMS is judged to increase with the disappearance of martensitic lath and to decrease with the recovery in dislocations. (3) The decrease in the upper shelf energy (USE) of irradiated PNC-FMS is significantly accompanied by the change of precipitation behavior. (4) The Charpy impact properties and microstructures of PNC-FMS irradiated at 500degC were superior under these irradiation conditions. In future, it is necessary to establish how to evaluate Charpy impact properties in a high fluence region, based on theoretical methods introduced from the data gained in low fluence experiments, in addition to expanding the data area widely. (author)

  15. Effect of ultrafine grain on tensile behaviour and corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafine grained 2205 duplex stainless steel was obtained by cold rolling and annealing. The tensile properties were investigated at room temperature. Comparing with coarse grained stainless steel, ultrafine grained sample showed higher strength and plasticity. In addition, grain size changed deformation orientation. The strain induced α'-martensite was observed in coarse grained 2205 duplex stainless steel with large strain. However, the grain refinement inhibited the transformation of α'-martensite;nevertheless, more deformation twins improved the strength and plasticity of ultrafine grained 2205 duplex stainless steel. In addition, the grain refinement improved corrosion resistance of the 2205 duplex stainless steel in sodium chloride solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of welding by MIG in martensitic stainless steel; Avaliacao da soldagem pelo processo MIG em aco inoxidavel martensitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Mariano, N.A.; Marinho, D.H.C. Marinho, E-mail: neideaparecidamariano@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work evaluated structure's characterization and mechanical properties after the welding process of the stainless steel CA6NM. The employed welding process was the metal active gas with tubular wire. The control of the thermal cycle in the welding process has fundamental importance regarding the properties of the welded joint, particularly in the thermally affected zone. The mechanical properties were appraised through impact resistance tests and the hardness and microstructure through metallographic characterization and Ray-X diffraction. The parameters and the process of welding used promoted the hardness and toughness appropriate to the applications of the steel. Welding energy's control becomes an essential factor that can affect the temperature of carbide precipitation and the nucleation of the retained austenite in the in the region of the in the thermally affected zone. (author)

  17. The Composition and Temperature Effects on the Ultra High Strength Stainless Steel Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Del Castillo, P. E. J. Rivera Díaz; van der Zwaag, S.

    Alloy composition and heat treatment are of paramount importance to determining alloy properties. Their control is of great importance for new alloy design and industrial fabrication control. A base alloy utilizing MX carbide is designed through a theory guided computational approach coupling a genetic algorithm with optimization criteria based on thermodynamic, kinetic and mechanical principles. The combined effects of 11 alloying elements (Al, C, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti and V) are investigated in terms of the composition optimization criteria: the martensite start (Ms) temperature, the suppression of undesirable phases, the Cr concentration in the matrix and the potency of the precipitation strengthening contribution. The results show the concentration sensitivities of each component and also point out new potential composition domains for further strength increase. The aging temperature effect is studied and the aging temperature industrially followed is recovered.

  18. Effect on spot welding variables on nugget size and bond strength of 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charde, Nachimani

    2012-01-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) has revolutionized mechanical assembly in the automotive industry since its introduction in the early 1970s. Currently, one mechanical assembly in five is welded using spot welding technology, with welding of stainless steel sheet becoming increasingly common. Consequently, this research paper examines the spot welding of 2 mm thick 304 austenitic stainless steel sheet. The size of a spot weld nugget is primarily determined by the welding parameters: welding current, welding time, electrode force and electrode tip diameter However, other factors such as electrode deformation, corrosion, dissimilar materials and material properties also affect the nugget size and shape. This paper analyzes only the effects of current, weld time and force variations with unchanged electrode tip diameter. A pneumatically driven 75kVA spot welder was used to accomplish the welding process and the welded samples were subjected to tensile, hardness and metallurgical testing to characterize the size and shape of the weld nugget and the bond strength.

  19. Martensitic/ferritic steels as container materials for liquid mercury target of ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In the previous report, the suitability of steels as the ESS liquid mercury target container material was discussed on the basis of the existing database on conventional austenitic and martensitic/ferritic steels, especially on their representatives, solution annealed 316 stainless steel (SA 316) and Sandvik HT-9 martensitic steel (HT-9). Compared to solution annealed austenitic stainless steels, martensitic/ferritic steels have superior properties in terms of strength, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, mercury corrosion resistance, void swelling and irradiation creep resistance. The main limitation for conventional martensitic/ferritic steels (CMFS) is embrittlement after low temperature (≤380 degrees C) irradiation. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) can increase as much as 250 to 300 degrees C and the upper-shelf energy (USE), at the same time, reduce more than 50%. This makes the application temperature range of CMFS is likely between 300 degrees C to 500 degrees C. For the present target design concept, the temperature at the container will be likely controlled in a temperature range between 180 degrees C to 330 degrees C. Hence, CMFS seem to be difficult to apply. However, solution annealed austenitic stainless steels are also difficult to apply as the maximum stress level at the container will be higher than the design stress. The solution to the problem is very likely to use advanced low-activation martensitic/ferritic steels (LAMS) developed by the fusion materials community though the present database on the materials is still very limited

  20. Comparison of the segregation behavior between tempered martensite and tempered bainite in Ni-Cr-Mo high strength low alloy RPV steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Hyung Jun; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel has an superior fracture toughness and strength, compared to commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy RPV steel SA508 Gr.3. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels could be obtained by adding Ni and Cr. So several were performed on researches on SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a RPV application. The operation temperature and term of a reactor pressure vessel is more than 300 .deg. C and over 40 years. Therefore, in order to apply the SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a reactor pressure vessel, the resistance of thermal embrittlement in the high temperature range including temper embrittlement is required. S. Raoul reported that the susceptibility to temper embrittlement was increasing a function of the cooling rate in SA533 steel, which suggests the martensitic microstructures resulting from increased cooling rates are more susceptible to temper embrittlement. However, this result has not been proved yet. So the comparison of temper embrittlement behavior was made between martensitic microstructure and bainitic microstructure with a viewpoint of boundary features in SA508 Gr.4N, which have mixture of tempered bainite/martensite. We have compared temper embrittlement behaviors of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with changing volume fraction of martensite. The mechanical properties of these low alloy steels were evaluated after a long-term heat treatment. Then, the the segregated boundaries were observed and segregation behavior was analyzed by AES. In order to compare the misorientation distributions of model alloys, grain boundary structures were measured with EBSD

  1. Creep rupture strength of activated-TIG welded 316L(N) stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthivel, T., E-mail: tsakthivel@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2011-06-01

    316L(N) stainless steel plates were joined using activated-tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding and conventional TIG welding process. Creep rupture behavior of 316L(N) base metal, and weld joints made by A-TIG and conventional TIG welding process were investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 160-280 MPa. Creep test results showed that the enhancement in creep rupture strength of weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process over conventional TIG welding process. Both the weld joints fractured in the weld metal. Microstructural observation showed lower {delta}-ferrite content, alignment of columnar grain with {delta}-ferrite along applied stress direction and less strength disparity between columnar and equiaxed grains of weld metal in A-TIG joint than in MP-TIG joint. These had been attributed to initiate less creep cavitation in weld metal of A-TIG joint leading to improvement in creep rupture strength.

  2. Creep rupture strength of activated-TIG welded 316L(N) stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakthivel, T.; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    316L(N) stainless steel plates were joined using activated-tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding and conventional TIG welding process. Creep rupture behavior of 316L(N) base metal, and weld joints made by A-TIG and conventional TIG welding process were investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 160-280 MPa. Creep test results showed that the enhancement in creep rupture strength of weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process over conventional TIG welding process. Both the weld joints fractured in the weld metal. Microstructural observation showed lower δ-ferrite content, alignment of columnar grain with δ-ferrite along applied stress direction and less strength disparity between columnar and equiaxed grains of weld metal in A-TIG joint than in MP-TIG joint. These had been attributed to initiate less creep cavitation in weld metal of A-TIG joint leading to improvement in creep rupture strength.

  3. Creep rupture strength of activated-TIG welded 316L(N) stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, T.; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Mathew, M. D.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2011-06-01

    316L(N) stainless steel plates were joined using activated-tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding and conventional TIG welding process. Creep rupture behavior of 316L(N) base metal, and weld joints made by A-TIG and conventional TIG welding process were investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 160-280 MPa. Creep test results showed that the enhancement in creep rupture strength of weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process over conventional TIG welding process. Both the weld joints fractured in the weld metal. Microstructural observation showed lower δ-ferrite content, alignment of columnar grain with δ-ferrite along applied stress direction and less strength disparity between columnar and equiaxed grains of weld metal in A-TIG joint than in MP-TIG joint. These had been attributed to initiate less creep cavitation in weld metal of A-TIG joint leading to improvement in creep rupture strength.

  4. Impact of saline aquifer water on surface and shallow pit corrosion of martensitic stainless steels during exposure to CO2 environment (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Anja; Kranzmann, Axel

    2018-05-01

    Pipe steels suitable for carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) require resistance against the corrosive environment of a potential CCS-site, e.g. heat, pressure, salinity of the aquifer, CO2-partial pressure. Samples of different mild and high alloyed stainless injection-pipe steels partially heat treated: 42CrMo4, X20Cr13, X46Cr13, X35CrMo4 as well as X5CrNiCuNb16-4 were kept at T=60 °C and ambient pressure as well as p=100 bar for 700 h - 8000 h in a CO2-saturated synthetic aquifer environment similar to possible geological on-shore CCS-sites in the northern German Basin. Main corrosion products are FeCO3 and FeOOH. Corrosion rates obtained at 100 bar are generally much lower than those measured at ambient pressure. Highest surface corrosion rates are 0.8 mm/year for 42CrMo4 and lowest 0.01 mm/year for X5CrNiCuNb16-4 in the vapour phase at ambient pressure. At 100 bar the highest corrosion rates are 0.01 mm/year for 42CrMo4, X20Cr13 (liquid phase), X46Cr13 and less than 0.01 mm/year for X35CrMo4 and X5CrNiCuNb16-4 after 8000 h of exposure with no regard to atmosphere. Martensitic microstructure offers good corrosion resistance.

  5. Effect of Spheroidizing Annealing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel 8Cr13MoV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Tao; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Zhu, Qin-Tian

    2017-02-01

    The effects of holding time during both austenitizing and spheroidizing on microstructure and mechanical properties of high-carbon martensitic stainless steel 8Cr13MoV were experimentally studied. The results showed that the amount of carbides and the proportion of fine carbides decrease first and then increase with the increase in austenitizing time ( t 1) in the case of short spheroidizing time ( t 2), whereas the amount of the lamellar carbides increases. In the case of long t 2, both the amount of carbides and the proportion of fine carbides decrease, and the amount of the lamellar carbides did not increase. The hardness of the steel decreases first and then increases with the increase of t 1. Under the conditions of different t 1, the change in the size of carbides and hardness of the steel show a same trend with the variation of t 2. The size of spheroidized carbides increases, whereas the hardness of the steel decreases with increasing t 2. The longer the holding time of austenitizing, the higher is the spheroidizing rate at the earlier stage. However, the spheroidizing rate shows an opposite trend with t 1 at the later stage of spheroidizing. The effect of cooling rate on microstructure is similar with t 2. With increasing cooling rate, the dimension of carbides became smaller, and the amount of lamellar carbides increased. The elongation of the sample fracture exhibits no corresponding relationship with holding time, whereas it is closely related to the precipitation of secondary carbides caused by the alloying elements segregation.

  6. High-temperature strength of TiC-coated SUS316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.; Furuya, Y.; Kikuchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Some ceramics-coated metals are nominated as first-wall material. TiC-coated type 316 stainless steel is expected to be superior to other materials in high-temperature strength and in its endurance properties at heavy irradiation. Delamination between ceramics layer and base-metal is considered to be one of the most important problems when such ceramics-coated metals are used in a temperature field with a gradient such as that of the first wall. In this report, the high-temperature strength of TiC-coated type 316 stainless steel, which should be that of the first wall of the fusion reactor, is investigated experimentally and computationally. A simple and precise thermal-stress testing system is developed. The effects of surface roughness as well as of the thermal stress and the residual stress on the bonding strength are investigated. The experimental and numerical results on the residual-stress distribution are compared with each other to confirm the reliability of the inelastic analysis using the finite-element method (FEM). It is expected that a suitable surface roughness makes the residual stress in the coated film small. The optimum range for the TiC-coating temperature is found using inelastic FEM analysis at the heating conditions used in the experiments. (orig.)

  7. Effects of recycling and bonding agent application on bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnasi, Faisal I; Abd-Rahman, Aida Na; Abu-Hassan, Mohame I

    2013-10-01

    1) to assess different methods of recycling orthodontic brackets, 2) to evaluate Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of (a) new, (b) recycled and (c) repeated recycled stainless steel brackets (i) with and (ii) without bracket base primer. A total of 180 extracted human premolar teeth and 180 premolar stainless steel brackets were used. One hundred teeth and 100 brackets were divided into five groups of 20-teeth each. Four methods of recycling orthodontic brackets were used in each of the first four groups while the last one (group V) was used as the control. Groups (I-V) were subjected to shear force within half an hour until the brackets debond. SBS was measured and the method showing the highest SBS was selected. A New group (VI) was recycled twice with the selected method. Six subgroups (1-6) were established; the primer was applied for three sub-groups, and the composite was applied for all brackets. Brackets were subjected to the same shear force, and SBS was measured for all sub-groups. There was a significant difference between the mean SBS of the sandblasting method and the means of SBS of each of the other three methods. There was however, no significant difference between the mean SBS of the new bracket and the mean SBS of recycled bracket using sandblasting. The mean SBS of all sub-groups were more than that recommended by Reynolds (17) in 1975. Brackets with primer showed slightly higher SBS compared to those of brackets without bonding agent. To decrease cost, sandblasted recycled orthodontic brackets can be used as an alternative to new brackets. It is recommended to apply a bonding agent on the bracket base to provide greater bond strength. Key words:Recycled bracket, shear bond strength, sandblasting, stainless steel orthodontic bracket.

  8. Effects of recycling and bonding agent application on bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnasi, Faisal I.; Abu-Hassan, Mohame I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: 1) to assess different methods of recycling orthodontic brackets, 2) to evaluate Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of (a) new, (b) recycled and (c) repeated recycled stainless steel brackets (i) with and (ii) without bracket base primer. Study Design: A total of 180 extracted human premolar teeth and 180 premolar stainless steel brackets were used. One hundred teeth and 100 brackets were divided into five groups of 20-teeth each. Four methods of recycling orthodontic brackets were used in each of the first four groups while the last one (group V) was used as the control. Groups (I-V) were subjected to shear force within half an hour until the brackets debond. SBS was measured and the method showing the highest SBS was selected. A New group (VI) was recycled twice with the selected method. Six subgroups (1-6) were established; the primer was applied for three sub-groups, and the composite was applied for all brackets. Brackets were subjected to the same shear force, and SBS was measured for all sub-groups. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean SBS of the sandblasting method and the means of SBS of each of the other three methods. There was however, no significant difference between the mean SBS of the new bracket and the mean SBS of recycled bracket using sandblasting. The mean SBS of all sub-groups were more than that recommended by Reynolds (17) in 1975. Brackets with primer showed slightly higher SBS compared to those of brackets without bonding agent. Conclusion: To decrease cost, sandblasted recycled orthodontic brackets can be used as an alternative to new brackets. It is recommended to apply a bonding agent on the bracket base to provide greater bond strength. Key words:Recycled bracket, shear bond strength, sandblasting, stainless steel orthodontic bracket. PMID:24455081

  9. Friction Stir Welding of HT9 Ferritic-Martensitic Steel: An Assessment of Microstructure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    report of FSW on a ferritic- martensitic stainless steel is the work of Chung, which applied this approach to a dissimilar weld between F82H (ferritic... martensitic ) and SUS304 (austenitic stainless ) [43]. 7 D. CORROSION OF FERRITIC/ MARTENSITIC STEELS IN HIGH TEMPERATURE MOLTEN SALT COOLANTS In...Philadelphia, PA, 1992, pp. 1267–1286, March 1990. [15] S. Rosenwasser, ―The application of martensitic stainless steels in a lifelong fusion first wall

  10. Development of Advanced 9Cr Ferritic-Martensitic Steels and Austenitic Stainless Steels for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sham, T.-L.; Tan, L.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of creep, thermal aging and weldability aspects: • The creep resistance of advanced 9Cr FM steels was greatly enhanced by optimizing their compositions as well as by using TMT. – Up to about 700 times increase in creep life, compared to Gr91, was achieved under the accelerated test conditions at 600°C. • The increased density of ultrafine precipitates facilitated the increase in strength and thermal aging resistance, leading to the improved creep resistance. • Properties of four candidate austenitic alloys, HT-UPS, NF709, and two modified HT-UPS alloy (designated Alloys A and B), have been evaluated and compared with 316H. – Alloys A and B showed successful improvement in weldability. – Only a little difference in thermal stability of the alloys in solution annealed conditions. 10% cold work increased the yield strength of the alloys for more than 200% compared to the HT-UPS without cold work. – HT-UPS exhibited the best creep properties among the alloys with and without cold work, and NF709 followed

  11. Water corrosion resistance of ODS ferritic-martensitic steel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasuji

    2008-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels have superior radiation resistance; it is possible to achieve a service temperature of up to around 973 K because of their superior creep strength. These advantages of ODS steels facilities their application to long-life cladding tubes in advanced fast reactor fuel elements. In addition to neutron radiation resistance, sufficient general corrosion resistance to maintain the strength of the cladding, and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance for spent-fuel-pool cooling systems and high-temperature oxidation for the fuel-clad chemical interaction (FCCI) of ODS ferritic steel are required. Although the addition of Cr to ODS is effective in preventing water corrosion and high-temperature oxidation, an excessively high amount of Cr leads to embrittlement due to the formation of a Cr-rich α' precipitate. The Cr content in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite, the ODS steels developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is controlled. In a previous paper, it has been demonstrated that the resistances of 9Cr- and 12Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels for high-temperature oxidation are superior to those of conventional 12Cr ferritic steel. However, the water corrosion data of ODS ferritic-martensitic steels are very limited. In this study, a water corrosion test was conducted on ODS steels in consideration of the spent-fuel-pool cooling condition, and the results were compared with those of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. (author)

  12. The strength evaluation and σ-phase aging behavior of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Park, Joong Cheul; Lee, Woo Ho; Jang, Sun Sik

    1999-01-01

    σ-phase of cast stainless steel(CF8M) was artificially precipitated by means of thermal aging at 700 deg C with various holding time (0.33, 5, 15, 50 and 150 hrs) to evaluate the behavior of thermal aging status of strength change. The structure observation, hardness test, tensile test, impact test and fatigue crack growth rates test for as-received and degraded material were also performed to evaluate static strength, toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior corresponding to the aging condition of CF8M. The results showed that the area fraction of σ-phase and hardness value increased with thermal aging time. But, for the impact values, upper shelf energy decreased and fatigue crack growth rates increased with σ-phase aging progressed than that of virgin material

  13. Welding of high-strength stainless steel 03Kh12N10MT for cryogenic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is being given to weld resistance to cold and hot cracking at 93 and 77K and to mechanical properties of welded joints of high-strength stainless steel 03Kh12N10MT, produced under the fluxes AN-17M, AN-18, AN-26, AN-45, ANF-5, 48-OF-6, ANK-45 and ANK-49 in combination with various welding wires. It is shown that welds on 03Kh12N10MT steel meet the requirements only when using 48-OF-6 or ANK-49 flux. It is noted that impact strength of welds at 77K is sufficiently affected by the volume fraction of non-metallic inclusions in weld metal

  14. Correlation of yield strength with irradiation-induced microstructure in AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Hulbert, L.A.

    1985-10-01

    Improvements in the correlation of radiation-induced change in yield strength in AISI 316 stainless steel with microstructure were made by re-examining the role of short-range obstacles. Effects due to the size of the obstacles relative to their spacing and shape of the obstacles were applied. The concept of shearing the precipitates instead of bowing around them was used to explain the effects of precipitate hardening. It is concluded that large changes in yield strength may be produced in high swelling materials. Voids will dominate the hardening at high dpa. The increase in hardening will depend on the diameter of the voids even though the swelling in the material is the same. Precipitate hardening at high fluence (>15 dpa) make a significant contribution for irradiation temperatures above 500 0 C

  15. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  16. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP; in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching; and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  17. Stainless steel valves with enhanced performance through microstructure optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, A. A.; Boukhattam, M.; Haggeney, M.; Güler, S.

    2017-08-01

    Compressor valves are made of hardened and tempered martensitic steels. The main design criterion for the material selection is the fatigue performance of the material under bending loads. In some cases impact loads and corrosive atmospheres additionally act on the part. For the first time, the microstructure of the most commonly used stainless steel and its influence on the properties relevant for flapper valves is presented and described in this paper. It is demonstrated how the tensile properties of a martensitic stainless steel can be enhanced by tailoring the microstructure. Electron back scatter diffraction method is carried out to explain the changes in monotonic mechanical properties. Through a modified heat treatment the martensite microstructure is refined resulting in an increase of yield and ultimate tensile strength and at the same time a significant increase of elongation.

  18. Corrosion fatigue investigation of a high nitrogen 12% Cr-steel and of a high strength martensitic PH 13-8 Mo steel under simulated steam turbine conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Thomas, K.G.; Schweigart, H.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the corrosion fatigue investigations of two martensitic stainless steels (PH 13-8 Mo, X20 CrMoV 12 1; corrosion medium: 0,01 m NaCl or 22 wt% NaCl; pH value 3 or 7). The working programm includes electrochemical and corrosion fatigue tests. Also chemical analysis, mechanical-technological and metallographical as SEM investigations were performed. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of high-strength stainless steel weldments for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary design considerations for the Compact Ignition Tokomak fusion reactor magnet cases are yield strength and toughness in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to room temperature (77 to 300K). Type 21-6-9 stainless steel, also known as Nitronic 40, is the proposed alloy for this application. This study documented the mechanical properties, including tensile yield strength and Charpy V-notch impact toughness, at 77K and room temperature, of weldments made using seven different filler metals. Six welds were made with filler metal added as cold filler wire using the argon-shielded gas tungsten arc welding process. Filler metals included Nitronic 35W and 40W, 21-6-9, ERNiCr-3 (Inconel 82), ERNiCrMo-3 (Inconel 625), and Inconel 625 PLUS. All welds were prepared with a double-groove butt-weld geometry. At room temperature, all of the filler metals had yield strengths which exceeded the base metal. However, at 77K only the Nitronics and the 21-6-9 filler metals exceeded the base metals, and the Inconel filler metals were significantly weaker. The impact properties of the weld metals were very good at room temperature, with the exception of Inconel 625. At 77K, impact toughness was greatly reduced for all of the filler metals with the exception of Inconel 82. This alloy had excellent toughness at both temperatures. The severe drop in the impact toughness of the Nitronic and 21-6-9 filler metals was attributed to the amount of ferrite present in these welds. At 77K, fracture occurred by a cleavage mechanism in the ferrite regions which allowed the crack to grow readily. The fully austenitic Inconel 82 material fractured by a microvoid coalescence mode at either test temperature. These results indicate that the Inconel 82 filler metal is the preferred material for welding 21-6-o stainless steel for this application

  20. Stainless steels for cryogenic bolts and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, F.; Rabbe, P.; Odin, G.

    1975-01-01

    Stainless steel for cryogenic applications are generally austenitic steels which, under the effect of cold-drawing, can or cannot undergo a partial martensitic transformation according to their composition. It has been shown that very high ductility and endurance characteristics at low temperatures, together with very high yield strength and resistances values, can be attained with grades of nitrogenous steels of types Z2CN18-10N and Z3CMN18-8-6N. Optimum ductility values are obtained by employing to the best possible, the martensitic transformations which develop during cold-drawing. From the plotting of the rational traction curves, it is possible to analyse very simply the influence of the composition on the martensitic transformations [fr

  1. Plasticity-induced martensitic transformation in austenitic stainless steels SUS 304 and SUS 316 L at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. Quantitative measurement using X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshifumi; Nakasone, Yuji; Shimizu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Noboru

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates plasticity-induced martensitic transformation in two types of austenitic stainless steels SUS 304 and 316 L subjected to uniform tensile stresses at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The X-ray diffraction method was used in order to measure volume fractions of transformed α' and ε' martensitic phases and to obtain the dependence of the volume fractions of these phases on the applied strain level ε. The difficulty in the measurement of the martensitic phases by the X-ray diffraction method caused by the preferred orientation which had been introduced during the rolling process and during the tensile tests was overcome by the help of Arnell's Method. Two types of target materials, i.e. Cu and Mo for the X-ray source were used to verify the accuracy and reproducibility of the present X-ray diffraction analyses. The results were also compared with those obtained by the saturation magnetization method using VSM, or vibrating-sample magnetometer reported elsewhere. It was revealed that α' was transformed in SUS 304 both at 297 and 77 K whereas in SUS 316L only at 77 K. Another type of martensitic phase, i.e., ε was transformed in the both steels only at 77 K. Almost the same values of the volume fractions of α' and ε' phases were obtained by the two types of target materials. The plots of α' volume fraction obtained by the X-ray diffraction methods vs. that by VSM showed a good linear correlation. (author)

  2. Bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to prefabricated acrylic teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Abdul Razak, Wan Salbiah; Sherriff, Martyn; Bister, Dirk; Seehra, Jadbinder

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the force to debond stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to acrylic teeth using different combinations of adhesive and surface treatments. One hundred prefabricated upper lateral incisor acrylic teeth were divided into 4 equal groups: Transbond XT® adhesive only (Group 1, control), Transbond XT® adhesive with sandblasting (Group 2), Transbond XT® adhesive with abrasion / + methyl methacrylate (MMA) (Group 3) and Triad® Gel only (Group 4). The force in Newtons (N) to debond the brackets was measured. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and pairwise multi-comparison of means (Šidak's adjustment) were undertaken. The highest force to debond was recorded for Group 2 (275.7 N; SD 89.0) followed by Group 3 (241.9 N; SD 76.0), Group 1 (142.7 N; SD 36.7) and Group 4 (67.9 N; SD 21.1). Significant differences in bond strength measurements between the experimental groups were detected. Mean force values for the groups revealed no significant differences between Group 2 and Group 3 (p>0.05). Both sandblasting and surface abrasion/+ application of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in combination with Transbond XT® adhesive are recommended for bonding stainless orthodontic brackets to acrylic teeth.

  3. Influence of Carbide Modifications on the Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High-Strength Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joo-Young; Park, Soo-Keun; Kwon, Hoon; Cho, Ki-Sub

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical properties of ultra-high-strength secondary hardened stainless steels with varying Co, V, and C contents have been studied. A reduced-Co alloy based on the chemical composition of Ferrium S53 was made by increasing the V and C content. This changed the M2C-strengthened microstructure to a MC plus M2C-strengthened microstructure, and no deteriorative effects were observed for peak-aged and over-aged samples despite the large reduction in Co content from 14 to 7 wt pct. The mechanical properties according to alloying modification were associated with carbide precipitation kinetics, which was clearly outlined by combining analytical tools including small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) as well as an analytical TEM with computational simulation.

  4. Effects of hydrogen on the tensile strength characteristics of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.; Pelissier, J.; Pluchery, M.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay

    1961-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of hydrogen on stainless steel, that might possibly be used as a canning material in hydrogen-cooled reactors. Apparent ultimate-tensile strength is only 80 per cent of initial value for hydrogen content about 50 cc NTP/ 100 g, and reduction in area decreases from 80 to 55 per cent. A special two-stage replica technique has been developed which allows fracture surface of small tensile specimens (about 0.1 mm diam.) to be examined in an electron microscope. All the specimens showed evidence of ductile character throughout the range of hydrogen contents investigated, but the aspect of the fracture surfaces gradually changes with increasing amounts. (author) [fr

  5. Statistical properties of material strength for reliability evaluation of components of fast reactors. Austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaya, Shigeru; Sasaki, Naoto; Tomobe, Masato

    2015-03-01

    Many efforts have been made to implement the System Based Code concept of which objective is to optimize margins dispersed in several codes and standards. Failure probability is expected to be a promising quantitative index for optimization of margins, and statistical information for random variables is needed to evaluate failure probability. Material strength like tensile strength is an important random variable, but the statistical information has not been provided enough yet. In this report, statistical properties of material strength such as creep rupture time, steady creep strain rate, yield stress, tensile stress, flow stress, fatigue life and cyclic stress-strain curve, were estimated for SUS304 and 316FR steel, which are typical structural materials for fast reactors. Other austenitic stainless steels like SUS316 were also used for statistical estimation of some material properties such as fatigue life. These materials are registered in the JSME code of design and construction of fast reactors, so test data used for developing the code were used as much as possible in this report. (author)

  6. The Effect of Hot Working on Structure and Strength of a Precipitation Strengthened Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataya, M. C.; Carr, M. J.; Krauss, G.

    1984-02-01

    The development of microstructure and strength during forging in a γ' strengthened austenitic stainless steel, JBK-75, was investigated by means of forward extrusion of cylindrical specimens. The specimens were deformed in a strain range of 0.16 to 1.0, from 800°C to 1080°C, and at approximate strain rates of 2 (press forging) and 2 × 103 s-1 (high energy rate forging), and structures examined by light and transmission microscopy. Mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing as-forged and forged and aged specimens. The alloy exhibited an extremely wide variety of structures and properties within the range of forging pzrameters studied. Deformation at the higher strain rate via high energy rate forging resulted in unrecovered substructures and high strengths at low forging temperatures, and static recrystallization and low strengths at high temperatures. In contrast, however, deformation at the lower strain rate via press forging resulted in retention of the well developed subgrain structure and associated high strength produced at high forging temperatures and strains. At lower temperatures and strains during press forging a subgrain structure formed preferentially at high angle grain boundaries, apparently by a creep-type deformation mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization was not an important restoration mechanism for any of the forging conditions. The results are interpreted on the basis of stacking fault energy and the accumulation of strain energy during hot working. The significance of observed microstructural differences for equivalent deformation conditions (iso-Z, where Z is the Zener-Holloman parameter) is discussed in relation to the utilization of Z for predicting hot work structures and strengths. Aging showed that the γ' precipitation process is not affected by substructure and that the strengthening contributions, from substructure and precipitation, were independent and additive. Applications for these findings are discussed in terms

  7. The effect of hot working on structure and strength of a precipitation strengthened austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mataya, M.C.; Carr, M.J.; Krauss, G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of microstructure and strength during forging a γ' strengthened austenitic stainless steel, JBK-75, was investigated. The specimens were deformed in a strain range of 0.16 to 1.0, from 800 0 C to 1080 0 C at approximate strain rates of 2 (press forging) and 2 X 10 3 S -1 (high energy rate forging). Mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing as-forged and forged and aged specimens. The alloy exhibited a wide variety of structures and properties within the range of forging parameters studied. Deformation at the higher strain rate via high energy rate forging resulted in unrecovered substructures and high strengths at low forging temperatures, and static recrystallization and low strengths at high temperatures. In contrast, however, deformation at the lower strain rate via press forging resulted in retention of the well developed subgrain structure and associated high strength produced at high forging temperatures and strains. At lower temperatures and strains during press forging a subgrain structure formed preferentially at high angle grain boundaries, apparently by a creep-type deformation mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization was not an important restoration mechanism for any of the forging conditions. The results are interpreted on the basis of stacking fault energy and the accumulation of strain energy during hot working. The significance of microstructural differences for equivalent deformation conditions (iso-Z, where Z is the Zener-Holloman parameter) is discussed in relation to the utilization of Z for predicting hot work structures and strengths. Aging showed that γ' precipitation is not affected by substructure and that the strengthening contributions were independent and additive. Applications for these findings are discussed in terms of process design criteria

  8. CEMS of Sb+ implanted stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy-Poulsen, H.; Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Hayashi, H.

    1986-01-01

    Martensitic transformations have been analyzed in a series of antimony implanted austenitic stainless steels using CEMS. The implanted samples contain about 70 vol% martensite, which is considerably more than can be formed conventionally by plastic deformation of cooling below the martensite start temperature. CEM spectra from implantation induced martensite and from martensite formed in conventional processes are virtually identical. In both cases the hyperfine field is ∼ 25T. (Auth.)

  9. CEMS of Sb+ implanted stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy-Poulsen, H.; Copenhagen Univ.; Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Hayashi, H.

    1985-01-01

    Martensitic transformations have been analyzed in a series of antimony implanted austenitic stainless steels using CEMS. The implanted samples contain about 70 vol% martensite, which is considerably more than can be formed conventionally by plastic deformation or cooling below the martensite start temperature. CEM spectra from implantation induced martensite and from martensite formed in conventional processes are virtually identical. In both cases the hyperfine field is ∝25 T. (orig.)

  10. Microstructure-strength relations in a hardenable stainless steel with 16 pct Cr, 1.5 pct Mo, and 5 pct Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobner, P. J.; Blšs, V.

    1984-07-01

    Metallographic studies have been conducted on a 0.024 pct C-16 pct Cr-1.5 pct Mo-5 pct Ni stainless steel to study the phase reactions associated with heat treatments and investigate the strengthening mechanisms of the steel. In the normalized condition, air cooled from 1010 °C, the microstructure consists of 20 pct ferrite and 80 pct martensite. Tempering in a temperature range between 500 and 600 °C results in a gradual transformation of martensite to a fine mixture of ferrite and austenite. At higher tempering temperatures, between 600 and 800 °C, progressively larger quantities of austenite form and are converted during cooling to proportionally increasing amounts of fresh martensite. The amount of retained austenite in the microstructure is reduced to zero at 800 °C, and the microstructure contains 65 pct re-formed martensite and 35 pct total ferrite. Chromium rich M23C6 carbides precipitate in the single tempered microstructures. The principal strengthening is produced by the presence of martensite in the microstructure. Additional strengthening is provided by a second tempering treatment at 400 °C due to the precipitation of ultrafine (Cr, Mo) (C,N) particles in the ferrite.

  11. High Strength and Ductility of Additively Manufactured 316L Stainless Steel Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsujjoha, Md.; Agnew, Sean R.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.; Moore, William R.; Newman, Tabitha A.

    2018-04-01

    Structure-property relationships of an additively manufactured 316L stainless steel were explored. A scanning electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis revealed a fine cellular-dendritic (0.5 to 2 μm) substructure inside large irregularly shaped grains ( 100 μm). The cellular structure grows along the crystallographic directions. However, texture analysis revealed that the main texture component is inclined by 15 deg from the building direction. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis indicated a high dislocation density of 1 × 1015 m-2 in the as-built material, which correlates well with the observed EBSD microstructure and high-yield strength, via the traditional Taylor hardening equation. Significant variations in strain hardening behavior and ductility were observed for the horizontal (HB) and vertical (VB) built samples. Ductility of HB and VB samples measured 49 and 77 pct, respectively. The initial growth texture and subsequent texture evolution during tensile deformation are held responsible for the observed anisotropy. Notably, EBSD analysis of deformed samples showed deformation twins, which predominately form in the grains with aligned parallel to the loading direction. The VB samples showed higher twinning activity, higher strain hardening rates at high strain, and therefore, higher ductility. Analysis of annealed samples revealed that the observed microstructures and properties are thermally stable, with only a moderate decrease in strength and very similar levels of ductility and anisotropy, compared with the as-built condition.

  12. Low friction and high strength of 316L stainless steel tubing for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Lee, Soo–Wohn; Pyun, Young–Sik

    2017-01-01

    We propose herein a nondestructive surface modification technique called ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) to increase the strength and to improve the tribological performance of 316L stainless steel (SS) tubing. Nanocrystallization along nearly the complete tube thickness of 200 μm was achieved by UNSM technique that was confirmed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Nano-hardness of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens was measured using a nanoindentation. Results revealed that a substantial increase in hardness was obtained for the UNSM-treated specimen that may be attributed to the nanocrystallization and refined grains. Stress-strain behavior of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens was assessed by a 3-point bending test. It was found that the UNSM-treated specimen exhibited a much higher strength than that of the untreated specimen. In addition, the tribological behavior of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens with an outer diameter (OD) of 1.6 mm and an inner diameter (ID) of 1.2 mm was investigated using a cylinder-on-cylinder (crossed tubes of equal radius) tribo-tester against itself under dry conditions at ambient temperature. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the UNSM-treated specimen were remarkably improved compared to that of the untreated specimen. The significant increase in hardness after UNSM treatment is responsible for the improved friction coefficient and wear resistance of the tubing. Thus, the UNSM technique was found to be beneficial to improving the mechanical and tribological properties of 316L SS tubing for various potential biomedical applications, in particular for coronary artery stents. - Highlights: • A newly developed setting for tubing was employed. • A nanocrystalline surface was produced by UNSM technique. • High hardness and strength were obtained by UNSM technique. • Friction and wear behavior was improved by UNSM technique.

  13. Low friction and high strength of 316L stainless steel tubing for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanov, Auezhan, E-mail: aamanov@outlook.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asan 31460 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo–Wohn [Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asan 31460 (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Young–Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asan 31460 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    We propose herein a nondestructive surface modification technique called ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) to increase the strength and to improve the tribological performance of 316L stainless steel (SS) tubing. Nanocrystallization along nearly the complete tube thickness of 200 μm was achieved by UNSM technique that was confirmed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Nano-hardness of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens was measured using a nanoindentation. Results revealed that a substantial increase in hardness was obtained for the UNSM-treated specimen that may be attributed to the nanocrystallization and refined grains. Stress-strain behavior of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens was assessed by a 3-point bending test. It was found that the UNSM-treated specimen exhibited a much higher strength than that of the untreated specimen. In addition, the tribological behavior of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens with an outer diameter (OD) of 1.6 mm and an inner diameter (ID) of 1.2 mm was investigated using a cylinder-on-cylinder (crossed tubes of equal radius) tribo-tester against itself under dry conditions at ambient temperature. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the UNSM-treated specimen were remarkably improved compared to that of the untreated specimen. The significant increase in hardness after UNSM treatment is responsible for the improved friction coefficient and wear resistance of the tubing. Thus, the UNSM technique was found to be beneficial to improving the mechanical and tribological properties of 316L SS tubing for various potential biomedical applications, in particular for coronary artery stents. - Highlights: • A newly developed setting for tubing was employed. • A nanocrystalline surface was produced by UNSM technique. • High hardness and strength were obtained by UNSM technique. • Friction and wear behavior was improved by UNSM technique.

  14. A low-temperature study to examine the role of epsilon-martensite during strain-induced transformations in metastable austenitic stainless steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Delhez, R; Bronsveld, P.M.; Beyer, J.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Post, J.

    2009-01-01

    A low-temperature study of the mechanical behaviour of a metastable semi-austenitic stainless steel was carried out. This class of stainless steels is found to show a characteristic hump followed by softening in their stress–strain curves, especially at low temperatures, much like dynamically

  15. A low-temperature study to examine the role of epsilon-martensite during strain-induced transformations in metastable austenitic stainless steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Delhez, R.; Bronsveld, P. M.; Beyer, J.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; Post, J.

    A low-temperature study of the mechanical behaviour of a metastable semi-austenitic stainless steel was carried out. This class of stainless steels is found to show a characteristic hump followed by softening in their stress-strain curves, especially at low temperatures, much like dynamically

  16. Diffusion Couple Alloying of Refractory Metals in Austenitic and Ferritic/Martensitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    stainless steel and ferritic/ martensitic steel can vary from structural and support components in the reactor core to reactor fuel...of ferritic/ martensitic steels compared to type 316 stainless steel after irradiation in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at 420 ºC to ~80dpa (From...ferritic martensitic steel at Sandia National Laboratories. The 316 stainless steel had a certified composition of:

  17. Simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility for 3D-printed stainless steel 316L by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongji; Tan, Xipeng; Tor, Shu Beng; Chua, Chee Kai

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing or three-dimensional printing technology has gained tremendous attention due to its controllable, digital, and automated manufacturing process, which can afford a refined microstructure and superior strength. However, it is a major challenge to additively manufacture metal parts with satisfactory ductility and toughness. Here we report a novel selective laser melting process to simultaneously enhance the strength and ductility of stainless steel 316L by in-process engineering its microstructure into a crystallographic texture. We find that the tensile strength and ductility of SLM-built stainless steel 316L samples could be enhanced by 16% and 40% respectively, with the engineered textured microstructure compared to the common textured microstructure. This is because the favorable nano-twinning mechanism was significantly more activated in the textured stainless steel 316L samples during plastic deformation. In addition, kinetic simulations were performed to unveil the relationship between the melt pool geometry and crystallographic texture. The new additive manufacturing strategy of engineering the crystallographic texture can be applied to other metals and alloys with twinning-induced plasticity. This work paves the way to additively manufacture metal parts with high strength and high ductility.

  18. submitter Physical Properties of a High-Strength Austenitic Stainless Steel for the Precompression Structure of the ITER Central Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Arauzo, Ana; Roussel, Pascal; Libeyre, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ITER central solenoid (CS) consists of six independent coils kept together by a precompression support structure that must react vertical tensile loads and provide sufficient preload to maintain coil-to-coil contact when the solenoid is energized. The CS precompression system includes tie plates, lower and upper key blocks, load distribution and isolation plates and other attachment, support and insulating hardware. The tie plates operating at 4 K are manufactured starting from forgings in a high-strength austenitic stainless steel (FXM-19) with a stringent specification. Moreover, forged components for the lower and upper key blocks have to be provided in the same FXM-19 grade with comparably strict requirements. FXM-19 is a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, featuring high strength and toughness, ready weldability, and forgeability. It features as well higher integral thermal contraction down to 4 K compared with the very high Mn steel grade selected for the CS coil jackets, hence providing an ad...

  19. Effect of strain-induced martensitic transformation on high cycle fatigue behavior in cyclically-prestrained type 304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Yoshihiko; Kakiuchi, Toshifumi; Akita, Masayuki; Nakajima, Masaki; Nakamura, Yuki; Yajima, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the cyclic prestrain on the fatigue behavior in type 304 austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Rotating bending fatigue tests have been performed in laboratory air using the specimens subjected to ±5% cyclic prestrain at room temperature (R.T.) and -5°C. Martensitic phase volume fraction of the prestrained specimen at -5°C was 48% and larger than 3.8% at R.T. The prestrained specimens exhibited higher fatigue strengths than the as-received ones, and larger volume fraction of martensitic phase resulted in the higher fatigue limit. EBSD analysis revealed that the martensitic phases were more uniformly distributed in the austenitic matrix in the cyclically-prestrained specimens than in the monotonically-prestrained ones. Fatigue crack initiation from inclusion was observed only in the cyclically-prestrained specimens at -5°C. High volume fraction and uniform distribution of martensitic phase induced the transition of crack initiation mechanism and led to the higher fatigue limit. In type 304 stainless steel with high volume fraction of strain-induced martensitic phase, the prediction of fatigue limit based on Vickers hardness could give unconservative results. (author)

  20. Development of stainless steels for nuclear power plant - Advanced nuclear materials development -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Ryu, Woo Seog; Chi, Se Hwan; Lee, Bong Sang; Oh, Yong Jun; Byun, Thak Sang; Oh, Jong Myung

    1994-07-01

    This report reviews the status of R and D and the material specifications of nuclear components in order to develop the stainless steels for nuclear applications, and the technology of computer-assisted alloy design is developed to establish the thermodynamic data of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-C-N system which is the basic stainless steel systems. High strength and corrosion resistant stainless steels, 316LN and super clean 347, are developed, and the manufacturing processes and heat treatment conditions are determined. In addition, a martensitic steel is produced as a model alloy for turbine blade, and characterized. The material properties showed a good performance for nuclear applications. (Author)

  1. Anomaly in the dynamic strength of austenitic stainless steel 12Cr19Ni10Ti under shock wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkushin, G. V.; Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Savinykh, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    Measurement results for the shock wave compression profiles of 12Cr19Ni10Ti steel and its dynamic strength in the strain rate range 105-106 s-1 are presented. The protracted viscous character of the spall fracture is revealed. With the previously obtained data taken into account, the measurement results are described by a polynomial relation, which can be used to construct the fracture kinetics. On the lower boundary of the range, the resistance to spall fracture is close to the value of the true strength of the material under standard low-rate strain conditions; on the upper boundary, the spall strength is more than twice greater than this quantity. An increase in the temperature results in a decrease in both the dynamic limit of elasticity and the spall fracture strength of steel. The most interesting result is the anomaly in the dependence of the spall fracture strength on the duration of the shock wave compression pulse, which is related to the formation of deformation martensite near the growing discontinuities.

  2. Preparation of high-performance ultrafine-grained AISI 304L stainless steel under high temperature and pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk ultra-fine grained (UFG AISI 304L stainless steel with excellent mechanical properties was prepared by a high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP method using nanocrystalline AISI 304L stainless steel powders obtained from ball milling. Samples were sintered in high-pressure conditions using the highest martensite content of AISI 304L stainless steel powders milled for 25 h. Analyses of phase composition and grain size were accomplished by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. By comparing the reverse martensite transformation under vacuum and HTHP treat, we consider that pressure can effectively promote the change in the process of transformation. Compared with the solid-solution-treated 304L, the hardness and yield strength of the samples sintered under HTHP are considerably higher. This method of preparation of UFG bulk stainless steel may be widely popularised and used to obtain UFG metallic materials with good comprehensive performance.

  3. Mechanical properties of martensitic alloy AISI 422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Hu, W.L.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1992-09-01

    HT9 is a martensitic stainless steel that has been considered for structural applications in liquid metal reactors (LMRs) as well as in fusion reactors. AISI 422 is a commercially available martensitic stainless steel that closely resembles HT9, and was studied briefly under the auspices of the US LMR program. Previously unpublished tensile, fracture toughness and charpy impact data on AISI 422 were reexamined for potential insights into the consequences of the compositional differences between the two alloys, particularly with respect to current questions concerning the origin of the radiation-induced embrittlement observed in HT9. 8 refs, 8 figs

  4. Radiation swelling of steels with lath martensite-austenic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagaradze, V.V.; Pavlov, V.A.; Alyab'ev, V.M.; Lapin, S.S.; Ermishkin, V.A.; Antonova, O.V.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of electron radiation in the column of the JEM-1000 electron microscope on radiation swelling of austenite as austenitic fields and thin plates surrounded by α-martensite crystals is investigated. Formation of lath structure of alternating dispersive plates of martensite and invert austenite formed as a result of partial inverse martensite transformation α→γ is shown to restrain radiation swelling and formation of vacancy voids in stainless steels

  5. Influence of plastic strain on deformation-induced martensitic transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Groen, M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of plastic strain on deformation-induced martensitic transformations have been investigated experimentally. Austenitic metastable stainless steel samples were heated to a temperature at which the transformation is suppressed and were plastically strained to different amounts. The

  6. Contribution of deformation mechanisms to strength and ductility in two Cr-Mn grade austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S., E-mail: atef_saleh@s-petrol.suez.edu.eg [Materials Engineering Laboratory, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Karjalainen, L.P. [Materials Engineering Laboratory, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Chemical Engineering Department, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130, USA. (United States); Talonen, J. [Outokumpu Oyj, Box 140, FI-02201 Espoo (Finland)

    2013-01-01

    The role of different deformation mechanisms in controlling mechanical properties were studied in two low-Ni, Cr-Mn austenitic stainless steel grades (Types 201 and 201L) by tensile testing and microstructure examinations. Tensile tests were carried out at two different strain rates, 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, in the temperature range from -80 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C. It was observed that the flow properties and work hardening rate are affected significantly by temperature and strain rate for the concerned steels through variation of deformation mechanism. Deformation-induced austenite-to-martensite transformation (TRIP effect) is the dominant mechanism at temperatures below room temperature. From 50 Degree-Sign C up to 200 Degree-Sign C, plastic deformation is controlled by mechanical twinning (TWIP effect) and dislocation glide. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to study the plastic deformation accommodation and identify the primary deformation mechanisms operating in the deformed steels.

  7. 76 FR 49726 - Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel, and (12) three specialty stainless steels typically used...\\ ``Gilphy 36'' is a trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is...-831] Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in...

  8. Energy Barriers and Hysteresis in Martensitic Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    glacial acetic acid (CH3COOH) and 10-15% perchloric acid (HCLO4) by volume, the cathode was stainless steel , the anode was stainless steel or Ti, the...Submitted to Acta Materialia Energy barriers and hysteresis in martensitic phase transformations Zhiyong Zhang, Richard D. James and Stefan Müller...hysteresis based on the growth from a small scale of fully developed austenite martensite needles. In this theory the energy of the transition layer plays a

  9. Plasma surface oxidation of 316L stainless steel for improving adhesion strength of silicone rubber coating to metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Afrooz, E-mail: afroozlatifi@yahoo.com [Department of Biomaterials, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, Mohammad [Novel Drug Delivery Systems Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi [Biomaterials Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/159, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daliri Joupari, Morteza [Animal and Marine Biotechnology Dept., National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 14965/161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Stainless steel 316L was surface modified by plasma surface oxidation (PSO) and silicone rubber (SR) coating. • On the PSO substrates, concentration of oxide species was increased ca. 2.5 times comparing to non-PSO substrates. • The surface wettability was improved to 12.5°, in terms of water contact angle, after PSO. • Adhesion strength of SR coating on the PSO substrates was improved by more than two times comparing to non-PSO ones. • After pull-off test, the fractured area patterns for SR coating were dependent on the type of surface modifications received. - Abstract: Stainless steel 316L is one of the most widely used materials for fabricating of biomedical devices hence, improving its surface properties is still of great interest and challenging in biomaterial sciences. Plasma oxidation, in comparison to the conventional chemical or mechanical methods, is one of the most efficient methods recently used for surface treatment of biomaterials. Here, stainless steel specimens were surface oxidized by radio-frequency plasma irradiation operating at 34 MHz under pure oxygen atmosphere. Surface chemical composition of the samples was significantly changed after plasma oxidation by appearance of the chromium and iron oxides on the plasma-oxidized surface. A wettable surface, possessing high surface energy (83.19 mN m{sup −1}), was observed after plasma oxidation. Upon completion of the surface modification process, silicone rubber was spray coated on the plasma-treated stainless steel surface. Morphology of the silicone rubber coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A uniform coating was formed on the oxidized surface with no delamination at polymer–metal interface. Pull-off tests showed the lowest adhesion strength of coating to substrate (0.12 MPa) for untreated specimens and the highest (0.89 MPa) for plasma-oxidized ones.

  10. Substitution of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel for austentic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes the current program to develop a high-strength ferritic-martensitic steel. The alloy is essentially Fe-9% Cr-1% Mo with small additions of V and Nb and is known as modifed 9 Cr-1 Mo steel. Its elevated-temperature properties and design allowable stresses match those of type 304 stainless steel for temperatures up to 600 0 C and exceed those of other ferritic steels by factors of 2 to 3. The improved strength of this alloy permits its use in place of stainless steels for many applications

  11. STRUCTURAL STRESS RELAXATION IN STAINLESS INSTABILITY STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lyabuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The approach to the description of conditions of martensitic transformation in austenitic steel is advanced. Transformation induced hardening is the result of Le Chatelier principle in instability alloys. The phase transformation in austenitic instability stainless steel is the cause of reduction of grain refining and increase of strength. It was experimentally shown that physical-mechanical characteristics of the prepared materials were defined by the structure and inhomogeneous distribution of the hardening phase within a grain. The reasons for high thermal stability of inverse austenitic were established. The factors determining the inverse austenitic relaxation resistibility and resources for its increasing were revealed.

  12. Testing new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    of a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems for advanced high strength steels and stainless steels. The methodology is presented and applied to an industrial case, where different tribo-systems are tested. A universal sheet tribotester has been developed, which can run automatically repetitive......Testing of new tribo-systems in sheet metal forming has become an important issue due to new legislation, which forces industry to replace current, hazardous lubricants. The present paper summarizes the work done in a recent PhD project at the Technical University of Denmark on the development...

  13. Effect of Sandblasting and Type of Cement on the Bond Strength of Molar Bands on Stainless Steel Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazir, Omar A; Elaraby, Alaa; Alshamrani, Hamed; Salama, Fouad S

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) compare the bond strength of molar bands cemented to stainless steel crowns (SSCs) using glass ionomer cement (GIC), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), or polycarboxylate cement (PXC); and (2) assess the influence of sandblasting molar bands on the mean bond strength between the band and the SSC. Sixty SSCs and 60 molar bands were used. The inner surfaces of 30 molar bands were roughened by sandblasting prior to cementation. The bond strength was measured after dislodging the SSC using a push-out test. In the nonsandblasted group, a significant difference was observed between PXC and RMGIC (P >.04). In the sandblasted group, a significant difference was observed between PXC and RMGIC (P >.02), while there was only a marginal difference between GIC and RMGIC (P >.05). The sandblasted group exhibited superior bond strength overall. However, the only significant improvement was observed for GIC (P >.03). PXC showed the highest bond strength of molar bands to SSCs, while RMGIC showed the lowest. Sandblasting the inner surface of bands enhanced the bond strength of different cements.

  14. Effect of Reinforcement Using Stainless Steel Mesh, Glass Fibers, and Polyethylene on the Impact Strength of Heat Cure Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, H B Mallikarjuna; Shaik, Sharaz; Sachdeva, Harleen; Khare, Sumit; Haralur, Satheesh B; Roopa, K T

    2015-06-01

    The impact strength of denture base resin is of great concern and many approaches have been made to strengthen acrylic resin dentures. The objective of this study was to compare the impact strength of the denture base resin with and without reinforcement and to evaluate the impact strength of denture base resin when reinforced with stainless steel mesh, glass fiber, and polyethylene fibers in the woven form. The specimens (maxillary denture bases) were fabricated using a standard polyvinylsiloxane mold with conventional heat cured polymethyl methacrylate resin. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group I specimens or control group were not reinforced. Group II specimens were reinforced with stainless steel mesh and Group III and Group IV specimens were reinforced with three percent by weight of glass fibers and polyethylene fibers in weave form respectively. All the specimens were immersed in water for 1-week before testing. The impact strength was measured with falling weight impact testing machine. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Highest impact strength values were exhibited by the specimens reinforced with polyethylene fibers followed by glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and control group. Reinforcement of maxillary complete dentures showed a significant increase in impact strength when compared to unreinforced dentures. Polyethylene fibers exhibit better impact strength followed by glass fibers and stainless steel mesh. By using pre-impregnated glass and polyethylene fibers in woven form (prepregs) the impact strength of the denture bases can be increased effectively.

  15. Martensitic transformation in SUS304 steels with the same Ni equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, T.; Okino, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Echigoya, J.; Kamada, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of martensitic transformation due to plastic deformation at room temperature was investigated in SUS304 austenitic stainless steels with the same nickel equivalent. The absolute volume of the martensitic phase was obtained by saturation magnetization. We discuss the shapes of the martensitic phase caused by different values of coercive force. Martensitic transformation depends on the applied stress but is independent of nickel content with same nickel equivalent. We investigated applications to nondestructive testing on the basis of the present study. (author)

  16. Influence of brazing conditions on the strength of brazed joints of alumina dispersion-strengthened copper to 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, H.; Kikuchi, K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazing of alumina dispersion-strengthened copper (DS Cu) to 316 stainless steel were conducted in order to investigate the influence of filler metals and brazing conditions on the joint strength. The brazing were performed with a silver-base (BAg-8) and three kinds of gold-base (BAu-2.4.11) filler metals with varying brazing joint clearance and brazing time. The filler metal had a greater effect on the joint strength than the brazing joint clearance and brazing time. The joint with BAu-2 was superior to the joint with other filler metals. The tensile strength of the joint with BAu-2 was as large as that of DS Cu, however, the Charpy and low cycle fatigue strength were lower than those of DS Cu. The DS Cu melted near the brazed zone, consequently recrystallization and agglomeration of alumina occurred in the diffusion layer for all filler metals. The grain size after the recrystallization was small in order of BAu-2. BAu-4 and BAu-11, that was in accordance with the order of the brazing temperature. The excellent fracture strength for the joint with BAu-2 was attributed to the smallest grain size. (orig.)

  17. Degradation modes of austenitic and ferritic–martensitic stainless steels in He–CO–CO2 and liquid sodium environments of equivalent oxygen and carbon chemical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsoy, G.; Was, G.S.; Pawel, S.J.; Busby, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to explore possible thermodynamic correlations between the degradation modes of austenitic and ferritic–martensitic alloys observed in high temperature He–CO–CO 2 environments with oxygen and carbon chemical potentials equivalent to that in a liquid sodium environment containing 2–5 molppm oxygen and 0.02–0.2 molppm carbon at temperatures 500–700 °C. Two He–CO–CO 2 environments (Pco/Pco 2 = 1320, Pco = 1980 molppm, and Pco/Pco 2 = 9, Pco = 13.5 molppm) were selected to test alloys NF616 and 316L at 700 and 850 °C. Upon exposure to He environments at 850 °C, 316L samples exhibited thick surface Cr 2 O 3 scales and substantial internal oxidation; however at 700 °C no significant internal oxidation was observed. NF616 samples exhibited relatively thinner surface Cr 2 O 3 scales compared to 316L samples at both temperatures. NF616 samples exposed to liquid sodium at 700 °C and He–Pco/Pco 2 = 9 at 850 °C showed decarburization. No surface oxide formation was observed on the sample exposed to the Na environment. Results obtained from He exposure experiments provide insight into what may occur during long exposure times in a sodium environment

  18. Degradation modes of austenitic and ferritic–martensitic stainless steels in He–CO–CO{sub 2} and liquid sodium environments of equivalent oxygen and carbon chemical potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulsoy, G., E-mail: gulsoy@umich.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Was, G.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pawel, S.J.; Busby, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The objective of this work is to explore possible thermodynamic correlations between the degradation modes of austenitic and ferritic–martensitic alloys observed in high temperature He–CO–CO{sub 2} environments with oxygen and carbon chemical potentials equivalent to that in a liquid sodium environment containing 2–5 molppm oxygen and 0.02–0.2 molppm carbon at temperatures 500–700 °C. Two He–CO–CO{sub 2} environments (Pco/Pco{sub 2} = 1320, Pco = 1980 molppm, and Pco/Pco{sub 2} = 9, Pco = 13.5 molppm) were selected to test alloys NF616 and 316L at 700 and 850 °C. Upon exposure to He environments at 850 °C, 316L samples exhibited thick surface Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales and substantial internal oxidation; however at 700 °C no significant internal oxidation was observed. NF616 samples exhibited relatively thinner surface Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales compared to 316L samples at both temperatures. NF616 samples exposed to liquid sodium at 700 °C and He–Pco/Pco{sub 2} = 9 at 850 °C showed decarburization. No surface oxide formation was observed on the sample exposed to the Na environment. Results obtained from He exposure experiments provide insight into what may occur during long exposure times in a sodium environment.

  19. In situ post-weld heat treatment on martensitic stainless steel turbine runners using a robotic induction heating process to control temperature distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, E.; Hazel, B.; Côté, J.; Godin, S.

    2014-03-01

    A new robotic heat treatment process is developed. Using this solution it is now possible to perform local heat treatment on large steel components. Crack, cavitation and erosion repairs on turbine blades and Pelton buckets are among the applications of this technique. The proof of concept is made on a 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel designated "CA6NM". This alloy is widely used in the power industry for modern system components. Given the very tight temperature tolerance (600 to 630 °C) for post-weld heat treatment on this alloy, 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel is very well suited for demonstrating the possibilities of this process. To achieve heat treatment requirements, an induction heating system is mounted on a compact manipulator named "Scompi". This robot moves a pancake coil in order to control the temperature distribution. A simulator using thermal finite element analysis is first used for path planning. A feedback loop adjusts parameters in function of environmental conditions.

  20. In situ post-weld heat treatment on martensitic stainless steel turbine runners using a robotic induction heating process to control temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreault, E; Hazel, B; Côté, J; Godin, S

    2014-01-01

    A new robotic heat treatment process is developed. Using this solution it is now possible to perform local heat treatment on large steel components. Crack, cavitation and erosion repairs on turbine blades and Pelton buckets are among the applications of this technique. The proof of concept is made on a 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel designated C A6NM . This alloy is widely used in the power industry for modern system components. Given the very tight temperature tolerance (600 to 630 °C) for post-weld heat treatment on this alloy, 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel is very well suited for demonstrating the possibilities of this process. To achieve heat treatment requirements, an induction heating system is mounted on a compact manipulator named S compi . This robot moves a pancake coil in order to control the temperature distribution. A simulator using thermal finite element analysis is first used for path planning. A feedback loop adjusts parameters in function of environmental conditions

  1. Austenitic stainless steels and high strength copper alloys for fusion components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Zinkle, S.J.; Alexander, D.J.; Stubbins, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel (316LN), an oxide-dispersion-strengthened copper alloy (GlidCop A125), and a precipitation-hardened copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr) are the primary structural materials for the ITER first wall/blanket and divertor systems. While there is a long experience of operating 316LN stainless steel in nuclear environments, there is no prior experience with the copper alloys in neutron environments. The ITER first wall (FW) consists of a stainless steel shield with a copper alloy heat sink bonded by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The introduction of bi-layer structural material represents a new materials engineering challenge; the behavior of the bi-layer is determined by the properties of the individual components and by the nature of the bond interface. The development of the radiation damage microstructure in both classes of materials is summarized and the effects of radiation on deformation and fracture behavior are considered. The initial data on the mechanical testing of bi-layers indicate that the effectiveness of GlidCop A125 as a FW heat sink material is compromised by its strongly anisotropic fracture toughness and poor resistance to crack growth in a direction parallel to the bi-layer interface. (orig.)

  2. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 9Cr ferritic-martensitic steel clad tube for fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laha, K.; Saroja, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Vijay, R.; Venugopal Reddy, A.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Kapoor, Komal; Jha, S.K.; Tonpe, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key issues in the economical operation of FBR is to achieve high burn-up of fuel (200-250 GWd/t) which considerably reduces the fuel cycle cost. This imposes stringent requirements of void swelling resistance upto 200 dpa for the core structural materials. Presently used alloy 09 (a modified austenitic stainless steel, 15Cr-15Ni-Ti) for PFBR has void swelling limit less than 150 dpa. Because of the inherent void swelling resistance, 9-12Cr steels ferritic/martensitic steels are qualified for irradiation upto 200 dpa but their low creep strength at temperatures above 600 deg C restricts their application as a clad material. Oxide dispersion strengthening is found to be promising means of extending the creep resistance of ferritic/martensitic steels beyond 650 deg C without sacrificing the inherent advantages of high thermal conductivity and low swelling of ferritic steels

  3. Use of cyclic current reversal polarization voltammetry for investigating the relationship between corrosion resistance and heat-treatment induced variations in microstructures of 400 C martensitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Software for running a cyclic current reversal polarization voltammagram has been developed for use with a EG&G Princeton Applied Research Model 273 potentiostat/galvanostat system. The program, which controls the magnitude, direction and duration of an impressed galvanostatic current, will produce data in ASCII spreadsheets (Lotus, Quattro) for graphical representation of CCRPV voltammograms. The program was used to determine differences in corrosion resistance of 440 C martenstic stainless steel produced as a result of changes in microstructure effected by tempering. It was determined that tempering at all temperatures above 400 F resulted in increased polarizability of the material, with the increased likelihood that pitting would be initiated upon exposure to marine environments. These results will be used in development of remedial procedures for lowering the susceptibility of these alloys toward the stress corrosion cracking experienced in bearings used in high pressure oxygen turbopumps used in the main engines of space shuttle orbiters.

  4. Influence of Welding Strength Matching Coefficient and Cold Stretching on Welding Residual Stress in Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaqing; Hui, Hu; Gong, Jianguo

    2018-05-01

    Austenitic stainless steel is widely used in pressure vessels for the storage and transportation of liquid gases such as liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, and liquid hydrogen. Cryogenic pressure vessel manufacturing uses cold stretching technology, which relies heavily on welding joint performance, to construct lightweight and thin-walled vessels. Residual stress from welding is a primary factor in cases of austenitic stainless steel pressure vessel failure. In this paper, on the basis of Visual Environment 10.0 finite element simulation technology, the residual stress resulting from different welding strength matching coefficients (0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.4) for two S30408 plates welded with three-pass butt welds is calculated according to thermal elastoplastic theory. In addition, the stress field was calculated under a loading as high as 410 MPa and after the load was released. Path 1 was set to analyze stress along the welding line, and path 2 was set to analyze stress normal to the welding line. The welding strength matching coefficient strongly affected both the longitudinal residual stress (center of path 1) and the transverse residual stress (both ends of path 1) after the welding was completed. However, the coefficient had little effect on the longitudinal and transverse residual stress of path 2. Under the loading of 410 MPa, the longitudinal and transverse stress decreased and the stress distribution, with different welding strength matching coefficients, was less diverse. After the load was released, longitudinal and transverse stress distribution for both path 1 and path 2 decreased to a low level. Cold stretching could reduce the effect of residual stress to various degrees. Transverse strain along the stretching direction was also taken into consideration. The experimental results validated the reliability of the partial simulation.

  5. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    OpenAIRE

    Dahmen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting t...

  6. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  7. Effect of carbon content on microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled low carbon 12Cr-Ni stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.; Ye, X.N.; Li, J.D.; Jiang, L.Z.; Liu, Z.Y.; Wang, G.D.; Wang, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hot-rolled ultra low carbon martensite is characterized by dislocation cells substructure. → The formation of dislocation cells is attributed to high Ms and low interstitial atoms content. → Hot-rolled ultra low carbon 12Cr-Ni stainless steel has excellent impact toughness. → Delta ferrite deteriorates the impact toughness of hot-rolled 12Cr-Ni stainless steel. - Abstract: 12Cr-Ni stainless steels containing different carbon contents from 0.004 wt.% to 0.034 wt.% were hot-rolled and air-cooled. Their corresponding microstructures were observed with optical microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the Vickers hardness, tensile and impact tests were also carried out. It was found that the martensitic morphology was significantly influenced by carbon content. The as-received ultra low carbon martensite in the steel containing 0.004 wt.% C is characterized by dislocation cells substructure. The formation of dislocation cells is attributed to high martensite finishing point (above 400 deg. C) and low interstitial atoms content. On the other hand, the martensite in the steel containing 0.034 wt.% C consists mainly of typical martensite laths because of low martensite finishing point and high interstitial atoms content which hinder dislocation motion. Furthermore, carbon content has an evident effect on the mechanical properties of 12Cr-Ni steels. The hardness and strength of the as-received steels increase with an increase in carbon content, but their elongation and impact toughness decrease with the carbon content. The steel containing 0.004 wt.% C has excellent impact toughness due to the ultra low carbon content in the martensite composed of dislocation cells.

  8. Low-temperature creep of austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic deformation under constant load (creep) in austenitic stainless steels has been measured at temperatures ranging from 4 K to room temperature. Low-temperature creep data taken from past and unreported austenitic stainless steel studies are analyzed and reviewed. Creep at cryogenic temperatures of common austenitic steels, such as AISI 304, 310 316, and nitrogen-strengthened steels, such as 304HN and 3116LN, are included. Analyses suggests that logarithmic creep (creep strain dependent on the log of test time) best describe austenitic stainless steel behavior in the secondary creep stage and that the slope of creep strain versus log time is dependent on the applied stress/yield strength ratio. The role of cold work, strain-induced martensitic transformations, and stacking fault energy on low-temperature creep behavior is discussed. The engineering significance of creep on cryogenic structures is discussed in terms of the total creep strain under constant load over their operational lifetime at allowable stress levels.

  9. Development of new high-performance stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soo

    2002-01-01

    This paper focused on high-performance stainless steels and their development status. Effect of nitrogen addition on super-stainless steel was discussed. Research activities at Yonsei University, on austenitic and martensitic high-performance stainless, steels, and the next-generation duplex stainless steels were introduced

  10. Study of austenitic stainless steel welded with low alloy steel filler metal. [tensile and impact strength tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, F. A.; Dyke, R. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The tensile and impact strength properties of 316L stainless steel plate welded with low alloy steel filler metal were determined. Tests were conducted at room temperature and -100 F on standard test specimens machined from as-welded panels of various chemical compositions. No significant differences were found as the result of variations in percentage chemical composition on the impact and tensile test results. The weldments containing lower chromium and nickel as the result of dilution of parent metal from the use of the low alloy steel filler metal corroded more severely in a marine environment. The use of a protective finish, i.e., a nitrile-based paint containing aluminum powder, prevented the corrosive attack.

  11. Genetic design and characterization of novel ultra-high-strength stainless steels strengthened by Ni3Ti intermetallic nanoprecipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.; Wang, W.; Yang, K.; Bliznuk, V.; Kestens, L.A.I.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    A general computational alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and physical metallurgical principles, and coupled with a genetic optimization scheme, is presented. The method is applied to the design of new ultra-high-strength maraging stainless steels strengthened by Ni 3 Ti intermetallics. In the first design round, the alloy composition is optimized on the basis of precipitate formation at a fixed ageing temperature without considering other steps in the heat treatment. In the second round, the alloy is redesigned, applying an integrated model which allows for the simultaneous optimization of alloy composition and the ageing temperature as well as the prior austenitization temperature. The experimental characterizations of prototype alloys clearly demonstrate that alloys designed by the proposed approach achieve the desired microstructures.

  12. Effects of alloying and processing modifications on precipitation and strength in 9%Cr ferritic/martensitic steels for fast reactor cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippey, Kristin E.

    further modified utilizing thermomechanical processing (TMP) simulations with the GleebleRTM 3500. Hardness increased substantially in thermomechanically processed alloys, with increased hardness strongly correlating to decreased TMP temperature. The most significant difference between low- and high-temperature thermomechanically processed specimens was an increase in crystallite size at the higher temperature. The fundamental reason for higher strength in the TMP conditions is higher dislocation density, as precipitate volume fraction was not specifically improved in TMP conditions. Thermal stability of the base P92 and of the experimental alloys was analyzed by aging the alloys for times ranging from 500 to 10,000 h at 550, 600, 650, and 700 °C. Results suggest the hardness and thermal stability of LC is greater than that of 0Nb at lower aging temperatures and shorter times, with 0Nb surpassing LC microhardness at 10,000 h at 650 °C and for most conditions aged at 700 °C. Small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning transmission electron microscopy high-angle annular dark field (STEM-HAADF) in conjunction with EDS were used to elucidate x-ray findings. These microstructural characteristics were then correlated with mechanical properties, including Vickers microhardness testing, elevated-temperature tensile testing, and creep rupture testing. The designed alloys exhibited less stable microstructures leading to less favorable mechanical potencies, as compared to the base P92 alloy. It is posited that factors other than inclination towards MX over M23C6 precipitation are important in generating thermal stability and high-temperature strength, i.e. perhaps the solid solution or diffusion controlling effects of Co in the low-carbon variation of Taneike's alloys [1] delay martensite recovery. The refined thermal profiles, however, put both P92 and LC creep strengths beyond

  13. Evaluation of retentive strength of four luting cements with stainless steel crowns in primary molars: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisay, Iman; Khazaei, Yegane

    2018-01-01

    Stainless steel crown (SSC) is the most reliable restoration for primary teeth with extensive caries. Retention is of great importance for a successful restoration and is provided by various factors such as luting cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the retentive strength of SSC cemented with four different luting cements. In this in vitro study, A total of 55 extracted primary first molars were selected. Following crown selection and cementation (one with no cement and four groups cemented with resin, glass ionomer, zinc phosphate, and polycarboxylate), all the specimens were incubated and thermocycled in 5°C-55°C. Retentive properties of SSCs were tested with a mechanical test machine. First dislodgement of each specimen and full crown removal were recorded. One-way ANOVA test followed by least significant difference test and Kruskal-Wallis test was used for retentive strength comparison at the level of significance of P cemented with zinc phosphate exhibited higher retentive strength as compared to glass ionomer and polycarboxylate ( P cement showed the most promising results; thus, it can be preferably used for cementation of the teeth with no grossly broken down crowns.

  14. The negative effect of Zr addition on the high temperature strength in alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joonoh; Jang, Min-Ho; Kang, Jun-Yun; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a Zr addition on the precipitation behavior and mechanical properties in Nb-containing alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels was investigated using tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analysis. The TEM observation showed that a Zr addition led to the formation of a (Nb,Zr)(C,N) complex particle, which coarsened the Nb-rich carbonitride. Tensile tests were performed at an elevated temperature (700 °C), and both the tensile and yield strengths decreased with a Zr addition. This unexpected result of a Zr addition was due to the reduction of the precipitation strengthening by particle coarsening. - Highlights: • The effect of Zr on high temperature strength in AFA steel containing Nb was studied. • Both the tensile and yield strengths of an AFA steel decreased with Zr-addition. • This is due to the reduction of precipitation strengthening by particle coarsening. • Nb(C,N) and (Nb,Zr)(C,N) particles were precipitated in an AFA and Zr-added AFA steel. • The size of (Nb,Zr)(C,N) particle is much bigger than that of Nb(C,N) particle

  15. Experimental assessments of notch ductility and tensile strength of stainless steel weldments after 1200C neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.; Menke, B.H.; Awadalla, N.G.; O'Kula, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C/sub v/) properties of AISI 300 series stainless steel plate, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) materials from commercial production weldments in 406-mm-diameter pipe (12.7-mm wall) were investigated in unirradiated and irradiated conditions. Weld and HAZ tensile properties were also assessed in the two conditions. The plates and weld filler wires represent different steel melts; the welds were produced using the multipass MIG process. Weldment properties in two test orientations were evaluated. Specimens were irradiated in the UBR reactor to 1 x 10 20 n/cm 2 , E >0.1 MeV in a controlled temperature assembly. Specimen tests were performed at 25 0 C and 125 0 C. The radiation-induced reductions in C/sub v/ energy absorption at 25 0 C were about 42 percent for the weld and HAZ materials evaluated. A trend of energy increase with temperature was observed. The concomitant elevation in yield strength was about 53%. In contrast, the increase in tensile strength was only 16%. The postirradiation yield strength of the axial test orientation in the pipe was less than that of the circumferential test orientation. Results for the HAZ indicate that this component may be the weakest link in the weldment from a fracture resistant viewpoint

  16. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, R.; Cioffi, M. O. H.; Voorwald, H. J. C.

    2017-05-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment.

  17. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, R; Cioffi, M O H; Voorwald, H J C

    2017-01-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment. (paper)

  18. Experimental assessments of notch ductility and tensile strength of stainless steel weldments after 1200C neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.; Menke, B.H.; Awadalla, N.G.; O'Kula, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C/sub V/) properties of American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 300 series stainless steel plate, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) materials from commercial production weldments in 406-mm-diameter pipe (12.7-mm wall) were investigated in unirradiated and irradiated conditions. Weld and HAZ tensile properties were also assessed in the two conditions. The plates and weld filler wires represent different steel melts; the welds were produced using the multipass metal inert gas (MIG) process. Weldment properties in two test orientations were evaluated. Specimens were irradiated in a light water cooled and moderated reactor to 1 x 10/sup 20/ n/cm/sup 2/, E > 0.1 MeV, using a controlled temperature assembly. Specimen tests were performed at 25 and 125 0 C. The radiation-induced reductions in C/sub V/ energy absorption at 25 0 C were about 42% for the weld and the HAZ materials evaluated. A trend of energy increase with temperature was observed. The concomitant elevation in yield strength was about 53%. The increase in tensile strength in contrast was only 16%. The postirradiation yield strength of the axial test orientation in the pipe was less than that of the circumferential test orientation. Results for the HAZ indicate that this component may be the weakest link in the weldment from a fracture resistance viewpoint

  19. The effect of grain size on the mechanical response of a metastable austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair C.W.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of high environmental resistance and excellent strength, elongation and energy absorption make austenitic stainless steels potentially attractive for transportation applications. In the case of metastable grades that undergo a strain induced martensitic transformation it is possible to significantly change the mechanical properties simply by changing the austenite grain size. Predicting such behaviour using physically based models is, however, extremely challenging. Here, some recent work on the coupling between grain size and mechanical response will be presented for a metastable AISI 301 LN stainless steel. Successes and continuing challenges will be highlighted.

  20. Creep deformation of high Cr-Mo ferritic/martensitic steels by material softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Song, B. J.; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2005-01-01

    High Cr (9-12%Cr) ferritic/martensitic steels represent a valuable alternative to austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications up to 600 .deg. C both in power and petrochemical plant, as well as good resistance to oxidation and corrosion. Material softening is the main physical phenomenon observed in the crept material. Thermally-induced change (such as particle coarsening or matrix solute depletion) and strain-induced change (such as dynamic subgrain growth) of microstructure degraded the alloy strength. These microstructural changes during a creep test cause the material softening, so the strength of the materials decreased. Many researches have been performed for the microstructural changes during a creep test, but the strength of crept materials has not been measured. In the present work, we measured the yield and tensile strength of crept materials using Indentationtyped Tensile Test System (AIS 2000). Material softening was quantitatively evaluated with a creep test condition, such as temperature and applied stress

  1. The effect of retentive groove, sandblasting and cement type on the retentive strength of stainless steel crowns in primary second molars--an in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabadhran, M M; Reddy, V; Nayak, U A; Rao, A P; Sundaram, M A

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study was conducted to find out the effect of retentive groove, sand blasting and cement type on the retentive strength of stainless steel crowns in primary second molars. Thirty-two extracted intact human maxillary and mandibular primary second molars were embedded in aluminum blocks utilizing autopolymerising acrylic resin. After tooth preparation, the 3M stainless steel crown was adjusted to the prepared tooth. Then weldable buccal tubes were welded on the buccal and lingual surfaces of each crown as an attachment for the testing machine. A full factorial design matrix for four factors (retentive groove placement on the tooth, cement type, sandblasting and primary second molar) at two levels each was developed and the study was conducted as dictated by the matrix. The lower and upper limits for each factor were without and with retentive groove placement on the tooth, GIC and RMGIC, without and with sandblasting of crown, maxillary and mandibular second primary molar. For those teeth for which the design matrix dictated groove placement, the retentive groove was placed on the middle third of the buccal surface of the tooth horizontally and for those crowns for which sandblasting of the crowns are to be done, sandblasting was done with aluminium oxide with a particle size of 250 mm. The crowns were luted with either GIC or RMGIC, as dictated by the design matrix. Then the retentive strength of each sample was evaluated by means of an universal testing machine. The obtained data was analyzed using ANOVA for statistical analysis of the data and 't'- tests for pairwise comparison. The mean retentive strength in kg/cm 2 stainless steel crowns luted with RMGIC was 19.361 and the mean retentive strength of stainless steel crowns luted with GIC was 15.964 kg/cm 2 with a mean difference of 3.397 kg/cm 2 and was statistically significant. The mean retentive strength in kg/cm 2 of stainless steel crowns, which was not sandblasted, was 18.880 and which was

  2. Effect of yield strength on stress corrosion crack propagation under PWR and BWR environments of hardened stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, M.L.; Garcia, M.S.; Diego, G. de; Gomez-Briceno, D. [CIEMAT, Nuclear Fission Department, Structural Materials Program, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels (SS) and to quantify the effect on the crack propagation rate, an experimental research program was performed using cold and warm worked 304, 316L and 347 SS. Stress corrosion crack growth rate tests, under BWR and PWR environments have been carried out. The results obtained have permitted to determine the yield strength effect in the crack propagation of austenitic stainless steels in PWR and BWR conditions. In addition, similarities on cold work and radiation hardening in enhancing the yield strength and the stress corrosion cracking propagation at high temperature water have been evaluated. (authors)

  3. Ultrahigh Ductility, High-Carbon Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo; Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua; Chen, Nailu

    2016-10-01

    Based on the proposed design idea of the anti-transformation-induced plasticity effect, both the additions of the Nb element and pretreatment of the normalization process as a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) were designed for Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb hot-rolled steel. This high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel exhibits a tensile strength of 1890 MPa and elongation of 29 pct accompanied by the excellent product of tensile and elongation of 55 GPa pct. The origin of ultrahigh ductility for high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel is revealed from two aspects: one is the softening of martensitic matrix due to both the depletion of carbon in the matensitic matrix during the Q-P-T process by partitioning of carbon from supersaturated martensite to retained austenite and the reduction of the dislocation density in a martensitic matrix by dislocation absorption by retained austenite effect during deformation, which significantly enhances the deformation ability of martensitic matrix; another is the high mechanical stability of considerable carbon-enriched retained austenite, which effectively reduces the formation of brittle twin-type martensite. This work verifies the correctness of the design idea of the anti-TRIP effect and makes the third-generation advanced high-strength steels extend to the field of high-carbon steels from low- and medium-carbon steels.

  4. Constitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Khan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A physically based, macroscale constitutive model has been developed that can describe the complex mechanical behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steels. In the developed model a generalized model for the mechanically induced martensitic transformation is introduced. Mechanical tests have

  5. Structural integrity of stainless steel components exposed to neutron irradiation. Change in failure strength of cracked components due to cold working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Hojo, Tomohiro; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Load carrying capacity of austenitic stainless steel component is increased due to hardening caused by neutron irradiation if no crack is included in the component. On the other hand, if a crack is initiated in the reactor components, the hardening may decrease the load carrying capacity due to reduction in fracture toughness. In this paper, in order to develop a failure assessment procedure of irradiated cracked components, characteristics of change in failure strength of stainless steels due to cold working were investigated. It was experimentally shown that the proof and tensile strengths were increased by the cold working, whereas the fracture toughness was decreased. The fracture strengths of a cylinder with a circumferential surface crack were analyzed using the obtained material properties. Although the cold working altered the failure mode from plastic collapse to the unsteady ductile crack growth, it did not reduce failure strengths even if 50% cold working was applied. The increase in failure strength was caused not only by increase in flow stress but also by reduction in J-integral value, which was brought by the change in stress-strain curve. It was shown that the failure strength of the hardened stainless steel components could be derived by the two-parameter method, in which the change in material properties could be reasonably considered. (author)

  6. Modelling the material behaviour of metastable stainless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Post, J.; Beyer, J.; Huetink, Han; Cesar de Sa, Jose M.A.; Santos, Abel D.

    2007-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels are designed to be thermodynamically unstable such that deformation even at room temperatures can bring about a change in the phase of face centred cubic austenite to either hexagonal close packed martensite and/or to body centred cubic martensite. This solid

  7. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CN-12 type stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazias, Philip J.; McGreevy, Tim; Pollard,Michael James; Siebenaler, Chad W.; Swindeman, Robert W.

    2007-08-14

    A cast stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 0.5 wt. % to about 10 wt. % manganese, 0.02 wt. % to 0.50 wt. % N, and less than 0.15 wt. % sulfur provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. Alloys of the present invention also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon. Such solution strengthening enhances the high temperature precipitation-strengthening benefits of fine dispersions of NbC. Such solid solution effects also enhance the stability of the austenite matrix from resistance to excess sigma phase or chrome carbide formation at higher service temperatures. The presence of sulfides is substantially eliminated.

  8. Low cycle fatigue strength of austenitic stainless steel under large strain regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Michiya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Matsuura, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    In order to establish realistic seismic safety of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to clarify the failure mode of each components and prepare a damage evaluation method. The authors have proposed the damage evaluation method based on the fully numerical approach to evaluate the low cycle fatigue (LCF) failure under seismic loadings. This method has been validated by comparison with the dynamic failure tests of thin elbows which should be the one of the important components of the FBR primary piping system. However, since there exists limited LCF data, fatigue lives under large strain regime have been extrapolated by available fatigue data. In this study, LCF tests have been conducted over a large strain range from 2% to 10% on austenitic stainless steel SUS304. From the results, the regressive LCF curve has been proposed to modify the Wada's best-fit LCF curve under large strain regime. The usage factors calculated by author's numerical approach using proposed LCF curve have been improved to correct the underestimation of the fatigue damage. (author)

  9. High temperature creep strength of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, high temperature strength of advanced radiation resistance ODS steel was investigated for the core structural material of next generation nuclear systems. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying, hot isostactic pressing and hot rolling processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels, and creep rupture test as well as tensile test were examined to investigate the behavior at high temperatures. ODS steels were fabricated by a mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes. Mechanical properties at high temperatures were investigated. The creep resistance of advanced radiation resistant ODS steels was more superior than those of ferritic/ martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel and even a conventional ODS steel.

  10. Influence of TiC precipitation in austenitic stainless steel on strength, ductility and helium embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesternich, W.; Matta, M.K.; Rothaut, J.

    1984-01-01

    Creep experiments were performed on 1.4970 (German DIN standard) and 316 (AISI standard) type austenitic steels after various thermomechanical pretreatments and after α-implantation. The microstructure introduced by the pretreatments was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the behaviour of strength and ductility is correlated to the dislocation and precipitate distributions. He embrittlement can be suppressed in these simulation experiments when dispersive TiC precipitate distributions are produced by the proper pretreatments or are allowed to form during creep testing. It is shown that adequate pretreatment results in a significantly superior behaviour of the 1.4970 steel as compared to the 316 type steel in all three investigated properties, i.e. strength, ductility and resistance to He embrittlement. (orig.)

  11. Deformation-induced martensite and resistance to cavitation erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to cavitating liquids can induce surface transformation in metastable alloys, notably the 18Cr-8Ni class of stainless steels. The question of whether such transformation contributes to erosion resistance has not been resolved. To address that issue, two metastable stainless steels (Types 301 and 304L) and a near-equiatomic NiTi alloy were subjected to cavitation. Magnetic measurements during and after cavitation erosion indicate that substantial reversion of deformation-induced martensite occurs in the highly deformed surface layers of the stainless steels. Thus, cyclic formation and reversion of martensite is deduced to be a non-trivial energy-adsorption mechanism in those steels. The extreme case of cyclic induction and essentially complete reversion of martensite is illustrated by superelastic NiTi, which is extraordinarily resistant to cavitation damage. (orig.)

  12. Comparative Analysis of Welded and Adhesive Joints Strength Made of Acid-Resistant Stainless Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Miturska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the selected results of strength tests on the effectiveness of bonding high-alloy steel 1.4310. Sheet steel is one of the materials that are difficult to activate energy. Effective joining of it is difficult, requires selection of the appropriate bonding technology. The paper focuses on the comparative tests the shear strength of one-single lap welded and bonded joints. The welding process was performed 3 groups of samples TIG welding and argon, where the variable value of the welding process was current: 60A, 70A, 80A. The adhesion process was performed in 6 groups of samples which differed in the method of surface preparation and the type of the adhesive. Adhesive joints were made by using adhesive of epoxy resin and a hardener: Epidian 61/TFF at a mass ratio of 100:22 and Epidian 61/IDA at a mass ratio of 100:40. As a way of surface preparation applied 3 different, but simplified and environmentally friendly methods of surface preparation: degreasing with using cleaner Loctite 7061, abrasive machining with P320 and degreasing and grinding with abrasive T800 and degreasing were used. Make joints and curing the adhesive joints were carried out at ambient temperature. Analyzed the joints were tested destructive - which set out the shear strength, in accordance with DIN EN 1465 on the testing machine Zwick / Roell Z150. Based on the results of research it was found that better results were obtained for the maximum welded joints, but this result was similar to the maximum value of the strength of the adhesive bond.

  13. Microstructure Refinement and Mechanical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel by Repetitive Thermomechanical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Aleem, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Repetitive thermomechanical processing (TMP) was applied for evaluating the effect of strain-induced α'-martensite transformation and reversion annealing on microstructure refinement and mechanical properties of 304 austenitic stainless steel. The first TMP scheme consisted of four cycles of tensile deformation to strain of 0.4, while the second TMP scheme applied two cycles of tensile straining to 0.6. For both schemes, tensile tests were conducted at 173 K (- 100 °C) followed by 5-minute annealing at 1073 K (800 °C). The volume fraction of α'-martensite in deformed samples increased with increasing cycles, reaching a maximum of 98 vol pct. Examination of annealed microstructure by electron backscattered diffraction indicated that increasing strain and/or number of cycles resulted in stronger reversion to austenite with finer grain size of 1 μm. Yet, increasing strain reduced the formation of Σ3 boundaries. The annealing textures generally show reversion of α'-martensite texture components to the austenite texture of brass and copper orientations. The increase in strain and/or number of cycles resulted in stronger intensity of copper orientation, accompanied by the formation of recrystallization texture components of Goss, cube, and rotated cube. The reduction in grain size with increasing cycles caused an increase in yield strength. It also resulted in an increase in strain hardening rate during deformation due to the increase in the formation of α'-martensite. The increase in strain hardening rate occurred in two consecutive stages, marked as stages II and III. The strain hardening in stage II is due to the formation of α'-martensite from either austenite or ɛ-martensite, while the stage-III strain hardening is attributed to the necessity to break the α'-martensite-banded structure for forming block-type martensite at high strains.

  14. Comparison of shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded with three light- cured adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Minaei Basharik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bonding process of the brackets to enamel has been a critical issue in orthodontic research. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of 3 light-cured adhesives (transbond XT, Z250, light bond. Materials &Methods: In this study sixty extracted human premolars were collected and randomly divided into 3 test groups. All teeth were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. In first group brackets were bonded by Transbond XT adhesive, in group two brackets were bonded by Light bond adhesive and in third group were bonded by filtek Z250 composite. All of them were cured with Ortholux xt for 40 seconds.24 hours after thermocycling, Shear Bond Strength (SBS values of these brackets were recorded using a Universal Testing Machine. Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI scores were determined after the failure of the brackets, using Stereo Microscope the data were analyzed using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Results: Mean shear bond strength of Transbond XT, light bond and Z250 were 28.9±2.25 MPa, 25.06±1.98 MPa and 26.8±2.57 MPa, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the SBS among the groups and a clinically acceptable SBS was found for the three adhesives. ARI scores were not significantly different between the various groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that the Z250 can be used as light bond and transbond xt to bond orthodontic brackets and ARI and SBS scores were not significantly different.

  15. Alloying element effect on the mechanical properties of high-strength stainless steels and welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.I.; Yushchenko, K.A.; Fortunatova, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental steels containing 11-17% Cr, 3-13% Ni, 0-2% Mo, 0-1% Ti, 1-2% Cu, 0-4% Co, 0-1% He, < 0.03% C and their welded joints have been studied. The ''MRA-1'' program was used to obtain mathematical description (in the form of regression equations) of the effect of alloying elements on strength and plasticity of the steels and the welded joints at 20...-196 deg C. The dependences obtained make it possible to predict the properties of the steels and the joints in a satisfactory agreement with their actual behaviour at 20...-196 deg C

  16. New tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno

    that the performance of the workpiece materials have to improve in order to satisfy higher strength and lower weight requirements. This however leads to challenges in the forming operation, especially when high surface expansion and elevated strain are involved. The challenge is to achieve long production run...... Tribotester was developed. A production process was selected at Grundfos, which is currently running with chlorinated paraffin oil. The process includes a deep drawing and two subsequent re-drawings in a progressive tool. The process was numerically analyzed to investigate the tribological conditions....... A suitable laboratory test (BUT test) was selected to simulate the production process. The BUT test was numerically analyzed to verify that the tribological conditions are close to the production process ones. A few interesting new tribo-systems were selected to be investigated in the BUT test. Some of them...

  17. Effects of minor alloying additions on the strength and swelling behavior of an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessel, G.R.

    1978-06-01

    A set of 32 alloys consisting of various additions of the elements Mo, W, Al, Ti, Nb, C and Si to an Fe-7.5 Cr-20 Ni alloy were made in order to investigate the effects of these solute additions on alloy swelling and strength. Both single and multiple additions were examined. The influence of various solute elements on the swelling behavior in the range 500 to 730 0 C was investigated using 4 MeV Ni ion bombardment to a dose 170 dpa. It was found that on an atomic percent basis, the elements may be arranged in order of decreasing effectiveness in reducing peak temperature swelling as follows: Ti, C, Nb, Si, and Mo. Small amounts of aluminum enhance swelling. Additions of Si, Ti, or Nb truncate the high temperature swelling regime of the ternary alloy. Mo, W, and C do not have a strong effect on the temperature dependence of swelling. The results may be interpreted in terms of the effect of point defect trapping on void growth rates, and it is suggested that the changes in peak temperature are the result of small changes in the free vacancy formation energy. A method for treating certain multiple additions is proposed. The effect of these alloying additions on short time high temperature strength properties was estimated using hot hardness measurements over the temperature range 22 to 850 0 C. On an atom percent basis Nb and Ti were most effective in conferring solid solution strengthening and Si the least effective. In the regime 22 to approximately 650 0 C, the hardness data was found to fit an equation of the form: H = H 0 + b/T; where H is the hardness, T is the temperature, and H 0 and b are constants for a given alloy. An empirical method was devised to estimate the hot hardness of alloys containing more than one solute addition

  18. A multi-scale model for structure-property relations of materials exhibiting martensite transformation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouznetsova, V.; Balmachnov, A.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of many advanced steels, e.g. metastable austenitic stainless steels, are related to their complex microstructural behaviour, resulting from the interaction between plastic deformation of the phases and the austenite to martensite phase transformation during

  19. Low temperature tensile deformation and acoustic emission signal characteristics of AISI 304LN stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K.; Bar, H.N. [Material Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Mandal, D. [Material Processing and Technology Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Roy, H., E-mail: himadri9504@gmail.com [NDT and Metallurgy Group, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Sivaprasad, S.; Tarafder, S. [Material Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

    2014-03-01

    This investigation examines low temperature tensile deformation behavior of AISI 304LN stainless steel along with synergistic analysis of acoustic emission signals. The tensile tests are done at a range of temperatures starting from 283 K till 223 K. The fracture surfaces of the broken specimens are investigated using scanning electron microscope. The amount of deformation induced martensite is measured using a feritscope. The obtained results reveal that with decrease in test temperature, both strength and ductility increase. The increase in strength and ductility with decreasing temperature is explained in terms of void morphologies and formation of deformation induced martensite. The rapid increment in strength and ductility at 223 K is associated with the burst of martensitic transformation at that temperature; which has been clarified from acoustic emission signals. An additional initiative has been taken to model the evolution of martensite formation from the observed cumulative emission counts using a non linear logarithmic functional form. The fitted curves from the recorded acoustic emission cumulative count data are found to be better correlated compared to earlier obtained results. However, at 223 K normal non-linear logarithmic fit is not found suitable due to presence of burst type signals at intervals, therefore; piecewise logarithmic function to model acoustic emission bursts is proposed.

  20. Optimization of Laser Transmission Joining Process Parameters on Joint Strength of PET and 316 L Stainless Steel Joint Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prakash Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to study the effects of laser power, joining speed, and stand-off distance on the joint strength of PET and 316 L stainless steel joint. The process parameters were optimized using response methodology for achieving good joint strength. The central composite design (CCD has been utilized to plan the experiments and response surface methodology (RSM is employed to develop mathematical model between laser transmission joining parameters and desired response (joint strength. From the ANOVA (analysis of variance, it was concluded that laser power is contributing more and it is followed by joining speed and stand-off distance. In the range of process parameters, the result shows that laser power increases and joint strength increases. Whereas joining speed increases, joint strength increases. The joint strength increases with the increase of the stand-off distance until it reaches the center value; the joint strength then starts to decrease with the increase of stand-off distance beyond the center limit. Optimum values of laser power, joining speed, and stand-off distance were found to be 18 watt, 100 mm/min, and 2 mm to get the maximum joint strength (predicted: 88.48 MPa. There was approximately 3.37% error in the experimental and modeled results of joint strength.

  1. Martensite in steels: its significance, recent developments and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Beenken, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Martensite is generally known as a hard but brittle microstructure. This is only true for high carbon plate martensite. Recently developed steels with a lath martensite microstructure offer an excellent toughness at yield strength of 1000 MPa yield strength. A transformation into lath martensite by glide as invariant shear mechanism is only possible at a carbon content below 0,03%. The source of both high strength and good toughness is the high dislocation density and the narrow lath width off less than 1 μm. By a thermomechanical treatment, that leads to a finer lath structure both strength and ductility can be improved to a yield strength of 1150 MPa and an elongation of 18%. As, unlike high carbon plate martensite, the hardness of lath martensite is not achieved by the distortion of the tetragonal cell by carbon atoms, the hardness of lath martensite remains stable up during an annealing treatment up to 600 C. This thermal stability of the lath martensit microstructure makes an additional increase of hardness by the precipitation of different types of intermetallic phases possible. The increase of the hardness from 300 HV to 600 HV by precipitation without volume changes and good cold deformability reveals many new application in manufacturing. In plate martensite too, comparatively high toughness values can be achieved, if carbon is replaced by nitrogen. The refining influence of nitrides on the austenite grain sizes and the precipitation of fine nitrides during the annealing process leads to impact values three times higher than those of comparable high carbon plate martensite. (orig.)

  2. A multi-scale model of martensitic transformation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouznetsova, V.G.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical engineering properties of many advanced steels, e.g. TRIP steels and metastable austenitic stainless steels, are related to their complex microstructural behaviour, resulting from the interaction between plastic deformation of the phases and the austenite to martensite

  3. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    Isothermal (i.e. time dependent) martensite formation in steel was first observed in the 40ies of the XXth century and is still treated as an anomaly in the description of martensite formation which is considered as a-thermal (i.e. independent of time). Recently, the clarification of the mechanism...... of lattice strains provided fundamental information on the state of stress in the material and clarified the role of the strain energy on martensite formation. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed that the microstructure of the material and the morphology of martensite were independent on the cooling...... leading to isothermal kinetics acquired new practical relevance because of the identification of isothermal martensite formation as the most likely process responsible for enhanced performances of sub-zero Celsius treated high carbon steel products. In the present work, different iron based alloys...

  4. Plastic Strain Induced Damage Evolution and Martensitic Transformation in Ductile Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2002-01-01

    The Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels are well known for their ductile behaviour at cryogenic temperatures. This implies development and evolution of plastic strain fields in the stainless steel components subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. The evolution of plastic strain fields is usually associated with two phenomena: ductile damage and strain induced martensitic transformation. Ductile damage is described by the kinetic law of damage evolution. Here, the assumption of isotropic distribution of damage (microcracks and microvoids) in the Representative Volume Element (RVE) is made. Formation of the plastic strain induced martensite (irreversible process) leads to the presence of quasi-rigid inclusions of martensite in the austenitic matrix. The amount of martensite platelets in the RVE depends on the intensity of the plastic strain fields and on the temperature. The evolution of the volume fraction of martensite is governed by a kinetic law based on the accumulated plastic strain. Both of thes...

  5. A comparative study of retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements with stainless steel crowns--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R; Basappa, N; Reddy, V V

    1998-03-01

    This study was conducted on 30 extracted human primary molars to assess the retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements. The teeth were embedded in resin blocks and were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The occlusal surfaces of all teeth were reduced uniformly by 1.0 to 1.5 mm. All mesial, distal undercuts were removed and sharp angles rounded. This was followed by cementing pretrimmed and precontoured stainless steel crowns on each tooth with hand pressure and storing in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Retentive strength was tested using Instron Universal Testing Machine. The load was applied starting from a zero reading and gradually increased until the cemented stainless steel crowns showed signs of movement and then the readings were recorded. It was found that retentive strengths of zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements were statistically better (P cement. Negligible difference (0. 59 kg/cm2) was however observed between zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements.

  6. Transformation in austenitic stainless steel sheet under different loading directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Krauer, J.; Hora, P.

    2011-01-01

    The stress-strain relation for austenitic stainless steels is based on 2 main contributions: work hardening and a phase transformation from austenite to martensite. The transformation is highly temperature dependent. In most models for phase transformation from austenite to martensite, the stress

  7. Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet under Different Loading Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Krauer, J.; Hora, P.

    2011-01-01

    The stress-strain relation for austenitic stainless steels is based on 2 main contributions: work hardening and a phase transformation from austenite to martensite. The transformation is highly temperature dependent. In most models for phase transformation from austenite to martensite, the stress

  8. A comparative study of retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements with stainless steel crowns - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath Reddy, M H; Subba Reddy, V V; Basappa, N

    2010-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to compare the retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements using Instron universal testing machine. Thirty preformed and pretrimmed stainless steel crowns were used for cementation on 30 extracted human primary molars which were divided into three groups of 10 teeth in each group. Then the teeth were stored in artificial saliva and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. A load was applied on to the crown and was gradually increased till the crown showed dislodgement, and then the readings were recorded using Instron recorder and analyzed for statistical significance. The surface area of crown was measured by graphical method. The retentive strength was expressed in terms of kg/cm 2 , which was calculated by the equation load divided by area. Retentive strengths of zinc phosphate (ranged from a minimum of 16.93 to amaximum of 28.13 kg/cm 2 with mean of 21.28 kg/cm 2 ) and glass ionomer cement (minimum of 13.69 - 28.15 kg/cm 2 with mean of 20.69 kg/cm 2 ) were greater than that of polycarboxylate cement (minimum of 13.26 - 22.69 kg/cm 2 with mean of 16.79 kg/cm 2 ). Negligible difference (0.59 kg/cm 2 ) of retentive strength was observed between zinc phosphate (21.28 kg/cm 2 ) and glass ionomer cements (20.69 kg/cm 2 ). Glass ionomer cements can be recommended for cementation of stainless steel crowns because of its advantages and the retentive strength was almost similar to that of zinc phosphate cement.

  9. A comparative study of retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements with stainless steel crowns - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Reddy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was conducted to compare the retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements using Instron universal testing machine. Thirty preformed and pretrimmed stainless steel crowns were used for cementation on 30 extracted human primary molars which were divided into three groups of 10 teeth in each group. Then the teeth were stored in artificial saliva and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. A load was applied on to the crown and was gradually increased till the crown showed dislodgement, and then the readings were recorded using Instron recorder and analyzed for statistical significance. The surface area of crown was measured by graphical method. The retentive strength was expressed in terms of kg/cm 2 , which was calculated by the equation load divided by area. Retentive strengths of zinc phosphate (ranged from a minimum of 16.93 to amaximum of 28.13 kg/cm 2 with mean of 21.28 kg/cm 2 and glass ionomer cement (minimum of 13.69 - 28.15 kg/cm 2 with mean of 20.69 kg/cm 2 were greater than that of polycarboxylate cement (minimum of 13.26 - 22.69 kg/cm 2 with mean of 16.79 kg/cm 2 . Negligible difference (0.59 kg/cm 2 of retentive strength was observed between zinc phosphate (21.28 kg/cm 2 and glass ionomer cements (20.69 kg/cm 2 . Glass ionomer cements can be recommended for cementation of stainless steel crowns because of its advantages and the retentive strength was almost similar to that of zinc phosphate cement.

  10. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting the weld microstructure the Q+P and the QT steels require weld heat treatment. The HSD steel is weldable without. Due to their applications the ultra-high strength steels are welded in as-rolled and strengthened condition. Also the reaction of the weld on hot stamping is reflected for the martensitic grades. The supra-ductile steels are welded as solution annealed and work hardened by 50%. The results show the general suitability for laser beam welding.

  11. Fatigue fracture modes of a stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, D.J.; Souza e Silva, A.S. de; Monteiro, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of strain hardening and martensite phase transformation on the fatigue fracture regions (pulsative tension) of a Stainless Steel type AISI 316 was investigated. This lead to the conclusion that the greater austenite strain hardening level only favours the occurrence of a brittle fracture. Also, in as much as the static induced martensite is concerned, a direct influence on the failure process was not observed, whereas, apparently, the one transformed under cyclic loading has no contribution to the rupture mechanisms. (author) [pt

  12. Martens-ite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druce Dunne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Martensite and martensitic transformations in metals and alloys have been intensively studied for more than a century and many comprehensive and informative reviews have been published. The current review differs insofar as the analysis is performed largely through the prism of detailed studies of the changes in the martensitic transformation in Fe3Pt alloy as a result of austenite ordering. This important alloy is the first ferrous alloy identified as exhibiting thermoelastic transformation and shape memory. The effect of parent phase order on the martensitic transformation offers significant insights into general understanding of the nature of martensitic transformation, particularly the factors contributing to reversible and irreversible transformation. It is concluded that for crystallograhically reversible transformation to occur both strain limiting and strain accommodating factors must be present and that these factors collectively constitute the sufficient condition for reversible martensitic transformation. Although the crystallography of individual plates formed in a given alloy can change with their temperature of formation, this intrinsic variability has not been considered in analyses using phenomenological theory. Significant variability can exist in measured quantities such as habit plane normals and orientation relationships used to test theoretical predictions. Measured lattice parameters, essential data for theoretical calculations, can also differ from the actual parameters existing at the temperature of plate formation.

  13. Tribocorrosion wear of austenitic and martensitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rozing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of tribocorrosion wear caused by an aggressive acidic media. Tests were conducted on samples made of stainless steel AISI 316L, 304L and 440C. Austenitic steels were tested in their nitrided state and martensitic in quenched and tempered and then induction hardened state. Electrochemical corrosion resistance testing and analysis of the microstructure and hardness in the cross section was carried out on samples of selected steels. To test the possibility of applying surface modification of selected materials in conditions of use, tests were conducted on samples/parts in a worm press for final pressing.

  14. Mechanical Behaviour of 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel Processed by Room Temperature Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Goel, Sunkulp; Verma, Raviraj; Jayaganthan, R.; Kumar, Abhishek

    2018-03-01

    To study the effect of room temperature rolling on mechanical properties of 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel, the as received 304 ASS was rolled at room temperature for different percentage of plastic deformation (i.e. 30, 50, 70 and 90 %). Microstructural study, tensile and hardness tests were performed in accordance with ASTM standards to study the effect of rolling. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness of a rolled specimen have enhanced with rolling. The UTS has increased from 693 MPa (as received) to 1700 MPa (after 90% deformation). The improvement in UTS of processed samples is due to combined effect of grain refinement and stress induced martensitic phase transformation. The hardness values also increases from 206 VHN (as received) to 499 VHN (after 90% deformation). Magnetic measurements were also conducted to confirm the formation of martensitic phase.

  15. Variations of fracture toughness and stress-strain curve of cold worked stainless steel and their influence on failure strength of cracked pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess failure probability of cracked components, it is important to know the variations of the material properties and their influence on the failure load assessment. In this study, variations of the fracture toughness and stress-strain curve were investigated for cold worked stainless steel. The variations of the 0.2% proof and ultimate strengths obtained using 8 specimens of 20% cold worked stainless steel (CW20) were 77 MPa and 81 MPa, respectively. The respective variations were decreased to 13 and 21 MPa for 40% cold worked material (CW40). Namely, the variation in the tensile strength was decreased by hardening. The COVs (coefficients of variation) of fracture toughness were 7.3% and 16.7% for CW20 and CW40, respectively. Namely, the variation in the fracture toughness was increased by hardening. Then, in order to investigate the influence of the variations in the material properties on failure load of a cracked pipe, flaw assessments were performed for a cracked pipe subjected to a global bending load. Using the obtained material properties led to variation in the failure load. The variation in the failure load of the cracked pipe caused by the variation in the stress-strain curve was less than 1.5% for the COV. The variation in the failure load caused by fracture toughness variation was relatively large for CW40, although it was less than 2.0% for the maximum case. It was concluded that the hardening induced by cold working does not cause significant variation in the failure load of cracked stainless steel pipe. (author)

  16. Characterization of weld strength and impact toughness in the multi-pass welding of super-duplex stainless steel UNS 32750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendranath Ramkumar, K.; Thiruvengatam, G.; Sudharsan, S.P.; Mishra, Debidutta; Arivazhagan, N.; Sridhar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of filler metals on the weldability of super-duplex stainless steel plates. • Contemplative explanations on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of the weldments. • Enhanced mechanical properties of the welds at ambient room temperature. - Abstract: This paper investigates the weldability, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the UNS 32750 super-duplex stainless steels joints by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) employing ER2553 and ERNiCrMo-4 filler metals. Impact and tensile studies envisaged that the weldments employing ER2553 exhibited superior mechanical properties compared to ERNiCrMo-4 weldments. Microstructure studies performed using optical and SEM analysis clearly exhibited the different forms of austenite including widmanstatten austenite on the weld zone employing ER2553 filler. Also the presented results clearly reported the effect of filler metals on strength and toughness during the multi-pass welding. This research article addressed the improvement of tensile and impact strength using appropriate filler wire without obtaining any deleterious phases

  17. Evaluation of the effect of three innovative recyling methods on the shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets-an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeraj; Kumar, Dilip; Palla, Aparna

    2017-04-01

    Orthodontists are commonly faced with the decision of what to do with debonded or inaccurately positioned brackets. An economical option to this dilemma is to recycle the brackets. Many recycling methods have been proposed, but the optimal bond strength of these recycled brackets needs further evaluation. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the effect of three recycling methods: (i) Sandblasting (ii) Sandblasting / direct flaming (iii) Sandblasting /direct flaming /acid bath solution on shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel brackets. Eighty human premolars were bonded with premolar stainless steel brackets as per manufacturer's instructions. The teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=20): Recycling and initial debonding was not done in Control group (Group I). After initial bonding, the brackets in the rest of the three experimental groups were debonded and recycled by following methods: (i) Sandblasting (Group II) (ii) Sandblasting /direct flaming (Group III) (iii) Sandblasting /direct flaming /acid bath solution (Group IV). Further the recycled brackets were bonded. The specimens were then subjected to testing in a Universal machine. The evaluation of the variation of the shear bond strength (SBS) among test groups was done using one-way ANOVA test and inter-experimental group comparison was done by Newman-Keuls multiple post hoc procedure. Group I (8.6510±1.3943MPa) showed the highest bond strength followed by Group II (5.0185±0.9758MPa), Group IV (2.30±0.65MPa) and Group III (2.0455± 0.6196MPa). Statistically significant variations existed in the shear bond strength (SBS) in all groups analyzed except between Group III and Group IV. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: 1. Shear bond strength of new brackets is significantly higher than the recycled brackets. 2. Brackets sandblasted with 90µm aluminium oxide particle air-abrasion showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to direct flaming/sandblasting and direct flaming

  18. Kinetic of martensitic transformations induced by hydrogen in the austenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Sergio P. de; Saavedra, A.; Miranda, P.E.V. de

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray diffractometry technique was used, with an automatic data acquisition system to determine the kinetics of hydrogen induced martensitic phase transformations in an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel type, used in nuclear power plants. Hydrogenation was performed cathodically in a 1N sulfuric acid solution, containing 100 mg/l of arsenic trioxide, at 50 0 C, during 2 hours and with a current density of 200 A/m 2 . It was found that the microstructure of the steel plays a role on the generation of hydrogen induced martensitic phases and surface micro cracks. Both kinetics were slower on a pre-cold rolled steel. (Author) [pt

  19. Study on microstructure and mechanical characteristics of low-carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkari Khorrami, Mahmoud; Mostafaei, Mohammad Ali; Pouraliakbar, Hesam, E-mail: hpouraliakbar@alum.sharif.edu; Kokabi, Amir Hossein

    2014-07-01

    In this work, examinations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of plain carbon steel and AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel dissimilar welds are carried out. Welding is conducted in both autogenous and using ER309L austenitic filler rod conditions through gas tungsten arc welding process. The results indicate that fully-ferritic and duplex ferritic–martensitic microstructures are formed for autogenous and filler-added welds, respectively. Carbide precipitation and formation of martensite at ferrite grain boundaries (intergranular martensite) as well as grain growth occur in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 430 steel. It is found that weld heat input can strongly affect grain growth phenomenon along with the amount and the composition of carbides and intergranular martensite. Acquired mechanical characteristics of weld in the case of using filler metal are significantly higher than those of autogenous one. Accordingly, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), hardness, and absorbed energy during tensile test of weld metal are increased from 662 MPa to 910 MPa, 140 Hv to 385 Hv, and 53.6 J m{sup −3} to 79 J m{sup −3}, respectively by filler metal addition. From fracture surfaces, predominantly ductile fracture is observed in the specimen welded with filler metal while mainly cleavage fracture occurs in the autogenous weld metal.

  20. Modelling the interaction between plasticity and the austenite-martensite transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouznetsova, V.G.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Many advanced steels, such as high strength steels and TRIP steels, owe their excellent combination of strength and ductility to the complex microstructural behaviour involving the austenite to martensite phase transformation. In this paper a physically-based model for martensitic transformation

  1. Influence of grain structure on the deformation mechanism in martensitic shear reversion-induced Fe-16Cr-10Ni model austenitic alloy with low interstitial content: Coarse-grained versus nano-grained/ultrafine-grained structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challa, V.S.A. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra2@utep.edu [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Somani, M.C. [Center for Advanced Steels Research, The University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Wang, Z.D. [State Key Laboratory for Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-04-20

    Nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) materials characterized by high strength-high ductility combination are excellent vehicles to obtain an unambiguous understanding of deformation mechanisms vis-à-vis their coarse-grained counterparts. In this context, the innovative concept of phase reversion-induced NG/UFG structure enabled achieving high strength besides comparable ductility, for instance, in metastable austenitic stainless steels. In the phase reversion process, severe deformation of austenite at room temperature (typically ~60–80%) transforms face-centered cubic austenite (γ) to body centered cubic martensite (α′). Upon annealing, martensite reverts to austenite leading to extensive grain refinement. The objective of the present study to fundamentally understand the deformation mechanisms in NG/UFG structure in relation to that of the coarse-grained (CG) structure was accomplished by combining depth-sensing nanoscale experiments on an Fe-16Cr-10Ni model austenitic alloy conducted at different strain rates, followed by the study of structural evolution in the deformed zone using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the high strength NG/UFG steel (YS~585 MPa), stacking faults and nanotwins contributed to the enhanced ductility (El~35%), while in the case of low strength (YS~260 MPa) coarse-grained (CG) counterpart, ductility was also high (El~40%), but chiefly due to strain-induced martensite, which points to a clear case of grain size effect (and the corresponding level of strength). The distinct change in the deformation mechanism from stacking faults and twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) in the NG structure to transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) in the CG structure is elucidated in terms of austenite stability-strain energy relationship. The insights on the relationship between grain structure (and strength) and deformation mechanisms are envisaged to be important in providing a new direction for the futuristic design of high strength

  2. The effect of different surface treatments of stainless steel crown and different bonding agents on shear bond strength of direct composite resin veneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajami B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stainless steel crown (SSC is the most durable and reliable restoration for primary teeth with extensive caries but its metalic appearance has always been a matter of concern. With advances in restorative materials and metal bonding processes, composite veneer has enhanced esthetics of these crowns in clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of SSC to composite resin using different surface treatments and adhesives. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 90 stainless steel crowns were selected. They were mounted in molds and divided into 3 groups of 30 each (S, E and F. In group S (sandblast, buccal surfaces were sandblasted for 5 seconds. In group E (etch acidic gel was applied for 5 minutes and in group F (fissure bur surface roughness was created by fissure diamond bur. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (SB, AB, P based on different adhesives: Single Bond, All Bond2 and Panavia F. Composite was then bonded to specimens. Cases were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength was measured by Zwick machine with crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test with p0.05 so the two variables were studied separately. No significant difference was observed in mean shear bond strength of composite among the three kinds of adhesives (P>0.05. Similar results were obtained regarding surface treatments (P>0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treating the SSC surface with bur and using single bond adhesive and composite can be used successfully to obtain esthetic results in pediatric restorative treatments.

  3. The effects of various surface treatments on the shear bond strengths of stainless steel brackets to artificially-aged composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ladan; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Mousavi, Nasim; Ghasemi, Amir

    2011-05-01

    To compare the shear bond strengths (SBS) of stainless steel brackets bonded to artificially-aged composite restorations after different surface treatments. Forty-five premolar teeth were restored with a nano-hybrid composite (Tetric EvoCeram), stored in deionised water for one week and randomly divided into three equal groups: Group I, he restorations were exposed to 5 per cent hydrofluoric acid for 60 seconds; Group II, the restorations were abraded with a micro-etcher (50 Iim alumina particles); Group III, the restorations were roughened with a coarse diamond bur. Similar premolar brackets were bonded to each restoration using the same resin adhesive and the specimens were then cycled in deionised water between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C (500 cycles). The shear bond strengths were determined with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The teeth and brackets were examined under a stereomicroscope and the adhesive remnants on the teeth scored with the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Specimens treated with the diamond bur had a significantly higher SBS (Mean: 18.45 +/- 3.82 MPa) than the group treated with hydrofluoric acid (Mean: 12.85 +/- 5.20 MPa). The mean SBS difference between the air-abrasion (Mean: 15.36 +/- 4.92 MPa) and hydrofluoric acid groups was not significant. High ARI scores occurred following abrasion with a diamond bur (100 per cent) and micro-etcher (80 per cent). In approximately two thirds of the teeth no adhesive was left on the restoration after surface treatment with hydofluoric acid. Surface treatment with a diamond bur resulted in a high bond strength between stainless steel brackets and artificially-aged composite restorations and was considered to be a safe and effective method of surface treatment. Most of the adhesive remained on the tooth following surface treatment with either the micro-etcher or the diamond bur.

  4. Ageing temperature effect on inclination of martensite high strength steels EhP699, EhP678, EhP679 to corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfel'd, I.L.; Spiridonov, V.B.; Konradi, M.V.; Krasnorutskaya, I.B.; Fridman, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Stated are the data permitting to judge of the role of ageing temperature in the total number of factors, determining the inclination to corrosion cracking of high strength maraging steels, which contain chromium as a main alloying element. The inclination of the EhP699, EhP678, EhP679 steels to corrosion cracking was estimated on smooth stressed specimens in 3 % NaCl solution with the use of electrochemical polarization. The tensile stress resulted from deflection; anode and cathode current density was 10 mA/cm 2 . It is shown, that resistance to corrosion cracking depends on the ageing temperature: maximum sensitivity to corrosion cracking the steels manifest at the ageing temperatures, providing for maximum strength (470-500 deg). At the ageing temperatures by 20-30 deg over the temperature of this maximum the sensitivity to corrosion cracking disappears, which may result from the loss of coherence of strengthening phase in a matrix, from particle coagulation and stress relaxation in the crack peak

  5. Crystallography and Interphase Boundary of Martensite and Bainite in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhara, Tadashi; Chiba, Tadachika; Kaneshita, Takeshi; Wu, Huidong; Miyamoto, Goro

    2017-06-01

    Grain refinements in lath martensite and bainite structures are crucial for strengthening and toughening of high-strength structural steels. Clearly, crystallography of transformation plays an important role in determining the "grain" sizes in these structures. In the present study, crystallography and intrinsic boundary structure of martensite and bainite are described. Furthermore, various extrinsic factors affecting variant selection and growth kinetics, such as elastic/plastic strain and alloying effects on interphase boundary migration, are discussed.

  6. EBSD characterization of deformed lath martensite in if steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Z.A.; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    Rolling deformation results in the transformation of a lath martensite structure to a lamellar structure characteristic to that of IF steel cold-rolled to medium and high strains. The structural transition takes place from low to medium strain, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows...... and the strength are characterized for lath martensite rolled to a thickness reduction of 30%, showing that large changes in the misorientation take place, while the strain hardening rate is low....

  7. Effect of Prior Athermal Martensite on the Isothermal Transformation Kinetics Below M s in a Low-C High-Si Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro-Lopez, A.; Sietsma, J.; Santofimia, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processing of Advanced Multiphase High Strength Steels often includes isothermal treatments around the martensite start temperature (M s). It has been reported that the presence of martensite formed prior to these isothermal treatments accelerates the kinetics of the subsequent

  8. Elevated temperature tensile properties of borated 304 stainless steel: Effect of boride dispersion on strength and ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.J.; Sorenson, K.B.; McConnell, P.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional cast and wrought (open-quotes Ingot Metallurgyclose quotes) borated 304 stainless steel has been used for a number of years in spent fuel storage applications where a combination of structural integrity and neutron criticality control are required. Similar requirements apply for materials used in transport cask baskets. However, in the high boron contents (>1.0 wt. %) which are most useful for criticality control, the conventional cast and wrought material suffers from low ductility as well as low impact toughness. The microstructural reason for these poor properties is the relatively coarse size of the boride particles in these alloys, which act as sites for crack initiation. Recently, a open-quotes premiumclose quotes grade of borated 304 stainless steel has been introduced (Strober and Smith, 1988) which is made by a Powder Metallurgy (PM) process. This material has greatly improved ductility and impact properties relative to the conventional cast and wrought product. In addition, an ASTM specification (ATSM A887) has been developed for borated stainless steel, containing 8 different material Types with respect to boron content - with the highest level (Type B7) having permissible range from 1.75 to 2.25 wt. % boron - and each Type contains two different Grades of material based on tensile and impact properties. While the ASTM specification is properties-based and does not require a specific production process for a particular grade of material, the PM material qualifies as open-quotes Grade Aclose quotes material while the conventional Ingot Metallurgy (IM) material generally qualifies as open-quotes Grade Bclose quotes material. This paper presents a comparison of the tensile properties of PM open-quotes Grade Aclose quotes material with that of the conventional IM open-quotes Grade Bclose quotes material for two selected Types (i.e., boron contents) as defined by the ASTM A887 specification: Types 304B5 and 304B7

  9. Hydrogen damage in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen damage has been studied in a wide variety of stainless steels. Both internal and external hydrogen damage were evaluated by ductility or J-integral under rising tensile loads and by fractography. Analysis of the data has emphasized the potential effects of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen damage. Strain-induced martensite was neither necessary nor sufficient for hydrogen damage in the alloys studied. Neither ductility loss nor fracture-mode change correlated generally with martensite formation. Alloy composition, particularly nickel and nitrogen contents, was the primary factor in resistance to hydrogen damage. Thermomechanical processing, however, could alter the degree of hydrogen damage in an alloy and was critical for optimizing resistance to hydrogen damage. 10 figures, 10 tables

  10. Twinning and martensitic transformations in nickel-enriched 304 austenitic steel during tensile and indentation deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, M.N., E-mail: gussevmn@ornl.gov; Busby, J.T.; Byun, T.S.; Parish, C.M.

    2013-12-20

    Twinning and martensitic transformation have been investigated in nickel-enriched AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to tensile and indentation deformation. Using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the morphology of α- and ε-martensite and the effect of grain orientation to load axis on phase and structure transformations were analyzed in detail. It was found that the twinning occurred less frequently under indentation than under tension; also, twinning was not observed in [001] and [101] grains. In tensile tests, the martensite particles preferably formed at the deformation twins, intersections between twins, or at the twin-grain boundary intersections. Conversely, martensite formation in the indentation tests was not closely associated with twinning; instead, the majority of martensite was concentrated in the dense colonies near grain boundaries. Martensitic transformation seemed to be obstructed in the [001] grains in both tensile and indentation test cases. Under a tensile stress of 800 MPa, both α- and ε-martensites were found in the microstructure, but at 1100 MPa only α-martensite presented in the specimen. Under indentation, α- and ε-martensite were observed in the material regardless of the stress level.

  11. Mechanical Performance of Ferritic Martensitic Steels for High Dose Applications in Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderoglu, Osman; Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels are considered for core applications and pressure vessels in Generation IV reactors as well as first walls and blankets for fusion reactors. There are significant scientific data on testing and industrial experience in making this class of alloys worldwide. This experience makes F/M steels an attractive candidate. In this article, tensile behavior, fracture toughness and impact property, and creep behavior of the F/M steels under neutron irradiations to high doses with a focus on high Cr content (8 to 12) are reviewed. Tensile properties are very sensitive to irradiation temperature. Increase in yield and tensile strength (hardening) is accompanied with a loss of ductility and starts at very low doses under irradiation. The degradation of mechanical properties is most pronounced at martensitic steels exhibit a high fracture toughness after irradiation at all temperatures even below 673 K (400 °C), except when tested at room temperature after irradiations below 673 K (400 °C), which shows a significant reduction in fracture toughness. Creep studies showed that for the range of expected stresses in a reactor environment, the stress exponent is expected to be approximately one and the steady state creep rate in the absence of swelling is usually better than austenitic stainless steels both in terms of the creep rate and the temperature sensitivity of creep. In short, F/M steels show excellent promise for high dose applications in nuclear reactors.

  12. Effect of heat input on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints between super duplex stainless steel and high strength low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghian, M.; Shamanian, M.; Shafyei, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure of weld metal consists of austenite and ferrite. • The HAZ of the API X-65 shows different transformation. • Impact strength of sample with low heat input was lower than base metals. • The heat input at 0.506 kJ/mm is not the suitable for dissimilar joining between UNS S32750/API X-65. - Abstract: In the present study, microstructure and mechanical properties of UNS S32750 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS)/API X-65 high strength low alloy steel (HSLA) dissimilar joint were investigated. For this purpose, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was used in two different heat inputs: 0.506 and 0.86 kJ/mm. The microstructures investigation with optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction showed that an increase in heat input led to a decrease in ferrite percentage, and that detrimental phases were not present. It also indicated that in heat affected zone of HSLA base metal in low heat input, bainite and ferrite phases were created; but in high heat input, perlite and ferrite phases were created. The results of impact tests revealed that the specimen with low heat input exhibited brittle fracture and that with high heat input had a higher strength than the base metals

  13. A New Maraging Stainless Steel with Excellent Strength–Toughness–Corrosion Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Tian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new maraging stainless steel with superior strength–toughness–corrosion synergy has been developed based on an innovative concept of alloy design. The high strength–toughness combination is achieved by forming dispersive nano-sized intermetallic compounds in the soft lath martensitic matrix with a slight amount of residual austenite. The good corrosion resistance is guaranteed by exactly controlling the Co content based on understanding the synergistic effect between Co and Cr. The fine structure characteristics of two dominant strengthening precipitations including Ni3Ti and Mo-rich phases were finely characterized associated with transmission electron microscope (TEM and atom probe tomography (APT analyses. The relationship among microstructure, strength and toughness is discussed. The precipitation mechanism of different precipitates in the new maraging stainless steel is revealed based on the APT analysis.

  14. Comprehensive Deformation Analysis of a Newly Designed Ni-Free Duplex Stainless Steel with Enhanced Plasticity by Optimizing Austenite Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moallemi, Mohammad; Zarei-Hanzaki, Abbas; Eskandari, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    A new metastable Ni-free duplex stainless steel has been designed with superior plasticity by optimizing austenite stability using thermodynamic calculations of stacking fault energy and with reference to literature findings. Several characterization methods comprising optical microscopy, magnetic......, including an ultimate tensile strength of ~900 MPa and elongation to fracture of ~94 pct due to the synergistic effects of transformation-induced plasticity and twinning-induced plasticity. The deformation mechanism of austenite is complex and includes deformation banding, strain-induced martensite...... formation, and deformation-induced twinning, while the ferrite phase mainly deforms by dislocation slip. Texture analysis indicates that the Copper and Rotated Brass textures in austenite (FCC phase) and {001}〈110〉 texture in ferrite and martensite (BCC phases) are the main active components during...

  15. Heat input effect on the microstructural transformation and mechanical properties in GTAW welds of a 409L ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J. A.; Ambriz, R. R.; Cuenca-Alvarez, R.; Alatorre, N.; Curiel, F. F.

    2016-10-01

    Welds without filler metal and welds using a conventional austenitic stainless steel filler metal (ER308L) were performed to join a ferritic stainless steel with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process (GTAW). Welding parameters were adjusted to obtain three different heat input values. Microstructure reveals the presence of coarse ferritic matrix and martensite laths in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). Dilution between filler and base metal was correlated with the presence of austenite, martensite and ferrite in the weld metal. Weld thermal cycles were measured to correlate the microstructural transformation in the HAZ. Microhardness measurements (maps and profiles) allow to identify the different zones of the welded joints (weld metal, HAZ, and base metal). Comparing the base metal with the weld metal and the HAZ, a hardness increment (∼172 HV{sub 0}.5 to ∼350 HV{sub 0}.5 and ∼310 HV{sub 0}.5, respectively) was observed, which has been attributed to the martensite formation. Tensile strength of the welded joints without filler metal increased moderately with respect to base metal. In contrast, ductility was approximately 25% higher than base metal, which provided a toughness improvement of the welded joints. (Author)

  16. Characterization and Strain-Hardening Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Dwivedi, Dheerendra Kumar; Jain, Pramod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In this study, friction stir-welded joint of 3-mm-thick plates of 409 ferritic stainless steel (FSS) was characterized in light of microstructure, x-ray diffraction analysis, hardness, tensile strength, ductility, corrosion and work hardening properties. The FSW joint made of ferritic stainless steel comprises of three distinct regions including the base metal. In stir zone highly refined ferrite grains with martensite and some carbide precipitates at the grain boundaries were observed. X-ray diffraction analysis also revealed precipitation of Cr23C6 and martensite formation in heat-affected zone and stir zone. In tensile testing of the transverse weld samples, the failure eventuated within the gauge length of the specimen from the base metal region having tensile properties overmatched to the as-received base metal. The tensile strength and elongation of the longitudinal (all weld) sample were found to be 1014 MPa and 9.47%, respectively. However, in potentiodynamic polarization test, the corrosion current density of the stir zone was highest among all the three zones. The strain-hardening exponent for base metal, transverse and longitudinal (all weld) weld samples was calculated using various equations. Both the transverse and longitudinal weld samples exhibited higher strain-hardening exponents as compared to the as-received base metal. In Kocks-Mecking plots for the base metal and weld samples at least two stages of strain hardening were observed.

  17. Effect of reversion annealing on the formation of nano/ultrafine grained structure in 201 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moallemi, Mohammad; Najafizadeh, Abbas; Kermanpur, Ahmad [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, Ahad, E-mail: a.rezaee@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The secondary increase in the martensite content after reversion annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of thermally induced martensite due to carbide precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The smallest average grain size of 70 nm is achieved by annealing at 850 Degree-Sign C for 15 s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A fully austenitic structure with grain size of 100 nm and 1370 MPa yield strength. - Abstract: The formation of nano/ultrafine grain structure in a 201 austenitic stainless steel was investigated by the martensite thermomechanical treatment. Cast ingots were first homogenized, then hot-forged and solution-annealed to reduce the initial grain size. Cold rolling was then conducted down to 90% reduction in thickness, followed by reversion annealing at a temperature in the range of 1023-1173 K for 15-1800 s. The effect of reversion parameters on grain refinement was investigated. The resulting microstructures were characterized by a scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer, an X-ray diffractometer and a Feritscope. The hardness was measured by the Vickers method. The results show that a nano/ultrafine-grained structure formed in the initial stages of the reversion, but significant grain growth took place during the entire course of reversion. Initially lowered, the volume fraction of martensite increased again during the reversion treatment due to carbide precipitation. A fully austenitic nano grained 201 stainless steel with the average grain size of 100 nm was produced, possessing a yield strength of about 1370 MPa.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel: Post-processing Heat Treatment to Achieve Uniform Reproducible Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvathur, Sudha; Lass, Eric A.; Campbell, Carelyn E.

    2016-03-01

    17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel is a useful material when a combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance up to about 315°C is required. In the wrought form, this steel has a fully martensitic structure that can be strengthened by precipitation of fine Cu-rich face-centered cubic phase upon aging. When fabricated via additive manufacturing (AM), specifically laser powder-bed fusion, 17-4 PH steel exhibits a dendritic structure containing a substantial fraction of nearly 50% of retained austenite along with body centered cubic/martensite and fine niobium carbides preferentially aligned along interdendritic boundaries. The effect of post-build thermal processing on the material microstructure is studied in comparison to that of conventionally produced wrought 17-4 PH with the intention of creating a more uniform, fully martensitic microstructure. The recommended stress relief heat treatment currently employed in industry for post-processing of AM 17-4 PH steel is found to have little effect on the as-built dendritic microstructure. It is found that, by implementing the recommended homogenization heat treatment regimen of Aerospace Materials Specification 5355 for CB7Cu-1, a casting alloy analog to 17-4 PH, the dendritic solidification structure is eliminated, resulting in a microstructure containing about 90% martensite with 10% retained austenite.

  19. An investigation on microstructure and mechanical propertiesof a Nb-microalloyed nano/ultrafine grained 201 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaei Baghbadorani, H., E-mail: h.samaeibaghbadorani@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fould Institute of Technology, Fouldshare 84916-63763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behjati, P.; Rezaee, A.; Moallemi, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-11

    The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanical properties of a nano/ultrafine grained Nb-containing 201 austenitic stainless steel. For this purpose, 90% cold rolled sheets with fully martensitic microstructure were isothermally annealed at 900 °C for different times of 1 to 1800 s, leading to the reversion of strain- induced α′-martensite to austenite and significant grain refinement. Ferritescopy, X-ray diffractometery and optical/electron microscopy techniques along with hardness measurements and tensile tests were used to study the evolution in microstructure and mechanical properties in the course of annealing. It was found that heavy cold-rolling promoted formation of Nb-rich carbonitrides which effectively retarded the growth of fine reverted austenite grains. The obtained results showed that the complete transformation of martensite to austenite took about 60 s with the corresponding austenite grain size of about 90 nm. This sample had an ultrahigh yield strength of 1170 MPa, which was almost four times higher than that of the raw material and outstanding elongation of 37%. Further, the true stress–strain curves of the reversion annealed samples revealed two distinct uniform elongation stages (stage I and stage II), whereas, the onset of stage II was concurrent with pronounced strain hardening. This was related to the sharp increase in the formation of α′-martensite upon tensile straining.

  20. Evaluation of critical resolved shear strength and deformation mode in proton-irradiated austenitic stainless steel using micro-compression tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Ko, Eunsol; Kwon, Junhyun; Hwang, Seong Sik [Nuclear Materials Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chansun, E-mail: c.shin@mju.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Myongji University, 116 Myongji-ro, Cheoin-gu, Youngin, Gyeonggi-do, 449-728 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Micro-compression tests were applied to evaluate the changes in the strength and deformation mode of proton-irradiated commercial austenitic stainless steel. Proton irradiation generated small dots at low dose levels and Frank loops at high dose levels. The increase in critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) was measured from micro-compression of pillars and the Schmid factor calculated from the measured loading direction. The magnitudes of the CRSS increase were in good agreement with the values calculated from the barrier hardening model using the measured size and density of radiation defects. The deformation mode changed upon increasing the irradiation dose level. At a low radiation dose level, work hardening and smooth flow behavior were observed. Increasing the dose level resulted in the flow behavior changing to a distinct heterogeneous flow, yielding a few large strain bursts in the stress–strain curves. The change in the deformation mode was related to the formation and propagation of defect-free slip bands. The effect of the orientation of the pillar or loading direction on the strengths is discussed.

  1. Monitoring of Fatigue Degradation in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkhof, D.; Niffenegger, M.; Leber, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    During cyclic loading of austenitic stainless steel, it was observed that microstructural changes occurred; these affect both the mechanical and physical properties of the material. For certain steels, a strain-induced martensite phase transformation was seen. The investigations showed that, for the given material and loading conditions, the volume fraction of martensite depends on the cycle number, temperature and initial material state. It was also found that the martensite content continuously increased with the cycle number. Therefore, the volume fraction of martensite was used as an indication of fatigue usage. It was noted that the temperature dependence of the martensite formation could be described by a Boltzmann function, and that the martensite content decreased with increasing temperature. Two different heats of the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiTi18-10 (AISI 321, DIN 1.4541) were investigated. It was found that the martensite formation rate was much higher for the cold-worked than for the solution-annealed material. All applied techniques - neutron diffraction and advanced magnetic methods - were successful in detecting the presence of martensite in the differently fatigued specimens. (author)

  2. Characterization of the austenitic stability of metastable austenitic stainless steel with regard to its formability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    During the last decade, the stainless steel market showed a growing volume of 3-5% p.a.. The austenitic grades are losing market shares to ferritic or 200-series grades due to the high nickel price, but still playing the most important role within the stainless steel market. Austenitic stainless steel is characterized by the strain-induced martensite formation, causing the TRIP-effect (Transformation Induced Plasticity) which is responsible for good formability and high strength. The TRIP-effect itself is highly dependent on the forming temperature, the strain as well as the chemical composition which has a direct influence on the stability of the austenite. Today the austenitic stability is usually characterized by the so called Md30-temperature, which was introduced by Angel and enhanced by several researches, particularly Nohara. It is an empirical formula based on the chemical composition and the grain size of a given material, calculating the temperature which is necessary to gain a 50 % martensite formation after 30 % of elongation in a tensile test. A higher Md30-temperature indicates a lower stability and therefore a higher tendency towards martensite formation. The main disadvantage of Md30 -temperature is the fact that it is not based on forming parameters and only describes a single point instead of the whole forming process. In this paper, an experimental set up for measuring martensite and temperature evolution in a non-isothermal tensile test is presented, which is based on works of Hänsel and Schmid. With this set up, the martensite formation rate for different steels of the steel grade EN 1.4301 and EN 1.4310 is measured. Based on these results a new austenitic stability criterion is defined. This criterion and the determined Md30-temperatures are related to the stretch formability of the materials. The results show that the new IFU criterion is with regard to the formability a much more useful characteristic number for metastable austenitic steels

  3. Effect of nanotechnology in self-etch bonding systems on the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Shaza M.; El-Wassefy, Noha; Maher, Ahmed; Fawakerji, Shafik M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of silica dioxide (SiO2) nanofillers in different bonding systems on shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of orthodontic brackets at two experimental times. Methods: Ninety-six intact premolars were divided into four groups: A) Conventional acid-etch and primer Transbond XT; B) Transbond Plus self-etch primer; and two self-etch bonding systems reinforced with silica dioxide nanofiller at different concentrations: C) Futurabond DC at 1%; D...

  4. Weld Metallurgy and Mechanical Properties of High Manganese Ultra-high Strength Steel Dissimilar Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Lindner, Stefan; Monfort, Damien; Petring, Dirk

    The increasing demand for ultra-high strength steels in vehicle manufacturing leads to the application of new alloys. This poses a challenge on joining especially by fusion welding. A stainless high manganese steel sheet with excellent strength and deformation properties stands in the centre of the development. Similar and dissimilar welds with a metastable austenitic steel and a hot formed martensitic stainless steel were performed. An investigation of the mixing effects on the local microstructure and the hardness delivers the metallurgical features of the welds. Despite of carbon contents above 0.4 wt.% none of the welds have shown cracks. Mechanical properties drawn from tensile tests deliver high breaking forces enabling a high stiffness of the joints. The results show the potential for the application of laser beam welding for joining in assembly of structural parts.

  5. Plastic strain induced damage evolution and martensitic transformation in ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garion, C.; Skoczen, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    The Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels are well known for their ductile behavior at cryogenic temperatures. This implies development and evolution of plastic strain fields in the stainless steel components subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. The evolution of plastic strain fields is usually associated with two phenomena: ductile damage and strain induced martensitic transformation. Ductile damage is described by the kinetic law of damage evolution. Here, the assumption of isotropic distribution of damage (microcracks and microvoids) in the Representative Volume Element (RVE) is made. Formation of the plastic strain induced martensite (irreversible process) leads to the presence of quasi-rigid inclusions of martensite in the austenitic matrix. The amount of martensite platelets in the RVE depends on the intensity of the plastic strain fields and on the temperature. The evolution of the volume fraction of martensite is governed by a kinetic law based on the accumulated plastic strain. Both of these irreversible phenomena, associated with the dissipation of plastic power, are included into the constitutive model of stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The model is tested on the thin-walled corrugated shells (known as bellows expansion joints) used in the interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider, the new proton storage ring being constructed at present at CERN

  6. Low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel; the role of plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Jespersen, Freja Nygaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    : - plastic deformation of metastable austenitic stainless steels leads to the development of strain-induced martensite, which compromises the uniformity and the homogeneity of the expanded austenite zone. - during low temperature surface engineering composition and stress profiles develop. On numerical......Thermochemical surface engineering by nitriding of austenitic stainless steel transforms the surface zone into expanded austenite, which improves the wear resistance of the stainless steel while preserving the stainless behavior. As a consequence of the thermochemical surface engineering, huge...

  7. 75 FR 62101 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...\\ ``Gilphy 36'' is a trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-835] Stainless Steel Sheet and... countervailing duty order (``CVD'') on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from the Republic of Korea...

  8. 75 FR 81221 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Preliminary Results of the Five-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-822 ] Stainless Steel Sheet and... of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (``SSSS'') in coils from Mexico...

  9. 75 FR 81214 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Italy: Preliminary Results of the Full Second Five...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from the scope of the order. This high... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-824] Stainless Steel Sheet and... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from Italy...

  10. 75 FR 62104 - Certain Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from...-831] Certain Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and... duty orders on certain stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from Germany, Italy, Japan, the...

  11. 75 FR 6627 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from the scope of the order. This high... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-822] Stainless Steel Sheet and... review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (S4) in coils from Mexico. See...

  12. 75 FR 76700 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... is a trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-831] Stainless Steel Sheet and... antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils (SSSSC) from Taiwan. This review covers...

  13. 75 FR 6631 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Japan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...\\``Gilphy 36'' is a trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-845] Stainless Steel Sheet and... antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils (SSSSC) from Japan. This review covers two...

  14. Characterisation of microstructure and its effect on the strength and toughness of 17-4PH stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, C. R.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Albert, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    the formation of a copper-rich phase after ageing for 0.25 h, with the amount of the copper-rich precipitates increasing with the duration of ageing. The coarsening of the copper-rich precipitates on ageing for 2 h led to a sharp decrease in hardness, which was attributable to the transformation of the coherent...... copper-rich body centred cubic (b.c.c.) phase to the incoherent copper rich face centred cubic (f.c.c.) phase. Further ageing for 4 h led to a dip in hardness and strength and an increase in toughness. The dip in hardness upon long-term ageing could be attributed to the formation of coarse copper...

  15. Effect of nanotechnology in self-etch bonding systems on the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaza M. Hammad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of silica dioxide (SiO2 nanofillers in different bonding systems on shear bond strength (SBS and mode of failure of orthodontic brackets at two experimental times. Methods: Ninety-six intact premolars were divided into four groups: A Conventional acid-etch and primer Transbond XT; B Transbond Plus self-etch primer; and two self-etch bonding systems reinforced with silica dioxide nanofiller at different concentrations: C Futurabond DC at 1%; D Optibond All-in-One at 7%. Each group was allocated into two subgroups (n = 12 according to experimental time (12 and 24 hours. SBS test was performed using a universal testing machine. ARI scores were determined under a stereomicroscope. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to determine the size and distribution of nanofillers. One-way ANOVA was used to compare SBS followed by the post-hoc Tukey test. The chi-square test was used to evaluate ARI scores. Results: Mean SBS of Futurabond DC and Optibond All-in-One were significantly lower than conventional system, and there were no significant differences between means SBS obtained with all self-etch bonding systems used in the study. Lower ARI scores were found for Futurabond DC and Optibond All-in-One. There was no significant difference of SBS and ARI obtained at either time points for all bonding systems. Relative homogeneous distribution of the fillers was observed with the bonding systems. Conclusion: Two nanofilled systems revealed the lowest bond strengths, but still clinically acceptable and less adhesive was left on enamel. It is advisable not to load the brackets immediately to the maximum.

  16. Effect of nanotechnology in self-etch bonding systems on the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shaza M.; El-Wassefy, Noha; Maher, Ahmed; Fawakerji, Shafik M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of silica dioxide (SiO2) nanofillers in different bonding systems on shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of orthodontic brackets at two experimental times. Methods: Ninety-six intact premolars were divided into four groups: A) Conventional acid-etch and primer Transbond XT; B) Transbond Plus self-etch primer; and two self-etch bonding systems reinforced with silica dioxide nanofiller at different concentrations: C) Futurabond DC at 1%; D) Optibond All-in-One at 7%. Each group was allocated into two subgroups (n = 12) according to experimental time (12 and 24 hours). SBS test was performed using a universal testing machine. ARI scores were determined under a stereomicroscope. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to determine the size and distribution of nanofillers. One-way ANOVA was used to compare SBS followed by the post-hoc Tukey test. The chi-square test was used to evaluate ARI scores. Results: Mean SBS of Futurabond DC and Optibond All-in-One were significantly lower than conventional system, and there were no significant differences between means SBS obtained with all self-etch bonding systems used in the study. Lower ARI scores were found for Futurabond DC and Optibond All-in-One. There was no significant difference of SBS and ARI obtained at either time points for all bonding systems. Relative homogeneous distribution of the fillers was observed with the bonding systems. Conclusion: Two nanofilled systems revealed the lowest bond strengths, but still clinically acceptable and less adhesive was left on enamel. It is advisable not to load the brackets immediately to the maximum. PMID:28444018

  17. Tensile strength and creep behaviour of austenitic stainless steel type 18Cr - 12Ni with niobium additions at 700{sup 0}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, V L; Bueno, L O, E-mail: sordi@ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Materials Engineering Department, Sao Carlos (SP), 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The effect of niobium additions up to 2.36 wt% on the creep behavior of a series of seven extra low carbon 18Cr-12Ni austenitic stainless steels at 700{sup 0}C has been investigated. Grain size and hardness measurements, hot tensile tests and constant stress creep tests from 90 to 180 MPa were carried out for each alloy, in the solution treated condition at 1050, 1200 and 1300{sup 0}C followed by quench in water. The mechanical behavior at high temperature was related to the amount of NbC precipitation occurring during the tests. Solid solution and intermetallic compound effects were also considered. Creep data analysis was done to determine the parameters of the creep power-law equation {epsilon}-dot = A.{sigma}{sup n} and the Monkman-Grant relation {epsilon}-dot .t{sup m}{sub R} = K. Niobium-carbide precipitation in these steels reduces the secondary stage dependence of strain rate with applied stress, resulting in n-values which indicate the possibility of operation of various creep mechanisms. The creep strength during the secondary stage is primarily controlled by the amount of NbC available for precipitation. However, the rupture times increase progressively with niobium content, as the amount of undissolved carbide particles in grain boundaries and the Laves phase precipitation increase.

  18. Tensile strength and creep behaviour of austenitic stainless steel type 18Cr - 12Ni with niobium additions at 700°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordi, V. L.; Bueno, L. O.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of niobium additions up to 2.36 wt% on the creep behavior of a series of seven extra low carbon 18Cr-12Ni austenitic stainless steels at 700°C has been investigated. Grain size and hardness measurements, hot tensile tests and constant stress creep tests from 90 to 180 MPa were carried out for each alloy, in the solution treated condition at 1050, 1200 and 1300°C followed by quench in water. The mechanical behavior at high temperature was related to the amount of NbC precipitation occurring during the tests. Solid solution and intermetallic compound effects were also considered. Creep data analysis was done to determine the parameters of the creep power-law equation dot epsilon = A.σn and the Monkman-Grant relation dot epsilon.tmR = K. Niobium-carbide precipitation in these steels reduces the secondary stage dependence of strain rate with applied stress, resulting in n-values which indicate the possibility of operation of various creep mechanisms. The creep strength during the secondary stage is primarily controlled by the amount of NbC available for precipitation. However, the rupture times increase progressively with niobium content, as the amount of undissolved carbide particles in grain boundaries and the Laves phase precipitation increase.

  19. Effects of hydrogen on the tensile strength characteristics of stainless steels; Effets de l'hydrogene sur les caracteristiques de rupture par traction d'aciers inoxydables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, R; Pelissier, J; Pluchery, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper deals with the effects of hydrogen on stainless steel, that might possibly be used as a canning material in hydrogen-cooled reactors. Apparent ultimate-tensile strength is only 80 per cent of initial value for hydrogen content about 50 cc NTP/ 100 g, and reduction in area decreases from 80 to 55 per cent. A special two-stage replica technique has been developed which allows fracture surface of small tensile specimens (about 0.1 mm diam.) to be examined in an electron microscope. All the specimens showed evidence of ductile character throughout the range of hydrogen contents investigated, but the aspect of the fracture surfaces gradually changes with increasing amounts. (author) [French] On etudie les effets de l'hydrogene sur des aciers inoxydables, qui sont des materiaux de gainage possibles pour des reacteurs utilisant l'hydrogene comme gaz de refroidissement. On montre que la charge apparente de rupture a la traction n'est plus que 80 pour cent de sa valeur initiale lorsque la teneur en hydrogene atteint 50 cc TPN/ 100 g, et que la striction passe dans ces conditions de 80 a 55 pour cent. L'examen microfractographique qui a ete effectue avec succes par une technique de double replique malgre la petitesse des echantillons (0,3 mm de diametre environ), revele que tout en gardant un caractere ductile, l'aspect des surfaces de rupture evolue notablement avec la teneur en hydrogene. (auteur)

  20. Tempering response to different morphologies of martensite in tensile deformation of dual-phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, E.; Manzoor, T.; Sarwar, M.; Arif, M.; Hussain, N.

    2011-01-01

    A low alloy steel containing 0.2% C was heat treated with three cycles of heat treatments with the aim to acquire different morphologies of martensite in dual phase microstructure. Microscopic examination revealed that the morphologies consisting of grain boundary growth, scattered laths and bulk form of martensite were obtained. These morphologies have their distinct patterns of distribution in the matrix (ferrite). In tensile properties observations the dual phase steel with bulk morphology of martensite showed minimum of ductility but high tensile strength as compared to other two morphologies. This may be due to poor alignments of bulk martensite particles along tensile axes during deformation. Tempering was employed with various holding times at 550 deg. C to induce ductility in the heat treated material. The tempering progressively increased the ductility by increasing holding time. However, tempering response to strengths and ductilities was different to all three morphologies of martensite. (author)

  1. Martensitic phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J.

    1996-01-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs

  2. Martensitic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, W; Neuhaus, J [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  3. Processing, Microstructures and Properties of a Dual Phase Precipitation-Hardening PM Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Christopher

    To improve the mechanical properties of PM stainless steels in comparison with their wrought counterparts, a PM stainless steel alloy was developed which combines a dual-phase microstructure with precipitation-hardening. The use of a mixed microstructure of martensite and ferrite results in an alloy with a combination of the optimum properties of each phase, namely strength and ductility. The use of precipitation hardening via the addition of copper results in additional strength and hardness. A range of compositions was studied in combination with various sintering conditions to determine the optimal thermal processing to achieve the desired microstructure. The microstructure could be varied from predominately ferrite to one containing a high percentage of martensite by additions of copper and a variation of the sintering temperature before rapid cooling. Mechanical properties (transverse rupture strength (TRS), yield strength, tensile strength, ductility and impact toughness) were measured as a function of the v/o ferrite in the microstructure. A dual phase alloy with the optimal combination of properties served as the base for introducing precipitation hardening. Copper was added to the base alloy at various levels and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties was quantified. Processing at various sintering temperatures led to a range of microstructures; dilatometry was used utilized to monitor and understand the transformations and the formation of the two phases. The aging process was studied as a function of temperature and time by measuring TRS, yield strength, tensile strength, ductility, impact toughness and apparent hardness. It was determined that optimum aging was achieved at 538°C for 1h. Aging at slightly lower temperatures led to the formation of carbides, which contributed to reduced hardness and tensile strength. As expected, at the peak aging temperature, an increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength as well as

  4. Corrosion-resistant coating technique for oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ando, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are attractive materials for application as fuel cladding in fast reactors and first-wall material of fusion blanket. Recent studies have focused more on high-chromium ferritic (12-18 wt% Cr) ODS steels with attractive corrosion resistance properties. However, they have poor material workability, require complicated heat treatments for recrystallization, and possess anisotropic microstructures and mechanical properties. On the other hand, low-chromium ferritic/martensitic (8-9 wt% Cr) ODS steels have no such limitations; nonetheless, they have poor corrosion resistance properties. In our work, we developed a corrosion-resistant coating technique for a low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steel. The ODS steel was coated with the 304 or 430 stainless steel, which has better corrosion resistances than the low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steels. The 304 or 430 stainless steel was coated by changing the canning material from mild steel to stainless steel in the conventional material processing procedure for ODS steels. Microstructural observations and micro-hardness tests proved that the stainless steels were successfully coated without causing a deterioration in the mechanical property of the low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steel. (author)

  5. Tailoring plasticity of austenitic stainless steels for nuclear applications: Review of mechanisms controlling plasticity of austenitic steels below 400 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric de Bellefon, G., E-mail: mericdebelle@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Duysen, J.C. van [EDF R& D (France); University of Tennessee-Knoxville (United States); Unité Matériaux et Transformation (UMET) CNRS, Université de Lille (France)

    2016-07-15

    AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels were invented in the early 1900s and are still trusted by materials and mechanical engineers in numerous sectors because of their good combination of strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance, and thanks to decades of experience and data. This article is part of an effort focusing on tailoring the plasticity of both types of steels to nuclear applications. It provides a synthetic and comprehensive review of the plasticity mechanisms in austenitic steels during tensile tests below 400 °C. In particular, formation of twins, extended stacking faults, and martensite, as well as irradiation effects and grain rotation are discussed in details. - Highlights: • This article is part of an effort to tailor the plasticity of 304L and 316L steels for nuclear applications. • It reviews mechanisms controlling plasticity of austenitic steels during tensile tests. • Formation of twins, extended stacking faults, and martensite, grain rotation, and irradiation effects are discussed.

  6. Tailoring plasticity of austenitic stainless steels for nuclear applications: Review of mechanisms controlling plasticity of austenitic steels below 400 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric de Bellefon, G.; van Duysen, J. C.

    2016-07-01

    AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels were invented in the early 1900s and are still trusted by materials and mechanical engineers in numerous sectors because of their good combination of strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance, and thanks to decades of experience and data. This article is part of an effort focusing on tailoring the plasticity of both types of steels to nuclear applications. It provides a synthetic and comprehensive review of the plasticity mechanisms in austenitic steels during tensile tests below 400 °C. In particular, formation of twins, extended stacking faults, and martensite, as well as irradiation effects and grain rotation are discussed in details.

  7. Elevated temperature tensile properties of borated 304 stainless steel: Effect of boride dispersion on strength and ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.J.; Sorenson, K.B.; McConnell, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper has documented the increase in strain to fracture and yield strength obtained with Grade A versions of types 304B5 and 304B7 relative to their respective Grade B, counterparts. The apparent microstructural reason for these property increases is the finer dispersion of boride in the Grade A material, obtained by means of a Powder Metallurgy process, relative to the conventional Grade B material which is produced using an Ingot Metallurgy process. The area size distribution of borides can be well approximated using a log-normal distribution, with the largest boride particles in the Grade B material having areas in the range of 450--600 μm 2 . By comparison, the largest boride particles in the Grade A material have areas nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the largest particles in their Grade B counterparts. A Section III ASME B ampersand PV code case inquiry has been initiated for non-welded versions of 304B4A, 3045A and 3046A ,material

  8. Moessbauer spectroscopy of He irradiated austenitic stainless steel SUS304 at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Kiyomasa; Ishibashi, Tetsu; Toriyama, Tamotsu; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Iijima, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Isao.

    1996-01-01

    SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel causes the magnetic transition at 60 K, and the Young's modulus lowers. In addition, its composition elements have the large (n,α) reaction cross section to high energy neutrons, and helium is apt to be generated, and this is a factor that lowers the material strength. In the He-irradiated parts in austenitic stainless steel, the precursory state of martensite transformation should exist, and its effect is considered to be observable by carrying out low temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy. As to the preparation of He-irradiation samples, the SUS 304 foils used and the irradiation conditions are described. The measurement of low temperature Moessbauer spectra for the samples without irradiation and with irradiation is reported. In order to determine the magnetic transition point, the thermal scanning measurement was carried out for the samples without or with irradiation. The martensite transformation was measured by X-ray diffraction and transmission type Moessbauer spectroscopy. In order to observe the state of the sample surfaces, the measurement by internal conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was performed. These results and the temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra for the irradiated parts are reported. (K.I.)

  9. Moessbauer spectroscopy of He irradiated austenitic stainless steel SUS304 at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii, Kiyomasa; Ishibashi, Tetsu; Toriyama, Tamotsu; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Iijima, Hiroshi [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Kawasaki, Katsunori; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Isao

    1996-04-01

    SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel causes the magnetic transition at 60 K, and the Young`s modulus lowers. In addition, its composition elements have the large (n,{alpha}) reaction cross section to high energy neutrons, and helium is apt to be generated, and this is a factor that lowers the material strength. In the He-irradiated parts in austenitic stainless steel, the precursory state of martensite transformation should exist, and its effect is considered to be observable by carrying out low temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy. As to the preparation of He-irradiation samples, the SUS 304 foils used and the irradiation conditions are described. The measurement of low temperature Moessbauer spectra for the samples without irradiation and with irradiation is reported. In order to determine the magnetic transition point, the thermal scanning measurement was carried out for the samples without or with irradiation. The martensite transformation was measured by X-ray diffraction and transmission type Moessbauer spectroscopy. In order to observe the state of the sample surfaces, the measurement by internal conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was performed. These results and the temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra for the irradiated parts are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened steels for FBR core application. 2. Morphology improvement by martensite transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu; Nishida, Toshio; Yoshitake, Tunemitsu; Okuda, Takanari

    1998-01-01

    Previously manufactured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel cladding tubes had inferior internal creep rupture strength in the circumferential hoop direction. This unexpected feature of ODS cladding tubes was substantially ascribed to the needle-like grain structure aligned with the forming direction. In this study, the grain morphology was controlled by using the martensite transformation in ODS martensitic steels to produce an equi-axial grain structure. A major improvement in the strength anisotropy was successfully achieved. The most effective yttria addition was about 1 mass% in improving the strength of the ODS martensitic steels. A simple addition of titanium was particularly effective in increasing the strength level of the ODS martensitic steels to that of ODS ferritic steels. (author)

  11. Strain hardening of cold-rolled lean-alloyed metastable ferritic-austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papula, Suvi [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 14200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Anttila, Severi [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Talonen, Juho [Outokumpu Oyj, P.O. Box 245, FI-00181 Helsinki (Finland); Sarikka, Teemu; Virkkunen, Iikka; Hänninen, Hannu [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 14200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2016-11-20

    Mechanical properties and strain hardening of two pilot-scale lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels having metastable austenite phase, present at 0.50 and 0.30 volume fractions, have been studied by means of tensile testing and nanoindentation. These ferritic-austenitic stainless steels have high strain-hardening capacity, due to the metastable austenite phase, which leads to an improved uniform elongation and higher tensile strength in comparison with most commercial lean duplex stainless steels. According to the results, even as low as 0.30 volume fraction of austenite seems efficient for achieving nearly 40% elongation. The austenite phase is initially the harder phase, and exhibits more strain hardening than the ferrite phase. The rate of strain hardening and the evolution of the martensite phase were found to depend on the loading direction: both are higher when strained in the rolling direction as compared to the transverse direction. Based on the mechanical testing, characterization of the microstructure by optical/electron microscopy, magnetic balance measurements and EBSD texture analysis, this anisotropy in mechanical properties of the cold-rolled metastable ferritic-austenitic stainless steels can be explained by the elongated dual-phase microstructure, fiber reinforcement effect of the harder austenite phase and the presence and interplay of rolling textures in the two phases.

  12. Martensitic transformation in zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, Sylvain; Guenin, Gerard; Chevalier, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    We investigate by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the surface relief resulting from martensitic tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation induced by low temperature autoclave aging in ceria-stabilized zirconia. AFM appears as a very powerful tool to investigate martensite relief quantitatively and with a great precision. The crystallographic phenomenological theory is used to predict the expected relief induced by the transformation, for the particular case of lattice correspondence ABC1, where tetragonal c axis becomes the monoclinic c axis. A model for variants spatial arrangement for this lattice correspondence is proposed and validated by the experimental observations. An excellent agreement is found between the quantitative calculations outputs and the experimental measurements at nanometer scale yielded by AFM. All the observed features are explained fully quantitatively by the calculations, with discrepancies between calculations and quantitative experimental measurements within the measurements and calculations precision range. In particular, the crystallographic orientation of the transformed grains is determined from the local characteristics of transformation induced relief. It is finally demonstrated that the strain energy is the controlling factor of the surface transformation induced by low temperature autoclave treatments in this material

  13. Tensile Deformation Temperature Impact on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AISI 316LN Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yi; He, Tiantian; Lu, Yan; Ren, Fengzhang; Volinsky, Alex A.; Cao, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on AISI 316LN austenitic stainless steel from - 40 to 300 °C at a rate of 0.5 mm/min. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the deformed steel were investigated by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, x-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and microhardness increase with the decrease in the test temperature. The tensile fracture morphology has the dimple rupture feature after low-temperature deformations and turns to a mixture of transgranular fracture and dimple fracture after high-temperature ones. The dominating deformation microstructure evolves from dislocation tangle/slip bands to large deformation twins/slip bands with temperature decrease. The deformation-induced martensite transformation can only be realized at low temperature, and its quantity increases with the decrease in the temperature.

  14. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic steel: The synergy of stacking fault energy and chemical driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moallemi, M., E-mail: m.moallemi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fould Institute of Technology, Fouladshahr, Isfahan, 8491663763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, A.; Baghbadorani, H. Samaei; Nezhadfar, P. Dastranjy [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the correlation of stacking fault energy's synergy and driving force in the formation of deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic stainless steel. The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic induction techniques. The kinetics of the martensite formation versus applied strain was evaluated through the sigmoidal model. It was shown that the volume fraction of ά-martensite is closely related to the driving force/SFE ratio of the alloy. The results also showed that the martensite content is similar in both XRD and magnetic methods and the applied sigmoidal model was consistent with the obtained experimental data.

  15. Low-temperature dependence of yielding in AISI 316 stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobler, R.L.; Reed, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Tensile tests at temperatures between 323 and 4 K were performed on one heat of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel having the composition Fe-17.34Cr-12.17Ni-1.55Mn-2.16Mo-0.051C. The temperature dependences of the yield and flow strengths at plastic strain increments from 0.2 to 3.65% are analyzed. At the yield strain (0.2%), no body-centered cubic (bcc) martensite phase transformation is detected. At higher strains (approx.3.2 +- 0.6%), bcc martensite forms from the parent austenite phase at test temperatures below 190 K, but there are no discontinuities in the temperature dependence of flow strength. A review of data available for three heats of AISI 316 at temperatures between 973 and 4 K reveals that deviations from thermally activated plastic flow theory occur at temperatures below 175 K, apparently depending on heat-to-heat compositional variations. Grain size and magnetic transition effects on the yield strength are discussed

  16. The sub-zero Celsius treatment of precipitation hardenable semi-austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    A precipitation hardenable semi-austenitic stainless steel AISI 632 grade was austenitized according to industrial specifications and thereafter subjected to isothermal treatment at sub-zero Celsius temperatures. During treatment, austenite transformed to martensite. The isothermal austenite-to-martensite...... treatment. Magnetometry showed that the additional thermal step in boiling nitrogen yields a minor increment of the fraction of martensite, but has a noteworthy accelerating effect on the transformation kinetics, which more pronounced when the isothermal holding is performed at a higher temperature. Data...... is interpreted in terms of instantaneous nucleation of martensite during cooling followed by time dependent growth during isothermal holding....

  17. In Situ Investigation of the Evolution of Lattice Strain and Stresses in Austenite and Martensite During Quenching and Tempering of Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, M.; Niessen, F.; Somers, M. A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate in situ the evolution of lattice strains and stresses in austenite and martensite during quenching and tempering of a soft martensitic stainless steel. In one experiment, lattice strains in austenite and martensite were...... measured in situ in the direction perpendicular to the sample surface during an austenitization, quenching, and tempering cycle. In a second experiment, the sin2ψ method was applied in situ during the austenite-to-martensite transformation to distinguish between macro- and phase-specific micro......-stresses and to follow the evolution of these stresses during transformation. Martensite formation evokes compressive stress in austenite that is balanced by tensile stress in martensite. Tempering to 748 K (475 °C) leads to partial relaxation of these stresses. Additionally, data reveal that (elastic) lattice strain...

  18. Martensitic cubic → tetragonal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1983-01-01

    Indium-thallium alloys containing 14 to 30% At. Tl have a cubic face-centred beta phase wich changes into a tetragonal face-centred alpha martensite during solidification. The martensite contains twin crystals that are large enough to be seen by means of a light microscope. The phenomenological crystallographic martensite theory was used to calculate Miller's index of the habit plane, the formation of the surface relief, the orientation relations and the critical thickness ratio of the twins. In a beta monocrystal frequently only one of the 24 crystallographic possible habit planes are formed at one end of the sample and migrate through the whole crystal when the temperature drops. Externally applied tension and compression influence in different ways the direction in which the habit plane moves and can even destroy the twinned structure, i.e. they can modify the substructure of the martensite crystal. This induces superelasticity, an effect that has also been described quantitatively. (author)

  19. Influence of stress on martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of hot stamped AHSS parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.; Li, X.D.; Zhao, K.M.; Wang, C.Y.; Zheng, G.J.; Hu, P.; Dong, H.

    2015-01-01

    Non-isothermal tension and compression tests of 22MnB5 boron steel were carried out in this study. How different stress state influences the martensitic transformation of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) parts was analyzed. The analysis reveals that the martensitic transformation starting temperature (M s ) changes with different stress states. Specifically, the M s temperature rises with increasing tensile stress, however, it rises first and then drops with increasing compressive stress. Moreover, a higher initial forming temperature leads to a higher M s temperature under the same stress. Simulation of an actual hot-formed AHSS B-pillar together with the microscopic metallography, hardness and martensitic content shows that in higher tensile stress dominated area, the martensitic content and hardness are usually higher than in other areas. Although the stress can promote the M s temperature, a lower cooling rate may lead to less martensite fraction

  20. Influence of stress on martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of hot stamped AHSS parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.; Li, X.D. [School of Automotive Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Industrial Equipment Structural Analysis, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, K.M., E-mail: kmzhao@dlut.edu.cn [School of Automotive Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Industrial Equipment Structural Analysis, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, C.Y. [Institute for Special Steels, Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zheng, G.J.; Hu, P. [School of Automotive Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Industrial Equipment Structural Analysis, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Dong, H. [Institute for Special Steels, Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Non-isothermal tension and compression tests of 22MnB5 boron steel were carried out in this study. How different stress state influences the martensitic transformation of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) parts was analyzed. The analysis reveals that the martensitic transformation starting temperature (M{sub s}) changes with different stress states. Specifically, the M{sub s} temperature rises with increasing tensile stress, however, it rises first and then drops with increasing compressive stress. Moreover, a higher initial forming temperature leads to a higher M{sub s} temperature under the same stress. Simulation of an actual hot-formed AHSS B-pillar together with the microscopic metallography, hardness and martensitic content shows that in higher tensile stress dominated area, the martensitic content and hardness are usually higher than in other areas. Although the stress can promote the M{sub s} temperature, a lower cooling rate may lead to less martensite fraction.

  1. Cryogenic properties of austenitic stainless steels for superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, K.; Kato, T.; Ono, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1983-01-01

    The present study examines the magnetic and mechanical properties of a variety of austenitic stainless steels and high maganese steel which are candidate materials for the superconducting magnet attached to high energy particle accelerators. The effect of a specified heat treatment for the precipitation of intermetallic compound Nb3Sn to be used as superconductor on ductility and toughness are especially examined. It is found that nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steels have high strength and good ductility and toughness, but that these are destroyed by precipitation treatment. The poor ductility and toughness after precipitation are caused by a weakening of the grain boundaries due to the agglomerated chromium carbide percipitates. The addition of vanadium suppresses this effect by refining the grain. Austenitic steels are found to have low magnetic permeabilities and Neel temperatures, and show serrated flow in traction test due to strained martensitic transformation. High manganese steel has extremely low permeability, a Neel temperature about room temperature, and has a serrated flow in traction test due to adiabatic deformation at liquid helium temperature

  2. The neutronic basis for elemental substitution in martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublet, J.-Ch.; Butterworth, G. J.

    1994-09-01

    A simple graphical approach has been developed to facilitate the design of low-activation steels by elemental tailoring. Noting that the iron base provides the best achievable target, the influence of candidate alloying elements becomes readily apparent when the contribution each makes to a particular activation parameter such as specific activity, dose rate or decay power, is expressed relative to the contribution from the iron base. This approach highlights the most critical activation parameters and times after shutdown with respect to safety and environmental objectives. Its application to the design of low activation martensitic stainless steels is discussed.

  3. 76 FR 25670 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Italy: Final Results of the Full Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from the scope of the order. This high... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-824] Stainless Steel Sheet and... duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (``SSSS'') in coils from Italy would be likely to lead to...

  4. 76 FR 25668 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Final Results of the Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... ``Gilphy 36.'' \\3\\ Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from the... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-822] Stainless Steel Sheet and... Commerce (``Department'') finds that revocation of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and...

  5. Modification of the Strength Anisotropy in an Austenitic ODS Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. K.; Jang, J.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, C. B.; Bae, C. S.; Kim, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    Among many candidate alloys for Gen IV reactors, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy is widely considered as a good candidate material for the in-reactor component, like cladding tube. The ODS alloy is well known due to its good high temperature strength, and excellent irradiation resistance. For the previous two decades in the nuclear community, the ODS alloy developments have been mostly focused on the ferritic martensitic (F-M) steel-based ones. On the other hand, the austenitic stainless steels (e.g. 316L or 316LN) have been used as a structural material due to its good high temperature strength and a good compatibility with a media. However, the austenitic stainless steel showed unfavorable characteristics in the dimensional stability under neutron irradiation and cracking behavior with the media. It is thus expected that the austenitic ODS steels restrain the dimension stability under neutron irradiation. However, the ODS alloys usually reveal the anisotropic characteristic in mechanical strength in the hoop and longitudinal directions, which is attributed to the grain morphology strongly developed parallel to the rolling direction with a high aspect ratio. This study focuses on a modification of the strength anisotropy of an austenitic ODS alloy by a recrystallization heat treatment

  6. Comprehensive Deformation Analysis of a Newly Designed Ni-Free Duplex Stainless Steel with Enhanced Plasticity by Optimizing Austenite Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallemi, Mohammad; Zarei-Hanzaki, Abbas; Eskandari, Mostafa; Burrows, Andrew; Alimadadi, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    A new metastable Ni-free duplex stainless steel has been designed with superior plasticity by optimizing austenite stability using thermodynamic calculations of stacking fault energy and with reference to literature findings. Several characterization methods comprising optical microscopy, magnetic phase measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscattered diffraction were employed to study the plastic deformation behavior and to identify the operating plasticity mechanisms. The results obtained show that the newly designed duplex alloy exhibits some extraordinary mechanical properties, including an ultimate tensile strength of 900 MPa and elongation to fracture of 94 pct due to the synergistic effects of transformation-induced plasticity and twinning-induced plasticity. The deformation mechanism of austenite is complex and includes deformation banding, strain-induced martensite formation, and deformation-induced twinning, while the ferrite phase mainly deforms by dislocation slip. Texture analysis indicates that the Copper and Rotated Brass textures in austenite (FCC phase) and {001} texture in ferrite and martensite (BCC phases) are the main active components during tensile deformation. The predominance of these components is logically related to the strain-induced martensite and/or twin formation.

  7. Study on tempering behaviour of AISI 410 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C.R.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Thomas Paul, V.; Panneerselvam, G.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2015-01-01

    Martensitic stainless steels find extensive applications due to their optimum combination of strength, hardness and wear-resistance in tempered condition. However, this class of steels is susceptible to embrittlement during tempering if it is carried out in a specific temperature range resulting in significant reduction in toughness. Embrittlement of as-normalised AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel, subjected to tempering treatment in the temperature range of 673–923 K was studied using Charpy impact tests followed by metallurgical investigations using field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Carbides precipitated during tempering were extracted by electrochemical dissolution of the matrix and identified by X-ray diffraction. Studies indicated that temper embrittlement is highest when the steel is tempered at 823 K. Mostly iron rich carbides are present in the steel subjected to tempering at low temperatures of around 723 K, whereas chromium rich carbides (M 23 C 6 ) dominate precipitation at high temperature tempering. The range 773–823 K is the transition temperature range for the precipitates, with both Fe 2 C and M 23 C 6 types of carbides coexisting in the material. The nucleation of Fe 2 C within the martensite lath, during low temperature tempering, has a definite role in the embrittlement of this steel. Embrittlement is not observed at high temperature tempering because of precipitation of M 23 C 6 carbides, instead of Fe 2 C, preferentially along the lath and prior austenite boundaries. Segregation of S and P, which is widely reported as one of the causes for temper embrittlement, could not be detected in the material even through Auger electron spectroscopy studies. - Highlights: • Tempering behaviour of AISI 410 steel is studied within 673–923 K temperature range. • Temperature regime of maximum embrittlement is identified as 773–848 K. • Results show that type of carbide precipitation varies with

  8. Study on tempering behaviour of AISI 410 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Gopa, E-mail: gopa_mjs@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Das, C.R.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Thomas Paul, V. [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Panneerselvam, G. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Martensitic stainless steels find extensive applications due to their optimum combination of strength, hardness and wear-resistance in tempered condition. However, this class of steels is susceptible to embrittlement during tempering if it is carried out in a specific temperature range resulting in significant reduction in toughness. Embrittlement of as-normalised AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel, subjected to tempering treatment in the temperature range of 673–923 K was studied using Charpy impact tests followed by metallurgical investigations using field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Carbides precipitated during tempering were extracted by electrochemical dissolution of the matrix and identified by X-ray diffraction. Studies indicated that temper embrittlement is highest when the steel is tempered at 823 K. Mostly iron rich carbides are present in the steel subjected to tempering at low temperatures of around 723 K, whereas chromium rich carbides (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}) dominate precipitation at high temperature tempering. The range 773–823 K is the transition temperature range for the precipitates, with both Fe{sub 2}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} types of carbides coexisting in the material. The nucleation of Fe{sub 2}C within the martensite lath, during low temperature tempering, has a definite role in the embrittlement of this steel. Embrittlement is not observed at high temperature tempering because of precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, instead of Fe{sub 2}C, preferentially along the lath and prior austenite boundaries. Segregation of S and P, which is widely reported as one of the causes for temper embrittlement, could not be detected in the material even through Auger electron spectroscopy studies. - Highlights: • Tempering behaviour of AISI 410 steel is studied within 673–923 K temperature range. • Temperature regime of maximum embrittlement is identified as 773–848 K. • Results show that type of

  9. Contributions from research on irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels to materials science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, D. S.

    1990-05-01

    Ferritic and martensitic steels are finding increased application for structural components in several reactor systems. Low-alloy steels have long been used for pressure vessels in light water fission reactors. Martensitic stainless steels are finding increasing usage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors and are being considered for fusion reactor applications when such systems become commercially viable. Recent efforts have evaluated the applicability of oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels. Experiments on the effect of irradiation on these steels provide several examples where contributions are being made to materials science and engineering. Examples are given demonstrating improvements in basic understanding, small specimen test procedure development, and alloy development.

  10. G-phase precipitation in austenitic stainless steel deformed by high pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuro, I., E-mail: innoshuro@martens.me.tut.ac.jp [Functional Materials Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Kuo, H.H. [Functional Materials Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Sasaki, T.; Hono, K. [National Institute for Materials Sciences, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Todaka, Y.; Umemoto, M. [Functional Materials Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using TEM and APT analyses, G-phase precipitation was observed in HPTed SUS304 with no trace of spinodal decomposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-phase precipitation occurred much shorter time than previous studies probably due to the elimination of prior SD and enhanced diffusion by severe plastic deformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-phase composition is a function of aging time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tensile tests showed that in SUS304 embrittlement occurs solely due to G-phase precipitation. - Abstract: G phase an intermetallic silicide has been observed in martensite of precipitation hardened stainless steels and in the ferrite of dual (austenite and ferrite) phase stainless steels. In both cases, before G-phase precipitates, the matrix composition changes due to spinodal decomposition and solute partitioning between ferrite and austenite. Thus in the present study, single bcc phase and high Ni content stainless steel, was selected to study G-phase precipitation expecting elimination of the interference from spinodal decomposition and solute partitioning. Fe-18Cr-8Ni (SUS304) austenitic stainless steel samples were deformed at room temperature by high pressure torsion to obtain 100% volume fraction of deformation induced martensite ({alpha} Prime ). HPT deformation was chosen due to its ability to induce high strength by grain refinement and also attain 100% {alpha} Prime at room temperature. After annealing at 400 Degree-Sign C for 500 h, G-phase precipitation was observed in the fully martensitic matrix without spinodal decomposition. Crystallographic analysis of annealed samples using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detected a Mn-Ni-Si rich G-phase with fcc crystal structure with lattice parameter of 1.16 nm. The value of lattice parameter corresponds well with previously reported values. Chemical analysis by atom probe tomography

  11. G-phase precipitation in austenitic stainless steel deformed by high pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuro, I.; Kuo, H.H.; Sasaki, T.; Hono, K.; Todaka, Y.; Umemoto, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using TEM and APT analyses, G-phase precipitation was observed in HPTed SUS304 with no trace of spinodal decomposition. ► G-phase precipitation occurred much shorter time than previous studies probably due to the elimination of prior SD and enhanced diffusion by severe plastic deformation. ► G-phase composition is a function of aging time. ► Tensile tests showed that in SUS304 embrittlement occurs solely due to G-phase precipitation. - Abstract: G phase an intermetallic silicide has been observed in martensite of precipitation hardened stainless steels and in the ferrite of dual (austenite and ferrite) phase stainless steels. In both cases, before G-phase precipitates, the matrix composition changes due to spinodal decomposition and solute partitioning between ferrite and austenite. Thus in the present study, single bcc phase and high Ni content stainless steel, was selected to study G-phase precipitation expecting elimination of the interference from spinodal decomposition and solute partitioning. Fe–18Cr–8Ni (SUS304) austenitic stainless steel samples were deformed at room temperature by high pressure torsion to obtain 100% volume fraction of deformation induced martensite (α′). HPT deformation was chosen due to its ability to induce high strength by grain refinement and also attain 100% α′ at room temperature. After annealing at 400 °C for 500 h, G-phase precipitation was observed in the fully martensitic matrix without spinodal decomposition. Crystallographic analysis of annealed samples using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detected a Mn–Ni–Si rich G-phase with fcc crystal structure with lattice parameter of 1.16 nm. The value of lattice parameter corresponds well with previously reported values. Chemical analysis by atom probe tomography (APT) showed G-phase of composition Mn 21 Ni 50 Si 24 Fe 4 Cr. Tensile tests showed that G-phase precipitation leads to

  12. Environment-Assisted Cracking in Custom 465 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. U.; Goswami, R.; Jones, M.; Vasudevan, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    The influence of cold work and aging on the environment-assisted cracking (EAC) behavior and mechanical properties of Custom 465 stainless steel (SS) was studied. Four sets of specimens were made and tested. All specimens were initially solution annealed, rapidly cooled, and refrigerated (SAR condition). The first specimen set was steel in the SAR condition. The second specimen set was aged to the H1000 condition. The third specimen set was 60 pct cold worked, and the fourth specimen set was 60 pct cold worked and aged at temperatures ranging from 755 K to 825 K (482 °C to 552 °C) for 4 hours in air. The specimens were subsequently subjected to EAC and mechanical testing. The EAC testing was conducted, using the rising step load (RSL) technique, in aqueous solutions of NaCl of pH 7.3 with concentrations ranging from 0.0035 to 3.5 pct at room temperature. The microstructure, dislocation substructure, and crack paths, resulting from the cold work, aging, or subsequent EAC testing, were examined by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The aging of the cold-worked specimens induced carbide precipitation within the martensite lath, but not at the lath or packet boundaries. In the aged specimens, as aging temperature rose, the threshold stress intensity for EAC (KIEAC), elongation, and fracture toughness increased, but the strength and hardness decreased. The KIEAC also decreased with increasing yield strength and NaCl concentration. In the SAR and H1000 specimens, the EAC propagated along the prior austenite grain boundary, while in the cold-worked and cold-worked and aged specimens, the EAC propagated along the martensite lath, and its packet and prior austenite grain boundaries. The controlling mechanism for the observed EAC was identified to be hydrogen embrittlement.

  13. Boron-bearing Influences of 9Cr-0.5Mo-2W-V-Nb Ferritic/Martensitic Steels for a SFR Fuel Cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Han, Chang-Hee; Kim, Woo-Gon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2008-01-01

    Currently the principal materials in a SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) of Gen-IV nuclear system are considering stainless steels (e.g. austenitic steels and ferritic/martensitic steels) for pressure boundary and structural applications in the primary circuit (cladding, duct, cold and hot leg piping, and pressure vessel). There are sound technical justifications for these material selections, and the adoption of these stainless steels for a wide range of nuclear and non-nuclear applications has generated much industrial technology and experience. However, there are strong incentives to develop advanced materials, especially cladding, for the Gen-IV SFR. The Gen-IV SFR is to have a considerable increase in safety and be economically competitive when compared with the conventional water reactors. To accomplish these objectives, the development of the fuel cladding material should be set forth as a premise because its integrity is directly related to those of the reactor system as well as the fuel in the Gen-IV SFR. Since last year, a R and D program was launched to develop the improved ferritic/martensitic steel for the Gen-IV SFR fuel cladding. Categories of materials considered in the program included 8 - 12% Cr ferritic/ martensitic steels. A strong recommendation was made for the development of a high strength steel equivalent to or superior to ASTM Gr.92 steel to offset the difficulties encountered with commercial available steels of the 8 - 12% Cr group. That is, since fuel cladding in the Gen-IV SFR would operate under higher temperatures than 600 .deg. C, contacting with liquid sodium, and be irradiated by neutrons to as high as 200dpa, the cladding should thus sustain both superior irradiation and temperature stabilities during an operational life. The newly developed advanced steel should overcome the severe drawback; mechanical properties, especially creep, are deteriorated at a higher temperature over 600 .deg. C. In this study, as one of the composition

  14. Activation volume of martensitic ODS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Noh, S.; Kim, T. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Apparent activation volume as a function of temperature is 86b{sup 3}-42b{sup 3}. Activation volume decreases with increasing temperature. Activation volume changes scarcely with decreasing strain rate. Strain rate sensitivity increases with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Nano-sized oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel has a high strength, low thermal expansion coefficient, high thermal conductivity, and a good swelling resistance. Martensitic ODS steel is a candidate material for fuel cladding of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (SFR). The plastic flow stress is determined through the interaction of dislocations with the obstacles encountered inside lattice. Dislocation movement through the lattice or past an obstacle requires surmounting of the energy barrier by a combination of applied stress and thermal activation. The plastic deformation of materials is a thermally activated process dependent upon time, temperature, and strain rate. Characterization of the rate controlling mechanism for plastic deformation due to dislocation motion in crystalline materials is done by the assessment of activation volume based on thermal activation analysis.

  15. Microstructure in 316LN stainless steel fatigued at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruml, T.; Polak, J.

    2000-01-01

    The internal structure of AISI 316LN austenitic stainless steel cyclically strained at liquid nitrogen temperature has been studied using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. High amplitude cyclic straining promotes the transformation of austenite with face centred cubic (f.c.c.) structure into ε-martensite with hexagonal close packed (h.c.p.) structure and α'-martensite with distorted base centred cubic (b.c.c.) structure. Thin plates containing ε-martensite were identified in all grains. α'-martensite nucleates at the intersection of the plates in grains with two or more systems of plates and can grow in the bands. The orientation of transformed phases follows the Shoji-Nichiyama and Kurdjumov-Sachs relations. Mechanisms of low temperature cyclic straining are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Elastic and plastic strains and the stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccaro, F.P.; Hehemann, R.F.; Troiano, A.R.

    1979-08-01

    The influence of elastic (stress) and plastic (cold work) strains on the stress corrosion cracking of a transformable austenitic stainless steel was studied in several aqueous chloride environments. Initial polarization behavior was active for all deformation conditions as well as for the annealed state. Visual observation, potential-time, and current-time curves indicated the development of a pseudo-passive (flawed) film leading to localized corrosion, occluded cells and SCC. SCC did not initiate during active corrosion regardless of the state of strain unless severe low temperature deformation produced a high percentage of martensite. Both elastic and plastic deformation increased the sensitivity to SCC when examined on the basis of percent yield strength. The corrosion potential, the critical cracking potential, and the potential at which the current changes from anodic to cathodic were essentially unaffected by deformation. It is apparent that the basic electrochemical parameters are independent of the bulk properties of the alloy and totally controlled by surface phenomena

  17. Development of TRIP-Aided Lean Duplex Stainless Steel by Twin-Roll Strip Casting and Its Deformation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Weina; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, twin-roll strip casting was carried out to fabricate thin strip of a Mn-N alloyed lean duplex stainless steel with the composition of Fe-19Cr-6Mn-0.4N, in which internal pore defects had been effectively avoided as compared to conventional cast ingots. The solidification structure observed by optical microscope indicated that fine Widmannstatten structure and coarse-equiaxed crystals had been formed in the surface and center, respectively, with no columnar crystal structures through the surface to center of the cast strip. By applying hot rolling and cold rolling, thin sheets with the thickness of 0.5 mm were fabricated from the cast strips, and no edge cracks were formed during the rolling processes. With an annealing treatment at 1323 K (1050 °C) for 5 minutes after cold rolling, the volume fractions of ferrite and austenite were measured to be approximately equal, and the distribution of alloying elements in the strip was further homogenized. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited an excellent combination of strength and ductility, with the ultimate tensile strength and elongation having been measured to be 1000 MPa and 65 pct, respectively. The microstructural evolution during deformation was investigated by XRD, EBSD, and TEM, indicating that ferrite and austenite had different deformation mechanisms. The deformation of ferrite phase was dominated by dislocation slipping, and the deformation of austenite phase was mainly controlled by martensitic transformation in the sequence of γ→ ɛ-martensite→ α'-martensite, leading to the improvement of strength and plasticity by the so-called transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. By contrast, lean duplex stainless steels of Fe-21Cr-6Mn-0.5N and Fe-23Cr-7Mn-0.6N fabricated by twin-roll strip casting did not show TRIP effects and exhibited lower strength and elongation as compared to Fe-19Cr-6Mn-0.4N.

  18. Development of martensitic steels for high neutron damage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Martensitic stainless steels have been developed for both in-core applications in advanced liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) and for first wall and structural materials applications for commercial fusion reactors. It can now be shown that these steels can be expected to maintain properties to levels as high as 175 or 200 dpa, respectively. The 12Cr-1Mo-0.5W-0.2C alloy HT-9 has been extensively tested for LMFBR applications and shown to resist radiation damage, providing a creep and swelling resistant alternative to austenitic steels. Degradation of fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties have been observed, but properties are sufficient to provide reliable service. In comparison, alloys with lower chromium contents are found to decarburize in contact with liquid sodium and are therefore not recommended. Tungsten stabilized martensitic stainless steels have appropriate properties for fusion applications. Radioactivity levels are being less than 500 years after service, radiation damage resistance is excellent, including impact properties, and swelling is modest. This report describes the history of the development effort. (author)

  19. Development of martensitic steels for high neutron damage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, D. S.

    1996-12-01

    Martensitic stainless steels have been developed for both in-core applications in advanced liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) and for first wall and structural materials applications for commercial fusion reactors. It can now be shown that these steels can be expected to maintain properties to levels as high as 175 or 200 dpa, respectively. The 12Cr1Mo0.5W0.2C alloy HT-9 has been extensively tested for LMFBR applications and shown to resist radiation damage, providing a creep and swelling resistant alternative to austenitic steels. Degradation of fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties have been observed, but properties are sufficient to provide reliable service. In comparison, alloys with lower chromium contents are found to decarburize in contact with liquid sodium and are therefore not recommended. Tungsten stabilized martensitic stainless steels have appropriate properties for fusion applications. Radioactivity levels are benign less than 500 years after service, radiation damage resistance is excellent, including impact properties, and swelling is modest. This report describes the history of the development effort.

  20. Peculiarities of welding procedure for the 05Kh12K14N5M5T-VD maraging stainless steel with strength higher 1500 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of welding procedure of 05Kh12K14N5M5T-VD stainless steel on the properties of its welded joints is investigated. A new procedure of welding for pressure vessels made of this steel using Sv-03Kh15K14N5M3T-EL welding wire is suggested [ru

  1. Non-destructive evaluation of austenite stainless steels using a scanning Hall-sensor microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oota, Akio

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous magnetic field on the surface of austenite stainless steel SUS304 was measured under a static condition by using a scanning Hall-sensor microscope, which had magnetic sensitive area of 50μm x 50μm. The precursor of fatigue fracture was tentatively detected from the change of magnetic image observed by the microscope. Specimens used in this experiment were prepared by following procedures: Rolled SUS304 was cut into a piece of 110 mm length x 40 mm width by electric discharge processing, and then notches were carved at both centers of the length of the piece. A test of tensile strength of the piece was run at room temperature, and the change of spontaneous magnetization image was studied before and after the tensile strength test. After the test, spontaneous magnetic field was observed around the notches although it was not detected before the test. Many slip lines were found around the location where the spontaneous magnetic field was observed, and a significant increase of hardness was examined by Vickers hardness. These facts indicated that the spontaneous magnetic field observed after the test would be caused from stress-induced martensitic transformation in austenite stainless steel. The stress distribution after applying tensile stress was simulated and the result was compared with the distribution of the spontaneous magnetic field. After the comparison between the stress and the spontaneous magnetic field distribution, it was concluded that the distribution of spontaneous magnetic field resembled that of principal shear stress rather than of principal stress. Therefore, the principal shear stress would be suggested to be a driving force for the stress-induced martensitic transformation. (Y. Kazumata)

  2. Martensitic phase transformations in the nanostructured surface layers induced by mechanical attrition treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Zhichun; Wang Xiaowei; Wu Erdong; Liu Gang

    2005-01-01

    Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis have been used to investigate the relationship between characteristics of phase transformation and the treatment time in surface nanocrystallized 316L stainless steel induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). A similar trend of development of the martensitic phase upon the treatment time has been observed from both CEMS and XRD measurements. However, in the CEMS measurement, two types of martensite phase with different magnetic hyperfine fields are revealed. Based on a random distribution of the non-iron coordinating atoms, a three-element theoretical model is developed to illustrate the difference of two types of martensite phase. The calculated results indicate the segregation of the non-iron atoms associated with SMAT treatment

  3. Assessment of martensitic steels as structural materials in magnetic fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, J.M.; Chen, W.Y.K.; Cheng, E.T.; Dalessandro, J.A.; Miller, P.H.; Rosenwasser, S.N.; Thompson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    This manuscript documents the results of preliminary experiments and analyses to assess the feasibility of incorporating ferromagnetic martensitic steels in fusion reactor designs and to evaluate the possible advantages of this class of material with respect to first wall/blanket lifetime. The general class of alloys under consideration are ferritic steels containing from about 9 to 13 percent Cr with some small additions of various strengthening elements such as Mo. These steels are conventionally used in the normalized and tempered condition for high temperature applications and can compete favorably with austenitic alloys up to about 600 0 C. Although the heat treatment can result in either a tempered martensite or bainite structure, depending on the alloy and thermal treatment parameters, this general class of materials will be referred to as martensitic stainless steels for simplicity

  4. Electron microscope study of the genesis of strain-induced martensite embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudhammer, K.P.; Hecker, S.S.; Murr, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work of Olson and Cohen and Murr, et al., is used to describe the genesis of martensite embryos which form at the intersection of microscopic shear bands in deformed type 304 stainless steel. It is shown that the intersection volume included within intersecting shear bands contains irregular and smaller dispersed volume segments forming α' martensite (bcc). These correspond to the satisfaction of specific intersections of stacking faults or partial dislocations on approximately every second (111)/sub fcc/ plane in one direction, and every third (111)/sub fcc/ plane in the other (conjugate) direction. The requisite stacking fault or partial dislocation arrangements are produced in an irregular fashion resulting in α' martensite embryos nucleating in an incomplete and irregular fashion within the intersection volume. 9 references, 2 figures

  5. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.

    2017-01-31

    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, copper, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around 650.degree. C.

  6. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.

    2015-11-13

    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6 carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around 650.degree. C.

  7. Nitrogen-alloyed martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, H.

    1988-01-01

    A report is presented on initial results with pressure-nitrided martensitic steels. In heat-resistant steels, thermal stability and toughness are raised by nitrogen. In cold work steel, there is a more favourable corrosion behaviour. (orig./MM) [de

  8. Variant selection of martensites in steel welded joints with low transformation temperature weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaru; Yasuda, Hiroyuki Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined the variant selection of martensites in the weld metals. ► We also measured the residual stress developed in the butt and box welded joints. ► 24 martensite variants were randomly selected in the butt welded joint. ► High tensile residual stress in the box welded joint led to the strong variant selection. ► We discussed the rule of the variant selection focusing on the residual stress. -- Abstract: Martensitic transformation behavior in steel welded joints with low transformation temperature weld (LTTW) metal was examined focusing on the variant selection of martensites. The butt and box welded joints were prepared with LTTW metals and 980 MPa grade high strength steels. The residual stress of the welded joints, which was measured by a neutron diffraction technique, was effectively reduced by the expansion of the LTTW metals by the martensitic transformation during cooling after the welding process. In the LTTW metals, the retained austenite and martensite phases have the Kurdjumov–Sachs (K–S) orientation relationship. The variant selection of the martensites in the LTTW metals depended strongly on the type of welded joints. In the butt welded joint, 24 K–S variants were almost randomly selected while a few variants were preferentially chosen in the box welded joint. This suggests that the high residual stress developed in the box welded joint accelerated the formation of specific variants during the cooling process, in contrast to the butt welded joint with low residual stress

  9. Plasma-induced surface degradation in 304 stainless steel used for TRIAM-1M limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukuda, N.; Kuramoto, E.; Tokunaga, K.; Muroga, T.; Yoshida, N.; Itoh, S.

    1994-01-01

    Surface degradation in a 304 stainless steel limiter of TRIAM-1M by long-pulse discharge during long period operation has been examined by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and dynamical microindentation tests. Particular exfoliation and hardening of the surface of the electron drift side were observed. These result from the formation of α prime martensite induced by hydrogen in the plasma. The stability of the martensitic phase has been studied by annealing experiments on the cathodically hydrogen charged 316 stainless steel by X-ray diffraction. Both ε and α prime martensites were formed by 22 h cathodic charging. The former reverts to γ-phase and/or converts to α prime martensite below 723 K and the latter reverts to γ-phase below 923 K, repectively. ((orig.))

  10. Diffusion of nitrogen in austenitic phase: Application to nitriding of stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torchane Lazhar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The nitriding treatment of the martensitic stainless steels aims to harden and to introduce compressive stresses on the surface of steel. Hardening is resulting of the martensitic transformation of the austenitic matrix enriched into nitrogen during cooling and of the germination and the nitride growth. In order to preserve the stainless character of the nitrided layer, it is imperative to control precipitation within the zone affected by the treatment. Our task consists in showing that is possible to control the composition of the gas atmosphere containing ammonia and argon and to carry out on the surface of nitrided samples at 1050°C two types of configuration of layers : a single phase layer made up by martensite enriched in nitrogen α’N and or a two phase layer made up by austenite γN and martensite α’N enriched in nitrogen.

  11. Plastic deformation and fracture behaviors of nitrogen-alloyed austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Songtao; Yang Ke; Shan Yiyin; Li Laifeng

    2008-01-01

    The plastic deformation and fracture behaviors of two nitrogen-alloyed austenitic stainless steels, 316LN and a high nitrogen steel (Fe-Cr-Mn-0.66% N), were investigated by tensile test and Charpy impact test in a temperature range from 77 to 293 K. The Fe-Cr-Mn-N steel showed ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) behavior, but not for the 316LN steel. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the strain-induced martensite occurred in the 316LN steel, but no such transformation in the Fe-Cr-Mn-N steel. Tensile tests showed that the temperature dependences of the yield strength for the two steels were almost the same. The ultimate tensile strength of the Fe-Cr-Mn-N steel displayed less significant temperature dependence than that of the 316LN steel. The strain-hardening exponent increased for the 316LN steel, but decreased for the Fe-Cr-Mn-N steel, with decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental results and the analyses, a modified scheme was proposed to explain the fracture behaviors of austenitic stainless steels

  12. Mechanical behavior and high-resolution EBSD investigation of the microstructural evolution in AISI 321 stainless steel under dynamic loading condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiamiyu, A.A.; Eskandari, M.; Sanayei, Mohsen; Odeshi, A.G.; Szpunar, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact response of three regions (top, mid and center) across the thickness of AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel plate at high strain rates (>6000 s −1 ) was studied using the split Hopkinson pressure bar system. The result shows that texture and stored energy heterogeneity across plate thickness influenced the mechanical responses of the investigated steel in these regions. Microstructural evaluation using high-resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HR-EBSD) analysis showed that strengthening in AISI 321 steel originates from the evolution of strain-induced martensite and formation of nano-carbides in addition to plastic deformation by mechanical twinning and slip. This resulted in a desirable combination of high strength and good ductility (approx. 2000 MPa at 0.42 true strain). Phase transformation, dynamic recrystallization and formation of nano-carbides were confirmed within the adiabatic shear band (ASB) region. The average dynamic recrystallized (DRX) grain size in the shear band region is 0.28 µm in comparison to grain size of 15 µm outside the shear bands. The nano-sized grain inside the shear bands is proposed to form by rotational dynamic recrystallization. A comparative study of the alloy's behavior under dynamic and quasi-static compression shows that the stability of austenite is higher at high strain rates and lower at a low strain rate. The strength in the dynamically impacted specimen is compromised as a result of the suppressed evolution of strain-induced martensite and mechanical twin. Martensitic transformation under both loading conditions follows the FCC É£-austenite→BCC ά-martensite kinetic path and both phases obey the Kurdjumov-Sachs' {(111)É£||(110)ά and <−101>É£||<1–11>ά} orientation relationship.

  13. Mechanical behavior and high-resolution EBSD investigation of the microstructural evolution in AISI 321 stainless steel under dynamic loading condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiamiyu, A.A., E-mail: ahmed.tiamiyu@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. (Canada); Eskandari, M. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanayei, Mohsen; Odeshi, A.G.; Szpunar, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    The impact response of three regions (top, mid and center) across the thickness of AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel plate at high strain rates (>6000 s{sup −1}) was studied using the split Hopkinson pressure bar system. The result shows that texture and stored energy heterogeneity across plate thickness influenced the mechanical responses of the investigated steel in these regions. Microstructural evaluation using high-resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HR-EBSD) analysis showed that strengthening in AISI 321 steel originates from the evolution of strain-induced martensite and formation of nano-carbides in addition to plastic deformation by mechanical twinning and slip. This resulted in a desirable combination of high strength and good ductility (approx. 2000 MPa at 0.42 true strain). Phase transformation, dynamic recrystallization and formation of nano-carbides were confirmed within the adiabatic shear band (ASB) region. The average dynamic recrystallized (DRX) grain size in the shear band region is 0.28 µm in comparison to grain size of 15 µm outside the shear bands. The nano-sized grain inside the shear bands is proposed to form by rotational dynamic recrystallization. A comparative study of the alloy's behavior under dynamic and quasi-static compression shows that the stability of austenite is higher at high strain rates and lower at a low strain rate. The strength in the dynamically impacted specimen is compromised as a result of the suppressed evolution of strain-induced martensite and mechanical twin. Martensitic transformation under both loading conditions follows the FCC É£-austenite→BCC ά-martensite kinetic path and both phases obey the Kurdjumov-Sachs' {(111)É£||(110)ά and <−101>É£||<1–11>ά} orientation relationship.

  14. Development status und future possibilities for martensitic creep resistant steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J. [Technical Univ. Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In the last four decades new stronger modified 9%Cr martensitic creep resistant steels have been introduced in power plants, which has enabled increases in maximum achievable steam conditions from the previous 250 bar and 540-560 C up to the values of 300 bar and 600-620 C currently being introduced all over the world. In order to further increase the steam parameters of steel based power plants up to a target value of 650 C/325 bar it is necessary to double the creep strength of the martensitic steels. At the same time the resistance against steam oxidation must be improved by an increase of the chromium content in the steels from 9% to 12%. However, so far all attempts to make stronger 12%Cr steels have led to breakdowns in long-term creep strength. Significant progress has been achieved in the understanding of microstructure stability of the martensitic 9-12%Cr steels: Observed microstructure instabilities in 11-12%Cr steels are explained by Z-phase precipitation, which dissolves fine MN nitrides. Improved understanding of effects of B and N on long-term creep properties has formed the basis of a series of new stronger 9%Cr test alloys with improved creep strength. In parallel 9%Cr test steels with low C content show very promising behavior in long-term tests. However, the 9%Cr steels must be surface coated to protect against steam oxidation at high temperature applications above 620%C. A possibility to use fine Z-phases for strengthening of the martensitic steels has been identified, and this opens a new pathway for development of stable strong 12%Cr steels. There are still good prospects for the realization of a 325 bar / 650 C steam power plant all based on steel. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic anisotropy of ultrafine 316L stainless steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, Tien-Wei, E-mail: twshyr@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shih-Ju [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wur, Ching-Shuei [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-12-01

    An as-received 316L stainless steel fiber with a diameter of 20 μm was drawn using a bundle drawing process at room temperature to form ultrafine stainless steel fibers with diameters of 12, 8, and 6 μm. The crystalline phases of the fibers were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile fitting technique. The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to nanoscale sizes after the drawing process. XRD analysis and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope observations showed that the newly formed α′-martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. The magnetic property was measured using a superconducting quantum interference device vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic anisotropy of the fibers was observed by applying a magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The results showed that the microstructure anisotropy including the shape anisotropy, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and the orientation of the crystalline phases strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: • The martensitic transformation of the 316L SS fiber occurred during the cold drawn. • The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to the nanoscale. • The newly formed martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. • The drawing process caused the magnetic easy axis to be aligned with the fiber axis. • The microstructure anisotropy strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy.

  16. On the role of interlath retained austenite in the deformation of lath martensite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresca, F; Kouznetsova, V G; Geers, M G D

    2014-01-01

    Literature presents extensive experimental evidence of large deformation and ductile fracture behaviour of lath martensite in martensitic and multi-phase high strength steels under quasi-static, uniaxial loading conditions. The physical origin of this apparent ductile behaviour of martensite is not clear, since martensite generally provides a high material strength. The presence of thin films of interlath retained austenite may trigger the observed apparent martensite ductility. The present contribution investigates the role played by interlath retained austenite on the mechanics of lath martensite by means of crystal plasticity simulations. It is shown that independently from the interlath retained austenite volume fraction and the exact lath morphology, localized shearing along the lath habit plane occurs as long as there are enough carriers for plasticity. The austenite film acts like a ‘greasy’ plane on which the stiffer laths can slide. The shearing mechanism is not a mere consequence of the lower flow stress in the austenitic phase, but it is largely due to the orientation relationship between the retained austenite face centred cubic lattice and the body centred cubic lath crystals. (paper)

  17. An assessment of magnetic effects in ferromagnetic martensitic steels for use in fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenberg, T.; Dahms, C.; Attaya, H.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in the 9-12%Cr class of martensitic stainless steels has accelerated since these materials were included in the U.S. Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance (ADIP) task funded by the Office of Fusion Energy in 1979. This program is focused on developing structural materials for fusion reactor first wall/breeding blanket components where the neutron damage is most severe. This area of a fusion reactor will be required to tolerate damage levels on the order of 110 dpa( 1 ). As a part of ADIP, study of the martensitic steels is focused on establishing the feasibility of using these materials. The interest in martensitic steels stems from their potential to tolerate high levels of radiation damage without significant degradation of material properties. Martensitic steels have a body-centered-cubic crystal structure that, unlike face-centered-cubic structure of austenitic steels, exhibits very little swelling under neutron irradiation( 2 ). One of the outstanding issues with martensitic steels is the possible parasitic stresses associated with ferromagnetic interaction with the magnetic fields. This paper is divided into two parts, the first reviews previous work on magnetic effects to the structure and plasma; the second presents new calculations of stresses on a coolant pipe in a Starfire model assumed to be made of 12Cr-1Mo steel(HT-9)

  18. Nanoindentation study of ferrite–martensite dual phase steels developed by a new thermomechanical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaheri, Yousef, E-mail: y.mazaheri@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, Ahmad; Najafizadeh, Abbas [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Dual phase (DP) steels consisting different volume fractions of ferrite and martensite and different ferrite grain size were produced by a new route utilizing cold-rolling and subsequent intercritical annealing of ferrite/martensite duplex starting structure at 770 °C for different times. Scanning electron microscopy has been supplemented by nanoindentation and tensile test to follow microstructural changes and their correlations to the variation in phase's hardness and mechanical properties. The results showed that longer holding times resulted in coarser and softer ferrite grains in DP microstructures. Martensite nanohardness variation with holding time is related to change in its carbon content. Mechanical properties such as strength, elongation and toughness are well correlated with the martensite/ferrite hardness ratio.

  19. Martensitic microstructural transformations from the hot stamping, quenching and partitioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heping; Jin Xuejun; Dong Han; Shi Jie

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping, which combines forming and quenching in one process, produces high strength steels with limited ductility because the quenching is uncontrolled. A new processing technique has been proposed in which the hot stamping step is followed by a controlled quenching and partitioning process, producing a microstructure containing retained austenite and martensite. To investigate this microstructure, specimens were heated at a rate of 10 deg. C/s to the austenitizing temperature of 900 deg. C, held for 5 min to eliminate thermal gradients, and cooled at a rate of 50 deg. C/s to a quenching temperature of 300 deg. C, which is between the martensite start temperature and the martensite finish temperatures. The resulting microstructure was examined using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The material produced contains irregular, fragmented martensite plates, a result of the improved strength of the austenite phase and the constraints imposed by a high dislocation density. - Research Highlights: → A novel heat treatment of advanced high strength steels is proposed. → The processing technique is hot stamping plus quenching and partitioning process. → The material produced contains irregular, fragmented martensite plates. → The reason is strength of austenite phase and constraint of dislocation density.

  20. SCC susceptibility of cold-worked stainless steel with minor element additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Junichi, E-mail: nakano.junnichi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakatashirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Nemoto, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yoshiyuki.nemoto@oecd.org [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Le Seine St-Germain, 12, boulevard des Iles, F-92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Tsukada, Takashi, E-mail: tsukada.takashi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakatashirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Uchimoto, Tetsuya, E-mail: uchimoto@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    To examine the effects of minor elements on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of low carbon stainless steels with a work hardened layer, a high purity type 304 stainless steel was fabricated and minor elements, Si, S, P, C or Ti, were added. A work hardened layer was introduced by shaving on the surface of stainless steels. The specimens were exposed to a boiling 42% MgCl{sub 2} solution for 20 h and the number and the length of initiated cracks were examined. SCC susceptibility of the specimen with P was the highest and that of the specimen with C was the lowest in all specimens. By magnetic force microscope examination, a magnetic phase expected to be a martensitic phase was detected near the surface. Since corrosion resistance of martensite is lower than that of austenite, the minor elements additions would affect SCC susceptibility through the amount of the transformed martensite.